1 Modeling with Multilayer Perceptron for Detection of Fuel Adulteration using Python Programming , Vimal Babu U1 *, Ramakrishan M2 , Nagamani M3 , Anjaneya Prasad P4 , Tagore Finny P5 , Kumar Goud E6 , Sai srujana T7 and Saidi Reddy M8
Abstract Adulteration of fuel is introduction of an unknown substance into motor spirit unlawfully or not permitted resulting the product does not conform to the needs and specifications. Normally cheaper boiling point range hydrocarbons having more or less similar composition are added as additives leading to alter and degrade the quality of the base fuels. This method is adopted by the trading community for their quick illegal profits. This is coming as tail pipe exhaust in automobile lead to environmental pollution as well as human hazard. Ethanol and methanol added illegally to increase octane levels caused fuel pipes to leak exhaust. In order to detect the pollutants there shall be proper way both at laboratory level as well as statute. Artificial Neural Networks technique to analyze the fuel adulteration is a precise technique than any other existing methods. The gasoline, hydrocarbon fractions are detected at the in-situ with the help of Internet of Things and can be controlling through the remote and that data can be collected through the smattering. This data will help in the finding the impurities in the gasoline, diesel pollutants released into the air from tailpipe exhaust. So in this paper we are using some advance computational technique called Multilayer perceptron (MPL) to identify the impurities in the fuels. This will reduce the global warming and toxic diseases. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) is one of the most efficient techniques for Detection of fuel adulterants; MLP is class of feed forward in the artificial neural network. It consists of Three layers i.e., input layer, hidden layer and output layer. For the recognition and 3D objects estimation from a 2D single perspective view Multilayer perceptron is used.
2 An attempt to Characterize Street Pharmaceutical Teachers Abusing Drugs and Aspect of Allergy Among Adult Men Attending Long Distance Institutions in Pune, India , Rahul Hajare
Abstract In the India like all nations, drug abuse is seen as a social and health problem that has many serious implications for the physical, social, psychological and intellectual development of the victims more especially, the teaching Staffs. Therefore, it continues to be a concern to families, community leaders, educators, social workers, health care professionals, academics, government and its development partners. Though there some studies on drug abuse, there is none on teaching staffs and drug abuse focusing on the street teaching staffs the most vulnerable category. Street teaching staffs care hypothesized to be more at risk of any epidemic including drug abuse. This study sought to determine the risk and prevalence of drug abuse among street teaching staffs focusing on those in the car parks. The research was focused on six critical areas: knowledge of drug abuse, perception towards it, knowledge of the causes, knowledge of negative impacts of it, knowledge of the preventive methods; and knowledge of the support services needed by abusers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from thirty five participants (i.e. one driver and six casual apprentices from each of the five car parks) were interviewed. The data was presented and analyzed using tables and percentage. The findings revealed among others, that there is high level of awareness of drug abuse but the feeling towards it is mixed. Like other teaching staffs, street teaching staffs are abusing drugs mainly due to peer influence with the ultimate objective of getting high to relief stress, group recognition, trusted by peers, etc. Similarly, participants are highly aware of the negative impacts encompassing fighting, stealing, mental illness, etc. To finance the behavior, victims are engaged in all types of dangerous antisocial behavior including romantic ones exposing them to a range of diseases including, obesity, diabetes, ageing, epigenetic, window STIs and window HIV/AIDS. Ghutaka is the most commonly abused drug. Though in the minority, some have started experimenting cocaine/coke. While participants have good knowledge of the critical methods to fight drug abuse, the support services needed by victims, victims are mostly reluctant to seek the services not only because they are hard to find but fear societal stigmatization, exclusion and discrimination and professionals’ maltreatments.
