1 Medicinal Plants and Cancer , Mohamed Farid Ahmed Mostafa
Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of wide variety of ingredients which can be used for the development of drug. Cancer is a one of the deadly diseases which is characterized by irregular cell proliferation. It is the major health issue in developing and developed countries. The most common reason behind the cancer is changing lifestyle and due to this it become a global problem across the world. Thus there is an urgent need to find better treatment possible for this disease. As chemotherapy and radiation thera- py causes various side effects, so there is a necessity to discover novel agents for the treatment of this disease; it could be possible with the use of naturally occurring compounds [1].
2 A Research on Comparative Study of Floating Tablets of Theophylline Utilizing Different Techniques , Sujan Neupane, Milan Subedi, Shona Kadel, Sheeba FR
The primary intention of the present work is to fabricate the floating tablets of theophylline employing various methodologies of formulation and to execute the comparative study between the formulations developed by different techniques. Theophylline when used in a lower concentration act as an anti-inflammatory drug, when developed as a floating tablet it reduces the frequen- cy of drug administration as it remains buoyant in the gastric contents and release the drug at a pre-determined rate. Different methods are utilized for the formulation of the floating tablets with an intention to prolong gastric residence time and reduction in inconstancy of the drug. Theophylline, a xanthine derivative bronchodilator is used as a model drug and three different tech- niques were accustomed viz, direct compression effervescent technique, non-aqueous wet granulation technique and solvent evaporation technique. Sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid were used as gas generating agent whereas HPMC 15cps and sodi- um alginate as polymers. Twelve formulations were fabricated using three techniques, i.e. four formulations of each technique. All the prepared formulations were evaluated as prescribed by the Pharmacopoeial monograph for tablets. The optimized formu- lation DF2 showed a drug release of 70.225±0.888 at the end of 8 hours with a floating lag time of 08.4 sec and remains buoyant for more than 8 hours. Among the three different techniques, direct compression effervescence technique can be successfully employed for the development of floating tablets of Theophylline. The obtained data were subjected only for descriptive analysis. Keywords: Theophylline; Direct compression effervescent technique; Non-aqueous wet granulation technique; Solvent evapo- ration technique
3 Phytochemical Screening and Invitroacaricidal Activity of three Herbal Extracts aginst Cattle Tick Boophilus Decoloratus , Habtamu Demisse, Sisayeweldgebrial
Boophilus decoloratus tick is an economically important ecto parasite of the cattle and that generates major problem for live- stock producers. Commonly, these ecto parasite are controlled by commercial acaricides produced by manufacturers however, increase in resistance, environmental toxicity, scarcity and high cost led to the evaluation of other alternative tick controlling option. This expermintalstudy was designed to determine the acaricidal efficacy of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica herbal extracts against the common cattle tick Boophilusdecolratous. Qualitative phytochemical screening was used to detect secondary metabolites contained in the selected herbs. The percentage of adult mortality and percentage inhibi- tion of oviposition were studied at different experimental concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100mg/ml to determine the efficacy of leaf extracts. 3% of Dimethyl sulfoxide was also used as a negative control. The study determined the presence of secondary metabolites such asalkaloids, tannins, glycosides in the herbal leaf extracts, which are able to cause neuro toxicity in the tick. In- hibition of oviposition at the highest concentration of Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica of the treated ticks were 78.68, 86.84 and 52.63%, respectively. At the highest concentration, the adult tick mortality was 90, 100 and 80% for Daturastramonium, Nicotianaglauca and Azadirachtaindica, respectively. The results of the current study pointed the potential acaricidal effect of selected medicinal plants with varying potency. Therefore, further study should be done in vitro and in vivo assays to use studied plants as acaricides. Key words: Azadirachtaindica; Boophilusdecoloratus; Daturastramonium; Nicotianglauca.
4 Augmented Effect of Counseling by Pharmacist in Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients: A Randomized Test of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice , Sandeep Patil, Deepak Verma, and Rahul Kohli
Aims: The study was conducted on hospitalized patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and undergoing treat- ment for it, to evaluate the impact of clinical counseling by pharmacists in changing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) outcomes. Methods and Material: The patients were regularly counseled by written (distributing patient information leaflets) and oral (directly by the pharmacist) communication for nine months. Pharmaceutical care, comprising of patient education, was provid- ed to 125 patients and KAP outcomes were evaluated. A set of 25 questions were asked to 107 patients, which included baseline and follow-up for the patients. In this study, the medications, disease, risk factors and lifestyle modifications of the patients were also considered. Results: 107 patients had completed the study. In the study, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the patients increase. Patient counseling showed a positive impact on the patients. KAP outcome was found to get improved significantly after the counseling. Conclusions: Patient counseling by the clinical pharmacist improved the patient knowledge towards the disease. Moreover, a pharmacist can encourage the patient, so that they can play a pivotal role in succumbing disease. Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, KAP outcome, pharmaceutical care, clinical counseling, and hospital care.
