1 INFLUENCE OF FEEDING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, DIGESTIBILITY AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF FATTENING EGYPTIAN BUFFALO STEERS , M. Abd-Allah1*, E.H.S. Hassan1 and M.W.H. Daghash2   1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut71524, Egypt. 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt *E-mail: mohtaram_a_m_e@yahoo.com, muhtaram@azhar.edu.eg
A total of sixteen Egyptian male buffalo steers aged 28 months weighted 330.08±10.63kg were used in this trial to elucidate the impact of using three types of oligosaccharides (Mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos®), Esterified glucomannan (EGM-100®) and Galacto oligosaccharides (GOS®) on growth, feed conversion, digestibility coefficients, economic efficiency and some blood parameters. At the beginning of the experiment, animals were randomly allotted into four equal groups (4animals each) according to average body weight. Treated animals in the control group (CO) were fed on the control diet without oligosaccharides, while those in MOS, EGM and GOS groups were fed on diets containing 0.1 % of each type of oligosaccharides (1 g/kg diet) for 120 days feeding period. Four digestibility trials were carried out to determine nutrients digestibility and nutritive values of experimental diets. Results revealed that digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CF and NFE tended to increase significantly by feeding buffalo steers on MOS and EGM diets compared with those of control group. Likewise, there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in CP and EE digestibility among groups treated with MOS and EGM than control group. The present results showed a significant (P≤0.01) increase of nutritive values as TDN and ME for MOS and EGM diets compared with control. Feeding male buffalo on treated diets increased (P≤0.05) the nutritive value as DCP compared with untreated ones. Live body weight was significantly (P≤0.05) increased as well as ADG and TG were improved (P≤0.01) in treated trials. There was no significant increase in daily dry matter (DMI), total digestible nutrient intake (TDNI), digestible crude protein intake (DCPI) and metabolizable energy (ME) due to oligosaccharide supplementation. Feeding male buffaloes on MOS and EGM decreased (P≤0.01) feed conversion of DM and TDN compared with control group. Total feed coast (LE/kg gain) was decreased due to feeding MOS and EGM supplemented diets. Feeding MOS and EGM increased (P≤0.05) total protein and globulin levels of blood serum which might indicate improvement of immune status of treated animals. Means of alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) enzymes did not differ significantly among treatments. Blood serum total lipids were reduced (P≥0.05), while total cholesterol concentration was (P≤0.05) lower in blood serum of treated groups than control and the lowest values were recorded for GOS group. It was concluded that prebiotics supplementation (such as oligosaccharides) in the diet of fatting male Egyptian buffaloes resulted in significant improvement in productive performance and digestibility coefficients without any harmful effect on animals health. Keywords: Egyptian buffalo, fattening performance, oligosaccharides, blood metabolites, nutrient digestibility
2 PHYSICAL TRAITS OF VAGINAL MUCUS DISCHARGE AND THEIR RELATIONS , A. I. Damarany   Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
The current research aimed to study the conception rate of Egyptian native cows as influenced by vaginal mucus discharge (VMD). Forty cows were used in the experiment and were followed up after two-week post-partum. Vaginal mucus discharges were divided into three categories according to transparency (transparent, cloudy and dirty), viscosity (thin and thick) or pH (7-7.5, 7.5-8 and ?8). The results indicated that the percentage of cows that conceived which have transparent vaginal mucus discharge (VMD) during estrus were significantly (P <0.05) higher (73.3%) compared with cows which have cloudy and dirty vaginal mucus (40 and 20%), respectively. The percentage of cows that conceived which have thin vaginal mucus during estrus was significantly (P <0.05) higher (87.5%) compared to those cows which have thick vaginal mucus (25%). The conception rate was significantly (P <0.05) higher (78.6%) in cows which have vaginal mucus pH level at estrus ?8 compared with those cows which had vaginal mucus pH value ranging from 7 to 8. No significant difference in plasma progesterone concentrations during estrus in cows which have different vaginal mucus pH in pregnant and non-pregnant baladi cows. However, concentrations of estradiol-17βduring estrus in pregnant cows were significantly (P <0.05) higher than non-pregnant cows. Concentration of estradiol-17β at estrus was significantly (P <0.05) higher in cows which have strong estrus intensity expression compared with cows having weak estrus intensity expression. In conclusion, the results clarified that the cows, which had vaginal mucus discharge (VMD): transparent, thin, and pH value at estrus ?8 recorded higher conception rate. Estradiol-17β concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher during estrus period in cows, which displayed high estrus intensity.   Keywords: Physical traits, vaginal mucus discharge, Egyptian Baladi cows  
3 GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC TREND OF MILK PRODUCTION TRAITS AND AGE AT FIRST CALVING APPLYING RANDOM REGRESSION MODEL IN FRIESIAN CATTLE IN EGYPT , M.H. Mohamed1, M.H. Khalil2, M.M. Iraqi2 and S.M. Zahed1   1-Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Benha University, Egypt, Corresponding author: maher.khalil@fagr.bu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The aim of this study was to detect genetic and phenotypic trends for test-day (TD) milk, fat and protein yields and age at first calving (AFC) in Frisian cattle in Egypt applying the random regression model (RRM). Data of 5237 TD milk yield traits were recorded for 953 Friesian cows, daughters of 208 sires and 944 dams from two herds in the Animal Production Institute (APRI), Egypt. Ten-month classes of lactation days were considered for the TD yields. The model included the random effects of direct additive genetic, permanent environment and error, while the fixed effects were herd-year-season of calving and parity, which was modeled by Orthogonal Legendre Polynomials. The additive genetic variance at first TD for milk, fat, protein yields and AFCwere4.7 kg, 13.3 g, 5.3 g and 2.8 monthrespectivelyand increased until the fourth, decreased until the lowest value at the tenth TD for milk but fat and protein yields the lowest value at the ninth TD.The lowest value of AFC was at the sixth TD then increased until the tenth TD. Heritability estimates at first TD were 0.12, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.05 for TDMY, TDFY, TDPY and AFC, respectively, and increased until the third for TDFY, TDPY and AFC but TDMY trait reached the highest value at the fourth TD, then decreased at the tenth TD.But reached the lowest value at sixth TD, and increased until the tenth TD. The phenotypic trendfor TDMY decreased by 26 to 18 kg from the first to the fifth TD, then it increased until the tenth TD. The phenotypic trend was started by 44 g and 18 g for fat and protein, respectively until the fourth TD then decreased until the ninth TD. The genetic trends were slightly positive for all traits, indicating that the selection program performs correctly.   Keywords:Test day milk yield, random regression model, genetic and phenotypic trends
4 EFFECT OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING AND FIRST LACTATION MILK YIELD ON PRODUCTIVE LIFE TRAITS OF SYRIAN SHAMI COWS , O. Almasri 1, S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2   1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY The objective of this research was to study the effect of age at first calving (AFC) and first lactation milk yield (FMY) on productive life traits of Syrian Shami cows. In this study, the complete records from birth to voluntary culling were collected on 605 cows during the period from 1981 to 2010 at Deir al-Hajar station in Syria. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model (XLSTATE, 2019). The least squares means for AFC and FMY were 30.9±0.16 months and 1203±34 kg, respectively. The optimum AFC was ≤ 25 months to achieve the maximum lifetime milk yield, productive life and number of calvings. Increasing AFC (especially over 31.8 months) decreased lifetime milk production, lifetime daily milk yield, productive life and the number of lactations. First lactation milk yield reflected the production capacity in subsequent lactations. The first calvers of more than 1900 kg produced high milk yield during their life and had shorten dry periods. While cows that produced less than 600 kg milk in the first lactation had the lowest life time milk production.   Keywords: Age at first calving, First lactation milk yield, Productive life traits, Syrian Shami cows
5 BAICALEIN IMPROVES IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT RATE AND QUALITY OF PREIMPLANTATION BOVINE EMBRYOS WHEN SUPPLEMENTED TO MATURATION MEDIUM , M. Fakruzzaman1, S. Yasmine2 and N. Ghanem3,*   1- Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Out Campus, Khanpura, Babuganj, Barishal-8210, Bangladesh, 2- Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh ,3- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, *Correspnding author E-mail: (nassergo@agr.cu.edu.eg)
SUMMARY Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is one of the flavonoid, that is traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine. It has an antioxidant properties and acts as free radical scavengers. However, the effect of baicalein on bovine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development is unknown. For this, good quality bovine oocytes recovered from abattoir ovaries were cultured in IVM medium supplemented with various concentrations of baicalein (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μM) followed by in vitro fertilization and embryo development. The cleavage and blastocyst development rates were recorded at days three and eight after fertilization, respectively. In addition, total cell number and total dead cells (apoptotic) were counted using TUNEL-Hoechst assay. The results indicate that the proportion of blastocysts derived from oocytes treated with baicalein of 1 μM (38.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than those of control group (28.7%). In addition, the percentage of Day-eight blastocysts was not significantly different namong the 0.1 μM (31.5%), 1 μM (38.3%) and 10 μM (32.5%) embryo groups. The percentage of hatched blastocyst on day eight were significantly higher in the group supplemented with 1 μM (40.5%) baicalein than those in the control and 0.1 μM (33.3% and 32.4, respectively). Total cell number per blastocyst was increased (P < 0.05) in embryos treated with baicalein at the rate of 1 μM (150.3±5.0) compared with the control group (0 μM) and 10 μM (122.9±8.9 and 128.1±6.2, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between 1 μM (150.3±5.0) and 0.1 μM (139.4±5.7). Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was lower (P < 0.05) in blastocysts derived from oocytes treated with baicalein of 1 μM (3.6±0.6) than in control (6.4±1.2) and 10 μM embryos (7.1±1.7). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that baicalein is a potent antioxidant that improves the maturation environment on the way to promote the developmental competence of bovine oocytes in vitro and increases hatching rate and the total blastocyst cell numbers by suppressing incidence of apoptosis when supplemented at the concentration of 1 μM.   Keywords: Baicalein, bovine embryos, in vitro maturation, development, apoptosis
6 IMPACT OF ANTIOXIDANTS SUPPLEMENTATION ON METABOLIC STATUS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ABERDEEN ANGUS COWS DURING SEASONAL THERMAL STRESS IN ARID SUBTROPICAL REGIONS , A.Y. Kassab1, H. Hamdon1, W. Senosy2, H. Da??as?3 and A. Soliman1   1- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley University, Al kharga city, New Valley, 51714, Egypt, 2- Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley University, Al kharga city, New Valley, 51714, Egypt, 3- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 71526 *Corresponding author: Hatem Hamdon: e-mail: hamdon@nv.aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study was performed to investigate the effect of antioxidants supplementation, i.e., vitamin E, selenium (Se) and zinc sulfate administration on metabolic status, biochemical and reproductive performance of Aberdeen Angus cows under hot conditions. Sixteen cows were used and divided randomly into four equal groups (four cows each) and each group was treated for 21 successive days. The first group served as a control. The second group was injected vitamin E and Se at rate of 15ml / head / twice a week (E Sel group) The third group was supplemented with 200 mg/head/ daily zinc sulphate (Zinc group). Whereas, the fourth one was supplemented with 200 mg/head/ daily zinc sulphate in combination with vitamin E and Sel at rate of 15ml / head / 15day. Metabolic and antioxidant parameters were measured on a weekly basis for 21 days from the start of treatment until the end of synchronized ultrasonographic estrous cycle. Ultrasonographic examination of follicular number and size was carried out during estrous cycle every three days. Results showed that number of all types of ovarian follicles was high in all treated groups compared to control group. Moreover, number of services per conception recorded higher (P<0.05) values in control group (1.8) compared to treated groups (1.3). Furthermore, glucose concentration (mg/dl) was high (P<0.05) in zinc group (66.67 ± 5.31) compared to sel zinc group (58.64 ± 4.87) and control group (55.31 ± 5.09) during week 2 post-treatment. Moreover, non-esterified fatty acids (μmol/l) concentration illustrated lower (P<0.05) value in all treatment groups than control group at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 post-treatment. Glutathione peroxidase concentration (GSH, U/g Hb) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, mmol/l) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in all treatment groups than that of control group. From the present result it can be concluded that vitamin E, selenium and zinc could improve reproductive performance, metabolic profiles and antioxidant capacity under subtropical heat stress in Aberdeen Angus cows.   Keywords: Antioxidants, supplementation, metabolic status, reproductive performance, thermal stress Aberdeen Angus
7 INFLUENCE OF TEMPREATURE -HUMIDITY INDEX LEVEL ON OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND CONCEPTION RATE IN EGYPTAIN BALADI COWS UNDER CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ASWAN GOVERNORATE , A. I. Damarany   Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The present investigation aimed to study the effects of temperature-humidity index (THI) level, on the ovarian activity and conception rate of Egyptian Baladi cows. A total number of 40 Baladi cows was used in this study. The cows were divided into three groups according to time of calving. The first group (15 cows) calved during (December, January and February) where THI (68.1- 70.5) was considered as (non-heat stress), the second group calved during (November, March and April) THI (74.5- 76.9) (mild-heat stress=10 cows) and the third group calved during (May to October) THI (80.1- 83.9) (moderate-heat stress= 15 cows). The results demonstrated that the percentage of cows that resumed ovarian activity post-partum were significantly (P<0.05) higher 73.3% in the first group compared to 50 and 33.3% in the second and third groups, respectively. Incidence, of quiet ovulation was higher (20%) in the second and third groups compared to first group (18.2%). The percentage of anestrous cases was significantly (P <0.05) higher (50, 66.7%) in the second and third group compared with the first group (36.4%). Conception rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher (77.8%) in the first group compared to third group (50%). The intensity of estrus symptoms was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the first group compared to the second and third groups. In conclusion, the present results illustrated the detrimental effect of increased temperature-humidity index level (THI) on ovarian activity and conception rate of Egyptian Baladi cows. This study recommends the stockholders of cows in Aswan governorate to arrange the cows calvings during the cold months or use some procedures such as sprinkling by water and fan in order to reduce the hurtful effects of higher THI level on fertility in Egyptian Baladi cows.   Keywords: Temperature-humidity index, ovarian activity, conception rate, Egyptian Baladi cows
8 EXPECTED IMPACT OF SELECTION FOR MILK YIELD ON REPRODCCTION PERFORMANCE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COWS UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS , Amina A. Habib, G.F. Gouda, A.R. Shemeis and Manal El-Sayed   Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 68 Hadayek Shoubra,11241 Cairo, Egypt
S?MMARY Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of productive (305-day yields of milk, MY305; fat, FY305 and protein, PY305) and reproductive performance traits (days open, DO; calving interval, CI and number of inseminations per conception, NSC) were calculated on 3398 lactation records of 1054 Holstein Friesian cows, daughters of 94 bulls and 691 dams using multi-trait animal model with repeated records. Expected impact of direct selection for MY305, FY305 and PY305 on reproductive performance was calculated. Heritability estimates for productive traits varied from 0.08 to 0.26 and from 0.04 to 0.19 for reproductive traits. The productive traits were highly inter-correlated genetically (0.995 to 0.998) than the reproductive traits (0.241 to 0.786). Cows which producing abundant MY305, FY305 and PY305 tended to show less reproductive efficiency in terms of longer DO (rG = 0.942 to 0.947), longer CI (rG =0.587 to 0.673) and more NSC (rG =0.769 to 0.829). Direct selection, after one round of selection, for MY305, FY305 and PY305 is expected to result in cows with more advantageous productive performance in terms of higher MY305 (+180.22 to 323.27 kg), FY305 (+13.79 to 24.95 kg) and PY305 (+12.41 to 22.48 kg). This enhancement in productive performance is expected to be associated with deterioration in reproductive performance in terms of longer days open (+16.27 to 29.48 days), longer calving interval (+15.26 to 25.22 days) and higher number of inseminations per conception (+.08 to 0.16 services). It could be concluded that the undesirable relationship between productive and reproductive performance traits in Holstein Frisian cows must be taken into consideration when planning breeding programs in dairy cattle (e.g. improving productive traits by genetic selection and reproductive traits by enhancement management or by using restricted selection indices).   Keywords: Holstein-Frisian cows, productive and reproductive performance, genetic parameters, direct selection, correlated response
9 THE INFLUENCE OF BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SALINE WATER CONSUMPTION ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF GROWING LAMBS , A.M.A. Hussein1, M.N. Abd El-Ati1 and M.M. Abdelsattar2   1-Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit 71515, Egypt, 2- Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
SUMMARY This study aimed to evaluate the impact of betaine supplementation on the deleterious effects of saline water consumption on carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs. Twenty lambs were assigned to four treatments; control (S0B0), saline water (1.5% NaCl) without betaine group (S1B0), fresh water with betaine group (2500 mg betaine /kg concentrate diet) (S0B1) and saline water with betaine group(S1B1) in 2×2 factorial arrangement. Lambs were reared under the experimental condition for five months. At the end of experiment, three lambs were randomly chosen from each treatment and slaughtered after 12 h fasting. After slaughter, the hot carcass weights and organs weights were recorded. Then, the carcass measurements, commercial carcass cuts weight and percentage were determined. Meat samples of the semimembranosus muscle, longissimus dorsi muscle, and supraspinatus muscle were obtained and prepared for meat quality measures. Saline water significantly (P<0.01) decreased hot carcass weight, empty body weight, internal organs and carcass parts. In addition, saline water significantly (P<0.01) decreased the loin percentage. However, betaine significantly (P<0.01) increased the hot carcass weight, empty body weight (P<0.05), internal organs (P<0.05). In addition, betaine significantly increased almost of carcass commercial cuts. In general, consuming saline water negatively affect lambs’ carcass characteristics and meat quality. While, betaine supplementation improved lambs’ carcass characteristics and meat quality. Consequently, when lambs consume saline water with betaine ameliorates the deleterious effects of saline water consumption on carcass characteristics and meat quality.   Keywords: meat quality, betaine, lambs, water salinity, carcass
10 INFLUENCE OF USING OLIVE CAKE MEAL WITH OR WITHOUT SODIUM BICARBONATE ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS , I.A. Azazi1, Haiam S. Abd EL-Haliem2*, S. Gadelrab1, H.M. EL-Komy1, A.S. Ahmed1 and M.M.M. Ouda1   1- Animal Production Research Institute ,Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, PO Box 41522. *Corresponding author: Tel: 00201020517974; E-mail:haiam65@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present experiment was carried out to investigate the possibility of incorporating 10 and 20 % of olive cake meal (OCM) with or without 0.25% and 0.50% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the rabbit diets and their effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood constituents, nutrient utilization and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 105 unsexed, New Zealand White (NZW) weaned rabbits of 4 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 7 equal experimental groups (15 rabbits each). Rabbits were housed individually in wire mesh cages. The first treatment served as control without additives. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments contained 10 % OCM supplemented with zero, 0.25 and 0.50 % NaHCO3, respectively. The 5th, 6th and 7th treatments contained 20 % OCM supplemented with zero, 0.25 and 0.50 % NaHCO3, respectively. Results revealed that rabbits fed diet supplemented with 10 % OCM with 0.25 NaHCO3 recorded the highest value of final body weight, total gain, daily weight gain and performance index (%). In addition, diets with 10 and 20% OCM with 0.25 or 0.50 NaHCO3 numerically increased digestibility coefficient of CP and significantly increased (P≤0.01) digestibility coefficient of CF as compared with other groups. Whereas, 20% OCM without NaHCO3 attained the worst nutrient digestibility for all parameters studied. Also, rabbits fed 10 % OCM with or without NaHCO3 were more efficient in feeding utilization than the others. Furthermore, Rabbits fed 10 % OCM plus 0.25 or 0.50% NaHCO3 diets had the highest significance (P≤0.01) in carcass % compared with others. Rabbits fed diet supplemented with 10% OCM without NaHCO3 had the lowest values of all traits. Furthermore, the differences for serum cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin concentrations were highly significant (P≤0.01) whereas, the differences were significant (P≤0.05) for ALT, and non significant for total lipids, total protein, globulin, A/G and AST. Data on serum cholesterol concentrations were greater in for the groups that were fed 10 or 20 % OCM without NaHCO3 (P≤0.01) compared with others. There were an improvement in economical efficiency (EEf) and relative economical efficiency (REEf) for rabbits fed diets 10% OCM, without or with NaHCO3, as compared with other groups. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that inclusion of olive cake meal (OCM) in growing rabbit's diet at a level 10% with or without sodium bicarbonate may be useful and have significant impact on growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood components and economical efficiency.   Keywords: Olive cake meal, sodium bicarbonate, growth performance, digestibility coefficients, blood constituents, economical efficiency.
11 INFLUENCE OF YEAST AND LACTOBACILLUS PRODUCTS AS FEED SUPPLEMENTS ON BLOOD PARAMETERS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , H. A. El-Nagar1*, A. M. El-Hais2 and M. S. Mandouh2   1- Department of biotechnology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY The present study is a trial to improve blood parameters and the reproductive performance of lactating Egyptian Buffaloes following the administration of probiotics during late gestation and early postpartum period. Fifteen lactating buffaloes at one-month pre-partum were divided randomly into three groups (5 each) until five months postpartum. The control group fed basal diet without supplements (G1), the 2nd group (G2) was given the basal diet plus 20 g/h/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture (YC), the 3rd group (G3) was given the basal diet plus 20 g/h/ d of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LB). Blood samples were collected monthly during the postpartum period (PP) from calving to the 5th month for estimation of enzymes activities, hematological and blood parametersas well as reproductive measurements, while colostrum samples were taken from dams on days 1, 2 and 3 postpartum to measure the concentration of immunoglobulin. Results showed that the values of all hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05) improved in G3 followed by G2 then control. Also, Data indicated that the values of all biochemical blood parameters for buffaloes supplemented with LB in G3 were significantly (p<0.01) higher than G2, while G1 was lower significantly (p<0.05) than other treated groups. Enzymes activities and reproductive measurements percentage increased insignificantly in G3 and G2 compared with G1. There were highly significant immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum of dams in G3 followed by G2 than control. It could be concluded that Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to rations of lactating buffaloes had beneficial effects on health status, immunity response, blood parameters and the reproductive performance under the local farm feeding conditions in Egypt.   Keywords: Yeast, lactobacillus, lactating buffaloes, blood parameters, reproduction, immunity respons
12 ANTI-MÜLLERIAN HORMONE (AMH) AS ENDOCRINE MARKER FOR EMBRYO PRODUCTION IN SUPEROVULATED FRIESIAN COWS , F.E. El-Keraby, A.M. Shehab El-Din* and A.F. Ashour Animal Production Research Institute – Agricultural Research Center – Egypt, *Corresponding Author’s email: ahmedshehabeldin85@gmail.com; Cellular phone: +201002729958; ORCID: 0000-0002-3050-0060
SUMMARY The present study aimed to evaluate follicular dynamics, yield, quality and stage of embryos in superovulated Friesian cows with high and low anti-Müllerian (AMH) levels. A total of 10 Friesian cows synchronized with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to bring them in heat before start superovulation protocol. On day 10 post oestrus, cows were injected with 2500 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin hormone (PMSG), then after 48h cow were injected with 3 ml PGF2α and with 5 ml gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce ovulation on day 14. Cows were artificially inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h after GnRH. Embryos were collected after 7 days from artificial insemination (AI). To measure AMH concentration, 1 blood sample was collected at the beginning of second follicular wave according to ultrasonography. Results showed that numbers of antral follicles and total follicles were significantly greater in high AMH level than in low AMH level donors. Differences in CL numbers of cows in high AMH level was significantly greater than in low AMH level on flushing day. AMH concentration had a significant positive correlation with antral follicles number pretreatment, total CL number on flushing day, and ovulation rate. The average number and recovery rate of recovered embryos from donor cows with high AMH level were significantly greater than those recovered from cows in low AMH level. Parameters of yield, quality, and stage of embryos had highly significant and positive correlation with AMH level. In conclusion, circulating AMH concentration, as endocrine marker, is highly associated individually with superovulatory response and embryo production potential in cows. Keywords: Anti-müllerian (AMH), antral follicles, superovulation, embryo, cow
13 CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF SYRIAN SHAMI AND HOLSTEIN COWS UNDER SYRIAN CONDITIONS , O. Almasri1 , S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2 1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, Giza, Egypt. Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performances of Shami and Holstein cows under the Syrian conditions. In this study, 2654 and 4289 records were collected on 569 Shami and 1669 Holstein cows, respectively during the period from 1978 to 2015 of two experimental stations, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Syria. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (XLSTATE. 2020). Age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), total milk yield (TMY), daily milk yield (DMY), and lactation period (LP) were significantly affected (p<0.01) by the breed. The least-square means for AFC, CI, TMY, DMY, and LP were 31±0.14 months, 442±2.83 days, 1587±34.89 kg, 9.1±0.09 kg and 165±2.0 days in Shami breed, respectively, compared to 28.1±0.10 months, 432±3.34 days, 5494±41.21 kg, 16.7±0.11 kg and 332±2.36 days in Holstein breed, respectively, under Syrian conditions. The present study revealed that Shami cows performed less estimates in all studied traits compared to the Holstein cows under the Syrian conditions. Successful management and genetic improvement for Shami cows could enhance their productive and reproductive performances. Keywords: Productive, Reproductive, Syrian Shami, Holstein
14 COMPARISON OF THREE NONLINEAR MODELS TO DESCRIBE THE GROWTH CURVE OF HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BULLS RAISED UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS , R.A.M. Somida Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514 Fayoum, Egypt, correspondence Email: ram04@fayoum.edu.eg
SUMMARY The current study aimed to estimate the growth curve parameters through three non-linear models (Logistic, Gompertz and Richards) to determine which model best fits the data. Live weight records of 102 HolsteinFriesian bulls collected between 2017-2019 from a Holstein-Friesian herd that belongs to the Association of Livestock Development (EL- Lahhamy farm), located thirty kilometers west of Fayoum Governorate. In this work, the parameters of the studied models, asymptotic weight (A), constant of integration (b) and the maturation rate (K) ranged from 626.15 kg to 879.82 kg, 2.708 to 11.08, and 0.0035 to 0.008, respectively. According to the studied parameters of growth functions, Gompertz reached the highest numerical estimated value for (A) and the Logistic function had the lowest value. Parameter (K) estimate by the Gompertz model was similar to that obtained by the Richards model; both values were lower than those attained through the Logistic model (0.008). The inflectionpoint traits, time at Point of inflection (IPT) and weight at point of inflection (IPW) estimates ranged from 300.64 kg to 314.59 kg and 323.92 days to 336.14 days, respectively. The Richards model has the highest estimates of IPW and IPT comparedto the other models, also it had the best adjustment according to model goodness of fitcriteria, by having the lowest values for Akaike information criterion (AIC), Schwarz Bayesian information criter ion (BIC), Mean square error (MSE) and highest coefficient of determination (R2, ,14489.18, 14510.6, 317.37 and 0.9983) followed by the Gompertz, and logistic functions. Keywords: Growth curves, Gompertz, Richards, Logistic, Holstein-Friesian bulls
15 FEED VALUE OF PROCESSED AND ENZYME SUPPLEMENTED CASSAVA PEEL IN GROWING PIGS , Olufemi S. Akinola1*, J. Adeniyi Agunbiade2 ,Amos O. Fanimo1 , Andreas Susenbeth3 and Eva Schlecht4 1- University of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production & Health, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 2- Olabisi Onabanjo University, Department of Animal Production, Nigeria, now at McPherson University, Department of Biological Science, Seriki Sotayo, Nigeria, 3- University of Kiel, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Germany, 4- University of Kassel and University of Göttingen, Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, Germany, *corresponding author: akinolaos@funaab.edu.ng
SUMMARY Ten crossbred male pigs of 39 ± 3.9 kg body weight were used to evaluate the digestibility, energy value and nitrogen (N) retention of processed and of enzyme supplemented cassava root peel (CRP), as alternatives to increasingly expensive conventional feedstuffs. Employing an incomplete block design, pigs were individuallyhoused in metabolic crates for quantitative collection of faeces and urine. During two 7-day trial periods, two pigs were offeredeach of the following experimental diets: Basal diet (BD), BD + unprocessed cassava peel without (UCP) and with (UCP+E) enzyme addition, BD + fermented cassava peel (FCP) and BD + retted cassava peel (RCP). Samples of test ingredients, feeds and excrements were analysed for their chemical composition. Fermentation marginally improved the crude protein content of CRP. Retting and enzyme supplementation of CRP improved dry matter, organic matter and gross energy digestibility of the diets. Total N excreted per unit of N intake was higher in pigs fed the UCP diet, resulting in reduced N retention. Digestible and metabolizable energy values (DE, ME) of diets UCP+E, FCP and RCP were not significantly (P>0.05) improved, and energy values (DE, ME) of the four test ingredients ranged from 10.2 to 11.4 and from 9.4 to 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Results indicated that both retting and enzyme supplementation can improve the use of CRP by growing pigs, whereby retting is cheaper than the use of a multi-enzyme blend in the diet of growing pigs. Keywords: Cassava root peel, fermentation, retting, digestibility, N-retention, energy value, pigs
16 EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM DURING LATE GESTATION PERIOD ON MASTITIS, RETAINED PLACENTA AND POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN EGYPTIAN BALADI COW , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The goal of this investigation is to determine the effect of treatment with vitamin E and selenium on mastitis, retained placenta and post-partum reproductive parameters in Egyptian Baladi cows during the late gestation period. Twenty-four Baladi cows were used and divided into two groups of 12 each. The first group injected with vitamin E and selenium component intramuscular at a rate of 1. 0 ml/30kg (BW) live body weight and the second group used as a control. Injected cows received two doses of (vitamin E and selenium component) in 14 and 7 days prepartum. Cows were mated naturally following estrus symptoms manifestation. Rectal palpation was performed two months post- mating to diagnosis pregnancy. The findings showed a positive association between treated cows during late gestation with vitamin E and selenium and incidence rate of mastitis and retained placenta. Reproductive parameters in treated cows were better compared with untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study recommends that small breeders could offer vitamin E and selenium in hot months during late gestation period under the Aswan governorate environmental conditions to minimize postpartum disorders and improve their cows reproductive efficiency. Keywords: Vitamin E and selenium, mastitis, retained placenta, reproductive parameters, cows
17 GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR SOME REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , A.A.H. Helmy1 and R.A.M. Somida2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514 Fayoum, Egypt, * Correspondence Email: ram04@fayoum.edu.eg
SUMMARY The traits of the study were: age at first calving (AFC), gestation length (GL), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). The records were collated from three buffalo experimental herds (El-Nattaf El-Gadid, El-Nattaf El-Kadim and El-Gimeza) that belonging to Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt. A total of 19,445 records for 1534 buffalo cows calved from 1991 to 2018 were analyzed. A moderate estimate of repeatability was obtained for GL and CI of 0.38 and 0.15, respectively. While the repeatability estimation was slightly lower at 0.13 for DO. That can be explained by the high obtained values of random permanent effect variance of 73, 955, 1119 for GL, DO and CI, respectively. For all studied traits heritability estimates (h 2 ) were very low as it ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01, this could be due to the small estimated additive effect of 2.0, 0.01and 11.0 for GL, DO and CI, respectively. Except for AFC, h2 was slightly higher at 0.13. Estimated genetic (rg) and phenotypic (rp) correlation among all traits were in the same trend being positive and varied from low to high (0.04 to 0.99). The highest correlation value either genetic or phenotypic was between CI and DO. While the lowest rg and rp values were between GL and DO. Keywords: Egyptian Buffalo, reproduction traits, heritability, repeatability, correlation
18 DEVELOPING A DATA COLLECTION APPLICATION FOR FOLLOWING UP THE SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMS’ PERFORMANCE IN RURAL AREAS , K. Fouad1, 2, V. Alary3 , A. Dubron4 , P. Bonnet5 , X.Juanes3 , A. Nigm6 , M.A. Radwan6* , S. Abdelghany6 1- ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas), Cairo, Egypt, 2- NFSA (National Food Safety Authority), Cairo, Egypt, 3- (1) CIRAD, Departement Environments & Societies, TA C DIR/B Campus International de Baillarguet, F-34398 Montpellier, France; (2) CIRAD, MUSE Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France, 4- Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 5-(1) CIRAD,ICARDA, Avenue Hedi Karray, Tunis; (2) SELMET, MUSE Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 6- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, *Corresponding author: m.radwan883@agr.cu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The mobile application is an effective tool for data collection of performance in agriculture, particularly for small and geographically scattered farms. This study aimed to develop an economical and straightforward application to monitor small dairy herds performance with the flexibility to collect data remotely. The developed mobile application was designed using the MIT App Inventor. Where, the application explores icons of different farm management practices that are reported by farmers through touching the screen. Each icon is linked with an informative SMS, which was received by the mobile phone of the collection technician. We randomly selected and followed 18 farmers to test the application for one year. The main results were recognized the false SMS decreased as farmers took enough time for training in the software. Furthermore, most of sent SMS were for milk yield event. Age, level of education and land size had no significant effect on correct SMS sent by farmers, while herd size showed a significant effect. In conclusion, mobile application could be developed for continuous data collection and following up small dairy farms in rural areas. Also, the validity test for the developed mobile application confirmed that farmers were able to use the new technology regardless their age and educational level. Keywords: Mobile application, Android, Small dairy farms, rural areas
19 ADAPTIVE CAPABILITY OF WAHATI SHEEP AND GOATS FLOCKS TO DESERT OASIS CONDITIONS IN THE NEW VALLEY OF EGYPT , A.M. Aboul Naga1 , T. Abdel Khalek1 , M. Hayder 1 , H. Hamdon2 , G. Abozed1 , T. Abdel Sabour1 and M. Shafie1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, 2- New Valley University, Faculty of Agriculture, El Kgarga , New Valley Corresponding author: A.M. Aboul Naga, Animal production Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo Email: adelmaboulnaga@gmail.com
SUMMARY The present work aimed at investigating adaptation of local Wahati sheep (Farafra) and Wahati goats in the breeders’ flocks, to summer heat stress of desert oasis in the New Valley, Egypt. The study involved, 9 flocks from; El Dakhla, EL Kharga and El Farafra oasis. Total number of animals used in the study were 113 mature Wahati ewes and 100 mature Wahati does. Animals were exposed to summer heat stress (SHS) under solar radiation, from 12 pm to 2 pm in July 2018 and 2019. During exposure to heat of 101.8 to 103.8, indicating that animals were under severely heat stressed. Exposing the animals to summer heat stress, significantly increased their physiological body parameters. Rectal temperature (RT) increased by 1.00 C; where skin temperature (ST) increased by 9.5 and 9.00 C, in only two species. These may be attributed to high intensity of solar radiation under desert oasis conditions. The major changes with SHS were in the respiratory rate (RR) as the main mechanism practiced by desert sheep and goats to get rid of the extra heat load through respiration. Accelerating RR, was not sufficient to cope with the severe heat stress load, so animals practiced deep breathing (increase gas volume); which was more recognizable in sheep than in goats. Species variation in response to heat stress can be attributed, to a great extent, to differences in their body size and coat thickness. The smaller the animal size, the lesser changes in their physiological body parameters with heat stress were noted. Keywords: Desert oasis, New valley, adaptation, physiological parameters, Wahati sheep ,Wahati goats
20 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF SOME MEDICAL HERBS OR THEIR EXTRACTS ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN BROILER CHICKENS. 2-EFFECT OF CURCUMIN AND ANISE GROUND SEEDS LEVELS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ONGROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKENS. , Metwally M.A1 , Issa N .M2 and El hadi A.M2 1- Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt 2-Department of Animal Production (Poultry Division), Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar Assiut University, Egypt. * Corresponding author: metwally7658@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin and anise ground seeds levels as well as their interactions on growth performance and some carcass traits of Ross308 broiler chickens. Two hundred and ninety seven birds were randomly assigned in (3×3) factorial design experiment. Three curcumin levels (0 ,50,100 mg/kg in diet) and three anise ground seeds levels (0 ,0.50% and 1% in diet) were used in nine treatments of 33 birds each (three replicates of 11 birds each).The body weight and feed intake were measured weekly and consequently, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment, three birds from each group were sacrificed to evaluate carcass parts. The results showed that chickens fed curcumin at level of 100 mg/kg diet achieved significantly higher body weight at 14 days of age and body weight gain during the period of 7-14 days than control. The addition of anise ground seeds at level of 1% achieved higher feed intake than control. The addition of 50 mg/kg diet of curcumin and 1% anise ground seeds achieved better feed consumption during the period from 14-21 and 21-28 days of age than other interactions. No significant (P>0.05) effects on feed conversion ratio due to curcumin, anise ground seeds and their interactions were obtained. There were significant (P<0.05) effect due to curcumin levels on hart and left femur. Also, There were significant (P<0.05) effect due to anise seeds on shank , tibia left and neck. No significant (P>0.05) effect due to either curcumin or anise ground seeds or their interactions were observed on carcass and dressed percentages. It was recommended that curcumin may be added at level of 100 or 50 mg/kg diet, or 50 mg/kg of curcumin plus 1% anise ground seeds to achieve higher growth performance and carcass criteria of broiler chicken (Ross 308). Keywords : Broilers ,Curcumin, Anise, growth, performance, carcass
21 IMMUNITY RESPONSE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING FRIESIAN COWS TREATED WITH BENTONITE , W.M. Wafa1*, A.M. El-Hais2 , and Y.A.E. Yahia2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt *Corresponding Author's E-mail: drwailfatoh1973@hotmail.com
SUMMARY This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of bentonite on the immune status and reproductive performance of lactating Friesian cows. A total of 30 pregnant Friesian cows (4-6 years of age) were divided into three groups (10 cows in each). In the 1st group; G1, animals were fed the control diet, while those in the 2nd ; G2 and 3rd ; G3 groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 20 or 40 g bentonite/kg concentrate, respectively, from 60 days prepartum up to 120 days postpartum. Blood samples were taken at estrus and 120-d postpartum. Results show that calf weight at calving and placental drop time improved (P<0.05) in G3, while uterine horn symmetry and cervical closer improved in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Plasma immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) increased (P<0.05) in G3 than in G1 and G2. Count of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin, and PCV improved (P<0.05) by both treatments, being the highest (P<0.05) in G3. Interval to first estrus, service period, and days open were the best (P<0.05) in G3. Concentration of P4 was the lowest at estrus, and the highest at 120-d postpartum in G3. Number of services/conception and pregnancy rate were 1.4 and 50% in G1, 1.6 and 80% in G2, and 1.4 and 100% in G3. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of bentonite particularly 40 g/kg of concentrate to dairy cow from 60 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum may enhance their immunity and reproductive performances. Keywords: bentonite, Friesian, hematology, immunoglobulins, reproduction
22 INFLUENCE OF MASTITIS ON RESUMPTION OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE MEASUREMENTS IN BALADI COWS , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egyp
SUMMARY The current research aims to study the influence of mastitis on resumption of ovarian activity and postpartum reproductive measurements in Egyptian Baladi cows. Total of twenty-four postpartum cows, were split into two groups of twelve in each. The first group (12 cows) had mastitis, while the second group (12 cows) was healthy. The cows were monitored after calving directly and had their udders screened for subclinical mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The present results indicated that the incidence rate of subclinical mastitis cases in cows were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (75%) than clinical mastitis cases (25%).The interval from parturition to first ovulation, first service and conception was significantly (P < 0.05) longer (48.3±7.8,96. 5±14.4,and153.2±12.5, days) in mastitic cows than(27.4± 5.6, 72.3± 11.2, and 85.6±15.2, days) in healthy cows. The conception rate following the first service was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (25%) in mastitic than in healthy cows (66.7%). In conclusion, the present results indicate a negative impact of mastitis by delaying the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and reproductive measurements in Baladi cows. The current study recommends that small breeders must pay attention to the health of the udder, especially during the postpartum period, to reduce the incidence of mastitis and its harmful effects on the reproductive characteristics of lactating cows. Keywords: Baladi cows, mastitis, ovarian activity, reproductive performance
23 GENETIC EVALUATION AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR MILK TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CATTLE , Safaa, S.Sanad* and G. M. Gharib** Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Egypt *Corresponding author’s E-mail: dr_Safaasalah@yahoo.com *ORCID: 0000-0003-1461-2940 , **ORCID: 0000-0002-4491-3544
SUMMARY The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic principal components analysis for milk traits of breeding value (BV) in Holstein Friesian (HF). A total number of 2067 records cow from 80 sires and 439 dams; during 10 consecutive years that included the four seasons for each year and six parities from the commercial farms nearly the Nile Delta, Egypt. Studied traits were total milk yield (TMY), lactation period (LP), calving interval (CI), number of services per conception (NSPC) and days open (DO). Data for milk traits (MT) were analyzed using a single trait animal model program used to estimate genetic parameters, in addition to using a method principal components analysis (PCA) program, which aims to increase the accuracy of estimating genetic evaluation. The heritability (h2 a) estimates were 0.20±0.001, 0.22±0.002, 0.02±0.001, 0.04 ± 0.001 and 0.05±0.020 for TMY, LP, CI, NSPC and DO, respectively. The total variance of breeding values was 67.1, in which 46.6% and 20.5% were explained by PC1 and PC2, respectively. Two principal components (1&2) were estimated by BV. Equations for PCA were: PC1= 0.273 TMY + 0.342 LP + 0.371 CI + 0.318 NSPC - 0.004 DO, and PC2= 0.213 TMY - 0.069 LP - 0.146 CI + 0.045 NSPC + 0.949 DO. The results of genetic PCA indicate that milk traits were highly significant, also improve TMY. Improved all traits under study would be expected to use analysis PC1 and PC2 provides to overcome the multicollinearity problem while predicting the future TMY, thus achieving an increased economic return. Keywords: Milk traits, genetic parameters, Principal Component Analysis, Holstein Friesian.
