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Indexed Journal

1 Genetics in Dentistry – A Review Article , Rohit Kulshrestha*, Shailesh Shenava, Prakash Mudaliar, Robin Mathew, Sandeep Singh, Prachi Gaonkar
Most genetic disorders present in early childhood, some even in utero. The diagnosis and management of genetic disorders is, therefore, an important part of fetal medicine and pediatrics, including pediatric dentistry. Clinical genetics, which traditionally is responsible for genetic counseling, is an important collaborator. This article summarises the recent findings in genetics and elaborates on its benefits as well.
2 Genetics in Dentistry – A Review Article , Rohit Kulshrestha*, Shailesh Shenava, Prakash Mudaliar, Robin Mathew, Sandeep Singh, Prachi Gaonkar
Most genetic disorders present in early childhood, some even in utero. The diagnosis and management of genetic disorders is, therefore, an important part of fetal medicine and pediatrics, including pediatric dentistry. Clinical genetics, which traditionally is responsible for genetic counseling, is an important collaborator. This article summarises the recent findings in genetics and elaborates on its benefits as well.
3 The Role of Dentist in the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome , Ricardo Hsieh*
Editorial The Primary Sjögren Syndrome (PSS) is a progressive and inflammatory autoimmune disease afflicting primarily exocrine glands, and it was first described by an ophthalmologist Henrik Sjögren in 1933. PSS is also called autoimmune epithelitis, it is an autoimmune alteration with characteristics present in a wide clinical spectrum that presents itself from a local exocrinopathy, involving lacrimal and salivary glands, and multiple systemic manifestations, therefore there is a high degree of underdiagnosis [1-3]. What would be the role of the dentist in the PSS diagnosis? Epidemiologically, PSS has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.5% of the population worldwide, affecting 2% of the adults in the USA, 2.7% in Sweden, and 3-4% in the UK. There is a higher incidence in individuals between the 4th and 5th decades of life, and it is more common in women than men (9:1). Initially, the main symptoms are xerostomia and xerophthalmia, often accompanied by systemic changes that could cause parenchymal effects, including lungs kidneys and livers. Additionally, it is associated with lymphoproliferative events, which could culminate in Lymphoma development. Thus, the decrease of the lachrymal and salivary secretion is caused by the destruction of the glandular parenchyma, mainly due to the chronic inflammation process [4-6]. The xerostomia is due to the decreased salivary flow production, it occurs when the total amount of the saliva produced is less or equal than 0.1 ml/min. Additionally, patients have a subjective sensation of dry mouth, these symptoms can be evaluated by dentists. The reduction in salivary flow could be considered as a biomarker of hypofunction of salivary glands, resulting in accumulation of dental plaque, development of caries development, periodontal diseases and opportunistic infections. Clinical signs include loss of brightness, dryness, pale and thin appearance of the oral mucosa, fissures and lobulations on the lingual dorsum, angular cheilitis and atrophy of the filiform papillae [7-9]. The differential diagnosis of PSS must be carried out with other diseases, which may cause xerostomia, such as previous radioactive treatment on the head and neck; hepatitis Cinfection, AIDS, lymphoma, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, graft versus host disease [1]. In 2002, the American European Consensus Group published the first International Consensus about PSS classification. Later, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) agreed with Sjögren’s International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Group, that PSS has three main alterations sicca keratoconjunctivitis, sialadenitis, and serological factors. Lately, ACR and European League Against Rheumatism published the new consensus patient with symptomatology suggestive of the disease can be diagnosed early basing objective criteria: positive serological examinations focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (focal score ≥ 1 foci/4 mm2 ), ocular and oral objective criteria. This present classification showed sensibility of 96% and specificity of 95% comparing to previous ones [1, 10-12]. Based on the last classification for PSS diagnosis, the dentist has a very important role during this process and also for the treatment of these patients. It is a consensus to perform biopsy of labial salivary glands to diagnose and monitor disease progression because of the morbidity in lower compared to biopsy of major salivary glands. Besides that, the histopathology analysis is performed by an oral pathologist. The evaluation of the specimens should observe the presence of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis, characterized by an inflammatory focus (composed of an aggregate of 50 or more lymphocytes in 4 mm2 of glandular tissue, in at least 4 lobes of the labial salivary gland) [1, 12]. Thus, the dentist plays an important role in the Primary Sjögren Syndrome diagnosis, including the biopsy and histopathological analysis of the labial salivary gland, corroborating with other health professionals for the patient’s well-being.
