1 Line Losses in the 14-Bus Power System Network using UPFC, Dr. Sunil Kumar J, Milkias Berhanu Tuka, Dr. Sultan F. Meko, Shalini J and Dawit Leykuen
Controlling power flow in modern power systems can be made more flexible by the use of recent developments in power electronic and computing control technology. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) device that can control all the three system variables namely line reactance, magnitude and phase angle difference of voltage across the line. The UPFC provides a promising means to control power flow in modern power systems. Essentially the performance depends on proper control setting achievable through a power flow analysis program. This paper presents a reliable method to meet the requirements by developing a Newton-Raphson based load flow calculation through which control settings of UPFC can be determined for the pre-specified power flow between the lines. The proposed method keeps Newton-Raphson Load Flow (NRLF) algorithm intact and needs (little modification in the Jacobian matrix). A MATLAB program has been developed to calculate the control settings of UPFC and the power flow between the lines after the load flow is converged. Case studies have been performed on IEEE 5-bus system and 14-bus system to show that the proposed method is effective. These studies indicate that the method maintains the basic NRLF properties such as fast computational speed, high degree of accuracy and good convergence rate.
2 Artificial Intelligence Technique based Reactive Power Planning Incorporating FACTS Controllers in Real Time Power Transmission System, K.R.Vadivelu,Dr.G.V.Marutheswar,Dr. S.K.Nandakumar
Reactive Power Planning is a major concern in the operation and control of power systems This paper compares the effectiveness of Evolutionary Programming (EP) and New Improved Differential Evolution (NIMDE) to solve Reactive Power Planning (RPP) problem incorporating FACTS Controllers like Static VAR Compensator (SVC), Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and Unified power flow controller (UPFC) considering voltage stability. With help of Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), the critical lines and buses are identified to install the FACTS controllers. The optimal settings of the control variables of the generator voltages,transformer tap settings and allocation and parameter settings of the SVC,TCSC,UPFC are considered for reactive power planning. The test and Validation of the proposed algorithm are conducted on IEEE 30–bus system and 72-bus Indian system.Simulation results shows that the UPFC gives better results than SVC and TCSC and the FACTS controllers reduce the system losses.
3 Optimal Placement of DG for Loss Reduction and Voltage Sag Mitigation in Radial Distribution Systems using ABC Algorithm, K. Siva Ramudu, Dr. M. Padma Lalitha, P. Suresh Babu
This paper presents the need to operate the power system economically and with optimum levels of voltages has further led to an increase in interest in Distributed Generation. In order to reduce the power losses and to improve the voltage in the distribution system, distributed generators (DGs) are connected to load bus. To reduce the total power losses in the system, the most important process is to identify the proper location for fixing and sizing of DGs. It presents a new methodology using a new population based meta heuristic approach namely Artificial Bee Colony algorithm(ABC) for the placement of Distributed Generators(DG) in the radial distribution systems to reduce the real power losses and to improve the voltage profile, voltage sag mitigation. The power loss reduction is important factor for utility companies because it is directly proportional to the company benefits in a competitive electricity market, while reaching the better power quality standards is too important as it has vital effect on customer orientation. In this paper an ABC algorithm is developed to gain these goals all together. In order to evaluate sag mitigation capability of the proposed algorithm, voltage in voltage sensitive buses is investigated. An existing 20KV network has been chosen as test network and results are compared with the proposed method in the radial distribution system.
4 Power System State Estimation - A Review, Dudekula Sai Babu, K Jamuna, and B.Aryanandiny
The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive survey on power system state estimation techniques. The algorithms used for finding the system states under both static and dynamic state estimations are discussed in brief. The authors are opinion that the scope of pursuing research in the area of state estimation with PMU and SCADA measurements is the state of the art and timely.