24 ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF SAIDI SHEEP AND GOATS TO HEAT STRESS AND DIURNAL VARIATION UNDER THE HOT DRY CONDITIONS OF UPPER EGYPT , A.M. Aboul Naga* , M. Hayder, T.M. Abdel Khalek, G.F. Abozed, A.K. Saleh, T.H. Abdel Sabour and M.H. El Shafie Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, * Corresponding author E. Mail: adelmaboulnaga@gmail.com,
SUMMARY The present work investigates the adaptive capacity of the indigenous Saidi sheep and Saidi goats (109 and 80 animals, respectively) to the prevailing hot dry conditions of Upper Egypt. The environmental stressors were summer heat stress (SHS); exercise heat stress (EHS), animals walk for 7 km under solar radiation; the third stressor was winter cold stress (WCS) outdoor. Exposing the animals to SHS (THI=103.2), raised significantly (P≤ 0.05) the respiration rate (RR) of Saidi sheep and goats by 206 and230 %, respectively, with the incidence of deep breath. Rectal temperature (RT) and skin temperature (ST) significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) with SHS. Carry on effect, continue up to 8 pm. Exposing Saidi sheep and goats to exercise heat stress (EHS) increased RT and ST by 1.9oC and 4.7oC, for both species. Respiration rate, multiplied by more than 5 folds for both species. Changes in the GV, differ between the two species, it increased by 575% in sheep and only by175% in goats. Local Saidi sheep and goats responded to physical heat stress by vast accelerating their RR; however, Saidi sheep need to go further to deep breath to cope the extra stressors Winter cold stress at 4am (THI=51), reduced RT of Saidi sheep and goats by 0.7and 0.4oC, respectively; from that at its comfortable zone at 2 pm(THI = 62). Skin temperature declined by 3.7 and 3.9oC, with WCS. Changes in respiratory parameters with cold stress were limited, compared to that of the thermal ones. Keywords: Saidi sheep and goats, Upper Egypt, adaptation, heat stress, winter cold stress
25 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS CHICKENS TO HOUSEHOLDS IN BORGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA , M.O. Umunna1 *, A.O. Ibrahim1 , D.O. Oyeleye1 , M.O. Sodiya3 , E.O. Adedeji1 , O.J. Olalekan2 , O.L. Omotayo1 and S.S. Olakayode1 1- Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State. 2- Forest Based Rural Resources Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ikija-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3- Federal College of Forestry, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: mathiasumunna@gmail.com +8432844323432
 The study assessed the contribution of indigenous chickens to households in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview schedule from 80 randomly selected indigenous poultry farmers while descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the average number of local fowls reared was 22.3. Contributions of indigenous poultry farming to households include slaughtering during festivals ( x =2.60), household consumption as meat and egg ( x = 2.32), money to buy more birds ( x =2.23) and provision of income for buying food items ( x =2.10) which were ranked first, second, third and fourth respectively. Constraints to indigenous poultry farming include disease outbreak ( x =2.24), harsh weather ( x =2.20), theft and stealing ( x =2.20) and high cost of feed ( x =2.16). Farm income (r = 0.339, P = 0.011), household size (r = -0.241, p = 0.046) and constraints (χ 2= 58.659, p = 0.000) were significantly related to the specific contribution of indigenous poultry in households. Indigenous rural poultry farming contributes to the households’ livelihoods hence there should be increased sensitization on the benefits of raising indigenous poultry as well as giving people training on proper husbandry practices. Keywords: Indigenous Poultry, Livelihoods, Problems, Specific contribution
26 GENETIC TREND FOR MILK PRODUCTION AND LONGEVITY TRAITS OF EGYPTIAN BUFFALO , Dalia K.A. EL-Hedainy1*, Kholood A.K. Elbanhawy1 , A.M.S. Amin2 , M.M.I. Salem1 , M.H. Hammoud1 , and A.S.A. El-Barbary1 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 22545, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dooki, Giza, 12619, Egypt, * Corresponding author, Tel.:002 03 5900846; fax: 002 03 5922780., e-mail address: dheddany@yahoo.com , ORCID NO.:0000-0002-0549-106x
SUMMARY Data used in this study comprised 1792 records for 1126 buffalo female born from 1980 to 2013, daughters of 101 sires and 896 dams from four buffalo herds (El-Nattafe el gadid, El-Nattafe el kadim, Mahalet mousa and El-gmeza) that belong to the Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt. The objective was estimate the heritability and genetic trend of some milk production and longevity traits of Egyptian buffaloes that we know precisely which traits can be improved using genetic improvement. The studied traits were milk production traits (total milk yield, 305- days milk yield and lactation period) and longevity traits (total milk yield during the productive life, productive life and number of lactations). The least squares means of the milk production traits were 1176.53, 1172.61 kg and 202 days of the total milk yield, 305-days milk yield and lactation period, respectively. The least squares means of longevity traits were 6905.04 kg, 952 days and 5.6 lactation of total milk yield during productive life, productive life and number of lactations, respectively. The heritability estimates for the milk production traits were 0.498 of the total milk yield, 0.492 of 305-days milk yield and 0.189 for lactation period. The heritability estimates for longevity traits were 0.497 of total milk yield during productive life, 0.498 of productive life and 0.069 of number of lactations. The estimated breeding values for all traits varied widely. The genetic trends of animal and dam breeding values were significant for all studied. This confirms that the genetic improvement of these traits leads to increased milk production. Keywords: heritability, genetic trend, Egyptian buffalo
27 IMPACT OF BUFFALO DAMS TREATMENT WITH PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, IMMUNE RESPONSES AND BLOOD COMPONENTS OF THEIR NEW BORN CALVES , H. A. El-Nagar1 *, A.M. El-Hais2 and M.S. Farag2 1-Department of biotechnology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY This work aimed to identify the relationship between performance, immune system and blood components of neonatal buffalo calves as affected by their dam treatments (DT) with or without probiotic cultures. 40 Egyptian buffalo cows were used in this study. Dams were classified into 4 treatment groups, G1 as control group without any treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture (20 g/h/d, YC, G2) group, Lactobacillus acidophilus (20 g/h/d, LB, G3) group, or the half dose of each as a combination (G4). The experimental period was 30-d pre- till 105-d postpartum. Results revealed that, the dams treated with YC and LB combination (G4), has the best growth performance during birth and weaning, by increasing calf total gain by 31.7% relative to the control group and the immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) concentrations in calf plasma and colostrum, during the first three days after calving. All hematological parameters (RBCs count, PCV percentage and Hb concentration), as well as plasma metabolites (total proteins, albumin, globulin, total lipids, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations) increased (P<0.05), while WBCs and creatinine decreased (P<0.05) in calves of treatment groups as compared to control one, being the best in G4 calves. Total antioxidant capacity and triiodothyronine concentration increased (P<0.05), while AST and ALT activity decreased (P<0.05) in calves of treatment groups as compared to control one, being the best in G4 calves. There were highly significant and strong correlation coefficients (r) between immunoglobulins in calf plasma and colostrum. In conclusion, dietary addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10 g/h/d) and Lactobacillus acidophiolus (10 g/h/d) combination in the diets of Egyptian buffalos 30-d pre- up to 105-d post-partum improved growth performance, immunity response, blood hematology, metabolites, antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and T3 hormone of the newborn calves. Keywords: Calves, probiotic; immunoglobulines, hematology, metabolites, enzymes, T3, Egyptian buffalos
28 POSSIBILITY OF USING THE BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA AS A DILUENT FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF EGYPTIAN BUFFALO SEMEN , H. A. El-Nagar* Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY The seminal plasma separated from ejaculates of the same or different animal species has been used as an extender for semen preservation to minimize the negative effects of reduced temperatures and cryo-damage on mammalian spermatozoa. The semen of sexually-matured buffalo bulls (n=5) collected at 3-4 day-interval by artificial vagina was used in this study for a duration of 12 weeks. Spermatozoal mass motility was at least 70%. Semen was collected, pooled, diluted with bovine seminal plasma (BSP) (after adding egg-yolk, glycerin and anti-biotics) or Tris-extender at 3 dilution rates (1:10, 1:15 and 1:20), equilibrated at cool temperature (4-5o C) for 2 h, frozen for one month at -196o C (liquid nitrogen), and thawed at 37o C for 15 s. Semen was evaluated for the percentages of progressive motility (PM), live sperm (LS), sperm abnormalities (SA), acrosome damage (AD), and membrane integrity (MI) in diluted, equilibrated and thawed cases, besides the head to head agglutination (HHA) percentage post-thawing. In the sperm medium of thawed semen, AST, ALT, LDH activities and total antioxidant activity (TAA) levels were also determined. Sperm fertilizability was recorded based on the best results for BSP or Tris-extender. Results showed that freezability parameters (PM, LS, SA, AD, MI and HHA percentages), the activity of AST, ALT and LDH, and TAA and conception rate were improved (P<0.05) for thawed buffalo semen diluted with BSP at a rate of 1:20 in comparison with Tris-extender at 1:10. The bovine seminal plasma of excluded ejaculates for poor quality could be considered as a promising successful extender for cryopreserved buffalo semen. Keywords: Buffalo semen, bovine seminal plasma, freezability, antioxidant status, fertilizability.
29 BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF MEAT AND HAEMOLYMPH OF AFRICAN LAND SNAIL (ARCHACHATINAMARGINATA, SWAINSON) IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA , A.S. Kehinde1 , *K.M. Adelakun2 , S.K. Halidu2 , T.O. Babatunde3 and B.O. Fadimu1 1- Department of Wildlife Domestication and Conservation, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hill, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, 2- Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Management, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 268, New Bussa, Nigeria, 3- Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria,, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hill, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Kehinde Moruff Adelakun: e-mail: adelakunkehinde@gmail.com
SUMMARY This study evaluates the meat and haemolymph of Archachatinamarginata from Southwest Nigeria for its chemical contents. Forty-five African land snails(Archachatinamarginata,Swainson) were randomly allotted to three treatments (Adults, growers and snailets) at 5 snails each of three replicates, to evaluate biochemical qualities of meat (proximate, mineral and cholesterol) and haemolymph (mineral and cholesterol). The results obtained revealed highest (p<0.05) dry matter (79.25%), ether extract (1.46%), ash (1.34%) and Nitrogen Free Extract (59.28%) for adult snail meat and least values for snailets. The same trend of variation was recorded for its mineral and cholesterol determinations. The mineral profile of the haemolymphdid not vary with growing stage, however, all cholesterol quantity and quality estimates were highest (p<0.05) in adults and least in snailets (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and LDL-HDL differential). Snail meat and haemolymph in the study area contained important nutrients for human nourishment and other consumptive purposes. Keywords: Snail, proximate, cholesterol, biochemical, mineral
30 GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BIRTH WEIGHT, WEANING WEIGHT AND AVERAGE DAILY GAIN OF HOLSTEIN CALVES IN SYRIAN COAST CONDITIONS , O. Almasri 1 , M. AL-Dakkak1 , S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2 1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY This study was carried out at Dairy Station which belonging to the General Organization for Cattle in Latakia province, Syria, to investigate the effects of genetic and some environmental factors on birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG) using data of 4055 Holstein calves during the years from 1990 to 2015. Analysis of variance showed that year of calving had significant effect (P< 0.05) only on average daily gain, and the effect of season of calving had significant effect on birth weight and average daily gain. Whereas, parity, gender and the interaction between parity and gender influenced significantly (P< 0. 01) all the studied traits. The overall means for BW, WW and ADG were 34.6±0.12 kg, 96.2±0.07 kg and 684±0.002 g/day, respectively. Heritability estimates for these traits were 0.06±0.03, 0.03±0.01 and 0.03±0.02, respectively. It is concluded that the BW, WW and ADG were adequate under Syrian Coast Conditions. Low heritability estimates indicated that the genetic effect was low. Keywords: Birth Weight, Weaning Weight, Average Daily Gain, Heritability, Holstein Calves, Syrian Coas
31 IMPACT OF DOCKING ON GROWTH TRAITS, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF MALE BARKI LAMBS , Mona Mohammady I.*, M.F. Shehata and A.H. Hammam   Desert Research Center , Animal Production and Poultry Division, 1 Mathaf El-Matariya St., B.O.Box 11753, Cairo, Egypt * Corresponding author E-mail : monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of docking on growth performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of Barki lambs. A total number of 13, single-born, male Barki lambs with an average birth weight of 3.0 ± 0.20 kg were used Lambs were randomly assigned into two groups: docked group (n = 6) and undocked group (n = 7), as a control. Male lambs were docked within two days after birth by applying a tight rubber ring using an elastrator. The experimental period lasted for one year. The obtained results revealed that docked lambs were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than undocked lambs at weaning weight (90 days of age ) and had better average daily gain. The docked lambs scored average weaning weight of 16.6 kg meanwhile the undocked lambs scored 14.85 kg and the average daily gain (ADG) was 149g and 139g, respectively. The docked lambs had a higher weights, ADG and total weight gain during the finishing period than undocked lambs. Total weight gains during the finishing period were 22.2 kg and 26.4 kg for the undocked and docked lambs with corresponding estimates for post weaning daily gain of 55.5 gm and 70.6 gm, respectively. Docked lambs were higher than undocked ones in slaughter weight (SW), post slaughter weight (PSW), empty body weight (EBW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and dressing percentage (DP). Results revealed that, Docked lambs exceeded the undocked ones by 15.6%, 16.6%, 15.9% and 17.7% in SW, PSW, EBW and HCW, respectively. No significant differences (p>0.05) between groups in moisture, fat percentages and collagen except for protein (19.71 and 18.89 %) for docking and control lambs, respectively. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in cholesterol level between undocked and docked lambs at the end of fattening. The results indicated that the tail docking of Barki lambs at birth improved weight gain and desirable carcass characteristics compared to those of undocked lambs. Keywords: Barki lambs, tail docking, growth performances, carcass characteristics, blood parameters
32 INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTING SPERM MEDIUM WITH TYPE-13 BRAZILIAN RED PROPOLIS EXTRACT ON CHILLED RAM SEMEN PRESERVATION , I.S. Abd El-Hamid1, M.A. Khalifa1, S.A. Rateb1, A.S. Morsy2, M.T. Badawy1 and H.A. Gawish1   1- Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt, 2- Livestock Research Department, Arid Land Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the dual purpose potential of type-13 Brazilian red propolis extract; i.e. anti-oxidant and anti-microbial capacities, on enhancing short-term chilled preservation of ram semen. A total of 60 ejaculates were collected from five adult Barki rams, 12 ejaculates each, by an artificial vagina twice-weekly during the period from January to February, 2017. After collection and initial evaluation, ejaculates of each collection session were pooled, diluted (1:10) with Tris-citric acid egg yolk extender. In the first experiment, the diluted specimens were split into four aliquots using a split sample technique. The first aliquot served as control (untreated), whereas the other three aliquots were supplemented with 5, 7.5 and 10 μl/mL propolis extract, respectively. All control and supplemented groups were evaluated for sperm physical and morphological traits immediately after dilution (T0), then after 24 (T24) and 48 h (T48) of chilled preservation at 4oC. Oxidative stress indices and enzymatic activities in medium throughout preservation period were also determined. In the second trial, microbial contamination throughout a 48 h period of chilled storage was investigated in specimens supplemented with the same previous levels of propolis extract and were compared against control (antibiotic-free) and specimens supplemented with a mixture of synthetic antibiotics; i.e. Penicillin procaine (500 iu/mL) and Streptomycin (500 μg/mL). The results revealed that, over time of storage, positive correlations (P<0.05) were observed between level of propolis in medium and each of sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome, sperm membrane integrity and total antioxidant capacity (r= 0.52, 0.45, 0.48, 0.55 and 0.77, respectively). Contrarily, negative correlations were recorded between propolis level and enzymatic activities of AST and ALP (r= -0.45 and -0.58, respectively). Simultaneously, the control group developed the highest (P<0.05) colony forming unit (CFU) count compared to all semen specimens. These results explicate efficiency of incorporating type-13 Brazilian red propolis extract in the diluent on maintaining sperm traits during chilled preservation. Additionally, our results spotted the light on the possibility of substituting synthetic antibiotics in semen extenders, with all the constraints of their utilization, with type-13 red propolis extract as a sufficient natural alternative. Keywords: Propolis, Semen diluent, Ram, Antibiotics, CFU, AI
33 OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND ROPRODUCTIVE PORFORMANCE OF MATURE OSSIMI EWOS AS AFFECTED BY PRESNCE OF RAM , G.B. Mahmoud1 and H.A. Hussein2   1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Assiut, 71526, Assiut, Egypt, 2- Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Assiut, 71526, Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted in this study to assess the role of ram effect prior to mating on ovarian follicular dynamics and reproductive performance of Ossimi ewes. In Expt. 1, fourteen Ossimi ewes 3–6 years old were used. The first group (n=7), ewes were exposed with two trained teaser rams (REG), whilst, the second group (n=7) remaining ewes were isolated of rams (CG). The number and size of all follicles ≥2 mm and corpus luteum were monitored by ultrasonography. Expt. 2, including two mating season, 70 Ossimi ewes (3-6 years old) were selected from 115 ewes in each mating season, multiparous, non-lactating and clinically healthy. The first mating season (n=70), ewes were kept in the presence with teaser rams (REG) during the estrus detectionand mating for two consecutive estrous cycles (45 d). The second mating season (n=70), ewes were remaining isolated of rams (CG) except at the time for detection of estrus. Ewes were mated after detection of estrus. While, ewes return to estrus, were mated again. At lambing, birth dates and the lambs born number per each ewe were recorded. All ewes isolated of males for three months before the beginning of the experiments. There were significant (P < 0.01) increases in the small (2-2.9 mm) and medium (3–5 mm) follicles number on ovaries of ewes in REG compared to CG. Moreover, the size of maximum ovulatory follicles and subdominant follicles (next largest follicle) were larger (P <0.001) in ewes of REG compared with those of CG. In addition, the ovulation rate mean was higher (P =0.05) in the REG than that of the CG (Expt. 1). The lambing rate was higher (P <0.01) in the first mating season (REG) compared to the ewes in the second mating season (CG). At the same time, the mean number of fecundity and litter size were higher (P <0.01) in the REG compared to the CG. Moreover, twining lambing rate was higher (P <0.01) in the REG. by contrary, the percentage of single lambing was lower (P <0.01) in the first mating season (REG). The percentage of ewes lambing at first service was higher in the REG than in CG but the difference was insignificant (Expt. 2). In conclusion, these results show that, ram introduction prior to mating season increased the ovarian activity and reproductive performance after period of isolation of Ossimi ewes.   Keywords: Ram effect, ovarian structures, reproductive performance
34 INFLUENCE OF CHAMOMILE FLOWER AND SWEET BASIL BY-PRODUCTS INCLUSION IN SHEEP RATIONS ON IN VITRO RUMEN CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE , A.M. Abd El-Mola   Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 36511, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of replacing berseem hay (BH) and wheat straw (WS) by chamomile flower and sweet basil by-products on growing lambs performance. The first experiment was carried out to determine the in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearances to find out the best level of chamomile flower and sweet basil by-products (10, 20, 30 or 50% of DMI) to identify the best level for a subsequent in vivo digestibility and growth trials. Depending on the results of the first experiment, fifteen growing Ossimi cross breed lambs of 5 month old and 24 ±2.5 kg average live body weight were assigned into 3 similar feeding groups (five lambs each) to be fed one of the three experimental rations. First group was fed control ration consisting of 50% roughage (20% BH +30% WS) plus 50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group (CR50) was fed a ration consisting of 50% chamomile flower by-product plus 50% CFM. The third group (SB50) was fed a ration consisting of 50% sweet basil by-product plus 50% CFM. Rations were formulated to cover maintenance and growth requirements of the lambs according to NRC, (1994). Results of the first experiment indicated that the in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearances (IVDMD and IVOMD) of lambs fed of CR50 and SB50 rations were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with control ration, respectively. Second in vivo experiment showed non-significant differences among the three tested rations (control, CR50 and SB50) at different time 0, 3 and 6 hrs post feeding were noticed for pH value, NH3-N and TVF’s concentrations in the rumen liquor. However significant (P<0.05) increase of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP and CF for lambs fed CR50 ration compared with those fed the control ration. The lambs fed CR50 and SB50 rations had higher (p<0.05) plasma protein and albumin values followed by those fed the control ration which recorded the lowest plasma protein and albumin values. In contrast, the lambs fed control ration had higher (p<0.05) plasma urea nitrogen than those fed CR50 and SB50 rations. The total body weight gain and average weight gain were higher (p<0.05) for lambs fed of CR50 and SB50 by about 20, 15.29% and 19.67, 14.75 %, respectively compared to lambs fed of control ration. The lambs received ration replacement with chamomile flower by-product (CR50) grew faster than those received sweet basil by-product (SB50) and control rations. Lambs of group fed CR50 ration recorded the highest (p<0.05) DM, TDN and DCP intake and as well feed efficiency (p<0.05) compared to SB50 and control rations. In conclusion, herbal plant by-products (CR and CB), can partially replace berseem hay and wheat straw in growing lamps rations with useful performance and metabolic responses.   Keywords: Chamomile by-product, basil by-product, in vitro, nutrients digestibility, growth performance, lambs
35 BIO-ECONOMIC LOSS ASSESSMENT FOR GILTHEAD SEABREAM, IN BARDAWILL LAGOON, EGYPT , M. Salem Faculty of Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries, Arish University
SUMMARY Three fish landing centers were selected; west, middle and east of Bardawill lagoon to assess the losses of the biomass and value of the landings of juvenile Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fish as one of the most important species in the fisheries of the trammel units. The study used landings of ten fishing vessels per month. Eight fishing trips were carried out each month from the end of April to the end of November 2017. The observed total length of 940 Gilthead bream, ranged from 15.2 to 29.8 cm and the weight from 47 to 385 g. The growth parameters; L∞ and K were estimated at 31.63 cm and 0.53 per year respectively. Length at first maturity (Lm50) and length at first capture (Lc50) equals 22.5 and 18 cm, respectively. Maximum biomass deficit was found in August. The study showed that there is a significant loss in the biomass and the corresponding income. The bio-economic model showed that if the juveniles of bream are allowed to grow up to length at first maturity (Lm50), the additional biomass will be about 295.2 tons per year; the corresponding annual economic gain is estimated at LE 25.22 million for each fishing season. In order to protect bream stock and to enable it to share at least for one time in reproduction, the current fishing nets should be developed to reduce the Juvenile exploitation.   Keywords: Gilthead bream, Sparus aurata, Juvenile landings, Bio-economic losses, Trammel units, Bardawill lagoon
36 GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE LIFETIME TRAITS OF LOCALLY BORN FRIESIAN COWS IN EGYPT , M.M.I. Salem and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data on 2186 lactation records of 541 pure Friesian cows presenting 43 sires and 372 dams born at the Dairy Unit of Milk and Meat Project of the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, between 1983-2006 were utilized to evaluate lifetime milk yield (LMY), days in lactation (LDL), daily milk yield (LDMY) and number of lactations (NL) of Friesian cows. Also, the effects of season and year of calving and age at first calving on the previous traits were studied. The least square means of LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL were 18310 kg, 1318 day, 13.6 kg and 4.04 lactations, respectively. Season of calving had no significant effect on all studied traits. Year of calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on all studied traits. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on LDMY, but had no significant effect on LMY, LDL and NL. The heritability estimates from univariate animal models were 0.272, 0.137, 0.117, and 0.116 for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL, respectively. The moderate heritability for LMY emphasized the possibility of realizing a considerable rate of genetic improvement in this trait through selection programme. The genetic corrletions estimated from bivariate animal models were positive ranging from 0.264 to 0.993, except that between LMY and LDMYwas negative (-0.163). All correlations among all traits were significant (P<0.01). The positive genetic correlations between LMY and each of LDL and NL indicate that selection for any traits associated with genetic improvement in other traits. Phenotypic correlations among all traits were positive ranging from 0.099 to 0.966 and significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The breeding values for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL of cows ranged between -759 and 1139 kg, -101 and 105 day, -1.77 and 1.82 kg and between -01.64 and 2.69 lactations, respectively, the corresponding values for dams were between -814 and 1107 kg, -122 and 100 day, -2.38 and 1.53 kg and between -1.74 and 3.24 lactations, respectively. The breeding values for sires were between -560 and 748 kg, -117 and 83 day, -1.79 and 1.26 kg and between -1.44 and 3.12 lactations for the respective traits.The genetic trends estimated by the regression of sires breeding values on time were positive and nonsignificant for LMY, LDL and NL and negative approached zero for LDMY. Generally, the results indicate that improvement of productive lifetime traits of Friesian cows could be obtained through both selection programme and improvement of management conditions. Keywords:Heritability, genetic correlation, breeding values, genetic trend, productive lifetime traits, Friesian cows
37 GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE LIFETIME TRAITS OF LOCALLY BORN FRIESIAN COWS IN EGYPT , M.M.I. Salem and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data on 2186 lactation records of 541 pure Friesian cows presenting 43 sires and 372 dams born at the Dairy Unit of Milk and Meat Project of the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, between 1983-2006 were utilized to evaluate lifetime milk yield (LMY), days in lactation (LDL), daily milk yield (LDMY) and number of lactations (NL) of Friesian cows. Also, the effects of season and year of calving and age at first calving on the previous traits were studied. The least square means of LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL were 18310 kg, 1318 day, 13.6 kg and 4.04 lactations, respectively. Season of calving had no significant effect on all studied traits. Year of calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on all studied traits. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on LDMY, but had no significant effect on LMY, LDL and NL. The heritability estimates from univariate animal models were 0.272, 0.137, 0.117, and 0.116 for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL, respectively. The moderate heritability for LMY emphasized the possibility of realizing a considerable rate of genetic improvement in this trait through selection programme. The genetic corrletions estimated from bivariate animal models were positive ranging from 0.264 to 0.993, except that between LMY and LDMYwas negative (-0.163). All correlations among all traits were significant (P<0.01). The positive genetic correlations between LMY and each of LDL and NL indicate that selection for any traits associated with genetic improvement in other traits. Phenotypic correlations among all traits were positive ranging from 0.099 to 0.966 and significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The breeding values for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL of cows ranged between -759 and 1139 kg, -101 and 105 day, -1.77 and 1.82 kg and between -01.64 and 2.69 lactations, respectively, the corresponding values for dams were between -814 and 1107 kg, -122 and 100 day, -2.38 and 1.53 kg and between -1.74 and 3.24 lactations, respectively. The breeding values for sires were between -560 and 748 kg, -117 and 83 day, -1.79 and 1.26 kg and between -1.44 and 3.12 lactations for the respective traits.The genetic trends estimated by the regression of sires breeding values on time were positive and nonsignificant for LMY, LDL and NL and negative approached zero for LDMY. Generally, the results indicate that improvement of productive lifetime traits of Friesian cows could be obtained through both selection programme and improvement of management conditions. Keywords:Heritability, genetic correlation, breeding values, genetic trend, productive lifetime traits, Friesian cows
38 (CO)VARIANCE STRUCTURES AND GENETIC PARAMETERS OF RETAINED PLACENTA AND STILLBIRTH FOR A FRIESIAN HERD USING MULTI-PARITY THRESHOLD MODELS. , Hanaa Abdelharith Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
SUMMARY (Co)variance components were estimated for retained placenta (RP) and stillbirth (SB) for a Friesian herd to study the (co)variance structures of these traits in the first three lactations. Genetic parameters and predicted breeding values (BV) were also estimated. (Co)variance components and estimated genetic parameters were derived from 3336 calving records of a Friesian herd raised at Sakha experimental farm belonging to Animal Production Research Institute (APRI) in Egypt. Retained placenta and SB traits were treated as different and correlated traits for the first three lactations using threshold multiple trait models. A sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model for SB was applied in order to account for direct and maternal effects of this trait and including the relationships among direct and maternal effects, while a sire model was fitted for RP. Genetic and phenotypic variances of RP had an increasing trend through the first three lactations. Also, covariances among lactations had the same increasing trend. Heritability estimates were 0.23, 0.28 and 0.31 for the first three lactations, respectively. Genetic correlations were 0.56, 0.57 and 0.67 between first and second, first and third and second and third lactations, respectively. Means of BV estimates for RP in the first three lactations were almost zero with negative signs, while rank correlation of BV estimates among lactations were 0.69, 0.68 and 0.56, respectively. Direct genetic variance components of SB had an increasing trend from the first to the third lactations. Rate of increase of variance was higher (27%) between second and third lactations. Maternal genetic variance components were higher than the direct components. Direct genetic variance of heifers was lower than that of cows in the second and third lactations while maternal genetic variance was higher than of cows in the same lactations. All genetic covariances between direct and maternal effects were favourable, positiv e and the directmaternal genetic correlation estimates ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. Direct heritability estimates of SB in the first three lactations were 0.28, 0.25 and 0.23, respectively while maternal heritability estimates were 0.39, 0.34 and 0.35, respectively. Direct genetic correlation estimates were 0.63, 0.42 and 0.71 between first and second, first and third and second and third lactations, respectively while maternal genetic correlation estimates were 0.68, 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. Means of BV estimates of SB in the first three lactations were all negative and ranged from -0.499 to -2.477 for all direct and maternal sires and MGS. Positive and from moderate to high rank correlation estimates were obtained between lactations BVs ranging from 0.24 to 0.97. Moderate heritability estimates of RP and SB suggest that selection against these traits and a chance of genetic improvement in the herd are possible. Multi-parity models utilized accounted for the (co)variance among the different lactations. Also, the genetic correlation estimates between lactations within traits indicated that RP and SB are different traits through the first three lactations. Rank correlations of direct evaluation of sires between lactations were significant and moderate which justify the importance of the multi-parity evaluation. Keywords: Functional traits, retained placenta, stillbirth, multi-parity model, (co)variance structure, genetic parameters, breeding values and Friesian
39 GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FIRST LACTATION TRAITS AND SOME LONGEVITY AND LIFETIME TRAITS IN FRIESIAN CATTLE , Hanaa Abdelharith1 , M. Abd-Elatife 2 , Elham Ghoneim2 and M. Abd Elhamid1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufya University, Minoufya, Egypt
SUMMARY Longevity and lifetime traits are favorable traits that affect overall profitability. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic and phenotypic relationships between first lactation traits and some longevity and lifetime traits in Friesian cattle, estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for the same traits and estimate breeding values. Data utilized included 2940 pedigree and performance records of Friesian cows born between 1980 and 2001 in Sakha and Alkarada Experimental Stations, Ministry of Agriculture and land reclamation (MOALR). The performance records covered the period from 1982 to 2008 for 853 cows, which had the opportunity to complete five productive years starting with the date of first calving. They were daughters of 104 sires and 689 dams. Longevity and lifetime traits studied were total completed lactations (TCL), herd life (HL), productive life (PL), total lifetime 305-day milk yield (TL305MY), total lifetime milk yield (TLMY) and total lactation length in days (TLL). First 305-day milk yield (F305MY), first milk yield (FTMY) and first lactation length (FLL) were included in the analyses as first lactation traits. Relationships between first lactation traits and each of longevity and lifetime traits were investigated. Fixed models have been applied to investigate the effects of non-genetic factors on the studied traits. Least squares means of the traits were 3.5, 99.1, 67.2, 8750.8 kg, 9888.7 kg, 1091.3 and 2358.4 kg for TCL, HL, PL, TL305MY, TLMY, TLL, and F305MY, respectively. Heritability estimates obtained from multiple-trait animal model analyses for the same traits were 0.03, 0.21, 0.20, 0.22, 0.30, 0.18 and 0.13, respectively. Positive genetic correlation estimates were obtained between F305MY and each of all the longevity and lifetime traits (TL305MY, TLMY, TLL, TCL, HL and PL) being 0.46, 0.35, 0.49, 0.29, 0.11 and 0.22, respectively. Estimates of rank correlation between F305MY and each of TCL, HL, PL, TL305MY, TLMY and TLL were positive and highly significant (P<0.0001) being 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, 0.40, 0.49 and 0.39, respectively. Results of this study suggest that selection for high F305MY is expected to increase lifetime milk production, length of herd life and productive life. Also, including PL in a breeding program could be efficient. Keywords: Longevity, lifetime, genetic parameters, breeding values and Friesian
