1 Knee Problems Connected with Incorrect Positions of Sitting , Karski Tomasz1*, Karski Jacek2, Karska Klaudia2, Pyrc Jaros?aw3
The pathology of knee and hips in children and adults can be caused by different factors. Disfunction of the hip joint can be connected with dysplasia not properly cured in the childhood, with Perthes disease, with epiphyseolisis capitis femors juvenilis, with trauma and other influences. The knee insufficiency can be connected with incorrect axis of shank or knee-valgus or varus, with flexion contracture or recurvation of the knee, with a pathology of patello-femoral joint and other influence. Since 2012 we have observed “others influences”, among which an “incorrect position of sitting”, which is leading to pathology of the knee-instability and pain syndromes. In the article, we present many cases of such pathology and we are giving the rules of the therapy and prophylaxis. Other influences-incorrect sitting-appear very frequently in our material, but till now such “etiological factors in pathology of the knee” have not been presented in the literature.
2 Non-operative Treatment of Kienbock’s Disease, Systematic Literature Review and Report on Three Cases , Bryce N Clinger1*, Mark S Anderson1, Moheb S Moneim1
Objective: Evaluate patient outcomes after non-operative treatment for Kienbock’s disease. Methods: A systematic review of literature using CINAL, Cochrane and PubMed databases was performed by the authors. Common keywords associated with Kienbock’s disease were searched. Articles were limited to those published less than 40 years ago and those in English. The bibliographies of all relevant results were manually searched for any additional references. Duplicates and paediatric articles were removed and abstracts were reviewed for relevance. Each eligible study was independently reviewed in its entirety by two of the investigators. Three cases with stage II Kienbock’s disease on MRI treated non-operatively are also presented. Results: 15 out of 967 articles met inclusion criteria. Various surgical techniques compared to non-operative treatment. Surgery was largely no better than non-operative treatment with symptom relief. Wrist mobility, grip strength, and activity modification showed non-operative treatment having better long term outcomes. The cases of three patients with stage II disease on MRI treated non-operatively are presented. At follow up, patients reported improved pain and function. One patient demonstrated improved vascularity on repeat MRI. Conclusion: Based on the results of our systematic review along with the successful outcomes of three cases presented by the authors, non-operative treatment of Kienbock’s disease may be more beneficial than previously thought or described regardless of the stage of Kienbock’s disease.
3 The Role of Obesity on Cast Index and Secondary Intervention in Pediatric Forearm Fractures , Kathy M McGurk1*, Ted Samaddar1, William R Barfield1, Robert F Murphy1
Background: Pediatric forearm fractures are common, and the majority are treated with closed reduction and immobilization. Additionally, the incidence of pediatric obesity is rising. Cast index is a useful metric to assess the quality of a cast mold. This study aims to assess the effect of obesity in obtaining an adequate cast index as a predictor for fracture redisplacement and risk for subsequent intervention after a reduction. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted over a six-year time period on children with a displaced/unstable forearm fracture that underwent reduction and molded long arm casting with >4 weeks follow-up. The cast index was measured on immediate post-manipulation radiographs. Children were divided into three groups according to body mass index (BMI) percentile for age: Underweight (<5th); Normal BMI (5th-85th); Overweight/obese (≥ 85th). Clinical notes and radiographs were reviewed for loss of reduction and secondary intervention. Results: 84 patients (70% male) qualified for inclusion. Mean age was 7.4 years (Range 3-14 years). Fracture redisplacement and secondary intervention occurred in 8 patients (9.5%). Patient BMI distribution was 5% in the Underweight, 71% in the Normal BMI and 24% in the Overweight/obese groups. The mean cast index in the 8 patients who required a second procedure was significantly higher than those who did not (1.00±0.06 vs 0.83±0.07, P<.001). The mean cast index among the underweight, normal BMI and overweight/obese groups was not statistically different. Obesity was not an independent risk factor for secondary intervention. Regression analysis did not correlate increasing cast index with BMI percentile for age. Conclusion: Cast index continues to be reliable metric for evaluating the quality of the cast mold and loss of subsequent reduction. In this cohort, it does not appear that BMI plays a significant role in hindering the ability to place a well-molded cast. Level of Evidence: Prognostic level IV
4 Assessment of the Piso-Triquetral Kinematics-A Pilot Study Using Dynamic CT , Josipa Petric1*, Roland Deek1, Neil Kruger2, Melanie Amarasooriya3, John White4, Gregory I Bain5
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to use 4D-CT to quantify the motion of the pisiform with relation to the triquetrum, in order to understand the piso-triquetral joint kinematics through active wrist movements. The use of 4D-CT allowed us to explore kinematic concepts objectively in a quantitative real-time manner, and has the advantage of visualisation in 6 degrees of freedom. Materials and Methods: A normal wrist as was imaged through FE and RUD. Surface rendered models were created from individual carpal bones in each wrist position through the motion arc. These bones were tracked during RUD and FE using a registration algorithm. Radio-ulnar and flexion-extension motions of the pisiform and triquetrum, as well as the piso-triquetral distance were graphed against the global wrist motion. Results: In wrist extension, the pisiform and triquetrum undergo more in-plane motion than the movement of the wrist, and are closest together. During flexion, the bones are furthest away from each other and exhibit out-of-plane (radioulnar deviation) motion in opposite directions. There is minimal out-of-plane motion during extension and during radioulnar deviation. During radioulnar deviation, the minimum articular distance between the pisiform and triquetrum changes negligibly. Conclusions: These in vivo findings, although in a single patient, may be used for further characterisation of dynamic wrist pathology.
5 Four-Dimensional CT Assessment of the Transverse Carpal Ligament Attachments-A Pilot Study , Roland Deek1*, Josipa Petric1, Neil Kruger2, Melanie Amarasooriya3, John White4, Gregory I Bain5
Introduction: The wrist is a complex joint, and static imaging techniques may not capture subtle kinematic abnormalities. Four-dimensional (4D) CT presents an alternative method of assessing the dynamic movement of the Transverse Carpal Ligament (TCL). The TCL is important in carpal stability, grip strength, and as a component of the flexor pulley system. The purpose of this study is to determine the dynamic displacement of the TCL attachment points in-vivo through wrist Flexion-Extension (FE) and Radio-Ulnar (RUD) deviation using 4D CT. Materials and Methods: A normal wrist as was imaged through FE and RUD. Surface rendered models were created from individual carpal bones in each wrist position through the motion arc using 4D CT scans. These bones were tracked using a registration algorithm, and their translations were graphed against the global wrist motion. Results: During wrist flexion, all TCL attachment points moved proximally and volarly. There was minimal displacement of the attachments in the radioulnar plane. During wrist ulnar to radial deviation, the radial attachment points moved proximally and ulnar attachment points distally. In the radioulnar plane, all attachment points moved radially, except scaphoid, which translated ulnarly. The scapho-pisiform distance showed marked shortening in wrist radial deviation. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that 4D-CT can be effectively utilized to assess TCL kinematics in-vivo. The TCL is a dynamic structure with distinct movements in all three planes, dependent on the wrist’s direction of movement.
