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1 Cultural and tourist cluster “EAEU&APEC Cooperation Park” as a model of harmonious development of Eurasia (DOI: 10.47451/cul2021-08-001, EOI: 10.11249/cul2021-08-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=214 , Vitruk, G.K., Buychik, A.; German K. Vitruk Member of the Eurasian Peoples’ Assembly Far Eastern Committee of the Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO, Autonomous non-profit organization “Golden Sazhen”, Vladivostok, Russia, E-mail: v7911225@gmail.com; Alexander Buychik, Doctor of Economic Sciences, PhD social and political sciences, Chief Director, Klironomy Journal, Tuculart Holding, Ostrava-Hlučín, Czech Republic, E-mail: info@buychik.eu, ORCID: 0000-0002-2542-4198.
The authors propose to discuss the image-idea of the concept of the International Cultural and Tourist Cluster “EAEU&APEC Co-operation Park” as a pilot minimally viable model of a new social and economic structure of international relations. The cultural and historical national model is proposed as an alternative one to the global and liberal non-national models of development. These models are the economic materialization of two opposite outlooks: spiritual and materialistic, respectively. The substantiation of the choice of the ‘sobornost’ category by the governing principle of modeling is given, its main spiritual and material effects are shown. Klironomy is accepted as the scientific basis of the model of spiritual outlook. The development of a practical model is carried out in the tradition of the conceptual theory of management. The results of the discussion will be used to promote the project and attract the scientific community to the design and study of cluster effects based on sobornost.
2 Sense of art (from the experience of perceptions of art) (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-05-002, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-05-002). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=206 , Voloshina, L.A. Candidate of Philosophical Sciences (PhD), Head of School Library, High School of Folk Arts (Academy), St Petersburg, Russia, E-mail: voluta@yandex.ru
The research is devoted to a specific human ability, which the author calls “the sense of art”. It is presented in detail what components of art (in this case, painting) affect the viewer, falling into the sphere of his sensuality. The sense of art is aimed at developing the spiritual life of a person. The connection of this feeling with creative individuality, with traditional folk culture, is shown. In this research, the author, concludes that this feeling is inherent only in a person, the ability to perceive reality given in artistic images. This is an individual creative process of emotional and intellectual, rational and transcendent cognition of reality through the objects of artistic creativity.
3 Cultural heritage protection in the globalization context (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-08-001, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-08-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=215 , Lebedev, S.V., Full Professor, Dr of Philosophical Sciences, Head of the Department of philosophy, Higher School of Folk Arts (Academy), St Petersburg, Russia, E-mail: servicleb@list.ru, ORCID: 0000-0002-7994-2660.
The article actualizes the problem of national identity through the preservation of the basis of the cultural heritage of peoples and ethnic groups in the era of globalization and the emergence of a large number of ‘melting pots’ that erase the edges of the uniqueness of individual peoples of the world. The author argues that for any emerging nation, the cultural heritage, even if artificial, determines to a large extent the ‘core culture’ and is one of the basic foundations of national identity. Consequently, an important role is played by the adaptation of immigrants, who bring and lobby their culture and traditions in new territories for themselves. It forces some countries seeking to preserve their history and cultural heritage to actively hinder the immigration process, even sacrificing the development of their ethnic group, which does not tend to reduce the birth rate. However, on other way, multiculturalism only contributes to the rooting of specific customs and traditions among immigrant diasporas, which finally turn into separate communities leading to a close existence. The author concludes that in conditions, when one’s cultural heritage is withering and the core culture is disintegrating, new cultural values belonging to new minorities begin to arise.
4 The relevance of the formation of the science of the cultural heritage preservation as the evolution of social and scientific thought (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-06-001, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-06-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=211 , Buychik, A., Doctor of Economic Sciences, PhD social and political sciences, Chief Director Klironomy Journal, Tuculart Holding, Ostrava-Hlučín, Czech Republic, E-mail: info@buychik.eu, ORCID: 0000-0002-2542-4198.
Research in the field of cultural heritage preservation has been actively conducted over the past 150 years. The world community has achieved great success in forming a school of objects’ restoration and conservation of past civilizations’ cultures. However, in the early 21st century, a lot of knowledge began to go beyond what is already available in the classification of the sciences of art and culture. In the last third of the 20th century, a separate science of restoration began to emerge, which is also looking for its place between culture and art. The need to form a new scientific direction on cultural heritage preservation appeared due to the formation of a huge amount of scientific knowledge, which was supported by the evolution of the philosophical thought of the world-leading thinkers, who came close to defining the Concept of Klironomical Outlook, i.e., structural views on determining the value of cultural heritage. The author justifies that the world community has objectively approached the understanding and separation of the klironomical outlook, which contributes to the formation of a new complex of sciences of the cultural heritage preservation – klironomy. The research used the scientific works of the author of the article, as well as leading experts in the field of culture and philosophers.
