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Egyptian Journal of Animal Production

ISSN(p):0302-4520 | ISSN(e):2735-3028
Journal Papers (69) Details NOTES TO AUTHORS Contact Us
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1 INFLUENCE OF FEEDING DIFFERENT TYPES OF OLIGOSACCHARIDES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, DIGESTIBILITY AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF FATTENING EGYPTIAN BUFFALO STEERS , M. Abd-Allah1*, E.H.S. Hassan1 and M.W.H. Daghash2   1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut71524, Egypt. 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt *E-mail: mohtaram_a_m_e@yahoo.com, muhtaram@azhar.edu.eg
A total of sixteen Egyptian male buffalo steers aged 28 months weighted 330.08±10.63kg were used in this trial to elucidate the impact of using three types of oligosaccharides (Mannan oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos®), Esterified glucomannan (EGM-100®) and Galacto oligosaccharides (GOS®) on growth, feed conversion, digestibility coefficients, economic efficiency and some blood parameters. At the beginning of the experiment, animals were randomly allotted into four equal groups (4animals each) according to average body weight. Treated animals in the control group (CO) were fed on the control diet without oligosaccharides, while those in MOS, EGM and GOS groups were fed on diets containing 0.1 % of each type of oligosaccharides (1 g/kg diet) for 120 days feeding period. Four digestibility trials were carried out to determine nutrients digestibility and nutritive values of experimental diets. Results revealed that digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CF and NFE tended to increase significantly by feeding buffalo steers on MOS and EGM diets compared with those of control group. Likewise, there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in CP and EE digestibility among groups treated with MOS and EGM than control group. The present results showed a significant (P≤0.01) increase of nutritive values as TDN and ME for MOS and EGM diets compared with control. Feeding male buffalo on treated diets increased (P≤0.05) the nutritive value as DCP compared with untreated ones. Live body weight was significantly (P≤0.05) increased as well as ADG and TG were improved (P≤0.01) in treated trials. There was no significant increase in daily dry matter (DMI), total digestible nutrient intake (TDNI), digestible crude protein intake (DCPI) and metabolizable energy (ME) due to oligosaccharide supplementation. Feeding male buffaloes on MOS and EGM decreased (P≤0.01) feed conversion of DM and TDN compared with control group. Total feed coast (LE/kg gain) was decreased due to feeding MOS and EGM supplemented diets. Feeding MOS and EGM increased (P≤0.05) total protein and globulin levels of blood serum which might indicate improvement of immune status of treated animals. Means of alanine transaminase (AST) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) enzymes did not differ significantly among treatments. Blood serum total lipids were reduced (P≥0.05), while total cholesterol concentration was (P≤0.05) lower in blood serum of treated groups than control and the lowest values were recorded for GOS group. It was concluded that prebiotics supplementation (such as oligosaccharides) in the diet of fatting male Egyptian buffaloes resulted in significant improvement in productive performance and digestibility coefficients without any harmful effect on animals health. Keywords: Egyptian buffalo, fattening performance, oligosaccharides, blood metabolites, nutrient digestibility
2 PHYSICAL TRAITS OF VAGINAL MUCUS DISCHARGE AND THEIR RELATIONS , A. I. Damarany   Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
The current research aimed to study the conception rate of Egyptian native cows as influenced by vaginal mucus discharge (VMD). Forty cows were used in the experiment and were followed up after two-week post-partum. Vaginal mucus discharges were divided into three categories according to transparency (transparent, cloudy and dirty), viscosity (thin and thick) or pH (7-7.5, 7.5-8 and ?8). The results indicated that the percentage of cows that conceived which have transparent vaginal mucus discharge (VMD) during estrus were significantly (P <0.05) higher (73.3%) compared with cows which have cloudy and dirty vaginal mucus (40 and 20%), respectively. The percentage of cows that conceived which have thin vaginal mucus during estrus was significantly (P <0.05) higher (87.5%) compared to those cows which have thick vaginal mucus (25%). The conception rate was significantly (P <0.05) higher (78.6%) in cows which have vaginal mucus pH level at estrus ?8 compared with those cows which had vaginal mucus pH value ranging from 7 to 8. No significant difference in plasma progesterone concentrations during estrus in cows which have different vaginal mucus pH in pregnant and non-pregnant baladi cows. However, concentrations of estradiol-17βduring estrus in pregnant cows were significantly (P <0.05) higher than non-pregnant cows. Concentration of estradiol-17β at estrus was significantly (P <0.05) higher in cows which have strong estrus intensity expression compared with cows having weak estrus intensity expression. In conclusion, the results clarified that the cows, which had vaginal mucus discharge (VMD): transparent, thin, and pH value at estrus ?8 recorded higher conception rate. Estradiol-17β concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher during estrus period in cows, which displayed high estrus intensity.   Keywords: Physical traits, vaginal mucus discharge, Egyptian Baladi cows  
3 GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC TREND OF MILK PRODUCTION TRAITS AND AGE AT FIRST CALVING APPLYING RANDOM REGRESSION MODEL IN FRIESIAN CATTLE IN EGYPT , M.H. Mohamed1, M.H. Khalil2, M.M. Iraqi2 and S.M. Zahed1   1-Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Benha University, Egypt, Corresponding author: maher.khalil@fagr.bu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The aim of this study was to detect genetic and phenotypic trends for test-day (TD) milk, fat and protein yields and age at first calving (AFC) in Frisian cattle in Egypt applying the random regression model (RRM). Data of 5237 TD milk yield traits were recorded for 953 Friesian cows, daughters of 208 sires and 944 dams from two herds in the Animal Production Institute (APRI), Egypt. Ten-month classes of lactation days were considered for the TD yields. The model included the random effects of direct additive genetic, permanent environment and error, while the fixed effects were herd-year-season of calving and parity, which was modeled by Orthogonal Legendre Polynomials. The additive genetic variance at first TD for milk, fat, protein yields and AFCwere4.7 kg, 13.3 g, 5.3 g and 2.8 monthrespectivelyand increased until the fourth, decreased until the lowest value at the tenth TD for milk but fat and protein yields the lowest value at the ninth TD.The lowest value of AFC was at the sixth TD then increased until the tenth TD. Heritability estimates at first TD were 0.12, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.05 for TDMY, TDFY, TDPY and AFC, respectively, and increased until the third for TDFY, TDPY and AFC but TDMY trait reached the highest value at the fourth TD, then decreased at the tenth TD.But reached the lowest value at sixth TD, and increased until the tenth TD. The phenotypic trendfor TDMY decreased by 26 to 18 kg from the first to the fifth TD, then it increased until the tenth TD. The phenotypic trend was started by 44 g and 18 g for fat and protein, respectively until the fourth TD then decreased until the ninth TD. The genetic trends were slightly positive for all traits, indicating that the selection program performs correctly.   Keywords:Test day milk yield, random regression model, genetic and phenotypic trends
4 EFFECT OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING AND FIRST LACTATION MILK YIELD ON PRODUCTIVE LIFE TRAITS OF SYRIAN SHAMI COWS , O. Almasri 1, S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2   1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY The objective of this research was to study the effect of age at first calving (AFC) and first lactation milk yield (FMY) on productive life traits of Syrian Shami cows. In this study, the complete records from birth to voluntary culling were collected on 605 cows during the period from 1981 to 2010 at Deir al-Hajar station in Syria. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model (XLSTATE, 2019). The least squares means for AFC and FMY were 30.9±0.16 months and 1203±34 kg, respectively. The optimum AFC was ≤ 25 months to achieve the maximum lifetime milk yield, productive life and number of calvings. Increasing AFC (especially over 31.8 months) decreased lifetime milk production, lifetime daily milk yield, productive life and the number of lactations. First lactation milk yield reflected the production capacity in subsequent lactations. The first calvers of more than 1900 kg produced high milk yield during their life and had shorten dry periods. While cows that produced less than 600 kg milk in the first lactation had the lowest life time milk production.   Keywords: Age at first calving, First lactation milk yield, Productive life traits, Syrian Shami cows
5 BAICALEIN IMPROVES IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT RATE AND QUALITY OF PREIMPLANTATION BOVINE EMBRYOS WHEN SUPPLEMENTED TO MATURATION MEDIUM , M. Fakruzzaman1, S. Yasmine2 and N. Ghanem3,*   1- Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Out Campus, Khanpura, Babuganj, Barishal-8210, Bangladesh, 2- Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Science, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh ,3- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, *Correspnding author E-mail: (nassergo@agr.cu.edu.eg)
SUMMARY Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) is one of the flavonoid, that is traditionally used in Chinese herbal medicine. It has an antioxidant properties and acts as free radical scavengers. However, the effect of baicalein on bovine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development is unknown. For this, good quality bovine oocytes recovered from abattoir ovaries were cultured in IVM medium supplemented with various concentrations of baicalein (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μM) followed by in vitro fertilization and embryo development. The cleavage and blastocyst development rates were recorded at days three and eight after fertilization, respectively. In addition, total cell number and total dead cells (apoptotic) were counted using TUNEL-Hoechst assay. The results indicate that the proportion of blastocysts derived from oocytes treated with baicalein of 1 μM (38.3%) was greater (P < 0.05) than those of control group (28.7%). In addition, the percentage of Day-eight blastocysts was not significantly different namong the 0.1 μM (31.5%), 1 μM (38.3%) and 10 μM (32.5%) embryo groups. The percentage of hatched blastocyst on day eight were significantly higher in the group supplemented with 1 μM (40.5%) baicalein than those in the control and 0.1 μM (33.3% and 32.4, respectively). Total cell number per blastocyst was increased (P < 0.05) in embryos treated with baicalein at the rate of 1 μM (150.3±5.0) compared with the control group (0 μM) and 10 μM (122.9±8.9 and 128.1±6.2, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between 1 μM (150.3±5.0) and 0.1 μM (139.4±5.7). Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells was lower (P < 0.05) in blastocysts derived from oocytes treated with baicalein of 1 μM (3.6±0.6) than in control (6.4±1.2) and 10 μM embryos (7.1±1.7). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that baicalein is a potent antioxidant that improves the maturation environment on the way to promote the developmental competence of bovine oocytes in vitro and increases hatching rate and the total blastocyst cell numbers by suppressing incidence of apoptosis when supplemented at the concentration of 1 μM.   Keywords: Baicalein, bovine embryos, in vitro maturation, development, apoptosis
6 IMPACT OF ANTIOXIDANTS SUPPLEMENTATION ON METABOLIC STATUS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF ABERDEEN ANGUS COWS DURING SEASONAL THERMAL STRESS IN ARID SUBTROPICAL REGIONS , A.Y. Kassab1, H. Hamdon1, W. Senosy2, H. Da??as?3 and A. Soliman1   1- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, New Valley University, Al kharga city, New Valley, 51714, Egypt, 2- Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley University, Al kharga city, New Valley, 51714, Egypt, 3- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 71526 *Corresponding author: Hatem Hamdon: e-mail: hamdon@nv.aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study was performed to investigate the effect of antioxidants supplementation, i.e., vitamin E, selenium (Se) and zinc sulfate administration on metabolic status, biochemical and reproductive performance of Aberdeen Angus cows under hot conditions. Sixteen cows were used and divided randomly into four equal groups (four cows each) and each group was treated for 21 successive days. The first group served as a control. The second group was injected vitamin E and Se at rate of 15ml / head / twice a week (E Sel group) The third group was supplemented with 200 mg/head/ daily zinc sulphate (Zinc group). Whereas, the fourth one was supplemented with 200 mg/head/ daily zinc sulphate in combination with vitamin E and Sel at rate of 15ml / head / 15day. Metabolic and antioxidant parameters were measured on a weekly basis for 21 days from the start of treatment until the end of synchronized ultrasonographic estrous cycle. Ultrasonographic examination of follicular number and size was carried out during estrous cycle every three days. Results showed that number of all types of ovarian follicles was high in all treated groups compared to control group. Moreover, number of services per conception recorded higher (P<0.05) values in control group (1.8) compared to treated groups (1.3). Furthermore, glucose concentration (mg/dl) was high (P<0.05) in zinc group (66.67 ± 5.31) compared to sel zinc group (58.64 ± 4.87) and control group (55.31 ± 5.09) during week 2 post-treatment. Moreover, non-esterified fatty acids (μmol/l) concentration illustrated lower (P<0.05) value in all treatment groups than control group at weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 post-treatment. Glutathione peroxidase concentration (GSH, U/g Hb) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, mmol/l) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in all treatment groups than that of control group. From the present result it can be concluded that vitamin E, selenium and zinc could improve reproductive performance, metabolic profiles and antioxidant capacity under subtropical heat stress in Aberdeen Angus cows.   Keywords: Antioxidants, supplementation, metabolic status, reproductive performance, thermal stress Aberdeen Angus
7 INFLUENCE OF TEMPREATURE -HUMIDITY INDEX LEVEL ON OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND CONCEPTION RATE IN EGYPTAIN BALADI COWS UNDER CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ASWAN GOVERNORATE , A. I. Damarany   Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The present investigation aimed to study the effects of temperature-humidity index (THI) level, on the ovarian activity and conception rate of Egyptian Baladi cows. A total number of 40 Baladi cows was used in this study. The cows were divided into three groups according to time of calving. The first group (15 cows) calved during (December, January and February) where THI (68.1- 70.5) was considered as (non-heat stress), the second group calved during (November, March and April) THI (74.5- 76.9) (mild-heat stress=10 cows) and the third group calved during (May to October) THI (80.1- 83.9) (moderate-heat stress= 15 cows). The results demonstrated that the percentage of cows that resumed ovarian activity post-partum were significantly (P<0.05) higher 73.3% in the first group compared to 50 and 33.3% in the second and third groups, respectively. Incidence, of quiet ovulation was higher (20%) in the second and third groups compared to first group (18.2%). The percentage of anestrous cases was significantly (P <0.05) higher (50, 66.7%) in the second and third group compared with the first group (36.4%). Conception rate was significantly (P<0.05) higher (77.8%) in the first group compared to third group (50%). The intensity of estrus symptoms was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the first group compared to the second and third groups. In conclusion, the present results illustrated the detrimental effect of increased temperature-humidity index level (THI) on ovarian activity and conception rate of Egyptian Baladi cows. This study recommends the stockholders of cows in Aswan governorate to arrange the cows calvings during the cold months or use some procedures such as sprinkling by water and fan in order to reduce the hurtful effects of higher THI level on fertility in Egyptian Baladi cows.   Keywords: Temperature-humidity index, ovarian activity, conception rate, Egyptian Baladi cows
8 EXPECTED IMPACT OF SELECTION FOR MILK YIELD ON REPRODCCTION PERFORMANCE TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN COWS UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS , Amina A. Habib, G.F. Gouda, A.R. Shemeis and Manal El-Sayed   Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 68 Hadayek Shoubra,11241 Cairo, Egypt
S?MMARY Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of productive (305-day yields of milk, MY305; fat, FY305 and protein, PY305) and reproductive performance traits (days open, DO; calving interval, CI and number of inseminations per conception, NSC) were calculated on 3398 lactation records of 1054 Holstein Friesian cows, daughters of 94 bulls and 691 dams using multi-trait animal model with repeated records. Expected impact of direct selection for MY305, FY305 and PY305 on reproductive performance was calculated. Heritability estimates for productive traits varied from 0.08 to 0.26 and from 0.04 to 0.19 for reproductive traits. The productive traits were highly inter-correlated genetically (0.995 to 0.998) than the reproductive traits (0.241 to 0.786). Cows which producing abundant MY305, FY305 and PY305 tended to show less reproductive efficiency in terms of longer DO (rG = 0.942 to 0.947), longer CI (rG =0.587 to 0.673) and more NSC (rG =0.769 to 0.829). Direct selection, after one round of selection, for MY305, FY305 and PY305 is expected to result in cows with more advantageous productive performance in terms of higher MY305 (+180.22 to 323.27 kg), FY305 (+13.79 to 24.95 kg) and PY305 (+12.41 to 22.48 kg). This enhancement in productive performance is expected to be associated with deterioration in reproductive performance in terms of longer days open (+16.27 to 29.48 days), longer calving interval (+15.26 to 25.22 days) and higher number of inseminations per conception (+.08 to 0.16 services). It could be concluded that the undesirable relationship between productive and reproductive performance traits in Holstein Frisian cows must be taken into consideration when planning breeding programs in dairy cattle (e.g. improving productive traits by genetic selection and reproductive traits by enhancement management or by using restricted selection indices).   Keywords: Holstein-Frisian cows, productive and reproductive performance, genetic parameters, direct selection, correlated response
9 THE INFLUENCE OF BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF SALINE WATER CONSUMPTION ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF GROWING LAMBS , A.M.A. Hussein1, M.N. Abd El-Ati1 and M.M. Abdelsattar2   1-Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit 71515, Egypt, 2- Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
SUMMARY This study aimed to evaluate the impact of betaine supplementation on the deleterious effects of saline water consumption on carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs. Twenty lambs were assigned to four treatments; control (S0B0), saline water (1.5% NaCl) without betaine group (S1B0), fresh water with betaine group (2500 mg betaine /kg concentrate diet) (S0B1) and saline water with betaine group(S1B1) in 2×2 factorial arrangement. Lambs were reared under the experimental condition for five months. At the end of experiment, three lambs were randomly chosen from each treatment and slaughtered after 12 h fasting. After slaughter, the hot carcass weights and organs weights were recorded. Then, the carcass measurements, commercial carcass cuts weight and percentage were determined. Meat samples of the semimembranosus muscle, longissimus dorsi muscle, and supraspinatus muscle were obtained and prepared for meat quality measures. Saline water significantly (P<0.01) decreased hot carcass weight, empty body weight, internal organs and carcass parts. In addition, saline water significantly (P<0.01) decreased the loin percentage. However, betaine significantly (P<0.01) increased the hot carcass weight, empty body weight (P<0.05), internal organs (P<0.05). In addition, betaine significantly increased almost of carcass commercial cuts. In general, consuming saline water negatively affect lambs’ carcass characteristics and meat quality. While, betaine supplementation improved lambs’ carcass characteristics and meat quality. Consequently, when lambs consume saline water with betaine ameliorates the deleterious effects of saline water consumption on carcass characteristics and meat quality.   Keywords: meat quality, betaine, lambs, water salinity, carcass
10 INFLUENCE OF USING OLIVE CAKE MEAL WITH OR WITHOUT SODIUM BICARBONATE ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF GROWING NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS , I.A. Azazi1, Haiam S. Abd EL-Haliem2*, S. Gadelrab1, H.M. EL-Komy1, A.S. Ahmed1 and M.M.M. Ouda1   1- Animal Production Research Institute ,Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, PO Box 41522. *Corresponding author: Tel: 00201020517974; E-mail:haiam65@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present experiment was carried out to investigate the possibility of incorporating 10 and 20 % of olive cake meal (OCM) with or without 0.25% and 0.50% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the rabbit diets and their effects on growth performance, carcass traits, blood constituents, nutrient utilization and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 105 unsexed, New Zealand White (NZW) weaned rabbits of 4 weeks of age were randomly assigned to 7 equal experimental groups (15 rabbits each). Rabbits were housed individually in wire mesh cages. The first treatment served as control without additives. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments contained 10 % OCM supplemented with zero, 0.25 and 0.50 % NaHCO3, respectively. The 5th, 6th and 7th treatments contained 20 % OCM supplemented with zero, 0.25 and 0.50 % NaHCO3, respectively. Results revealed that rabbits fed diet supplemented with 10 % OCM with 0.25 NaHCO3 recorded the highest value of final body weight, total gain, daily weight gain and performance index (%). In addition, diets with 10 and 20% OCM with 0.25 or 0.50 NaHCO3 numerically increased digestibility coefficient of CP and significantly increased (P≤0.01) digestibility coefficient of CF as compared with other groups. Whereas, 20% OCM without NaHCO3 attained the worst nutrient digestibility for all parameters studied. Also, rabbits fed 10 % OCM with or without NaHCO3 were more efficient in feeding utilization than the others. Furthermore, Rabbits fed 10 % OCM plus 0.25 or 0.50% NaHCO3 diets had the highest significance (P≤0.01) in carcass % compared with others. Rabbits fed diet supplemented with 10% OCM without NaHCO3 had the lowest values of all traits. Furthermore, the differences for serum cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin concentrations were highly significant (P≤0.01) whereas, the differences were significant (P≤0.05) for ALT, and non significant for total lipids, total protein, globulin, A/G and AST. Data on serum cholesterol concentrations were greater in for the groups that were fed 10 or 20 % OCM without NaHCO3 (P≤0.01) compared with others. There were an improvement in economical efficiency (EEf) and relative economical efficiency (REEf) for rabbits fed diets 10% OCM, without or with NaHCO3, as compared with other groups. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that inclusion of olive cake meal (OCM) in growing rabbit's diet at a level 10% with or without sodium bicarbonate may be useful and have significant impact on growth performance, carcass characteristics, blood components and economical efficiency.   Keywords: Olive cake meal, sodium bicarbonate, growth performance, digestibility coefficients, blood constituents, economical efficiency.