40 APPLYING LINEAR PROGRAMMING APPROACH IN MODELING THE CURRENT CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM IN NEW VALLEY GOVERNORATE OF EGYPT , M.N.M. Abd El-Ati1 , Mona Mohammady I.2 * , H. Hamdon3 and Doaa A. Abd El-Salam2 1- Department of Animal Production, Assiut University, 2- Animal Production and Poultry Division, Desert research Center, 3- Department of Animal Production, New Valley University * Corresponding author, Email: monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY The present study was carried out at the New Valley governorate. Four districts were identified; El-Kharga, El-Dakhla, Baris and Balat, to identify an optimal combination among crop and livestock enterprises that would enable the smallholders meet their goals of accumulating monetary income and providing food security for the family throughout the year. Data were collected from 120 farms randomly selected represent one agricultural year (2015 – 2016). Biological and economic technical coefficients per feddan and per head of animal were estimated. Four farming plan scenarios were proposed; the first scenario (LP1) assuming free choice of cultivated crops and livestock enterprises to simulate the current status, the second scenario (LP2) assuming free choice of cultivated crops, while livestock activity was constrained by at least one head of each livestock species (cattle, sheep and goat), the third scenario (LP3) assuming that the cultivated area was distributed equally among the different crops during winter and summer seasons, and free choice of livestock activity, Finally, the fourth scenario (LP4) assuming that the cultivated area was distributed equally among the different crops, while livestock activity was constrained by at least one head of each livestock speci es (cattle, sheep and goat).Results showed that Balat district exceeded the current gross margin by 221%, while the second scenario exceeded by 121.8% in El-dakhla district, meanwhile, the result of the third scenario revealed that El-kharga district scored the higher by 18%, while no feasible solutions were obtained from LP4 in all studied districts. The current study concluded that smallholders have different goals other than just maximizing their farm GM (gross margin) to satisfy food security throughout the year for the family. Keywords: Mixed farming system, linear programming, modeling, gross margin, New Valley, Egypt
41 INFLUENCE OF SODIUM BICARBONATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY, MILK PRODUCTION, RUMEN FERMENTATION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN SHEEP , M.M. Farghaly1 , E. H. Hassan2 and S. G. Abdo2 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing the diet of ewes or rams with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as buffers at two levels on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and some blood metabolites. Twenty seven healthy mature local ewes were randomly assigned into three similar groups (9 ewes each). Three digestibility trials were also carried out using twelve local rams randomly assigned into three groups (4 rams/ trial). Each trial lasted for three weeks, the first two weeks were considered as a preliminary period followed by one week collection period . Groups of 9 ewes and 4 rams were the control group fed the basal diet without NaHCO3supplement and treated groups were fed either 1.5 (T1) or 3% (T2) sodium bicarbonate mixed with the concentrate mixture. All animals were fed 70% of their requirements as concentrate mixture while, wheat straw was given ad libitum as roughage. Dietary supplementation of NaHCO3 (1.5 or 3%) increased (P<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI) of roughage and total dry matter intake. Sodium bicarbonate supplement increased (P<0.05) milk yield. The milk fat (%) was improved (P<0.05) in ewes supplemented 3% of NaHCO3 compared to other groups. Dietary supplement of sodium bicarbonate either 1.5 or 3% increased (P<0.05) serum pH and cholesterol. The organic matter, crude protein and crude fiber digestibility coefficients were improved (P<0.05) for rams supplemented with 1.5 and 3% sodium bicarbonate compared with the control group. Supplementation of sodium bicarbonate to rams rations increased (P<0.05) ruminal pH, concentrations of total VFAs and total protozoa count as compared with the control diet. However, rumen ammonia nitrogen was not affected. In conclusion, dietary sodium bicarbonate in particular 3% of concentrate mixture improves dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat (%), nutrients digestibility and fermentation patterns in sheep. Keywords: sodium bicarbonate, ewes, sheep, milk yield, milk composition, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood parameters
42 CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF SAIDI LAMBS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT BEDDING MATERIALS. , A.M.A. Hussein Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt 71515
SUMMARY The current study was carried out to study the effect of different bedding materials (sand, rice straw and wood shavings) on carcass characteristics, meat cuts and meat quality of Saidi lambs under upper Egypt condition. Eighteen lambs with 26±0.17 kg average body weight and approximately at 6-months of age, fed ad. libitum with concentrate, were assigned to three groups of bedding in individual pens in replicates of six lambs each, for five months. Body measurements were taken once three days before slaughter using measuring tape and ruler. At the end of the experiment period (152 days), twelve lambs (4 from each treatment), were slaughtered, skinned and carcasses were prepared. Weight of non-carcass components, internal organs, fat stores, carcass parts and retail cuts were recorded. Semimembranosus (SM), longissimus dorsi (LD) and supraspinatus (SP) were dissected, weighted and used for meat chemical analyses and quality trats. Lambs reared on sand bedding had significant (P<0.05) higher final body weight, round circumstances and pelvis width P<0.05. Moreover, lambs bedded with sand have higher (P<0.05) liver weight and tests weight and kidneys fat weight (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. In addition, lambs in sand bedding gro up had significantly P<0.01 higher hot carcass weight, left side weight, right side weight, the fore carcass’s quarters weights and dressing percentage compared with rice straw and wood shavings bedding groups. Also, lambs reared on sand bedding had significantly higher (P<0.05) shoulder, brisket, rack, flank, loin, loin percent and round weight than those bedded with rice straw or wood shavings. It may be concluded that, sand bedding tends to improve meat chemical analysis and meat quality.
43 RAM EFFECT ON ESTRUS BEHAVIOR, OVARIAN STRUCTURE AND STEROID HORMONE LEVELS IN OSSIMI EWES TREATED WITH PROSTAGLANDIN F2α FOR ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION , G.B. Mahmoud1 and H. A. Hussein2 1- Animal Production Department, Agriculture Faculty, 2- Theriogenology Department, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, 1,2- Assiut University, 71526, Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY The objective of this study was to assess presence of ram with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on estrus behavior, patterns of follicular growth and steroid hormone production of Ossimi ewes in subtropics. Ewes (n= 20), were isolated from rams 30 days and thereafter, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was used for synchronization by two injections 10 days apart. Ewes were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10). The first group, PGF2α with ram effect (PGRE), ewes were exposed to two trained teaser rams at the time of the second PGF2α injection until the end of the experiment, whilst the second group (PG), ewes were isolated from rams except at the time for estrus detection. Estrus behavior and time of ovulation were detected after the second prostaglandin injection by noting the responses of the ewes to the male in the pen and by ultrasonography. The number and size of all follicles ≥2 mm and corpus luteum (CL) were monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected for measuring estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) hormones. Onset of estrus, time of ovulation and estrous cycle length were significantly shorter (P<0.05) in PGRE group compared with PG group. The number of preovulatory follicles and the mean size of ovulatory follicles were higher (P<0.05) in PGRE group compared with those in PG group. Moreover, the mean ovulation rate was higher (P<0.05) in PGRE group than that in PG group. In addition, the production of P4 was greater (P<0.05) in PGRE group on days 10 and 14 of the estrous cycle compared to the ewes in PG group. While, concentrations of the P4 were increased numerically in PGRE group during 0, 2, 6 and 8 d of the estrous cycle. E2 production was almost similar in both groups. In conclusion, the presence of rams combined with PGF2α treatment, hastens estrus onset, decreased the time of ovulation, increased the ovulation rate and ovarian activity of Ossimi ewes in subtropical areas. Keywords: Ram effect, estrus behavior, ovarian structure, steroid hormones
44 EXPRESSION OF SELECTED CANDIDATE GENES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF CORPUS LUTEUM DEVELOPMENT IN CYCLIC EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , Marwa S. Faheem1,2 and Sh. M. Dessouki1,2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2- Cairo University Research Park (CURP), Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
SUMMARY The current study was done to investigate the expression profile of selected candidate genes in corpus luteum of cyclic Egyptian buffaloes. A total number of nine corpora lutea (CLs) was collected from 9 cyclic slaughtered female Egyptian buffaloes. Based on their developmental phases and morphological features, CLs were classified into; growing (around days 3-5), static (around days 7-10) and regressed (around days 19-21 of the estrous cycle). Transcript abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial activity (SOD2, TFAM and CPT2), lipid metabolism (SREBP1), pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα) and oxidative stress (NFE2L2) was assessed relative to GAPDH as a housekeeping gene. Relative gene expression profiles of TFAM and SOD2 increased (P ≤ 0.05) in static phase compared to both growing and regressed phases. Transcript abundance of both CPT2 and SREBP1 was significantly higher at static phase, while was at minimum level of expression during regression phase. The expression profile of NFE2L2 revealed insignificant differences among the studied phases of CLs. Relative transcript abundance of TNFα was higher (P ≤ 0.05) at regression phase compared to growing and static ones. Taken together, the pattern of genes regulating mitochondrial activity and lipid metabolism were higher during growing phase and reached a plateau in static phase and fully declined during regression phase. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene denoted an opposite trend. Thus, gene expression profile reflected the cyclic changes of buffalo corpus luteum development. Keywords: Corpus luteum, gene expression, mitochondrial activity, buffalo.
45 EFFECT OF BIOSTIMULATION BY BULL EXPOSURE ON RECOVERY OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD OF EGYPTIAN BALADI CATTLE , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The current research aims to investigate the effects of biostimulation on recovery of ovarian activity and reproductive aspects during postpartum period of Baladi cattle. A total number of thirty-six of Baladi cattle was used in this study during the post-partum period. The cows were divided into two equal groups; the first group was exposed to teaser bull and the second group as a control. The results indicated that the percentage of cows resumed ovarian activity during the post-partum period was 72.2 and 38.8% in cows exposed to bull and without presence of the bull respectively (P <0.05). The interval from calving to the first ovulation during the post-partum period was significantly lower (P <0.05) in cows of the first group than cows of the second group by about seventeen days. The interval from calving to the first estrus post-partum was significantly (P <0.05) longer by fifteen days in cows that not exposed to bull than in cows exposed to bull. The proportion of quiet ovulation was significantly (P <0.05) lower (30.8%) in cows that exposed to bull compared to cows that not exposed to bull (42.9 %). The percentage of anestrous cases was significantly (P<0.05) lower (27.8%) in cows that exposed to bull compared with cows that not exposed to bull (61.2%). First service interval post-partum was significantly (P <0.05) lower (70.7±18.7 d) in treated cows than in cows of the control group (85.8±10.4 d). The interval from calving to conception was significantly (P<0.05) lower (91.7±18.5 d) in cows exposed to bull than cows of the control group (110.5±8.7 d). Number of service per conception was lower (1.8±0.4 service) in treated cows than cows of control (2.5±0.6 services). Conception rate in cows that exposed to bull during the post-partum period was higher (50%) (P <0.05), compared to cows not exposed to bull with recorded less percentage (22.2%). Estrus signs under the experiment were more manifested in cows that exposed to bull compared to the control group. In conclusion, the results of this research elucidated the beneficial effect of presence of bull with cows and resumption of ovarian activity and improving the reproductive aspects of Baladi cattle during the post-partum period. Keywords: Biostimulation, ovarian activity, reproductive aspects, Baladi cattle
46 CRYOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF LOCAL FRIESIAN BULL’S SPERMATOZOA USING TRIS-EXTENDER ENRICHED WITH NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC ANTIOXIDANTS , Y. S. Hussein Biotechnology Research Department, Animal Production Research Institution, Dokki, P. O. Box 443, 23221, Giza, Egypt, E-mail: yshussein@hotmail.com
SUMMARY There are many research articles on using antioxidants, regardless of its source of synthesis, in semen cryopreservation against the hazards of free radicals. Two types of natural antioxidants and synthetic one were added to Tris based extender in the current research. Semen samples were collected biweekly from thirty five local Friesian bulls, pooled, then divided into seven groups (Basic) and three supplementations with two levels of each; Ubiquinone-10 (0.02mM and 0.03mM), L-Carnitine (2mM and 3mM) and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (1.0mM and 1.5mM). All groups were packed and cryopreserved in 0.5 ml French straw under LN2. Sperm assessment parameters were estimated after dilution and after thawing. Recovery rates and enzymatic activities of AST, ALT and LDH were evaluated after thawing. Generally, addition of antioxidants significantly enhanced all sperm assessment parameters and recovery rates with delayed activity of seminal enzymes than control group. However; the best semen characteristics (P<0.05) were found in both UB-10 (0.03mM) and NAC (1.0nM) additions with an advantage to UB-10 (0.03mM) in motility and livability of spermatozoa. Also, treatment of diluted semen with LC enhanced post-thawing recovery rates (P<0.05) of all semen assessment parameters than BE group only. Current results revealed the promising improvements of UB-10 as a natural antioxidant and NAC as a synthetic one that able to enhance mobility, viability and maintains acrosomal integrity of cryopreserved local Friesian bull’s spermatozoa. Keywords: Friesian bulls, semen extender, antioxidants, L-Carnitine, Ubiquinone-10, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine
47 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMINAL PLASMA PROTEINS IN RELATION TO FERTILITY OF SHEEP UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS  , I.I. Abdel-Mageed and SH.M. Dessouki Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613, Giza, Egypt, E-mail: sherifd2002@agr.cu.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein profile of seminal plasma and fertility rate of some subtropical sheep breeds .By using artificial vagina three ejaculates were collected from ten mature rams(Ossimi (3), crosses of Ossimi × Finnish Landrace and Suffolk (3), and Assaf (4) breeds).Semen characteristics e.g. (ejaculate volume, semen density, mass motility, individual motility (%), live sperm (%), abnormalities (%) and sperm concentration were determined after collection. Seminal plasma proteins were identified by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. Semen density and sperm concentration were significantly (p<0.05) higher in both Assaf and Crossbreds of Ossimi. Abnormal sperm percentage revealed a significant increase in Ossimi semen (9.80%) compared to its crossbreds and Assaf semen (7.83 and 6.97%, respectively).A total of 14 protein bands were visualized in ram seminal plasma samples. Protein bands 78-85 and 97-107 KDa were present in all studied breeds. However, the protein band of 40 KDa showed an increase in the percent of appearance in Ossimi crossbreds and Assaf (100%) compared to Ossimi breed (33%).It is clear that Assaf rams proved a potential capability for their breeding ability under Egyptian conditions. Therefore, it may be recommended to incorporate this breed in breeding programs of sheep in Egypt. Keywords: rams, Ossimi, Assaf, semen, motility, protein, electrophoresis
48 EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF CRUDE PROTEIN AND SPECIFIC ORGANIC ACIDS ON BROILERS PERFORMANCE  , Haiam S. Abd EL-Haliem, Faten A. M. Attia, Hamada S. Saber and Ismail H. Hermes Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, PO Box 41522, Corresponding e-mail:haiam65@yahoo.com
SUMMARY A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two crude protein levels: recommended (RPL; NRC, 1994), 2% Lower (LPL) and two Organic Acids (OA; Citric, CA and Fumaric, FUA) each at 0, 1.5 and 3.0% of the diet on broilers' performance. A total number of 288 one-day old unsexed Cobb broiler chicks were allotted randomly into 12 treatments of three replicates with eight chicks each. Mash corn-soybean meal diets, with 3200 Kcal/Kg, were fed. Starter diets (0-3 weeks of age) contained 23 and 21% CP, grower (3-5 weeks of age) contained 20 and 18% CP and finisher (at the 6th week of age) contained 18 and 16% CP. Feeding RPL + 1.5% FUA diet significantly (P≤0.05) improved body weight. Plasma total protein, albumin, lipids and calcium levels decreased (P≤0.05), however, uric acid and phosphorus increased (P≤0.05) with LPL diet. Supplementation of 3.0% FUA to LPL diet lowered AST and ALT enzymes. The fat meat was decreased (P≤0.05) by OA supplementations to RPL or LPL diets and the lowest was recorded for RPL + 1.5% CA. Organic acid supplementation increased (P≤0.05) meat protein and the highest was recorded for 1.5% CA or FUA either with RPL or LPL diets. The inclusion of FUA or CA into RPL or LPL diets increased tibia ash and retention of N and P however, FUA was more effective than CA. In conclusion, organic acids as a feed additive in poultry production had positive effects on broiler performance fed diets differing in CP level, via maintaining birds' physiological conditions, improving meat quality and reducing N and P excretion. Keywords: Citric acid, fumaric acid, body weight, blood constituents, bone ash, nutrient retention
49 THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STRAW, WOOD SHAVINGS AND SAND AS BEDDING MATERIALS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON LAMBS’ PERFORMANCE AND WELFARE  , A.M.A. Hussein Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt 71515
SUMMARY The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of using sand and wood shavings as alternative bedding materials other than rice straw, on lambs’ welfare and productive performance during the growing phase. Eighteen Baladi lambs (fed ad libitum with concentrate) were assigned to individual pens containing one of three bedding materials in replicates of six lambs for five months. Bedding samples were weekly collected to estimate the physical characteristics of different bedding materials. Moreover, pen cleanliness was scored weekly and fleece cleanliness scored at the end of the experiment. Live body weight and feed intake were recorded. Consequently, daily gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. Blood samples were taken monthly and serum total protein, albumin, and cortisol were measured. Sand had lower absorbency and surface temperature (P<0.05) in hot months compared with other two groups. On the other hand, sand had the highest (P<0.05) pH value and dry matter. Lambs in sand group consume more (P<0.01) dry matter and efficiently (P<0.05) converted dry matter intake to daily gain compared with lambs in the other two groups. In addition, lambs in sand group had greater (P<0.05) daily gain compared to the other two groups, which led to be of eavier (P<0.05) final body weight. Serum total protein, Albumin and cortisol levels were higher (P<0.05) in wood shavings group than the other two groups. The study concluded that sand improves animal comfort and performance and can be considered a good bedding materials for lambs during growing period. Keywords: Bedding type, lambs' performance, blood parameters, physical characteristics
50 IDENTIFY SOME BIOLOGICAL CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS OF BARKI SHEEP PRODUCTION RAISED IN NORTH WESTERN DESERT OF EGYPT   , Mona Mohammady I. Desert research center, Animal Production and Poultry Division, Cairo, Egypt, Mathaf El-Matariya St. No. 1
SUMMARY The current research was conducted to highlight on some biological critical control points (CCPs) responsible for production in Barki sheep flocks. Quantify biological values (BVs) and economic values (EVs) of the critical biological trait were also estimated. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to predict its potential economic response to proposed scenarios varying in biological parameters level and market prices. Data utilized in this study were 7300 accumulated records of Barki ewes collected over 37 successive breeding seasons of Barki sheep flock. Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) procedures as described by XLSTAT (2009) were applied. The obtained results indicated that lamb's growth rate (GR) was the most biological critical control point of Barki flock productivity. GR had a marked positive impact on kilograms of lambs weaned per ewe joined (KW/EJ) with biological value of +548 gm. Lambs mortality rate (LMR) had negative effect on KW/EJ and declined KW/EJ by -143 gm. Growth rate had the highest positive EV per ewe and exceeded gross margin per ewe (GM/EJ) by LE +25 compared to base flock. LMR had negative EV of LE -6. GR considered a critical success factor in the revenues, while LMR had a severe negative impact on Barki sheep enterprise profitability. It could be concluded that GR and LMR are the biological CCPs for Barki flock productivity and profitability. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that, EVs of the studied CCPs were more sensitive to changes in concentrate feed mix costs and lambs mortality rate than the other proposed scenarios. Keywords: Barki sheep, biological values, economic values, gross margin, critical control points
51 EFFECT OF MILK REPLACER ON KID PRE-WEANING GROWTH, MILK PRODUCTION AND FARM PROFITABILITY OF SHAMI GOAT  , T.M.M. Hassan1, * , Fathy A.I. Abdelfattah2 , Marwa S. Awad3 and Eman R. Kamel4 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt, 2- Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt, 3- Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Menofia University, Shbin Elkom 32511, Egypt, 4- Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt *Corresponding author E-mail: tamer.mohamed@fagr.bu.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study was carried out on 38 Shami female goats and 48 of their kids to investigate the effect of using milk replacer on growth performance of goat kids, goat’s milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency. Two groups, (19 goats each) with their kids were used up to 12 weeks of age after kidding. The kids of first group were allowed free access to suckle their dams during the experimental period till weaning. The kids of the other group were fed milk replacer (MR) just after 3 days of receiving colostrum. A starter diet was offered after 4 weeks of age for all goat kids. Growth of kids and feed intake were measured. Milk from the dams was evaluated for yield and composition. The artificial feeding and natural suckling systems were evaluated economically to determine the farm profitability. Results showed that the MR fed kids had a better growth performance in terms of live body weight and average daily gain than the natural suckling kids. Milk production and composition were improved in MR fed kids than natural suckled counterparts. The net return (profit) was superior in MR feeding system (LE 1317.06/kid), than natural suckling (LE 419.09/kid). In this study, feeding MR to newly born goat kids instead of natural suckling had positive effects on kid growth, goat's milk yield and composition as well as the production profitability of the farm. Keywords: Milk replacer, kid growth, profitability, Shami goats
52 EFFECTS OF LIVE YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN FERMENTATION AND RUMEN MICROBIAL POPULATION COUNT IN SHEEP  , M. M. Farghaly1 and H. A. Hamdon2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, New Valley Branch, Egypt
SUMMARY This study investigated the impacts of dietary yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and rumen microbial population in sheep. Three digestibility trials were carried out using fifteen Sohagi rams randomly assigned into three groups (5 rams/ each).Each trial lasted for three weeks, the firsttwo weekswere considered as a preliminary period followed by one week collection period.The groups were a control group fed basal diet without yeast supplement and treated groups fed either 0.5 (T1) or 1% (T2) yeast culture (YC) mixed with concentrate diet. All animals were fed 60% of their requirements as concentrate mixture while, chopped corn stover was given as roughages ad libitum. The results pointed out, the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre and hemicellulose were significantly (P<0.05) improvedfor yeast treated diets compared with basal diet.Live yeast culture either 0.5or 1% in concentrate diet increased (P <0.05) the pH,volatile fatty acids (VFAs), acetate and propionate, while rumen ammonia nitrogen on centration was decreased (P<0.05). Live yeast supplementation (0.5 or 1%) improved (P<0.05) N retention.The rumenal bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P<0.05) due to YC supplementation. In conclusion, dietary live yeast culture (S. cerevisiae) particular1% of concentrate mixture may improve nutrient digestibility, fermentation patterns and rumen microbial population. Keywords: Sheep, live yeast, nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters
53 EFFECTS OF HIGH WATER SALINITY AND BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE INCIDENCE OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN BROILER CHICKENS  , M.A.M. Sayed Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 71515
SUMMARY The effects of betaine supplementation on water consumption, stress measures and incidence of pulmonary hypertension induced by drinking saline water in broilers (n = 180) during summer were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments comprising 2 levels of betaine (0 and 500 mg/l) and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 4 and 7 g/l) added to drinking water. The results indicated that broilers provided with saline water had higher hematocrits, H/L ratio in blood and greater plasma Na+ , glucose and cholesterol concentrations (P<0.05). Betaine supplementation failed to attenuate the osmotic stress caused by drinking saline water. Variation in drinking water salinity resulted in significant betaine× drinking water interactions for water consumption. Regardless of betaine supplementation, drinking saline water resulted in kidney and heart hypertrophy and increased the right and left ventricle weights to the body weight ratios (RV/BW and LV/BW), increased the number of mortalities and incidence of ascites syndrome. The increase in the right ventricle to total ventricle weights (RV/TV) was evident only in the 0.7% NaCl group. The results suggest that betaine influenced drinking behaviour in broilers provided with saline water but failed to reduce the osmotic stress and the incidence of pulmonary hypertension. Keywords: Organic osmolyte, water salinity, water consumption, ascites, broilers
54 ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR SOME GENETIC GROUPS AND COMPARING THEIR PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN CHICKENS ,  M.Y.Mahrous 1 ; Lamiaa M. Radwan1 and M. E. El-denary2 1- Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, 2- Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt, Lamia_radwan@agr.asu.edu.eg
SUMMARY In the current study; genetic diversity and productive performance were estimated for some genetic groups: normally feathered (nanaff), frizzled feather (nanaFf), naked neck (Nanaff) and naked neck frizzled feather (NanaFf) ones. It seems that both Na and F genes play an important role in improving some economical traits such as: weight gain, feed conversion, live body weight, breast muscle percentage and edible parts percentage. The corresponding values for these traits were (598.65gm), (3.70), (1389.19gm), (11.14%) and (73.39%) for naked neck genotype (Nanaff), while it was (498.75gm), (3.90), (1315.42gm), (10.23%) and (72.80%) for nanaFf and (512.22gm), (3.73), (1410.21gm), ( 12.02%) and (73.83%) for naked neck with frizzled feather genotypes NanaFf ones when the comparison held with their normally feathered counterparts. Moreover; the naked neck (Na) gene decreased significantly abdominal fat percentage 0.48% for the Nanaff and 0.41 % for NanaFf compared to normal feather (nanaff ) genotype. The same trend was noticed for frizzled genotype, but it had a slight effect (0.09). Both Na and F genes improved meat production under the condition of this study. The similarity between genetic differences in this experiment appeared to be 80%, 70%, 90 and 70% for nanaff, Nanaff, nanaFf and NanaFf respectively. The degree of diversity or similarity within different genotypes reflected purity or identity of these categories. But, it is necessary to keep some variations between and within genotypes or breed to avoid the disadvantage of inbreeding. Keywords: Chickens , carcass, frizzle, genetic diversity, naked neck
55 EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, BLOOD CONSTITUENTS, IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SASSO CHICKEN  , Asmaa Sh. ELnaggar1 and M. I. El-Kelawy2 1- Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt, 2- Department of poultry production, Faculty of Agriculture (New Valley), Assiut University, New Valley, El-Kharga, Egypt
SUMMARY Unsexed seven-day-old Sasso chicks were used to determine the effect of humic acid on productive performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, immune response and economical efficiency of Sasso chicks. At seven days of age 196 birds were distributed into four groups (49 birds in seven replicates). The chicks were fed basal diet and were submitted to the following dietary treatments: the first group fed a basal diets without supplementation (control), the 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% of humic acid. At the end of the experiment, some carcass characteristics were measured and blood samples were taken to determine some blood plasma constituents. The results reported that Sasso chicks fed 0.1% of humic acid had greater productive performance and economical efficiency than those fed basal diet (control).Chicks fed 0.1% of humic acid had significantly higher glucose than the control group. Supplementation of humic acid decreased serum AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, MCV, MCH, á–globulin and â- globulin and increased T4, GPX, SOD, RBC’s hemoglobin, WBC’s, total protein, ã- globulin, LA, BA, LTT, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index compared to control group (within normal range). Feeding diet with 0.1 and 0.2% of humic acid significantly increased the percentage of dressing and decreased abdominal fat compared to control. Moreover, humic acid decreased bacterial count of the digestive tract compared to control group. In conclusion, humic acid supplementation at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, production index and economical efficiency especially at the level of 0.1%, without any adverse effects on blood components of Sasso chicken. Keywords: Sasso chicks, humic acid, productive performance, blood parameters, economical efficiency
56 ENHANCEMENT OF EMBRYONIC AND HATCHING PERFORMANCE OF RHODE-ISLAND RED CHICKEN BY EXPOSING INCUBATED EGGS TO LIGHT PULSES IN RELATION TO THEIR SHELL PIGMENTATION M. F. A. Farghly1 ,O. H. El-Garhy2 and M.G. Abdelfattah1   , 1-Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Assiut (71516), Egypt, 2- Animal 2Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt Corresponding author: farghly20002000@yahoo.com farghly20002000@aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY Light pulses (PS) could be an effective tool to decontaminate and improve the hatching of incubated eggs. So, this study assessed the role of PS during incubation in improving embryonic development and hatching performance of Rhode Island Red chicken in relation to eggshell pigment. A total of 900 eggs were randomly divided into three groups according to their eggshell pigmentation (light, medium and heavy) and incubated with or without being exposed to PS. The exposure to PS significantly (p<0.05) increased the final embryo weight, egg weight loss, chick's weight at day 7 post-hatch, relative weights of chick internal organs (breast, liver and ovary) and decreased hatching time. However, no significant differences were observed in hatchability, chick characteristics, hatch chick weight, chick weight loss and residual yolk sac. Regarding eggshell pigments, there was a positive relationship between chick length, relative weight of liver and chick quality with the density of eggshell pigments. However, there were no differences recorded among different egg shell pigmentation groups in embryo weight percentages, hatchability, egg weight loss, culled chicks, hatch time, body temp., chick sex, weight gains of chick and percentages of most internal organs. There were significant differences in most studied traits (percentages of embryo weight, hatching performance, chick quality, chick weight loss, relative weight gain, chick breast and liver), due to the interaction effects of pulses with eggshell pigment. It could be concluded that the medium to heavily pigmented eggs exposed to PS during incubation showed favourable results of hatchability and hatch time. Therefore, the application of pulses could be successful in hatchery with no negative effect on chick's quality. Keywords: Light pulses, shell pigmentation, embryonic and hatch performance, Rhode Island chicken
57 DELTA AND UPPER EGYPT BUFFALO FARMING SYSTEMS: ASURVEY COMPARISON   , N.H. Fahim1 , S.A.M. Abdel-Salam1 ,W. Mekkawy2 , Ahmed Ismael1 , S. Abou-Bakr1 , Manal El Sayed2 , M.A.M. Ibrahim1 1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY Buffaloes play a vital role in the Egyptian food security, providing the local market by 44% and 39% of milk and red meat, respectively. The main objective of this study was to compare between the buffalo farming systems in Upper Egypt (UEg) and Delta Egypt (DEg). A survey was conducted to study the characteristics of dairy buffalo production in two ecologically distinctive zones: the UEg and the DEg. Data were collected throughout interviews with farmers of 1811 buffalo herds keeping 12450 heads of Egyptian buffaloes. The study was done from July 2010 to January 2011 using comprehensive and structured questionnaire. Results indicated that the averages of farm size per household and herd size of buffaloes were 1.1 ha and 3 heads in UEg compared to 1.5ha and 10 heads in DEg, respectively. Means of daily milk yield, total milk yield, lactation period and longevity were 7.7 kg, 1826 kg, 7.7 months and 5.5 parities in UEg buffaloes, respectively. Whereas, these estimates were 8.2 kg, 1899kg, 7.5 months, 4.7 parities in DEg buffaloes, respectively. Similar traditional and low management level was practiced in the two studied zones. Five and six principal components were extracted in UEg and DEg explaining 67.9 % and 82.1% of the total variation in the original variables, respectively. Development of the Egyptian buffaloes needs suitable breeding program, using untraditional feed resources, good veterinary and extension services, development of village markets and introduction of storage and grading products facilities. The buffalo farming systems in Egypt needs more studies to recognize the opportunities of improvement and to maximize the productivity and profitability of the system.