5 Chemometrics and its Relations with Medicinal and Metabolomic Chemistry , Marcos aurelio gomes da silva
At present, humanity is experiencing a Cultural Revolution characterized by technological advances and the intense flow of infor- mation, comparing impact on the emergence of agriculture approximately 10 thousand Years and the Industrial Revolution started in the 18 th century. Some innovations technological developments in the last three decades have led to a new form to think about biological systems and, mainly, to research them. At biological area, the starting point of this revolution was called the genomic era being characterized by the development, standardization, and optimization of genetic engineering techniques. Genomic assays have evolved rapidly, and the immense volume of genetic data made it possible to deepen analysis of temporal and spatial variations in the accumulation of trans-proteins, proteins and metabolites. This new phase of the current revolution in the area biological was called post-genomic era, or functional genomics [1-3]. The term metabolome was coined in 1998, calling the analysis of relative concentra- tion of metabolites resulting from changes in the pattern of gene expression. The metabolomics assumes an approach holistic and interactive analysis, according to which cellular metabolism is effectively understood as a complex network of highly ordered reactions interconnected, so that even small changes, such as decrease in the concentration or activity of an enzyme, can cause simultaneous changes in the concentration of hundreds of metabolites. Of this Thus, the metabolome provides a direct link between the genome, the transcryptoma and proteome, which may reveal which factors directly influence a given biological function. The originality of the use of the term metabolome proposed by Oliver and colleagues (1998) is not due to innovations in the analytical techniques used, but rather the establishment of the joint use of that analysis tool as a complement to the other “omic” areas. From then on, the termstarted to design a very complex analysis strategy, which refers to the qualitative and quantitative survey of the metabolites present inan or- ganism, or in a given component of it (tissues or cells, for example), called partial metabolome in the latter context.
6 Heterocyclic Steroids , Mukesh M. Mudgal, Mangesh M Mudgal
Steroids are bioactive compounds involved in many biological functions exhibiting a wide spectrum of biological activities. Steroids consist of three cyclohexane and one cyclopentane rings arranged in a precise molecular configuration and display diverse chemical reactivities. Recently, structural modifications of the steroidal rings particularly the cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system have been an attractive strategy to synthesize active molecules with less or no harmful side effects. Introduction of the heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, and/or sulfur or modifications of the steroidal skeleton with the heterocyclic ring provide steroid molecules with a diverse array of biologically active compounds and are termed as heterocyclic steroids. Steroidal compounds that are inactive or inad- equately active can be transformed into more potent forms by executing modifications in the steroidal skeleton. The introduction of the heteroatoms or modification of the steroidal backbone is a challenging task for organic chemists and often requires the exploration of new synthetic reactions. Researchers are focusing on executing modification to the steroidal ring to obtain pharmaceutically active novel heterocyclic steroids displaying anti-inflammatory, anabolic, androgenic, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. In a future per- spective, the various biological applications of heterocyclic steroids are still limited, and a lot of research is still needed in the area of discovery of pharmaceutically active novel heterocyclic steroids with a new mechanism of action and with improved potency [1-8]
7 The Fear of COVID-19 and Increasing Suicide Rate in India , Rahul Kohli
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has affected the physical and mental health in many cities and regions in India. During this pe- riod, where the healthcare system of India is trying hard to deal with the pandemic, the country has undergone mass unemployment, increasing flexibility and non-standardized forms of employment, cuts in wages and other benefits, and growing poverty or social inequalities. In addition, lockdown due to the disease has resulted in a major global recession arising as an economic consequence of the pandemic [1]. As observed in previous pandemics [2-4], the unpredictable consequences and uncertain future, as well as misin- formation and disinformation about the disease, is impacting the mental health of both infected and non-infected populations. Some of the major challenges for the Indian Government during the COVID-19 crisis are:
8 Role of Pharma Industry in Pandemic , R Hema
For thousands of years, pharmaceuticals have been utilised to cure diseases. Pharmaceutical firms are continuously pursuing nov- el therapies to help people live longer and more healthy lives. A huge strain on the pharmaceuticals sector arose in 2019 when the new kind of corona virus arose. Pharmaceutical firms and other healthcare professionals are in the frontline in the fight against any pandemic. As healthcare practitioners learned how the virus should be treated, pharmaceutics providers examined whether current medicines may aid to treat people with COVID-19, possible novel treatments to assist reduce the symptoms, long-term consequences and vaccine manufacturing. Since then, several efforts have been developed to produce a vaccine against corona virus. Several compa- nies have worked hard to create and expand the production of COVID-19 vaccines in order to provide and continue to support people across the world.