5 Local traditions of the Northern folk costume design of the Olonets Province from the late 19th to the mid-20th century (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-05-002, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-05-002). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=209 , Nosan, T.M., Associate Professor, PhD of Pedagogy, Department of Artistic Embroidery, Higher School of Folk Art (Academy), St Petersburg, Russia.
The article is devoted to the original types of traditional design of the Northern folk costume of the Olonets Province from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The article deals with the history of traditional folk costume, its functions: festive, ceremonial, professional, regional, class, indicating the occupation and religion. The author analyzes the materials, various methods of decorating the decor with embroidery, weaving, lace, as well as the ornament and colour scheme of the costume. The general sources of studying the history of the folk costume are works of fine and applied art, literary works and historical documents. The author concludes that the constant appeal to the modelling folk costume creativity is very important for a modern designer. The analysis of models created based on folk costume revealed various creative approaches of artists to the use of folk motifs in a modern costume created in the process of creative reinterpretation of folk traditions with regards to modern conditions.
6 Literary magazine as a historical memory keeper (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-05-001, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-05-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=207 , Lebedeva, G.N., Associate Professor, Candidate of Philosophical Sciences (PhD), Department of Philosophy, Leningrad State University named after A.S. Pushkin, St. Petersburg, Russia, E-mail: gal_le@list.ru, ORCID: 0000-0002-2755-2003.
The study object was 19th-century Russian journalism as a social institution associated with preserving cultural heritage and historical memory. The issues of cultural heritage preservation in the Russian Empire of the first half of the 19th century are considered using a 19th-century literary magazine as an example. Journalism occupies no less a place in culture than art, morality, science and technology. Influencing the public consciousness, journalism is important, because addressing, it raises the question of public confidence in the authorities. Thus, journalists are the keepers of the heritage. This can contribute to the stability and development of society. In the course of the study, it was possible to trace how the journalistic and practical activities of writers, intellectuals and publishers contributed to the unification of publicists, statesmen and scientists and influenced the formation of public consciousness, as well as programs and institutions for the preservation of cultural heritage.
7 Historical and cultural significance of the collection of Russians artists in the A. Kasteeva Museum (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-04-004, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-04-004). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=205 , Kirgizbekova, S.S., Member of the Union of Designers Kazakhstan, Senior Lecturer, Department of Creative disciplines, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan, E-mail: sveta010161@mail.ru.
The article is devoted to the collection of Russian art, presented today in the State Museum of Arts. Abylkhana Kasteeva in Almaty. Practice has shown that the main stream of artistic forces rushed to Kazakhstan from Moscow. The value of the entire Kazakh exposition of the museum is colossal not so much in material terms as in its historical and cultural significance for descendants and contemporaries. In the context of the style diversity of images, shapes and colors, one can grasp the sensations, and through them to find answers to many questions, understand the historical processes in Kazakhstan, beliefs, our attitude to nature, to life and to each other. Therefore, it is so important to identify the circle of artists who worked in Kazakhstan, in the years when Kazakhstan’s fine arts were just getting on their feet, the process of consolidating a few creative forces was taking place. Anyway, these artists visited Kazakhstan, worked here, created their own works. Among them were eminent Russian painters, who entered the history of Soviet Art. The masterpieces of Kazakh and Russian art will allow the viewer to trace the history of the formation and development of the Kazakh national school of painting, over a thousand paintings, prints and drawings are the pride of the collection of the State Museum of Arts of Kazakhstan. A. Kasteev.
8 Garden chair restoration (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-04-003, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-04-003). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=201 , Fomicheva, N.M., Artist-restorer of gilding of the highest category, Restorer of DAA works, art critic, art expert, Honorary Restorer of St Petersburg, Honored Worker of Culture of the Russian Federation, St Petersburg, Russia, E-mail: natalif47@yandex.ru.
The article is devoted to the realization of unique practical methods of restoration of decorative and applied art objects, which is a significant work in cultural heritage preservation because the topic is practically inexhaustible, both for researchers, art historians and for restorers-performers. The subject of the study was household garden gilded furniture of Russia of the 19th century. The project aimed to return the garden chair to the exhibition form for further use in the museum halls, as an object of 19th-century garden furniture art. To understand the restoration problems of the kind of furniture, the author of the article turned to the researchers’ publications devoted to the aspects of the creation, decoration and restoration of 19th-century furniture. The author presents in detail the stages of furniture restoration. As well as the technologies used for this type of restoration work. As a result of the comprehensive restoration of the garden chair with rattan, the master restorer acquired a certain useful theoretical knowledge of the topic and practical experience of working with the decorative and applied art subject, which had only characteristic features of its technical condition and methods of working to return the chair to its aesthetic and exposition appearance. The materials presented in the article will be useful for practising restorers and novice young professionals.