6 Metformin and Bone Metabolism , Jun Li1*
Metformin is a member of biguanide antidiabetic drugs which has been widely used for treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) over 40 years. Bone is a highly dynamic tissue and its homeostasis mainly depends on the balance between bone resorption and bone formation through regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Recent studies showed that metformin has beneficial effects in maintaining bone metabolism [1,2]. Intriguingly, it has been reported that metformin has no effect on glucose levels in nondiabetic individuals [3,4]. These evidences suggested that metformin might be a considerable medication option for treatment of bone loss or prevention of fracture in patients with T2DM. However, its mechanism of action is becoming complicated and not fully understood according to recent emerged data. The aim of this review was to elaborate the potential signalling pathways of metformin on regulation of bone metabolism.
7 Adductor Canal Block vs Intra-articular Catheter in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Double Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial , Sheldon Moniz1*, Samuel Duff1, Christopher W Jones1, Alex Swann1, Matthew Harper1, Piers J Yates1
Aims: Approximately half of patients undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) experience severe perioperative pain. The ideal analgesic regimen for perioperative pain control in patients undergoing TKA is yet to be determined. Methods: A prospective, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial was performed, comparing adductor canal blocks versus intra-articular pain catheters in 100 patients undergoing unilateral total knee replacement by a single surgeon. All other analgesic aspects of the perioperative care were kept standard. Patients underwent an identical surgical approach and all received an Attune TKA (Depuy etc). Post-operative pain levels, Range of Movement (ROM) and opioid equivalent breakthrough analgesia were recorded. All assessors were blinded to group allocation. In addition patients completed WOMAC and Oxford knee scores. Southampton wound score was used to detect adverse outcomes. Results: There were no differences in baseline demographics between the groups preoperative Visual Analogue Pain Score (VAS), Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) or WOMAC scores. Conclusion: A single shot adductor canal block is not inferior to an intra-articular catheter for perioperative pain management in total knee arthroplasty.
8 Spinal Surgical Indication: Surgeon Benefit versus Patient Benefit? , Farzad Omidi-Kashani1*
In the world of surgery, spinal surgery is one of the topics that their surgical indications largely depend on the patient’s clinical symptoms and physical examination, while the para-clinics have only auxiliary or confirmatory roles. For instance, lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging in asymptomatic population has a 30-35% incidental finding that is not necessarily associated with clinical complaints. These incidental findings include vertebral hemangioma, degenerative disc, transitional vertebra, thickened filum terminal, synovial cyst of the facet joint, or even spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis. None of these findings require treatment when they are not accompanied by clinical symptoms, but only the physician knows this principle, not the patient. On the other hand, inventing new attractive and minimally invasive techniques in the field of spine surgery, has led to the over-popularity of these surgeries. Because the greater the number and complexity of surgeries, the greater the surgeon’s benefit, these factors have cumulatively led to the over-prevalence of spinal surgeries, especially in the lumbar region. In this turmoil and mess bazar, real surgical indications which is the most important and vital parts of medicine, has faded or may have been deliberately forgotten.  It seems that it is time to go back to the beginning and remember the holy oath at the medical graduation ceremony. And at least as altruism, we should always put the patient’s benefit ahead of our own and come to believe that I may be the patient of a physician in a very soon future, and in this scenario, what do we expect from our trusted physician? Let us not allow the financial gain to be a barrier for the sense of humanity.
9 Top Major Traumas in Benghazi , Abdulrahim Aljayar1*
This work is done to study different aspects of the topic; in any case, during our assortment and investigation of the information, we observed the presence of other shocking issues sharing largely the road traffic accident’s increasing frequency and heavy impacts that need collective efforts of everyone, individuals and authority. In spite of the fact that street car crashes stay a significant issue compromising lives and assets in Benghazi, we are additionally encircled by other upsetting awful mishaps generally sharing the recurrence, genuine effect and expanding occurrence of street auto collisions. Therefore, our enthusiasm against RTA should not overshadow such painful, dangerous events including AFD and VT.
10 Changing Demographics of Paediatric Femoral Fractures in a District General Hospital: A 9-year Review , Georgina Kakra Wartemberg1*, Faris Ali1, James Davies1, Karolina Mazur1, Parvathi Varma1, Sade Uwaoma1, Nirmal Tulwa1
Introduction: Paediatric femoral fractures are not uncommon. We noted an anecdotal change in the age of patients that were treated over a number of years. We reviewed all the femoral fracture cases that we have seen since 1st January 2011 to observe if there has been a change in the demographics of paediatric femoral fractures. Method: We utilised our online theatre system and reviewed every operation list from January 2011 until December 2019, noting all paediatric femoral fracture operations, the age, co-morbidities, and the type of surgery. Results: 108 cases were identified. All were unilateral cases. 75% were male. The ages ranged from 11 months to 16 years. Children under 5 years of age, sustained injuries from slips and trips, playing in nursery or play areas, and trampoline. There were a good number of fractures caused by family members falling on them. There were 10 suspected non accidental injuries, including one confirmed in this group. Contact sports, skateboarding and cycling dominated in those 6 years and older. Discussion: There has been a gradual decline in the number of paediatric femoral fracture admissions from 2012. The average age of patients declined from 6.8 years in 2011 to 3.8 years in 2019. Prior to 2014, there were cases of high energy injury from road traffic collisions and motor-cross racing in children aged 12 years and over. After 2014, we did not have any admissions of children over the age of 13 years. This is likely due to Leeds General Infirmary gaining its major trauma centre status for our local region and the increased sedentary lifestyle of modern children. Conclusion: The ages and number of patients presenting with femoral fractures are decreasing in our unit. This is likely due to sedentary lifestyles or due to the effect of having major trauma centre nearby.
11 Toes Flexions Test to Recognize the Functional Status of the Foot: Examples of Pathology: Knowledge from 1971 , Tomasz Karski1*, Jacek Karski2
In children, various deformities of the feet can be found congenital, neurological, post trauma. In adults, foot deformities and pain syndromes can be a result of a changed anatomy of the foot and restricted movement of foot joints. In this article, we present the deficit of toes flexion in metatarsal-phalange joint and results of this pathology. The problem was discovered in 1971 and its many cases have been observed throughout long years of author’s professional activity.