9 Overview of Analyses of Purified Pharmaceutical water through Proficiency-testing Schemes Results , Caterina Mazzoni, Anne Tirard, Abdelkader Boubetra
Water is one of the major components used by the pharmaceutical industry. It may be present as an excipient or used for recon- stitution of products, during synthesis, during production of the finished product or as a cleaning agent. Different grades of water quality are required depending on the different pharmaceutical uses. Chemical, physical and microbiological quality controls are essential to verify that the produced water meets the regulations in force. The methods that must be applied for quality control of water for pharmaceutical purpose are described in the international Pharmacopeia. However, laboratories have few means at their disposal to check obtained results and to prove their competence to drug regulatory agencies and customers associations. As Certified Reference Materials (CRM), Proficiency Testing Schemes (PTS) is an excellent tool to objectively check laborato- ries performances. Moreover, data collected in PTS represent a snapshot of the state of the art of tested analytical methods. Keywords: Proficiency-testing schemes; Purified pharmaceutical water; Endotoxins, IN total organic carbon; Total viable aerobic germs; Quality control; Laboratory performance
10 Using Virtual Experiments in Lessons on Oxygen - Sulfur Chemistry 10 to Develop the Experimental Chemistry Competency for Students in Teaching , Vu Thi Thu Hoai* and Tran Thi Thu Thao
The experimental chemistry competency is considered to be the core and specific competency that needs to be formed and developed for students in chemistry education. In recent times, there have been some educators and teachers interested in researching these capacity development measures for students. This article researches the principle, suggests the process of virtual experimental construction of oxygen - sulfur chemistry 10, and applied in teaching to students at the high school in Tay Ho-Hanoi for the school year 2019-2020. The initial experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of using virtual chemical experiments to develop chemistry experimental competency for students in teaching chemistry. Keywords: Experimental chemistry competency; Virtual chemistry experiments; Students
11 Pharmacological Treatments for COVID-19 , Vikrant Gupta
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019 in China and cause an acute respiratory disease. Since then, no specific therapy or vaccine is being available for the treatment or prevention of the disease. Teams of scientists around the world are racing to develop a treatment to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive clinical trial data are required to identify safe and effective treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of antiviral drugs, their phar- macological features, and their outcome against the disease based on the available data. We have discussed their mechanism of action, doses, and adverse effects in detail. In addition, a close review of vaccines that are in the developmental state has also been discussed
12 Vaccines for COVID-19 , Vikrant Gupta
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially reported in December 2019 in China and cause an acute respiratory dis- ease. Since then, no specific therapy or vaccine is being available for the treatment or prevention of the disease. Teams of scien- tists around the world are racing to develop a treatment to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Extensive clinical trial data are required to identify safe and effective treatments for COVID-19. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of antiviral drugs, their pharmacological features, and their outcome against the disease based on the available data. We have discussed their mechanism of action, doses, and adverse effects in detail. In addition, a close review of vaccines that are in the developmental state has also been discussed.