11 INFLUENCE OF YEAST AND LACTOBACILLUS PRODUCTS AS FEED SUPPLEMENTS ON BLOOD PARAMETERS AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , H. A. El-Nagar1*, A. M. El-Hais2 and M. S. Mandouh2   1- Department of biotechnology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY The present study is a trial to improve blood parameters and the reproductive performance of lactating Egyptian Buffaloes following the administration of probiotics during late gestation and early postpartum period. Fifteen lactating buffaloes at one-month pre-partum were divided randomly into three groups (5 each) until five months postpartum. The control group fed basal diet without supplements (G1), the 2nd group (G2) was given the basal diet plus 20 g/h/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture (YC), the 3rd group (G3) was given the basal diet plus 20 g/h/ d of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LB). Blood samples were collected monthly during the postpartum period (PP) from calving to the 5th month for estimation of enzymes activities, hematological and blood parametersas well as reproductive measurements, while colostrum samples were taken from dams on days 1, 2 and 3 postpartum to measure the concentration of immunoglobulin. Results showed that the values of all hematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05) improved in G3 followed by G2 then control. Also, Data indicated that the values of all biochemical blood parameters for buffaloes supplemented with LB in G3 were significantly (p<0.01) higher than G2, while G1 was lower significantly (p<0.05) than other treated groups. Enzymes activities and reproductive measurements percentage increased insignificantly in G3 and G2 compared with G1. There were highly significant immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum of dams in G3 followed by G2 than control. It could be concluded that Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation to rations of lactating buffaloes had beneficial effects on health status, immunity response, blood parameters and the reproductive performance under the local farm feeding conditions in Egypt.   Keywords: Yeast, lactobacillus, lactating buffaloes, blood parameters, reproduction, immunity respons
12 ANTI-MÜLLERIAN HORMONE (AMH) AS ENDOCRINE MARKER FOR EMBRYO PRODUCTION IN SUPEROVULATED FRIESIAN COWS , F.E. El-Keraby, A.M. Shehab El-Din* and A.F. Ashour Animal Production Research Institute – Agricultural Research Center – Egypt, *Corresponding Author’s email: ahmedshehabeldin85@gmail.com; Cellular phone: +201002729958; ORCID: 0000-0002-3050-0060
SUMMARY The present study aimed to evaluate follicular dynamics, yield, quality and stage of embryos in superovulated Friesian cows with high and low anti-Müllerian (AMH) levels. A total of 10 Friesian cows synchronized with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) to bring them in heat before start superovulation protocol. On day 10 post oestrus, cows were injected with 2500 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin hormone (PMSG), then after 48h cow were injected with 3 ml PGF2α and with 5 ml gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce ovulation on day 14. Cows were artificially inseminated twice at 12 and 24 h after GnRH. Embryos were collected after 7 days from artificial insemination (AI). To measure AMH concentration, 1 blood sample was collected at the beginning of second follicular wave according to ultrasonography. Results showed that numbers of antral follicles and total follicles were significantly greater in high AMH level than in low AMH level donors. Differences in CL numbers of cows in high AMH level was significantly greater than in low AMH level on flushing day. AMH concentration had a significant positive correlation with antral follicles number pretreatment, total CL number on flushing day, and ovulation rate. The average number and recovery rate of recovered embryos from donor cows with high AMH level were significantly greater than those recovered from cows in low AMH level. Parameters of yield, quality, and stage of embryos had highly significant and positive correlation with AMH level. In conclusion, circulating AMH concentration, as endocrine marker, is highly associated individually with superovulatory response and embryo production potential in cows. Keywords: Anti-müllerian (AMH), antral follicles, superovulation, embryo, cow
13 CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF SYRIAN SHAMI AND HOLSTEIN COWS UNDER SYRIAN CONDITIONS , O. Almasri1 , S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2 1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, Giza, Egypt. Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performances of Shami and Holstein cows under the Syrian conditions. In this study, 2654 and 4289 records were collected on 569 Shami and 1669 Holstein cows, respectively during the period from 1978 to 2015 of two experimental stations, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Syria. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (XLSTATE. 2020). Age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), total milk yield (TMY), daily milk yield (DMY), and lactation period (LP) were significantly affected (p<0.01) by the breed. The least-square means for AFC, CI, TMY, DMY, and LP were 31±0.14 months, 442±2.83 days, 1587±34.89 kg, 9.1±0.09 kg and 165±2.0 days in Shami breed, respectively, compared to 28.1±0.10 months, 432±3.34 days, 5494±41.21 kg, 16.7±0.11 kg and 332±2.36 days in Holstein breed, respectively, under Syrian conditions. The present study revealed that Shami cows performed less estimates in all studied traits compared to the Holstein cows under the Syrian conditions. Successful management and genetic improvement for Shami cows could enhance their productive and reproductive performances. Keywords: Productive, Reproductive, Syrian Shami, Holstein
14 COMPARISON OF THREE NONLINEAR MODELS TO DESCRIBE THE GROWTH CURVE OF HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN BULLS RAISED UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS , R.A.M. Somida Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514 Fayoum, Egypt, correspondence Email: ram04@fayoum.edu.eg
SUMMARY The current study aimed to estimate the growth curve parameters through three non-linear models (Logistic, Gompertz and Richards) to determine which model best fits the data. Live weight records of 102 HolsteinFriesian bulls collected between 2017-2019 from a Holstein-Friesian herd that belongs to the Association of Livestock Development (EL- Lahhamy farm), located thirty kilometers west of Fayoum Governorate. In this work, the parameters of the studied models, asymptotic weight (A), constant of integration (b) and the maturation rate (K) ranged from 626.15 kg to 879.82 kg, 2.708 to 11.08, and 0.0035 to 0.008, respectively. According to the studied parameters of growth functions, Gompertz reached the highest numerical estimated value for (A) and the Logistic function had the lowest value. Parameter (K) estimate by the Gompertz model was similar to that obtained by the Richards model; both values were lower than those attained through the Logistic model (0.008). The inflectionpoint traits, time at Point of inflection (IPT) and weight at point of inflection (IPW) estimates ranged from 300.64 kg to 314.59 kg and 323.92 days to 336.14 days, respectively. The Richards model has the highest estimates of IPW and IPT comparedto the other models, also it had the best adjustment according to model goodness of fitcriteria, by having the lowest values for Akaike information criterion (AIC), Schwarz Bayesian information criter ion (BIC), Mean square error (MSE) and highest coefficient of determination (R2, ,14489.18, 14510.6, 317.37 and 0.9983) followed by the Gompertz, and logistic functions. Keywords: Growth curves, Gompertz, Richards, Logistic, Holstein-Friesian bulls
15 FEED VALUE OF PROCESSED AND ENZYME SUPPLEMENTED CASSAVA PEEL IN GROWING PIGS , Olufemi S. Akinola1*, J. Adeniyi Agunbiade2 ,Amos O. Fanimo1 , Andreas Susenbeth3 and Eva Schlecht4 1- University of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production & Health, Abeokuta, Nigeria, 2- Olabisi Onabanjo University, Department of Animal Production, Nigeria, now at McPherson University, Department of Biological Science, Seriki Sotayo, Nigeria, 3- University of Kiel, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Germany, 4- University of Kassel and University of Göttingen, Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, Germany, *corresponding author: akinolaos@funaab.edu.ng
SUMMARY Ten crossbred male pigs of 39 ± 3.9 kg body weight were used to evaluate the digestibility, energy value and nitrogen (N) retention of processed and of enzyme supplemented cassava root peel (CRP), as alternatives to increasingly expensive conventional feedstuffs. Employing an incomplete block design, pigs were individuallyhoused in metabolic crates for quantitative collection of faeces and urine. During two 7-day trial periods, two pigs were offeredeach of the following experimental diets: Basal diet (BD), BD + unprocessed cassava peel without (UCP) and with (UCP+E) enzyme addition, BD + fermented cassava peel (FCP) and BD + retted cassava peel (RCP). Samples of test ingredients, feeds and excrements were analysed for their chemical composition. Fermentation marginally improved the crude protein content of CRP. Retting and enzyme supplementation of CRP improved dry matter, organic matter and gross energy digestibility of the diets. Total N excreted per unit of N intake was higher in pigs fed the UCP diet, resulting in reduced N retention. Digestible and metabolizable energy values (DE, ME) of diets UCP+E, FCP and RCP were not significantly (P>0.05) improved, and energy values (DE, ME) of the four test ingredients ranged from 10.2 to 11.4 and from 9.4 to 11.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Results indicated that both retting and enzyme supplementation can improve the use of CRP by growing pigs, whereby retting is cheaper than the use of a multi-enzyme blend in the diet of growing pigs. Keywords: Cassava root peel, fermentation, retting, digestibility, N-retention, energy value, pigs
16 EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM DURING LATE GESTATION PERIOD ON MASTITIS, RETAINED PLACENTA AND POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS IN EGYPTIAN BALADI COW , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The goal of this investigation is to determine the effect of treatment with vitamin E and selenium on mastitis, retained placenta and post-partum reproductive parameters in Egyptian Baladi cows during the late gestation period. Twenty-four Baladi cows were used and divided into two groups of 12 each. The first group injected with vitamin E and selenium component intramuscular at a rate of 1. 0 ml/30kg (BW) live body weight and the second group used as a control. Injected cows received two doses of (vitamin E and selenium component) in 14 and 7 days prepartum. Cows were mated naturally following estrus symptoms manifestation. Rectal palpation was performed two months post- mating to diagnosis pregnancy. The findings showed a positive association between treated cows during late gestation with vitamin E and selenium and incidence rate of mastitis and retained placenta. Reproductive parameters in treated cows were better compared with untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study recommends that small breeders could offer vitamin E and selenium in hot months during late gestation period under the Aswan governorate environmental conditions to minimize postpartum disorders and improve their cows reproductive efficiency. Keywords: Vitamin E and selenium, mastitis, retained placenta, reproductive parameters, cows
17 GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR SOME REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , A.A.H. Helmy1 and R.A.M. Somida2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, 63514 Fayoum, Egypt, * Correspondence Email: ram04@fayoum.edu.eg
SUMMARY The traits of the study were: age at first calving (AFC), gestation length (GL), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). The records were collated from three buffalo experimental herds (El-Nattaf El-Gadid, El-Nattaf El-Kadim and El-Gimeza) that belonging to Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt. A total of 19,445 records for 1534 buffalo cows calved from 1991 to 2018 were analyzed. A moderate estimate of repeatability was obtained for GL and CI of 0.38 and 0.15, respectively. While the repeatability estimation was slightly lower at 0.13 for DO. That can be explained by the high obtained values of random permanent effect variance of 73, 955, 1119 for GL, DO and CI, respectively. For all studied traits heritability estimates (h 2 ) were very low as it ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01, this could be due to the small estimated additive effect of 2.0, 0.01and 11.0 for GL, DO and CI, respectively. Except for AFC, h2 was slightly higher at 0.13. Estimated genetic (rg) and phenotypic (rp) correlation among all traits were in the same trend being positive and varied from low to high (0.04 to 0.99). The highest correlation value either genetic or phenotypic was between CI and DO. While the lowest rg and rp values were between GL and DO. Keywords: Egyptian Buffalo, reproduction traits, heritability, repeatability, correlation
18 DEVELOPING A DATA COLLECTION APPLICATION FOR FOLLOWING UP THE SMALL-SCALE DAIRY FARMS’ PERFORMANCE IN RURAL AREAS , K. Fouad1, 2, V. Alary3 , A. Dubron4 , P. Bonnet5 , X.Juanes3 , A. Nigm6 , M.A. Radwan6* , S. Abdelghany6 1- ICARDA (International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas), Cairo, Egypt, 2- NFSA (National Food Safety Authority), Cairo, Egypt, 3- (1) CIRAD, Departement Environments & Societies, TA C DIR/B Campus International de Baillarguet, F-34398 Montpellier, France; (2) CIRAD, MUSE Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France, 4- Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 5-(1) CIRAD,ICARDA, Avenue Hedi Karray, Tunis; (2) SELMET, MUSE Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 6- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, *Corresponding author: m.radwan883@agr.cu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The mobile application is an effective tool for data collection of performance in agriculture, particularly for small and geographically scattered farms. This study aimed to develop an economical and straightforward application to monitor small dairy herds performance with the flexibility to collect data remotely. The developed mobile application was designed using the MIT App Inventor. Where, the application explores icons of different farm management practices that are reported by farmers through touching the screen. Each icon is linked with an informative SMS, which was received by the mobile phone of the collection technician. We randomly selected and followed 18 farmers to test the application for one year. The main results were recognized the false SMS decreased as farmers took enough time for training in the software. Furthermore, most of sent SMS were for milk yield event. Age, level of education and land size had no significant effect on correct SMS sent by farmers, while herd size showed a significant effect. In conclusion, mobile application could be developed for continuous data collection and following up small dairy farms in rural areas. Also, the validity test for the developed mobile application confirmed that farmers were able to use the new technology regardless their age and educational level. Keywords: Mobile application, Android, Small dairy farms, rural areas
19 ADAPTIVE CAPABILITY OF WAHATI SHEEP AND GOATS FLOCKS TO DESERT OASIS CONDITIONS IN THE NEW VALLEY OF EGYPT , A.M. Aboul Naga1 , T. Abdel Khalek1 , M. Hayder 1 , H. Hamdon2 , G. Abozed1 , T. Abdel Sabour1 and M. Shafie1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, 2- New Valley University, Faculty of Agriculture, El Kgarga , New Valley Corresponding author: A.M. Aboul Naga, Animal production Research Institute, Dokki, Cairo Email: adelmaboulnaga@gmail.com
SUMMARY The present work aimed at investigating adaptation of local Wahati sheep (Farafra) and Wahati goats in the breeders’ flocks, to summer heat stress of desert oasis in the New Valley, Egypt. The study involved, 9 flocks from; El Dakhla, EL Kharga and El Farafra oasis. Total number of animals used in the study were 113 mature Wahati ewes and 100 mature Wahati does. Animals were exposed to summer heat stress (SHS) under solar radiation, from 12 pm to 2 pm in July 2018 and 2019. During exposure to heat of 101.8 to 103.8, indicating that animals were under severely heat stressed. Exposing the animals to summer heat stress, significantly increased their physiological body parameters. Rectal temperature (RT) increased by 1.00 C; where skin temperature (ST) increased by 9.5 and 9.00 C, in only two species. These may be attributed to high intensity of solar radiation under desert oasis conditions. The major changes with SHS were in the respiratory rate (RR) as the main mechanism practiced by desert sheep and goats to get rid of the extra heat load through respiration. Accelerating RR, was not sufficient to cope with the severe heat stress load, so animals practiced deep breathing (increase gas volume); which was more recognizable in sheep than in goats. Species variation in response to heat stress can be attributed, to a great extent, to differences in their body size and coat thickness. The smaller the animal size, the lesser changes in their physiological body parameters with heat stress were noted. Keywords: Desert oasis, New valley, adaptation, physiological parameters, Wahati sheep ,Wahati goats