9 Arthropods. Aesthetic approaches through selective methods of representation in personal creation (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-04-002, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-04-002). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=189 , Duduleanu, L., Assistant, Doctor of Visual Arts, Department of Graphics, Faculty of Arts and Design, West University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail: dorina.duduleanu@e-uvt.ro.
The article purpose is to analyze the theme of insects in the sphere of visual arts from the perspective of the visual artist, as basis of the research, presenting certain historical, technical, artistic and conceptual aspects. The present study highlights the representations of certain specimens in the area of artistic creation and analyzes three stages of the creative act – from simple curiosity to science and to purely aesthetic value – the observations made in the field of entomology being part this. Surprising the phenomenon of decontextualization of arthropods in the natural environment leads the research towards original artistic manifestations and concerns, which leads me to pay great attention to the aesthetic side in the context of the elaboration of compositional structures in personal artistic creation.
10 Cultural Heritage through Design Thinking (DOI: 10.47451/her2021-04-001, EOI: 10.11249/her2021-04-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=186 , Andreescu, D., Associated Professor, PhD in Arts, Faculty of Arts and Design, West University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail: diana.andreescu@e-uvt.ro, ORCID: 0000-0002-2435-5856.
The general purpose of the Design Thinking approach (concept taken over in Romanian without its translation and which involves conception-oriented thinking) is to support the conception and design of products, services, processes, strategies, spaces, architecture and experiences ideal for use optimal. Applying the approach leads to the development of practical and innovative solutions to the problems identified in the product and/or technology design departments of companies. As described in the article Design Thinking is a process springing from the user-centered conception-design paradigm. The objective of the article is to highlight the need to combine urban study within Design Thinking, in the case of all areas of conception-design of solutions.
11 Artistic strategies in Oliviero Toscani’s advertising. (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-04-001, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-04-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=185 , Soreanu, C., Doctor in Visual Arts, PhD, Lecturer, Specialization Photography, Video, Computer image processing, Faculty of Visual Arts and Design, “George Enescu” National University of the Arts, Iasi, Romania. E-mail: csoreanu@hotmail.com. ORCID: 0000-0001-6958-1809.
In this article, we will discuss how contemporary advertising becomes the territory where various artistic expressions contribute in a complementary way to the constitution of the meaning of a work. The case study will approach the activity of Oliviero Toscani, and his two decades of collaboration with Benetton materialized in memorable advertising campaigns that rewrote the visual history of contemporary advertising. We will analyze how photographic media provides advertising with one of the most consistent expressive resources, based on the realism of the image, the endless possibilities in managing the visual composition, the premises of reproducibility and, last but not least, the appetite of an audience eager for the technological image. Also, we will try to discuss the creative premises and mechanisms that characterize Toscani’s creation, the reading conditions of his advertising works, as well as how his creative strategies combine the expressiveness of the technological precision of press photography, and the appropriation strategies specific to artistic postmodernity.
12 Politeness and the Art Criticism Discourse. (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-04-002, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-04-002). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=188 , Cretiu, A.-E., Associate Professor, Doctor of Philology, Department of Theoretical Disciplines, Faculty of Decorative Arts and Design, University of Art and Design, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. E-mail: anda.cretiu@uad.ro.
Art criticism usually manifests itself in such written genre-texts as art reviews. When producing such a text, the critic finds himself/herself in a position of the interface between the general public and the artist, and, consequently, between the general public and the work of art. While, on the one hand, the critic has to remain true to his/her role as a guide to mediating understanding and appreciation of the works of art by the audiences, meanwhile bringing efficient/effective suggestions for the artists, on the other, the critic also needs to be a master of good writing in the use of the most effective discourse strategies. These include the application of the most relevant politeness principles for the sake of perpetuating good communication throughout the art world. The present study aims to discern the mechanisms of utilizing those principles in art criticism, in direct relationship to how works of art are (negatively) evaluated by the critics, who may balance between remaining polite and becoming utterly/straightly impolite, for the sake of truth.
13 Cyclicity in creation: from abstraction to figurative, from figurative to abstract. (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-04-003, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-04-003). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=192 , Sida, C., Moldovan, S.-S.; Sida, C., Associate Professor, Doctor in Visual Arts, Department of Visual Arts, Faculty of Arts and Design, West University Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania., E-mail: cristian.sida@e-uvt.ro; Moldovan, S.-S., Assistant, Doctor in Visual Arts, Department of Visual Arts, Faculty of Arts and Design, West University Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania, E-mail: smaranda.moldovan@e-uvt.ro.