13 Nanotechnologies for Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater , Mohammad R Thalji
Water pollution is a global issue that has significant economic and social consequences for both environment and human health [1, 2]. The rising shortage of useable water resources necessitates adequate wastewater treatment. In this context, finding less expensive, safer, and more efficient wastewater treatment technology is critical. The use of nanotechnology in wastewater treatment is one po- tential technique that has seen success in numerous studies. Pharmaceuticals compounds (PhCs) are one of the most common types of emerging pollutants [3]. Their inadequate disintegration and the indiscriminate dumping of waste from the industries, farms and medical centers have allowed for these chemicals to become part of various water bodies of the surrounding region. The presence of PhCs in water sources has been well documented all around the world. They have a negative influence on the growth of organisms, especially aquatic one
14 A Retrospective Study of Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section (TOLAC) , Vandita Kailas Patil, Usha Varghese
Objective: To determine how best to manage subsequent deliveries after one lower segment caesarean section and to examine the advantages and disadvantages involved in trial of labour after caesarean section. Method: Retrospective study of Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section was conducted in Buraimi regional hospital under min- istry of health, Sultanate of Oman from 1st January 2018 till 31st December 2018. Results: There were total 278 patients who opted for TOLAC. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) was in 145 patients (52.1%) Out of 145 VBAC, 73.1% (106) patients were <35 years of age. 121 patients (83.4%) were < 41 weeks of pregnancy. 108 patients (74.4%) were with history of previous vaginal delivery. 94 patients (64.8 %) were with last childbirth > 2years. 84.1% (122) patients were with BMI (Body mass Index) of <30. Out of 145 VBAC, 136 (93.7%) patients were in spontaneous labour & 92 (63.4%) patients Bishop’s score was >5 cm at admission. Failure of TOLAC resulting in emergency repeat caesarean delivery was for 133 patients (47.8 %). Out of 133 failed TOLAC, 29 patients (21.8%) were > 35 years of age. 5.2% (7) patients had induction of labour. Bishop’s score of majority of the patients 116 (87.2%) was < 5 cm & 58 patients (43.6%) received augmentation of labour. Non recurrent indications of caesarean section were seen in 101 patients (75.9%). No complications like uterine rupture, fetal demise etc. reported in the 278 women who opted for TOLAC. Conclusion: TOLAC is a potential strategy for decreasing caesarean section rate if proper selection criteria are adopted. Keywords: Trial of Labour After Caesarean Section (TOLAC); Lower uterine Caesarean Section (LSCS); Elective Repeat Caesarean Delivery (ERCD); Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section (VBAC); BMI (Body mass Index)
15 Applications of Medical Imaging , R Hema
The bones and inner organs of our body are covered by skin and other tissues and hence, we cannot see them with the naked eye. The phrase ‘medical imaging’ refers to procedures which allow us to look within the body. Medical imaging is the technological method used to examine the human body in order to diagnose, monitor and cure medical diseases. The information about the region of the body under consideration, relating to suspected diseases, injuries or efficacy of therapy is provided in each kind of technology. The most important medical imaging techniques include X-rays, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Mam- mograms, Ultrasound, Fluoroscopy, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans.
16 Formulation and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Hair Gel from Abrus Precatorius , Arunadevi Birajdar, Ragini Rajmane, Sulbha Bhoyte, Megharani Bhosale, Prapti Bhusare, Shivani Bodhale and Sandip Devkate
Herbal cosmetics are the preparations used to enhance the human appearance. The aim of the present research was to formu- late safe medicinal formulations from herb Abrusprecatorius for the purpose of treatment of alopecia and antimicrobial activity. Abrusprecatorius Linn. Popularly known as Crab’s eye is a slender, woody perennial climber reported to have antioxidant, an- tibacterial, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, anti-tubercular and anti-plasmodic activities. The current investigation was carried out to evaluate the hair growth enhancing potentiality of aqueous extract of Abrusprecatorius leaf. It is potent hair growth promotor and suggested to be an effective to synthesis hair growth promotor. Keywords: Abrusprecatorius Linn; Antimicrobial; Hair gel; Alopecia