58 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF BARKI SHEEP RAISED IN NORTH WESTERN COASTAL ZONE OF EGYPT  , Mona Mohammady I. Animal and Poultry Breeding Department, Desert Research Center, El-Matariya, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY The current study was conducted to characterize the changes of climatic parameters throughout the studied years from 2000 up to 2015 and quantify the biological responses of Barki sheep maintained in North Western Coastal Zone (NWCZ) of Egypt. A total number of 2692 accumulated records were collected over 14 successive breeding seasons. Biological and meteorological data were statistically analyzed to compare variations in biological performance of the flock as influenced by climate change. The considered years were partitioned (according to THI values trend) into two periods; the first period (P1) was from the year 2000 till the year 2007, while the second period (P2) was from the year 2008 up to year 2015. Analysis of the meteorological data revealed that there is a marked increase of annual air temperature (AT) and Temperature- Humidity Index (THI) values throughout the years under investigation particularly at P2. Also, the obtained results revealed that there is considerable evidence showing a substantial decline in the biological performance of the studied flock due to climate change. Generally, all the studied productive traits in P2 were significantly (P<0.001) lower than those of P1. Average birth weight, average weaning weight, average daily gain and survival rate were dropped by about 4.5%, 15.2%, 18.8% and 3.5%, respectively in comparison with those estimates in P1. While, estimate of number of ewes lambed per ewe joined (EL/EJ) was decreased in P2 by 5.3% less than that in P1. The obtained estimate of number of kilograms lambs weaned per ewe joined (KGW/EJ) during the P2 was less than that of P1 by about 9.4%. In conclusion, the current study underlines the importance to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to attenuate the adverse effects of climate change on Barki sheep raised in NWCZ of Egypt. Keywords: Climate change, Barki sheep, biological performance, THI, Egypt
59 DOES MAGNETIZED DRINKING WATER AFFECT PRODUCTIVITY AND EGG QUALITY OF LAYERS? RUNNING TITLE: MAGNETIZED WATER EFFECT ON EGG QUALITY  , M. I. El Sabry1 , J.W. Charal2 , K. W. McMillin3 and T. A. Lavergne4 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 6 El-Gamma Street, 12613, Giza, Egypt, 2- Archer Daniels Midland Co., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 3- School of Animal Sciences, LSU AgCenter, 70803, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 4- Church & Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ, USA
SUMMARY Water is a major component of cells in living organisms, and is important to poultry health and productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate production and quality of eggs from laying hens receiving magnetized drinking water. One hundred ninety-two Hy-Line W36 hens, 48-wk of age, were housed in a tunnel ventilated house. On d 1 of the trial, hens were randomly allotted to treatment groups of control (C; un-magnetized water line) or polyvinylchloride water line with 3000 Gauss magnet (MW) on the exterior surface. There were three replicates per treatment with 6 cages of 6 hens per cage (replicate 1) or 5 hens per cage (replicates 2 and 3). Standard laying diet and water were provided ad libitum. The trial was conducted for two consecutive months. The egg production was monitored daily while egg weight, shell weight and thickness, internal egg quality and egg yolk mineral content analyses were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, eggs from each treatment from 3 consecutive days were used to determine breaking strength. Water pH of the MW group was lower (8.21, for the 1st month and 8.16, for the 2nd month) than those of C group (8.31 and 8.34, during the 1st and 2nd month, respectively). Egg production and egg weight were not affected by the treatment. Internal egg quality characteristics and shell mass of the eggs from hens in the MW group were improved (P = 0.04) compared to eggs from hens in the C group throughout the experimental period, and they had thicker (P = 0.03) shells during the second month of the study. In conclusion, magnetized drinking water can improve egg quality characteristics without affecting egg production or egg mass. Keywords: Egg weight, eggshell quality, yolk index, albumen, yolk minerals, breaking strength
60 USING LACTOBACILLUS bacteria AS IN-OVO INJECTION OR ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS  , Amal M. Hassan1* , I. El-Wardany2 and M.I. Shourrap2 1- Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo Egypt, * Email: amalmhassan@yahoo.com), 2- Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY One hundred and sixty broiler fertile eggs with an average weight of 68.61 g were used to determine the best way to deliver probiotic and prebiotic to the chicken embryos. The eggs were obtained from a commercial Hubbard parent flock at 48 weeks of age. At 17th day of incubation, the eggs were divided into four main groups, each of 40 eggs. The first group served as control (C), while the second and third were subjected to in ovo injection with Lactobacillus bacteria (LB) at concentration of 9.8 X 109 cfu (0.1 ml/egg) either into air cell (Br group) or the amniotic fluid (Bm group). The hatched chicks of the 4th group were orally inoculated (O) with the same dose of bacteria immediately after post hatching. The obtained results can be summarized as follows: - Administration of LB either orally or in – ovo injection had a positive effect on feed consumption and live body weight at 5th week of age. - The chicks of Bm group showed the highest relative weight of carcass components, while those of O group showed the lowest abdominal fat. In addition, administration of LB resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher relative weight of liver. - Plasma total protein, globulin and A/G ratio did not significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. - Chicks of O group showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin level. - Total bacterial count and total lactic acid bacteria were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the O group compared to the C group. Histological examination of tissues showed an improvement in ilium villi height of treated groups than in the control group. Keywords: In ovo injection, Lactobacillus, blood, ilium histomorphology, lymphoid organs and broiler chicks
61 EFFECT OF DIETARY PROBIOTIC AND SEX ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY, CARCASS CRITERIA, BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY OF GROWING NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS  , F.S.O. Elkhateeb, Z.S.H. Ismail, and A.A.A. Abdel-Wareth* Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Egypt * Corresponding author: Email: a.wareth@agr.svu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary probiotic levels and sex on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass criteria, blood biochemistry and meat quality of growing rabbits. A total of sixty four growing male and female New Zealand White rabbits (45 days old), were assigned to four experimental diets including added probiotic at 0, 150, 300 and 450 m g/kg, respectively, for six weeks. Each treatment had 16 replicates (50% males and 50% females). Sex of rabbits did not affect the body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility during the experimental periods. Body weight gain increased and feed conversion ratio decreased significantly from 0 to 450 mg/kg during the period from 0 to 2, 4 to 6 and 0 to 6 weeks of age, respectively. Feed intake exhibited a noticeable significance (p<0.05) in interaction between probiotic treatment levels and sex in the period from 4 to 6 weeks only. Supplementation of probiotic improved the nutrient digestibility during the experimental period. Cecum and gut weights increased significantly from 150 to 450 mg/kg. Interestingly, serum glucose and cholesterol levels showed a significant decrease (P<0.001) among probiotic treatments in comparison with the control group. Serum total protein, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and tri-iodothyronine showed a higher significance (P<0.001) in the probiotic levels compared to control group, however thyroxin showed no significant increase or decrease where the tested groups exhibits nearly the normal levels. It could be concluded that supplementation of probiotics to the rabbits diet improved nutrient digestibility and blood glucose, cholesterol and hormones level without any reflection of probiotics on body weight and carcass criteria including carcass weight, hot carcass, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, heart and head on either male or female growing rabbits. Keyword: Probiotics, performance, nutrient digestibility, some serum biochemical profile, meat quality, rabbits
62 IMPACT OF NOVEL MODIFIED FILTER STANDARD STRAW ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND VIABILITY OF VITRIFIED-WARMED SHE-CAMEL OOCYTES   , M.M. Madboly Animal Production Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza. Egypt Sheep and Goats Research Department, Corresponding author: e-mail: madboly.medhat@arc.sci.eg madboly.medhat@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present study was carried out to test a new method of cryo-devices called a Novel Modified Filter Standard Straw (MFSS), as a tool for immature camel oocyte vitrification, and to compare its efficacy with Cryotop (CT). MFSS was utilized either as an open or closed device. Collected COCs of slaughtered She-Camel were divided into three groups ; group 1 (Cryotop), group 2 (MFSS-open method) or group 3 (MFSS-close method) and exposed to vitrification media of TCM 199 +0.1 M sucrose + 0.5% (w/v) bovine albumin, containing 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for a duration of 2 min (VS-I), and subsequent to vitrification media of TCM 199 + 0.1 M sucrose + containing 15% EG and 15% DMSO for a duration of 45s. (VS-II) and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Oocytes recovery rates of the three groups were not significantly different (91.3%, 97.1% and 98.0%, respectively) and post-thawing survival rates were (88.8%, 91.3 and 86.1%, respectively). While, oocytes with normal morphology were higher in MFSS-open method and CT than in MFSS-close method were (87.6%, 83.6% and 82.6%, respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, ultrastructural observation showed that the MFSS appears suitable for verification as indicated by the good ultrastructural preservation of cumulus cells, zonapellucida and cortical granules distribution. Keywords: Camel, oocytes, cryodevice, verification, Transmission Electron Microscopy
63 ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GROWTH TRAITS USING DIFFERENT MODELS FOR FRIESIAN CATTLE RAISED IN EGYPT  , Safaa S. Sanad and M.G.Gharib Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to detect the most appropriate model that fits data of birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) traits of Friesian calves. Body weights of 1371 calves over a 22 years and WW of 678 Friesian calves over a 19 years from a herd of Friesian in Gemmaza Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt were used. The fixed effects included in the model were parity, season, sex, year of calving in addition to the random effects to estimate direct and maternal heritability's, permanent maternal environmental and error. The parameters were estimated by using Variance Component Estimation (MTDFREML) programs. Six different animal models were fitted for the traits ranging from a simple to the most comprehensive model, were used to compare them. The overall means were 30.4 kg and 85.1 Kg, for BW and WW, respectively. Non-genetic factors (fixed effects) had highly significant (P<0.001) effects on BW and WW of calves. Estimates of direct heritability were moderate, they ranged from 0.28to 0.30 for BW and from 0.18 to 0.28 for WW. Maternal heritability was relatively low for both BW and WW, ranging from 0.06 to 0.08 for BW and was 0.04 for WW. Permanent environmental effect Pe2 in the 2nd model was relatively higher than that of other models, while inclusion of maternal genetic effects (Models 3-6) showed further reduction in h2 a for which there was negligible difference in h2 a of the other models within each trait. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to determine the most appropriate model for the studied traits. Model 5 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z2c+ Z3m + e Cov (a, m)= 0 A σ am was the most appropriate model for BW, while, Model 4 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z3m+e Cov (a, m)= A σ am was the most appropriate model for WW trait. The higher range of calves breeding values compared with those of sire or dams means that selection for BW for calves is leading to an increase in WW for the next generation. Keywords: Birth and weaning weight, Friesian calves, genetic and non-genetic parameters, models Comparisons
64 ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GROWTH TRAITS USING DIFFERENT MODELS FOR FRIESIAN CATTLE RAISED IN EGYPT  , Safaa S. Sanad and M.G.Gharib Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to detect the most appropriate model that fits data of birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) traits of Friesian calves. Body weights of 1371 calves over a 22 years and WW of 678 Friesian calves over a 19 years from a herd of Friesian in Gemmaza Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt were used. The fixed effects included in the model were parity, season, sex, year of calving in addition to the random effects to estimate direct and maternal heritability's, permanent maternal environmental and error. The parameters were estimated by using Variance Component Estimation (MTDFREML) programs. Six different animal models were fitted for the traits ranging from a simple to the most comprehensive model, were used to compare them. The overall means were 30.4 kg and 85.1 Kg, for BW and WW, respectively. Non-genetic factors (fixed effects) had highly significant (P<0.001) effects on BW and WW of calves. Estimates of direct heritability were moderate, they ranged from 0.28to 0.30 for BW and from 0.18 to 0.28 for WW. Maternal heritability was relatively low for both BW and WW, ranging from 0.06 to 0.08 for BW and was 0.04 for WW. Permanent environmental effect Pe2 in the 2nd model was relatively higher than that of other models, while inclusion of maternal genetic effects (Models 3-6) showed further reduction in h2 a for which there was negligible difference in h2 a of the other models within each trait. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to determine the most appropriate model for the studied traits. Model 5 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z2c+ Z3m + e Cov (a, m)= 0 A σ am was the most appropriate model for BW, while, Model 4 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z3m+e Cov (a, m)= A σ am was the most appropriate model for WW trait. The higher range of calves breeding values compared with those of sire or dams means that selection for BW for calves is leading to an increase in WW for the next generation. Keywords: Birth and weaning weight, Friesian calves, genetic and non-genetic parameters, models Comparisons
65 CHARACTERIZATION OF CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM IN NEW VALLEY OF EGYPT USING SYSTEM APPROACH    , Mona Mohammady I.1 *, M.N.M. Abd El-Ati2 , H. Hamdon3 and Doaa A. Abd El-Salam1 1- Animal Production and Poultry Division, Desert research Center, 2- Department of Animal Production, Assiut University, 3- Department of Animal Production, New Valley University * Corresponding author, Email: monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY The current study adopted system approach to characterize the current crop/livestock farming system of small scale farms and to assess its economical efficiency in the New Valley Governorate of Egypt. Four districts were identified, Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat. A random sample of 120 farms was taken to represent the four studied districts (30 farms from each district). A questionnaire was designed to cover available production resources, farming activities, variable costs and revenues. Data were collected over the agricultural year from September 2015 to August 2016. Least squares analysis of variance technique using a fixed effects linear model was performed to derive technical coefficients of the considered productive traits for livestock and major crops. Whole farm budget was applied for economical efficiency to determine the overall gross margin (GM) per feddan and benefit/cost ratio (B/C) of the four studied districts. Averages farm size were 7.17 feddan, 8.62 feddan, 4.45 feddan and 10.72 feddan for Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat, respectively. Results showed that daily milk yield per head of cow were estimated as 3.29 kg, 2.45 kg, 1.78 kg and 1.99 kg for Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding total milk yield of cow was estimated as 773 kg, 515 kg, 338 kg and 398 kg, respectively. Common crops in winter season were Alfalfa, wheat, barley and bean. While in summer season were Elephant grass, darawa, w-corn, cowpeas, fume and cash crops. The obtained values of the farm GM per feddan revealed that farmers of Baris district utilized their limited production resources more efficient than the other studied districts and achieved the highest gross margin per feddan with estimate of LE 15078, while the lowest was Balat district and achieved LE 4188 per feddan. The farm B/C ratio showed that Eldakhla district earned the highest return per unit of money with estimate of 2.22 ratios. Keywords: System approach, crop/livestock, gross margin, new valley governorate, Egypt
66 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE IMPACTS OF BEAK TRIMMING AND FEED FORM IN JAPANESE QUAIL  , M.G. Abdelfattah Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 71515 Correspondence: Dr. MostafaGalalAbdelfattah, Department of Poultry Production, Assiut University, Assiut (71516), Egypt. Tel: +20 01008133049; E-mail: moos311@yahoo.com&mostafagalal@aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY A total number of 288 eight weeks old Japanese quail were chosen in this study for evaluating the impacts of beak trimming (BT) and feed physical forms (F) on physiological, productive performance and aggressive behavior parameters, in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. The birds were allocated into two main groups according to beak form [Intact beak (NB) and beak trimming (BT)], then each main group was divided in to two subgroups corresponded to feed form [mash (M) and pellet (P) feed], respectively. The obtained results indicated that beak forms and feed forms significantly changed the final body weight, egg production, feed conversion, fertility %, plumage conditions, aggressive pecking behavior, mortality rate, H/L ratio, plasma testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone concentration. However, there were insignificant differences among the groups in feed intake, hatchability, ovary and testes percentages. Interactions between beak trimming and feed forms factors had significant differences in the plumage conditions, aggressive pecking behavior, mortality rate and hematological parameters. In conclusion: using the beak trimming did not have an adverse effect on quail ability of feeding (mash or pellet) and beak trimming was consider suitable solution to minimize aggressive behavior, mortality rates and maximize productive and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. Keywords: Beak trimming, feed form, egg production, hematological, aggressive behavior, quail
67 PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATING BY-CATCH OF EUROPEAN EEL IN A LONGLINE FISHERY IN BARDAWILL LAGOON, NORTH SINAI, EGYPT  , M.S. Ahmed Faculty of Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries, Arish University
SUMMARY European eel, Anguilla anguilla is listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Demersal longlines are the main fishing method used to target this species in Bardawill lagoon. Three trials were conducted to investigate catches (catch composition, catch rates, by-catch and CPUE) using hooks size No. 13, 12 and 11 from November, 2017 to January, 2018. Nine fishing trips (9 one trip days) were carried out. Within each trip, two longlines per hook size, each one involving 350 hooks, were set during sunset. After one hour, the longlines were pulled out. A total of nine species were recorded in all treatments, 1282 fish were caught, weighing a total of 194.71 kg. Catch rates (number of fish per 100 hooks) ranged between 3.3 and 9.5, with a decrease in catch rate with increasing hook size. Mean TL of eel were significantly different among the three hooks. Eels caught on small hooks (No. 13 and 12) had a significantly smaller mean TL (mean TL 43.9 cm) compared to eel caught on large hooks (No. 11, mean TL 45.1 cm). Catch rates of small eel (mean TL 39.5 cm) was highest in November followed by December and January. The highest CPUE was achieved when small hooks (No. 13) were used compared to large hooks (No. 11). To reduce capture of small eels (mean TL 45.1 cm) fishermen in the demersal longline fishery in Bardawill Lagoon are encouraged to use large hooks (No. 11) with a bend width ≥12.7 mm. Furthermore, future management measures should introduce minimum landing sizes for European eel to avoid capture of small eel (mean TL 45.1) and thereby reduce fishing mortality preventing stock degradation of these economic valuable species. Keywords: Demersal longline fisheries, Anguilla anguilla, hook size, Bardawill lagoon
68 EFFECT OF Nigella sativa SEEDS DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON OOCYTE MATURATION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN MICE  , A. A. Mohammed1,2 and M. M Farghaly1 1- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 71526, 1,2- Animal Production and Fisheries Department, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Saudi Arabia
SUMMARY The present study aimed to investigate developmental competence of oocytes and embryos upon dietary Nigella sativa seed (N. sativa) supplementation. Developmental competence of oocytes and embryos of mice supplemented with N. sativa seeds (N=25; 5.0%) compared to control (N=25; not receive N. sativa) were investigated. Female mice were injected with 7.5 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by 7.5 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after 48h and mated with males of proven fertility. Immature GV oocytes were harvested from ovaries after 48h of PMSG injection for investigating oocyte quality, timing of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and polar bodies extrusion and maturation rate (%). Late one-cell stage embryos were harvested from oviducts after 29-30 h of hCG and followed for cleavage injection whereas blastocyst embryos were harvested from uteri at 96 h of hCG and evaluated. The results indicated improvement of oocyte quality in N. sativa group whereas GVBD and maturation (%) were not differed between N. sativa and control groups. Although N. sativa seeds did not change timing of cleavage to two-cell stage embryos, it significantly (P<0.05) increased the quality of embryos in N. sativa group. Offspring number (9.2 ± 0.34 & 8.1 ± 0.29) and weight (11.71 ± 0.41 & 9.72 ± 0.36) of litter size at birth were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the N. sativa group compared to control. In conclusion, supplementation of N. sativa could increase reproductive performance of mice through the improvement of oocyte quality and preimplantation embryo development. Keywords: Nigella sativa, oocytes, embryos, development, reproductive performance
69 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PRE-WEANING GROWTH TRAITS OF BARKI AND RAHMANI LAMBS , M.H. Hammoud and M.M.I. Salem   Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, PC: 21545, Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data relevant to 704 Barki and 732 Rahmani lambs born at Alexandria University Experimental Station between 1991-2014 were utilized in this investigation to estimate genetic parameters, breeding values and genetic trends of birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG). The fixed effects of season and year of birth, sex of lamb, type of birth and parity on the considered traits were also studied. The least squares analysis with unequal subclass numbers showed that the overall means of BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs were 3.69 kg, 20.53 kg and 139.7 g, respectively, the corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 3.54 kg, 20.09 kg and 137.8 g, respectively. The analysis also indicated that fixed factors effects on all studied traits of both breeds were generally significant (P<0.01or P<0.05) except for the effects of year of birth on BW and parity on WW and ADG of Barki lambs were not significant. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the studied traits were estimated using the Wombat programme fitting Multiveriate Animal Models. Estimates of the direct heritability (h2 a) were 0.186, 0.078 and 0.073 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.285, 0.130 and 0.121, respectively. Estimates of the maternal heritability (h2 m) were 0.121, 0.099 and 0.103 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The respective values for Rahmani lambs were 0.097, 0.040 and 0.033, respectively. Estimates of the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (C2) were 0.024, 0.022 and 0.016 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.094, 0.039 and 0.033, respectively. Maternal effects were considerable portion of variation for early growth traits of both breeds. All correlations were positive and significant (P<0.01). The genetic corrletions were extermely high, being 0.993, 0.991 and 1.000 between BW and WW, between BW and ADG and between WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.685, 0.677 and 1.000. The maternal genetic correlations were high to extremely high being of 0.775, 0.753 and 0.999 between BW and WW, between BW and ADG and between WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The respective values for Rahmani lambs were 0.984, 0.988 and 1.000, respectively. The maternal permanent environmental correlations among growth traits of both breeds were extremely high ranged from 0.926 to 0.997. The phenotypic correlations were moderate since they varied from 0.395 to 0.479 between BW and each of WW and ADG of both breeds, and were extremely high being 0.994 and 0.996 between WW and ADG of Barki and Rahmani lambs, respectively. High and positive genetic correlations among lamb's growth traits of both breeds showed that improvement of one trait by selection would cause positive progress in the others. The breeding values for BW, WW and ADG of Barki rams ranged between -0.227 and 0.333 kg, between -1.666 and 2.444 kg and between -11.60 and 17.00 g, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani rams were between -0.475 and 0.241 kg, between -3.995 and 2.983 kg and between -27.21 and 20.57g. The genetic trends estimated by the regression of rams breeding values on time were positive but not significant for all traits of both breeds except for BW of Rahmani lambs which was significant (P<0.05). The results in general showed the need for designing an effective selection programme to improve growth traits of lambs of both breeds.   Keywords: Pre-weaning growth, genetic parameters, breeding values, genetic trends, Barki, Rahmani, lambs
70 EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION EGG YOLK WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOYBEAN LECITHIN IN TRIS-BASED EXTENDERONFREEZING AND FERTILIZING CAPACITY OF HOLSTEIN BULL SEMEN , M.A.El-Sherbieny, W.M.Nagy,Amira M. Nowier and M.F.Saad Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Soy bean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to substitution egg yolk in the semen extender. Aim of the currentresearch articlewas to study the impact of substitutionof egg yolk with soybean-lecithin in tris- extender on freezability and fertilizing capacity of Holstein sperm in post-thawed semen. Semen from five Holstein bulls was frozen in tris-citric acid extender containing 15% egg yolk (EY, control) or 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% soybean-lecithin (SBL). Percentages of motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and intact acrosome spermatozoa were assessed in diluted, equilibrated and thawed semen. Results showed that0.5% SBL-extender had positive (P<0.05) effect on percentages of motility, livability, plasma membrane integrity and intact acrosome of sperm cellsafter dilution, equilibration and thawing.In post-thawed semen, the highest (P<0.05) spermrecovery rate of motility,livability, plasma membrane integrity and intact acrosome was obtained for 0.5% SBL-extender compared to other extenders.The highest conception rate (68.6%) of Holstein cows was obtained following insemination with semen extended with 0.5% SBL compared with other extenders (48&56%). In conclusion, egg yolk could be substituted by soybean-lecithin in tris-based extender at a level of 0.5% to improve fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved Holstein semen. Keywords: Holstein, frozen semen, sperm characteristics, fertility
71 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME CANDIDATE GENES IN PURE EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES AND CROSSBRED OF ITALIAN BUFFALOES , Sarah G. Ali1*, Alia A El-Seoudy2, A.M. Saeed1, Asmaa M. Abushadi2, 3 1-Biotechnology Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2-Genetic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain shams Univ, P.O. Box 68, Hadayek Shoubra 11241, Cairo, Egypt, 3-Biotechnology school, Nile University, Sheikh Zayed, Giza, Egypt *Corresponding author: Sarahgamalali2009@gmail.com
  The goal of this work was to describe the sequences of some candidate genes (IGF-I, IGF-I receptor, and Leptin) that are associated with economically important quantitative aspects in dairy buffalo, such as reproductive and productive attributes, as well as milk composition. Ninety-nine dairy buffaloes were used to compare the pure Egyptian buffalo (PE) with the Egyptian–Italian crossbred G1 (25.0%), G2 (50.0%), G3 (62.5%), G4 (75.0%), G5 (87.5%), and G6 (94.0%), respectively. All buffaloes investigated were genotyped BB, which means they were negative for the SnaBI at position 224^225 (TAC^GTA) of the IGF-I regulatory region, and they were genotyped AA-positive for the IGF-I receptor TaqI at position 47^48 (T^CGA). They also tested positive for the leptin gene's Alu1 restriction site yielding three products with genotype GT that was 55-, 118-, and 205-bp in length (AG^CT). Finally, the PE and Egyptian-Italian crossbred demonstrate monomorphism since the two Bubaline populations are closely related and the genes in question are maintained. More research is needed to learn more about Egyptian-Italian buffalo crossbreeds before national crossbreeding initiatives may be expanded. Keywords: Egyptian-Italian buffalo, insulin-like growth factor, leptin, restriction fragment length polymorphism  
72 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ARABIAN HORSES USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS , Saria Almarzook1*, H. Abdel-Shafy2, A.S. Ahmed1, Monika Reissmann1, Gudrun A. Brockmann1 1-Humboldt-University of Berlin, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute for Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Department of Animal Breeding Biology and Molecular Genetics, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany, 2-Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production, 12613, Giza, Egypt
The horse strains designation system was shaped in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula and spread to the neighboring oriental empires and it is still used. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic diversity among three Arabian horse strains using twelve equine microsatellite markers. The study included 84 Arabian horses representing three major Syrian strains (Hamdani, Kahlawi and Saglawi) from five geographical regions in Syria. To determine genetic population structure within and between the three strains, we applied different methods. The selected panel of microsatellite markers confirmed a general genetic feature of the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses suggesting low level of population differentiation. To ascertain the results, it will be necessary to collate our findings with the historical pedigree. Furthermore, we need a genome-wide investigation of microsatellites or an analysis of strain/breed specific SNPs across the Syrian Arabian horse populations for better insight into the genetic diversity. Keywords: Arabian horse strains, Syria, Genetic diversity, Microsatellites
73 DETERMINANTS OF VETERINARY SERVICES UTILIZATION AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN SAKI-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE, NIGERIA , M.O. Umunna1*, A.O. Ibrahim1, O.A. Adebayo1, S.A. Okunade1, D.O. Oyeleye1, O.B. Oyediran1, O.J. Olalekan2 and R.R. Ojo1 1- Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State. 2- Forest Based Rural Resources Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ikija-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: mathiasumunna@gmail.com 08139486968
The study examined the determinants of poultry veterinary services utilization in Saki-East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from poultry farmers using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze farmers’ personal and farm’s characteristics while regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between utilization of veterinary services and other variables. Poultry farming was a male dominated business. The mean age and family size of the respondents were 40 years and 7 persons respectively. Majority (78.4%) of the poultry farmers were married while (89.2%) of them had acquired one form of formal education, the mean years of experience were 6 years. The major source of information was friends (74.8%) while the mean monthly income was ₦61,147.40. The available veterinary services were disease diagnosis (x̅ =2.11), provision of drugs (x̅ =2.05), management of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.02) and treatment of diseases (x̅ =2.00) while the veterinary services utilized were treatment of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.15), provision of drugs (x̅ =2.14), diseases diagnosis (x̅ =2.05) and management of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.04). Major constraints to utilizing veterinary services were high cost of veterinary services (x̅ =2.78), poor accessibility of veterinary services (x̅ =2.77) and little or no availability of veterinary services (x̅ =2.68). The determinants of utilization of veterinary services include farm income (t= 2.252), availability of veterinary services (t= 8.652) and constraints to utilization of veterinary services (t= -2.019). Access to veterinary services among farmers should be improved by subsidizing veterinary service cost. Also the number of health and extension personnel should be increased through employment.  Keywords: Veterinary services, Poultry farmers, availability, use, constraints
74 ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF KIDNEY INDUCED BY COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THE THERAPEUTIC ROLE OF VITAMINS E AND C AGAINST CYTOTOXICITY , Y.M. Shotop and I.N. Al-Suwiti Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Saud University yshotop@gmail.com, Ibrahm221@hotmail.com P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
The ability of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial materials has led to their widespread application in many health products. However, there are many concerns about the exposure of individuals to these particles, addressed the cellular effects caused by copper nanoparticles on the kidneys using transmission electron microscopy, and investigating the potential therapeutic role of vitamin E and C against the toxicity of copper nanoparticles and their cellular harmful effects. The study used 56 rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into seven groups and dosed over a month with copper nanoparticles and then dosed for another month with both vitamins E and C, either alone or together, the results showed that the animals of the groups that were treated with copper nanoparticles showed microstructural changes in the kidneys. Changes were found in the renal tissue at the level of the podocytes forming the endothelial cells in the visceral layer of the renal glomeruli. It was also observed that mitochondria were affected in the epithelial cells of the Proximal convoluted tubules. In addition to an increase in the number of lysosomes and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The effective therapeutic role of vitamin C, E has been shown in improving the size and number of organelles and returning them to their almost normal state. The study recommends the need to use vitamins C and E at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, which showed a positive role in reducing the toxicity of copper nanoparticles. Keywords: Copper Nanoparticles; Kidney; Cellular Effects; Vitamins C and E
75   PREDICTION OF LACTATION CURVE PATTERN FOR DAILY MILK, FAT, AND PROTEIN YIELDS IN EGYPTIAN BUFFALO , Manal M. El-Bramony1, H.A. El-Regalaty1, A. A. Ashmawy2 and Kawthar A. Mourad1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ain Shams, Cairo, Egypt