3 Determination of Shale Volume, Shale Types and Effective Porosity Based On Cross Plotting , Ghassem Al-Askari MK* and Roozmeh Ali
Abstract The evaluation of shaley formations has long been a difficult task. Presence of shale and shale types in some of the Iranian formations are one of the most important factors. Shale types have to be considered, because existence of shale reduces, porosity and permeability of the reservoir to some degree. Shale Distributed in formations in three basic types, Dispersed, Laminar and structural. Each of these shale types has different effect on porosity, permeability and saturation. Dispersed shale reduces porosity and permeability to a great degree, but, laminar shale and structural shale have little effect on petrophysical parameters. In this investigation, shale types, Shale volume and effective porosity of Kangan Formation have been determined from well log data and compared with crossplotting. In other words, a triangle Density-Neutron cross-plot is used to determine above parameters. The area of study lies in central oil fields of Iran, where one of the well is used (Tabnak Well C). Tabnak Well C selected to study Kangan Formation from Iranian oil field, in Pars onshore. This study illustrates that distribution of shale types in Kangan Formation is mainly dispersed shale with few of laminar shale, and percentage of effective porosity (φe) decreases with increasing depths for Kangan Formation.
4 Chemistry via Art , Abraham Tamir
Chemistry is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. The latter is defined as “a process in which one or more substances are changed into others.” Chemistry is generally divided into inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry where another division is physical chemistry and analytical chemistry. The history of chemistry began more than 4,000 years ago with the Egyptians who pioneered the art of synthetic “wet” chemistry. By 1000 BC, the ancient civilisations were using technologies that would form the basis of the various branches of chemistry. Extracting metal from their ores, making pottery and glazes, fermenting beer and wine, making pigments for cosmetics and painting, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume, making cheese, dying cloth, tanning leather, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze [1]. In the Middle Ages that began around 500 AD and lasted until 1400 AD there was a “science” called alchemy - the forerunner of modern chemistry. The main objectives of alchemy were to find the appropriate combination of ingredients that would cure all illness and diseases, to find the chemical that would prolong life, and to convert lead into gold. Nowadays the above goals have not been neglected – possibly just realistically modified.
5 Effectiveness of In-Situ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in a Post-Polymer Flooded Reservoir , Jian-Jun Le1 *, Qing Luo1 , Guo-ling Ren2 , Yun-xiang Li3 , Rui-Wang1 , Yang Liu1 , Min-Hu2 , Ji-Yuan Zhang1 , LuLu Bai1 , Zhao-Wei Hou1 , Xiao-Lin Wu1
Abstract This study investigated the effectiveness of In-situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) in a post-polymer flooded oil reservoir located in SaNan oilfield, Northeast China. Two rounds of injection of nutrient medium were intermittently injected into the producing block and then monitored. The main results showed that the dominant bacteria of 4 production wells, Thauera of Beta-proteobacteria, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter of Gamma-proteobacteria were directional activation, which showed a consistent enhancement. The abundance of Methanosaeta and Methanolinea increased, and showed a regular alternation with an increase of oil production. It contributed to production of bio-gas, leading to increasing of the injection pressure from 11.3 MPa to 13.9 MPa before the experiment which increased by more than 2.0 MPa. The contents of CO2 and CH4 varied alternately, and the variation was consistent with the order of injection of each activator. H2 was detected in the reservoir associated with the gas in the observation area. A large amount of enriched bio-gas was dissolved into and mixed with crude oil, which brought increasing of the proportion of light components in the whole hydrocarbon of the recovered oil. The other effect was activated microbial metabolites productions formed bio-plugs, which benefits for improving of the absorption profile and the production profile. A total of 6,243 t of incremental oil production was achieved, and an oil recovery rate increased by 3.93% (OOIP) to the end of 2015. Our trial suggested that IMEOR can be implemented for effective enhancement of further oil recovery from polymer flooded oil reservoirs.