12 Opioid Use for Postoperative Pain Control in Pediatric Supracondylar Humerus Fractures: A Pain-Diary Based Prospective Study , Ryan J O’Leary1, Leah Herzog1, Sara Van Nortwick1, Matthew A Dow1, Robert F Murphy1*
Introduction: There is limited research on postoperative pain control in pediatric populations following operative fixation of a Supracondylar Humerus (SCH) fractures. The purpose of the current study is to characterize the effectiveness of opioids vs non-opioid medication for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients following Closed Reduction Percutaneous Pinning (CRPP) of a SCH fracture. Methods: An IRB-approved prospective study was conducted from November 2019 to June 2020 and eight patients were enrolled in the study. They received CRPP for a SCH fracture at our institution. These patients were instructed to complete a postoperative pain diary recording their level of pain as well as medication usage. For pain control, the patients were counselled to alternate acetaminophen and ibuprofen and were also prescribed a short course of hydrocodone-acetaminophen for severe pain. T-tests were performed to compare pain ratings and medication usage between each group. Results: Of the eight patients in the study, three of the patients used opioid medication for pain control (in addition to acetaminophen and ibuprofen) and five patients used exclusively non-opioid medication for pain control (only acetaminophen and ibuprofen); from here-in these patients will be referred to as the “opioid group” and the “non-opioid” group, respectively. The opioid group and the non-opioid group did not differ significantly in age, weight, Gartland fracture type, or percent female (Table 1). The average total pain scores were 6.2 in the opioid group and 3.3 in the non-opioid group (p=0.03). For both groups, average pain scores were highest on the day of surgery and were lowest on postoperative day 4. The opioid group had higher pain scores on postoperative day 4 when compared with the non-opioid group and these results were statistically significant (p=0.04). The difference in acetaminophen and ibuprofen use between the two study groups was not statistically significant. Discussion: Our results demonstrate that 62% of our patient cohort managed their post-operative pain control with non-opioid pain medication. When compared with the opioid group, the non-opioid group had lower overall average pain scores. These results suggest that appropriate pain control can be achieved without opioids in the majority of patients.
13 Alpha-Lipoic Acid Effectiveness in Early Stages of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Short Term Follow-up , Pegoli Loris1,2, Lombardo Michele DM3*, Mangiavini Laura4,5, Peretti Giuseppe M4,5
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is still the most common nerve compression syndrome of the upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) in early stages of carpal tunnel syndrome. We conducted a double-blind prospective study. A total of 84 patients with instrumental diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome at an early stage, based on nerve conductions study, were evaluated. The primary endpoint was the search for improvement of parameters in electrophysiological studies, correlated with the administration of ALA. Secondary endpoints were static 2-points discrimination and the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ). The statistical analysis has not shown any type of correlation between the evolution of electromyographic measurements and the administration of ALA (p-value> 1.2) On the other side, the statistical analysis showed an improvement regarding the 2-point discrimination and the BCTSQ (p-value <0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid did not improve nerve conduction velocity, but a statistically significant reduction of symptoms referred by the Boston Carpal Tunnel score, and an improvement of the two-point discrimination test was obtained.
14 Schwannomatosis a Rare Entity: Classic Imaging features , Ritu Sharma1, Suresh Kumar2*, Sandeep Moudgil1, Anupam Jhobta1
Schwannomatosis is rare neurocutaneous disorder. It is characterised by multiple schwannoma without involvement of vestibular apparatus. Being genetically different from NF2, now considered third form of neurofibromatosis. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosing schwannomatosis and helps in differentiating it from NF2.
15 Functional Outcome of Surgical Management of AO Type-C Fractures of Distal Femur Treated with Distal Femoral Locking Platesusing Swashbuckler Approach , Girish Sahni1, Kanwarjeet Singh Sandhu2, Sanjeev Kumar3, Harjit K Singh Chawla1*, Sanjeev Sreen1, Nirmal Dass4
Background: Orthopaedic injuries near a joint are often disabling with residual deficits. Distal femur fractures are one of such challenging injuries for orthopedic surgeons, due to their high complication rate. Use of swashbuckler approach while fixing such fractures with Distal Femoral Locking Plate (DFLP) bestows better outcome with lesser complications. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with AO Type C fractures of distal femur were treated with DFLP using Swashbuckler Approach. Cases were followed for up to 12 months post operativelyand evaluated by the NEER’S knee Score. Results: Mean time of fracture union was17.35 weeks (range 12-20 weeks). Average duration of surgery was 88.4 minutes and mean Neer’s score was 80.76. Conclusion: Swashbuckler approach is a good alternative to other classical approaches. Use of DFLP in type C distal femur fractures with swashbuckler approach may provide excellent results.
16 Our Experience in Meniscus Tears and Differences in Sport Recovery between Medial and Lateral Partial Meniscectomy in Young Athlete , Gianluca Testa1, Luca Gurrieri1*, Marco Andolfi1, Marco Caponnetto1, Danilo Di Via1, Gianluca Puglisi1, Salvatore D’Amato1, Vito Pavone1
Meniscus tears are the most frequent knee injuries. Menisci provide joint stability and local pressure distribution. A meniscus injury contributes to the early development of osteoarthritis. The aim of our study is to analyze the results of partial meniscectomy at 4 years follow-up, comparing time of sport recovery between lateral and medial partial meniscectomy. At our institute 94 young athletes with meniscal tear were surgically treated with partial meniscectomy. 75 (80%) were males and 19 (20%) females. Medial meniscus was interested in 74 cases (79%), lateral meniscus in 20 (21 %). Mean age at treatment was 26 ± 4, 98 (range 18-35) years. 15 (16%) patients with medial meniscus tear had associated an ACL tear, which was repaired with an arthroscopic reconstruction by hamstring. Return to sport happened significantly earlier in the medial meniscus tears group than in the lateral meniscus tears group (average time 40±4, 14 days versus 59±7, 24 days). Student’s T- test showed statistical significance (p-value = 0.0147). The average results of the clinical evaluation through the “KOOS” Score questionnaire comparable with previously published data. Patients with associated LCA lesions obtained scores comparable to those obtained from patients with isolated meniscal injury. Time to return to sports is longer after lateral than medial meniscectomy, because lateral meniscectomy has a higher incidence of adverse events in the early recovery period, including pain/swelling. A functional ACL is the best guarantee for preserving joint cartilage from degeneration.
17 Post-Operative Radiological Outcome of Hamstring Graft in ACL Reconstruction after Augmentation of Graft with Periosteal Envelope , DS Bhamare1, Girish Nathani2*, Clevio Desouza2, Ishan Shevate2, Ashwin Deshmukh2
Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring graft is usually done for the surgical management of ACL tear. The post-operative outcome of ACLR is mainly dependant on graft healing its integration into the femoral and tibia tunnels. For the tendon to bone integration it can take up to several months post-surgery. Incorporation of graft into the bony tunnels plays an important role in post-operative outcome after ACL reconstruction surgery. In our study we have aimed to compare hamstring graft healing time post ACL reconstruction when graft was enveloped with periosteum as envelope. Material and Methods: 30 patients with isolated ACL tear were selected between age group of 18 to 40 years and were grouped randomly into 2 groups. In first group the hamstring graft was enveloped with the surrounding periosteum harvested were as second group the patients were not augmented with periosteal envelope. Post-operative rehabilitation remained similar in both the groups and MRI scan was done at 6 months, 9 months and 1 year post operatively to check for graft maturity. Results: Graft healing was faster in the group which was augmented with periosteum (Mean time 7.5 months) as compared to the group which was not augmented (Meantime 9.5 months). Conclusion: Periosteum allows for faster graft healing in patients of ACL reconstruction.