Data were collected at monthly intervals over the period from February 2013 to March 2015 to select the best equation to describe the lactation curve pattern for the daily milk traits. A total of 2265 test day records of milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in the first seven lactations for 263 Egyptian buffalo cows raised at three experimental herds belonging to the Animal Production Research Institute, Egypt were analyzed. Four non linear equations were compared to predict daily milk yield traits, Wood's (WOD), Wilmink's (WIL), Guo and Swalve (GS) and Cobby and Le Du (CLD). For all models, the initial and ascending to peak daily yield phases were contributed with high variability of lactation curve pattern. In a comparison with the WIL, the three equations (WOD, CLD and GS, respectively) had the low values with Residual Standard Deviation (RSD), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Schwarz Bayesian Criterion (SBC) criteria over the first seven lactations. Based on RSD, AIC and SBC criteria, Wood's equation showed more flexibility than other models to explore lactation curve pattern for expected daily milk yield traits. Considering values obtained by the WOD model, the expected daily yield at peak, time at peak daily yield and persistency ranged from 4.59 to 7.38 kg, 5.03 to 8.23 wk and 40.26 to 65.90%, respectively for MY. The corresponding values varied between 0.395 and 0.467 kg, 5.39 and 9.35 wk and 41.53 and 72.00 %, respectively for FY and varied between 0.230 and 0.263kg, 4.05 and 8.13 wk, 40.33 and 70.41%, respectively for PY. Moreover, higher persistency was observed for MY, FY and PY in the 1stlactation (65.90, 72.00 and 70.41%, respectively), which declined till the fifth lactation and then tended to be almost constant till the seventh one (47.60, 48.76 and 47.32%, respectively). Keywords: Buffalo cows, lactation curve, daily milk yield traits, non linear equations and persistency
76 PREDICTION OF CARCASS TRAITS IN FATTENING FRIESIAN CROSSBRED AND BUFFALO MALE CALVES BY USING BODY MEASUREMENTS , Dalia K.A. EL-Hedainy1, M.G.A Latif and A.E. Mahdy Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt 1 corresponding auther.e-mail:dheddany@yahoo.com and drdalia.dh@gmail.com
Five body measurements were taken on 142 Friesian crossbred and 49 buffalo male calves.14 Friesian crossbred and 12 buffalo male calves slaughtered at 435+17.5 kg average body weight and at about 15-17 months of age. The aims of the present study were to estimate the relationship between body measurements and slaughter weight, and carcass characteristics. Body measurements were used to predict carcass traits. The slaughter weight was positively and significantly correlated with most of carcass traits in range from 0.15 to 0.98 and 0.13 to 0.89 for both Friesian crossbred and buffalo carcasses, respectively. Both of slaughter weight and heart girth showed high accuracy ranged from 0.33 to 0.97. Round circumference (RC) and body length (BL) had highly accuracy for predicting most of carcass traits in both Friesian crossbred and buffalo carcass traits with values of 0.89 to 0.99, respectively. The present results concluded that, the heart girth (HG) of Frisian crossbred calves and each of round circumference (RC) and body length (BL) of buffalo calves were the best indicators to predict most of their carcass traits. Keywords: prediction, measurements, carcass, Friesian crossbred, buffalo
77 METALS PROFILE IN BLOOD PLASMA, MUSCLE AND LIVER OF EGYPTIAN BALADI BULLS AND FRIESIAN x BALADI BULLS , A. I. Damarany Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
The present study was aimed to quantify the (selenium, zinc, lead and cadmium) metals in blood plasma, muscle and liver in Egyptian Baladi bulls and Friesian x Baladi bulls. The metals were determined by using atomic absorption (AA) flame spectrometry techniques. The overall mean content of selenium in blood plasma, muscle and liver of Egyptian Baladi bulls and Friesian x Baladi bulls was 0.044±0.019mg/l, 0.170±0.027, and 0.39±0.17, mg/kg, respectively, while content of zinc was 0.81±0.14 mg/l, 33.5±5.5 and48.2±12.4 mg/kg, respectively. The toxic elements lead and cadmium in blood plasma, muscle and liver of Egyptian Baladi bulls and Friesian x Baladi bulls was 0.01±0.01, 0.0008±0.0001mg/l, 0.06±0.01, 0.0049±0.0023 and 0.351±0.14, 0.277±0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The correlation between selenium and cadmium concentration in blood plasma of Egyptian Baladi bulls was negative (P < 0.05) (r= - 0.82) and crossbred bull was (r= - 0.24), respectively. Positive correlation (P < 0.05) between zinc and cadmium concentration was observed in Egyptian Baladi bulls and Friesian x Baladi bulls (r= 0.66) and (r= 0.95), respectively. The present investigation demonstrates that the level of cadmium was decreased as plasma selenium concentration was increased and the correlation between selenium and cadmium concentration in blood plasma of Egyptian Baladi bulls was higher (P < 0.05) and negative(r= - 0.82) than crossbred bull(r= - 0.24). The positive correlation between zinc and cadmium concentration in blood plasma Egyptian Baladi bulls and Friesianx Baladi bulls (r= 0.66) and (r= 0.95), respectively. Keywords: Metals, blood plasma, muscle, liver, Egyptian Baladi bull and Friesian x Baladi bulls
78 SOYA MILK BASED EXTENDERS FOR CHILLED PRSERVATION OF HOLISTEIN BULL SEMEN AT 5°C , E.M. EL-Seify1, I.M. Abd El-Razek*2 and I.S. El-Shamaa*2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Egypt, 2-Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt *Corresponding author E-mail: elshamaa2008@yahoo.com; ibrahimabdelrazek2006@yahoo.com
Egg yolk (EY) based extenders have long been used for chilling and freezing bovine bull semen. Recently, several studies have shown that the use of EY involves hygienic risks and probable drawbacks on sperm integrity and subsequent fertility. Hence, several attempts were made to replace the traditional EY with some plant origin substitutes in the formulating bovine semen extenders. In this study, semen was collected once weekly by artificial vagina from five sexually mature Holstein bulls for 12 weeks to compare and evaluate the effect of replacement of the conventional Tris-egg yolk extender with different concentrations of soybean milk (4, 7, 10 and 13%). The quality of chilled semen after dilution and storage at 5°C for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h was evaluated. The results showed that the use of 7% soybean milk was the best compared to the other experimental concentrations. In addition, the use of 7% soybean milk extender tended to maintain sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity for a longer period of time than that of the other extenders tested. All soybean concentrations improved (P ≤ 0.05) sperm progressive motility; live sperm; acrosome and plasma membrane integrity at the different storage periods. Supplementing the extender with 13% soybean milk had adverse effects on the semen parameters during cool storage. It could be concluded that the inclusion of soybean milk to Holstein bull semen extender as a substitute to EY at the rate of 7% is favorable for better sanitation and preservation at 5°C of that semen. Keywords: Holstein bulls, semen, extender, soya bean milk, preservation
79 LAYERS OF OPEN NUCLEUS BREEDING SCHEME IN RELATION TO THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF WEANING WEIGHT IN BARKI SHEEP: A SIMULATION STUDY , Salwa I. El-Wakil Animal and Poultry Breeding Department, Desert Research Centre, El-Matareya, Cairo, Egypt, Email:salwa_elwakil@yahoo.com
The present study investigated the expected genetic gain of weaning weight by changing the stratification of the open nucleus breeding scheme from two tires system (ON2) to three tires one (ON3). The original body weight data were collected from the Barki sheep flock of the Desert Research Centre from 1963 to 2005 with a total number of 1046 animals (542 females and 504 males) progenies of 163 sires and 557 dams. The simulated sets of data were generated from the original data and designed to construct ON3 system consisted of a nucleus flock attached with five multiplier flocks and each of them linked to one commercial flock, whereas ON2 system was constructed by simulating a nucleus flock associated with five commercial flocks. The open nucleus breeding scheme was also simulated to allow for the exchange of superior sires among tires in both directions. Three generations of progenies were obtained by selection of sires and dams for the next generations. The annual genetic gain as a response to selection for weaning weight was also calculated. Results indicated that breeding values of sires, dams and offspring as well as average weaning weight tended to increase in ON3 and ON2 systems as generations advanced from the first (G1) to the third generation (G3) in nucleus, multiplier and commercial flocks. In both ON2 and ON3 systems, there was a consistent trend for the annual genetic gain of average weaning weight to be the highest in G2 and decreased in G3. Selection for weaning weight for three generations in ON3 system increased average weaning weight from 18.91 kg to 28.67 kg (by 51.6%) in the nucleus flock, from 17.85 kg to 26.38 kg (by 47.8%) in multiplier flocks and from 16.33 kg to 23.17 kg (by 41.9%) in commercial flocks. The corresponding values for ON2 were from 19.02 kg to 28.35 kg (by 49.1%) in the nucleus flock and from 16.33 kg to 25.17 kg (by 54.1%) in commercial flocks. These results clearly indicate that the increase in the annual genetic gain of weaning weight happened in the commercial flocks of ON2 system was much higher (54.1% vs 41.9%) than that occurred in the commercial flocks of ON3 system. Moreover, the annual genetic gain for average weaning weight obtained in the commercial flocks of G2 in the ON2 system was three times as much as that occurred in ON3 one (31.7% and 10.2%, respectively). The respective values in G3 were found to be 28.8% and 17.1% for ON3 and ON2, respectively. It is quite clear that the improvement of weaning weight not only was increased in the commercial flocks when the two tires system was applied but also reached faster in the second generation while it delayed to the third generation in case of the three tires system. There is certainly a considerable increase in the genetic response for both ON2 and ON3 systems, however, the practical importance of higher and faster genetic gain, low cost, simplicity and ease of operation might lead to recommending the ON2 system for genetic improvement of weaning weight in Barki sheep. Keywords: Open nucleus breeding scheme, genetic improvement, weaning weight, Barki sheep
80 SOYBEAN LECITHIN-BASED EXTENDER FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF RAM SEMEN , F. E. El-Azzaziand M. A. Yaseen Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
This study was aimed to evaluate post thawed ram semen cryopreserved using extenders supplemented with soybean lecithin as a non-animal source of lipoprotein. Five mature Ossimi rams were used for semen collection. Good quality ejaculates (initial motility more than 70%) were mixed together and treated as one pooled semen sample. A concentration of 2% soybean lecithin in Tris (hydroxy-methyl amino methane) extender was used and compared with the basic Tris-yolk extender. Pooled semen samples were diluted at the rate of 1:4 (semen to extender) using the two comparable extenders and were frozen in French plastic 0.5 ml straws in liquid nitrogen. The results on post-thaw motility, recovery rates, hypo-osmotic swelling test, abnormal sperm, acrosome reacted spermatozoa and metabolic activity showed non-significant superiority of lecithin contained extender as compared to that fundamentally contained egg yolk. It is concluded that replacing the fundamental egg yolk by soy bean lecithin in formulating ram semen extenders could be useful for better post-thaw quality of spermatozoa. Keywords: Soybean Lecithin, Cryopreservation, Semen, Ram
81 BLOOD FLOW AND OVARIAN RESPONSE AFTER THE USE OF SHORT-TERM PROTOCOL TO SYNCHRONIZE OVULATION IN GOATS , M.A. Abdel-Ghani 1*, T.M. El-sherry 1, M. Hayder 2, N. Abou-Khalil 3, F. Abou Ammou 2, M. El- Shafie 2, T. Abdel-khalek 2, H. Hamdon 4 1 Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assuit University, Assuit, 71526, Egypt ,2 Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza,12311, Egypt , 3 Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assuit, 71526, Egypt, 4 Animal Production Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, New Valley Branch, El kharga, New Valley, 3201, Egypt. *Correspondence: M.A. Abdel-Ghani (e-mail: mohammed_ali76@hotmail.com)
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2), nitric oxide (NO), and blood flow (BF) of ovarian follicle after estrous synchronization in Sa'idi goats. Thirty goats were injected with PGF2α , then immediately after they received an intravaginal Progestagen impregnated sponge for 5 days. At the time of sponge removal, the goats were divided into two groups; group 1 was injected with PMSG and group 2 was injected with GnRH. The day of Progestagen withdrawal was considered as Day 0. Arbitrary-scale, blood flow area (BA) and blood flow area percent (BA%) were used to assess the follicle blood flow (FBF) in color Doppler images. The results showed that follicular wave emergence occurred in PMSG group significantly earlier (P<0.05) than in GnRH group. There was a significant difference between groups (P<0.001) and group by day interaction (P<0.001) in BA and BA%. The P4 and E2 levels showed an effect of group (P<0.001) and effect of group by day interaction (P<0.001).The NO revealed only a significant difference between group by day interaction (P<0.001). The increase in E2 was associated with a marked increase in NO and follicular growth. In both groups, P4 was negatively correlated with NO; however, the E2 and BF were positively correlated with NO. All correlations were significant (P < 0.0001).The data of the present study, concluded a positive correlation between E2, NO and BF in goats. Keywords: Blood flow, Follicles, Nitric oxide, Sa'idi goats
82 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MANAGERIAL SYSTEMS ON PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DEVELOPING BUFFALO CALVES DURING FATTENING PERIOD , M. Abd-Allah1*, M.Y. Elaref2 and A.I. Zanouny3 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt, 3- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Minia, Egypt, *Corresponding author: E-mail: Mohtaram_a_m_e@yahoo.com. Tel: +202 01006957157
Sixteen yearling male buffalo calves weighing 160 kg were assigned to 2x2 factorial designs. Each four calf group was subjected to either long (16L:8D) or short (8L:16D) photoperiods and housed in individual or group system. The four groups were fed CFM and wheat straw. Feed intake and residual were recorded daily. Samples of feces and food ration were collected for analysis. Digestion coefficients, nutritive values and feed efficiency were calculated. Animals were weighed biweekly. Blood samples were collected monthly to determine total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT/GPT, AST/GOT and total cholesterol. Housing systems did not have any significant effects on calf body weight and growth rate while; photoperiod had significant effect (P≤0.01) on them. Housing systems did not have any significant effects on the digestion coefficients and nutritive values, while, photoperiod systems had highly significant (P≤0.01) effect on digestibility coefficients and nutritive values of buffalo calves. Calves exposed to long photoperiod (16L:8D) and housed in group pens were more efficient in converting feed to gain than calves exposed to short photoperiod (8L:16D) and housed in individual pens. Total protein (P≤0.05), albumin (P≤0.01) and ALT/GPT (P≤0.05) was significantly affected by the housing system. All blood parameters were not significantly affected except cholesterol level was significantly (P≤0.01) affected by photoperiod. The interaction between housing systems and photoperiods did not have any significant differences on growth performance, feed conversion efficiency or metabolic response. It could be concluded that rearing buffalo calves individually with increasing illumination period to 16 hours/ day may improve feed efficiency and growth performance without compromising the physiological status of the calves during the fattening period. Keywords: Buffalo calves, housing system, photoperiod, growth performance, feed efficiency
83 MILK PRODUCTION AND SOME BLOOD METABOLITE RESPONSES TO YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION IN EARLY LACTATING HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS , A.N.M. Nour El-Din Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, 21545, Alexandria, Egypt
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of supplementation of two commercial products, Tonilisat yeast (TY) and Grow yeast (GY) on milk production, milk composition and blood metabolites in lactating dairy cows. Eighteen early lactating Holstein dairy cows were divided into three groups of six cows per each group for three months. The supplement levels of TY and GY product were 3.75 and 15g/cow/d, respectively, which were mixed with the concentrate mixture. The results show that dry matter intake (DMI) was not (P > 0.164) affected by TY or GY supplementation compared to the control group. The inclusion of TY or GY increased (P<0.05) milk yield by 3.76 and 2.93 kg/d, respectively compared to the control group. The enhancement in milk yield was 15.5 and 12.1 % by TY and GY supplementation, respectively compared to the control group. Both types of yeast products supplementation to early lactating dairy cows improved (P<0.05) fat corrected milk (FCM), energy corrected milk (ECM) and feed efficiency compared to the control diet. Milk fat, milk protein and solids- not- fat (SNF) yields were increased (P<0.05) in the two yeast supplemental groups compared to the control animals. TY yeast products inclusion in the diet increased (P<0.05) the serum total protein and globulin concentrations compared to the GY product and control groups, while both products had no significant effect on albumin concentration compared to the control diet. Cholesterol concentration was increased (P<0.05) by adding GY to the diet of the dairy cows compared to the TY and control groups. From the present results it can be concluded that both TY and GY products have favorable impacts on the productivity of dairy cows during early lactation. Keywords: Yeast supplementation, productive performance, blood metabolites, dairy cows
84 CHARACTERIZATION OF CROP/LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN RECLAIMED AREAS OF EGYPT , Y.A. Abdel-Aziz Animal Production Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt Email: yaaa21064@yahoo.ca
The current study used system approach to characterize the existing crop/livestock production system in the reclaimed areas to assess its economical efficiency in four governorates. The four governorates were; Behira, North Sinai, Fayoum and Menia. A random sample of 151 farms were investigated. A questionnaire was designed to cover available resources, farming activities, variable costs and revenues. Least squares analysis of variance technique was performed to derive technical coefficients for livestock and major crops production performance. Gross margin per animal unit and per feddan was estimated as a measure of economical efficiency. The overall means of family size, farm size and herd size were estimated as 5.2 person, 3.9 feddan, 1.8 head, respectively. Buffaloes and cows raised in Fayoum produced more total milk yield (2492 and 1688 kg, respectively) compared to those of the other governorates. Results showed that wheat is the main winter cash crop and maize is considered the major summer cash crop in Behira, Fayoum and Menia. In North Sinai farmers are interested in cultivating 50% of the farm size with olive and 44% with peach. Behira beneficiaries utilized their limited production resources more efficient than the other studied governorates since they achieved the highest return per feddan and per animal unit (AU) among the studied areas (LE 7276 and 11520, respectively). Keywords: system approach, crop/livestock, reclaimed areas, gross margin, Egypt
85 EFFECT OF L-TYROSINE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, AGE OF SEXUAL PUBERTY, SEMEN QUALITY AND TESTOSTERONE LEVEL IN FRIEZIAN BULLS , Abu El-Hamd, M. A. and M. S. Sayah Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt Email: (abuelhamd68@yahoo.com)
Thirty Friesian bull calves averaged 8.5 ± 0.16 month of age and 195 ± 15 kg body weight were used in this study. All bulls were fed similar diets. The bulls were divided into three similar groups (10 each), according to their weight and age. Bulls in the 1st group were considered as control (G1). while those in the 2nd group were received single oral dose from L-tyrosine (50 g/bull) at 8.5 months of age (G2). Bulls in the 3rd group were received two oral doses from L-tyrosine (50 g/bull) at 8.5 and 10.5 months of age (G3). The results revealed that L-tyrosine treatment increased (P<0.01) the live body weight (LBW) in G3 and G2 compared to G1 at 12 month, first appearance of spermatozoa, sexual puberty, and at 24 months of age. Age at first appearance of spermatozoa and puberty age were (P<0.001) earlier by about 1.2 and 1.5 and 0.9 and 1.7 months, respectively, for bulls in G2 and G3 than the control. Changes in testosterone concentration during the study period were higher (P<0.05) in G3 and G2 than in G1. L-tyrosine increased (P<0.01) percentages of progressive motility and livability of spermatozoa, and sperm cell concentration compared to control at first appearance of spermatozoa, puberty, and at 24 months of age. In general, semen quality improved (P<0.01) at 24 month of age as compared to puberty age. Sperm motility and livability and sperm cell concentration significantly increased (P<0.01) with advancing age in all groups. Morphology defects in the head of spermatozoa were lower (P<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G1 at first appearance of spermatozoa, sexual puberty and at 24 months of age. Also the proximal droplets were lower (P<0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G1 at puberty and at 24 months of age. There was a significant increase in number of normal sperm cells with age advancement as well as significant decreases in proximal droplets and head defects. The present results indicated that treated bulls by one or two doses of L-tyrosine (50 gm/bull calves) induced an improvement of growth performance, earlier sexual puberty and improved semen quality of Friesian bull. Keywords: Friesian bull, L-tyrosine, puberty, testosterone and semen quality
86 VARIATION IN INTRON 1 OF THE OVINE GDF8 GENE AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH GROWTH AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF DUAL PURPOSE SHEEP , A. H. M. Ibrahim*1, H. Zhou2 and J.G.H. Hickford2 1- Department of Animal Breeding, Desert Research Center, 1 Mathaf AlMatariya St., Cairo, Egypt, 2- Gene-Marker Laboratory, Agriculture and Life Sciences Division, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand * Email: adelhosseiny2005@yahoo.com
The aim of this study was to further investigate the variation in growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) gene and its association with growth and carcass characteristics of New Zealand Romney sheep. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to detect the polymorphisms in intron 1 of ovine GDF8 gene in 447 New Zealand Romney lambs produced from 17 sire-lines. PCR-SSCP analysis identified a total of six SSCP genotypes, AA (0.111), AB (0.367), AC (0.100), BB (0.288), BC (0.128) and CC (0.006) representing three alleles A, B and C with frequency of 0.34, 0.54 and 0.12, respectively. General linear mixed effect models revealed a significant effect (P< 0.05) for GDF8 genotype on loin yield and percentage loin yield. The presence of allele B was significantly associated with increased loin yield (P< 0.05) and percentage loin yield (P< 0.01). Effects of number of allele copies present on the studied traits were assessed. Loin yield and percentage loin yield were significantly (P< 0.05) affected by number of allele B copies. Having one copy of allele B was associated with increased loin yield, total yield and percentage loin yield; however, having two copies of allele B was associated with decreased loin yield and total yield. Our present results suggest that GDF8 polymorphism is mainly associated with loin yield and percentage loin yield and has no effect on birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate in New Zealand Romney sheep. Keywords: growth, carcass, GDF8, PCR-SSCP, Romney sheep
87 METABOLIC CHANGES IN BLOOD AND OVARIAN FOLLICULAR FLUID IN BALADI GOATS AS AFFECTED BY STORAGE TIME DURATION , A. A. Mohammed1 and A. Y. Kassab2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Assiut, 71526, Egypt, 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley, University of Assiut, 71526, Egypt Email: ayman15@yahoo.com
The purposes of this study were to determine; 1) complete blood picture and serum metabolites after different times of storage (0, 4 and 8 h) of either whole blood or blood serum; 2) metabolites concentration in follicular fluids harvested from different-sized follicles; 3) metabolites concentration in follicular fluids after different times of ovarian storage without (0, 4 and 8 h) or with (0 and 8h) holding medium in goats. Twenty four Baladi goats were slaughtered in this study. Blood samples were collected before immediate slaughter of goats. Fifteen pairs of ovaries with double dominance follicles were selected after slaughter and classified to three categories for collection of follicular fluids upon ovarian storage without (0, 4 and 8 h) or with (0 and 8h) holding medium. After immediate slaughter (0h), follicular fluids were aspirated from two size classes of non-atretic follicles; subdominance (≤3 mm) and dominance (>4mm). Moreover, follicular fluids were aspirated from dominance (>4mm) follicles upon ovarian storage without (0, 4 and 8 h) or with (0 and 8h) holding medium. Blood/serum and follicular fluid samples remained independent among goats and follicle size classes within goats. Blood serum and follicular fluid samples were assayed using photometric assays for complete blood picture and metabolites determination of glucose, total protein, albumin, triglycerides and total cholesterol. Results showed that blood cell picture, serum and follicular fluid metabolites (glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) were changed over storage time of blood and ovaries. The extent of differences was time dependent. Thus, optimized storage time for ovaries containing large follicles is beneficial for embryo development in vitro which positively can affect the outcomes from embryo transferred to animals. Keywords: Ovarian follicular fluid, blood metabolites, follicle size, storage, goats
88 ASSESSING THE GENETIC VARIABILITY IN EGG PRODUCTION AND EGG QUALITY TRAITS OF FOUR EGYPTIAN LOCAL STRAINS OF CHICKENS USING RAPD AND SSR TECHNIQUES , Lamiaa M. Radwan1, M.Y. Mahrous1 and M.E. EL-Denary2 1Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, 2- Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Corresponding author: lamia_radwan@agr.asu.edu.eg
Local chicken strains are important, especially to the smallholder systems in developing countries. In this study we attempt to estimate the genetic characterization of some Egyptian local chicken strain/populations using SSR and RAPD markers. In four populations of Fayoumi, Gimmizah, Bandarah and Mandarah strains, egg production and quality parameters (egg number, weight, mass, eggshell strength, albumen weight, albumen percentage, Haugh units and yolk index) were recorded and evaluated for the first 3 months of the production cycle. Fayoumi eggs recorded a significant increase in the eggshell strength and yolk percentage when compared to other strains. On the other hand, Fayoumi hens recorded a significant decrease in egg production, egg weight and egg mass compared to Gimmizah, Bandarah and Mandarah ones. Yolk index showed a significant increase for Fayoumi eggs compared to all studied eggs strains. Moreover, albumen weight and albumen percentage recorded a significant increase for eggs of Bandarah and Mandarah compared to those of Fayoumi and Gimmizah strains. Six SSR and five RAPD primers were used to estimate genetic heterogeneity. Molecular marker analysis indicated that Bandarah and Mandarah showed a similarity of 60% in one group, while Gimiezah’s similarity only reached 53%. On the other hand, Fayoumi was less similar to the other tested strains (about 40%). Heterozygozity within each studied strain -based on allele frequency- was also studied. Fayoumi breed showed lower heterozygozity (0.23) than Gimieizah, Mandara and Bandara which showed 0.26, 0.30 and 0.31 heterozygote values respectively. So, we recommend that SSR technique is useful in establishing genetic relationship among the populations and in indicating the purity of the breeds. Keyword: RAPD, SSR, genetics, Egyptian strains, production parameters
89 INFLUENCE OF PROGESTIN SOURCE ON SOME BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF DROMEDARY SHE-CAMELS DURING INDUCTION OF OVULATION IN THE NORTH WESTERN COAST OF EGYPT , I. S. Abd-El Hamid3, A. A. Zaghloul3, K. A. El-Bahrawy3, S. Z. El-Zarkouny1, 2 1Department of Arid Land Agriculture, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdul-Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 2Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt 3Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center Cairo, Egypt
Eighteen one-humped she-camels were divided randomly into three equal groups: group 1 served as control; group 2 (MGA) received (0.5 mg/ head/day) of Melengestrol acetate for 10 days and; group 3 (CIDR) were fitted intravaginally with controlled internal drug release (CIDR, 1.38g P4) for 10 days. At day 10 the MGA and CIDR groups were administered PGF2α and 3000 IU PMSG, MGA feeding was withdrawn and CIDRs were removed. Animals were given 5000 IU of hCG 10 days later and were artificially inseminated (day 20). Blood samples were collected from all groups at day 0 = day of CIDR insertion and beginning of MGA feeding; day 5 = 5 days after CIDR insertion and onset of MGA feeding; day 10 = day of CIDR removal and MGA feeding withdrawal; and day 20 = day of hCG injection. Serum biochemical and mineral constituents, and serum reproductive hormones (estradiol-17β and progesterone) were determined. Overall means of serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and AST enzyme were not different among treatments. Treatment with CIDR increased BUN at days 10 and 20 and the overall mean BUN concentration compared to control and MGA groups. Treatments with CIDR and MGA numerically increased serum glucose compared to control at days 10 and 20. However, overall mean serum concentrations of HDL were not affected by CIDR and treatments. In the meantime, CIDR and MGA increased serum ALT concentrations at days 20 and the overall means ALT concentrations compared to control. No marked changes were detected in serum concentrations of Ca++ and Na+ in the MGA and CIDR groups compared to controls. Serum concentrations of K+ were increased at day 20 in the MGA and CIDR groups than at days 0 and 5. Overall mean serum concentration of K+ was greater in the CIDR group (4.2 ± 0.14 mEq/l) than in control (3.4 ± 0.16 mEq/l) and MGA (3.5 ± 0.14 mEq/l) groups. Similar trend was detected in serum concentrations of P as MGA and CIDR groups had more (P < 0.01) serum P (4.7 ± 0.36 and 4.6 ± 0.24 mg/dl) at days 20 compared to days 0, 5 and 10. Results also indicated that natural progestin treatment (CIDR) increased P4 concentration at days 5 and 10 while control and MGA-fed animals had lower P4 levels. Also, CIDR increased the overall mean P4 concentration (2.9 ± 0.28 ng/ml) compared to control and MGA groups (0.5 ± 0.33 and 0.9 ± 0.29 ng/ml). Both MGA and CIDR groups had lower estradiol at days 5 and 10. At day 20, estradiol was elevated in the CIDR group compared to control and MGA groups. In conclusion, progestin treatments exerted no deleterious effects on animal health and can be used without limitation for further treatments. Natural P4 improved the pattern of reproductive hormones secretion without detrimental effects on animal health and blood biochemical constituents. Keywords: Camels, progesterone, minerals, serum
90 IN SITU DRY MATTER, CRUDE PROTEIN, FIBER DEGRADATION AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION OF HALOPHYTIC GRASS (Sporopolus virginicus) BY ARABIAN CAMEL , M. H. Abdel Gawad Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt Email: mhabdelgwad@yahoo.com
Three cannulated dromedary camels weighting an average of 450 kg were used to estimate dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) degradation of halophytic grass (Sporobolus Virginicus) compared to Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) as a control fodder. In Vitro gas production was used to compare sporobolus grass as a tested one with Rhodes grass as a common one. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with sea water using a sprinkler irrigation system. Samples were collected in 12 plastic bags (2 kg/bag) from Dhabiyah Research Station in Bupqal Island. Treatments were: 1) Rhodes grass (control; RH) which was collected in 4 plastic bags (2 kg / bag) from the Faculty Farm, Al-Ain district, 2) Sporobolus grass (no washing; SPO1), 3) Sporobolus grass (Washed with fresh water after cutting; SPO2), and 4) Sporobolus grass (steam treated at 130o C, 17 Bar for 2 min.; SPO3). Chemical composition showed that hemicellulose was extensively hydrolyzed during steam treatment in sporobolus grass. Sodium percentage (g/kg DM) was 14.3 in sporobolus grass, while was reduced to be 6.5 in steam treated sporobolus. Whereas the crude protein percent was (6.26%) in sporobolus grass, while it was more than two folds in Rhodes grass comparing to sporobolus grass. Both SPO1 and SPO2 showed the highest dry matter and crude protein disappearance comparing to Rhodes grass (RH) and steam treated sporobolus (SPO3). Neutral detergent fiber disappearance was the best for Rhodes grass incubation periods compared to the other treatments, while SPO1 showed the higher significance of neutral detergent fiber degradation and followed by Rhodes grass up to 120 hrs of incubation time. On the contrary, the overall In vitro gas production technique in Rhodes grass was significantly higher (1.5 fold) more (43.67 ml/0.2 g DM) comparing to the rest of treatments of Sporobolus. It is concluded that, Sporobolus has a potential as new source of forage for camels, where fresh water is scarce. In addition, In vitro gas production technique is good indicator for estimating the quality of salt tolerant grasses, especially with steam treatment under vacuum. Keywords: Sporobolus, Camel, In situ ingredients degradation, and Gas production
91 EFFECT OF ORGANIC ACID SALT SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED UTILIZATION IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF HYBRID TILAPIA (♀ O. Niloticus x ♂ O. aureus) FINGERLINGS , M. Khaled Department of Animal and Fish Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia41522, Egypt *Correspondence: Tel. +201006096264; Fax. +20643201793 E-mail: khelo20022002@yahoo.com
A 84 day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sodium diformate NDF® as commercial feed additives on growth performance and feed utilization of hybrid tilapia (♀ O. niloticus X ♂ O. aureus) fingerlings. Four treatments were applied; three levels of NDF® (1 g kg-1, 3 g kg-1and 5 g kg-1) in addition to the control. The experimental diets containing (320 g kg-1 crude protein and 19.3 MJ GE) were applied into 24 fiberglass tanks, six replicate, stocked randomly with 25 hybrid tilapia fingerlings initial BW (15 ± 0.5 g) each. The efficiency of diformate supplementation was evaluated by parameters of growth response, crude protein (using body composition data). Generally, significant difference (P<0.05) were detected in growth performance with groups of fish fed on diets supplemented by NDF® compared to the control group. The diet supplemented by 3 g kg-1 NDF® had a mean final body weight 95.5g while control diet was 87.9 g. In terms of feed utilization, supplementation of 3 g kg-1 NDF® showed a statistical significant (P<0.05) improvement in terms of FCR (1.28), PER (2.71) and PRE (40.3) compared with other groups of fish at various supplementation levels of organic acids salts and better than control. Apparent protein and lipid digestibility among fish groups fed the experimental diets supplemented by NDF® improved significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control group. From these results it can be concluded that the dietary organic acids have the potential beneficial effects on growth and feed utilization in tilapia feeding. Keywords: Growth performance, Feed utilization, Protein digestibility, Organic acid salts, Hybrid tilapia
92 L-carnitine improved bovine blastocyst rate and quality when supplemented at different preimplantation stages , N. Ghanem Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