6 Sequential Production of Methylester, Bioethanol and Briquette from SCG , Muluken Eshetu
Abstract In this study, methyl-ester, bioethanol and briquette samples were sequentially produced from spent coffee ground. The oil extracted from spent coffee ground with solvent extraction route at hexane to spent coffee ground ratio of 22.5g/g with an extraction time of 30.4min resulting in 11.892% of oil yield. This was comparable with literature values and subsequently used for methyl-ester production experiments using a 1% by wt of NaOH at reaction temperatures and residence times ranging from 50 to 65 °C and 20 to 60min, respectively. The optimization carried out using central composite design methodology gave 81.507% of methyl-ester yield at a reaction temperature of 57.133°C and reaction time (residence time) of 45.117 min with model determination coefficient (R2 ) of 0.9465 while the optimum reducing sugar yield for dilute acid hydrolysis experiments for ranges of operating parameters of temperature (70-100°C) and (1-3M )of H2 SO4 concentrations was found to be 39.161% at a temperature of 98.313°C and H2 SO4 acid concentration of 2.962M.The central composite design optimization results for trans-esterification and dilute acid hydrolysis experiments were verified by running experiments at optimum conditions and in turn resulted 79.65% of Methyl Esteryield(out of 11.892g of oil) and reducing sugars yield of 37.28%(out of the hydrolysate). This implied that the verification experimental results weren’t far from the predicted values so that the experimental results were sufficiently represented by the central composite design models. The bio ethanol produced by simple distillation having alcohol by volume yield of 55% can be considered as a good result and it can be easily concentrated to a fuel grade ethanol by using fractionating column. Moreover, the characteristics of the Methyl Ester produced were in good agreement with ASTM and EN standards. The end product of the process which is briquette has been produced from 75% wt of dilute acid hydrolysis residue and 25% wt of glycerol, resulted a calorific value of 13.35MJ/kg, volatile matter value of 88.15%, ash content of 3.95%, and fixed carbon contents of 1.74% with its easily moldable physical status showed that it can as well be used for fueling purpose like firewood and charcoal. This study signifies the value addition that can be affected from spent coffee ground and the potential and results obtained in this regard are discussed.
7 Global Warming – Truth and Myths , Ljiljana Radovanović1 and James G. Speight2 *
Abstract Climate change is inevitable. Contributing to this change are (1) natural effects, which include the Earth in an interglacial period and (2) various other effects such as anthropogenic effects, which include the release of non-indigenous gases into the atmospheres. However, the exact contribution of each effect to global climate change is not known with any degree of certainty and the blame can only be partially laid on the existence of the interglacial period and somewhat less on other effects. It is not the purpose of this paper to debunk the idea of climate change but to recognize other factors that can play a role in the changing climate.
8 Comparative Study between Gas-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Flow through Small Diameter Pipe , Dipankar Pal
Abstract In present study, the flow patterns of air – water and toluene – water have been investigated experimentally in vertical and horizontal milli channel. The flow regimes were investigated by a high speed video recorder in pipe with diameters of 2 mm. The comprehensive visualization of air - water, two - phase flow in a vertical and horizontal milli channel has been performed to realize the physics of such a two - phase flow. Different flow patterns of toluene – water flow were observed simultaneously in the milli channel at different values of toluene and water flow rates. Consequently, the flow pattern map was proposed for flow in the milli - channel, in terms of superficial velocities of liquid and gas phases.
