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Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Investigation

ISSN(p):0000-0000 | ISSN(e):0000-0000
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1 Welcome Message from Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Investigation , Castejón OJ
This new Journal of Clinical and Biomedical Investigation appears as an expression of the vertiginous and rapid advancements in worldwide in biomedical Sciences and Clinical Research. It will be an online indexed journal in major bibliographic databases and adhere to strict standards of editorial quality in a globalized academic scenario. Our main goal is to publish the most relevant original research and secondly to obtain the broadest possible visibility and the widest dissemination of their scientific contents. We will also publish preliminary research communications, review papers and postgraduate thesis and seminars highly recommended by their mentors or advisors. We will adopt the peer review system and we ask to the authors to send the address and email of three reviewers. The prestige of our journal will be measured by its impact factor and other recent emerging and alternative indicators of research performance. Due to its complex nature modern biomedical research has become increasingly inter- and transdisciplinary and collaborative scientific work. Educational researchers should describe concepts, study design and methods in order to provide transparency, clarity, appropriate ethic guidelines, and a constructive and critical approach. In such a way we can obtain a modern and updated perspective that allows the readers interested to study in depth this emerging field of biomedical research.
2 Anticipating Third Wave of Covid-19 in India. How Much Prepared We Are?   , Naveen Kumar
The second wave of Covid -19 in India has made us witness as to how negligence from the part of everyone of us, be it people, Government or policy makers of healthcare system might bring the unwanted disaster in the form of Covid Tsunami. This has made us to see never ending queues of patients , relatives standing for hours for the want of hospital beds, oxygen, essential medicines and lastly but unfortunate for their turn for the cremations of loved ones . But now we can see the number of active cases are declining across the country. Amidst this positive observation in regard of second wave ,there is speculation erupting about the Covid third wave. We can appreciate a similarity in the way that the noble corona virus behave with the Spanish flu that had shaken the world in 1918. It had resulted in three waves with second wave was most deadly and long lasting than the other two waves. During the first wave where the infection was mostly of mild severity we had seen the disease affecting the elderly and immune-compromised patients more. In contrast to this, second wave resulting from mutant strains affected the younger population more and it was of larger severity with high mortality rate. Scientists and experts are now anticipating the third wave , taking the lesson from the Spanish flu and we must be better prepare for it. In order to prepare ourselves from a expected third wave of Covid-19, we shouldn’t repeat mistakes that we made during previous waves. We should refrain ourselves from dismantling our enhanced healthcare facilities, there should not be any sorts of shortage of oxygen , hospital beds, and drug that we have already witnessed. We must have an aggressive containment measure comprising of a really strong and pro-active surveillance system. This can be achieved by increasing the capacity of the existing surveillance system by identifying active cases early. We must ensure that we should follow “social vaccine” of proper masking, avoid indoor gatherings, and proper sanitization. Our vaccination programme needs a boost. We should vaccinate a large section of people before any third wave hits us. The more we vaccinate, the better prepared we are. As medical professionals, it must be ensured that proper scientific protocol must be implemented while handling Covid-19 cases. And last but not the least efforts must be made to fill up vacancies seen in our public health system, especially for frontline healthcare workers. As it is anticipated that the young children are more vulnerable to the forthcoming third wave, efforts are to be sought in order to start vaccination of the younger children in our country. Trials for which has already been started in India and across the world. Till the time vaccine is made available, the resources are to be mobilized to build up healthcare facilities catering the vulnerable age group in this third wave such as building up of more paediatric wards, paediatric ICU’s , training of healthcare personals in handling the emergencies for expected third wave .In addition to these efforts , more and more paediatric covid care centers must be set up at various parts of the country. Equally important is making arrangements for rehabilitation centers for the orphans. Countries like US, Singapore and UAE have already started vaccinating the children in age group between 12 to 15 years with Pfizer-BioNTech Covid vaccine. It’s a high time that the government in India must consider for allowing “expedited approval pathway” to the companies like Pfizer for their Covid-19 vaccine for children. All these combined efforts from everyone may ensure that the country and world may remain well equipped against these subsequent waves of this deadly virus and pave the path of the triumph in the near future.
3 The Neurasthenic Nipper-Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis , Anubha Bajaj
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of paediatric, idiopathic, inflammatory arthritis exceeding >six weeks duration and commonly arising in children beneath <16 years. International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) has categorized juvenile idiopathic arthritis into distinctive subclasses as pauciarticular variant or oligoarthritis, Rheumatoid Factor (RF) positive polyarthritis, Rheumatoid Factor (RF) negative polyarthritis, systemic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, enthesitis-related arthritis and undifferentiated arthritis. The condition is posited to arise from environmental factors, viral or bacterial infection or demonstrates a genetic predisposition. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis depicts decimated joint function with reduced Range of Motion (ROM), joint pain, morning stiffness, limping due to pain in the lower extremities, joint deformity and joint swelling commonly discerned within the knee, hand or foot, anomalous limb growth with leg length discrepancies,, uveitis, reoccurring pyrexia, cutaneous rash, myalgia, weight loss and disorders of skeletal growth. An intense, synovial infiltration of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and dendritic cells is observed along with villous hyperplasia and hypertrophy, endothelial activation and hyperplasia and hyperplasia of synoviocytes.