20 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF SOME MEDICAL HERBS OR THEIR EXTRACTS ON THE PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN BROILER CHICKENS. 2-EFFECT OF CURCUMIN AND ANISE GROUND SEEDS LEVELS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ONGROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKENS. , Metwally M.A1 , Issa N .M2 and El hadi A.M2 1- Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt 2-Department of Animal Production (Poultry Division), Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar Assiut University, Egypt. * Corresponding author: metwally7658@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present study was designed to investigate the effect of curcumin and anise ground seeds levels as well as their interactions on growth performance and some carcass traits of Ross308 broiler chickens. Two hundred and ninety seven birds were randomly assigned in (3×3) factorial design experiment. Three curcumin levels (0 ,50,100 mg/kg in diet) and three anise ground seeds levels (0 ,0.50% and 1% in diet) were used in nine treatments of 33 birds each (three replicates of 11 birds each).The body weight and feed intake were measured weekly and consequently, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment, three birds from each group were sacrificed to evaluate carcass parts. The results showed that chickens fed curcumin at level of 100 mg/kg diet achieved significantly higher body weight at 14 days of age and body weight gain during the period of 7-14 days than control. The addition of anise ground seeds at level of 1% achieved higher feed intake than control. The addition of 50 mg/kg diet of curcumin and 1% anise ground seeds achieved better feed consumption during the period from 14-21 and 21-28 days of age than other interactions. No significant (P>0.05) effects on feed conversion ratio due to curcumin, anise ground seeds and their interactions were obtained. There were significant (P<0.05) effect due to curcumin levels on hart and left femur. Also, There were significant (P<0.05) effect due to anise seeds on shank , tibia left and neck. No significant (P>0.05) effect due to either curcumin or anise ground seeds or their interactions were observed on carcass and dressed percentages. It was recommended that curcumin may be added at level of 100 or 50 mg/kg diet, or 50 mg/kg of curcumin plus 1% anise ground seeds to achieve higher growth performance and carcass criteria of broiler chicken (Ross 308). Keywords : Broilers ,Curcumin, Anise, growth, performance, carcass
21 IMMUNITY RESPONSE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF LACTATING FRIESIAN COWS TREATED WITH BENTONITE , W.M. Wafa1*, A.M. El-Hais2 , and Y.A.E. Yahia2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt *Corresponding Author's E-mail: drwailfatoh1973@hotmail.com
SUMMARY This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of bentonite on the immune status and reproductive performance of lactating Friesian cows. A total of 30 pregnant Friesian cows (4-6 years of age) were divided into three groups (10 cows in each). In the 1st group; G1, animals were fed the control diet, while those in the 2nd ; G2 and 3rd ; G3 groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 20 or 40 g bentonite/kg concentrate, respectively, from 60 days prepartum up to 120 days postpartum. Blood samples were taken at estrus and 120-d postpartum. Results show that calf weight at calving and placental drop time improved (P<0.05) in G3, while uterine horn symmetry and cervical closer improved in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Plasma immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) increased (P<0.05) in G3 than in G1 and G2. Count of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin, and PCV improved (P<0.05) by both treatments, being the highest (P<0.05) in G3. Interval to first estrus, service period, and days open were the best (P<0.05) in G3. Concentration of P4 was the lowest at estrus, and the highest at 120-d postpartum in G3. Number of services/conception and pregnancy rate were 1.4 and 50% in G1, 1.6 and 80% in G2, and 1.4 and 100% in G3. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of bentonite particularly 40 g/kg of concentrate to dairy cow from 60 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum may enhance their immunity and reproductive performances. Keywords: bentonite, Friesian, hematology, immunoglobulins, reproduction
22 INFLUENCE OF MASTITIS ON RESUMPTION OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE MEASUREMENTS IN BALADI COWS , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egyp
SUMMARY The current research aims to study the influence of mastitis on resumption of ovarian activity and postpartum reproductive measurements in Egyptian Baladi cows. Total of twenty-four postpartum cows, were split into two groups of twelve in each. The first group (12 cows) had mastitis, while the second group (12 cows) was healthy. The cows were monitored after calving directly and had their udders screened for subclinical mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The present results indicated that the incidence rate of subclinical mastitis cases in cows were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (75%) than clinical mastitis cases (25%).The interval from parturition to first ovulation, first service and conception was significantly (P < 0.05) longer (48.3±7.8,96. 5±14.4,and153.2±12.5, days) in mastitic cows than(27.4± 5.6, 72.3± 11.2, and 85.6±15.2, days) in healthy cows. The conception rate following the first service was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (25%) in mastitic than in healthy cows (66.7%). In conclusion, the present results indicate a negative impact of mastitis by delaying the resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and reproductive measurements in Baladi cows. The current study recommends that small breeders must pay attention to the health of the udder, especially during the postpartum period, to reduce the incidence of mastitis and its harmful effects on the reproductive characteristics of lactating cows. Keywords: Baladi cows, mastitis, ovarian activity, reproductive performance
23 GENETIC EVALUATION AND PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS FOR MILK TRAITS IN HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CATTLE , Safaa, S.Sanad* and G. M. Gharib** Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Egypt *Corresponding author’s E-mail: dr_Safaasalah@yahoo.com *ORCID: 0000-0003-1461-2940 , **ORCID: 0000-0002-4491-3544
SUMMARY The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic principal components analysis for milk traits of breeding value (BV) in Holstein Friesian (HF). A total number of 2067 records cow from 80 sires and 439 dams; during 10 consecutive years that included the four seasons for each year and six parities from the commercial farms nearly the Nile Delta, Egypt. Studied traits were total milk yield (TMY), lactation period (LP), calving interval (CI), number of services per conception (NSPC) and days open (DO). Data for milk traits (MT) were analyzed using a single trait animal model program used to estimate genetic parameters, in addition to using a method principal components analysis (PCA) program, which aims to increase the accuracy of estimating genetic evaluation. The heritability (h2 a) estimates were 0.20±0.001, 0.22±0.002, 0.02±0.001, 0.04 ± 0.001 and 0.05±0.020 for TMY, LP, CI, NSPC and DO, respectively. The total variance of breeding values was 67.1, in which 46.6% and 20.5% were explained by PC1 and PC2, respectively. Two principal components (1&2) were estimated by BV. Equations for PCA were: PC1= 0.273 TMY + 0.342 LP + 0.371 CI + 0.318 NSPC - 0.004 DO, and PC2= 0.213 TMY - 0.069 LP - 0.146 CI + 0.045 NSPC + 0.949 DO. The results of genetic PCA indicate that milk traits were highly significant, also improve TMY. Improved all traits under study would be expected to use analysis PC1 and PC2 provides to overcome the multicollinearity problem while predicting the future TMY, thus achieving an increased economic return. Keywords: Milk traits, genetic parameters, Principal Component Analysis, Holstein Friesian.
24 ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF SAIDI SHEEP AND GOATS TO HEAT STRESS AND DIURNAL VARIATION UNDER THE HOT DRY CONDITIONS OF UPPER EGYPT , A.M. Aboul Naga* , M. Hayder, T.M. Abdel Khalek, G.F. Abozed, A.K. Saleh, T.H. Abdel Sabour and M.H. El Shafie Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Agriculture Research Center, Egypt, * Corresponding author E. Mail: adelmaboulnaga@gmail.com,
SUMMARY The present work investigates the adaptive capacity of the indigenous Saidi sheep and Saidi goats (109 and 80 animals, respectively) to the prevailing hot dry conditions of Upper Egypt. The environmental stressors were summer heat stress (SHS); exercise heat stress (EHS), animals walk for 7 km under solar radiation; the third stressor was winter cold stress (WCS) outdoor. Exposing the animals to SHS (THI=103.2), raised significantly (P≤ 0.05) the respiration rate (RR) of Saidi sheep and goats by 206 and230 %, respectively, with the incidence of deep breath. Rectal temperature (RT) and skin temperature (ST) significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) with SHS. Carry on effect, continue up to 8 pm. Exposing Saidi sheep and goats to exercise heat stress (EHS) increased RT and ST by 1.9oC and 4.7oC, for both species. Respiration rate, multiplied by more than 5 folds for both species. Changes in the GV, differ between the two species, it increased by 575% in sheep and only by175% in goats. Local Saidi sheep and goats responded to physical heat stress by vast accelerating their RR; however, Saidi sheep need to go further to deep breath to cope the extra stressors Winter cold stress at 4am (THI=51), reduced RT of Saidi sheep and goats by 0.7and 0.4oC, respectively; from that at its comfortable zone at 2 pm(THI = 62). Skin temperature declined by 3.7 and 3.9oC, with WCS. Changes in respiratory parameters with cold stress were limited, compared to that of the thermal ones. Keywords: Saidi sheep and goats, Upper Egypt, adaptation, heat stress, winter cold stress
25 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF INDIGENOUS CHICKENS TO HOUSEHOLDS IN BORGU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA , M.O. Umunna1 *, A.O. Ibrahim1 , D.O. Oyeleye1 , M.O. Sodiya3 , E.O. Adedeji1 , O.J. Olalekan2 , O.L. Omotayo1 and S.S. Olakayode1 1- Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Niger State. 2- Forest Based Rural Resources Centre, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ikija-Ijebu, Ogun State, Nigeria. 3- Federal College of Forestry, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: mathiasumunna@gmail.com +8432844323432
 The study assessed the contribution of indigenous chickens to households in Borgu Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of interview schedule from 80 randomly selected indigenous poultry farmers while descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the average number of local fowls reared was 22.3. Contributions of indigenous poultry farming to households include slaughtering during festivals ( x =2.60), household consumption as meat and egg ( x = 2.32), money to buy more birds ( x =2.23) and provision of income for buying food items ( x =2.10) which were ranked first, second, third and fourth respectively. Constraints to indigenous poultry farming include disease outbreak ( x =2.24), harsh weather ( x =2.20), theft and stealing ( x =2.20) and high cost of feed ( x =2.16). Farm income (r = 0.339, P = 0.011), household size (r = -0.241, p = 0.046) and constraints (χ 2= 58.659, p = 0.000) were significantly related to the specific contribution of indigenous poultry in households. Indigenous rural poultry farming contributes to the households’ livelihoods hence there should be increased sensitization on the benefits of raising indigenous poultry as well as giving people training on proper husbandry practices. Keywords: Indigenous Poultry, Livelihoods, Problems, Specific contribution
26 GENETIC TREND FOR MILK PRODUCTION AND LONGEVITY TRAITS OF EGYPTIAN BUFFALO , Dalia K.A. EL-Hedainy1*, Kholood A.K. Elbanhawy1 , A.M.S. Amin2 , M.M.I. Salem1 , M.H. Hammoud1 , and A.S.A. El-Barbary1 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 22545, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dooki, Giza, 12619, Egypt, * Corresponding author, Tel.:002 03 5900846; fax: 002 03 5922780., e-mail address: dheddany@yahoo.com , ORCID NO.:0000-0002-0549-106x
SUMMARY Data used in this study comprised 1792 records for 1126 buffalo female born from 1980 to 2013, daughters of 101 sires and 896 dams from four buffalo herds (El-Nattafe el gadid, El-Nattafe el kadim, Mahalet mousa and El-gmeza) that belong to the Animal Production Research Institute (APRI), Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt. The objective was estimate the heritability and genetic trend of some milk production and longevity traits of Egyptian buffaloes that we know precisely which traits can be improved using genetic improvement. The studied traits were milk production traits (total milk yield, 305- days milk yield and lactation period) and longevity traits (total milk yield during the productive life, productive life and number of lactations). The least squares means of the milk production traits were 1176.53, 1172.61 kg and 202 days of the total milk yield, 305-days milk yield and lactation period, respectively. The least squares means of longevity traits were 6905.04 kg, 952 days and 5.6 lactation of total milk yield during productive life, productive life and number of lactations, respectively. The heritability estimates for the milk production traits were 0.498 of the total milk yield, 0.492 of 305-days milk yield and 0.189 for lactation period. The heritability estimates for longevity traits were 0.497 of total milk yield during productive life, 0.498 of productive life and 0.069 of number of lactations. The estimated breeding values for all traits varied widely. The genetic trends of animal and dam breeding values were significant for all studied. This confirms that the genetic improvement of these traits leads to increased milk production. Keywords: heritability, genetic trend, Egyptian buffalo
27 IMPACT OF BUFFALO DAMS TREATMENT WITH PROBIOTICS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, IMMUNE RESPONSES AND BLOOD COMPONENTS OF THEIR NEW BORN CALVES , H. A. El-Nagar1 *, A.M. El-Hais2 and M.S. Farag2 1-Department of biotechnology, Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt,2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY This work aimed to identify the relationship between performance, immune system and blood components of neonatal buffalo calves as affected by their dam treatments (DT) with or without probiotic cultures. 40 Egyptian buffalo cows were used in this study. Dams were classified into 4 treatment groups, G1 as control group without any treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast culture (20 g/h/d, YC, G2) group, Lactobacillus acidophilus (20 g/h/d, LB, G3) group, or the half dose of each as a combination (G4). The experimental period was 30-d pre- till 105-d postpartum. Results revealed that, the dams treated with YC and LB combination (G4), has the best growth performance during birth and weaning, by increasing calf total gain by 31.7% relative to the control group and the immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) concentrations in calf plasma and colostrum, during the first three days after calving. All hematological parameters (RBCs count, PCV percentage and Hb concentration), as well as plasma metabolites (total proteins, albumin, globulin, total lipids, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations) increased (P<0.05), while WBCs and creatinine decreased (P<0.05) in calves of treatment groups as compared to control one, being the best in G4 calves. Total antioxidant capacity and triiodothyronine concentration increased (P<0.05), while AST and ALT activity decreased (P<0.05) in calves of treatment groups as compared to control one, being the best in G4 calves. There were highly significant and strong correlation coefficients (r) between immunoglobulins in calf plasma and colostrum. In conclusion, dietary addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10 g/h/d) and Lactobacillus acidophiolus (10 g/h/d) combination in the diets of Egyptian buffalos 30-d pre- up to 105-d post-partum improved growth performance, immunity response, blood hematology, metabolites, antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and T3 hormone of the newborn calves. Keywords: Calves, probiotic; immunoglobulines, hematology, metabolites, enzymes, T3, Egyptian buffalos
28 POSSIBILITY OF USING THE BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA AS A DILUENT FOR CRYOPRESERVATION OF EGYPTIAN BUFFALO SEMEN , H. A. El-Nagar* Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, *Corresponding Author's E-mail: elnagar1970@hotmail.com, Cellular phone +201066315955
SUMMARY The seminal plasma separated from ejaculates of the same or different animal species has been used as an extender for semen preservation to minimize the negative effects of reduced temperatures and cryo-damage on mammalian spermatozoa. The semen of sexually-matured buffalo bulls (n=5) collected at 3-4 day-interval by artificial vagina was used in this study for a duration of 12 weeks. Spermatozoal mass motility was at least 70%. Semen was collected, pooled, diluted with bovine seminal plasma (BSP) (after adding egg-yolk, glycerin and anti-biotics) or Tris-extender at 3 dilution rates (1:10, 1:15 and 1:20), equilibrated at cool temperature (4-5o C) for 2 h, frozen for one month at -196o C (liquid nitrogen), and thawed at 37o C for 15 s. Semen was evaluated for the percentages of progressive motility (PM), live sperm (LS), sperm abnormalities (SA), acrosome damage (AD), and membrane integrity (MI) in diluted, equilibrated and thawed cases, besides the head to head agglutination (HHA) percentage post-thawing. In the sperm medium of thawed semen, AST, ALT, LDH activities and total antioxidant activity (TAA) levels were also determined. Sperm fertilizability was recorded based on the best results for BSP or Tris-extender. Results showed that freezability parameters (PM, LS, SA, AD, MI and HHA percentages), the activity of AST, ALT and LDH, and TAA and conception rate were improved (P<0.05) for thawed buffalo semen diluted with BSP at a rate of 1:20 in comparison with Tris-extender at 1:10. The bovine seminal plasma of excluded ejaculates for poor quality could be considered as a promising successful extender for cryopreserved buffalo semen. Keywords: Buffalo semen, bovine seminal plasma, freezability, antioxidant status, fertilizability.