The present study investigated the effect ofL-carnitine supplementation during different pre-implantation stages on bovine embryo development rate and quality. Good morphologically cumulus-oocyte complexes (n=2126) recovered from slaughterhouse ovaries were matured, fertilized in vitro and presumed zygotes were further cultured in vitro (IVC) in CR1-aa media till day 8. For the setup of the study, L-carnitine (1.5 mM) was added at different technological steps (IVM, IVF, IVC and all stages) and different developmental stages (early IVC: 1- to 4-cell vs. late IVC: 8-cellembryos). Moreover, untreated (control) group was also included in this experiment.Quality of embryos developed from all experimental groupswere evaluated usingterminal deoxynucleotidy ltransferased UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay which assesses total normal and apoptotic cell numbers ofembryos. Real-time PCR was used to profile 5 embryo marker genes (SOD2, CDX2, IFNt, Glut8 and TFAM) in addition; GAPDH was used as housekeeping gene. Results of the current study showed a significant increase in blastocyst rate at day 8 of culture when L-carnitine was added at IVM (34.1±2.6), early IVC (34.6±1.7), late IVC (38.4±2.8), and all stages (36.4±3.5) compared to control (22.5±1.4) and IVF (26.0±1.1) groups.The blastocyst total number of cells was greater (P < 0.05) in groups that L-carnitine was added at IVM (134.1±4.9), IVF (125.7±2.8), early IVC (133.8±5.7), late IVC (139.2±3.5) and all stages (137.0±4.1) compared to control (115.3±3.6). On the other hand, control embryo group has more apoptotic cells (10.4±1.9) than L-carnitine treated groups at IVM (4.1±1.2), IVF (5.5±1.6), early IVC (3.9±1.4), late IVC (4.0±1.7) and all stages (2.8±2.0). The expression profile of SOD2, IFNt, Glut8 and TFAM genes was increased in embryos treated with L-carnitine at IVM, early IVC, late IVC and all stages compared to IVF and control groups. In addition, CDX2 transcript was more abundant in IVM, late IVC and all stages treated groups than in any other embryo group. Overall, the findings of the present study support the notion that L-carnitinecould be a potential antioxidant substance that has a positive effect on embryo development rate and quality when supplemented to all culture media throughout bovine preimplantation. Keywords: in vitro, embryo, development, antioxidant, gene expression
93 HETEROSIS AND ADDITIVE GENETIC EFFECTS FOR BODY WEIGHT IN UPGRADING BURUNDI ANKOLE CATTLE WITH SAHIWAL , M.R. Anous1*, G.F. Gouda1 and H. Nimenya2 1 Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 68 Hadayek Shoubra, 11241 Cairo, Egypt, 2 Institut Supérieur d'Agriculture (ISA), B.P. 35, Gitega, Burundi
Data on 139 bull calves and 174 heifer calves, representing the Ankole and Sahiwal purebred cattle and their crosses, were used to evaluate the effect of grading up Ankole cattle of Burundi with Sahiwal cattle of Pakistan on live body weights of calves at birth, weaning, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years of age. Two statistical models were used for analyzing the data; the first included the main effects of genetic group, farm (i.e. station) and sex, and the second was used to estimate total heterosis and additive genetic effects for live body weights. The effect of genetic group and sex were highly significant for all weights considered, however, effect of farm (i.e. station) was only significant (P< 0.001) for both weaning weight and live body weight at 12 months of age. The additive genetic effect was relatively more important than the total heterosis effect for live weights of weaning, 24 and 36 months of age. The effect of total heterosis was significant for weights at birth, weaning and 24 months of age and not significant (P> 0.05) for weights at 12 and 36 months of age. The additive genetic effect was not significant (P> 0.05) for both birth weight and weight at 12 months of age in contrary with the other weights. Keywords: Ankole and Sahiwal cattle, body weights, heterosis, additive genetic
94 GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC ANALYSES OF DAYS OPEN AND 305-DAY MILK YIELD IN A COMMERCIAL HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN HERD , H. E. Rushdi1 1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author E-mail: hosamrushdi@agr.cu.edu.eg
A total number of 496 lactation records for 298 cows sired by 28 bulls of a commercial herd of Holstein Friesian cows raised in Egypt, belonging to Alexandria Copenhagen Company for Dairy and Meat Production, were used in the present study to analyze factors affecting 305-day milk yield (305-DMY) and days open (DO). Data were collected during 5 years (2006-2010) and analyzed using SAS, XLSTAT and WOMBAT. Parity had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on 305-DMY. Season of calving significantly (P < 0.05) affected DO. Estimates of heritability for 305-DMY and DO were 0.25 and 0.11, respectively. The corresponding estimates of repeatability for 305-DMY and DO were 0.39 and 0.05, respectively. These results reflect a very small contribution of additive genetic variance, and also point out that improvement in such traits could be achieved by improved management and feeding procedures. Coefficients of phenotypic and genetic correlation between the two traits were -0.01 and 0.08, respectively. Results indicate possibility of genetic improvement of milk production and reproduction traits by selection for 305-DMY only, due to its relatively high heritability estimate as well as its negatively favorable phenotypic and positively reasonable genetic correlation coefficients with DO. Although genetic parameters are important tools for improving quantitative traits by selection, still there is room to improve milk production and reproduction traits of Holstein Friesian through the application of improved management procedures. Keywords: Holstein Friesian, 305 -day milk yield, days open, genetic parameters
95 EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TEST-DAY MILK YIELD OF HOLSTEIN COWS MAINTAINED IN THE NILE DELTA OF EGYPT , A.A. Nigm1, R.R. Sadek1, Sherien A. Yassien2, M.A.M. Ibrahim1 and M. A. El-Wardani2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Production Systems Research, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt
To evaluate the effect of climate change on milk yield of Holstein cattle maintained in the Delta region of Egypt, meteorological data covering the period 2000-2014 were obtained from the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate. Data of test-day milk yield (TDMY) comprised 109759 records, were collected from four herds (5546 Holstein cows) covering the same period of meteorological data. The four herds represented different parts of the Delta region: west of the Delta (Dina farm, El- Behera governorate, H1 and H2), middle (El- Sharkia governorate, Sami Asaad farm, H3) and east of Delta (El- Karada farm, Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, H4). Daily management practices were almost comparable in the four studied herds, except for the housing systems. Preliminary analysis of meteorological data during the period (2012-2014) revealed that the air temperature increased (P<0.05) by19.8%, during June–September, and by 3.1% for all the year round, relative to the period (2000 to 2011). Temperature humidity index (THI) showed a similar trend to air temperature, increased (P<0.05) by10.5%, during June–September, and by 2.3% for all the year round, during the same year periods. THI values were more than the minimum threshold of heat stress (≤74), throughout the June–September, while less than this threshold during the rest of the calendar year. TDMY decreased (P<0.05) when THI was >74. TDMY, also decreased (P<0.05) by 6.1% in the period from 2012-2014 compared to 2000-2011. It could be concluded that a marked change in the climate of the Delta region of Egypt expressed in the rise of THI values. This rise started the year 2011 up to 2014. This change negatively affects milk production as measured by TDMY. Keywords: climate change, test-day milk yield, Holstein cows, delta region, Egypt
96 EFFECT OF BETA-CAROTENE INJECTION ON ESTRUS, VITAMIN A AND ESTRADIOL-17β CONCENTRATIONS IN PUBERTAL FARAFRA EWE LAMBS , A.A. Salem1; N. A. El-Shahawy2 and I. A. Soliman1 1 Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 2Institute of Animal Production Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
To study the effect of Beta Carotene (BC) treatment on puberty and related phenomena as well as concentrations of vitamin A, and estradiol-17β hormone 48 Farafra ewe lambs were divided into two equal groups. The control group (G1) was injected intramuscularly with 0.1 mg arachis oil, while the treated group (G2) was injected with 0.1 mg BC  arachis oil / kg twice a week from weaning to puberty. Estradiol 17 β, progesterone (P4), BC and vitamin A were assayed in blood sera taken from 6 animals/ group. Results indicated that treatment with BC was accompanied by increasing estradiol-17β and vitamin A concentrations at puberty. Ewe lambs of G2 displayed (P< 0.05) more estrous cases post-puberty than G1. Both groups displayed short cycles at puberty (6.2 d for G2 vs. 7.4 d for G1) with no significant difference between the two groups. P4 concentration at estrus of puberty was ≥ 1.0 ng/ml of both groups. Post-puberty BC and Vit.A concentrations had (P<0.05) positive correlation in the two studied groups. BC concentration in G2 was higher (P< 0.05) at pre-puberty than post-puberty. In conclusion, BC injection had an impact on number of observed estrous cases, vitamin A and estradiol-17β concentrations at puberty and post-puberty estrus, which might be applied in the animal farms to enhance estrus cases around puberty. Keywords: beta-catrotene, ewe lambs, estradiol-17β, estrous activity, puberty, progesterone, vitamin A
97 IN VITRO INDUCTION OF THE ACROSOME REACTION IN LOCAL EGYPTIAN RAMS SPERMATOZOA BY CALCIUM IONOPHORE (A23187) , Sh. M. Shamiah1, E. O. H. Saifelnasr1*, Eetidal. H. El-Sayed1, A. E. Abdel-Khalek2, T. M. Ashmawy1 and M.E. El-Gendy1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University., Egypt, * Corresponding author Email: (es_saifelnasr@ yahoo.com)
The main objective of this work was to develop an efficient in vitro test (acrosome reaction, AR) to predict fertility in rams spermatozoa in the Egyptian local rams by using Ca++ionophore. Semen was collected for 5 successive weeks from four Rahmani and four Ossimi Egyptian local rams. Fresh collected semen was initially evaluated. Calcium ionophore was used to stimulate the sperm to undergo acrosome reaction (AR). Results showed that differences in all initial semen characteristic values were not significant among Rahmani rams. The same results were obtained in Ossimi rams, except mass motility (88.75%, P<0.05). After Induction of AR, results showed in Rahmani and Ossimi breeds that live-reacted spermatozoa% (LR) was the highest (34.25 and 34.50%, P<0.05) in ram No. 1 of both breeds when compared to other rams in both breeds, respectively. Conception rate (CR) after natural mating revealed individual differences among rams within each breed, but the differences were significant (P<0.05) within Ossimi breed only. Ram No. 1 of both breeds showed the highest CR compared to other rams of the same breed. However, the mean of CR was insignificantly higher in Rahmani than Ossimi breed (89.19 vs. 81.08%). There was positive correlation between percentage of live-reacted spermatozoa and CR in Rahmani breed (r=0.64, P<0.01) and in Ossimi breed (r=0.96, P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant correlation between the percentage of mass motility and CR (r=0.70, P<0.01) in Ossimi breed. It could be concluded that lamb rams fertility of local sheep can be predicted using acrosome reaction test with Ca++ionophore. Keywords: Ram, Rahmani, Ossimi, breed,semen, acrosome reaction, calcium ionophore
98 IMPACT OF PROPYL THIOURACIL ON TESTES FUNCTIONS AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS , E. E.Tharwat, M.M. Sabra, A. F. Hussein and Hanaa, H. Mansour Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Po.68 Hadaiq Shubra, Cairo, Egypt, Corresponding author: etharwat2001@yahoo.com
This study was carried out at Intensive Rabbit Production Unit, belonging to Agriculture Studies and Consultation Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University. The study was designed to investigate the effect of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) injection on testicular development and semen characteristics of male rabbits under intensive production. Sixty three New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits were used. Three male rabbits (zero time) were slaughtered, the rest was divided randomly into two groups, the first group (PTU) 30 animals were subcutaneously injected daily with PTU 20 μg/g live body weight from the 1st day until the weaning (28 day of age) and the second group (C) of 30 animals served as control and injected daily with the. The study showed that the treatment with PTU reduced (P≥ 0.001) live body weight during pre and post weaning periods. Testis measurements increased (P≥ 0.0001) in PTU treated group compared with control group at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days of age. Seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells indices increased (P ≥ 0.001) in PTU treated group (71.42 % and 18.97 %) compared with control group, respectively. The ejaculate volume of PTU treated rabbits was larger (P≥ 0.001) compared with control rabbits. The average sperm concentration /ml and advanced motility were 485.57 X 106 vs. 312.07 X 106 and 87.21 % vs. 78.23 % for PTU and control groups, respectively. The percentages of abnormal and dead spermatozoa were 16.07 % vs. 20.95 % and 5.03 % vs. 12.33 % for treated and control groups, respectively. In conclusion, the 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil can be used to increase testis size, ejaculate volume and sperm concentration. Despite these promising results, the use of PTU to produce male rabbits with larger testes and a better quality of semen needs further investigations in order to reduce the number of males breeding for artificial insemination purposes. Keywords: Rabbit, propyl thiouracil, semen, thyroid hormones
99 EFFECT OF ZINC AND EDTA ON LEAD AND CADMIUM RESIDUES IN BUFFALO CALVES , S.A. Mahmoud, H.S. Abou-seri, Samah M. Abdel-Rahman and A.F.I. Abdel-Latif Buffalo Research Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
This study was conducted to investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of either Zn or EDTA or zinc+EDTA on reducing plasma and tissue residues using 20 buffalo calves' naturally exposed to environmental lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reared in Mahlet-Mosa Farm in Kafr El–Shiekh governorate. Lead and cadmium levels were quantified fortnightly in blood samples throughout the fattening period (6 month) and the residues in liver, kidney and eye muscles after slaughtering were measured. It was found that the additions of Zn, EDTA and zinc+EDTA reduced the level of Pb in blood by 37, 42 and 20%, respectively; the corresponding residues of cadmium in plasma were 37.5, 50 and 25%, respectively compared to the control group. Also, the treatments effectively reduced (P<0.05) the lead and cadmium residues in soft tissues (liver, kidney and eye muscles). The levels of lead in liver were lower (P<0.05) in EDTA, zinc and zinc+EDTA treated groups (0.27, 0.20 and 0.31ppm), than the control group 0.55ppm. Meanwhile, the residues of lead in kidney were varied (P<0.05) among the different treatments being 0.17, 0.21 and 0.45ppm in EDTA, zinc and EDTA+zinc treated groups, receptively, compared to 0.75ppm in the control group. The residues of lead in the eye muscle were 0.08, 0.06 and 0.11ppm for zinc, EDTA and zinc+EDTA groups, respectively, compared to control group (0.15ppm). The cadmium residues as ppm in liver were less in EDTA (0.18), zinc (023), zinc+EDTA (0.24) treated groups compared to the control group (0.41). In kidney cadmium residues were ranged between 0.27 to 0.36 ppm in all treated groups. The levels of cadmium in the eye muscles were lower (P<0.05) in zinc, EDTA and zinc+EDTA (0.02, 0.03 and 0.03ppm, respectively) than the control group (0.05ppm) These results showed that dietary addition of zinc, EDTA and zinc+EDTA has the ability to reduce Pb and Cd residues in blood and soft tissue of buffalo calves without any negative effects. Moreover, EDTA addtions had more ameliorative Pb and Cd residues the effects of dietary supplementation of either zinc or zinc+EDTA as insured by blood parameters (Hb, PCV, creatinine, urea, AST and ALT) and soft tissues (liver, kidney and eye muscles Longissimus Lumbarium). Keywords: Buffalo calves, Pb, Cd, Zn, EDTA supplementation
100 PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF ZARAIBI BILLY GOATS SPERMATOZOA TO SOYBEAN LECITHIN ADDITION AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO EGG YOLK VARIETIES IN SEMEN EXTENDERS , E.I. Khalifa Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Department of Sheep and Goat Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: xyezz@yahoo.com
The present study was designed to determine the influence of cryopreservation action of extenders containing plant (soybean lecithin, SBL) or animal (domestic birds' egg yolk) origins on freezability and fertility of billy goat spermatozoa. Thus, semen ejaculates (thirty-six ejaculates) were collected, evaluated and extended in Tris-citric acid with either SBL or egg yolk (EY) derived from hen (HEY), duck (DEY), goose (GEY), quail (QEY), turkey (TEY) and pigeon (PEY). The diluted semen was packaged in 0.5 ml French straws, equilibrated for 3 hours at 5oC then frozen in liquid nitrogen (at -196°C). The thawing of straws was attained at 37oC for 60 sec. Percentages of progressive sperm motility, viability of sperms and injury of acrosome were evaluated at post - dilution (PD), post - equilibrium (PE) and post - thawing (PT). Fertility rate was carried out with 24 nanny goats divided into two groups (N=12/ group) and inseminated with the best cryosurvival extenders. The results revealed a non-significant difference between plant and bird origin extenders during PD and PE stages. In contrast, the PT was higher (P<0.05) in motility and viability with SBL and DEY extenders than other EY species however, the same trend did not occur between SBL and DEY extenders. The values of acrosomal abnormality was lower (P<0.05) in SBL and DEY extenders than other EY extenders. The nanny goats inseminated by SBL and DEY extenders had a conception rate of 58.33 % and 50.00 %, respectively. These results indicate that the spermatozoa that were preserved in either SBL or DEY extenders could protect the sperm cells during PD, PE, PT and results in the best fertility rate. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that SBL may represent a suitable alternative to egg yolk for semen cryopreservation in livestock species. Keywords: Billy goats, semen, plant and animal cryopreservation origins, fertility rate
101 EFFECT OF STOCKING DENSITY AND DIET'S TYPE ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF AFRICAN CATFISH Clarias gariepinus UNDER SEMI-INTENSIVE SYSTEM , R. M. Abou-Zied Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt Corresponding author: abouzied2004@yahoo.com
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimum stocking density and diet's type recently used in catfish farms, on both growth performance and economic efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The first experiment tested three different stocking density of catfish with average weight of 46.83 g ± 1.62 at a rate of 4, 8 and 12 catfish/m3 (T1, T2 and T3) in hapas (4 × 6 × 0.80 (in depth) m). The experiment started on 24 may, 2014 and continued for 186 days. The results showed that the low stocking T1 was the best in both growth performance and economic efficiency. The second experiment was conducted in earthen ponds using catfish with average body weight of 56.5 ± 1.05 g to evaluate three types of diets: poultry slaughters wastes (offal and dead chicken) PO, food factories wastes (FF) and artificial feed (AF). The experiment started on 15 May, 2014 and continued for 210 days. The results indicated that PO and FF diets were better than AF for economic efficiency and the treatment of PO diet was the best in all treatments in growth performance and economic fficiency. In conclusion, catfish can be cultured under high stocking density (T3) without causing any problems and the low stocking T1 was the best in both growth performance and economic efficiency in semi-intensive at earthen ponds system. In addition, using non-traditional diets of poultry slaughter wastes (PO) and wastes of food factory (FF) could be used to reduce the costs of production. Keywords: African catfish Clarias gariepinus, poultry offal diet, factory by products and stocking density
102 EFFECT OF REST SYSTEMS DURING SPAWNING SEASON ON THE SPAWNING EFFICIENCY OF NILE TILAPIA IN COMMERCIAL HATCHERIES , R. M. Abou-Zied Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt Corresponding author: abouzied2004@yahoo.com
This experiment was conducted to compare the effect of two resting system for 15 days of broodstock (rest in hapas and rest in ponds) versus no-resting control treatment on 6 months larvae production and spawning synchrony of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus stocked in 12 hapa with a water volume of 25 m3/hapa suspended in earthen pond, four hapa/treatment. Adult males and females with mean body weights of 140 g and 125.4 g, were stocked at a rate of 120 fish/hapa with a male to female sex ratio of 1:3. Water temperature at 29 ± 1.0 °C and salinity 2.4 ppt were maintained throughout the experiment. The results showed that broodstock in the rest system had higher seed production and spawning synchrony compared with those in no rest. The resting system resulted in an increase from 20.6 to 31.7% in larvae/female. The different spawning parameters of broodstock in the rest in hapa and rest in pond were higher than in the no rest (control). Results suggested that broodstock resting strategy had a long-term improvement effect on larvae production and spawning synchrony, and resting all breeders in ponds was more profitable but faced a problem, its needed two pond more than hatchery pond which is not available in most hatcheries. Keywords: Nile tilapia, spawning performance, economic efficiency, broodstock resting
103 FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE MAINTAINED IN THE NILE DELTA OF EGYPT , R.R. Sadek1, A.A. Nigm1, Sherien A. Yassien2, M.A.M. Ibrahim1 and M. A. El-Wardani2 1- - Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 2-Department of Production Systems Research, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Egypt
The objectives of the present study were to develop a simplified equation to estimate temperature-humidity index (THI) under the Egyptian conditions and to assess the influence of expected climate change on test-day milk yield of Holstein cattle in the Nile Delta of Egypt in the years 2025 and 2050. Data of air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) throughout the period from 2000 to 2014 and of their expected corresponding values in the two years 2025 and 2050 were provided by the Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate (CLAC). Meteorological data between the years 2000 – 2014 were used to detect if there was an ascending trend in THI of Nile Delta of Egypt throughout this period. Meteorological data of the years 2025 and 2050 were used to estimate the THI of these two years relative to the year 2000 as a benchmark. Using regression technique, a new accurate and simplified equation was developed to estimate THI. The equation accounted for 99.5% of the variance of THI. The developed equation was used to predict THI in the years 2025 and 2050. A total of 109759 test-day milk yield (TDMY) records for 5546 Holstein cows located in four herds was used to establish the effect of THI on TDMY of Holstein cattle in the Delta region. Meteorological data indicated a considerable increase in THI by 13.9 % (78.8) and 17.3% (81.2) for the years of 2025 and 2050, respectively, relative to the year 2000 (69.2). Analysis of TDMY indicated a significant decrease of 0.12 kg (1.2%) for each increase of one THI unit above 74 under the current managerial practices. The study concluded that proper and prompt breeding, feeding and system modifications should be considered to counteract the expected increase in THI by the years 2025 and 2050, to restore milk production of Holstein cattle in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Keywords: climate change, temperature-humidity index, milk production, Holstein
104 EFFECT OF GnRH TREATMENT DURING DIFFERENT TIMES POST-MATING ON PREGNANCY RATE OF BUFFALO HEIFERS , Abo-Farw, M.A.1, I.T. El-Ratel1, A.E. Abdel-Khalek2, H.A.Abouelghet1 and M.M. Ghoneim1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
To evaluate the efficiency of GnRH injection, on day of mating (Day 0) or during different days post-mating (Day 10 or Day 12),on conception rate of repeat breeder buffalo heifers, a total of 20 cyclic Egyptian buffalo heifers (2-4 years of age and 350-400 kg LBW was allotted to four experimental groups. All heifers had mature CLs and were injected i.m. with 2.5 ml PGF2α analogue (Estrumate)/h. Heifers in heat were naturally mated by fertile buffalo bull and allotted randomly to four experimental groups, 5 animals in each. On day of estrus, heifers were injected with 2.5 ml saline (G1, control), or a single dose of 2.5 ml Receptal on days 0, 10 and 12 post-mating in G2, G3 and G4, respectively. Blood samples were collected for determination of P4 concentration in blood serum. Pregnancy was diagnosed on day 25 post-mating of each animal using ultrasound examination. Results showed that conception rate (CR) was the highest (P<0.05) in G3 and G4 (80%), moderate in G2 (60%) and the lowest in G1 (40%). Serum P4 concentration was the highest (P<0.05) in G4 on most sampling days. There were insignificant differences in serum P4 on day of estrus, being ≤0.5 ng/ml in all groups. Concentration of P4 was the highest (P<0.05) in G2 as compared to other groups. Heifers in G4 showed the highest response to GnRH injection on day 12, whereas P4 concentration tended to increase on day of GnRH injection. There were marked group differences in P4 concentration on days 22 and 24, but P4 concentration was always ≥2 ng/ml in all groups. Level of P4 was higher (P<0.05) in pregnant than in non-pregnant heifers within each group. In conclusion, GnRH administration (2.5 ml Receptal/h) on day 12 of estrus/mating had positive effect on pregnancy rate of repeat breeder buffalo heifers as compared to those injected on day 0 and 10 of mating. Keywords: buffaloes, repeat breeder, GnRH, conception rate, progesterone
105 ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG TWO EGYPTIAN CATTLE POPULATIONS (Bos taurus) BASED ON AUTOSOMAL MICROSATELLITE MARKERS , M.A. El-Sayed1, A.Al-Soudy1 and Doaa, F. Teleb2 1- Animal Genetic Resources Department, National Gene Bank, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 2- Sheep & Goat Research Department, Animal Production Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, Correspondence to: Dr El-Sayed M. A., National Gene Bank, Agricultural Research Center, 9 Gamma St., Giza, 12619, Egypt. Email: m.a.el_sayed@arc.sci.eg, m.a.el_sayed@outlook.com
Two native cattle populations raised in Farafra and Siwa oases, located in the Western Desert of Egypt, were genotyped using eight microsatellite molecular markers (MM8, INRA063, BM1818, ILSTS054, ILSTS005, HEL5, ILSTS006 and ILSTS011). Blood samples, collected from 38 individual cattle (19 from Farafra and 19 from Siwa), were subjected to DNA extraction and subsequently to SSR-PCR amplification. Heterozygosity and Wrights F-statistics (FIS, FST and FIT) were calculated to assess the genetic variation in these populations. In the present study, high values of FIS were detected in Siwa (83%) and Farafra (69%) cattle with moderate genetic differentiation (13%) between the two populations. A total number of 22 and 29 alleles with means 2.75±0.71 and 3.63±0.74 were observed in Siwa and Farafra cattle, respectively. Alleles observed per locus ranged between 2 (loci ILSTS054, ILSTS005 and ILSTS011) to 4 (locus HEL5) in Siwa cattle and between 3 (loci ILSTS005, HEL5, ILSTS006 and ILSTS011) to 5 (locus BM1818) in Farafra cattle populations. Mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.09± 0.27 and0.46 ± 0.21 for Siwa cattle, meanwhile it ranged from 0.20± 0.35to 0.66 ± 0.07 in Farafra cattle. Polymorphic information content value (PIC) ranged from 0.10 to 0.71 for marker ILSTS005 and HEL5, respectively, with a mean value of 0.45 for all loci in Siwa cattle. Moreover, its range was 0.52 (ILSTS054) to 0.74 (BM1818) for all loci with a mean of 0.64 in Farfra cattle. Population fixation indices traced about 0.653 variation referring to differences among individuals versus total variance (FIT), where it was the lowest among populations differences versus total variance (FST= 0.237) indicating low level of population differentiation. A pair-wise difference amongst Siwa and Farafra cattle populations was recorded (0.546) among populations (F index (FIS).Moreover, 4 and 11private alleles were observed in Siwa and Farafra cattle populations, respectively. Following that we are suggested the use of these alleles as population fingerprint and they could be used to differentiate these two populations. Keywords: DNA microsatellite, genetic diversity, cattle, indigenous population
106 GENETIC PARAMETERS OF FIRST LACTATION TRAITSOF HOLSTEIN COWS IN EGYPT , M.M.I. Salem and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Data relevant to 732Holstein cows raised at El-yoser private farm, 51kmsouth east Alexandria, between 1995-2005were utilized to estimate the genetic parameters of first lactation total milk yield (TMY), 305-day milk yield (305-DMY), peak yield (PY),lactation period (LP), age at first calving (AFC), first service period (FSP), days open (DO) and number of services per conception (NSC). Also, the effects of season and year of calving and age at first calving on first lactation traits were studied. The least squares analysis indicated that the overall least squares means of TMY, 305-DMY,PY,LP,AFC, FSP, DO and NSC were 9776 kg, 8237 kg, 37.2 kg, 365.7 day,27.1 month, 95.8 day, 114.0 day and 1.9 services, respectively. Season of calving had significant effect (P < 0.01) on PY, LP, AFC, DO and NSC, but had no significant effect on TMY, 305-DMY and FSP. Year of calving had significant influence (P < 0.01) on all studied traits except DO which was not significantly influenced. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on TMY and 305-DMY, but had no significant effect on PY, LP, FSP, DO and NSC. The heritability estimates from univariate animal models were 0.219, 0.228, 0.150, and 0.093,0. 264, 0.091, 0.186and0.00001for TMY, 305-DMY, PY,LP, AFC, FSP, DO and NSC, respectively.The genetic corrletions estimated from bivariate animal modelswere positive ranging from 0.114 to 0.999,except those between 305-DMY andAFC, between PY andFSP and between FSP and DO withNSCwere negative (-0.034,-0.260,-0.761and -0.086, respectively).All correlations among all traits were highly significant except those between 305-DMY andAFC and betwen DO and NSC which were not significant.The positive genetic correlations between PY and each of 305-DMY and TMY indicate that selection for high PY will produce associated genetic improvement in both 305-DMY and TMY. Phenotypic correlations among all traits were positive ranging from 0.010 to 0.998except for that between FSP and NSC, which was negative (-0.172).Most of correlations were highly significant. The results indicate the possibility of using program to improve first lactation performance of Holstein cows through selection. Keywords: heritability, genetic correlation, milk traits, reproduction, Holstein cows
107 THE ROLE OF LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS AS BASED EXTENDER IN BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVATION AND ITS EFFECT ON FERTILITY , * 1Abd El-Razek I.M., Entsar Z. Eid2 , M.E. El-Sharawy1,3 , E.M. El-Seify2 and I.S. El-Shamaa1 * 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, 3- Department of Animal and Marine Bioresource Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Japan. *Corresponding author E-mail: elshamaa2008@yahoo.com, ibrahimabdelrazek2006@yahoo.com
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the cryopreservation effect of different concentrations of low density lipoproteins (LDL) (4, 6, 8 and 10%), as a substitute for whole egg yolk (20%) in Holstein bull semen extender and its effect on bull semen freezing and subsequent fertility. Semen was collected from four bulls twice weekly for 12 weeks and the ejaculates with more than 75% progressive motility and 85% normal morphology were pooled prior to cryopreservation. Semen was diluted at 37ºC with Tris-citric acid extender to 8×107 motile spermatozoa/ml. Diluted semen was equilibrated at 4ºC for 4h., filled in 0.25 ml French straws and kept on liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min. Straws were plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196ºC). Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity were assessed at post-dilution, pre-freezing and post freezing-thawing. Results revealed that the 6% LDL concentration in semen extender was more effective (P<0.05) in preservation of progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa than control and the other LDL concentrations (8 and 10%) at different cryopreservation processes. Fertility rates were higher (P<0.05) in cows artificially inseminated with the semen cryopreserved in 4 and 6% LDL extenders (72.7 and 76.7%) compared with that of control, 8 and 10% LDL extenders (60 , 61.5 and 58.3%, respectively). It could be concluded that the 6% LDL concentration in the extender was better able to protect the bovine sperm cell from cryodamage and improved cryopreserved semen quality and fertility. Keywords: bovine, semen, LDL, freezing , fertility
108 EFFECT OF ZINC AND EDTA AS ADDITIVES ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BUFFALO MALE CALVES , Mahmoud, S. A.; Abou-seri, H.S. and Abdel-Latif A.F.I. Buffalo Research Dep., Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Twenty male buffalo calves ranged between 8-12 months of age with an average body weight (194.5±6.85 kg) were used to study the effect of adding Zn and EDTA as additives on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (n=5) according to their average weight, the 1st group, (T1) fed on basal diet +1g zinc (Several zinc) /calf/day, the 2nd (T2) fed on basal diet which supplemented with 1g EDTA /calf/day, the 3rd (T3) fed on basal diet +1g zinc +1g EDTA /calf/day, and the 4th (C, control group) fed on basal diet only. Calves of T1 and T3 were gained more weight than (C) by 15.8 and 4.0%, respectively while T2gained less by 4.1% as compared with control. The average daily gain, feed intake and gain: feed ratio were not affected significantly by adding Zn or EDTA additives during the feeding trial. Dressing percentage (hot carcass weight basis), head, legs weight and edible meat weight did not differ among groups, while the weight of lunges, spleen and tests were differed significantly (P<0.05). The highest value of edible meat content was detected of EDTA, zinc and EDTA+zinc groups by 27.15, 21.47, and 11.09%, respectively compared with control group. Zinc group had attained the highest meat (P<0.05) of high priced cuts than EDTA, EDTA+zinc and control groups. Results revealed that the differences among groups in best ribs components were insignificant. The carcasses of (T1) and (T3) groups recorded higher boneless meat percentage; (T1) group was higher for coefficient of meat ratio. The differences among treated groups in chemical composition and physical traits of L. dorsi muscle (9-10-11th rib) were significant in fat%, ash%, and pH value and non-significant for protein%, tenderness, and water holding capacity. Rib eye area was higher (P<0.05) in calves fed zinc compared with the other groups. The increasing rib-eye areas in calves fed zinc may be explained by the greater carcass weights in the zinc treated group relative to the other groups. Keywords: Zn, EDTA, Buffalo, performance and carcass characteristics
109 SHEEP HEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AS AFFECTED BY VITESELEN 15® INJECTION AND TRANSPORTATION , A.Y. Kassab and H. A. Hamdon Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley, University of Assiut, 71526, Egypt
Twenty four Farafra male sheep 36.47±1.04 kg live body weight and aged 14-16 months were used in this study. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E and selenium (Viteselen 15®) injection as antioxidants before transportation during hot season on live body weight (BW) loss, some hemato-biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Animals were divided randomly into three symetric groups (eight each group). The first group was served as control group, while the second and the third were injected with 10 mg/10 kg BW and 15 mg/10 kg BW of Viteselen 15®, respectively. Animals were transported in an open truck covering a distance of approximately 300km for three hours. Before loading and after transportation, rectal temperature and respiration rates as thermal responses were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after transportation to study the negative effect of transportation stress. Blood serum was analyzed for T3, T4, cortical, total protein, albumin, urea, ALT, AST, creatinine and glucose parameters. In addition, carcass and meat quality parameters were evaluated. The results indicated that there are no significant differences among three groups before transportation in hemato-biochemical parameters. Also, the results illustrated that injection of Viteselen 15® alleviated the adverse effect of transportation stress during hot season. Furthermore, improve carcass characteristics and meat quality by reducing the loss of live body weight after transportation. Thus, the injection of15 mg/10kg BW Viteselen 15® as antioxidant especially during hot season before transportation of sheep is recommended Keywords: Transportation, Viteselen 15®, hemato-biochemical parameters, carcass, sheep