17 Removal of oxytetracycline in pharmaceutical Effluents by using synthetic adsorbents Citation: Aqsa , Aqsa S, Madiha B and Mohammad N
Simple, accurate, fast, and economical method for removal of OTC in Pharma wastewater has been developed. The procedure is based on the adsorption mechanism which leads to the spectrophotometry. Bentone -34 clay is used as an adsorbent for removal of OTC. 0.1 N HCl was used as a mobile phase. The elute was determined spectroscopically, with a Cecil CE 2041 UV/VIS spectro- photometer, in a 1-cm Cuvette cell at wavelength range 190-1100 nm, with resolution 0.5 nm. The linear calibration curve was established in the concentration range 0.214-1.070 mg/mL of OTC. From the analyzed data the following results for parameters were obtained linearity correlation R2> 0.9984), accuracy (Recovery = 91-98%), sensitivity (LOD = 42.3 mg/mL; LOQ = 48.3 mg/mL), and precision (RSD ≥ 2.0%) in the respective linear concentration ranges. The method is successfully applied for the removal of OTC as the tested sample improves ICH parameters like accuracy, sensitivity, precision
18 Purification, Characterization and Immobilization of an acid stable invertase from Lagenaria siceraria stem for the Production of Invert Syrup , Abhishek Mukherjee
A67kDaacidinvertase(specificactivity=780U/mgprotein),appreciablypresentinLagenariasicerariastem(2,600+200U/100g fresh wt.; 17,500 + 300 U/100 g of lyophilized stem powder) was purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (DEAE Sephadex A50), size exclusion chromatography (Sephacryl S-300-HR) and HPLC. The enzyme was optimally active in the pH range of 4-5 (retaining 52 + 1 % of its activity at pH 3) and stable in the pH range of 3-7 (retaining 37 + 1% and 53 + 1% of its activity at pH 2 and 8 respectively), up to 55°C, with a Km of 5.84 mM (2 mg/ml) sucrose. Hg2+> Ag+>Cu2+>Pb2+>Cd2+ inhibited the enzyme activity. DTNB, iodoacetic acid, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide did not affect the activity suggesting the non-thiol nature of the enzyme. The enzyme hydrolyzed sucrose and raffinose, could slightly hydrolyze inulin, but was completely inactive upon maltose, levan, melezitose and trehalose. 8 U/ml of acid invertase almost completely hydrolyzed 10% (w/v) sucrose solution to invert syr- up in 5 h at 50°C. Immobilization of the enzyme on oxidized bagasse (dialdehyde cellulose) increased its temperature optima (by 10°C) and thermo-stability (retaining 41 + 1% and 30 + 1 % of its activity at 70°C and 80°C respectively). Immobilized enzyme sys- tem efficiently produced invert syrup from sucrose, remaining 83 + 1 % and 72 + 1 % active after 15th and 25th cycles respectively. Keywords: Lagenaria siceraria; Acid invertase; Sucrose; Invert syrup; Cellulose-dialdehyde
19 Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction , Izharul Hasan
PRP, in any case called Platelet Rich Plasma, was expected to help men experiencing erectile dysfunction by improving sexual performance. The PRP Intimate shot is a non-surgical procedure for normal sexual upgrade clinically proven treatment option, with great many patients overall accomplishing improved sexual advantages. This procedure uses growth factors extricated from own sample blood, animating new tissue growth inside the penis. This process uses PRP, or Platelet Rich Plasma, a supplement and growth factors rich portion of own blood, making it protected and natural. The analysts presumed that PRP can possibly be a valuable treatment option for ED. PRP infusions for erectile dysfunction, now and again called the P shot, can help fortify erec- tion. The P-Shot incorporates taking platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from your blood and imbuing it into penile tissue. This implies own cells and tissues and infuses them into penile tissues to promote tissue growth and purportedly give better erections. In any case, keep at the top of the priority list that the examinations had little sample sizes, and there weren’t satisfactory comparison groups. More exploration is expected to comprehend the advantages of PRP treatment. The current evidence is for the most part episodic. Keywords: PRP Treatment; P-Shot Treatment; Erectile Dysfunction
20 Groundwater and the Ecosystem , Lucero Amparo Estevez Rey
Because of the of the impacting climate change and the increasing environmental pollution, that is represented under the inuence of absolutely all ecosystems and natural environments, both on the scale of microorganisms, animals and human management, the care of water reserves is of paramount importance for present times as well as for future generations to come. This includes the study and mitigation of contaminants spread in porous media and groundwater bodies from hydrochemistry, as well as the inuence of microor- ganisms when treating drinking water.