29 BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF MEAT AND HAEMOLYMPH OF AFRICAN LAND SNAIL (ARCHACHATINAMARGINATA, SWAINSON) IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA , A.S. Kehinde1 , *K.M. Adelakun2 , S.K. Halidu2 , T.O. Babatunde3 and B.O. Fadimu1 1- Department of Wildlife Domestication and Conservation, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hill, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, 2- Department of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Federal College of Wildlife Management, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 268, New Bussa, Nigeria, 3- Department of Forestry Technology, Federal College of Forestry of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria,, P.M.B. 5054, Jericho Hill, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Kehinde Moruff Adelakun: e-mail: adelakunkehinde@gmail.com
SUMMARY This study evaluates the meat and haemolymph of Archachatinamarginata from Southwest Nigeria for its chemical contents. Forty-five African land snails(Archachatinamarginata,Swainson) were randomly allotted to three treatments (Adults, growers and snailets) at 5 snails each of three replicates, to evaluate biochemical qualities of meat (proximate, mineral and cholesterol) and haemolymph (mineral and cholesterol). The results obtained revealed highest (p<0.05) dry matter (79.25%), ether extract (1.46%), ash (1.34%) and Nitrogen Free Extract (59.28%) for adult snail meat and least values for snailets. The same trend of variation was recorded for its mineral and cholesterol determinations. The mineral profile of the haemolymphdid not vary with growing stage, however, all cholesterol quantity and quality estimates were highest (p<0.05) in adults and least in snailets (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and LDL-HDL differential). Snail meat and haemolymph in the study area contained important nutrients for human nourishment and other consumptive purposes. Keywords: Snail, proximate, cholesterol, biochemical, mineral
30 GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON BIRTH WEIGHT, WEANING WEIGHT AND AVERAGE DAILY GAIN OF HOLSTEIN CALVES IN SYRIAN COAST CONDITIONS , O. Almasri 1 , M. AL-Dakkak1 , S. Abou-Bakr 2 and M. A. M. Ibrahim 2 1- General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, 2- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt Corresponding author: obaidaalimasri@gmail.com
SUMMARY This study was carried out at Dairy Station which belonging to the General Organization for Cattle in Latakia province, Syria, to investigate the effects of genetic and some environmental factors on birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG) using data of 4055 Holstein calves during the years from 1990 to 2015. Analysis of variance showed that year of calving had significant effect (P< 0.05) only on average daily gain, and the effect of season of calving had significant effect on birth weight and average daily gain. Whereas, parity, gender and the interaction between parity and gender influenced significantly (P< 0. 01) all the studied traits. The overall means for BW, WW and ADG were 34.6±0.12 kg, 96.2±0.07 kg and 684±0.002 g/day, respectively. Heritability estimates for these traits were 0.06±0.03, 0.03±0.01 and 0.03±0.02, respectively. It is concluded that the BW, WW and ADG were adequate under Syrian Coast Conditions. Low heritability estimates indicated that the genetic effect was low. Keywords: Birth Weight, Weaning Weight, Average Daily Gain, Heritability, Holstein Calves, Syrian Coas
31 IMPACT OF DOCKING ON GROWTH TRAITS, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF MALE BARKI LAMBS , Mona Mohammady I.*, M.F. Shehata and A.H. Hammam   Desert Research Center , Animal Production and Poultry Division, 1 Mathaf El-Matariya St., B.O.Box 11753, Cairo, Egypt * Corresponding author E-mail : monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of docking on growth performance, carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of Barki lambs. A total number of 13, single-born, male Barki lambs with an average birth weight of 3.0 ± 0.20 kg were used Lambs were randomly assigned into two groups: docked group (n = 6) and undocked group (n = 7), as a control. Male lambs were docked within two days after birth by applying a tight rubber ring using an elastrator. The experimental period lasted for one year. The obtained results revealed that docked lambs were significantly (P<0.05) heavier than undocked lambs at weaning weight (90 days of age ) and had better average daily gain. The docked lambs scored average weaning weight of 16.6 kg meanwhile the undocked lambs scored 14.85 kg and the average daily gain (ADG) was 149g and 139g, respectively. The docked lambs had a higher weights, ADG and total weight gain during the finishing period than undocked lambs. Total weight gains during the finishing period were 22.2 kg and 26.4 kg for the undocked and docked lambs with corresponding estimates for post weaning daily gain of 55.5 gm and 70.6 gm, respectively. Docked lambs were higher than undocked ones in slaughter weight (SW), post slaughter weight (PSW), empty body weight (EBW), hot carcass weight (HCW) and dressing percentage (DP). Results revealed that, Docked lambs exceeded the undocked ones by 15.6%, 16.6%, 15.9% and 17.7% in SW, PSW, EBW and HCW, respectively. No significant differences (p>0.05) between groups in moisture, fat percentages and collagen except for protein (19.71 and 18.89 %) for docking and control lambs, respectively. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in cholesterol level between undocked and docked lambs at the end of fattening. The results indicated that the tail docking of Barki lambs at birth improved weight gain and desirable carcass characteristics compared to those of undocked lambs. Keywords: Barki lambs, tail docking, growth performances, carcass characteristics, blood parameters
32 INFLUENCE OF SUPPLEMENTING SPERM MEDIUM WITH TYPE-13 BRAZILIAN RED PROPOLIS EXTRACT ON CHILLED RAM SEMEN PRESERVATION , I.S. Abd El-Hamid1, M.A. Khalifa1, S.A. Rateb1, A.S. Morsy2, M.T. Badawy1 and H.A. Gawish1   1- Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt, 2- Livestock Research Department, Arid Land Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the dual purpose potential of type-13 Brazilian red propolis extract; i.e. anti-oxidant and anti-microbial capacities, on enhancing short-term chilled preservation of ram semen. A total of 60 ejaculates were collected from five adult Barki rams, 12 ejaculates each, by an artificial vagina twice-weekly during the period from January to February, 2017. After collection and initial evaluation, ejaculates of each collection session were pooled, diluted (1:10) with Tris-citric acid egg yolk extender. In the first experiment, the diluted specimens were split into four aliquots using a split sample technique. The first aliquot served as control (untreated), whereas the other three aliquots were supplemented with 5, 7.5 and 10 μl/mL propolis extract, respectively. All control and supplemented groups were evaluated for sperm physical and morphological traits immediately after dilution (T0), then after 24 (T24) and 48 h (T48) of chilled preservation at 4oC. Oxidative stress indices and enzymatic activities in medium throughout preservation period were also determined. In the second trial, microbial contamination throughout a 48 h period of chilled storage was investigated in specimens supplemented with the same previous levels of propolis extract and were compared against control (antibiotic-free) and specimens supplemented with a mixture of synthetic antibiotics; i.e. Penicillin procaine (500 iu/mL) and Streptomycin (500 μg/mL). The results revealed that, over time of storage, positive correlations (P<0.05) were observed between level of propolis in medium and each of sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome, sperm membrane integrity and total antioxidant capacity (r= 0.52, 0.45, 0.48, 0.55 and 0.77, respectively). Contrarily, negative correlations were recorded between propolis level and enzymatic activities of AST and ALP (r= -0.45 and -0.58, respectively). Simultaneously, the control group developed the highest (P<0.05) colony forming unit (CFU) count compared to all semen specimens. These results explicate efficiency of incorporating type-13 Brazilian red propolis extract in the diluent on maintaining sperm traits during chilled preservation. Additionally, our results spotted the light on the possibility of substituting synthetic antibiotics in semen extenders, with all the constraints of their utilization, with type-13 red propolis extract as a sufficient natural alternative. Keywords: Propolis, Semen diluent, Ram, Antibiotics, CFU, AI
33 OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND ROPRODUCTIVE PORFORMANCE OF MATURE OSSIMI EWOS AS AFFECTED BY PRESNCE OF RAM , G.B. Mahmoud1 and H.A. Hussein2   1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Assiut, 71526, Assiut, Egypt, 2- Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Assiut, 71526, Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted in this study to assess the role of ram effect prior to mating on ovarian follicular dynamics and reproductive performance of Ossimi ewes. In Expt. 1, fourteen Ossimi ewes 3–6 years old were used. The first group (n=7), ewes were exposed with two trained teaser rams (REG), whilst, the second group (n=7) remaining ewes were isolated of rams (CG). The number and size of all follicles ≥2 mm and corpus luteum were monitored by ultrasonography. Expt. 2, including two mating season, 70 Ossimi ewes (3-6 years old) were selected from 115 ewes in each mating season, multiparous, non-lactating and clinically healthy. The first mating season (n=70), ewes were kept in the presence with teaser rams (REG) during the estrus detectionand mating for two consecutive estrous cycles (45 d). The second mating season (n=70), ewes were remaining isolated of rams (CG) except at the time for detection of estrus. Ewes were mated after detection of estrus. While, ewes return to estrus, were mated again. At lambing, birth dates and the lambs born number per each ewe were recorded. All ewes isolated of males for three months before the beginning of the experiments. There were significant (P < 0.01) increases in the small (2-2.9 mm) and medium (3–5 mm) follicles number on ovaries of ewes in REG compared to CG. Moreover, the size of maximum ovulatory follicles and subdominant follicles (next largest follicle) were larger (P <0.001) in ewes of REG compared with those of CG. In addition, the ovulation rate mean was higher (P =0.05) in the REG than that of the CG (Expt. 1). The lambing rate was higher (P <0.01) in the first mating season (REG) compared to the ewes in the second mating season (CG). At the same time, the mean number of fecundity and litter size were higher (P <0.01) in the REG compared to the CG. Moreover, twining lambing rate was higher (P <0.01) in the REG. by contrary, the percentage of single lambing was lower (P <0.01) in the first mating season (REG). The percentage of ewes lambing at first service was higher in the REG than in CG but the difference was insignificant (Expt. 2). In conclusion, these results show that, ram introduction prior to mating season increased the ovarian activity and reproductive performance after period of isolation of Ossimi ewes.   Keywords: Ram effect, ovarian structures, reproductive performance
34 INFLUENCE OF CHAMOMILE FLOWER AND SWEET BASIL BY-PRODUCTS INCLUSION IN SHEEP RATIONS ON IN VITRO RUMEN CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE , A.M. Abd El-Mola   Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 36511, Egypt
SUMMARY Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of replacing berseem hay (BH) and wheat straw (WS) by chamomile flower and sweet basil by-products on growing lambs performance. The first experiment was carried out to determine the in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearances to find out the best level of chamomile flower and sweet basil by-products (10, 20, 30 or 50% of DMI) to identify the best level for a subsequent in vivo digestibility and growth trials. Depending on the results of the first experiment, fifteen growing Ossimi cross breed lambs of 5 month old and 24 ±2.5 kg average live body weight were assigned into 3 similar feeding groups (five lambs each) to be fed one of the three experimental rations. First group was fed control ration consisting of 50% roughage (20% BH +30% WS) plus 50% concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group (CR50) was fed a ration consisting of 50% chamomile flower by-product plus 50% CFM. The third group (SB50) was fed a ration consisting of 50% sweet basil by-product plus 50% CFM. Rations were formulated to cover maintenance and growth requirements of the lambs according to NRC, (1994). Results of the first experiment indicated that the in vitro dry matter and organic matter disappearances (IVDMD and IVOMD) of lambs fed of CR50 and SB50 rations were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with control ration, respectively. Second in vivo experiment showed non-significant differences among the three tested rations (control, CR50 and SB50) at different time 0, 3 and 6 hrs post feeding were noticed for pH value, NH3-N and TVF’s concentrations in the rumen liquor. However significant (P<0.05) increase of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP and CF for lambs fed CR50 ration compared with those fed the control ration. The lambs fed CR50 and SB50 rations had higher (p<0.05) plasma protein and albumin values followed by those fed the control ration which recorded the lowest plasma protein and albumin values. In contrast, the lambs fed control ration had higher (p<0.05) plasma urea nitrogen than those fed CR50 and SB50 rations. The total body weight gain and average weight gain were higher (p<0.05) for lambs fed of CR50 and SB50 by about 20, 15.29% and 19.67, 14.75 %, respectively compared to lambs fed of control ration. The lambs received ration replacement with chamomile flower by-product (CR50) grew faster than those received sweet basil by-product (SB50) and control rations. Lambs of group fed CR50 ration recorded the highest (p<0.05) DM, TDN and DCP intake and as well feed efficiency (p<0.05) compared to SB50 and control rations. In conclusion, herbal plant by-products (CR and CB), can partially replace berseem hay and wheat straw in growing lamps rations with useful performance and metabolic responses.   Keywords: Chamomile by-product, basil by-product, in vitro, nutrients digestibility, growth performance, lambs
35 BIO-ECONOMIC LOSS ASSESSMENT FOR GILTHEAD SEABREAM, IN BARDAWILL LAGOON, EGYPT , M. Salem Faculty of Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries, Arish University
SUMMARY Three fish landing centers were selected; west, middle and east of Bardawill lagoon to assess the losses of the biomass and value of the landings of juvenile Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fish as one of the most important species in the fisheries of the trammel units. The study used landings of ten fishing vessels per month. Eight fishing trips were carried out each month from the end of April to the end of November 2017. The observed total length of 940 Gilthead bream, ranged from 15.2 to 29.8 cm and the weight from 47 to 385 g. The growth parameters; L∞ and K were estimated at 31.63 cm and 0.53 per year respectively. Length at first maturity (Lm50) and length at first capture (Lc50) equals 22.5 and 18 cm, respectively. Maximum biomass deficit was found in August. The study showed that there is a significant loss in the biomass and the corresponding income. The bio-economic model showed that if the juveniles of bream are allowed to grow up to length at first maturity (Lm50), the additional biomass will be about 295.2 tons per year; the corresponding annual economic gain is estimated at LE 25.22 million for each fishing season. In order to protect bream stock and to enable it to share at least for one time in reproduction, the current fishing nets should be developed to reduce the Juvenile exploitation.   Keywords: Gilthead bream, Sparus aurata, Juvenile landings, Bio-economic losses, Trammel units, Bardawill lagoon