4 Clinical Study of Memory Disorders in Aging Patients and Associated Pathology , Castejón OJ
We have observed semantic memory and episodic memory disorders in patients ranging from 40 to 92 years-old (100%), with associated cardiovascular diseases and blood hypertension (82%), sleep disorders (50%), neurobehavioral disorders (44%), such as depression, anxiety, aggression, and vascular demencia, disorders of language (36%), neurosensory disorders (28%), as diminution of visual and hearing acuity, dizziness (26%), Parkinson disease (34%), Alzheimer disease (21%), gait disturbances (10%), vertigo (10%), cervicalgia and cervicogenic headache (10%) trigeminal neuralgia (2%), We found as comorbidities the following non-nervous diseases: metabolic diseases as diabetes (21%) and hypothyroidism (5%), gastrointestinal pathology (21%), such as constipation, loss of sphincter control, and gastritis, arthritis (13%), prostatic hypertrophy (1%) and loss of weight (1%). A detailed discussion of every pathological condition is provided.
5 Ilioinguinal Neurectomy and Chronic Post-Operative Pain After Inguinal Hernia Repair , Aliya Ishaq1*, Muhammad Shadab Khan2, Mariya Ishaq3, Ayesha Saba4, Turab Pishori5
Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of preservation /division of ilioinguinal nerve in patients undergoing lichenstein hernioraphy on severity of chronic post operative pain as well well as presence /absence of groin numbness. Method: A randamised control trial was conducted for a period of six months on 60 patient fulfilling inclusion criteria who underwent lichenstein hernioraphy at general surgery department of Liaquat National university hospital Karachi , Pakistan. Result: A total of 60 patients undergoing elective inguinal hernia mesh repair were Included in study and divided in two groups with 30 patients each. Only male patients were included in the study as female gender was one of the exclusion criteria so gender stratification was no considered. Patients between 17 to 77 yrs of age were included in study and randomly divided in two groups. Mean age of population in group A is 42.96 +/- 17.76 an in group B is 54.23 +/- 15.0. The minimum age of the patient in Group A is 17 years and maximum age is 73 years whereas minimum age of the patient in Group B is 20 years and maximum age is 77 years. 45.9% Patients in group A (Nerve preservation group) have right inguinal hernia. 54.0%% Patients in group B (Nerve Division group) have right inguinal hernia. 56.5%% Patients in group A (Nerve Preservation group) have left inguinal hernia. 43.4% Patients in group B (Nerve Division group) have left inguinal hernia. Chronic groin pain while different physical activities and groin numbness in nerve preservation and nerve division group was assessed at three and six months follow ups in all patients of the study population. 3% of the patients from nerve preservation group had mild pain during climbing stairs at three and six months follow up and the P-Value was 0.313 which is statistically not significant. 10% of the patients from nerve division group and 50% patients from nerve preservation group had pain during brisk walking at three months follow up and the P-Value was 0.001 which is statistically significant. 23% of the patients from nerve division group and 60% patients from nerve preservation group had pain during brisk walking at six months follow up and the P-Value was 0.004 which is statistically significant. 13.3% patients from nerve preservation group had moderate pain during brisk walking at three months follow up while none of the patient from nerve division group had pain and P-Value was 0.038 which is statistically significant. 6.6% of the patients from nerve preservation group had moderate pain during brisk walking at six months follow up while none of the patient from nerve division group had pain and p-value was 0.150 which is statistically in significant. 20% of the patients from nerve division group and 30% of the patients from nerve preservation group had mild groin numbness at three months follow up with P-Value of 0.371 which is statistically in significant. 33.3% of the patients from nerve division group and 30% of the patients from nerve preservation group had groin numbness at six months follow up with a p-value of 0.781 which is statistically in significant. Conclusion: Prophylactic ilioinguinal neurectomy during Lichtenstein tension free inguinal hernia repair decreases the incidence of exertional chronic post operative pain as compare to the nerve preservation group. However the cutaneous neurosensory disturbance/groin numbness between the two groups has no difference in term of outcome. In order to prepare ourselves from a expected third wave of Covid-19, we should not repeat mistakes that we made during previos waves. We should refrain ourselves from dismantling our enhanced healthcare facilities, there should not be any sorts of shortage of oxygen , hospital beds, and drug that we have already witnessed. We must have an aggressive containment measure comprising of a really strong and pro-active surveillance system. This can be achieved by increasing the capacity of the existing surveillance system by identifying active cases early. We must ensure that we should follow “social vaccine” of proper masking, avoid indoor gatherings, and proper sanitization. Our vaccination programme needs a boost. We should vaccinate a large section of people before any third wave hits us. The more we vaccinate, the better prepared we are. As medical professionals, it must be ensured that proper scientific protocol must be implemented while handling Covid-19 cases. And last but not the least efforts must be made to fill up vacancies seen in our public health system, especially for frontline healthcare workers. As it is anticipated that the young children are more vulnerable to the forthcoming third wave, efforts are to be sought in order to start vaccination of the younger children in our country. Trials for which has already been started in India and across the world. Till the time vaccine is made available, the resources are to be mobilized to build up healthcare facilities catering the vulnerable age group in this third wave such as building up of more paediatric wards, paediatric ICU’s , training of healthcare personals in handling the emergencies for expected third wave .In addition to these efforts , more and more paediatric covid care centers must be set up at various parts of the country. Equally important is making arrangements for rehabilitation centers for the orphans. Countries like US, Singapore and UAE have already started vaccinating the children in age group between 12 to 15 years with Pfizer-BioNTech Covid vaccine. It’s a high time that the government in India must consider for allowing “expedited approval pathway” to the companies like Pfizer for their Covid-19 vaccine for children. All these combined efforts from everyone may ensure that the country and world may remain well equipped against these subsequent waves of this deadly virus and pave the path of the triumph in the near future.