21 Magnetic and Plasmonic properties of Inorganic Nanoparticles and their perspective in the Development of point-of-care Diagnostic approach for Covid-19 , Clarence Rubaka and Paulo Mabala
Due to the rise of the global controversial as a result of COVID-19 and the challenge of obtaining plausible treatment against COVID-19, the detection of virus is crucial for predicting the severity of diseases, the rate of spreading so as to overcome infections. Here in we bringing the generative inorganic nanoparticles in context of fabrication and develop- ment as point of care (POC) material for diagnostic of Corona Virus. Inorganic nanoparticles have variety unique prop- erties such as photocatalytic, magnetic, surface plasmonic, adsorption, and surface functionalization with biomole- cules ligand such as nucleic acid, protein and antibodies which enables fabrication of viral diagnostic nanomaterials. In this article we address on how the properties can be integrated in diagnostic application for detection of (SARS–COV). Keywords: Inorganic nanoparticles; COVID-19; surface Plasmon; magnetic; point-of-care
22 Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution Using Sawdust , Saeed Ullah Jan, Younas Ahmad, Murad Ali, Zakir Hussain and Saad Melhi
In the present study, modified sawdust was used for the removal of an azo dye Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solu- tions. The study was carried out in batch mode. Effects of various important parameters such as pH, concentration, temperature, dose, and agitation speed on the removal of the dye were investigated for optimization of the process. It was observed that the maximum removal of 99.5% was achieved at the lowest dye concentration of 75PPM. The process of removal was found to be endothermic. Adsorption of Methylene Blue on modified sawdust was rapid and in accordance with pseudo-2nd -order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm model agrees well with the sorption isotherm data and also confirms that adsorption took place on the homogenous surface of modified sawdust. The adsorption capacity (Qmax.) determined from Langmuir isotherm was found to be 5.464 mg g-1. The thermodynamics parameters like ?G, ?H, ΔS are found to be 30.057 kJmol-1, 44.089 kJ mol-1, and 0.0514 kJmol- 1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption process is spontaneous, endothermic, and feasible Therefore, the study recom- mends that modified sawdust is a promising candidate for the efficient removal of dye-contaminated wastewater. Keywords: Adsorption; Sawdust; Methylene Blue; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
23 Removal of Noxious Cr (VI) and Cr (III) Ions by Hierarchically Tailored Pseudo-Monolithic Silica/Activated Carbon Composite , Saad Melhi, Saeed Ullah Jan, Faiz Ali, Muhammad Absar Kan, Sana Begum, Khan Badsha and Muhammad Sufaid Khan
In the present study, 2.34 m (average) silica particles with large pore size (363 Å) have been prepared from bulk monoliths by using sol–gel method and were then chemically modified by reaction with a C-18 and was used for the adsorption of Cr (VI) and Cr (III) ions from wastewater. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis before and after the adsorption of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) ions. The amount of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) adsorbed was detected by Atomic Absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The 90 % Cr (VI) and 98 % Cr (III) were achieved at pH3 and, 6 respectively. The process followed pseudo 2 nd order kinetics, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms well. The ΔG values were -50.02 and -49.62 kJ mol−1, for Cr(VI) ions and Cr(III) ions respectively, which show spontaneous adsorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) ions on to AC surface. ΔH was 44.18 kJ mol-1 for Cr(VI) and 39.55 kJ mol−1“for Cr(III) ions, are showing the endothermic nature of adsorption. The ΔS (152 J mol-1K-1 for Cr(VI) and 139.88 mol-1K-1 for Cr(III) ions) showing sorbate/sorbent complex stability. Keywords: Pseudo Monolithic Silica; SEM; XRD; Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy
24 Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Biopharmaceutics , Priyanka Aswal, Piyush Verma, Gunjan Shaily and Ridhi
The use of AI has transformed the approaches of a pathway or target identification to treat ailments. This was conceivable owing to the incorporation of genomics information, biochemical attributes, and target tractability. The use of AI has significantly caused pharma companies with increasing productivity, reproducibility, and repeatability of manufacturing as well as clinical trial processes. AI has considerably reduced the cost and time required to achieve the target required.
25 Simulation with FlexSim an alternative to apply the M/M/C Model in a post COVID service system , Ana Alvarez Sanchez, Alexis Suarez del Villar Labastida and Eric Martinez Tocoronte
Simulation with FlexSim an alternative to apply the M/M/C Model in a service system. Introduction. The study includes a liter- ary review, model and simulation concepts, applications, the FlexSim characterization and the M / M / C model, that is, multiple channels. Objective. Address key concepts related to the use of FlexSim software within a simulation model in a service process where decisions can be made based on the study of queuing theory. Method. After performing the goodness-of-fit test for Poisson, it was determined that the arrival distribution to the line of people every hour does comply with a Poisson-type distribution because its Chi-square test reaches a value of 0.92 which represents that it is well above the coefficient of 0.5. Therefore, the exact probability of finding n arrivals during a certain time T can be found, if the process is random, as is the case of the cooper- ative, Results. The average number of clients in the queue waiting to be served, giving a reduction from 1.04 to 0.14 clients, so it is understood that, if the increase in servers in the cooperative were applied, this would cause that queues are generated in the system, since its L_q is 0.14 clients. Keywords: Customers; Distribution; Model; Simulation; Queuing theory