The paramount focus of this article shall be on painting, mainly that of contemporary artists, but apprehending back to their modern predecessors without which some of the aforementioned contemporary painting figurative/abstract would have been inconceivable. The research of the identification of some directions in painting, both in the creative process and in the educational one, is a difficult objective to achieve. The hierarchy and classification of some tendencies, as plastic formulas, represents a challenge only if we consider that any artist crosses over, during his artistic career, several stages of creation. At the same time, the present research aims to bring to attention one of the most significant examples of relating the topicality of artistic creation, with amplifying and renewing the horizon of artistic higher education. These aspects are always, or should be integrated in the teaching of each artist who teaches in art higher education institutions. The authors’ cases are important because they can reveal different aspects of the creation process that on one hand can start with abstraction and find the figurative in it, and on the other hand it can have its roots in reality, a reality that is reduced in simple abstract forms by the process of abstraction. Both cases have interdisciplinary aspects from psychology, philosophy and are related with other aspects of human activity such as memory, imagination, abstraction.
14 The Art of Acting: intercrossing borders between science and art. (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-04-004, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-04-004). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=193 , Darie, B., Professor univ., PhD in Theatre and Performance, Head of Acting Department Faculty of Theatre, National University of Theatre and Film “I.L. Caragiale”, Bucharest, Romania, E-mail: bogdana.darie@unatc.ro.
The article aims to present professor’s Ion Cojar method regarding the methodology of approaching the actor`s art from the point of view of the teaches who form future actors that are well trained, reaching both theoretical and practical dimensions. The purpose of the paper is to outline the fact that the art of acting is not something done by instinct or guided by emotions and spontaneous reactions, but, behind the scenes, lies a well-developed method, tested across many generations of students that combines psychology, aesthetics, critical thinking and acting practices. Blending old and new methods, creating a link between what was tested and what can be used in the future, the techniques used in the process of training the student from The National University of Theatre and Film “I.L. Caragiale” proved to be relevant in creating professionals that can operate in the artistic and scientific fields. In today`s context, there has to be a shift of paradigm in the way people see the art of theatre, that can no longer be treated only from the aesthetic point of view. Acting methods can be used in the educational process and in raising the well-being of future generation by combining them with work models that make appeal to scientific data, offering to the future actor a larger domain to explore and develop.
15 Net art-fine art: progressive versus destructive. (DOI: 10.47451/art2021-05-001, EOI: 10.11249/art2021-05-001). Link: http://tuculart.eu/ftpgetfile.php?id=204 , Popa, I.A., Doctor in Visual Arts, Lecturer, Painting Department, University of Fine Arts and Design, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, E-mail: ioana.popa@uad.ro.
The mankind has always been in search of improving its technological discoveries; as a result, culture and tradition were strongly influenced by this progress. Is there art without technique and science? There is. But as far as it is that we can make art without technique, so true is that technique improves art and even help it to develop itself. Technique generalizes, it can deny the irreductible particular cases and forms. The digitalization has made progress and can go beyond the rules that art has already been using. By introducing digital technologies in the field of making art and also selling it, we need a guidance to make it clear what kind of practices are beneficent for those who are parts of the huge mechanism of the artistic world: artists, collectors, curators, art critics, art historians and last but not least for the art loving public.
16 The connection of times and generations in the restoration of cultural heritage monuments (DOI 10.47451/her2021-10-001) , Natalia M. Fomicheva & Dmitry A. Valuev 
The topic relevance lies in the fact that the preservation of cultural heritage monuments of our country has been, is and will be the most important at any time for the patriotic, aesthetic, and moral education of young people, who should be instilled with love for the Motherland, for people, who create and preserve beautiful works of art, love of creativity in a variety of fields for contemporaries and descendants. The purpose of the study is to create the Book of Memory of the Restorers of St. Petersburg through the history of the revival of suburban palaces of St Petersburg after the Great Patriotic War on the example of restoring the interiors of the Golden Suite of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo and in particular – the Great Hall or the Light Gallery. The article is devoted to the master restorers who recreated from the ruins and ashes the unique interiors of the Catherine Palace of the architectural palace and park reserve Tsarskoye Selo in the city of Pushkin after its destruction during the Second World War. It tells about the continuity of generations of restorers of the 20th and 21st centuries. In the study course, the works of leading experts and scientists in the field of restoration of the Russian cultural heritage were used
17 Rumen Sirakov – the master of the “poor piano”. The performing technique of Rumen Sirakov (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-001) , Kostadin Buradzhiev, Professor, Doctor of Musicology and Music Art, Vice rector, “Learning activity” Academy of Music, Dance & Fine Arts “Professor Asen Diamandiev”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
The problems related to the cultural heritage, in particular to the Bulgarian musical folklore, excite a large part of the scientists in Bulgaria. The performing art of the masters of folk instruments has been the subject of constant interest and research since the beginning of the 21st century in Bulgaria. In this case the unique performing art of one of the best tambourine performers in Bulgaria is presented. Rumen Sirakov is an emblem of the most perfect playing of the Bulgarian tambourine. He is defined as the ancestor of the national performing style of playing. His instrumental legacy is enormous. His compositions are a clear proof of his exceptional talent. Created on the basis of a number of folk songs, enriched with his improvisations, they become classic tambourine pieces. Rumen Sirakov’s performing art is highly valued not only in Bulgaria, but also far beyond its borders. His connoisseurs are the world-famous manager Joe Boyd, George Harrison, Eric Clapton, Kate Bush.