9 Adaptability of Power Law Exponential Decline Model for Hydraulically Fractured Unconventional Reservoirs during and After Linear Flow , Haijun Fan1 *and Xueqian Zhu
Abstract Reserve estimation of unconventional formations is a new challenge to reservoir engineers due to the geological uncertainty and complex flow patterns evolving in the multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs). Some predicting models have been presented and widely used in MFHWs exhibiting a long-term linear flow, such as stretched-exponential production-decline (SEPD), power law exponential decline (PLE) and Duong’s model. Plenty of successful field applications of these models seem to have demonstrated their availability and correctness especially in the transient linear flow period. Due to the limitation of reservoir boundaries or size of stimulated volume, any fractured tight reservoir will eventually exhibit a boundary-dominated-flow (BDF). The models above which show “goodness of fit” in linear flow may not be used or will cause great error when used to predict production in BDF period. This paper compared the newly developed PLE model with the traditional Arps’ hyperbolic decline model in terms of production historic match, decline rate and decline exponent during and after linear flow. The analysis result demonstrated that PLE model actually cannot match production decline characteristics as previously thought when only linear flow appears and it is a model which should be used in the transition period rather than linear flow period as applied in the past few years. The wrong usage of the model will cause great error to reserve estimation. The modified steps to predict production in different flow pattern are given in this work. The outcome of this work should help the industry to forecast production and ultimate reserve more accurately in tight oil and shale gas reservoirs.
10 Challenge of Water Saturation in Low Resistivity Cretaceous Reservoirs , Bita Arbab
Abstract This study presents causes and reasons for lowering resistivity logs in carbonate deposit. Moreover this abstract elucidate methods for relieving of challenge water saturation estimation in cretaceous carbonate deposits with Low Resistivity Pay, in Persian Gulf. Reservoirs in the Cretaceous like Zubair, Buwaib, Shuaiba and Khatiyah formations of Southern fields have been analyzed as low resistivity carbonate. Resistivity responses reach less than 6 and even less than 1 ohm.m. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are “hidden” these Pay zone, (LRPZ). Experimental analysis shows that reservoirs contain clay-coated grains of Lithocodyum algal and is along with Micrtization, Pyritization of digenetic process are reasons for effect on resistivity response. On the other side Smectite and Kaolinite of main clays types have high CEC and greater impact on lowering resistivity. Lønøy method applied to address pore throat sizes which contain Inter crystalline porosity, Chalky Limestone, Mudstone micro porosity. NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance and Pulse Neutron-Neutron logs have been used to modify the calculated water saturation of the wells. The study shows that reduced specific resistivity is due to texture change and presence of microscopic porosity. For defining reliable water saturation, Core NMR and Log NMR results have been used. NMR results explain that decreasing of resistivity in pay zone is related to texture and grain size variation not being existence of moved water. Irreducible water for the reservoirs is estimated between 30 to 50 %. Low resistivity zone related to microspores with less than 3 micron. Variable T2 cut off is allows to choice suitable T2 cut off values to differentiate movable from bound fluids adapted for the specific carbonate rock. T2 cut off varies between 45 to 110ms. The proper T2 cut off for these formations are extremely crucial to being able to estimate permeability and water saturation.
11 Feasibility Investigation of A Novel Natural Surfactant Extracted from Eucalyptus Leaves for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Carbonates: Experimental Study , Ali Akbar Isari1 *, Mohammad Eslahati2 , Siyamak Moradi1 and Abolfazl Eslahati3
Abstract After primary and secondary oil production from carbonate reservoirs, approximately 60% oil-in-place remains in the pore space of reservoir rocks. Chemical flooding is one of the promising ways to produce the remained oil. Nowadays, surfactant flooding is a low-cost and a common method generally used to improve oil recovery due to the oil-water Interfacial Tension (IFT) reduction and alteration of the rock wettability to water-wet state, leading to decrease the capillary number. In this study, a novel leaf-derived non-ionic natural surfactant, named Eucalyptus is introduced and the capability of this natural surfactant for IFT reduction and wettability alteration is analyzed. Accordingly, the natural surfactant was derived from Eucalyptus leaves and the effect of natural surfactant solution on the Oil-water IFT and carbonate rock wettability alteration was investigated. The results demonstrated that the addressed natural surfactant significantly reduced IFT value from 35.2 mN/m to 10.5 mN/m (at CMC of 3.5 wt. %) and the contact angle value from 140.6° to 60.2°. As a result, Compared to conventional chemical surfactants, the Eucalyptus natural surfactant had an excellent surface chemical activity and confirmed its performance by laboratory experiments which could be used for EOR applications
12 Exploring and Enhancing the Recent Trends and Applications in the Energy Sector of Uganda: a Legal Perspective , Major Nasser Drago
Abstract This paper reviews the energy sector of Uganda, which is characterized by excessive use of Biomass to provide for over 90% of the energy needs, Uganda being one of the least developed countries in the East African Region. Hydropower provides over 90% of the electricity generated in Uganda while solar, geothermal and other energy sources are underdeveloped. The legal regime and the energy policies are geared towards the use of modern, and clean energy efficient technologies. Various institutions are important in ensuring sustainability in the energy sector of Uganda. This is in form of stimulating Public Private Partnership, attracting multilateral and bilateral agencies to provide funding, grants, and technical assistance in renewable energy projects. The Clean Development Mechanisms of the United Nations avail project developers the opportunity to obtain carbon finance. Several opportunities in Uganda’s energy sector have been highlighted. Equally, several challenges hindering the development of the energy sector and utilization of renewable energy resources have been identified. Finally, conclusion and recommendations for proper management of Uganda’s energy sector have been suggested.