5 Design and Performance Analysis of Genetic based PID-PSS with SVC in a Multi-machine System Considering Detailed Model, Hitesh Rameshchandra Jariwala and Anandita Chowdhury
Damping of power system oscillations with the help of proposed optimal Proportional Integral Derivative Power System Stabilizer (PID-PSS) and Static Var Compensator (SVC)-based controllers are thoroughly investigated in this paper. This study presents robust tuning of PID-PSS and SVC-based controllers using Genetic Algorithms (GA) in multi machine power systems by considering detailed model of the generators (model 1.1). The effectiveness of FACTSbased controllers in general and SVC-based controller in particular depends upon their proper location. Modal controllability and observability are used to locate SVC–based controller. The performance of the proposed controllers is compared with conventional lead-lag power system stabilizer (CPSS) and demonstrated on 10 machines, 39 bus New England test system. Simulation studies show that the proposed genetic based PID-PSS with SVC based controller provides better performance.
6 Non-Linear Controller for Electric Vehicle based on Indian Road Conditions, Poorani Shivkumar
A nonlinear controller namely sliding mode controller has been designed for the modeled transfer function of DC shunt motor based Electric Vehicle Drive, which takes into account Vehicle parameters, Motor Parameters and Indian Road conditions. The performance analysis of PI controller as well as sliding mode controller based on trending law for the developed transfer function has been analyzed and quantified that sliding mode controller is better and robust for Electric vehicle suitable for Indian road conditions.
7 Systematic Model based Testing with Coverage Analysis, Divyesh Divakar and Ashwini K G
Aviation safety has come a long way in over one hundred years of implementation. In aeronautics, commonly, requirements are Simulink Models. Considering this, many conventional low level testing methods are adapted by various test engineers. This paper is to propose a method to undertake Low Level testing/ debugging in comparatively easier and faster way. As a first step, an attempt is made to simulate developed safety critical control blocks within a specified simulation time. For this, the blocks developed will be utilized to test in Simulink environment. What we propose here is Processor in loop test method using RTDX. The idea is to simulate model (requirement) in parallel with handwritten code (not a generated one) running on a specified target, subjected to same inputs (test cases). Comparing the results of model and target, fidelity can be assured. This paper suggests a development workflow starting with a model created in Simulink and proceeding through generating verified and profiled code for the processor.
8 Solar Photo Voltaic Water Pumping: Harnessing Maximum Power, Mrityunjaya Kappali, Dr. Uday Kumar R. Y and V. R. Sheelavant
Among alternate sources of electricity, Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) energy is gaining prominence due to its plentiful availability. Water pumping is an important application of solar PV power. However people are not opting for it in large numbers as the ‘cost per watt’ for solar pumping systems is high. The cost can be reduced by harnessing more power per unit installed capacity of the solar panel. One method of realising this is by Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) wherein a power electronic converter is used to match pump with the PV panel. Widely employed approach for MPPT is to monitor the PV panel power and keep on adjusting the duty cycle of converter so that tapped power is always maximum. Present paper proposes a novel method to realise MPPT for standalone solar PV water pumping system. It is shown that the output power becomes the maximum when the motor voltage becomes the maximum. Conversely, varying the duty cycle of the converter such that load voltage is always maximum leads to harnessing maximum power output. This approach can be referred to as Maximum Load Voltage Point Tracking (MVPT). We need to monitor only load voltage. It is simpler than monitoring PV panel power as in that case it’s necessary to measure both panel voltage and current and then find their product. The proposal of MVPT for realizing MPPT is substantiated by theoretical explanation considering two types of loads: Pure Resistance and Centrifugal Pump driven by Permanent Magnet (PM) brushed DC Motor. The Matlab-Simulink based simulation is also carried out. Simulation results are found to be in close conformity with the theoretical findings.
9 Loss Estimation: A Load Factor Method, T. Murali Krishna, Dr. N.V. Ramana, Dr. S. Kamakshaiah
This paper focuses on Power Loss estimation in Electrical Sub Transmission and Distribution systems. The earliest empirical approaches were by Buller and Woodrow in 1928, Hoebel in 1959, M.W. Gustafson from 1983 to 1993. Gustafson changed the values of the coefficients and provided them with a constant loss term. It has been observed that this approach is not suitable for the present load scenario. In this paper, its successive approach has been proposed and tested with real time data. It has been concluded that the relationship between loss factor and load factor is not as complicated as perceived but easily understandable. By using exponential curve fitting, a relationship that is very close to reality can be obtained. To verify the obtained equation, data has been collected from a 33kV sub transmission line existing between 132kV/33kV Thurkayamjal substation and 33kV/11kV Hayathnagar substation, APTRANSCO, Andhra Pradesh.