18 ?he concert as a form of presenting Bulgarian dance art on the basis of folklore (in Bulgarian) / ????????? – ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????? (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-002) , Katya Kayryakova, Associate Professor, Doctor of Choreography, Department of Arts, Faculty of Architecture, Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”, Varna, Bulgaria.
The challenges facing the performing folk art today are different, but perhaps the biggest among them is the form of its presentacion. Bulgarian folk dance has always enjoyed great interest. Over the years, the audience demand has been constantly growing, which necessitates the need to focus on the quality of its performance in response to the spiritual and cultural needs of the audience. The object of this research is the concert as a form of presenting Bulgarian dance art on the basis of folklore. The purpose of the submitted work is to analyse the specific features of the concert as a form of presenting Bulgarian dance art on the basis of folklore; to highlight the leading role of the director in the whole course; from the ideological conception to the realisation of the art programme. This purpose also includes the tasks related to its realisation, to be precise, the interpretation of a concert and performance as a subject of the director’s strategy; following the process of scenario creating and showing up the special features of the performance, introducing the stage folklore art; the special role of the director regarding the complete art product- from the beginning to the end. The topic leads to a wide analysis, which is not possible to be presented in one report. That is why, the expression of the whole idea is limitted and analysing only the concerts, the contents of the music and dance on the basis of the Bulgarian folklore.  ???????? ?? ??????????????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ????, ?? ???? ?? ???-???????? ???? ??? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ???????????. ??????????? ????????? ???? ?? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????. ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????, ????? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????. ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ?? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ?? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????. ???? ??? ????????? ? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?, ? ??????: ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? ???????-????????? ? ????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????, ???????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????. ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????????, ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ? ???? ?????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ?? ? ??????? ?? ????????, ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????.
19 Fundamentals of dance training in the system of secondary education in Varna (in Bulgarian) / ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????? (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-003) , Teodora Staneva, Assistant, Department of Arts, Faculty of Architecture, Varna Free University “Chernorizets Hrabar”, Varna, Bulgaria.
This article examines the foundation as well as the current conditions of dance education in the system of secondary education in Varna. The city is an international cultural center and is the first non- principal city to implement vocational ballet education. In 1964, the world’s first international ballet competition was held in Varna, which has granted the city a historic place in the thousands of years of cultural history of the world. The main source of information on the highly effective pedagogical practices of Galina and Stefan Yordanovi is an in-depth analysis of data collected from periodical press in the period 1965-1985. Their views on the development of dance training and methodology are covered mostly by local journalists in Varna. The focus of this paper is Stefan Yordanov’s extremely valuable article on vocational ballet education in Varna, published in Narodno Delo. In an attempt to reconstruct the history of art dance education in Varna with the authenticity of the shared ideas, these materials can serve as sources for an essential part of the yet unwritten history. This work is part of an overall study on teaching dance as art in secondary education in Bulgaria.  ? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ??? ?????. ????? ? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ? ??????? ?? ?????, ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????????? ???? 1964 ?????? ?? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????? ? ?? ????? ? ????????????? ???????? ???????. ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ? ??????? 1965-1985 ?????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ? ?????? ?????????. ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ??????????. ?????? ? ??????????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?-? “??????? ????” ?? ????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????. ? ???? ?? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ????? ? ?????????????? ?? ??????????? ????, ???? ????????? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???????. ????????? ? ???? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ? ????????.
20 Ukrainian book design: ways of formation and development (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-004). , Veronika Zaitseva, Candidate of Art History, Associate Professor, Department of Fine Arts, Institute of Arts, Boris Grinchenko Kyiv University, ORCID: 0000-0003-1160-1760. Alla Buihasheva, Professor, Department of Fine Arts, Institute of Arts, Boris Grinchenko Kyiv University, ORCID: 0000-0002-4716-3144.
In the Ukrainian graphic art development of the 20th century as a whole and specific art events and artistic works, a constant interaction of international and national, general and specific, modern and traditional is traced. The development of the new graphic art was especially influenced by the revaluation of the aesthetic qualities of national art. The research purpose is to study the development of the directions of Ukrainian book art, the formation of new creative features in the European cultural space. The research methodology consists of the general scientific methods application (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction) and methods of art history (comparative, typological, descriptive). The scientific novelty lies in the study of book design, which has always been significant in Ukrainian art. Today, we have many fine works in the genre of book illustrations. These works reflected both the history of Ukrainian literature, the history of the national graphic art, as well as the history of cultural progress of Ukraine in general. Thus, book design is an extremely fruitful object of study, an intersection points in which the complicated  process of the interaction of social, political, spiritual, cultural and artistic and aesthetic factors is underway. The Ukrainian graphic art of those days reflected different all-European trends, e.g., modernism, symbolism, neo-primitivism, futurism, cubism, expressionism, constructivism, realism, surrealism, Art Deco, neoclassicism. The originality of the artistic language emerged through the use of traditional motifs and vanguard image creation tools.