13 Number of Moles Fractal Dimensions for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs of the Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia , Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen Alkhidir
Abstract The quality and assessment of a reservoir can be documented in details by the application of number of moles. This research aims to calculate fractal dimension from the relationship among number of moles, maximum number of moles and wetting phase saturation and to confirm it by the fractal dimension derived from the relationship among capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation. In this research, porosity was measured on real collected sandstone samples and permeability was calculated theoretically from capillary pressure profile measured by mercury intrusion contaminating the pores of sandstone samples in consideration. Two equations for calculating the fractal dimensions have been employed. The first one describes the functional relationship between wetting phase saturation, number of moles, maximum number of moles and fractal dimension. The second equation implies to the wetting phase saturation as a function of capillary pressure and the fractal dimension. Two procedures for obtaining the fractal dimension have been utilized. The first procedure was done by plotting the logarithm of the ratio between number of mole and maximum number of moles versus logarithm wetting phase saturation. The slope of the first procedure = 3- Df (fractal dimension). The second procedure for obtaining the fractal dimension was concluded by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure versus the logarithm of wetting phase saturation. The slope of the second procedure = Df -3. On the basis of the obtained results of the fabricated stratigraphic column and the attained values of the fractal dimension, the sandstones of the Shajara reservoirs of the Shajara Formation were divided here into three units. The gained units from bottom to top are: Lower Shajara number of moles Fractal Dimension Unit, Middle Shajara number of moles Fractal dimension Unit, and Upper Shajara number of moles Fractal Dimension Unit. The results show similarity between number of moles fractal dimension and capillary pressure fractal dimension. It was also noted that samples with wide range of pore radius were characterized by high values of fractal dimensions due to an increase in their connectivities which permit accommodation of high number of moles. In our case, and as conclusions the higher the fractal dimension, the higher the heterogeneity, the higher the permeability, the better the reservoir characteristics.