10 Analysis and Control of Wind Driven Self-Excited Induction Generator for Isolated Applications, M.Sathyakala, M.Arutchelvi
For isolated applications, the 3- self-excited induction generator driven by wind energy source is more suitable, where the minimum excitation capacitance required for self-excitation of 3- induction generator is taken up in this work and the detailed analysis is carried out to determine the range of wind speed variation and consumer demand for the designed capacitance value. An electronic load controller is designed to maintain the load voltage constant for these variations. The excess power resulting as a consequence of rise in load voltage due to variation in load is pumped to dump load along with battery storage. Simulation for battery feeding the consumer load in the absence of wind power has been undergone. Exhaustive simulations have been carried out for such a scheme and the results have been presented in this paper.
11 Space Vector Pulse –Width Modulation for a Balanced Two Phase Induction Motor –A Detailed Study, A Y. Fadnis, Dr.D.R.Tutakane, Dr.R.M.Moharil,Atul Lilhare,and Gaurav Gondhalekar
This paper deals with the mechanism of space – vector pulse –width modulation (SVPWM) for a balanced two –phase induction motor ,in detail .It explains how the waveforms of the voltages applied to the two phases derive from the SVPWM .
12 An Intelligent Pressure Measurement Technique by Capacitance Pressure Sensor using Optimized ANN, Santhosh K V, B K Roy
Design of an intelligent pressure measurement technique by Capacitance Pressure Sensor (CPS) using an optimized Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is reported in this paper. The objectives of the present work are: (i) to extend the linearity range of measurement to 100% of input range, (ii) make the measurement technique adaptive to variation in physical parameters of diaphragm in CPS like, elasticity modulus and thickness, permittivity of dielectric constant, and temperature, and (iii) to achieve objectives (i) and (ii) using an optimized neural network. A suitable optimal ANN is added, replacing the conventional calibration circuit, in cascade to data conversion unit. The proposed measurement technique is tested considering variations in physical parameters of CPS, and temperature. These parametric variations are considered within the specified ranges. Results show that the proposed intelligent technique has fulfilled the objectives.
13 High Voltage Gain Boost Converter for Micro source Power Conversion system, K. Radhalakshmi, R. Dhanasekaran
In this paper, a new boost converter is introduced. In the proposed converter, a coupled inductor and voltage lift technique is used for raising the voltage gain .The designed converter especially for large voltage conversion ratio applications. By combining coupled inductor and voltage lift technique, the energy stored in the leakage inductor is recycled, therefore reduce the switch turn- off voltage and implement soft switching turn-on operation. The operating principles and steady-state analyses of continuous –conduction mode is discussed in detail. A 250W Converter Operating at 50KHZ with 25V input and 240V output simulation is presented to demonstrate the performance.
14 Modelling and Simulation of DC-Motor Electric Drive Control System with Variable Moment of Inertia, Emad Said Addasi
This work represents a mathematical analysis and simulation of dc-motor electric drive control system with variable moment of inertia. A separately-excited dc motor is used in this control system. A mathematical model for this motor has been simulated and tested in Matlab/Simulink. A closed-loop control system for this dc electric drive system is proposed. The proposed control system is based on the technical optimum method of design. The controlled variable of this system is the load angular speed. In this control system the moment of inertia is considered to be variable. It varies as a function of time. A speed controller and a current controller are designed for the suggested model to meet the desired performance specifications by using the technical optimum method. These controllers are attached to the control system and the closed-loop response is observed by simulation and testing this model. The results show the high-performance of the designed control system.