21 The Human Voice as a Genius Instrument to be trained (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-005) , Salim Khalil Saad, Professor, Doctor of Science in Art (Music), Department of Arab East Researches in Music, Faculty of Music Sciences, Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Art Studies, ORCID: 0000-0002-6036-3589
The professionalism of the Voice is the ability to control the human voice in order to activate and use it with all its expressive and influential capabilities. Voice control means learning it through analysis and theoretical and scientific analysis, and then installing it with the desired or proposed template from the student and analyst to give him the best cases in expression. This means submission to the state of training and practice of human voice with all its various data and points of performance, and, thus, the establishment of a methodology and schedule suitable for a professional purpose, scientifically applied (Scientifique – pratique) or inborn (Naturel – experimental). The former shortens the time devoted to professionalism, while the latter takes longer to increase productivity and remains free from the analysis and science that the former includes. Academic experience today has confirmed that each scientific phenomenon creates its own science and knowledge and becomes open for teaching at the university and specializes in its work and professionalism. And when knowledge precedes what is known about it, it reduces time and reduces the difficulties of confrontation. Therefore, the professionalism of its first type (scientific and applied) became the prerogative of science, its institutes and universities, without discarding the second type (innate – experienced). The two together is the best goal, and if we prefer between them, then our choice is based on the first according to scientific preference.
22 Graffiti: Public art movement (DOI 10.47451/art2021-10-006) , Ioana Alexandra Popa, Doctor in Visual Arts, Lecturer, Painting Department, University of Fine Arts and Design.
Art has its own distinct way of being and should not be confused with manifestations of imagination, such as propaganda or controversy. Graffiti is generally considered to be a social, cultural, political as well as a textual practice. It is a unique platform, where the speakers are unconstrained to express their ideologies, personal or social problems. Also, graffiti has been and will always be a form of political protest, of propaganda, because it is about claiming the street, doing what you want, not obeying the social rules and not following the directions issued by the art market. Freedom of expression in art means the absence of any additional rules. To aim the study purpose, the author used theoretical and empirical methods such as comparative, descriptive, content analysis and inductive. In the study course, the author used the materials of the works of modern experts in the field of art and graffiti such as J. Anthony, Julius, U. Eco, N. Ganz, E.H. Gombrich, E. Levinas, R. Palmer, A. Rorimer, Y. Yerznkyan, G. Gasparyan, and G.C. Stovers.
23 Българският музикален фолклор в творчеството на композитора Иван Спасов , Kostadin Buradzhiev
The national folklore wealth of Bulgaria is great. Today, the Institute of Musicology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences stores more than 260,000 Bulgarian folk songs, about 30,000 folk melodies, over 4,000 dance instrumental melodies, about 6,000 filmed folk dances and customs accompanied by music, the Bulgarian National Radio has recordings with Bulgarian folk music, of which 3,000 titles are authentic, unprocessed music, etc. An analysis of the works of Bulgarian composers clearly outlines their different approach in their work with Bulgarian musical folklore. Their activity, in its entirety, has significantly contributed to the development of processing and original music based on folklore. Each of the examined composers outlines his own path in the development of the genre, giving a new direction to the young composers. The study object is folklore in songwriting by the composer Ivan Spasov. The study purpose is to research some of the folklore-based songs and their significance for the development of choral art in Bulgaria. The main methods used in the study are comparative analysis and synthesis. Approach them in a theoretical-cognitive, analytical aspect, the basis of the price of synthesis between poetry and music. Националното фолклорно богатство на България е голямо. Днес в Института по музикознание при Българската Академия на Науките се съхраняват повече от 260.000 български народни песни, около 30.000 народни мелодии, над 4.000 танцови инструментални мелодии, около 6.000 филмирани народни танци и обичаи, придружени с музика, Българското Национално Радио притежава записи с българска народна музика, от която 3.000 заглавия са на автентична, необработена музика и т. н. (Брашованова-Станчева, 1981:11-12). Чрез анализ на творчеството на българските композитори ясно се очертава различният им подход в работата им с българския музикален фолклор. Дейността им, в своята цялост, е допринесла значително за развитието на обработката и авторската музика на фолклорна основа. Всеки един от разгледаните композитори очертава собствен път в развитието на жанра, давайки нова насока на младите композитори. Обект на настоящото изследване е фолклора в песенното творчество на композитора Иван Спасов. Цел – да изследвам част от песните на фолклорна основа и значимостта им за развитие на хоровото изкуство в България. Основните методи, използвани в изследването са сравнителен анализ и синтез. Подходите към тях са в теоретико-познавателен, аналитичен аспект, основаващ се на синтеза между поезия и музика.