36 GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE LIFETIME TRAITS OF LOCALLY BORN FRIESIAN COWS IN EGYPT , M.M.I. Salem and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data on 2186 lactation records of 541 pure Friesian cows presenting 43 sires and 372 dams born at the Dairy Unit of Milk and Meat Project of the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, between 1983-2006 were utilized to evaluate lifetime milk yield (LMY), days in lactation (LDL), daily milk yield (LDMY) and number of lactations (NL) of Friesian cows. Also, the effects of season and year of calving and age at first calving on the previous traits were studied. The least square means of LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL were 18310 kg, 1318 day, 13.6 kg and 4.04 lactations, respectively. Season of calving had no significant effect on all studied traits. Year of calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on all studied traits. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on LDMY, but had no significant effect on LMY, LDL and NL. The heritability estimates from univariate animal models were 0.272, 0.137, 0.117, and 0.116 for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL, respectively. The moderate heritability for LMY emphasized the possibility of realizing a considerable rate of genetic improvement in this trait through selection programme. The genetic corrletions estimated from bivariate animal models were positive ranging from 0.264 to 0.993, except that between LMY and LDMYwas negative (-0.163). All correlations among all traits were significant (P<0.01). The positive genetic correlations between LMY and each of LDL and NL indicate that selection for any traits associated with genetic improvement in other traits. Phenotypic correlations among all traits were positive ranging from 0.099 to 0.966 and significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The breeding values for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL of cows ranged between -759 and 1139 kg, -101 and 105 day, -1.77 and 1.82 kg and between -01.64 and 2.69 lactations, respectively, the corresponding values for dams were between -814 and 1107 kg, -122 and 100 day, -2.38 and 1.53 kg and between -1.74 and 3.24 lactations, respectively. The breeding values for sires were between -560 and 748 kg, -117 and 83 day, -1.79 and 1.26 kg and between -1.44 and 3.12 lactations for the respective traits.The genetic trends estimated by the regression of sires breeding values on time were positive and nonsignificant for LMY, LDL and NL and negative approached zero for LDMY. Generally, the results indicate that improvement of productive lifetime traits of Friesian cows could be obtained through both selection programme and improvement of management conditions. Keywords:Heritability, genetic correlation, breeding values, genetic trend, productive lifetime traits, Friesian cows
37 GENETIC EVALUATION OF SOME PRODUCTIVE LIFETIME TRAITS OF LOCALLY BORN FRIESIAN COWS IN EGYPT , M.M.I. Salem and M.H. Hammoud Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data on 2186 lactation records of 541 pure Friesian cows presenting 43 sires and 372 dams born at the Dairy Unit of Milk and Meat Project of the Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, between 1983-2006 were utilized to evaluate lifetime milk yield (LMY), days in lactation (LDL), daily milk yield (LDMY) and number of lactations (NL) of Friesian cows. Also, the effects of season and year of calving and age at first calving on the previous traits were studied. The least square means of LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL were 18310 kg, 1318 day, 13.6 kg and 4.04 lactations, respectively. Season of calving had no significant effect on all studied traits. Year of calving had significant effect (P<0.01) on all studied traits. Age at first calving had significant effect (P<0.05) on LDMY, but had no significant effect on LMY, LDL and NL. The heritability estimates from univariate animal models were 0.272, 0.137, 0.117, and 0.116 for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL, respectively. The moderate heritability for LMY emphasized the possibility of realizing a considerable rate of genetic improvement in this trait through selection programme. The genetic corrletions estimated from bivariate animal models were positive ranging from 0.264 to 0.993, except that between LMY and LDMYwas negative (-0.163). All correlations among all traits were significant (P<0.01). The positive genetic correlations between LMY and each of LDL and NL indicate that selection for any traits associated with genetic improvement in other traits. Phenotypic correlations among all traits were positive ranging from 0.099 to 0.966 and significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The breeding values for LMY, LDL, LDMY and NL of cows ranged between -759 and 1139 kg, -101 and 105 day, -1.77 and 1.82 kg and between -01.64 and 2.69 lactations, respectively, the corresponding values for dams were between -814 and 1107 kg, -122 and 100 day, -2.38 and 1.53 kg and between -1.74 and 3.24 lactations, respectively. The breeding values for sires were between -560 and 748 kg, -117 and 83 day, -1.79 and 1.26 kg and between -1.44 and 3.12 lactations for the respective traits.The genetic trends estimated by the regression of sires breeding values on time were positive and nonsignificant for LMY, LDL and NL and negative approached zero for LDMY. Generally, the results indicate that improvement of productive lifetime traits of Friesian cows could be obtained through both selection programme and improvement of management conditions. Keywords:Heritability, genetic correlation, breeding values, genetic trend, productive lifetime traits, Friesian cows
38 (CO)VARIANCE STRUCTURES AND GENETIC PARAMETERS OF RETAINED PLACENTA AND STILLBIRTH FOR A FRIESIAN HERD USING MULTI-PARITY THRESHOLD MODELS. , Hanaa Abdelharith Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
SUMMARY (Co)variance components were estimated for retained placenta (RP) and stillbirth (SB) for a Friesian herd to study the (co)variance structures of these traits in the first three lactations. Genetic parameters and predicted breeding values (BV) were also estimated. (Co)variance components and estimated genetic parameters were derived from 3336 calving records of a Friesian herd raised at Sakha experimental farm belonging to Animal Production Research Institute (APRI) in Egypt. Retained placenta and SB traits were treated as different and correlated traits for the first three lactations using threshold multiple trait models. A sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model for SB was applied in order to account for direct and maternal effects of this trait and including the relationships among direct and maternal effects, while a sire model was fitted for RP. Genetic and phenotypic variances of RP had an increasing trend through the first three lactations. Also, covariances among lactations had the same increasing trend. Heritability estimates were 0.23, 0.28 and 0.31 for the first three lactations, respectively. Genetic correlations were 0.56, 0.57 and 0.67 between first and second, first and third and second and third lactations, respectively. Means of BV estimates for RP in the first three lactations were almost zero with negative signs, while rank correlation of BV estimates among lactations were 0.69, 0.68 and 0.56, respectively. Direct genetic variance components of SB had an increasing trend from the first to the third lactations. Rate of increase of variance was higher (27%) between second and third lactations. Maternal genetic variance components were higher than the direct components. Direct genetic variance of heifers was lower than that of cows in the second and third lactations while maternal genetic variance was higher than of cows in the same lactations. All genetic covariances between direct and maternal effects were favourable, positiv e and the directmaternal genetic correlation estimates ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. Direct heritability estimates of SB in the first three lactations were 0.28, 0.25 and 0.23, respectively while maternal heritability estimates were 0.39, 0.34 and 0.35, respectively. Direct genetic correlation estimates were 0.63, 0.42 and 0.71 between first and second, first and third and second and third lactations, respectively while maternal genetic correlation estimates were 0.68, 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. Means of BV estimates of SB in the first three lactations were all negative and ranged from -0.499 to -2.477 for all direct and maternal sires and MGS. Positive and from moderate to high rank correlation estimates were obtained between lactations BVs ranging from 0.24 to 0.97. Moderate heritability estimates of RP and SB suggest that selection against these traits and a chance of genetic improvement in the herd are possible. Multi-parity models utilized accounted for the (co)variance among the different lactations. Also, the genetic correlation estimates between lactations within traits indicated that RP and SB are different traits through the first three lactations. Rank correlations of direct evaluation of sires between lactations were significant and moderate which justify the importance of the multi-parity evaluation. Keywords: Functional traits, retained placenta, stillbirth, multi-parity model, (co)variance structure, genetic parameters, breeding values and Friesian
39 GENETIC AND PHENOTYPIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG FIRST LACTATION TRAITS AND SOME LONGEVITY AND LIFETIME TRAITS IN FRIESIAN CATTLE , Hanaa Abdelharith1 , M. Abd-Elatife 2 , Elham Ghoneim2 and M. Abd Elhamid1 1- Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt, 2- Faculty of Agriculture, Minoufya University, Minoufya, Egypt
SUMMARY Longevity and lifetime traits are favorable traits that affect overall profitability. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic and phenotypic relationships between first lactation traits and some longevity and lifetime traits in Friesian cattle, estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for the same traits and estimate breeding values. Data utilized included 2940 pedigree and performance records of Friesian cows born between 1980 and 2001 in Sakha and Alkarada Experimental Stations, Ministry of Agriculture and land reclamation (MOALR). The performance records covered the period from 1982 to 2008 for 853 cows, which had the opportunity to complete five productive years starting with the date of first calving. They were daughters of 104 sires and 689 dams. Longevity and lifetime traits studied were total completed lactations (TCL), herd life (HL), productive life (PL), total lifetime 305-day milk yield (TL305MY), total lifetime milk yield (TLMY) and total lactation length in days (TLL). First 305-day milk yield (F305MY), first milk yield (FTMY) and first lactation length (FLL) were included in the analyses as first lactation traits. Relationships between first lactation traits and each of longevity and lifetime traits were investigated. Fixed models have been applied to investigate the effects of non-genetic factors on the studied traits. Least squares means of the traits were 3.5, 99.1, 67.2, 8750.8 kg, 9888.7 kg, 1091.3 and 2358.4 kg for TCL, HL, PL, TL305MY, TLMY, TLL, and F305MY, respectively. Heritability estimates obtained from multiple-trait animal model analyses for the same traits were 0.03, 0.21, 0.20, 0.22, 0.30, 0.18 and 0.13, respectively. Positive genetic correlation estimates were obtained between F305MY and each of all the longevity and lifetime traits (TL305MY, TLMY, TLL, TCL, HL and PL) being 0.46, 0.35, 0.49, 0.29, 0.11 and 0.22, respectively. Estimates of rank correlation between F305MY and each of TCL, HL, PL, TL305MY, TLMY and TLL were positive and highly significant (P<0.0001) being 0.28, 0.17, 0.13, 0.40, 0.49 and 0.39, respectively. Results of this study suggest that selection for high F305MY is expected to increase lifetime milk production, length of herd life and productive life. Also, including PL in a breeding program could be efficient. Keywords: Longevity, lifetime, genetic parameters, breeding values and Friesian
40 APPLYING LINEAR PROGRAMMING APPROACH IN MODELING THE CURRENT CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM IN NEW VALLEY GOVERNORATE OF EGYPT , M.N.M. Abd El-Ati1 , Mona Mohammady I.2 * , H. Hamdon3 and Doaa A. Abd El-Salam2 1- Department of Animal Production, Assiut University, 2- Animal Production and Poultry Division, Desert research Center, 3- Department of Animal Production, New Valley University * Corresponding author, Email: monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY The present study was carried out at the New Valley governorate. Four districts were identified; El-Kharga, El-Dakhla, Baris and Balat, to identify an optimal combination among crop and livestock enterprises that would enable the smallholders meet their goals of accumulating monetary income and providing food security for the family throughout the year. Data were collected from 120 farms randomly selected represent one agricultural year (2015 – 2016). Biological and economic technical coefficients per feddan and per head of animal were estimated. Four farming plan scenarios were proposed; the first scenario (LP1) assuming free choice of cultivated crops and livestock enterprises to simulate the current status, the second scenario (LP2) assuming free choice of cultivated crops, while livestock activity was constrained by at least one head of each livestock species (cattle, sheep and goat), the third scenario (LP3) assuming that the cultivated area was distributed equally among the different crops during winter and summer seasons, and free choice of livestock activity, Finally, the fourth scenario (LP4) assuming that the cultivated area was distributed equally among the different crops, while livestock activity was constrained by at least one head of each livestock speci es (cattle, sheep and goat).Results showed that Balat district exceeded the current gross margin by 221%, while the second scenario exceeded by 121.8% in El-dakhla district, meanwhile, the result of the third scenario revealed that El-kharga district scored the higher by 18%, while no feasible solutions were obtained from LP4 in all studied districts. The current study concluded that smallholders have different goals other than just maximizing their farm GM (gross margin) to satisfy food security throughout the year for the family. Keywords: Mixed farming system, linear programming, modeling, gross margin, New Valley, Egypt
41 INFLUENCE OF SODIUM BICARBONATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY, MILK PRODUCTION, RUMEN FERMENTATION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN SHEEP , M.M. Farghaly1 , E. H. Hassan2 and S. G. Abdo2 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 2- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing the diet of ewes or rams with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as buffers at two levels on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and some blood metabolites. Twenty seven healthy mature local ewes were randomly assigned into three similar groups (9 ewes each). Three digestibility trials were also carried out using twelve local rams randomly assigned into three groups (4 rams/ trial). Each trial lasted for three weeks, the first two weeks were considered as a preliminary period followed by one week collection period . Groups of 9 ewes and 4 rams were the control group fed the basal diet without NaHCO3supplement and treated groups were fed either 1.5 (T1) or 3% (T2) sodium bicarbonate mixed with the concentrate mixture. All animals were fed 70% of their requirements as concentrate mixture while, wheat straw was given ad libitum as roughage. Dietary supplementation of NaHCO3 (1.5 or 3%) increased (P<0.05) dry matter intake (DMI) of roughage and total dry matter intake. Sodium bicarbonate supplement increased (P<0.05) milk yield. The milk fat (%) was improved (P<0.05) in ewes supplemented 3% of NaHCO3 compared to other groups. Dietary supplement of sodium bicarbonate either 1.5 or 3% increased (P<0.05) serum pH and cholesterol. The organic matter, crude protein and crude fiber digestibility coefficients were improved (P<0.05) for rams supplemented with 1.5 and 3% sodium bicarbonate compared with the control group. Supplementation of sodium bicarbonate to rams rations increased (P<0.05) ruminal pH, concentrations of total VFAs and total protozoa count as compared with the control diet. However, rumen ammonia nitrogen was not affected. In conclusion, dietary sodium bicarbonate in particular 3% of concentrate mixture improves dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat (%), nutrients digestibility and fermentation patterns in sheep. Keywords: sodium bicarbonate, ewes, sheep, milk yield, milk composition, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood parameters
42 CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND MEAT QUALITY OF SAIDI LAMBS AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT BEDDING MATERIALS. , A.M.A. Hussein Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt 71515
SUMMARY The current study was carried out to study the effect of different bedding materials (sand, rice straw and wood shavings) on carcass characteristics, meat cuts and meat quality of Saidi lambs under upper Egypt condition. Eighteen lambs with 26±0.17 kg average body weight and approximately at 6-months of age, fed ad. libitum with concentrate, were assigned to three groups of bedding in individual pens in replicates of six lambs each, for five months. Body measurements were taken once three days before slaughter using measuring tape and ruler. At the end of the experiment period (152 days), twelve lambs (4 from each treatment), were slaughtered, skinned and carcasses were prepared. Weight of non-carcass components, internal organs, fat stores, carcass parts and retail cuts were recorded. Semimembranosus (SM), longissimus dorsi (LD) and supraspinatus (SP) were dissected, weighted and used for meat chemical analyses and quality trats. Lambs reared on sand bedding had significant (P<0.05) higher final body weight, round circumstances and pelvis width P<0.05. Moreover, lambs bedded with sand have higher (P<0.05) liver weight and tests weight and kidneys fat weight (P<0.05) compared with the other two groups. In addition, lambs in sand bedding gro up had significantly P<0.01 higher hot carcass weight, left side weight, right side weight, the fore carcass’s quarters weights and dressing percentage compared with rice straw and wood shavings bedding groups. Also, lambs reared on sand bedding had significantly higher (P<0.05) shoulder, brisket, rack, flank, loin, loin percent and round weight than those bedded with rice straw or wood shavings. It may be concluded that, sand bedding tends to improve meat chemical analysis and meat quality.