14 New Approach for Unconventional Reservoirs Rock Typing Characterization: Egyptian Unconventional Gas Reservoirs , Mohamed Ahmed Fathy Omran1 * and Attia Attia2
Abstract The main objective of this research is to enhance unconventional reservoir characterization by developing and/or establishing new correlations through using a real case study of unconventional shale gas reservoir called Upper Safa formation that located in the western desert of Egypt. In addition to describing its geochemical and petro physical reservoir rock and fluid properties more consistently through a full integration among unconventional rock parameters as permeability, porosity, tortuosity, surface roughness, adsorption, type of kerosene, level of maturity, total organic carbon content, and etc. The results showed that Upper Safa formation is a shale gas unconventional resource play that consists mainly of Kaolinite clay and other mixed clay types. Geochemical pyrolysis analysis is used to confirm the presents of Kerogen type III as a shale gas potential reservoir. Interpretation analysis has been used also to confirm the presence of hydrocarbon potential in shale reservoirs depend on the readings that indicating most of shale play. Hence, after applying the surface roughness factor to Total gas in place equation through multiplying the (1-0.4) factor to volume of adsorbed gas in place to get new more accurate value for total gas in place TGIP’ equals 9.12 BCF. Moreover, brittleness ratio average value equals to 50% brittleness. However, TOC results which are obtained within the ranges of very good petroleum potential according to Rock Eval pyrolysis from 2% to 4% TOC. Hence, the results obtained from using of Dykstra Parson permeability variation, Upper Safa formation is highly heterogeneous formation which is very close to 100% heterogeneous formation, as any unconventional shale reservoirs due to the huge variation in the permeability ranges from milli-Darcy ranges to nano-Darcy ranges. Thus, several conventional and unconventional rock typing methods have been applied to overcome this zonation problem, besides establishing a new approach for unconventional reservoirs rock typing.
15 Seismo Electric Transfer Function Fractal Dimension for Characterizing Shajara Reservoirs Of The Permo-Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia , Khalid Elyas Mohamed Elameen AlKhidir
Abstract The quality of a reservoir can be described in details by the application of seismo electric transfer function fractal dimension. The objective of this research is to calculate fractal dimension from the relationship among seismo electric transfer fuction, maximum seismo electric transfer function and wetting phase saturation and to confirm it by the fractal dimension derived from the relationship among capillary pressure and wetting phase saturation. In this research, porosity was measured on real collected sandstone samples and permeability was calculated theoretically from capillary pressure profile measured by mercury intrusion techniques. Two equations for calculating the fractal dimensions have been employed. The first one describes the functional relationship between wetting phase saturation, seismo electric transfer function, maximum seismo electric transfer function and fractal dimension. The second equation implies to the wetting phase saturation as a function of capillary pressure and the fractal dimension. Two procedures for obtaining the fractal dimension have been developed. The first procedure was done by plotting the logarithm of the ratio between seismo electric transfer function and maximum seismo electric transfer function versus logarithm wetting phase saturation. The slope of the first procedure = 3- Df (fractal dimension). The second procedure for obtaining the fractal dimension was completed by plotting the logarithm of capillary pressure versus the logarithm of wetting phase saturation. The slope of the second procedure = Df -3. On the basis of the obtained results of the constructed stratigraphic column and the acquired values of the fractal dimension, the sandstones of the Shajara reservoirs of the Shajara Formation were divided here into three units. The gained units from bottom to top are: Lower Shajara Seismo Electric Transfer Function Fractal Dimension Unit, Middle Shajara Seismo Electric Tranfser Function Fractal dimension Unit, and Upper Shajara Seismo Electric Transfer Function Fractal Dimension Unit. The results show similarity between seismo electric transfer tunction fractal dimension and capillary pressure fractal dimension. It was also noted that samples with wide range of pore radius were characterized by high values of fractal dimension due to an increase in their connectivity and seismo electric transfer function. In our case , and as conclusions the higher the fractal dimension, the higher the permeability, the better the shajara reservoir characteristics.
16 Energy Valuation of Animal Excrement in the Production of Biogas: Study of the Biomethanation of Rabbit Dungs in Laboratory in Senegal , DJEUKOUA Benjamin1 *, El hadji Mamadou SONKO2 , NGUEPJOP Joël Romaric3 and NGANLO KEGUEP Estelle Manuela4
Abstract Domestic biogas is increasingly seen as an alternative solution to the access to energy in rural areas in Africa. However, incubation will necessarily pass through the use of accessible substrates and high methanogenic power. The aim of this study is to produce biogas based on rabbit dungs in semi-controlled environments. The methodology used is essentially based on the determination of the methanogenic potential of rabbit dungs, dungs co-digested with sludge and market waste and the methane yield. The assessment of the production of the different mixtures in the laboratory shows that it is the combination of dungs and market waste which gives the best methane yield with 85.8%, followed by combinations of dungs and sludge, dungs and sewage sludge which respectively produce 66.5% and 66.2% of methane. Finally, the dungs alone recorded a 50% yield of methane. The biofertilizers obtained from the anaerobic digestion of dungs can be valued as a fertilizer in agriculture and as a nutrient in fish farming. Thereby, the valorization of rabbit dungs in the production of biogas can open interesting perspectives in energy production and in the fight against climate change (greenhouse gas).