18 Observational Study of Incidence of Rotator Cuff Tear in Patients with Shoulder Pain and Stiffness , Vinodkumar AC1, Ravish VN2, Amit Bilagi2*
Aims and Objectives: To observe the incidence of rotator cuff tears in patient with shoulder pain and stiffness with help of USG. Introduction: All the shoulder pains associated with stiffness of shoulder and restriction of movements, according to literature are adhesive capsulitis with normal radiographs. The current study is conducted to observe the rotator cuff tears in patients with shoulder pain and stiffness. Methods: All patients with shoulder pain having stiffness and restrictions of movements, attending orthopedic OPD were evaluated clinically, radiologically and USG to identify rotator cuff tears. Most of the shoulders associated with pain and stiffness have normal radiological study and hence sonography was used to evaluate the rotator cuff tears as USG is a simple, cost effective and reliable investigation to assess soft tissues of the shoulder joint. Results: In our study we found that out of 51 patients, 24 (47.1%) patients with shoulder pain associated with stiffness and restriction of movements had associated capsular or tendon tears with majority being females. Conclusion: Therefore, all the patients having shoulder pain with stiffness and restricted movements and normal radiographs need to undergo ultrasound scan to rule out rotator cuff tears before continuing further treatment as most of the rotator cuff tears need intervention. USG is a reliable, simple and cost-effective method to rotator cuff tears.
19 Non Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children and Adolescents: Prognostic Factors and Survival View or Download PDF   , Feryel Letaief-Ksontini1*, Mouna Ayadi1, Azza Gabsi1, Safia Yahiaoui2, Houcine Magherbi3, Amina Mokrani1, Khedija Meddeb1
Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common softttissue tumor in childhood. We aimed to study the prognostic factors of non-metastatic RMS in Tunisian paediatric patients. Methods: We reviewed data of paediatric patients (aged < 18 years), with histologically confirmed RMS treated in Salah Azaiez Institute for a non-metastatic RMS during 20 years. Prognostic factors were studied and survival data analysed. Results: 75 patients were included (42 males and 33 females). Embryonal RMS was the most common histologic type (72%) followed by alveolar (21%) and pleomorphic (1%). The most frequently affected sites were head and neck (43%) and genito-urinary (28%). 5-year OS and DFS were 50% and 26%, respectively. By univariate analysis, DFS was significantly correlated to chemotherapy, Radiotherapy (RT) and post-surgical RT with p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.01, respectively. No factor was significant in multivariate analysis. By univariate analysis, 5-year OS was significantly and adversely influenced by 4 factors: tumour size > 4 cm, non-alveolar RMS, positive regional nodes and para-meningeal location, with p=0.050, 0.05, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. RT and postsurgical RT were associated with a good prognosis in OS p=0.009 and 0.05, respectively. By multivariate analysis, OS was strongly correlated to radiotherapy p=0.03, Odds Ratio (OR) 3.1, (IC) 95% [1.05-9.3] and para-meningeal site p=0.04, (OR) 0.3, (IC) 95% [0.1-0.9]. Conclusions: This study showed that tumor size, histological type, tumor location, node involvement, t CT and RT were prognostic factors for OS and PFS. However, survival remains poor. So we should improve it by encouraging clinical research.
20 Is Nail Dynamization Useful In Delayed Union of Tibial Shaft Fractures? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis , Germán Garabano1*, Leonel Perez Alamino1, Daniel Veloz Serrano1, Santiago Iglesias1, Javier Mariani2, Cesar Angel Pesciallo1
Background: Nail dynamization is a controversial strategy used to treat delayed union in tibial shaft fractures. Reported union rates of nail dynamization varies within a wide range that goes from 19% to 100%. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the literature to explore post-dynamization union rates in cases of delayed union of tibial fractures following locked intramedullary nailing. Methods and Findings: This systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. We searched the Cochrane Database, PubMed, and the first 100 references of Google Scholar to June 2020.  Inclusion criteria were as follows: English-language original research articles that included patients over 14 years of age with tibial shaft fractures treated with locked intramedullary nailing and posterior dynamization of static screws. Methodology quality was assessed using a modified version of Coleman’s score. We identified 14 studies that included 1198 fractures for full analysis. The mean age was 35.8 (range; 14-82 years) and the average follow-up period was 27 months (range; 3-100). Statically locked intramedullary nails were found in 922 (76.9%) fractures. Dynamization was reported for 260 fractures (28.2%) with an overall union rate of 89.6%. Our meta-analysis showed a weighted effect size of 95.1% (CI95% 83.5 – 98.6%) regarding union after the dynamization. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrates that nail dynamization represents an effective treatment strategy in delayed union of tibial shaft fractures. High union rates (up to 95%) can be achieved with this procedure.
21 Distinctive Spine Deformities in Patients with Hurler (IH) and Hurler-Scheie (I-H/S) Syndrome , Sergey Ryabykh1, Polina Ochirova1, Mohammad Shboul2, Alexander Gubin3, Alexander Burtsev1, Marat Saifutdinov1, Susanne Gerit Kircher4, Ali Al Kaissi1*
Purpose: Progressive kyphoscoliosis is not of uncommon occurrence in patients with MPSs. Cranio-cervical junction in patients with MPSs are under the threat of three life threatening elements, namely GAGs accumulation, C1-2 instability, and progressive cervical vascular abnormalities. Material and Methods: Seven patients’ two girls and five boys with age range from 3 to 9 years presented with progressive kyphoscoliosis and atlanto-axial instability. Phenotype/genotype confirmed the diagnosis of Hurler syndrome and Hurler-Scheie syndrome. Though, spine deformities were to a certain extent similar in both types but with different age of onset. Results: Children with kyphoscoliosis of apical Cobb’s angle ranging between 60/65° were corrected up to 5° with normal sagittal spine balance. All showed an improvement in the neurological and functional status of Frankel motor scale (PreOp – C / PostOp – D) and Nurick scale (PreOp – 2-3 / PostOp – 2-3). The severity of myelopathy on the mJOA scale decreased (PreOp – 12 / PostOp – 10). Three children were excluded from surgical interventions because their contrast- enhanced computed tomography angiography of the cervical and cerebral arteries showed three hazardous abnormalities. Two children showed variable coiling and kinking of the vertebral and the basilar arteries resulting in an exaggerated redundancy which is compatible with the diagnosis of dolichoarteriopathy. Third child showed progressive narrowing of the left subclavian artery. Conclusion: The method of spine operations in children with Hurler and Hurler-Scheie syndromes depend on the age of the child, the site and type of spine malformation and the proper assessment of any associated cervical/cerebral malformation via contrast- enhanced computed tomography angiography. Patients were operated on, via the correction of kyphoscoliosis with the 5.5 trans pedicular system. Patients with atlanto-axial instability underwent decompression at the C0-C2 or C0-C3 level and occipito spondylodesis by costal autograft accordingly.
22 Recovery of Hip Muscle Strength after Rotational Acetabular Osteotomy Using the Combined Approach , Shigeru Nakamura1*, Kosuke Ishizaka1, Masaki Hirai2, Hitoshi Taneda1
Background: Either a combined approach or a transtrochanteric approach, performed with the patient in the lateral decubitus position, is used in Rotational Acetabular Osteotomy (RAO) to treat symptomatic hip dysplasia. Muscle strength after RAO using the transtrochanteric approach has been reported, but muscle strength after RAO using the combined approach has not been well studied. We aimed to investigate muscle strength and gait speed over a one-year follow-up period after RAO using the combined approach. Methods: Data from 124 patients who underwent RAO (129 hips) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients’ mean age was 44 years (14-64) and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23 kg/m2 (16-36). Isometric hip flexion, abduction, and extension strengths and gait speed were measured before surgery and three months, six months, and one year after surgery. We assessed whether age and BMI were correlated with one-year post- to pre-operative strength ratio. Results: Muscle strength had not changed significantly three months after surgery but had significantly improved at six months, exceeding pre-operative strength. One year after surgery, muscle strength of the treated hip exceeded that of the contralateral hip. Gait speed was significantly lower than pre-operative speed three months after surgery, recovered to pre-operative levels at six months, and exceeded pre-operative gait speed one year after surgery. Age and BMI were not correlated with muscle strength recovery ratio. Conclusions: Six months after having undergone RAO using the combined approach, patients exhibited hip flexion, abduction, and extension strengths that exceeded preoperative strengths. Gait speed exceeded pre-operative gait speed one year after surgery.