24 Българският музикален фолклор в творчеството на композитора Иван Спасов , Kostadin Buradzhiev
The national folklore wealth of Bulgaria is great. Today, the Institute of Musicology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences stores more than 260,000 Bulgarian folk songs, about 30,000 folk melodies, over 4,000 dance instrumental melodies, about 6,000 filmed folk dances and customs accompanied by music, the Bulgarian National Radio has recordings with Bulgarian folk music, of which 3,000 titles are authentic, unprocessed music, etc. An analysis of the works of Bulgarian composers clearly outlines their different approach in their work with Bulgarian musical folklore. Their activity, in its entirety, has significantly contributed to the development of processing and original music based on folklore. Each of the examined composers outlines his own path in the development of the genre, giving a new direction to the young composers. The study object is folklore in songwriting by the composer Ivan Spasov. The study purpose is to research some of the folklore-based songs and their significance for the development of choral art in Bulgaria. The main methods used in the study are comparative analysis and synthesis. Approach them in a theoretical-cognitive, analytical aspect, the basis of the price of synthesis between poetry and music. Националното фолклорно богатство на България е голямо. Днес в Института по музикознание при Българската Академия на Науките се съхраняват повече от 260.000 български народни песни, около 30.000 народни мелодии, над 4.000 танцови инструментални мелодии, около 6.000 филмирани народни танци и обичаи, придружени с музика, Българското Национално Радио притежава записи с българска народна музика, от която 3.000 заглавия са на автентична, необработена музика и т. н. (Брашованова-Станчева, 1981:11-12). Чрез анализ на творчеството на българските композитори ясно се очертава различният им подход в работата им с българския музикален фолклор. Дейността им, в своята цялост, е допринесла значително за развитието на обработката и авторската музика на фолклорна основа. Всеки един от разгледаните композитори очертава собствен път в развитието на жанра, давайки нова насока на младите композитори. Обект на настоящото изследване е фолклора в песенното творчество на композитора Иван Спасов. Цел – да изследвам част от песните на фолклорна основа и значимостта им за развитие на хоровото изкуство в България. Основните методи, използвани в изследването са сравнителен анализ и синтез. Подходите към тях са в теоретико-познавателен, аналитичен аспект, основаващ се на синтеза между поезия и музика.
25 Exploration of Time in Jeff Wall’s Photography (DOI: 10.47451/art2022-02-02) , Luca Mixich
Conceptual photography, since the 1960’s, has developed a different approach to photographing than any other photographical genre. Its main focus was on the concept behind the image, on its idea. However, my aim, in this article, is to analyze a variation of conceptual photography, more precisely the narrative one, its history and aesthetics, but also how it was explored by Jeff Wall (b. 1946) and how the Canadian artist approached and integrated time in his photographs. The main purpose of this article is to understand Jeff Wall’s place in the history of staged photography and to understand how he developed a creative type of visual narration and its relationship to time. This aspect will be seen in relation to the idea of fiction because the imaginary narration is closely linked with the progression of time. Also, this analysis could be particularly relevant in the context of photographical studies because it focuses on an aspect that has quite psychological and aesthetical depth but it is not present in the field of artistic academic research, namely the connection between fiction and photography. It can also be seen trans- and interdisciplinary.
26 Beauty in the visual arts as a phenomenon of perception (in Russian) (10.47451/cul2022-02-01) , Liudmila A. Voloshina
The article is devoted to the beauty topic as the central theme of art. The author considers beauty as a problem of individual perception. The idea of beauty is incorporated into our consciousness. It gives a person the opportunity to comprehend the world as a beauty manifestation, moreover, create this beauty himself. Using the example of painting, the author shows the importance of active perception of artistic work. It is an individual co-creation of the recipient with the author, in which the entire sensory, emotional, intellectual potential of the perceiver is involved. This process is presented as an activity that positively affects the mental and spiritual state of a person. The author concludes that art has an infinite potential for influencing a person since it is connected with our sensitivity since is intended to delight this sensitivity. The knowledge of beauty is contained in us both consciously and unconsciously. The whole history of human culture, since ancient times, tells us about what beauty is. It all depends on the creative individuality of both the artist and recipient, on what everyone specifically wants to get from art. Статья посвящена теме красоты, как центральной теме искусства. Красота рассматривается автором как проблема индивидуального восприятия. Идея красоты включена в наше сознание. Это и даёт человеку возможность постигать мир как проявление красоты, более того, самому творить эту красоту. На примере искусства живописи, автор показывает важность активного восприятия художественного произведения. Это индивидуальное сотворчество реципиента с автором, в котором задействован весь чувственный, эмоциональный, интеллектуальный потенциал воспринимающего. Данный процесс представлен как деятельность, положительно влияющая на душевное и духовное состояние человека. Автор делает вывод, что искусство имеет бесконечный потенциал воздействия на человека, так как оно связано с нашей чувствительностью, так как оно и предназначено для того, чтобы эту чувствительность услаждать. Знание о красоте содержится в нас как сознательное и бессознательное. Вся история человеческой культуры, начиная с древних времён, повествует нам о том, что такое красота. Всё зависит от творческой индивидуальности, как художника, так и реципиента, от того, что каждый конкретно хочет получить от искусства.