17 Scaling-Up Bio-Diesel Blending With High-Speed Diesel by Exploring New Feedstock to Substitute the Growing Demand of Fossil Fuel to Ensure a Greener Planet , Shantanu Gupta
2002 - “Mission on Biodiesel” launched by Planning Commission • 2005 - MoP&NG announced Biodiesel Purchase Policy • 2009 - National Policy on Bio-fuels by MNRE also covered Biodiesel • National Biodiesel Mission approach • Non-edible feedstock (mainly Jatropha) to avoid conflict of Fuel Vs Food Security OMCs to purchase Bio-diesel (B100) on a uniform declared price for blending (@ 5% with HSD) at identified 20 purchase centres. • However, no Biodiesel could be procured till 2014. • Aug 2015 - Direct procurement of Bio-diesel allowed for bulk consumer. Retailing of HSD blended with Biodiesel (B5) started
18 Corrosion Behaviour of Biofuel , Ahmad Tabish, MS
Biofuel are general name for liquid or gas fuel which is not petroleum-based fossils fuels. Also, biofuel is called nonconventional or alternative fuels. Biofuel can be classified to three categories which are first generation, second generation and third generation and this classification depends on the feedstock and the used conversion’s techniques. First generation is produced from simple materials such as simple sugars, starch, fats and vegetable oils. Some examples for first generation biofuel are: “methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol (bioalcohols), methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether or MTBE and ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether or ETBE (bioethers), methane, carbondioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfde and oxygen (biogas), carbonmonoxide and hydrogen (syngas) and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin(wood for solid biofuels)” [1] . While, second generation was produced from biomass such as lignocellulose, biohydrogen and wood diesel. Third generation is biofuel from algae. This report will focus on two types of biofuel which are bioethanol and biodiesel which can be used in automobiles.
19 Iran’s Strategy for Natural Gas , Hedayat Omidvar
Abstract Natural gas as one the most significant fossil fuels is playing a crucial role in national energy mix in different countries. Nevertheless, its applications have not been limited to energy providing, and has been used widely as the feed stock in production of different varieties of petrochemicals. So that most of new petrochemical complexes around the country are designed and constructed based on natural gas feed. Natural gas was produced as one of the byproducts of crude oil and mostly was burned. Gradually along with increasing volumes of extracted natural gas, planning on gathering and using associated gas resulted in more usage of natural gas in different sectors including petrochemical feed and fuel. Following the developments, National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC) was established in 1965 as one of the subsidiaries of the petroleum ministry with initial capital of 25 million Rials. Since its establishment, NIGC has gradually achieved capabilities and managed to have access to various sources and facilities such as experts and efficient human force equipped with scientific and theoretical vision and knowledge, tools, equipment, machinery and various advanced workshops for implementing its operations proportionate with the economic and social development trend of the country, so that it can independently accomplish all the related tasks complying with the valid international acceptable standards. Today, NIGC as one of the 4 mail subsidiaries of petroleum ministry is supplying more than 70 percent of total energy in the country as well as the feed stock for tens of petrochemical and industrial complexed around the country. The company also is operating one of the biggest high pressure gas transmission and distribution networks of the world facilitating export, import, transit and swap of natural gas in the country. In the point of natural gas treatment and supply, the company has the first position in the Middle East and one of major gas companies around the world.