26 Pathological of Parturation in Pre-Labour and Post-Labour Pregnancy: A Review , Vishal Govind Sakhare
The myometrium must remain remarkably during pregnancy to allow the growth and growth of the fetoplacental unit and subsequently become a highly coordinated and forcefully contracted organ for successful expulsion of the newborn during the period of labor. The temporal control of work is complex and involves interactions between the mother, fetus, and placenta. The prompt start of career and delivery is a crucial factor of the perinatal result. Both preterm birth (pregnancy before 37 weeks) and post-term pregnancy (pregnancy after 42 weeks) linked with a meaningful increase in perinatal morbidity and mortality. This paper discusses the processes for uterine distension and reduced contractions during pregnancy and the cascade for the timely and spontaneous start of labor. Keywords: Paturation; Pregnancy; Labour; Myometrium
27 The Anthropocene and its Relationship to Planetary Health , Marcos Aurelio Gomes da Silva
In recent decades, man has become a geological force, competing with natural forces in the impact and modification of the Earth system. The term Anthropocene was proposed by scientists Paul Crutzen and Eugene F. Stoemer, in 2000, to describe this new time and emphasize the preponderant role of man in geology and ecology. There is no doubt that man has unequivocally and in some cases irre- versibly changed the Planet, and that Holocene concepts can no longer be used to describe trends in chemical and biological variables and the future of the Earth system as a whole. Tomorrow depends, to a great extent, on actions to optimize the relationship between man and the environment. This, then, is the moment we find ourselves in today: the Epoch of Humans. The one in which Homo sapiens finds that civilization has become a force of planetary reach and of geological duration and scope. We are billions of people in the world and we continue to multiply. From a biological point of view, it is a growth equivalent to that of a colony of bacteria: na extremely explo- sive pace, in a very short period of time. We have become planetary: today there is not a single region that is not directly or indirectly affected by the whole of human activity
28 Evaluation of Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of therapeutic effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Piper nigrum in Experimental Model of Bronchial Asthma , Pankaj Verma, Kavita Gulati and Arunabha Ray
The present study was performed to experimentally evaluate therapeutic effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Piper nigrum and their cellular, molecular and bioenhancing effects in ovalbumin (OVA) induced model of bronchial asthma. Wistar rats were sen- sitized with ovalbumin (OVA) adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide on day 0 followed by OVA challenge on day 14 to experimentally induce bronchial asthma. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg), Piper nigrum (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), com- bined dose of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (100 mg/kg) -Piper nigrum (30 mg/kg) and Prednisolone (10 mg/kg) were administered for 14 days and its effects on airway hyper responsiveness in response to spasmogen (methacholine) and airway inflammation were assessed. Enhanced pause (p-enh), a marker of airway hyper responsiveness, was measured in response to inhaled methacholine using whole body plethysmography. Following that rats were anesthetized and blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected and analyzed for OVA specific IgE and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α). Results showed that OVA sensitization and challenge in rats induced increased P-enh levels indicative of enhanced airway hyper responsiveness to methacholine expo- sure thus validating the experimental model (Disease control). OVA sensitization-challenge treatment resulted in increased IgE and TNF-α in both blood and BAL fluid. Administration of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg), Piper nigrum (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) induced dose-dependent attenuations in P-enh levels, IgE as well as TNF- α levels. Combined adminis- tration of sub effective doses of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Piper nigrum induced significant attenuation in all the parameters in blood and BAL fluid compared to Disease control rats as well as that of herbal drug given alone. The results showed that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Piper nigrum reduced both (a) airway hyper-responsiveness to the bronchoconstrictor; and (b) the biomarkers of airway inflammation and validates the observed therapeutic benefits of this Indian traditional medicinal plant for bronchial asthma Keywords: Bronchial asthma; Airway Hyper responsiveness; Ovalbumin; Methacholine; Enhanced Pause
29 Stability-Indicating Assay Method for Estimation of Curcumin and its Degradants by RP-UHPLC Method , Vicky Anthony, Ritika Sahu, SK Jain, RamSingh Bishnoi and Deepti Jain