15 Effect of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) on the Network Estimated Variables, Jitender Kumar, J.N.Rai, Vipin and Ramveer S. Sengar
The classical method of power measurement of a system are iterative and bulky in nature. The new technique of measurement for bus voltage, bus current and power flow is a Phasor Measurement Unit. The classical technique and PMUs are combined with full weighted least square state estimator method of measurement will improves the accuracy of the measurement. In this paper, the method of combining Full weighted least square state estimation method and classical method incorporation with PMU for measurement of power will be investigated. Some cases are tested in view of accuracy and reliability by introducing of PMUs and their effect on variables like power flows are illustrated. The comparison of power obtained on each bus of IEEE 9 and IEEE 14 bus system will be discussed.
16 Cluster Computing Environment for On - line Static Security Assessment of large Power Systems, Sunitha R, Sreerama Kumar R, Abraham T. Mathew and Veeresh P. Kosaraju
The increased size of modern power systems demand faster and accurate means for the security assessment, so that the decisions for reliable and secure operation planning could be drawn in a systematic manner. Large computational overhead is the major impediment in preventing the power system security assessment (PSSA) from on-line use. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes, a cluster computing based architecture for power system static security assessment, utilizing the tools in the open source domain. A variant of the master/slave pattern is used for deploying the cluster of workstations (COW), which act as the computational engine for the on-line PSSA. The security assessment is performed utilizing the developed composite security index that can accurately differentiate the secure and non-secure cases and has been defined as a function of bus voltage and line flow limit violations. Due to the inherent parallel structure of security assessment algorithm and to exploit the potential of distributed computing, domain decomposition is employed for parallelizing the sequential algorithm. Extensive experimentations were carried out on IEEE 57 bus and IEEE 145-bus 50 machine standard test systems for demonstrating the validity of the proposed architecture.
17 Analysis of a Quasi Resonant Switch Mode Power Supply for Low Voltage Applications, K.Deepa, R.Jeyanthi and M.Vijaya Kumar
QRC provides efficient and regulated switch mode power supplies for robotic and satellite applications. This paper addresses the enhanced controller techniques for high frequency isolation based push-pull Quasi Resonant Converter. This technique is similar to the conventional PI controller technique but varies only the enhancement constants to improve the time domain response of the converter. The proposed converter is designed for low output voltage and power rating, characteristically 5V and 5 W, with the comprehension of current design trends towards enhanced performance. At the primary stage, to validate the design of the converter, simulation is performed in PSIM for ±50% load variations. A prototype model of this converter is developed. The results obtained from the experimental set-up are presented and analysed in detail. The results reveal the superiority of the proposed method.
18 Sharing of the Output Current of A Voltage Source Inverter between Controlled Switches and Anti-parallel Diodes, A. Y. Fadnis, Dr.D.R.Tutakane, Dr.R.M.Moharil, Gaurav Gondhalekar
When a two level VSI feeds an induction motor, the motor current is almost sinusoidal though the voltages at the terminals have substantial high frequency harmonics. Further the load current is shared between the controlled switch and the antiparallel diodes .These essential features of a two level VSI are studied in this paper using MATLAB simulation.
19 Modeling and Simulation of Self Excited Induction Machine for Wind Power Generation, R. Janakiraman and S. Paramasivam
Objective of this paper is to propose modeling and simulation of self-excited induction machine for wind power generation (SEIMWPG). The earlier models of such generators capable of generating electric power are facing huge mechanical losses due to wear and tear in the tightly coupled mechanical gear systems. Due to this heavy arrangement in each and every constituent mechanical assembly, the earlier design could not provide maximum efficiency. In this paper the proposed model focuses on the performance of the system using the concept of variation of mutual inductance in the generator windings. This new model can be possible to generate maximum power with the variation of mutual inductance of stator and rotor windings irrespective of the variation of wind velocities. The complete system is modeled and simulated in the MAT LAB/ SIMULINK environment. The results of this renewable model and design are to promote green energy systems in the future.