110 IMPROVING GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LAMBS AS A RESULT CARING MANAGEMENT VIA DIETARY YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION , H. A. Hamdon1 and M. M. Farghaly2 1- Department of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, New Valley Branch, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of levels yeast supplementation as a natural feed additive on growth performance, carcasses characteristic and some blood metabolites of growing Sohagi lambs. For this purpose, twenty-one Sohagi lambs (27.00±0.75 kg body weight, 6 months old) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with seven lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows:(G1) was kept as a control and fed a basal diet consisting of roughage and concentrate mixture. (G2) fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5 % of yeast culture (YC) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to the mixture, while (G3) received the same basal diet supplemented with 1% of YC. All animals were fed 60% of their requirements as concentrate mixture with crushed corn stover given ad libitum. The quantity of concentrate mixture was adjusted every month according to change in body weight. The results indicated that dietary supplementation of YC (0.5 or 1%)did not significantly affect on body weight and daily gain. However, dry matter intake (DMI) of concentrate, roughage and total dry matter intake were significantly (P<0.05) higher for lambs fed YC than control. Supplemented YC to lambs rations decreased significantly (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio in comparison with the control treatment. Serum glucose and urea nitrogen were increased significantly (P<0.05) in YC groups. However, the concentration of triglycerides and cholesterol decreased significantly (p<0.05) when feeding YC diets. No differences were observed between treatments for hot carcass and carcass cuts with respect to flank, which recorded higher (p<0.05) value for YC groups compared to control. Supplemented YC at level of 0.5% or 1% significantly (P<0.05) increased dry matter and fat in meat compared with control groups. Water-holding capacity was significantly (P<0.05) lower for YC groups than control. It was concluded that caring of animal management led to improvement productive performance of sheep, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics via dietary yeast supplementation. Also, YC may be more useful as a feed additive for growing lambs rations. Keywords: lambs, growth performance, carcass characteristics, yeast culture
111 PREDICTION OF BODY WEIGHT THROUGH BODY MEASUREMENTS IN BOERAWA (BOER x ETTAWA GRADE) BUCKS , S. Hadi1, P. Nugroho1, I. Harris1, K. Adhianto1 and W.P.B. Putra2* 1- Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Lampung University, Soemantri Brodjonegoro No. 1 Rd, Rajabasa, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Gadjah Mada University, Fauna No. 3 Rd, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia, *Correspondence E-mail: banchet_putra18@yahoo.co.id
This research was carried out to investigate the estimation of the body weight (BW) of Boerawa (Boer x Ettawa grade) bucks by statistical methods.The bucks (n = 120) falling in two grades (G1 and G2) were included in the resent investigation to estimate BW using body measurements. Average BW, heart girth (HG), body length (BL) and withers height (WH) of all goats were 38.00+3.78 kg; 75.07+3.78 cm; 65.02+2.47 cm and68.47+3.92 cm respectively. Highest and positive correlation coefficient value between BW and HG were observed in G2 bucks (0.69) and all goats (0.85). Independent sample T-test prosedure was adopted to eliminate unfit linear regression models in both grades. Model A, D, E and G (R2>0.70) were found to be best accounting for prediction the BW inG2 buck.It was concluded that HG is the best trait for the predicting BW in G2 buck. The most appropiate combination of body characteristics was observed between HG, BL and WH (model G with R2 = 0.77) for the prediction of BW in all animalsand G2 buck. Keywords: Boerawa buck, body weight, body measurements, regression, coefficient of determination
112 INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION OF PROPOLIS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, IMMUNOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF GROWING JAPANESE QUAIL , W. M. Dosoky1, H .Zeweil1 and Soha A. Farag2 1- Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt
This study was designed to determine the effect of different levels of propolis on growth parameters, blood constituents, immunity and anti-oxidative properties of growing Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). Propolis was added to the basal diet at five different levels being 0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg diet, respectively. Quail fed diets containing 75, 150, 225 and 300 mg propolis/kg diet had significantly heavier body weights than those fed control diet throughout the experimental period. Feed intake increased gradually by increasing propolis levels in the diets compared with the control group. Significant improvement in feed conversion ratio was noticed only in quail fed 300 mg propolis/kg. Relative weight of bursa and thymus were significantly (P≤0.01) increased in quail fed 300 mg propolis. Serum total protein and globulin content of propolis treatment were significantly higher than control (p≤0.05). Serum aspartete aminotransferese significantly (P≤0.05) affected by different treatments. Serum total lipids, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and triglycerides were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) with inclusion of different levels of propolis. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased in the groups had 300 mg propolis as compared to the control group. Serum total antioxidant capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased in the groups had 225 and 300 mg propolis as compared to other groups, while serum lipid peroxide concentration was significantly (P ≤ 0.001) decreased by increasing propolis levels in the diets, except the group had 75 mg propolis was significantly equal to the control group. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease were significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher in all propolis groups as compared to control group at 14 and 21days post-vaccination. In histometrical examination proved that propolis at 150 and 300 mg /kg diet improve follicular size in bursa and follicular cortex in thymus. In conclusion, inclusion of propolis in growing quail diets may exert beneficial effects on growth parameters, blood constituents, immunity and anti-oxidative properties. Keywords: Propolis, growth performance, blood, antioxidative properties, immune response and Japanese quail
113 EFFECT OF PROBIOTICS SUPPLEMENTATION ON GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF MAGHATIR CAMEL-CALVES , Hussein, A. F. Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science (Al-Khumrah), Taif University; KSA, * Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of probiotics inclusion on growth traits, hematological profile and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentration at monthly intervals for six months period. 22 early weaned camel-calves of Maghatir breed (12 males and 10 females) aged 6-7 months and weighing 186.6±0.3and 173.2 ±0.0.5 kg for males and females, respectively were used. Calves were allotted into two main groups according to their gender and each gender was assigned into two equal groups had approximately similar body weight. The first group fed concentrate feed mixtures (CFM) without probiotics and served as control group (C), whereas, the second group fed CFM plus 20g/h/d of probiotics and served as treated group (P). Live body weight (BW) and hematological parameters (hemoglobin concentration, Hb; packed cell volume, PCV; erythrocyte count, RBC's; and total leukocytes count, WBC's) were determined monthly. In addition derived erythrocyte indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV, fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH, pg and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC %) were calculated in addition to plasma thyroid hormones concentration. Results indicated that males of (P) group gained more body weight (+5.39%) compared with the corresponding females' one. Probiotics supplementation improved ADG for males (18.5%) and females (4.9%), respectively than control groups. Porbiotics supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on plasma T3 and T4 concentrations in both genders. Hb, PCV, RBC's and WBC's values significantly (P<0.05) affected in both gender calves supplemented probiotics compared with control calves. Gender had significant effects on body weight, hematological parameters and T3 and T4 where females had higher values (P<0.05) of Hb, PCV and RBC’s count, while male calves had higher (P<0.05) values of BW, WBC’s count, T4 and T3 levels than females. Daily gain of control groups showed that male calves had higher (P<0.01) daily gain than the female calves. In addition, plasma T3 concentrations increased (P<0.001) over time in both genders and tended to be more related to body weight gain, while T4 behaved the opposite trend. It could be concluded that probiotics supplementation (20g/h/d) in ration of post-weaning camel calves improving weight gain and physiological status. Keywords: camel-calves, probiotics, body weight, hematological traits, thyroid hormones
114 GENETIC EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND SURVIVAL AT 6 WEEKS OLD FRY OF EGYPTIAN NILE TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) BETWEEN IMPROVED ABBASSA AND COMMERCIAL MANZALA STRAINS IN A DIALLEL CROSSING , M.M. Said1 and W. Mekkawy2,3 1- Aquaculture Department, Faculty of Fish Resources, Suez University, Suez, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, 3- World Fish, Penang, Malaysia
This study aims to evaluate growth performance and estimate additive genetic, heterosis, and general reciprocal effects for body weight, body length, condition factor, and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry at 6 weeks old after hatching using a complete diallel cross between the genetically improved “Abbassa” strain(A) and a commercially available strain Manzala(M). Body weight and total body length were observed significantly (P <0.001) higher in MmAf and AmMf crosses (2.87g & 5.55 cm; 2.78g & 5.33cm, respectively). The straight-bred AmAf weight and length were 2.64g, 5.18cm, respectively while the straight-bred MmMf showed the lowest growth parameters 2.42g and 5.04cm,respectively.Condition factor of AmAf, AmMf, and MmMf genotypes (1.89, 1.85, and 1.81 respectively) didn’t differ significantly whereas the MmAf cross showed a significantly lower condition factor 1.67. The survival of the straight-bred AmAf was 0.98,which significantly (P <0.001) higher than AmMf, MmAf, and MmMf genotypes. Abbassa strain showed 5, 2.1, and 10% additive genetic effect above the overall mean in body weight, survival, and condition factor respectively. Heterosis estimates were positive and relatively high 11.7% and 6.2% for body weight and total body length while a negative heterosis estimates were observed for the condition factor and survival, being -6.7% and -2.6% respectively. Reciprocal effect was significant (P <0.001) for total body length and condition factor. The results of the current study suggest that body weight and total body length of the Nile tilapia fry at 6 weeks old after hatching could be improved through crossing schemes exploiting the heterosis effect however the crossing did not show any improvement in survival. Keywords: additive variance, heterosis, reciprocal effect, Nile tilapia fry
115 ESTIMATES OF HERITABILITY, REPEATABILITY AND BREEDING VALUE OF SOME PERFORMANCE TRAITS OF HOLSTEIN COWS IN EGYPT USING REPEATABILITY ANIMAL MODEL , M.M.I. Salem* and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, 21545, Egypt, * Corresponding auther:mmisalem@gmail.com
Data collected from 1807 lactation records relevant to 735 Holstein cows, between 1995-2005 were utilized to estimate heritability, repeatability and breeding value of all lactation total milk yield (TMY), 305-day milk yield (305-DMY), peak yield (PY), lactation period (LP), first service period (FSP), days open (DO) and number of services per conception (NSC). Also, the effects of season and year of calving, age at first calving and parity on all lactation traits were studied. The least squares analysis indicated that the overall least squares means of TMY, 305-DMY, PY, LP, FSP, DO and NSC were 9537 kg, 8315 kg, 40.2 kg, 348.8 day, , 89.4 day, 113.1 day and 2.0 services, respectively. Season of calving had significant effect (P< 0.01) on PY, LP, DO and NSC and significant effect (P< 0.05) on 305-DMY, but had no significant effect on TMY and FSP. Year of calving had significant influence (P< 0.01) on all studied traits. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on TMY and 305-DMY and significant effect (P< 0.05) on PY and FSP, but had no significant effect on LP, DO and NSC. Parity had significant effect (P< 0.01) on TMY, 305-DMY, PY and LP and significant effect (P< 0.05) on DO, but had no significant effect on FSP and NSC. Variance components, heritability, repeatability and breeding values for the studied traits were estimated using the Wombat programme fitting repeatability animal model. Estimates of the heritability were 0.065, 0.149, 0.159, 0.029, 0.089, 0.028 and 0.006 for TMY, 305-DMY, PY, LP, FSP, DO and NSC, respectively. The estimates of repeatability were 0.203, 0.189, 0.219, 0.114, 0.122, 0.028 and 0.018 for the same traits, respectively. The breeding values for TMY, 305-DMY, PY, LP, FSP, DO and NSC of cows ranged between -2737 and 3285, -1698 and 1338 and -6.7 and 5.6 kg, between -45.0 and 71.1 day, -39.6 and 72.9, -37.9 and 64.8 days and between -0.14 and 0.19 service, respectively, the corresponding values for dams were between -2835 and 2979, -985 and 1875 and -7.3 and 6.0 kg, between -9.9 and 44.0, -38.4 and 86.9, -38.1 and 53.7 day and between -0.30 and 0.60 service, respectively. The breeding values for sires were between -1057 and 659, -737 and 613 and -1.3 and 2.4 kg, between -23.6 and 18.6, -15.6 and 32.7 and - 11.2 and 13.5 day and between -0.76 and 1.16 service for the respective traits. The results indicate that improvement of performance traits of Holstein cows could be obtained through improvement of management conditions. Keywords: Heritability, repeatability, breeding value, milk traits, reproduction, Holstein cows, Egypt
116 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MICROBIAL LOAD OF CHILLED HOLSTEIN BULL SEMEN DILUTED IN PROPOLIS CONTAINED EXTENDER , Awad A. Zaghloul Department of Animal and Poultry Physiology, Division of Animal and Poultry Production, Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt
The current pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of supplementing bovine semen extender with propolis extract on cooled semen physical characteristics and microbial contamination. Six Holstein Friesian bulls aged 4-6 years, and average body weights of 1041.7±58.3 Kg were used. Eighteen ejaculates were collected from the bulls (3 ejaculates each).Thereafter, the ejaculates were pooled and diluted. The pooled specimens were further split into the following five groups: control, 1ml/L streptomycin sulfate plus 1000000 IU penicillin, 5μL/ml propolis extract, 10μL/ml propolis extract, 20μL/ml propolis extract. All semen groups were subjected to cooling preservation for 48h at 5°C, during which sperm physical properties were evaluated. Formation of total colony forming unite (CFU) was also determined. The results showed that propolis extract supplementation improved (P<0.05) all sperm physical characteristics, in a dose – depending manner, over preservation time. Further, the control group exhibited total CFU higher (P<0.05) than all treated specimens. These results imply the possibility of using propolis extract as a sufficient alternative to conventional synthetic antibiotics in bovine semen extenders. Keywords: Propolis, semen, extender, physical characteristics
117 EFFECT OF USING SOME FEED ADDITIVES (TW- PROBIOTICS) IN DAIRY COW RATIONS ON PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE , T.H. Mostafa, F.A. Elsayed, M.A. Ahmed and M.A. Elkholany Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing commercial yeast culture (S. cerevisiae) namely BGY 35 or a product of lactic acid bacteria and enzymes namely AVI-BAC® to the diet of lactating crossbred cows, for the last 2 months pre-partum and the first 4 months post-partum (from July to October), on body weight, feed and water intakes, milk production, some blood parameters, reproductive performance and physiological response. A total of 12 cows with average live body weight (LBW) of 440 kg and 2-6 parities, were used in this study. Cows were divided into three groups, 4 animals in each group. During pre- and post-partum period, cows in the 1st group (G1) were fed the control diet (untreated), while those in the 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) groups were fed the control diet daily supplemented with 3 g AVI-BAC/cow and 20 g BGY 35/cow, respectively. During pre- and post-partum, LBW, feed and water intakes, rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR) and pulse rate (PR), yield and composition of milk were recorded. Blood samples were collected for determination of total proteins (TP), albumin (AL), creatinine, urea and glucose concentrations in serum. Activity of transaminases (AST and ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as concentrations of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were also determined in blood serum. Post-partum 1st estrous interval (PPFEI), number of services/conception (NSC), days open (DO) and conception rate (CR) were calculated. Results showed insignificant effect of probiotics supplementation on LBW of cows during pre-partum, calving and post-partum as well as on birth weight of produced calves. During pre-partum, both probiotics supplementations increased (P<0.05) feed intake of rice straw (RS) and total DM relative to LBW. Intakes from concentrate feed mixture (CFM), corn silage (CS), total DM/h or total DM relative to metabolic body weight were not affected. During post-partum period, probiotics supplementation increased (P<0.05) RS and total DM intakes. Total DM intake relative to LBW or metabolic body weight was not affected. There was insignificant effect of probiotics supplementation on milk yield and milk composition, although average daily milk yield tended to increase by about 17 and 15 % and all milk components increased for G2 and G3 as compared to G1. During pre-partum period, concentrations of all blood biochemicals were not affected by probiotics supplementation. During post-partum, only serum AL concentration was increased (P<0.05) in both supplemented groups as compared to the control one. Activities of AST, ALT and ALP were not affected by probiotics supplementation during pre- and post-partum periods. There was a reduction (P<0.05) in T4 concentration in G2 during pre-partum, and reduction (P<0.05) in T3 and T4 concentrations in both supplemented groups as compared to the control group during post-partum period. Within 120 days post-partum, PPFSI was earlier by about 21.5 and 25 d, NSC was less by about 0.5 and 0.75 and DO was shorter by about 21.0 and 36.5 d in G2 and G3 than in G1. The CR was higher in G3 (100%) than in G2 and G1 (50% in each). Probiotics supplementation resulted in slight reduction in RR, RT and PR of cows during pre- and post-partum periods as compared to un-supplemented diet, but the differences were not significant. Both probiotics supplementation decreased water consumption as compared to control diet, but the differences were significant (P<0.05) only between G2 and G1. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of probiotics AVI-BAC (3 g/h/d) to diet of dairy cows, during 2 months pre-partum and 4 months post-partum, seemed to have a beneficial effect on milk yield and fat yield, while BGY 35 (20 g/h/d) seemed to have pronounced improvement on reproductive performance of dairy cows in terms of increasing conception rate and shortening days open. Keywords: dairy cow, additives, Tw- probiotics, enzymes, production, reproductive.
118 REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF OSSIMI RAMS AS AFFECTED BY VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM INJECTIONS , G. B. Mahmoud*1, Sh. M. Abdel-Raheem2 and S. E. Abbas1 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt, 2- Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt *corresponding author: gamalbadry@yahoo.com
The objective of this study was to determine the changes in the reproductive and physiological traits of Egyptian Ossimi rams during and after injections of a combination of vitamin E and selenium (Se). Fourteen mature healthy Ossimi rams were randomly divided into two equal groups (7 rams per group). The first group served as control (CG), while the 2nd group served as treatment group (TG). Rams of the TG group were treated twice weekly with 5 mg sodium selenite and 450 mg vitamin E for one month. Testicular measurements for each ram were recorded for one month during and one month after the treatment. Accessory glands and testes were examined by sonar (ultrasound technique) and semen was collected using an artificial vagina (twice weekly). Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 8.0 a.m for measuring some biochemical parameters and measuring testosterone. The results of this study revealed that, during the treatment period there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the treated and control group in the ejaculation volume, and mass motility. However, there were significant improvements in the total sperm concentration (3 fold higher), the percentage of live spermatozoa (15.7% higher), total sperm abnormalities (13.7% lower) and reaction time (1.8 fold) in treated rams in comparison with the controls. After the treatment period, all semen characteristics were significantly improved. Selenium and vitamin E had no significant impact on the testes dimensions during the treatment period and had little effect on testes dimensions and ultrasonography of the testes. There were numerical increases in all testes dimensions after treatment beside the significant increase in seminal gland. During the treatment period rams injected with vitamin E plus Se had higher (<0.001) values for blood cholesterol (8.5 % higher) and calcium and lower values for serum ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) in comparison with the control group. However, after the treatment period rams of the TG group had higher serum total protein, albumen, globulin, glucose (2 fold higher), serum testosterone, cholesterol, calcium compared to control rams. In conclusion the combination of Se and vitamin E induced profound changes in the reproductive and physiological traits of Ossimi rams and these changes appear after the fourth week of injections. Keywords: Rams, selenium, vitamin E, testes, accessory gland, testosterone, semen characteristics
119 EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION EGG YOLK WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOYBEAN LECITHIN IN TRIS-BASED EXTENDERONFREEZING AND FERTILIZING CAPACITY OF HOLSTEIN BULL SEMEN, M.A.El-Sherbieny, W.M.Nagy,Amira M. Nowier and M.F.Saad Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Soy bean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to substitution egg yolk in the semen extender. Aim of the current research article was to study the impact of substitution of egg yolk with soybean-lecithin in tris- extender on freezability and fertilizing capacity of Holstein sperm in post-thawed semen. Semen from five Holstein bulls was frozen in tris-citric acid extender containing 15% egg yolk (EY, control) or 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% soybean-lecithin (SBL). Percentages of motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and intact acrosome spermatozoa were assessed in diluted, equilibrated and thawed semen. Results showed that0.5% SBL-extender had positive (P
120 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ARABIAN HORSES USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS, Saria Almarzook1*, H. Abdel-Shafy2, A.S. Ahmed1, Monika Reissmann1, Gudrun A. Brockmann1 1-Humboldt-University of Berlin, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institute for Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Department of Animal Breeding Biology and Molecular Genetics, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany, 2-Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production, 12613, Giza, Egypt
The horse strains designation system was shaped in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula and spread to the neighboring oriental empires and it is still used. The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic diversity among three Arabian horse strains using twelve equine microsatellite markers. The study included 84 Arabian horses representing three major Syrian strains (Hamdani, Kahlawi and Saglawi) from five geographical regions in Syria. To determine genetic population structure within and between the three strains, we applied different methods. The selected panel of microsatellite markers confirmed a general genetic feature of the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses suggesting low level of population differentiation. To ascertain the results, it will be necessary to collate our findings with the historical pedigree. Furthermore, we need a genome-wide investigation of microsatellites or an analysis of strain/breed specific SNPs across the Syrian Arabian horse populations for better insight into the genetic diversity.
121 DETERMINANTS OF VETERINARY SERVICES UTILIZATION AMONG POULTRY FARMERS IN SAKI-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE, NIGERIA, M.O. Umunna1*, A.O. Ibrahim1, O.A. Adebayo1, S.A. Okunade1, D.O. Oyeleye1, O.B. Oyediran1, O.J. Olalekan2 and R.R. Ojo1 1- Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State. 2- Forest Based Rural Resources Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ikija-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: mathiasumunna@gmail.com 08139486968
The study examined the determinants of poultry veterinary services utilization in Saki-East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from poultry farmers using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze farmers’ personal and farm’s characteristics while regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between utilization of veterinary services and other variables. Poultry farming was a male dominated business. The mean age and family size of the respondents were 40 years and 7 persons respectively. Majority (78.4%) of the poultry farmers were married while (89.2%) of them had acquired one form of formal education, the mean years of experience were 6 years. The major source of information was friends (74.8%) while the mean monthly income was ₦61,147.40. The available veterinary services were disease diagnosis (x̅ =2.11), provision of drugs (x̅ =2.05), management of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.02) and treatment of diseases (x̅ =2.00) while the veterinary services utilized were treatment of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.15), provision of drugs (x̅ =2.14), diseases diagnosis (x̅ =2.05) and management of poultry diseases (x̅ =2.04). Major constraints to utilizing veterinary services were high cost of veterinary services (x̅ =2.78), poor accessibility of veterinary services (x̅ =2.77) and little or no availability of veterinary services (x̅ =2.68). The determinants of utilization of veterinary services include farm income (t= 2.252), availability of veterinary services (t= 8.652) and constraints to utilization of veterinary services (t= -2.019). Access to veterinary services among farmers should be improved by subsidizing veterinary service cost. Also the number of health and extension personnel should be increased through employment.
122 ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF KIDNEY INDUCED BY COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THE THERAPEUTIC ROLE OF VITAMINS E AND C AGAINST CYTOTOXICITY, Y.M. Shotop and I.N. Al-Suwiti Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Saud University yshotop@gmail.com, Ibrahm221@hotmail.com P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
The ability of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial materials has led to their widespread application in many health products. However, there are many concerns about the exposure of individuals to these particles, addressed the cellular effects caused by copper nanoparticles on the kidneys using transmission electron microscopy, and investigating the potential therapeutic role of vitamin E and C against the toxicity of copper nanoparticles and their cellular harmful effects. The study used 56 rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into seven groups and dosed over a month with copper nanoparticles and then dosed for another month with both vitamins E and C, either alone or together, the results showed that the animals of the groups that were treated with copper nanoparticles showed microstructural changes in the kidneys. Changes were found in the renal tissue at the level of the podocytes forming the endothelial cells in the visceral layer of the renal glomeruli. It was also observed that mitochondria were affected in the epithelial cells of the Proximal convoluted tubules. In addition to an increase in the number of lysosomes and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The effective therapeutic role of vitamin C, E has been shown in improving the size and number of organelles and returning them to their almost normal state. The study recommends the need to use vitamins C and E at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, which showed a positive role in reducing the toxicity of copper nanoparticles.
123 ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF KIDNEY INDUCED BY COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THE THERAPEUTIC ROLE OF VITAMINS E AND C AGAINST CYTOTOXICITY, Y.M. Shotop and I.N. Al-Suwiti Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Saud University yshotop@gmail.com, Ibrahm221@hotmail.com P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
The ability of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial materials has led to their widespread application in many health products. However, there are many concerns about the exposure of individuals to these particles, addressed the cellular effects caused by copper nanoparticles on the kidneys using transmission electron microscopy, and investigating the potential therapeutic role of vitamin E and C against the toxicity of copper nanoparticles and their cellular harmful effects. The study used 56 rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into seven groups and dosed over a month with copper nanoparticles and then dosed for another month with both vitamins E and C, either alone or together, the results showed that the animals of the groups that were treated with copper nanoparticles showed microstructural changes in the kidneys. Changes were found in the renal tissue at the level of the podocytes forming the endothelial cells in the visceral layer of the renal glomeruli. It was also observed that mitochondria were affected in the epithelial cells of the Proximal convoluted tubules. In addition to an increase in the number of lysosomes and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The effective therapeutic role of vitamin C, E has been shown in improving the size and number of organelles and returning them to their almost normal state. The study recommends the need to use vitamins C and E at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, which showed a positive role in reducing the toxicity of copper nanoparticles.
124 ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES OF KIDNEY INDUCED BY COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THE THERAPEUTIC ROLE OF VITAMINS E AND C AGAINST CYTOTOXICITY, Y.M. Shotop and I.N. Al-Suwiti Department of Zoology, College of Sciences, King Saud University yshotop@gmail.com, Ibrahm221@hotmail.com P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
The ability of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial materials has led to their widespread application in many health products. However, there are many concerns about the exposure of individuals to these particles, addressed the cellular effects caused by copper nanoparticles on the kidneys using transmission electron microscopy, and investigating the potential therapeutic role of vitamin E and C against the toxicity of copper nanoparticles and their cellular harmful effects. The study used 56 rats (Rattus norvegicus) divided into seven groups and dosed over a month with copper nanoparticles and then dosed for another month with both vitamins E and C, either alone or together, the results showed that the animals of the groups that were treated with copper nanoparticles showed microstructural changes in the kidneys. Changes were found in the renal tissue at the level of the podocytes forming the endothelial cells in the visceral layer of the renal glomeruli. It was also observed that mitochondria were affected in the epithelial cells of the Proximal convoluted tubules. In addition to an increase in the number of lysosomes and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The effective therapeutic role of vitamin C, E has been shown in improving the size and number of organelles and returning them to their almost normal state. The study recommends the need to use vitamins C and E at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day, which showed a positive role in reducing the toxicity of copper nanoparticles.
125 IMPACT OF TREATMENT WITH ANTI-PARASITE (IVERMECTIN) DURING PREPARTUM PERIOD ON MASTITIS AND POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN BALADI COWS, A. I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
The current investigation was designed to determine the effect of treatment with anti-parasitic (Ivermectin) on mastitis and postpartum reproductive performance of Baladi cows. Twenty-four Baladi cows were used in this study, the cows were divided into two groups. The G1 (n= 12 cows) were injected two months prepartum with two consecutive doses (15- days in- between) of IVOMEC®Plus solution subcutaneously at the rate of 1ml/50kg live body weight (prescribed by the manufacturer), whilst G2 (n= 12 cows) was used as a control group. The present results revealed that the occurrence of mastitis in treated cows group was significantly (P
126 RESPONSIVENESS OF ANGLO-NUBIAN AND DAMASCUS DOES TO CIDR-eCG PROTOCOL DURING OUT OF BREEDING SEASON, M. Y. EL-Mokadem1, A. N. M. Nour El-Din2, T. A. Ramadan1*, A. M. Rashad2 1 -Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, 4 Nadi El-Said, 12311 Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2 Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 22545, Egypt *Corresponding author: tamereweda1174@yahoo.com
The current study was conducted to assess the efficiency of controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device preceding equine chorionic gonadotrophin(eCG) protocol to induce synchronized fertile estrus and improve reproductive performance of Anglo-Nubian and Damascus does during out of breeding seasonwhich lasted from December to May. Forty-eight multiparous does, 24 Anglo-Nubian and 24 Damascusbreeds each wasfurther allocated into two sub-groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry does. Each doe was treated with vaginal inserted CIDR device for a period of 19 days in association with injectionof 500 international units of eCGon the day of removal of CIDR. Samples of Serum were takenfrom each doe at day zero (CIDR insertion), day 19 (CIDR-removal), day 21 (mating), day 39 and day 56 (day 18 and day 35 after mating, respectively). Anglo-Nubian does showed higher concentration of serum progesterone and lower estradiol: progesterone (E2:P4) ratio compared to Damascus does. Lactating does of both breeds, produced higher estradiol and lowertotal antioxidant capacity (TAC) concentrations compared to dryones. All does, achieved estrus after CIDR removal and eCG injection, but longer intervals to showestrus were recorded by lactating compared to dry goats. Anglo-Nubian does recorded higher prolificacy and fecundity compared to Damascus. In addition, the fecundity of lactating does was lower than that of dry goats. In conclusion, CIDR-eCG protocol induced successfully fertile estrus in both breeds. However, response of Anglo-Nubian does to CIDR-eCG protocol was superior to that of Damascus as evidenced by higher prolificacy and fecundity during non- breeding season.
127 NANO ZINC OXIDE SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS, A.O. Yusuf1*, T. K. Adeyi1, O.S. Sowande1, O.A. Oni2 and V.O. Olowokere3 1-Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 2-Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 3- Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria *Corresponding author mail: yusufao@funaab.edu.ng
This study investigated the influence of nano zinc oxide (nZnO) supplementation on growth performance and health of West African dwarf goats. A total of twenty-four (24) West African Dwarf (WAD) goats averaged 7.2±0.54kg were used for the experiment. The twenty-four (24) WAD goats were divided into three (3) treatment groups of eight (8) animals per group on weight equalization bases. Each group was randomly allotted to the three (3) experimental diets (0, 300 and 600mg/kg nano zinc oxide) in a completely randomized design (CRD). Data were collected for growth performance characteristics, hematology and serum chemistry and analyzed using one way analysis of variance while Tukey’s test was used to separate significantly different means as in Statistical Analyst System software. Results indicated that significantly (p0.05) similar. The control diet and 600mg/kg nZnO elevated the packed cell volume, white blood cell, neutrophils, monocytes and mean corpuscular volume at the zenith of the experiment when compared to those offered 300mg/kg nZnO. However, nZnO supplementation at 300mg/kg gave increased total protein, globulin and total cholesterol concentration as compared to the control and 600mg/kg nZnO groups. Despite these divergences in function of nZnO, it was noted that it has no negative influence or toxicity noted or recorded. Thus, it can be concluded that nZnO supplementation can be adopted in goat feeding to improve growth and for strong immunity.