23 Van Lohuizen Syndrome: A Late-Diagnosed Case in 18 Years Old Female , Abdulrahim Aljayar1*, Moattaz Aljayar1
Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita is a very rare birth defect involving cutaneous blood vessels. Of unknown cause, uncertain pathophysiology, unclear epidemiology. Described as a localized, or generalized marbled skin appearance (cutis marmarota), in addition to the skin, it may involve any other body organs, with, or without a wide variety of associated congenital anomalies. Kato van Lohuizen described the first case in 1922. Since then, there have been less than 300 cases reported worldwide to date. We are adding one more case, and the first reported in Libya.
24 A Novel Device to Prevent Undesired Arthroscopic Camera Rotation , Barroso Rosa Sergio1*, Viera-Artiles, Jaime2, Valdiande-Gutiérrez José Julian3, Grant Andrea4
Objective: This experimental study intends to test a novel device for preventing unintentional camera rotation during arthroscopic knee procedures. Methods: The system consists on a multi-axis gyroscopic sensor that can be universally attached to any camera model in the market. A preliminary experience was designed to evaluate the operability of the device during actual arthroscopic meniscectomies. Results: The system provided accurate real-time insight about camera orientation in relation to a selected working plane. The system is more useful when used within the tibio-femoral space and in the anterior (suprapatellar) compartment. Conclusion: This device is able to assist orthopedics trainees and novel surgeons during arthroscopic training, reducing undesired camera rotation, disorientation, fatigue and surgical times.
25 Intraoperative Fluoroscopic Grid in Total Hip Arthroplasty in Supine Position: Improving Cup Position, Leg Length and Hip Offset , Takahito Yuasa1*, Kohei Aoki1, Kohei Shiota1
Introduction: Accurate placement of implants is important to prevent a variety of complications including dislocation, decreased range of motion, and premature polyethylene wear in Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). In addition, the difference in leg length after THA affects postoperative gait and low back pain, and the femoral offset is related to gait and abductor muscle function. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether implant placement, leg length difference, and hip offset are improved in supine THA using a 9-inch fluoroscopic HipGrid Drone. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive 80 patients who underwent primary unilateral primary THA through direct anterior approach at supine position: 40 THAs with the use of fluoroscopy and 9-inch Drone, and 40 THAs with the use of fluoroscopy alone. We compared the accuracy of component positioning, leg length discrepancy, and hip offset with or without Drone. Results: There was no significant difference in the inclination angle of the cup between the Drone group 37.9 degrees and the control group 39.0 degrees (p=0.175), but the variation from the target angle was more less in the Drone group compared with the control group (2.37 vs 3.82 degrees, p=0.013). With the use of the Drone, significantly more THAs had restoration of leg length compared with the control group (3.55 vs 4.95 mm, p=0.011). Hip offset restoration was also significantly improved in the Drone group compared with the control group (4.42 mm vs 5.56 mm, p=0.048). Surgical time was decreased in the Drone group (92.6 vs 97.8 minutes, p=0.043). Conclusions: Using the easily adjustable grid system, we have demonstrated an efficient method for consistent and accurate cup positioning and restoration of hip offset for anterior supine THA. We recommend the use of this simple and effective device to anterior supine THA.
26 A Novel Bone Void Filler for Use in Prosthetic Joint Infections , David C Evans1, Ashok C Khandkar2, Bruce G Evans3*
Bone grafts and Bone Void Fillers (BVF) have multiple applications in total joint reconstruction surgeries. However, despite their widespread use, they are contraindicated in Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJI). A BVF device is needed that will provide sustained antimicrobial protection to prevent biofilm formation and, ultimately, will resorb and be replaced by host bone. Currently, BVF are only used in noninfected cases in which powder antibiotics are added in hopes of preventing future infections. These BVF do not provide a sustained antibiotic level and, therefore, are not recommended for infected cases. A novel BVF, EP Granules with Tobramycin, was designed to fulfill the need for successful bone growth when infection is present. To create this unique and original BVF, an osteoconductive biomaterial was combined with clinically used degradable polymers, resulting in a composite ceramic polymer. Initial in-vitro elution studies followed by successful and animal in-vivo testing have demonstrated its effectiveness.
27 Soft Tissue Release for Varus Knees during Posterior Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty: A New Algorithm , Mohamed Elkabbani1, 2*, Kamel Youssef1, Mohamed Ragab2, Omar Ibrahim2, Amr Osman2, Apostu Dragos3, Samih Tarabichi2
Introduction: Total Knee Replacement (TKA) surgeries are frequently performed surgeries used to treat knee osteoarthritis. Several methods of medial soft tissue balancing in the varus knee during total knee replacement surgeries have been reported. Traditionally, they included releasing the superficial Medial Collateral Ligament (sMCL) in severe varus cases by several methods. However, this release can create instability in the knee. The aim of this study was to create an algorithm for soft tissue release in varus osteoarthritic knees and to evaluate its efficacy in achieving intraoperative gap balancing without releasing the superficial MCL. Materials and Methods: One hundred and five varus osteoarthritic knees who received primary posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasties between October 2015 and January 2016 were included in this study. Varus deformities ranged between 10 to 40 degrees. Sequential balancing was done into 5 steps: step 1 – releasing of deep MCL, step 2 – excision of osteophytes, step 3 – excision of scarred tissue in the posteromedial corner, step 4 – excision of the posteromedial capsule and step 5 – release of semimembranosus. The V-STAT® Variable Soft Tissue Alignment Tensor was used to ensure a balanced medial and lateral gap following each step. Once the gaps were balanced, no further soft tissue release were carried out. Results: All knees were balanced without releasing the superficial MCL ligament. The maximum release step necessary was: step 1 (0 cases), step 2 (31 cases), step 3 (35 cases), step 4 (25 cases) and step 5 (14 cases). Conclusion: Superficial medial collateral ligament should not be released during intraoperative varus knees soft tissue balancing in posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasties. Preserving the superficial MCL is beneficial in maintaining implant stability without any increase in the constraint level of the implant even in cases with severe deformity.