20 Voltage Sag Mitigation in Utility Connected System Using Current Source Converter Based D-STATCOM, S. Balasubramaniyan, T.S.Sivakumaran ,S.Rathinambal
This paper discusses the implementation of current source converter based distribution type static synchronous compensator. For eliminating the lower order harmonics, the power semiconductors are switched by pulse width modulation technique. Current source converter, input filter, dc link reactor are combined to design the proposed CSC based STATCOM. Since the STATCOM is a current injection device, the performance of the device is improved by a currentsource converter (CSC) combination. So a controllable current is generated at the output terminals of the device. Filter circuit at the input terminal is designed to eliminate the higher order harmonics. The proposed D- STATCOM is simulated and the results are validated using MATLAB.
21 FPGA Optimized Fuzzy Controller Design for Magnetic Ball Levitation using Genetic Algorithms, Basil Hamed, Hosam Abu Elreesh
This paper presents an optimum approach for designing of fuzzy controller for nonlinear system using FPGA technology with Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimization tool. A magnetic levitation system is considered as a case study and the fuzzy controller is designed to keep a magnetic object suspended in the air counteracting the weight of the object. Fuzzy controller will be implemented using FPGA chip. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used in this paper as optimization method that optimizes the membership, output gain and inputs gains of the fuzzy controllers. The design will use a highlevel programming language HDL for implementing the fuzzy logic controller using the Xfuzzy tools to implement the fuzzy logic controller into HDL code. This paper, advocates a novel approach to implement the fuzzy logic controller for magnetic ball levitation system by using FPGA with GA.
22 Transducer for Tension Force Measurement and Control of Fine-Winding Materials, Emad Said Addasi
In this paper has been designed a facility (electromechanical system) for regulation the tension force of winding fine materials. In winding fine strip material such a thread it is important to get homogeneous density of the wound package, to get high quality material in next processing of this package. In order to achieve this goal, the designed facility controls the thread tension force during winding process and the driving motor speed. And it allows adjusting the tension force of the winding thread to the desired value, which is variable and depends on the radius of the package. This gives the required homogeneous density of the wound package material. The suggested facility consists of simple electronic circuit, lever, pulley, electromagnetic coils and other simple components. The suggested system is provided by an adjusting element in order to set the tension force of winding material at the required reference value.
23 PV Hybrid System with DSTATCOM for Residential Applications, Ch.Venkateswra rao, S.S.Tulasiram, B.Brahmaiah
Now a days PV based energy systems are playing a vital role among all the renewable energy sourcesin our day to day life.Proper control should be required to meet the exact load conditions such that it should satisfy the non-linear nature of both the solar irradiance and load. In this paper, a battery is also incorporated along with the PV system to meet the necessary drop due to change in weather conditions. Here, a proper control is achieved by using DSTATCOM to compensate the reactive power. This paper proposes an advanced technique of PWM to generate the gating pulses and applied to a Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter to improve the voltage quality. Here, the entire system is designed to meet the load of Mogulthur (W.G.Dt. Andhra Pradesh). Simulation results are presented through Matlab/Simulink by taking different cases into consideration.
24 Differential Evolution Based Optimization Approach for Power Factor Correction, S.Neelima, Dr. P.S.Subramanyam
In radial distribution systems, the voltages at buses reduces when moved away from the substation, also the losses are high. The reason for decrease in voltage and high losses is the insufficient amount of reactive power, which can be provided by the shunt capacitors. For this purpose, in this paper, two stage methodologies are used. In first stage, the load flow of pre-compensated distribution system is carried out using ‘Dimension reducing distribution load flow algorithm’. In the second stage, Differential Evolution (DE) technique is used to determine the optimal location and size of the capacitors. The above method is tested on IEEE 69 bus system. In this paper a new method is proposed to improve the power factor of those buses having low power factor (less than 0.8lag) to unity power factor simultaneously by placing the capacitors.