128 SEXUAL ACTIVITY, SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN MATURE MALE RABBITS TREATED WITH HORMONAL AND NON-HORMONAL PREPARATIONS, M.E. Ali1*, B.F. Farag1, H A. Hussein2 , S. Fahmy1 1-Department of animal productions, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, 71524 Egypt، 2-Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt montaser_elsayd@azhar.edu.egmail address: -E ,AliM.E.Corresponding author: * ORCID No: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0868-7073
This study was carried out to determine the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), L-Carnitine (LC) and Royal jelly (RJ) treatments on Sexual activity, semen characteristics and testosterone levels of mature New Zealand White (NZW) males rabbit. A total of 20 NZW bucks were randomly assigned into four groups (5 bucks/each).The1st group bucks were left without treatment (Control group). The Rabbit bucks of the 2nd group injected IM with 50 IU of hCG / male / weekly for 6 weeks (hormonal group). While the 3rd and 4thmale groups (LC and RJ) received 50 mg LC daily and 100 mg RJ /kg BW, orally, respectively for 6 weeks(non-hormonal groups).The results revealed that the bucks treated with LC and RJ had significantly decreased(P
129 BIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMICAL MERITS OF INCORPORATING AZZAWI DATES IN RATIONS OF BARKI EWES UNDER DESERT CONDITIONS IN EGYPT, Mona I. Mohammady, A.H. Hammam and K.Z. Kewan Division of Animal Production and Poultry, Desert Research Center, 1 Matahaf El Mataria St., P.O. Box 11753, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt *corresponding author email: monamohammady@hotmail.com
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding non-conventional source of energy Azzawi date (non -edible date) on biological performance of Barki ewes and assess the economic returns from mid pregnancy period up to weaning age. Thirty Barki ewes were used with average initial live body weight of 42.4 ± 3 kg and ranging between 2 – 5 years. Ewes were randomly distributed into three equal groups (G1, G2 and G3). Ewes of G1 fed traditional diet formulated of concentrate feed mixture (CFM) free of Azzawi date and served as control group, while ewes of G2, fed CFM with partial replacement (50%) of corn grain. Ewes of G3 fed CFM with totally replacement (100%) of corn grain by Azzawi date. The results showed that, inclusion of Azzawi date in the diet did not affect negatively live body weight changes of ewes and weight of fetus throughout the pregnancy period. Group 3 achieved the highest estimates and harvest more number of weaned lambs (78%) and lowest mortality rate (22 %) but the differences were not significant. The experimental diets had no significant effect on birth weight, weaning weight, and average daily gain. Lambs born of G1 were lighter in birth weight (3.53kg) than G2 and G3 (3.88kg & 3.71kg, respectively), but faster in growth rate (0.145kg/day) and heavier weaning weight (16.72 kg). Relative economic indicators revealed that, G3 had the highest reduction in total feed costs and scored -15.22 %, while G2, was intermediate and scored -7.98% less than the control group (G1). G3 achieved the lowest feed costs to produce one kilogram of weaned lambs, while G1 was the highest (LE 27.38 vs. LE 31.55). It could be concluded that, incorporating Azzawi date with ewes diets from mid pregnancy until weaning age did not enhance ewe or lamb production traits but minimized the feed costs of ewes during the studied experimental period.
130 ASCORBIC ACID ADMINISTRATION AS ANTI-STRESS BEFORE TRANSPORTATION OF SHEEP, A.Y. Kassab*1 and A.A. Mohammed2 1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, New valley, University of Assiut, 71526, Egypt 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, new valley, University of Assiut, 71526, Egypt *Corresponding author: ayman15@yahoo.com
Currently in Egypt there is no regulation ruling over transportation of animals. The aims of the current study were to investigate the effects of ascorbic acid administration (125 mg/kg) before transportation in an open truck during summer season on live weight loss, and some physiological responses, in New Valley governorate, Egypt. Fourteen Farafra male sheep, 35.0 ± 3.86 kg body weight and aged 11-12 months were used in this study. Animals were divided into two equal groups (7/each group) as not-administered and administered ascorbic acid groups. Animals were transported in an open truck covering a distance of approximately 225 km for three hours. Before loading and after transportation, rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate as thermal responses were recorded. In addition, two blood samples were collected before and after transportation from each animal. Complete blood samples were investigated to determine hematological parameters. Also, blood serum samples were analyzed for hormones (T3, T4 and cortisol) and some blood metabolites (total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, ALT, AST, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol). The results indicated that transportation caused adverse changes as a results of stress in live body weight losses, hematological parameters and some blood metabolites. Ascorbic acid administration lowered effect of stress caused by transportation through modulating physiological responses. Therefore, administration of ascorbic acid in sheep before transport especially at high ambient temperatures can be recommended.
131 EFFECT OF HORMONAL eCG TREATMENT VERSUS REARING-FASTING PROGRAM ON EMBRYO RECOVERY, REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND HORMONAL PROFILE IN NULLIPAROUS RABBIT DOES, G.M.K. Mehaisen* and A.O. Abbas Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt *corresponding author email: gamoka7@agr.cu.edu.eg
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hormonal eCG treatment versus rearing-fasting program on embryo recovery, reproductive performance and hormonal profile in nulliparous rabbit does. Does at 14 weeks old were randomly divided into three groups according to the estrus synchronization method before insemination; does fed ad libitum (control), does treated with subcutaneous 50IU of eCG 60 h before insemination (eCG), and does fasted 3 days per week (57% of feed ad libitum) then fed ad libitum one week before insemination (r-FP). In 23 of receptive does, serum estradiol-17β (E2) and leptin concentrations were determined at the time of insemination, and then embryos were recovered post-mortem at 72h post-insemination. A total of 51 receptive does were used to analyze the reproductive performance of all groups. The sexual receptivity and number of corpora lutea significantly increased in eCG group, however, high incidence of hemorrhagic follicles were observed. A significant increase in embryo recovery and donor rates was found in r-FP group compared with control, while no differences were observed in the number of normal embryos recovered per donor doe. The rate of embryos recovered in blastocyst stage significantly decreased in eCG group when compared with r-FP or control groups. The pregnancy rate, kindling rate and number of born alive were significantly higher while gestation duration and number of stillborn were significantly lower in r-FP does than those treated with 50 IU eCG. Serum E2 and leptin concentrations significantly increased in r-FP does in comparison with other groups. The global productivity of weaned rabbits in receptive does was significantly higher in r-FP than in eCG group. Results indicated that in conditions of this experiment, rearing-fasting program followed by one week feed flushing before the first insemination of rabbit does improves embryo recovery, reproductive performance and related hormones secretion. These results need to be confirmed in a larger scale and several reproductive cycles before recommending that method as an efficient biostimulation for estrus synchronization in nulliparous rabbit does.
132 IMPACT OF HOUSING CONDITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF GROWING NZW RABBITS, A.H.H. Ali and A.A.A. Abdel-Wareth* Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, 83523 Qena, Egypt *corresponding author email: a.wareth@agr.svu.edu.eg
The current study was conducted investigated to evaluate the effects of two housing systems on growth performance, carcass traits, and physiological responses of growing rabbits during 28 to 118 days of age under summer conditions of Upper Egypt. A total of 80 New Zealand White Rabbits, 4 weeks old, were housed individually in metabolic wire cages. Forty rabbits were reared in open house system (OHS) (36 º C average ambient temperatures and 20% relative humidity) and 40 rabbits were reared in closed house system (CHS) (Constant temperature of 22 ºC and 60% relative humidity). At 118 days, 10 rabbits per treatment were slaughtered and carcass traits and blood parameters were evaluated. The results showed that rabbits reared in OHS had significantly(P
133 EVALUATION OF USING DIETARY PHYTOGENICS, AS GROWTH PROMOTERS, ON BROILER PERFORMANCE, UNDER NORMAL AND SUBNORMAL TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS, H.B. Gharib Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Email: hassangharib2001@gmail.com
The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of dietary supplemental mixture of three phytogenics; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin (XtractTM®) as growth promoter, under normal and subnormal temperature conditions. It was hypothesized that this mixture may alleviate the negative effects of cold stress on broilers performance and their immune response. Six hundred, one-day-old male broiler chicks, were subjected to one of two dietary treatments for 35 days: a basal diet as a control and the basal diet plus 100 ppm of XtractTM®. At 21days of age, half the birds in each dietary treatment were raised under one of two different ambient temperature treatments, the recommended normal temperature (22-24°C) versus a subnormal temperature (11-17°C), until 35 days of age. The results indicated that rearing broilers under subnormal temperature conditions, from 21 to 35 days of age, had significant negative effects on the production performance, carcass meat yield and immune response, as compared to those reared under normal temperature conditions. Under normal and subnormal temperature conditions, feed supplementation of 100 ppm XtractTM® significantly increased final body weight, improved final feed conversion ratio, decreased total mortality rate, enhanced HI titers against Newcastle disease vaccine and consequently increased the profit potential of the birds, as compared to those not supplemented. Feed supplementation with XtractTM® caused a significant increase in dressing percentage, breast meat, carcass meat as well as a significant decrease in abdominal fat. In addition, the XtractTM® treated birds had significantly higher intestinal diameter and villus height than non treated ones. These results provide clear evidence to support the idea that the mixture of three phytogenics; carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin (XtractTM®) could be used as cost effective feed additive growth promoter in broilers up to 35 days of age, under normal as well as subnormal temperature conditions. Furthermore, XtractTM® supplementation alleviated the negative effects of cold stress on production performance and immune response in broilers.
134 EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION WARMING ON EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND SOME HATCHABILITY TRAITS IN DANDARAWI EGGS, M. El-Sagheer*, M.A.M. Sayed and M.A. Abdelnabi Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt *Corresponding author: sagheer68@yahoo.com
The effects of exposing Dandarawi fertile eggs to warm air before incubation on embryonic development, mortality and hatchability were studied. Seven hundred and fifty fertile eggs were used in this trial. Eggs were collected and stored at 16ºC for five days. Eggs were taken out the storage room and set for 12 hours in ambient air temperature (28ºC). Individual egg weights were recorded, then eggs were divided into five treatment groups (n=150 of each group). The first group (G1) was left for an additional 24 hours at room temperature and served as control. While, the other four groups (G2, G3, G4 and G5) were exposed to a temperature of (38-38.2ºC) for the respective durations of 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours, respectively, then to the ambient temperature (28ºC). After the 36 hours from taking the eggs out the storage room, all groups were set in the incubator. A sample of eggs from each group (n= 12 of each once) was cracked to record embryos’ relative weights at 6, 12 and 18 d of incubation. Eggs exposed (P
135 GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AND RELATIONSHIP AMONG EGYPTIAN NILE DELTA LOCATED BUFFALO USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS, M. Attia, S. Abou-Bakr and A.A.Nigm Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: mohamed.atya23@yahoo.com
The level of genetic differentiation, gene flow and relationship among six different populations of Egyptian buffalo located in the Nile Delta region were analyzed using nine microsatellite DNA markers. The nine microsatellites were BM1329; BMS483; BM143; AFR227; BMS2460; CSSM38; CSSM70; ETH02 and BM1706. The total number of animals sampled was 312, collected from six governorates; Behera, Menoufia, Kaliobia, Giza, Sharkia and Alexandria. The mean estimates of global F-statistics over all loci were 0.038±0.018 and 0.015±0.003 for FIT and FST, respectively, indicating a low level of inbreeding within and among populations. This also points towards low genetic differentiation between populations. All studied populations showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all studied loci (P < 0.01). Depending on the genetic distances and identify, there was a great genetic relationship among the different populations. Values of gene flow or migration between populations were high, the mean migration rate (Nm) found across all studied populations was 11.94, meaning that migration and admixture could have taken place between these populations. Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA) revealed a low breed-specific clustering. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 1.48% of the total genetic variation is among populations, while the remaining 98.5% corresponded to differences within populations (P
136 Effect of Housing System on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Cows in a Commercial Herd in Egypt, G. Ashour, R.R. Sadek, M.A.M. Ibrahim and A.M. Samoul Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
A total number of 693 complete lactation records of 693 Holstein cows were collected from a commercial farm (Dina Farm) during years 2011 and 2012. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some productive and reproductive traits of Holstein cows raised under two different housing systems. The first housing system (FHS) was characterized by the presence of six units of cooling system operated manually with shed height of 4.5 m and 18% shaded area. The second housing system (SHS) was characterized by the presence of 16 automatic cooling system units with a shed height of 8 m and 38% shaded area. Data on 305 days milk yield (305-dMY), daily milk yield (DMY), days open (DO) and number of services per conception (NSPC) were collected and analyzed using XLSTAT. The overall means of 305-dMY, DMY, DO and NSPC were 8550±330 kg, 26.9±1.04 kg, 147±8.8 days and 3.5±0.25 services, respectively. The difference between both housing systems was significant (P < 0.05) in 305-dMY, DMY and NSPC in favor of the second housing system (SHS), but this difference was non- significant in the case of DO. Cows housed under the SHS produced 11% higher 305-dMY than those maintained under FHS (8980±390 kg vs. 8120±269 kg). Similarly, cows housed under the SHS had 11% higher (P < 0.05) DMY than those housed under the FHS (28.3±1.23 kg vs. 25.5±0.84 kg). Moreover, cows housed under the SHS had non-significant shorter DO than those of FHS (138±10.4 days vs. 156±7.2 days). Cows maintained under the SHS had lower (P< 0.05) NSPC than those raised under the FHS by 26% (3.1 ± 0.29 vs. 3.9 ± 0.20 services, respectively). During all seasons, cows housed under the SHS had higher 305-dMY, DMY and lower DO, NSPC than those maintained under the FHS. These results could be attributed mainly to the more comfortable microclimate conditions in the SHS, mediated by more shaded area and effective cooling system.
137 SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND OVARIAN STEROIDOGENIC CAPACITY OF LACTATING AND NON-LACTATING BARKI EWES SYNCHRONIZED FOR ESTRUS DURING SEASONAL ANESTRUS UNDER SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS, N.M. Hashem Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby) Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt, E-mail address: hashemnesreen@yahoo.com
This study was designed to identify the sexual activity and ovarian steroidogenic capacity of lactating ewes during periods of early and mid-lactations compared to non-lactating ewes through the anestrous season under subtropical conditions. Occurrence of uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity of lactating ewes (n=10) were recorded and confirmed on days 15 and 30 postpartum (PP) using ultrasonography. Both lactating ewes (during early lactation: 40-60 days PP and mid-lactation: 70-90 days PP) and non-lactating ewes (n=10) were subjected to estrus synchronization using a double intramuscular injection of prostaglandin F2α (125 μg of cloprostenol/head), 11 days apart. Blood samples were collected on day 2 (follicular phase) and day 9 (luteal phase) following the second PGF2α injection. Serum concentrations of progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and their ratios were evaluated as well as concentrations of insulin and some blood metabolites. Ultrasonic examinations revealed that by day 30 PP lactating ewes had mean uterine horn diameters and ovarian structures in line to those of non-lactating ewes. During the experimental period, regardless of the physiological status (lactating or non-lactating) most females failed (P>0.05) to exert signs of estrus (100% in early lactation, 80% in mid-lactation and 60% in non-lactating ewes). However, 70% of the ewes in early lactation, 70% of the ewes in mid-lactation and 100% of the non-lactating ewes had corpora lutea (CLs) in the luteal phase of the synchronized estrus. Concentrations of P4 and E2 and P4/E2 ratios did not significantly differ between both follicular and luteal phases of the synchronized estrous cycles either in lactating (early lactation or mid-lactation) or non-lactating ewes. Lactating ewes in both early and mid-lactation periods had lower (P
138 REPRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF OSSIMI RAMS AS AFFECTED BY VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM INJECTION, Gamal B. Mahmoud1, Sh. M. Abdel-Raheem2 and H. A. Hussein3 1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, 2- Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 3- Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 1,2,3Assiut University, 71526, Assiut, Egypt
The objective of this study was to determine the changes in the reproductive and physiological traits of Egyptian Ossimi rams during and after injection of a combination of vitamin E and selenium (Se). Fourteen mature healthy Ossimi rams were randomly divided into two equal groups (7 rams per group). The first group served as control group (CG), while the 2nd group served as a treatment group (TG). Rams of the TG were treated twice weekly with 5 mg sodium selenite and 450 mg vitamin E for one month. Testicular measurements for each ram were recorded every one week for one month during the treatment and one month after the treatment. Accessory glands and testes were examined by sonar (ultrasound technique) and semen was collected using an artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at 8.0 a.m. for measuring some biochemical parameters and measuring testosterone hormone. The results of the current study revealed that, during the treatment period there were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the treated and control groups in the ejaculation volume and mass motility. However, there were significant improvements in the total sperm concentration (3 fold higher), the percentage of live spermatozoa (15.7% higher), total sperm abnormalities (13.7% lower) and reaction time (1.8 fold) in treated rams in comparison with the controls. After the treatment period, all semen characteristics were significantly improved. Selenium and vitamin E had no significant impact on the testes dimensions during the treatment period and had little effect on testes dimensions and ultrasonography of the testes. There were numerical increases in all testes dimensions after treatment beside the significant increase in seminal gland. During the treatment period, rams injected with vitamin E plus Se had higher (P
139 PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF BROILERS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PROBIOTIC OR NEOMYCIN ANTIBIOTIC, H.Y. El-Hammady1, M. El-Sagheer1+*, H.H.M. Hassanien2 and H.A. Hassan2 1- Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt * Corresponding author: (sagheer68@yahoo.com), 2- Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, South Value University, 83523 Qena, Egypt
An experiment was conducted designed to evaluate the effect of a probiotic as alternative to antibiotic growth promoters for broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty unsexed one-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five equal groups; the first was considered the control group, while the second to fifth was the treatments groups. Each group included three equal replicates each of 20 chicks. The ration used in the first group was the experimental ration without any supplements (control) while, those of 2-5 treatment groups were the same ration, but supplemented with antibiotic Neomycin (200 mg/kg diet), probiotic (1g/kg diet), probiotic (1.5g/kg diet), and probiotic (2g/kg diet), respectively. All birds were raised in wire floored batteries with the following dimensions: width: 97 cm; length: 50 cm; height: 45 cm under similar environmental and management conditions. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR); carcass and some organ weights percentages as well as intestines and ceca lengths were determined at the end of the experiment (42 days of age). The obtained results revealed that birds fed ration supplemented with antibiotic (G2), achieved significantly heavier final BW and higher BWG than birds received different levels of probiotic (G3 to G5) or the control diet (G1). However, birds received 1g or 1.5g probiotic/kg diets (G3 or G4) had significantly higher final BW and BWG than those fed the probiotic diet (G5) and the control diet (G1). Birds fed antibiotic diet (G2) or received 1g and 1.5 g probiotic/kg diets (G3 and G4) had significantly better FCR values than those of birds fed the control diet (G1) and 2g probiotic/kg diet (G5). The total mortality rate of birds in G3 was lower than those of the other groups. Supplementing the diets with antibiotic or probiotics did not affect the percentages of carcass and body organ weights (gizzard, liver, heart, spleen and Giblets) as well as the lengths of intestines and ceca. The abdominal fat percentage in G1 and G4 was decreased compared to the other groups. Therefore, the supplementation of 1.5 g probiotic/kg diet as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler diet is highly recommended to obtain higher growth performance, improved feed conversion, and lower mortality, without adverse effect on abdominal fat and carcass traits.
140 PLASMA LIPID METABOLITES AND LIVER LIPID COMPONENTS IN BROILERS AT 21 DAYS OF AGE IN RESPONSE TO DIETARY DIFFERENT FIBER SOURCES, H.M. Safaa1,2, E. Jiménez-Moreno2, M. Frikha2, G.G. Mateos2 1- Departament of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 Giza, Egypt, 2- Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain Corresponding author: H.M. Safaa (hosam.safaa@agr.cu.edu.eg)
(OH), sugar beet pulp (SBP), and pea hulls (PH) at levels of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% in the diet on lipid metabolism of broilers from hatch to 21 d of age. The OH, SBP, and PH contained 0.7, 11.6, and 5.1% soluble fiber and 70.6, 47.4, and 49.6% insoluble fiber, respectively. The control diet contained 1.6% crude fiber (6.9% dietary fiber). The fiber sources were included in the experimental diets at the expense (wt/wt) of the control diet. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (a cage with 2 chicks). At 21 d of age, one chick per replicate was slaughtered and plasma lipid metabolites and liver lipid components were determined. At 21 d of age, the inclusion of fiber in the diet tended to reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.06) and to increase HDL cholesterol (P = 0.06) in plasma and reduced lipid components of the liver including total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol (P
141 IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF DANDARAWI CHICKEN THROUGH FLASH LIGHT PROGRAM, M. F. A. Farghly Department of Poultry Production, Faculty, of Agriculture, University of Assiut, (71516), Egypt Email: farghly20002000@yahoo.com
An experiment with Dandarawi chickens was designed to see the impact of flash light (FL) stimulation on productive and reproductive performance. Three hundred, four weeks old chicks were divided into 5 equal groups (3 replicates of 20 birds each) and housed in floor pens. The first group, the birds were subjected to 12 and 16 hrs common light (CL)/day during the growing and laying periods, respectively and were considered as the control group (C). While, the second group (T1), birds were subjected to 12 hrs light (9 CL: 3 FL) and16 h light (12 CL:4 FL) during growing and laying periods, respectively. The third group (T2), birds were subjected to 12 hrs light (6 CL:6 FL) and16 hrs light (8 CL:8 FL) during growing and laying periods, respectively. The fourth group (T3), birds were subjected to 12 h light (3 CL : 9 FL) and16 h light (4 CL:12 FL) during growing and laying periods, respectively. The fifth group (T4), birds were subjected to 12 and 16 hrs flash light (FL)/day during the growing and laying periods, respectively. Feed and water were available ad libtum and all the other conditions were the same during the experimental period. Results emanating from this study indicated that exposure of birds to flash light affected many of the studied traits and the effects were significant (P≤0.05) on body weight, weight gain, feed conversion, liver, giblets, abdominal fat, total lipids, blood AST, H/L ratio, egg number, egg shell thickness, egg yolk index, age at sexual maturity, fertility, semen volume & concentration, follicle number, testes and ovary percentages. While, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences in most carcass traits, blood components (protein, cholesterol, ALT), shell strength, Haugh units, egg components, leg problems, plumage conditions, bone lengths, semen pH, oviduct weight & length and hatchability percentages. Finally, the economical efficiency of the birds reared on12 hrs light (6 CL: 6 FL) during the growing period and birds provided with either 16 hrs of light (4 CL:12 FL) for table eggs, as well as (8 CL: 8 FL) or (4 CL:12 FL) for fertile eggs during laying periods were superior to that of birds in other groups. Light flashes program as bio-intermittent light might be economical alternative light to continuous or common light in sight and stimulation of internal organs or initiation of hormones release without negatively affecting the performance and welfare of chickens during growing and laying periods.
142 FREEZABILITY AND DNA INTEGRITY OF DROMEDARY CAMEL SPERMATOZOA IN SEMEN COLLECTED BY ARTIFICIAL VAGINA AND ELECTRO-EJACULATOR, Mostafa T.H.1, Abd El-Salaam A.M. 1, Elbadry D.E. 2 and Abear M. Anour2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, 2- Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
Two methods of semen collection from dromedary camel bulls, including electro-ejaculation (EE) versus conventional artificial vagina (AV) were compared in term of their effects on reaction time, physical semen characteristics, sperm biometry, alkaline comet assay of spermatozoa, sperm freezability. Effects on concentration of testosterone, some minerals and biochemicals as well as activity of some enzymes in blood serum of camel bulls were also evaluated. Results showed that using EE significantly increased reaction time, total sperm output per ejaculate, head length and tail width of spermatozoa, total percentage of sperm head showing comet and serum aspartate transaminase (AST) activity. On the other hand, EE significantly decreased sperm cell concentration, serum cholesterol, magnesium, zinc, inorganic phosphorus and testosterone concentrations. However, ejaculate volume, percentages of total motility, forward motility, dead, abnormality and acrosome damage of spermatozoa, head width, tail length, and total length of spermatozoa, grades of comet assay, sperm freezability, concentration of total proteins and their fraction, serum Na, Ca and K concentrations and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were not affected by collection method. Electro-ejaculation is considered as a suitable and repeatable technique for semen collection from dromedary camel bulls when semen collection by conventional artificial vagina is not possible.
143 SHORT-TERM FEEDING OF MELENGESTROL ACETATE PLUS GnRH AND PGF2α TO ENHANCE REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF REPLACEMENT DAIRY HEIFERS , S. Z. El-Zarkouny1, 2 1Department of Arid Land Agriculture, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdul-Aziz University Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 2Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Email: elzarkouny@yahoo.com
Forty six pure Holstein heifers were assigned randomly to two synchronization treatments Select Synch (n =21) and MGA 7-11 Synch (n = 25). The MGA 7-11 Synch heifers were fed MGA (0.5 mg/h/day) for 7 days concluded with PGF2α injection. Four days later, both groups (Select Synch and MGA 7-11Synch) were administered GnRH followed with PGF2α on day 0. Heifers were inseminated with frozen semen according to the AM/PM rule. Within 24-48h peak response period after PGF2α injection more (81%, 17/21) Select Synch heifers displayed estrus compared to MGA 7-11 Synch (68.1%, 17/25). However, overall percentages of heifers detected in estrus were not different between Select Synch (95.2%, 20/21) and MGA 7-11 Synch (84%, 21/25) heifers. Select Synch heifers had empirically improved (P=0.2) conception rate to first artificial insemination (AI, 75%, 15/20) compared to MGA 7-11 Synch heifers (57%, 12/21), while overall pregnancy rates were 95.2 and 96%. The total number of follicles (TNF) on both ovaries was not different between the Select Synch (2.4±0.3) and MGA 7-11 Synch (2.2±0.3) heifers. Likewise, the overall diameters of largest follicles were not affected by treatments. However, Select Synch heifers had larger (P
144 EFFECT OF DAILY WEIGHT GAIN ON AGE AT FIRST CALVING AND SUBSEQUENT MILK YIELD OF HOLSTEIN HEIFERS IN EGYPT , R.R. Sadek, G. Ashour, M.A.M. Ibrahim and A.M. Samoul* Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, Giza, Egypt *Corresponding Email:alisamool@hotmail.com
A total number of 1152 complete lactation records for 576 Holstein cows were collected from two commercial farms (Copenhagen and Sami Asaad farm) during the period from year 2007 to 2010 to determine the effect of average daily weight gain (ADG) from birth to conception of Holstein heifers on their age at first calving (AFC) and subsequent milk yield. Heifers were divided into four groups (G,s) based on their ADG as 650 g/day, 775 g/day, 875 g/day and 950 g/day for G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively. Heifers of G4 reached the AFC 5.3 month earlier (P
145 GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR DIRECT AND MATERNAL EFFECTS ON DIFFERENT GROWTH RATES IN BARKI LAMBS, Gad, S. M. A. Animal and Poultry Breeding Dept., Desert Research Centre, El Matareya, Cairo, Egypt Email: soliman_gad@yahoo.com
To investigate direct and maternal effects on growth rates taken at various intervals in Barki sheep, body weight data were obtained from the Barki sheep flock from 1994 to 2001. Records of 1169 lambs, progenies of 690 ewes and 83 sires, were used. Heritability and correlation estimates were estimated by DFREML program. Six different animal models were fitted by including or excluding maternal effects while regarding sex, year of birth and age of dam as fixed effects and animal, sire and dam as random effects. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to determine the most appropriate model for the studied traits. Average growth rate during preweaning stage was higher than that of post-weaning ones. Based on AIC, Model two is the most appropriate model for GRb-w and GRb-6m. Whereas Model one is the best model for GRw-6m, GRb-9m, GRw-9m and GR 6m-9m low estimates of h2 d indicate that low genetic improvement is expected for growth rates in Barki sheep. However, selection for GRb-w would be more effective than other studied growth rates. The relatively higher and positive additive genetic correlations between GRb-w and other post-weaning growth traits might reveal that growth rate from birth to weaning is a suitable selection criterion to improve growth performance in Barki sheep.
146 OPTIMAL PRE-WEANING BODY WEIGHT AS AN EARLY SELECTION CRITERION FOR IMPROVING MEAT PRODUCTION IN BARKI SHEEP , El-Wakil, Salwa I. Animal and Poultry Breeding Dept., Desert Research Centre, ElMatareya, Cairo, Egypt. Email: salwa_elwakil@yahoo.com
The present study was initiated to investigate the importance of pre-weaning body weights in selection of Barki lambs. Four criteria were proposed to judge these pre-weaning body weights in order to assign the optimal one of them to be taken as an early selection criterion for improving meat production in Barki sheep. Pre-weaning body weight records and pedigree information of 2942 Barki lamb progenies of 186 sires and 1653 ewes belonging to the sheep flock of the Desert Research Centre raised in two research stations; Ras Elhekma (from 1963 to 1972) and Maryout (from 1973 to 2004) were used in the present study. The current study dealt with the lamb preweaning body weights from birth and at biweekly intervals till weaning at 120 days together with two adult body weights at 360 days and at 480 days. Data were analyzed by fitting a direct-maternal animal model using the MTDFREML program to estimate (co)variance components as well as direct and maternal heritabilities, correlations and breeding values for the studied traits. Maternal heritabilities were higher than the corresponding direct ones from birth till the age of 30 days, and then turned to be lower for body weight at 45 days and up to weaning. Similar trends were revealed for maternal genetic variances and maternal breeding values compared with the corresponding direct ones. The estimated genetic correlations (either direct or maternal) were generally high and positive. The present study showed that body weight at 90 days, W90, as the "optimal" selection criterion to improve meat production in Barki sheep since it generally satisfies most of the criteria suggested to determine that optimal body weight. Compared with the other pre-weaning body weights, W90 had generally higher heritability and breeding values. W90 had also higher utility in predicting adult body weights through high and positive direct and maternal genetic and environmental correlations. Higher genetic, phenotypic and environmental variation occurred in W90. There is no antagonism relationship between direct and maternal effects existed for W90 and between this trait and adult body weights. Therefore, it is anticipated that higher genetic response would be attained if the selection based on W90. Accordingly, the present study recommends W90 as the optimal early selection criterion for breeding purposes aiming at genetic improvement for meat production in Barki sheep.
147 DIRECT AND MATERNAL GENETIC PARAMETERS AND GENETIC TRENDS FOR SOME BODY WEIGHTS AND GROWTH TRAITS IN BARKI SHEEP, El-Wakil, Salwa* I. and S. M. A. Gad Animal and Poultry Breeding Dept., Desert Research Centre, ElMatareya, Cairo, Egypt. *Corresponding Email: salwa_elwakil@yahoo.com
Body weight records of 3189 Barki lambs progenies of 186 sires and 1748 ewes were obtained from Barki sheep flock maintained at Ras Elhekma (from 1963 to 1972) and Maryout (from 1973 to 2004) research stations which belong to the Desert Research Centre in order to assess direct and maternal genetic parameters and genetic trends to evaluate the breeding strategies implemented for improving growth performance in Barki sheep. The present study dealt with body weights at birth, BW; weaning, WW and yearling, YW as well as average daily gain from birth to weaning, DGBW and from weaning to yearling, DGWY. Data were analyzed by fitting a direct- maternal animal model using the MTDFREML program to estimate direct and maternal expected breeding values and correlations. Breeding values were plotted against year of birth to obtain genetic trends for the studied traits. Results indicated the importance of maternal effects on the studied body weights and growth traits in Barki sheep. Maternal correlation coefficients (either genetic or environmental) were positive and higher than the corresponding phenotypic and direct ones. Genetic trend analysis for the studied traits indicated, on one hand, that there is virtually no difference between direct and maternal breeding values and hence genetic trends across the examined years which reveal that maternal genetic effects are of importance and probably have the same impact as the direct genetic effects. On the other hand, two distinct trends were clearly illustrated in which the positive genetic trends in body weight exhibited till 1975- 1976 and then dropped and remained constant, thereafter. This time probably coordinated when the sheep flock had just moved from Ras Elhekma to Maryout research station. At Ras Elhekma research station, genetic progress achieved in the studied traits appeared to be generally significant and positive but of little magnitude throughout the examined years with slightly higher maternal genetic improvement compared with the respective direct genetic one. However, the annual direct and maternal genetic trends were generally negative, not significant and almost zeros at Maryout research station. Such no or minor genetic response exhibited for the studied traits during the evaluated years might be a result of lacking effective directional selection, management system applied and incompatible environmental conditions. Likewise, it could probably be attributed to neglecting the maternal influences either genetic or environmental throughout the implementation of breeding program which used to depend entirely on direct genetic effects. Implications of including both direct and maternal effects into the breeding program to improve growth performance in Barki sheep have been discussed.
148 PREGNANCY DETECTION IN RABBITS BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY AS COMPARED TO MANUAL PALPATION, M. El-Gayar1,2*, H. Khalil1, A. Hanafy1, M. Yaseen1, E. Hegaze1, D. Marthold2, M. Gauly2 and W. Holtz2 1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2Department of Animal Science, Georg-August-University, Goettingen, Germany *Corresponding author: melgayar@yahoo.com
The most common way of detecting pregnancy in rabbits is by manual palpation. Real-time ultrasonography may be an alternative to be used in rabbit production units in the future if it turns out to be practicable. There is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the suitability of real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in rabbits. In the present study pregnancy diagnosis by transabdominal ultrasonography was compared to manual abdominal palpation in 28 mated New Zealand rabbit does. Ultrasonography with the aid of a real-time scanner, equipped with five MHz linear-array transducer and manual palpation were executed by one individual daily, beginning at day five after mating. For ultrasound scanning, does were restrained in a dorsal recumbent position and, to establish firm skin contact, gel was applied to the clipped caudal abdomen. Manual abdominal palpation provided a reliable diagnosis by day 10.9 ± 0.3. By ultrasonography, uterine fluid was detected 6.2 ± 0.2 days after mating; fetal heartbeat by day 7.8 ± 0.1. In the 20 does that went to term (71%), the reliability of both ultrasonic pregnancy detection (based on the observation of heart beat) and manual palpation was 100%. No abortions or stillborn kits were recorded and the kits born were normal and viable. In conclusion, real-time ultrasonography, being accurate, rapid and safe, may be considered as a viable alternative for other means of early pregnancy diagnosis in rabbits.