4 Dental Marketing One On One , Mohammad Husain Khan*
Business management is one of the important problems in dental business nowadays. The purpose of the note is to frame the strategies to achieve a certain goal for the benefits of the business. It is important to define the business strategy to penetrate key markets and execute on the strategy to drive organic and inorganic growth. It is needed to understand their vision, objectives, and opportunities for strategic alignment and identify and optimize key levers to expand the customer base through go-to-market innovations and strategic partnerships.
5 Trends of Using Smart Devices and Web Resources Among Dental Students for Educational Purposes , Muhammad Shehroze Khan, Muhammad Hammad*, Urooj Shabbir, Rida Awan, Omer Sefvan Janjua, Malik Muhammad Usama
Introduction: Teaching methods are changing with the social environment and also with the development of information technology. Information technology and internet-connected devices have made learning methods accessible, even during a pandemic that has developed due to COVID19. The learning method should consist of both books and media. Objectives: The basic aim of this study was to see the trend of usage of smart devices among dental undergraduates and their attitude towards e-learning. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Oral and maxillofacial surgery department, PMC Dental Institute Faisalabad Medical University, Faisalabad. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed by a team of dental experts and a literature review keeping in mind the trend of internet-connected devices and data was collected on specially designed Performa and submit it to the principal investigator. Results: The data were collected from 184 participants with a male to female ratio of 1:2.4 and the mean age was 22.5 years. From overall participants 99.5% have internet access, 97.3% use smart devices for education purposes and only 41.8% were comfortable reading e-book. The participants who find mobile phone beneficial are 92% and 28% have daily usage of more than 6-hours. When faced with a challenging scenario 23% said that they web resources and occasionally consult health-related videos. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study we concluded that students find usage of smart devices and the internet beneficial for study purposes and therefore, the study methods should consist of both books and media.
6 Trends of Using Smart Devices and Web Resources Among Dental Students for Educational Purposes , Muhammad Shehroze Khan, Muhammad Hammad*, Urooj Shabbir, Rida Awan, Omer Sefvan Janjua, Malik Muhammad Usama
Introduction: Teaching methods are changing with the social environment and also with the development of information technology. Information technology and internet-connected devices have made learning methods accessible, even during a pandemic that has developed due to COVID19. The learning method should consist of both books and media. Objectives: The basic aim of this study was to see the trend of usage of smart devices among dental undergraduates and their attitude towards e-learning. Study Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Oral and maxillofacial surgery department, PMC Dental Institute Faisalabad Medical University, Faisalabad. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed by a team of dental experts and a literature review keeping in mind the trend of internet-connected devices and data was collected on specially designed Performa and submit it to the principal investigator. Results: The data were collected from 184 participants with a male to female ratio of 1:2.4 and the mean age was 22.5 years. From overall participants 99.5% have internet access, 97.3% use smart devices for education purposes and only 41.8% were comfortable reading e-book. The participants who find mobile phone beneficial are 92% and 28% have daily usage of more than 6-hours. When faced with a challenging scenario 23% said that they web resources and occasionally consult health-related videos. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study we concluded that students find usage of smart devices and the internet beneficial for study purposes and therefore, the study methods should consist of both books and media.
7 Can Improved Periodontal Health Be a Key Factor in Preventing Severe COVID-19 Complications: An Evidence-Based Review , Vindeshwari Bhatia*, Ashadeep, Ajay Mahajan, Kanwarjit Singh Asi
COVID-19 is now recognized as a pandemic throughout the world and the severity of the disease has been attributed to many patient-related medical risk factors, which include diabetes, hypertension, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney diseases due to exaggerated immune response associated with these diseases. However, in recent decades, there has been a renewed interest in the association of systemic diseases with periodontal health as the severity of these diseases increases in patients having compromised periodontal health. Therefore, it is suggested that there could be a possible link between the status of periodontal health and the severity of the disease in patients suffering from COVID-19. The purpose of this review article is to explore and highlight the various common mechanisms between periodontal disease and COVID-19 and further explore the role of periodontal disease as a contributing factor for COVID-19 related complications.