43 RAM EFFECT ON ESTRUS BEHAVIOR, OVARIAN STRUCTURE AND STEROID HORMONE LEVELS IN OSSIMI EWES TREATED WITH PROSTAGLANDIN F2α FOR ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION , G.B. Mahmoud1 and H. A. Hussein2 1- Animal Production Department, Agriculture Faculty, 2- Theriogenology Department, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, 1,2- Assiut University, 71526, Assiut, Egypt
SUMMARY The objective of this study was to assess presence of ram with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on estrus behavior, patterns of follicular growth and steroid hormone production of Ossimi ewes in subtropics. Ewes (n= 20), were isolated from rams 30 days and thereafter, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was used for synchronization by two injections 10 days apart. Ewes were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10). The first group, PGF2α with ram effect (PGRE), ewes were exposed to two trained teaser rams at the time of the second PGF2α injection until the end of the experiment, whilst the second group (PG), ewes were isolated from rams except at the time for estrus detection. Estrus behavior and time of ovulation were detected after the second prostaglandin injection by noting the responses of the ewes to the male in the pen and by ultrasonography. The number and size of all follicles ≥2 mm and corpus luteum (CL) were monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected for measuring estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) hormones. Onset of estrus, time of ovulation and estrous cycle length were significantly shorter (P<0.05) in PGRE group compared with PG group. The number of preovulatory follicles and the mean size of ovulatory follicles were higher (P<0.05) in PGRE group compared with those in PG group. Moreover, the mean ovulation rate was higher (P<0.05) in PGRE group than that in PG group. In addition, the production of P4 was greater (P<0.05) in PGRE group on days 10 and 14 of the estrous cycle compared to the ewes in PG group. While, concentrations of the P4 were increased numerically in PGRE group during 0, 2, 6 and 8 d of the estrous cycle. E2 production was almost similar in both groups. In conclusion, the presence of rams combined with PGF2α treatment, hastens estrus onset, decreased the time of ovulation, increased the ovulation rate and ovarian activity of Ossimi ewes in subtropical areas. Keywords: Ram effect, estrus behavior, ovarian structure, steroid hormones
44 EXPRESSION OF SELECTED CANDIDATE GENES DURING DIFFERENT STAGES OF CORPUS LUTEUM DEVELOPMENT IN CYCLIC EGYPTIAN BUFFALOES , Marwa S. Faheem1,2 and Sh. M. Dessouki1,2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2- Cairo University Research Park (CURP), Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
SUMMARY The current study was done to investigate the expression profile of selected candidate genes in corpus luteum of cyclic Egyptian buffaloes. A total number of nine corpora lutea (CLs) was collected from 9 cyclic slaughtered female Egyptian buffaloes. Based on their developmental phases and morphological features, CLs were classified into; growing (around days 3-5), static (around days 7-10) and regressed (around days 19-21 of the estrous cycle). Transcript abundance of genes regulating mitochondrial activity (SOD2, TFAM and CPT2), lipid metabolism (SREBP1), pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNFα) and oxidative stress (NFE2L2) was assessed relative to GAPDH as a housekeeping gene. Relative gene expression profiles of TFAM and SOD2 increased (P ≤ 0.05) in static phase compared to both growing and regressed phases. Transcript abundance of both CPT2 and SREBP1 was significantly higher at static phase, while was at minimum level of expression during regression phase. The expression profile of NFE2L2 revealed insignificant differences among the studied phases of CLs. Relative transcript abundance of TNFα was higher (P ≤ 0.05) at regression phase compared to growing and static ones. Taken together, the pattern of genes regulating mitochondrial activity and lipid metabolism were higher during growing phase and reached a plateau in static phase and fully declined during regression phase. Meanwhile, the transcript abundance of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene denoted an opposite trend. Thus, gene expression profile reflected the cyclic changes of buffalo corpus luteum development. Keywords: Corpus luteum, gene expression, mitochondrial activity, buffalo.
45 EFFECT OF BIOSTIMULATION BY BULL EXPOSURE ON RECOVERY OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS DURING THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD OF EGYPTIAN BALADI CATTLE , A.I. Damarany Department of Animal and Poultry Production Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Egypt
SUMMARY The current research aims to investigate the effects of biostimulation on recovery of ovarian activity and reproductive aspects during postpartum period of Baladi cattle. A total number of thirty-six of Baladi cattle was used in this study during the post-partum period. The cows were divided into two equal groups; the first group was exposed to teaser bull and the second group as a control. The results indicated that the percentage of cows resumed ovarian activity during the post-partum period was 72.2 and 38.8% in cows exposed to bull and without presence of the bull respectively (P <0.05). The interval from calving to the first ovulation during the post-partum period was significantly lower (P <0.05) in cows of the first group than cows of the second group by about seventeen days. The interval from calving to the first estrus post-partum was significantly (P <0.05) longer by fifteen days in cows that not exposed to bull than in cows exposed to bull. The proportion of quiet ovulation was significantly (P <0.05) lower (30.8%) in cows that exposed to bull compared to cows that not exposed to bull (42.9 %). The percentage of anestrous cases was significantly (P<0.05) lower (27.8%) in cows that exposed to bull compared with cows that not exposed to bull (61.2%). First service interval post-partum was significantly (P <0.05) lower (70.7±18.7 d) in treated cows than in cows of the control group (85.8±10.4 d). The interval from calving to conception was significantly (P<0.05) lower (91.7±18.5 d) in cows exposed to bull than cows of the control group (110.5±8.7 d). Number of service per conception was lower (1.8±0.4 service) in treated cows than cows of control (2.5±0.6 services). Conception rate in cows that exposed to bull during the post-partum period was higher (50%) (P <0.05), compared to cows not exposed to bull with recorded less percentage (22.2%). Estrus signs under the experiment were more manifested in cows that exposed to bull compared to the control group. In conclusion, the results of this research elucidated the beneficial effect of presence of bull with cows and resumption of ovarian activity and improving the reproductive aspects of Baladi cattle during the post-partum period. Keywords: Biostimulation, ovarian activity, reproductive aspects, Baladi cattle
46 CRYOPROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF LOCAL FRIESIAN BULL’S SPERMATOZOA USING TRIS-EXTENDER ENRICHED WITH NATURAL OR SYNTHETIC ANTIOXIDANTS , Y. S. Hussein Biotechnology Research Department, Animal Production Research Institution, Dokki, P. O. Box 443, 23221, Giza, Egypt, E-mail: yshussein@hotmail.com
SUMMARY There are many research articles on using antioxidants, regardless of its source of synthesis, in semen cryopreservation against the hazards of free radicals. Two types of natural antioxidants and synthetic one were added to Tris based extender in the current research. Semen samples were collected biweekly from thirty five local Friesian bulls, pooled, then divided into seven groups (Basic) and three supplementations with two levels of each; Ubiquinone-10 (0.02mM and 0.03mM), L-Carnitine (2mM and 3mM) and N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (1.0mM and 1.5mM). All groups were packed and cryopreserved in 0.5 ml French straw under LN2. Sperm assessment parameters were estimated after dilution and after thawing. Recovery rates and enzymatic activities of AST, ALT and LDH were evaluated after thawing. Generally, addition of antioxidants significantly enhanced all sperm assessment parameters and recovery rates with delayed activity of seminal enzymes than control group. However; the best semen characteristics (P<0.05) were found in both UB-10 (0.03mM) and NAC (1.0nM) additions with an advantage to UB-10 (0.03mM) in motility and livability of spermatozoa. Also, treatment of diluted semen with LC enhanced post-thawing recovery rates (P<0.05) of all semen assessment parameters than BE group only. Current results revealed the promising improvements of UB-10 as a natural antioxidant and NAC as a synthetic one that able to enhance mobility, viability and maintains acrosomal integrity of cryopreserved local Friesian bull’s spermatozoa. Keywords: Friesian bulls, semen extender, antioxidants, L-Carnitine, Ubiquinone-10, N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine
47 CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMINAL PLASMA PROTEINS IN RELATION TO FERTILITY OF SHEEP UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS  , I.I. Abdel-Mageed and SH.M. Dessouki Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613, Giza, Egypt, E-mail: sherifd2002@agr.cu.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein profile of seminal plasma and fertility rate of some subtropical sheep breeds .By using artificial vagina three ejaculates were collected from ten mature rams(Ossimi (3), crosses of Ossimi × Finnish Landrace and Suffolk (3), and Assaf (4) breeds).Semen characteristics e.g. (ejaculate volume, semen density, mass motility, individual motility (%), live sperm (%), abnormalities (%) and sperm concentration were determined after collection. Seminal plasma proteins were identified by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method. Semen density and sperm concentration were significantly (p<0.05) higher in both Assaf and Crossbreds of Ossimi. Abnormal sperm percentage revealed a significant increase in Ossimi semen (9.80%) compared to its crossbreds and Assaf semen (7.83 and 6.97%, respectively).A total of 14 protein bands were visualized in ram seminal plasma samples. Protein bands 78-85 and 97-107 KDa were present in all studied breeds. However, the protein band of 40 KDa showed an increase in the percent of appearance in Ossimi crossbreds and Assaf (100%) compared to Ossimi breed (33%).It is clear that Assaf rams proved a potential capability for their breeding ability under Egyptian conditions. Therefore, it may be recommended to incorporate this breed in breeding programs of sheep in Egypt. Keywords: rams, Ossimi, Assaf, semen, motility, protein, electrophoresis
48 EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF CRUDE PROTEIN AND SPECIFIC ORGANIC ACIDS ON BROILERS PERFORMANCE  , Haiam S. Abd EL-Haliem, Faten A. M. Attia, Hamada S. Saber and Ismail H. Hermes Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, PO Box 41522, Corresponding e-mail:haiam65@yahoo.com
SUMMARY A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two crude protein levels: recommended (RPL; NRC, 1994), 2% Lower (LPL) and two Organic Acids (OA; Citric, CA and Fumaric, FUA) each at 0, 1.5 and 3.0% of the diet on broilers' performance. A total number of 288 one-day old unsexed Cobb broiler chicks were allotted randomly into 12 treatments of three replicates with eight chicks each. Mash corn-soybean meal diets, with 3200 Kcal/Kg, were fed. Starter diets (0-3 weeks of age) contained 23 and 21% CP, grower (3-5 weeks of age) contained 20 and 18% CP and finisher (at the 6th week of age) contained 18 and 16% CP. Feeding RPL + 1.5% FUA diet significantly (P≤0.05) improved body weight. Plasma total protein, albumin, lipids and calcium levels decreased (P≤0.05), however, uric acid and phosphorus increased (P≤0.05) with LPL diet. Supplementation of 3.0% FUA to LPL diet lowered AST and ALT enzymes. The fat meat was decreased (P≤0.05) by OA supplementations to RPL or LPL diets and the lowest was recorded for RPL + 1.5% CA. Organic acid supplementation increased (P≤0.05) meat protein and the highest was recorded for 1.5% CA or FUA either with RPL or LPL diets. The inclusion of FUA or CA into RPL or LPL diets increased tibia ash and retention of N and P however, FUA was more effective than CA. In conclusion, organic acids as a feed additive in poultry production had positive effects on broiler performance fed diets differing in CP level, via maintaining birds' physiological conditions, improving meat quality and reducing N and P excretion. Keywords: Citric acid, fumaric acid, body weight, blood constituents, bone ash, nutrient retention
49 THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE STRAW, WOOD SHAVINGS AND SAND AS BEDDING MATERIALS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON LAMBS’ PERFORMANCE AND WELFARE  , A.M.A. Hussein Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assuit, Egypt 71515
SUMMARY The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of using sand and wood shavings as alternative bedding materials other than rice straw, on lambs’ welfare and productive performance during the growing phase. Eighteen Baladi lambs (fed ad libitum with concentrate) were assigned to individual pens containing one of three bedding materials in replicates of six lambs for five months. Bedding samples were weekly collected to estimate the physical characteristics of different bedding materials. Moreover, pen cleanliness was scored weekly and fleece cleanliness scored at the end of the experiment. Live body weight and feed intake were recorded. Consequently, daily gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. Blood samples were taken monthly and serum total protein, albumin, and cortisol were measured. Sand had lower absorbency and surface temperature (P<0.05) in hot months compared with other two groups. On the other hand, sand had the highest (P<0.05) pH value and dry matter. Lambs in sand group consume more (P<0.01) dry matter and efficiently (P<0.05) converted dry matter intake to daily gain compared with lambs in the other two groups. In addition, lambs in sand group had greater (P<0.05) daily gain compared to the other two groups, which led to be of eavier (P<0.05) final body weight. Serum total protein, Albumin and cortisol levels were higher (P<0.05) in wood shavings group than the other two groups. The study concluded that sand improves animal comfort and performance and can be considered a good bedding materials for lambs during growing period. Keywords: Bedding type, lambs' performance, blood parameters, physical characteristics
50 IDENTIFY SOME BIOLOGICAL CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS OF BARKI SHEEP PRODUCTION RAISED IN NORTH WESTERN DESERT OF EGYPT   , Mona Mohammady I. Desert research center, Animal Production and Poultry Division, Cairo, Egypt, Mathaf El-Matariya St. No. 1
SUMMARY The current research was conducted to highlight on some biological critical control points (CCPs) responsible for production in Barki sheep flocks. Quantify biological values (BVs) and economic values (EVs) of the critical biological trait were also estimated. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to predict its potential economic response to proposed scenarios varying in biological parameters level and market prices. Data utilized in this study were 7300 accumulated records of Barki ewes collected over 37 successive breeding seasons of Barki sheep flock. Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) procedures as described by XLSTAT (2009) were applied. The obtained results indicated that lamb's growth rate (GR) was the most biological critical control point of Barki flock productivity. GR had a marked positive impact on kilograms of lambs weaned per ewe joined (KW/EJ) with biological value of +548 gm. Lambs mortality rate (LMR) had negative effect on KW/EJ and declined KW/EJ by -143 gm. Growth rate had the highest positive EV per ewe and exceeded gross margin per ewe (GM/EJ) by LE +25 compared to base flock. LMR had negative EV of LE -6. GR considered a critical success factor in the revenues, while LMR had a severe negative impact on Barki sheep enterprise profitability. It could be concluded that GR and LMR are the biological CCPs for Barki flock productivity and profitability. Sensitivity analysis confirmed that, EVs of the studied CCPs were more sensitive to changes in concentrate feed mix costs and lambs mortality rate than the other proposed scenarios. Keywords: Barki sheep, biological values, economic values, gross margin, critical control points
51 EFFECT OF MILK REPLACER ON KID PRE-WEANING GROWTH, MILK PRODUCTION AND FARM PROFITABILITY OF SHAMI GOAT  , T.M.M. Hassan1, * , Fathy A.I. Abdelfattah2 , Marwa S. Awad3 and Eman R. Kamel4 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt, 2- Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt, 3- Department of Food Hygiene and Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Menofia University, Shbin Elkom 32511, Egypt, 4- Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Qalyubia 13736, Egypt *Corresponding author E-mail: tamer.mohamed@fagr.bu.edu.eg
SUMMARY This study was carried out on 38 Shami female goats and 48 of their kids to investigate the effect of using milk replacer on growth performance of goat kids, goat’s milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency. Two groups, (19 goats each) with their kids were used up to 12 weeks of age after kidding. The kids of first group were allowed free access to suckle their dams during the experimental period till weaning. The kids of the other group were fed milk replacer (MR) just after 3 days of receiving colostrum. A starter diet was offered after 4 weeks of age for all goat kids. Growth of kids and feed intake were measured. Milk from the dams was evaluated for yield and composition. The artificial feeding and natural suckling systems were evaluated economically to determine the farm profitability. Results showed that the MR fed kids had a better growth performance in terms of live body weight and average daily gain than the natural suckling kids. Milk production and composition were improved in MR fed kids than natural suckled counterparts. The net return (profit) was superior in MR feeding system (LE 1317.06/kid), than natural suckling (LE 419.09/kid). In this study, feeding MR to newly born goat kids instead of natural suckling had positive effects on kid growth, goat's milk yield and composition as well as the production profitability of the farm. Keywords: Milk replacer, kid growth, profitability, Shami goats
52 EFFECTS OF LIVE YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY, RUMEN FERMENTATION AND RUMEN MICROBIAL POPULATION COUNT IN SHEEP  , M. M. Farghaly1 and H. A. Hamdon2 1- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 2- Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, New Valley Branch, Egypt