n this study stability-indicating assay method was developed and validated forestimation of curcumin and its degradation prod- ucts as per ICH guidelines using RP-UHPLC. For this the curcumin was subjected to forced degradation study under various stress conditions of hydrolysis (acidic, neutral and alkaline), oxidation, and thermal and photolytic as recommended by ICH Q1A (R2) guideline. A chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of curcumin in presence of its degradants. The chromatographic separation was obtained with Hypersil GOLD, C-18 reverse phase column (150mm×4.6mm×3μ) at flow rate 1 mL/min with mobile phase (Acetonitrile: Water:70:30). The pH of mobile phase was adjustedto 3.0 using formic acid. The peak was observed at 2.44 minutes at λmax 425nmusingdiode array detector. The method has been validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The linearity obtained in the range of 2-10μg/ml. LOD was found to be 50ng/ml. Further it was concluded that the curcumin is highly susceptible to oxidation, alkaline and neutral hydrolysis, slightly prone to thermal and photolysis, whereas stable towards acidic hydrolysis. Keywords: RP-UHPLC method; Stability Indicating Assay Method; Forced Degradation study; Determination of Curcumin; Stabil- ity of Curcumin; Analytical method development
30 Vaidic Care Hand Sanitizer , Shubhada Amit Kulkarni, Jayshree Sharma, Anjali Bobade and Ganesh Tapdiya
Our hand carries variety of microorganisms, it’s essential not to neglect them. Hands are major source of infection. Hand hy- giene is a vital principle and exercise in the prevention, control and reduction of healthcare acquired infections. Right hand wash- ing and drying methods stop the chain of transmission of deadly pathogens form hand to other parts of body. Hand sanitization is preeminent aid in preventing nosocomial infections caused by different opportunistic pathogens and to get this, the use of hand sanitizer become must in recent circumstances. The purpose of the recent study was to prepare the Ayurvedic Sanitizer- “Vaidic- Care”. This hand sanitizer is prepared by using “Gomutra” that is cow urine and this sanitizer incorporating the leaves of Ocimum sanctum, Azadirachta indica, leaves of papaya, alovera gel, turati, flower of ajwayan, flower of pudina and Bhimsen kappor, the well-known herbal combination with multidimensional activities and to evaluate their respective antimicrobial efficiency and safety of hands.The formulation was evaluated against specified micro-organisms. (E. coli, staphylococcus, lactobacillus, Trichoderma, aspergillus) by cup plate method. The significance was found to be more in comparison to the standard references.
31 Rasayana Drugs in Ayurveda , Vinay R Kadibagil
Entire living organisms will be attacked by agents which lead to diseases. Even smallest organism like bacteria have their own sys- tem for fighting against infection by viruses. This mechanism of self-defencing will be more complicated as organism becomes more advanced. The present infections need not just anti-microbial action but also should increase the immunity in a person. This is an ap- proach and way to be adopted in the present scenario. Rasayana herbs refill the lost nutrients and enhance virility. In the present days, the whole process seems to be quite tedious and laborious and so a more balanced approach for proper utilization of Rasayana drugs is necessary for current society (Conboy, Edshteyn, & Garivaltis, 2009; Mahdihassan, 1981; Puri, 2003b; Sharma, Chandola, Singh, & Basisht, 2007; Shukla, 1971).
32 Constraints, Challenges and Opportunities in Herbal and Traditional Medicines , Qazi Majaz Ahamad Aejazuddin
At present more than 80% populations of the world relies on Herbal and Traditional Medicines (HTM) because plants have sig- nificant role as sources of medicines and at present more than 25% of pharmaceutical prescriptions in US have minimum one plant derived ingredient. The use of HTM is increasing every day and World Health Organization anticipates that worldwide market for HTM will rise from $ 62 billion to around $ 5 trillion in 2050. Probably around 350,000 species (including, , ferns, bryophytes, gymnosperms and Angio- sperms plants)of plant exist in the world, among which around 3,00,000 species have been recognized and have botanical nomencla- ture, relatively small amount (up to 10%) of these plants are consumed as foods and medicines by both humans and other animals. It is possible that remaining will have great influence on human health if explored properly. WHO giving more importance for documenting the use of medicinal plants utilized by ethnic group from around the world. Various developing countries have exaggerated efforts in collecting the ethno-medicinal data on medicinal plants from tribes. The assortment of legislations and regulating standards for HTM makes it complex to assess the market size for HTM across the world accurately. However, available statistics suggests that the HTM have more significant market in developing nations. WHO officially acknowledged the potential of HTM and traditional health practitioners. Numbers of resolutions regarding policy, objectives and activities on HTM have been published by WHO. However, Rules and Regulations to restrict the practice and sale of HTM products to licensed practitioners, strict and mandatory registration of the practitioners, inclusion of HTM in essential medicines list, and pricing regulations must be considered. Development of programs, syllabus, scholarships and incentives, promotion of courses, conferences and seminars for professionals is necessary for development of HTM. Global collaboration in research and continuous education may play important role for exchange of information and skills related to HTM.