28 New Therapy Option: Maisonneuve Fracture without Trans-syndesmotic Fixation , Dachang Feng1, Zhaofa Liu1*, Haitao Chen1
Ankle fracture is one of the common injuries in orthopedic department, the Maisonneuve fracture is a specific type of ankle injury. This fracture is usually caused by rotational force. According to the Lauge-Hansen classification, it is a pronation and external rotation type injury, often resulting in inferior tibiofibular injury. Because it is extremely unstable, it is usually treated surgically. Operative treatment includes medial malleolus fixtion, reduction of the inferior tibiofibular joint and screw fixation. When the fibula fractured is without shortening or dislocation, it is still controversial if inferior tibiofibular joint needs fixation. The aim of this study is to introduce a new method-Maisonneuve without trans-syndesmotic fixation and analysis the follow-up result.
29 The Etiological Understanding of Spine Deformities in Patients with Neuromuscular Disorders , Egor Filatov1, Olga Sergeenko1, Dmitry Savin1, Polina Ochirova1, Susanne Gerit Kircher2, Sergey Ryabykh1, Ali Al Kaissi1*
Purpose: The etiology understanding is the corner stone for proper management of the spine deformities in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Methods: Progressive spine deformities have been encountered in 71 patients. All showed different forms of   neuromuscular disorders. We proceeded with applying prompt evaluation criteria which was mainly based on the etiological diagnosis of each type of NMS (clinical phenotype and genotype). Assessing the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), we observed deterioration in some aspects. The Cobb’s angle was assessed in two occasion’s i.e prior to corrective surgeries plus the post-surgery results. Followed by one year postoperative re-assessment. Surgical corrections have been performed via posterior pedicle screw fixation. Results: Surgical correction to re-align the C-shaped thoracolumbar scoliosis.  Lumbar hyper lordosis were common in cerebral palsy patients, though decreased thoracic kyphosis or even thoracic lordosis occurs more frequently in Duchenne Muscular atrophy patients. There was noticeable improvement in functional status according to Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Conclusion: Etiology understanding is the paramount element in re-aligning corrective surgeries of the spine in   patients with progressive spine deformities.   We concluded that rigid hyper lordosis has been and still the key problem encountered in patients with neuromuscular disorders.
30 Assessment of Radiation Safety Training, Practices and Knowledge amongst Canadian Orthopaedic Resident Training Programs , Bourget-Murray J1, Gusnowski E1, Kooner S1, Kwong C1, Meldrum A1, Montgomery S1, Thomas K1, Fruson L1, Kendal J1, Litowski M1, Sridharan S1, James M1, Ludwig T1, Purnell J1, Wong M1, You D1, Benavides B1, Lukenchuk J1, Abbott A1, Morrison L1, Davison E1, Flanagan C1, Heard B1, Hewison C1, Lienhard K1, Rondeau K1, Schneider P1*
Objective: There is ample literature demonstrating significant health risks associated with radiation exposure, yet there is no standardized radiation safety training for Canadian orthopaedic surgery residents. This is the first national survey investigating the prevalence of radiation safety training and radiation safety practices in Canadian orthopaedic residency programs. Methods: A nationaln online survey was distributed to orthopaedic residents currently enrolled in a Canadian program from all post-graduate (PGY) levels who were fluent in English or French with a medical doctorate or equivalent training. Fellows, international elective or observer ship students were excluded. Results: Overall response rate across Canada was 41% (n=116). Most respondents (94%, n=102) were concerned about the negative effects of radiation, yet only 11% (n=12) felt confident with their radiation safety knowledge. Of the residents who felt confident in their knowledge, only 42% (n=5) answered all three radiation safety screening questions correctly. Overall, 58% (n=66) of respondents had undergone some form of radiation safety training. Compliance with protective lead was high (92%, n=93) when available, but 82% (n=92) of respondents cited issues accessing properly fitting lead. Only 18% (n=20) of orthopaedic residents reported routinely wearing dosimeters. Conclusion: Limited access to properly fitting protective lead, poor radiation safety knowledge, and lack of routine radiation monitoring could be placing residents at risk for poor health outcomes in the future. These results provide impetus for orthopaedic residency programs across Canada to implement higher safety standards in the form of standardized radiation safety training, routine dosimeter use, improved lead availability, and continued abidance to radiation safety protocols.
31 Morbid Constellation of Osseous and Vascular Abnormalities in a Female Patient with Congenital Central Hypoventilation/Overgrowth Syndrome , Ali Al Kaissi1*, Susanne Gerit Kircher2
Background: Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS), is a condition characterized by ventilatory impairment that results in arterial hypoxemia. Studies revealed that the vast majority of patients with CCHS are free from any associated pulmonary, cardiac or brainstem pathologies. Material and Methods: F.R is a 20 -year-old- Austrian-girl presented in my consultation seeking advice for her unpleasant clinical history. In her early life, seizures were the first serious clinical presentation. Followed later on with hypertension, bouts of respiratory dysfunction and impairment of consciousness. In 2019 she underwent surgical intervention to remove a 2 cm hamartoma (posterior upper aspect of the right thigh). Few years later, another hamartoma on the ventral side of the tongue has been identified as well. Early on, she received the diagnosis of Mediterranean fever syndrome and the geneticist encountered homozygosity to the MEFV M694V mutation as the reason behind the constellation of the current unpleasant symptomatology. Later on a presumptive diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobile type has been suggested in other Medical Institutions. We proceeded with our documentation via clinical and radiological phenotypic characterizations. Results: Clinical examination showed growth above the 97th percentile (overgrowth) with no specific facial dysmorphic features. She manifested generalized ligamentous hyper laxity. Her ligamentous hyperlaxity was compatible with 6 points out of 9 in correlation with Beighton scoring test. On the bases of skeletal survey; lateral skull radiograph showed features of mastoid and temporal bone characterized with extensive-pneumatization. Axial CT scan shows bilateral hyper-pneumatization of the temporal bones, demonstrating expansion of aerial spaces with loss of the bony trabeculae and thinning of the mastoid bone. Mastoid cells appear to be in communication with a large intracranial epidural air cavity in the temporal and parietal regions. Reformatted CT scan of temporal bone, through coronal and axial images, at the level of the cavum tympani and the mastoid, showed a defect in the right tegmen appeared as cloudy/ opaque lesions around the cavum and the surrounding air cells. Contrast- enhanced computed CT angiography of the cervical and cerebral vasculature showed unusual malalignment and spiral twisting along several vascular segments resulted in the mal-development of basilar artery stenosis without atherosclerosis. The current patient manifested overgrowth syndromic entity with a constellation of osseous and vascular abnormalities resulted in a clinical course of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Conclusion: The etiology behind the extension of pneumatization has most likely occurred because of defective ossification of the occipito-mastoid synchondrosis . The reason behind the extension of pneumatization into the occipital and parietal bone is probably due to incomplete closure of the occipito-mastoid synchondrosis, lambdoid and sagittal sutures, which usually close in early adulthood and later, even at the age of thirties. In our patient, we postulate that the history of multiple hamartomas and abnormal vascular phenotype in conjunction with extensive hyper-pneumatization of the skull were the main etiology behind her unpleasant course of her devastating ailment regardless the genetic results. Our impression is neither Mediterranean fever syndrome nor Ehlers-Danlos syndrome seem compatible with her current constellation of osseous and vascular abnormalities. The overall clinical and imaging findings are highly likely in connection with either one of the different types of overgrowth syndromes or might be a novel syndromic association. We believe that congenital central hypoventilation is a symptom complex rather than a diagnostic entity.