SUMMARY This study investigated the impacts of dietary yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and rumen microbial population in sheep. Three digestibility trials were carried out using fifteen Sohagi rams randomly assigned into three groups (5 rams/ each).Each trial lasted for three weeks, the firsttwo weekswere considered as a preliminary period followed by one week collection period.The groups were a control group fed basal diet without yeast supplement and treated groups fed either 0.5 (T1) or 1% (T2) yeast culture (YC) mixed with concentrate diet. All animals were fed 60% of their requirements as concentrate mixture while, chopped corn stover was given as roughages ad libitum. The results pointed out, the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre and hemicellulose were significantly (P<0.05) improvedfor yeast treated diets compared with basal diet.Live yeast culture either 0.5or 1% in concentrate diet increased (P <0.05) the pH,volatile fatty acids (VFAs), acetate and propionate, while rumen ammonia nitrogen on centration was decreased (P<0.05). Live yeast supplementation (0.5 or 1%) improved (P<0.05) N retention.The rumenal bacterial and protozoal counts increased (P<0.05) due to YC supplementation. In conclusion, dietary live yeast culture (S. cerevisiae) particular1% of concentrate mixture may improve nutrient digestibility, fermentation patterns and rumen microbial population. Keywords: Sheep, live yeast, nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters
53 EFFECTS OF HIGH WATER SALINITY AND BETAINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE INCIDENCE OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN BROILER CHICKENS  , M.A.M. Sayed Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 71515
SUMMARY The effects of betaine supplementation on water consumption, stress measures and incidence of pulmonary hypertension induced by drinking saline water in broilers (n = 180) during summer were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments comprising 2 levels of betaine (0 and 500 mg/l) and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 4 and 7 g/l) added to drinking water. The results indicated that broilers provided with saline water had higher hematocrits, H/L ratio in blood and greater plasma Na+ , glucose and cholesterol concentrations (P<0.05). Betaine supplementation failed to attenuate the osmotic stress caused by drinking saline water. Variation in drinking water salinity resulted in significant betaine× drinking water interactions for water consumption. Regardless of betaine supplementation, drinking saline water resulted in kidney and heart hypertrophy and increased the right and left ventricle weights to the body weight ratios (RV/BW and LV/BW), increased the number of mortalities and incidence of ascites syndrome. The increase in the right ventricle to total ventricle weights (RV/TV) was evident only in the 0.7% NaCl group. The results suggest that betaine influenced drinking behaviour in broilers provided with saline water but failed to reduce the osmotic stress and the incidence of pulmonary hypertension. Keywords: Organic osmolyte, water salinity, water consumption, ascites, broilers
54 ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR SOME GENETIC GROUPS AND COMPARING THEIR PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN CHICKENS ,  M.Y.Mahrous 1 ; Lamiaa M. Radwan1 and M. E. El-denary2 1- Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, 2- Genetics Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt, Lamia_radwan@agr.asu.edu.eg
SUMMARY In the current study; genetic diversity and productive performance were estimated for some genetic groups: normally feathered (nanaff), frizzled feather (nanaFf), naked neck (Nanaff) and naked neck frizzled feather (NanaFf) ones. It seems that both Na and F genes play an important role in improving some economical traits such as: weight gain, feed conversion, live body weight, breast muscle percentage and edible parts percentage. The corresponding values for these traits were (598.65gm), (3.70), (1389.19gm), (11.14%) and (73.39%) for naked neck genotype (Nanaff), while it was (498.75gm), (3.90), (1315.42gm), (10.23%) and (72.80%) for nanaFf and (512.22gm), (3.73), (1410.21gm), ( 12.02%) and (73.83%) for naked neck with frizzled feather genotypes NanaFf ones when the comparison held with their normally feathered counterparts. Moreover; the naked neck (Na) gene decreased significantly abdominal fat percentage 0.48% for the Nanaff and 0.41 % for NanaFf compared to normal feather (nanaff ) genotype. The same trend was noticed for frizzled genotype, but it had a slight effect (0.09). Both Na and F genes improved meat production under the condition of this study. The similarity between genetic differences in this experiment appeared to be 80%, 70%, 90 and 70% for nanaff, Nanaff, nanaFf and NanaFf respectively. The degree of diversity or similarity within different genotypes reflected purity or identity of these categories. But, it is necessary to keep some variations between and within genotypes or breed to avoid the disadvantage of inbreeding. Keywords: Chickens , carcass, frizzle, genetic diversity, naked neck
55 EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, BLOOD CONSTITUENTS, IMMUNE RESPONSE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF SASSO CHICKEN  , Asmaa Sh. ELnaggar1 and M. I. El-Kelawy2 1- Department of Animal and Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt, 2- Department of poultry production, Faculty of Agriculture (New Valley), Assiut University, New Valley, El-Kharga, Egypt
SUMMARY Unsexed seven-day-old Sasso chicks were used to determine the effect of humic acid on productive performance, blood parameters, carcass characteristics, immune response and economical efficiency of Sasso chicks. At seven days of age 196 birds were distributed into four groups (49 birds in seven replicates). The chicks were fed basal diet and were submitted to the following dietary treatments: the first group fed a basal diets without supplementation (control), the 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% of humic acid. At the end of the experiment, some carcass characteristics were measured and blood samples were taken to determine some blood plasma constituents. The results reported that Sasso chicks fed 0.1% of humic acid had greater productive performance and economical efficiency than those fed basal diet (control).Chicks fed 0.1% of humic acid had significantly higher glucose than the control group. Supplementation of humic acid decreased serum AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, MCV, MCH, á–globulin and â- globulin and increased T4, GPX, SOD, RBC’s hemoglobin, WBC’s, total protein, ã- globulin, LA, BA, LTT, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index compared to control group (within normal range). Feeding diet with 0.1 and 0.2% of humic acid significantly increased the percentage of dressing and decreased abdominal fat compared to control. Moreover, humic acid decreased bacterial count of the digestive tract compared to control group. In conclusion, humic acid supplementation at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, production index and economical efficiency especially at the level of 0.1%, without any adverse effects on blood components of Sasso chicken. Keywords: Sasso chicks, humic acid, productive performance, blood parameters, economical efficiency
56 ENHANCEMENT OF EMBRYONIC AND HATCHING PERFORMANCE OF RHODE-ISLAND RED CHICKEN BY EXPOSING INCUBATED EGGS TO LIGHT PULSES IN RELATION TO THEIR SHELL PIGMENTATION M. F. A. Farghly1 ,O. H. El-Garhy2 and M.G. Abdelfattah1   , 1-Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Assiut (71516), Egypt, 2- Animal 2Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Egypt Corresponding author: farghly20002000@yahoo.com farghly20002000@aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY Light pulses (PS) could be an effective tool to decontaminate and improve the hatching of incubated eggs. So, this study assessed the role of PS during incubation in improving embryonic development and hatching performance of Rhode Island Red chicken in relation to eggshell pigment. A total of 900 eggs were randomly divided into three groups according to their eggshell pigmentation (light, medium and heavy) and incubated with or without being exposed to PS. The exposure to PS significantly (p<0.05) increased the final embryo weight, egg weight loss, chick's weight at day 7 post-hatch, relative weights of chick internal organs (breast, liver and ovary) and decreased hatching time. However, no significant differences were observed in hatchability, chick characteristics, hatch chick weight, chick weight loss and residual yolk sac. Regarding eggshell pigments, there was a positive relationship between chick length, relative weight of liver and chick quality with the density of eggshell pigments. However, there were no differences recorded among different egg shell pigmentation groups in embryo weight percentages, hatchability, egg weight loss, culled chicks, hatch time, body temp., chick sex, weight gains of chick and percentages of most internal organs. There were significant differences in most studied traits (percentages of embryo weight, hatching performance, chick quality, chick weight loss, relative weight gain, chick breast and liver), due to the interaction effects of pulses with eggshell pigment. It could be concluded that the medium to heavily pigmented eggs exposed to PS during incubation showed favourable results of hatchability and hatch time. Therefore, the application of pulses could be successful in hatchery with no negative effect on chick's quality. Keywords: Light pulses, shell pigmentation, embryonic and hatch performance, Rhode Island chicken
57 DELTA AND UPPER EGYPT BUFFALO FARMING SYSTEMS: ASURVEY COMPARISON   , N.H. Fahim1 , S.A.M. Abdel-Salam1 ,W. Mekkawy2 , Ahmed Ismael1 , S. Abou-Bakr1 , Manal El Sayed2 , M.A.M. Ibrahim1 1-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 2-Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY Buffaloes play a vital role in the Egyptian food security, providing the local market by 44% and 39% of milk and red meat, respectively. The main objective of this study was to compare between the buffalo farming systems in Upper Egypt (UEg) and Delta Egypt (DEg). A survey was conducted to study the characteristics of dairy buffalo production in two ecologically distinctive zones: the UEg and the DEg. Data were collected throughout interviews with farmers of 1811 buffalo herds keeping 12450 heads of Egyptian buffaloes. The study was done from July 2010 to January 2011 using comprehensive and structured questionnaire. Results indicated that the averages of farm size per household and herd size of buffaloes were 1.1 ha and 3 heads in UEg compared to 1.5ha and 10 heads in DEg, respectively. Means of daily milk yield, total milk yield, lactation period and longevity were 7.7 kg, 1826 kg, 7.7 months and 5.5 parities in UEg buffaloes, respectively. Whereas, these estimates were 8.2 kg, 1899kg, 7.5 months, 4.7 parities in DEg buffaloes, respectively. Similar traditional and low management level was practiced in the two studied zones. Five and six principal components were extracted in UEg and DEg explaining 67.9 % and 82.1% of the total variation in the original variables, respectively. Development of the Egyptian buffaloes needs suitable breeding program, using untraditional feed resources, good veterinary and extension services, development of village markets and introduction of storage and grading products facilities. The buffalo farming systems in Egypt needs more studies to recognize the opportunities of improvement and to maximize the productivity and profitability of the system.
58 IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF BARKI SHEEP RAISED IN NORTH WESTERN COASTAL ZONE OF EGYPT  , Mona Mohammady I. Animal and Poultry Breeding Department, Desert Research Center, El-Matariya, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY The current study was conducted to characterize the changes of climatic parameters throughout the studied years from 2000 up to 2015 and quantify the biological responses of Barki sheep maintained in North Western Coastal Zone (NWCZ) of Egypt. A total number of 2692 accumulated records were collected over 14 successive breeding seasons. Biological and meteorological data were statistically analyzed to compare variations in biological performance of the flock as influenced by climate change. The considered years were partitioned (according to THI values trend) into two periods; the first period (P1) was from the year 2000 till the year 2007, while the second period (P2) was from the year 2008 up to year 2015. Analysis of the meteorological data revealed that there is a marked increase of annual air temperature (AT) and Temperature- Humidity Index (THI) values throughout the years under investigation particularly at P2. Also, the obtained results revealed that there is considerable evidence showing a substantial decline in the biological performance of the studied flock due to climate change. Generally, all the studied productive traits in P2 were significantly (P<0.001) lower than those of P1. Average birth weight, average weaning weight, average daily gain and survival rate were dropped by about 4.5%, 15.2%, 18.8% and 3.5%, respectively in comparison with those estimates in P1. While, estimate of number of ewes lambed per ewe joined (EL/EJ) was decreased in P2 by 5.3% less than that in P1. The obtained estimate of number of kilograms lambs weaned per ewe joined (KGW/EJ) during the P2 was less than that of P1 by about 9.4%. In conclusion, the current study underlines the importance to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to attenuate the adverse effects of climate change on Barki sheep raised in NWCZ of Egypt. Keywords: Climate change, Barki sheep, biological performance, THI, Egypt
59 DOES MAGNETIZED DRINKING WATER AFFECT PRODUCTIVITY AND EGG QUALITY OF LAYERS? RUNNING TITLE: MAGNETIZED WATER EFFECT ON EGG QUALITY  , M. I. El Sabry1 , J.W. Charal2 , K. W. McMillin3 and T. A. Lavergne4 1- Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 6 El-Gamma Street, 12613, Giza, Egypt, 2- Archer Daniels Midland Co., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 3- School of Animal Sciences, LSU AgCenter, 70803, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 4- Church & Dwight Co., Princeton, NJ, USA
SUMMARY Water is a major component of cells in living organisms, and is important to poultry health and productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate production and quality of eggs from laying hens receiving magnetized drinking water. One hundred ninety-two Hy-Line W36 hens, 48-wk of age, were housed in a tunnel ventilated house. On d 1 of the trial, hens were randomly allotted to treatment groups of control (C; un-magnetized water line) or polyvinylchloride water line with 3000 Gauss magnet (MW) on the exterior surface. There were three replicates per treatment with 6 cages of 6 hens per cage (replicate 1) or 5 hens per cage (replicates 2 and 3). Standard laying diet and water were provided ad libitum. The trial was conducted for two consecutive months. The egg production was monitored daily while egg weight, shell weight and thickness, internal egg quality and egg yolk mineral content analyses were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, eggs from each treatment from 3 consecutive days were used to determine breaking strength. Water pH of the MW group was lower (8.21, for the 1st month and 8.16, for the 2nd month) than those of C group (8.31 and 8.34, during the 1st and 2nd month, respectively). Egg production and egg weight were not affected by the treatment. Internal egg quality characteristics and shell mass of the eggs from hens in the MW group were improved (P = 0.04) compared to eggs from hens in the C group throughout the experimental period, and they had thicker (P = 0.03) shells during the second month of the study. In conclusion, magnetized drinking water can improve egg quality characteristics without affecting egg production or egg mass. Keywords: Egg weight, eggshell quality, yolk index, albumen, yolk minerals, breaking strength
60 USING LACTOBACILLUS bacteria AS IN-OVO INJECTION OR ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER CHICKS  , Amal M. Hassan1* , I. El-Wardany2 and M.I. Shourrap2 1- Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo Egypt, * Email: amalmhassan@yahoo.com), 2- Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
SUMMARY One hundred and sixty broiler fertile eggs with an average weight of 68.61 g were used to determine the best way to deliver probiotic and prebiotic to the chicken embryos. The eggs were obtained from a commercial Hubbard parent flock at 48 weeks of age. At 17th day of incubation, the eggs were divided into four main groups, each of 40 eggs. The first group served as control (C), while the second and third were subjected to in ovo injection with Lactobacillus bacteria (LB) at concentration of 9.8 X 109 cfu (0.1 ml/egg) either into air cell (Br group) or the amniotic fluid (Bm group). The hatched chicks of the 4th group were orally inoculated (O) with the same dose of bacteria immediately after post hatching. The obtained results can be summarized as follows: - Administration of LB either orally or in – ovo injection had a positive effect on feed consumption and live body weight at 5th week of age. - The chicks of Bm group showed the highest relative weight of carcass components, while those of O group showed the lowest abdominal fat. In addition, administration of LB resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher relative weight of liver. - Plasma total protein, globulin and A/G ratio did not significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. - Chicks of O group showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in albumin level. - Total bacterial count and total lactic acid bacteria were increased significantly (P<0.05) in the O group compared to the C group. Histological examination of tissues showed an improvement in ilium villi height of treated groups than in the control group. Keywords: In ovo injection, Lactobacillus, blood, ilium histomorphology, lymphoid organs and broiler chicks
61 EFFECT OF DIETARY PROBIOTIC AND SEX ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE, NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY, CARCASS CRITERIA, BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY OF GROWING NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS  , F.S.O. Elkhateeb, Z.S.H. Ismail, and A.A.A. Abdel-Wareth* Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Egypt * Corresponding author: Email: a.wareth@agr.svu.edu.eg
SUMMARY The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary probiotic levels and sex on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass criteria, blood biochemistry and meat quality of growing rabbits. A total of sixty four growing male and female New Zealand White rabbits (45 days old), were assigned to four experimental diets including added probiotic at 0, 150, 300 and 450 m g/kg, respectively, for six weeks. Each treatment had 16 replicates (50% males and 50% females). Sex of rabbits did not affect the body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility during the experimental periods. Body weight gain increased and feed conversion ratio decreased significantly from 0 to 450 mg/kg during the period from 0 to 2, 4 to 6 and 0 to 6 weeks of age, respectively. Feed intake exhibited a noticeable significance (p<0.05) in interaction between probiotic treatment levels and sex in the period from 4 to 6 weeks only. Supplementation of probiotic improved the nutrient digestibility during the experimental period. Cecum and gut weights increased significantly from 150 to 450 mg/kg. Interestingly, serum glucose and cholesterol levels showed a significant decrease (P<0.001) among probiotic treatments in comparison with the control group. Serum total protein, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone and tri-iodothyronine showed a higher significance (P<0.001) in the probiotic levels compared to control group, however thyroxin showed no significant increase or decrease where the tested groups exhibits nearly the normal levels. It could be concluded that supplementation of probiotics to the rabbits diet improved nutrient digestibility and blood glucose, cholesterol and hormones level without any reflection of probiotics on body weight and carcass criteria including carcass weight, hot carcass, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, heart and head on either male or female growing rabbits. Keyword: Probiotics, performance, nutrient digestibility, some serum biochemical profile, meat quality, rabbits