25 A Single-Stage High-Frequency Isolated Secondary- Side Controlled AC-DC Converter, Yimian Du and Ashoka K.S. Bhat
This paper presents a new single-stage highfrequency isolated ac-dc converter that uses a simple control circuit. It is well suitable for wide input variation power sources. The circuit configuration combines a diode rectifier, boost converter and half-bridge dc-dc resonant converter. A high power factor is achieved by discontinuous current mode (DCM) operation of the front-end integrated power factor correction circuit. The output voltage is regulated by fixedfrequency, secondary-side phase-shift active rectifier. Softswitching operation is achieved for all the switches. This converter operates in three modes, which is classified according to conduction of different switches and diodes. The intervals of operation and steady-state analysis are presented in detail. Design example of a 100 W proposed converter is given together with its simulation and experiment results for wide variation in input voltage.
26 Economic Load Dispatch Problem with Valve – Point Effect Using a Binary Bat Algorithm, Bestha Mallikarjuna, K. Harinath Reddy, and O. Hemakesavulu
This paper proposes application of BAT algorithm for solving economic load dispatch problem. BAT algorithmic rule is predicated on the localization characteristics of micro bats. The proposed approach has been examined and tested with the numerical results of economic load dispatch problems with three and five generating units with valve - point loading without considering prohibited operating zones and ramp rate limits. The results of the projected BAT formula are compared with that of other techniques such as lambda iteration, GA, PSO, APSO, EP, ABC and basic principle. For each case, the projected algorithmic program outperforms the answer reported for the existing algorithms. Additionally, the promising results show the hardness, quick convergence and potency of the projected technique.
27 Robust Evolutionary Approach to Mitigate Low Frequency Oscillation in a Multi-machine Environment, K. Mazlumi, M. Azari
This paper proposes a new optimization algorithm known as Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm (MSFLA) for optimal designing of PSSs controller. The design problem of the proposed controller is formulated as an optimization problem and MSFLA is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. An eigenvalue based objective function reflecting the combination of damping factor and damping ratio is optimized for different operating conditions. The proposed approach is applied to optimal design of multimachine power system stabilizers. Three different power systems, A Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB), four-machine of Kundur and ten-machine New England systems are considered. The obtained results are evaluated and compared with other results obtained by Genetic Algorithm (GA). Eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear system simulations assure the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in providing good damping characteristic to system oscillations and enhancing the system dynamic stability under different operating conditions and disturbances.
28 Safety Evaluation of Live Line operators of 1200 KV UHV AC Exposed to Electric and Magnetic Fields, Mahadev Unde , Rohidas Maske and Bansidhar Kushare
This paper presents the study of assessment of external electric and magnetic field exposure to live line operator of 1200 KV, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) AC proposed line in India. Single circuit (S/C) and double circuit (D/C) power lines are considered for the assessment. Combination of charge simulation and image method is adopted for evaluation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric fields where as Ampere law is used for magnetic fields. Analysis is carried out using MATLAB software . The assessment of ELF exposure to line operator has been carried out for various scenarios. These assessed values of electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposures are compared with standard allowable limits set by various International Standards. Moreover, the safety of general public living at the edge of right of way (ROW) and 15 m away is evaluated. The objective of the study is to create awareness about the power frequency EMF radiations and its health issues among the power engineers, line operators , general public’s and to electricity utilities, the government to enforce the regulations.
29 Induction Motors Faults Detection Based on Instantaneous Power Spectrum Analysis with Elimination of the Supply Mains Influence, Mykhaylo Zagirnyak, Dmytro Mamchur, Andrii Kalinov, and Atef S. Al-Mashakbeh
A method of induction motor diagnostics based on the analysis of three-phase instantaneous power spectra has been offered. Its implementation requires recalculation of induction motor voltages, aiming at exclusion from induction motor instantaneous three-phase power signal the component caused by supply mains dissymmetry and unsinusoidality. The recalculation is made according to the motor known electromagnetic parameters, taking into account the electromotive force induced in stator winding by rotor currents. The results of instantaneous power parameters computation proved efficiency of this method in case of supply mains voltage dissymmetry up to 20%. The offered method has been tested by experiments. Its applicability for detection of several stator and rotor winding defects appeared in motor simultaneously has been proved. This method also makes it possible to estimate the extent of defects development according to the size of amplitudes of corresponding harmonics in the spectrum of total three phase power signal.