27 William Blake. Artist, poet, visionary imaginarian (10.47451/her2022-02-01) , Anda-Elena Cretiu
So many times, in humanity’s history, a genius was mistaken for a madman, or, at least, a too eccentric person for the accepted standards of society. Posterity, though, brought the value of a genius to light since usually genii are also visionaries. So was William Blake. Some think of him as a poet; some say he was, in fact, an artist with a hobby for writing, and some understood the power of his creative force in both fields and beyond those. In his “Prefatory Memoir” to an edition of Blake’s poems, W.M. Rosetti (1890, XI) called him “a glorious luminary.” The purpose of the present study is to analyze how his verse interlaces with his fine artworks, as well as ways in which, through his artworks, he related to already existent cultural masterpieces, offering us a new approach to them. The study also aims to follow the light he cast to reach future generations and reveal how he enlightened future creators. His cultural legacy in poetry, music, art, philosophy, and religion is overwhelming, as is his huge personality.
28 Protection of cultural heritage. Yazlovets Palace (10.47451/her2022-02-02) , Oksana Myronivna Diachok, Mykhaylo Petrovych Kuziv, Svitlana Oleksiivna Volska, Nataliia Mykhaylivna Datsiuk
The article examines the history of formation and architectural planning of the palace complex in the village of Yazlovets, Ternopil region. The monument of architecture and urban planning of national importance has partially lost its suitability for operation, needs urgent restoration and renovation, which is confirmed by field inspections. During its long history, the palace has undergone many reconstructions, prosperity, destruction and restoration, was at the centre of historical and political events in the region. Built as a defence complex, its buildings performed ideological, cultural, social, sacred functions. Today, the complex still has significant historical and cultural value, contains valuable artistic artifacts and attracts pilgrims and tourists from around the world. The palace gives ideological colour to the small town, is its bright dominant. The castle in the village of Yazlovets became part of the Ternopil Castles National Reserve. In the course of the research a historical reference about the object of cultural heritage was made, a recommendation on the use of the palace complex was given. The purpose of the article is to introduce into scientific circulation updated data on the valuable monument of urban planning and architecture of Ternopil region – Palace of the 17th and 18th centuries in the village of Yazlovets.
29 A recollection: early aircraft construction, the prerogative of wood craftsmen (10.47451/her2022-02-03) , Horia Salca
In this article, the author tried to consider the place and role of wood processors in the early period of the aeronautical industry, approximately 1910-1940, when most aircraft were built of wood. The professions in this field and the woodworking tools or machines used at that time are brought back to attention. Starting from the accounts of a first-rate craftsman who worked during the WWII at the Romanian Aeronautical Industry Plants in Braşov, Romania (going through the hierarchy from carpenter to foreman) and from the way the Bristol and Colonial Airplane Company in Filton, United Kingdom works (as reflected in the aerospace museum from Filton), but also from a technical regulation imposed by the United States War Department on factories that produced and repaired military aircraft, the author tries to reconstruct the form of organization and work during the pioneering period of aviation and during the first factories in the field. It can be considered that this article is a tribute to these woodworkers, but also a reconsideration of how the aeronautical industry developed and a remember of its beginnings for those of today. The author also tries to give pertinent answers, in his opinion, related to the causes of wood replacement as the main material for the construction of aircraft. Later days steel and aluminium, then fiberglass, modern composites, and, nowadays, the nanomaterials have taken its place, but it can never be forgotten or ignored. This year is the half-centenary of the death of Henri Coanda, a Romanian scientist, one of the pioneers of jet aviation, since 1910. This article is intended to be the first in a series of homage articles, designed to bring the work and personality to this genius.
30 Comprehensive conservation and restoration of two frames for the temple icons of the Sampson Cathedral in St Petersburg (10.47451/her2022-02-04) , Natalia M. Fomicheva
The article is devoted to the restoration of two carved gilded frames to the temple icons of the 1760s in the Rococo style, during the work on which the techniques of conservation, restoration, reconstruction and recreation associated with the severe physical condition of the objects of church decorative and applied art received in the restoration were comprehensively applied. The study purpose was to return the expositional appearance of church objects of decorative applied art as monuments of the cultural heritage of our country. Thanks to the well-coordinated and consistent conservation and restoration processes carried out on the monuments, professional craftsmen managed to turn the shapeless, heavily polluted fragments of two frames to the temple icons back into frames. After a comprehensive restoration of two frames, it was possible to return them to their former expositional and aesthetic appearance, prolong their life and preserve these monuments of church art for contemporaries and descendants, and then place them in the temple in their former historical places, i.e., to fulfil the main task of professional restorers to preserve the cultural heritage of Russia.