62 IMPACT OF NOVEL MODIFIED FILTER STANDARD STRAW ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND VIABILITY OF VITRIFIED-WARMED SHE-CAMEL OOCYTES   , M.M. Madboly Animal Production Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Dokki, Giza. Egypt Sheep and Goats Research Department, Corresponding author: e-mail: madboly.medhat@arc.sci.eg madboly.medhat@yahoo.com
SUMMARY The present study was carried out to test a new method of cryo-devices called a Novel Modified Filter Standard Straw (MFSS), as a tool for immature camel oocyte vitrification, and to compare its efficacy with Cryotop (CT). MFSS was utilized either as an open or closed device. Collected COCs of slaughtered She-Camel were divided into three groups ; group 1 (Cryotop), group 2 (MFSS-open method) or group 3 (MFSS-close method) and exposed to vitrification media of TCM 199 +0.1 M sucrose + 0.5% (w/v) bovine albumin, containing 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for a duration of 2 min (VS-I), and subsequent to vitrification media of TCM 199 + 0.1 M sucrose + containing 15% EG and 15% DMSO for a duration of 45s. (VS-II) and immersed in liquid nitrogen. Oocytes recovery rates of the three groups were not significantly different (91.3%, 97.1% and 98.0%, respectively) and post-thawing survival rates were (88.8%, 91.3 and 86.1%, respectively). While, oocytes with normal morphology were higher in MFSS-open method and CT than in MFSS-close method were (87.6%, 83.6% and 82.6%, respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, ultrastructural observation showed that the MFSS appears suitable for verification as indicated by the good ultrastructural preservation of cumulus cells, zonapellucida and cortical granules distribution. Keywords: Camel, oocytes, cryodevice, verification, Transmission Electron Microscopy
63 ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GROWTH TRAITS USING DIFFERENT MODELS FOR FRIESIAN CATTLE RAISED IN EGYPT  , Safaa S. Sanad and M.G.Gharib Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to detect the most appropriate model that fits data of birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) traits of Friesian calves. Body weights of 1371 calves over a 22 years and WW of 678 Friesian calves over a 19 years from a herd of Friesian in Gemmaza Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt were used. The fixed effects included in the model were parity, season, sex, year of calving in addition to the random effects to estimate direct and maternal heritability's, permanent maternal environmental and error. The parameters were estimated by using Variance Component Estimation (MTDFREML) programs. Six different animal models were fitted for the traits ranging from a simple to the most comprehensive model, were used to compare them. The overall means were 30.4 kg and 85.1 Kg, for BW and WW, respectively. Non-genetic factors (fixed effects) had highly significant (P<0.001) effects on BW and WW of calves. Estimates of direct heritability were moderate, they ranged from 0.28to 0.30 for BW and from 0.18 to 0.28 for WW. Maternal heritability was relatively low for both BW and WW, ranging from 0.06 to 0.08 for BW and was 0.04 for WW. Permanent environmental effect Pe2 in the 2nd model was relatively higher than that of other models, while inclusion of maternal genetic effects (Models 3-6) showed further reduction in h2 a for which there was negligible difference in h2 a of the other models within each trait. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to determine the most appropriate model for the studied traits. Model 5 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z2c+ Z3m + e Cov (a, m)= 0 A σ am was the most appropriate model for BW, while, Model 4 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z3m+e Cov (a, m)= A σ am was the most appropriate model for WW trait. The higher range of calves breeding values compared with those of sire or dams means that selection for BW for calves is leading to an increase in WW for the next generation. Keywords: Birth and weaning weight, Friesian calves, genetic and non-genetic parameters, models Comparisons
64 ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR GROWTH TRAITS USING DIFFERENT MODELS FOR FRIESIAN CATTLE RAISED IN EGYPT  , Safaa S. Sanad and M.G.Gharib Animal Production Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt
SUMMARY This study was conducted to detect the most appropriate model that fits data of birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) traits of Friesian calves. Body weights of 1371 calves over a 22 years and WW of 678 Friesian calves over a 19 years from a herd of Friesian in Gemmaza Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt were used. The fixed effects included in the model were parity, season, sex, year of calving in addition to the random effects to estimate direct and maternal heritability's, permanent maternal environmental and error. The parameters were estimated by using Variance Component Estimation (MTDFREML) programs. Six different animal models were fitted for the traits ranging from a simple to the most comprehensive model, were used to compare them. The overall means were 30.4 kg and 85.1 Kg, for BW and WW, respectively. Non-genetic factors (fixed effects) had highly significant (P<0.001) effects on BW and WW of calves. Estimates of direct heritability were moderate, they ranged from 0.28to 0.30 for BW and from 0.18 to 0.28 for WW. Maternal heritability was relatively low for both BW and WW, ranging from 0.06 to 0.08 for BW and was 0.04 for WW. Permanent environmental effect Pe2 in the 2nd model was relatively higher than that of other models, while inclusion of maternal genetic effects (Models 3-6) showed further reduction in h2 a for which there was negligible difference in h2 a of the other models within each trait. Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was used to determine the most appropriate model for the studied traits. Model 5 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z2c+ Z3m + e Cov (a, m)= 0 A σ am was the most appropriate model for BW, while, Model 4 : Y =Xb+Z1a+Z3m+e Cov (a, m)= A σ am was the most appropriate model for WW trait. The higher range of calves breeding values compared with those of sire or dams means that selection for BW for calves is leading to an increase in WW for the next generation. Keywords: Birth and weaning weight, Friesian calves, genetic and non-genetic parameters, models Comparisons
65 CHARACTERIZATION OF CROP/LIVESTOCK FARMING SYSTEM IN NEW VALLEY OF EGYPT USING SYSTEM APPROACH    , Mona Mohammady I.1 *, M.N.M. Abd El-Ati2 , H. Hamdon3 and Doaa A. Abd El-Salam1 1- Animal Production and Poultry Division, Desert research Center, 2- Department of Animal Production, Assiut University, 3- Department of Animal Production, New Valley University * Corresponding author, Email: monamohammady@hotmail.com
SUMMARY The current study adopted system approach to characterize the current crop/livestock farming system of small scale farms and to assess its economical efficiency in the New Valley Governorate of Egypt. Four districts were identified, Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat. A random sample of 120 farms was taken to represent the four studied districts (30 farms from each district). A questionnaire was designed to cover available production resources, farming activities, variable costs and revenues. Data were collected over the agricultural year from September 2015 to August 2016. Least squares analysis of variance technique using a fixed effects linear model was performed to derive technical coefficients of the considered productive traits for livestock and major crops. Whole farm budget was applied for economical efficiency to determine the overall gross margin (GM) per feddan and benefit/cost ratio (B/C) of the four studied districts. Averages farm size were 7.17 feddan, 8.62 feddan, 4.45 feddan and 10.72 feddan for Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat, respectively. Results showed that daily milk yield per head of cow were estimated as 3.29 kg, 2.45 kg, 1.78 kg and 1.99 kg for Elkharga, Eldakhla, Baris and Balat, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding total milk yield of cow was estimated as 773 kg, 515 kg, 338 kg and 398 kg, respectively. Common crops in winter season were Alfalfa, wheat, barley and bean. While in summer season were Elephant grass, darawa, w-corn, cowpeas, fume and cash crops. The obtained values of the farm GM per feddan revealed that farmers of Baris district utilized their limited production resources more efficient than the other studied districts and achieved the highest gross margin per feddan with estimate of LE 15078, while the lowest was Balat district and achieved LE 4188 per feddan. The farm B/C ratio showed that Eldakhla district earned the highest return per unit of money with estimate of 2.22 ratios. Keywords: System approach, crop/livestock, gross margin, new valley governorate, Egypt
66 PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVE IMPACTS OF BEAK TRIMMING AND FEED FORM IN JAPANESE QUAIL  , M.G. Abdelfattah Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 71515 Correspondence: Dr. MostafaGalalAbdelfattah, Department of Poultry Production, Assiut University, Assiut (71516), Egypt. Tel: +20 01008133049; E-mail: moos311@yahoo.com&mostafagalal@aun.edu.eg
SUMMARY A total number of 288 eight weeks old Japanese quail were chosen in this study for evaluating the impacts of beak trimming (BT) and feed physical forms (F) on physiological, productive performance and aggressive behavior parameters, in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. The birds were allocated into two main groups according to beak form [Intact beak (NB) and beak trimming (BT)], then each main group was divided in to two subgroups corresponded to feed form [mash (M) and pellet (P) feed], respectively. The obtained results indicated that beak forms and feed forms significantly changed the final body weight, egg production, feed conversion, fertility %, plumage conditions, aggressive pecking behavior, mortality rate, H/L ratio, plasma testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone concentration. However, there were insignificant differences among the groups in feed intake, hatchability, ovary and testes percentages. Interactions between beak trimming and feed forms factors had significant differences in the plumage conditions, aggressive pecking behavior, mortality rate and hematological parameters. In conclusion: using the beak trimming did not have an adverse effect on quail ability of feeding (mash or pellet) and beak trimming was consider suitable solution to minimize aggressive behavior, mortality rates and maximize productive and reproductive performance of Japanese quail. Keywords: Beak trimming, feed form, egg production, hematological, aggressive behavior, quail
67 PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT AND MITIGATING BY-CATCH OF EUROPEAN EEL IN A LONGLINE FISHERY IN BARDAWILL LAGOON, NORTH SINAI, EGYPT  , M.S. Ahmed Faculty of Aquaculture and Marine Fisheries, Arish University
SUMMARY European eel, Anguilla anguilla is listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Demersal longlines are the main fishing method used to target this species in Bardawill lagoon. Three trials were conducted to investigate catches (catch composition, catch rates, by-catch and CPUE) using hooks size No. 13, 12 and 11 from November, 2017 to January, 2018. Nine fishing trips (9 one trip days) were carried out. Within each trip, two longlines per hook size, each one involving 350 hooks, were set during sunset. After one hour, the longlines were pulled out. A total of nine species were recorded in all treatments, 1282 fish were caught, weighing a total of 194.71 kg. Catch rates (number of fish per 100 hooks) ranged between 3.3 and 9.5, with a decrease in catch rate with increasing hook size. Mean TL of eel were significantly different among the three hooks. Eels caught on small hooks (No. 13 and 12) had a significantly smaller mean TL (mean TL 43.9 cm) compared to eel caught on large hooks (No. 11, mean TL 45.1 cm). Catch rates of small eel (mean TL 39.5 cm) was highest in November followed by December and January. The highest CPUE was achieved when small hooks (No. 13) were used compared to large hooks (No. 11). To reduce capture of small eels (mean TL 45.1 cm) fishermen in the demersal longline fishery in Bardawill Lagoon are encouraged to use large hooks (No. 11) with a bend width ≥12.7 mm. Furthermore, future management measures should introduce minimum landing sizes for European eel to avoid capture of small eel (mean TL 45.1) and thereby reduce fishing mortality preventing stock degradation of these economic valuable species. Keywords: Demersal longline fisheries, Anguilla anguilla, hook size, Bardawill lagoon
68 EFFECT OF Nigella sativa SEEDS DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON OOCYTE MATURATION AND EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN MICE  , A. A. Mohammed1,2 and M. M Farghaly1 1- Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Egypt, 71526, 1,2- Animal Production and Fisheries Department, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Saudi Arabia
SUMMARY The present study aimed to investigate developmental competence of oocytes and embryos upon dietary Nigella sativa seed (N. sativa) supplementation. Developmental competence of oocytes and embryos of mice supplemented with N. sativa seeds (N=25; 5.0%) compared to control (N=25; not receive N. sativa) were investigated. Female mice were injected with 7.5 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by 7.5 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) after 48h and mated with males of proven fertility. Immature GV oocytes were harvested from ovaries after 48h of PMSG injection for investigating oocyte quality, timing of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and polar bodies extrusion and maturation rate (%). Late one-cell stage embryos were harvested from oviducts after 29-30 h of hCG and followed for cleavage injection whereas blastocyst embryos were harvested from uteri at 96 h of hCG and evaluated. The results indicated improvement of oocyte quality in N. sativa group whereas GVBD and maturation (%) were not differed between N. sativa and control groups. Although N. sativa seeds did not change timing of cleavage to two-cell stage embryos, it significantly (P<0.05) increased the quality of embryos in N. sativa group. Offspring number (9.2 ± 0.34 & 8.1 ± 0.29) and weight (11.71 ± 0.41 & 9.72 ± 0.36) of litter size at birth were significantly (P<0.05) increased in the N. sativa group compared to control. In conclusion, supplementation of N. sativa could increase reproductive performance of mice through the improvement of oocyte quality and preimplantation embryo development. Keywords: Nigella sativa, oocytes, embryos, development, reproductive performance
69 GENETIC ANALYSIS OF PRE-WEANING GROWTH TRAITS OF BARKI AND RAHMANI LAMBS , M.H. Hammoud and M.M.I. Salem   Department of Animal and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, PC: 21545, Alexandria, Egypt
SUMMARY Data relevant to 704 Barki and 732 Rahmani lambs born at Alexandria University Experimental Station between 1991-2014 were utilized in this investigation to estimate genetic parameters, breeding values and genetic trends of birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW) and average daily gain (ADG). The fixed effects of season and year of birth, sex of lamb, type of birth and parity on the considered traits were also studied. The least squares analysis with unequal subclass numbers showed that the overall means of BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs were 3.69 kg, 20.53 kg and 139.7 g, respectively, the corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 3.54 kg, 20.09 kg and 137.8 g, respectively. The analysis also indicated that fixed factors effects on all studied traits of both breeds were generally significant (P<0.01or P<0.05) except for the effects of year of birth on BW and parity on WW and ADG of Barki lambs were not significant. Genetic parameters and breeding values for the studied traits were estimated using the Wombat programme fitting Multiveriate Animal Models. Estimates of the direct heritability (h2 a) were 0.186, 0.078 and 0.073 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.285, 0.130 and 0.121, respectively. Estimates of the maternal heritability (h2 m) were 0.121, 0.099 and 0.103 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The respective values for Rahmani lambs were 0.097, 0.040 and 0.033, respectively. Estimates of the fraction of variance due to maternal permanent environmental effects (C2) were 0.024, 0.022 and 0.016 for BW, WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.094, 0.039 and 0.033, respectively. Maternal effects were considerable portion of variation for early growth traits of both breeds. All correlations were positive and significant (P<0.01). The genetic corrletions were extermely high, being 0.993, 0.991 and 1.000 between BW and WW, between BW and ADG and between WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani lambs were 0.685, 0.677 and 1.000. The maternal genetic correlations were high to extremely high being of 0.775, 0.753 and 0.999 between BW and WW, between BW and ADG and between WW and ADG of Barki lambs, respectively. The respective values for Rahmani lambs were 0.984, 0.988 and 1.000, respectively. The maternal permanent environmental correlations among growth traits of both breeds were extremely high ranged from 0.926 to 0.997. The phenotypic correlations were moderate since they varied from 0.395 to 0.479 between BW and each of WW and ADG of both breeds, and were extremely high being 0.994 and 0.996 between WW and ADG of Barki and Rahmani lambs, respectively. High and positive genetic correlations among lamb's growth traits of both breeds showed that improvement of one trait by selection would cause positive progress in the others. The breeding values for BW, WW and ADG of Barki rams ranged between -0.227 and 0.333 kg, between -1.666 and 2.444 kg and between -11.60 and 17.00 g, respectively. The corresponding values for Rahmani rams were between -0.475 and 0.241 kg, between -3.995 and 2.983 kg and between -27.21 and 20.57g. The genetic trends estimated by the regression of rams breeding values on time were positive but not significant for all traits of both breeds except for BW of Rahmani lambs which was significant (P<0.05). The results in general showed the need for designing an effective selection programme to improve growth traits of lambs of both breeds.   Keywords: Pre-weaning growth, genetic parameters, breeding values, genetic trends, Barki, Rahmani, lambs