32 Minimally Invasive Anterolateral Approach Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Bone Preserving Short Femoral Stem: Intermediate Term Clinical and Radiological Results , Mohamed Elkabbani1,2*, Akram Hammad1, Mohammed Hammad1, Ahmed Mostafa Saied1, Bassam Ali Abouelnas1, Michael Schulte2  
Aim:  The objective of this study was to evaluate the intermediate term clinical and radiological results of a Bone preserving short stem hip implant being operated through a minimally invasive anterolateral hip approach. Methods:  In 20 consecutive patients suffering from osteoarthritis with 25 affected hip joints (five cases were bilateral), the clinical and radiological results of 25 hip arthroplasties performed in one hospital between October 2009 and May 2014 through   a minimally invasive anterolateral approach using a cementless short stem prosthesis type Aida and a cementless cup type Ecofit with a ceramic-on-ceramic pairing were evaluated prospectively. The median age of patients at time of surgery was 60 years (range, 42-71 years), 15 male (4 were bilateral) and 5 female   patients (one was bilateral) were included in the study. The median clinical follow up was 30 months (range, 2-88 months) and the median radiological follow up was 30 months (range, 2-88 months). Results:  Harris Hip Score improved from a median preoperative value of 53 to a median postoperative value of 96 (range, 73-100) at follow up. 22 hips (88%) showed an excellent postoperative Harris Hip Score, 2 hips (8%) a good postoperative Harris Hip Score and one hip (4%) a fair postoperative Harris Hip Score.  Only two patients complained of postoperative thigh pain. Regarding patient satisfaction, 15 patients (60%) were very satisfied, 10 patients (40%) were satisfied. None was unsatisfied.  Radiological analysis showed that 19 stems (76%) were with stable bony ingrowth, two cases (8%) showed stable fibrous ingrowth. Four cases need further follow up for proper evaluation of stem fixation. Conclusion: The intermediate term survival of the Aida short stem hip implant being operated through a minimally invasive anterolateral hip approach is very promising and achieving the goals of a standard hip arthroplasty.
33 Vertebral Pathology and Vertebrogenic Myelopathy in Patients with Mucopolysaccharoidosis Type IV A (Morquio Syndrome) , Polina Ochirova1, Olga Sergeenko1, Sergey Ryabykh2, Alexander Gubin2, Alexander Burtsev1, Franz Grill3, Susanne Gerit Kircher4, Ali Al Kaissi1*
Background: Upper cervical spine instability in patients with Morquio´s syndrome is of common occurrence. Dysplastic odontoid is one of the prominent aetiologies behind the development of atlanto-axial instability which eventually leads to morbid vertebrogenic myelopathy. Material and Methods: We describe 10 children (7 boys and 3 girls) with the phenotype/genotype of Morquio´s syndrome (MPS IVA). Lumbar kyphosis occurs at the age of six months, followed by apparent waddling gait at the age of 3 years. Clinical phenotype and genotype are the baseline tools to set up a crystal clear long term management. Firstly, we proceed via clinical assessment of C1-2 instability. The latter is carried out with full dynamic lateral cervical spine radiographs. Instability can be visualized through the precise interpretations of the anatomical structures around the atlanto-axial segments. 3D sagittal CT scan has been applied to further localize the exact pathology. In 7 cases, there was an initial myelopathy at the level of the cranio-vertebral junction. Results: The most threatening complication of MPS IVA is the vertebrogenic myelopathy. The latter emerged as a notorious complication in connection with atlanto-axial instability and progressive thickening of the spinal cord due to accumulation of Glycosaminoglycan (GAGs). Vertebrogenic myelopathy have been encountered in seven children. All underwent decompression and stabilization of the cervical spine Conclusion: Patients with MPS IV, in their first year of life usually manifest growth deficiency and lumbar kyphosis, but unfortunately passed unnoticed by most of the paediatricians. Progressive dysplasia of the acetabulae is the reason behind the waddling gait. The misconception of generalized ligamentous hyper laxity accompanied with waddling gait were the main incentives of confusion among most of the paediatricians and physicians. Thereby, the false diagnosis of Duchenne Muscular dystrophy has been falsely considered by some colleagues. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, overlooking the early mal-development of the backbone (lumbar kyphosis) is not a simple mistake. Second, marked ligamentous hyperlaxity warrants the attention toward cervical ligaments, and as ligaments are the main supporters of the craniocervical junction and spine stability, such abnormality demands prompt clinical attention. Third, is to assess the vertebral pathology and vertebrogenic myelopathy from the standpoint of syndromic assessment and the efficiency of decompression and stabilization operations.
34 Conservative Treatment of Medial Shaft Clavicle Fracture with Borderline Criteria: A Case Report , Marco Andolfi1, Luca Gurrieri1*, Stefano Perez1, Giuseppe Mobilia1, Marco Caponnetto1, Gianluca Testa1, Sara De Salvo1, Flora Panvini1, Vito Pavone1, Salvatore D’Amato1, Danilo Di Via1
Clavicle fractures account for 3% of all fractures in adult population. Usually, surgical treatment is the gold standard for fracture with dislocation > 2 cm, shortening > 2 cm and angulation > 30 ° or comminution, especially in young or active patients, due to the relatively high risk of non-union. In our study, we report the case of a 50-years old patient, with high functional requests, with a middle shaft clavicle fracture, presenting borderline criteria. We treated him conservatively with figure of 8-bandage for five weeks. After removal of the bandage, patient performed physiotherapy and at final follow-up patient showed a nearly complete ROM despite a non-optimal radiographic outcome. Conservative treatment is a valid option in borderline middle shaft fractures, even in mature patient requiring high functional outcomes.
35 An Evolutionary Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Etiology Spine-Limbs Links, Inspiration and Laterality as Basic Factors , Alessandro Mariani1*
Moving on an evolutionary sight, this article individualizes three basic human causative factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis developing inspiration, bipedal locomotion and lateralities. The integrative approach considers the neuromechanical coupling in respiration, introducing the concept of pneumofascial competition (section one) as the loop that occurs between inspired air and pleural fasciae and then global myofascia. Affordances (possibilities) and constraints of respiratory system match positions and movements of whole body, where the links between spine and periphery (limbs and head) play a determinant part: these connections, the one that involves the spinal transverse plane, are worked out in section two. Therefore, section two appears a decisive step in trying to solve some questions about human bipedal locomotion and its proficiency, again in a neuromechanical coupling view, with totally original considerations about the role of scapula and about the spine as a treble torsion spring. Finally, it is possible to trace out a new adolescent idiopathic scoliosis etiology (section three), adding a third factor: laterality. What is only human is the hyper stressed lateralization (s) by means of cultural requirements. The motor hyper specialization is another form of energy saving (automatism). Thus, all the article is about the evolutionary principle of costs minimizing. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is here seen as an evolutionary mismatch disease between human nature and human culture and every curve can be explained in an integrative way, where causes and effects develop a mutual self-powering cycle.
36 Epidemiology of Patella Instability Injuries in Collegiate Level Athletes in the United States, Jimmy J Chan1, Christine S Williams1*, Kevin K Chen1, Christopher J Ball1, Ettore Vulcano1,2
Objective: Patella instability injuries are often sports-related and occur in young athletes. These injuries severely impact the season and career trajectory of high-level competitors. This is the first large epidemiological study that evaluates these injury events in NCAA athletes. Methods: Patellar instability injuries across 16 sports among NCAA men and women during the 2004-05 to 2013-14 academic years were analyzed using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP). Patellar instability injuries per 100,000 Athlete-Exposures (AEs), operative rate, annual injury and reinjury rates, in-season status (pre/regular/post-season) and time lost were compiled and calculated. Results: A total of 11,778,265 Athlete-Exposures (AE) were identified and included. 380 patellar instability injuries were identified (Injury Rate IR = 3.23 per 100,000 AEs). 91 (23.95%) were severe injuries with a significantly higher time loss from play (40.5 days) and risk of operative management (50.55%). The most common sports during which a patellar instability event occurred were Women’s Gymnastics (IR=7.87), Soccer (IR=5.83), and Basketball (IR=4.34) and Men’s Wrestling (IR=5.44), Football (IR=4.84), and Soccer (IR=3.06). Male athletes had a statistically significant higher risk of season or career-ending injuries in all patellar instability injuries (3.20% vs 0.89%, p=0.0013). Severe injuries were more likely to result from contact mechanisms (58.24% vs 40.66%). Conclusion: Patella instability injuries have a profound impact on the longevity and sustainability of a collegiate athletes’ career. The risk of recurrence once a patellar injury has occurred is significant and athletes often require surgery. While more female athletes sustained these injuries, male athletes were more likely to require operative management and sustain a season-ending injury.
37 Treatment of Periprosthetic Knee Fractures with Plate and Screws and With Retrograde Intramedullary Nail: Indications, Limits and Medium-Term Follow-Up, Luca Gurrieri1*, Siragusa Emilio1, Marco Andolfi1, Marco Caponnetto1, Stefano Perez1, Giuseppe Mobilia1, Salvatore D’Amato1, Pietro Maniscalco1, Corrado Ciatti1, Calogero Puma Pagliarello1, Fabiana Valenti1, Danilo Zuccalà1, Fabio Sammartino1, Gianluca Puglisi1, Simona Cicciari1, Gianluca Testa1, Vito Pavone1
Periprosthetic knee fracture occur most frequently around the distal femur and are frequently complicated due to poor bone quality and comorbidities. Surgical treatment is typically necessary and requires varied techniques of open fixation, intramedullary fixation, or revision arthroplasty, due to fracture classification. The aim of the study is to report the results obtained in the treatment of periprosthetic knee fractures, comparing the results of two surgical techniques, retrograde intramedullary nail and ORIF with plate and screws. At our institute, a sample of 23 patients with periprosthetic knee fracture were surgically treated. In detail, our patient cohort consisted of 13 women (56.52%) and 10 men (43.48%) with a mean age of 71.91 years (SD ± 12.05) whose mean follow-up was 19.14 months (SD ± 9.90). In terms of treatment, 7 of 23 patients (30.43%) were treated with retrograde Intramedullary Nail (IMN), 2 patients (8.70%) underwent to revision of the prosthesis and 14 patients (60.87%) were treated with plate and screws (ORIF). The clinical evaluation was performed using two different clinical scores as reference, the Lysholm score and the Sanders score. The goal of treatment of periprosthetic knee fractures should be an early mobilization of the patient, in order to reduce the risk of prolonged immobilization, limiting surgical risks. Intramedullary nailing reduces blood loss and provides for shorter surgical times. However, it does not allow an anatomical reduction of the fracture and it is not always possible to achieve, due to the conformation of the prosthetic box. The mean results obtained from the evaluation by Lysholm Score was 58.75 ± 10.46 in group treated with IMN and 63.60 ± 6,82 in the group treated with ORIF. Sanders Functional Evaluation Score was 63.60 ± 6,82 in group treated with IMN and 28.26 ± 6.01 in the groups treated with ORIF. The results obtained are similar to the literature. Student’s t-test showed no statistical significance (p-value >0.05). Fractures healed on average at 4 months. We observed a case of mobilization of the nail. Intramedullary nailing reduces blood loss and provides for shorter surgical times. However, it does not allow an anatomical reduction and it is not always possible to achieve, due to the conformation of the prosthetic box. The ORIF with plate and screws allows an anatomical reduction of the fracture, but involves in greater risks. It appears, therefore, more suitable in relatively young subjects. The reduction and synthesis with MIPO technique appears a good compromise. However, it is not very effective in comminuted and multi-fragmentary fractures.
38 A Rare Presentation of Solitary Giant Neurofibroma, Bikram Keshari Kar1 , Rahul Ranjan2* , Harshal Sakale1 , Alok Chandra Agrawal3
Neurofibroma is common benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It may occur anywhere in the body. Including skin and soft tissue, nervous system muscle and skeleton and visceral organ. Solitary neurofibroma is rare in the giant type. We are presenting a rare case of solitary giant gluteal neurofibroma, which was first confirmed with true cut biopsy which was completely excised afterwards and histopathological confirmation was performed. This case had no generalised neurofibromatosis. Presentation, diagnostic features, imaging and treatment are represented here.
39 Efficacy and Safety of Fat-Derived Autologous Expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for the Management of Musculoskeletal Conditions: A 5-Year Experience, Hassan Mubark1*
This editorial addresses the efficacy of single or repeated fat-derived autologous expanded Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy for orthopaedic conditions, specifically degenerative and injury-related joint and soft tissue disorders. Over the last five years, we have tried MSC therapy for peripheral large and small joints in several hundreds of clients. Our process starts with rheumatologic consultation at the regenerative clinic to select suitable candidates for MSC therapy. We rule out active cancer and pregnancy. Next, the surgical team performs the fat harvesting process under local anaesthesia. We send the sample to our sterile biologic lab for culture-expansion of the MSCs to many millions based on the area (s) involved and the severity of the condition. The cells remain frozen until the MSCs implantation time. Frequently, we treated the knee, hip, shoulder and ankle for Osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to the ageing “wear and tear” process or following an injury that led to an accelerated secondary OA [1-4]. We measured success rate based on symptoms control, quality of life improvement, stopping the progression of OA on radiological imaging, positive MRI findings of some repair and elimination of the need for joint replacement. Our finding suggested that 70-80% of cases had a good response to a single dose of expanded MSC therapy with long-lasting effects for at least 2-3 years. Around 20% of those patients elected for a second booster dose as the first dose did not control the symptoms completely; those cases indicated a better response to the second dose.
40 An Acetabular Fracture with a Series of Complications and Their Solutions: A Notable Case Report, Bikram Keshari Kar1, Shubham Sharma1*, Debasish Sarkar1, Anand K Singh1
Acetabular fractures are associated with various complications such as neurovascular injuries, post-traumatic arthritis, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, difficulty in arthroplasty, etc. Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most successful surgeries done for post-traumatic arthritis of hip joint. THA itself is associated with numerous complications such as intraoperative haemorrhage, infection, deep vein thrombosis, malpositioning of implants, instability, dislocation, and aseptic loosening. We herein report a case of post-traumatic arthritis of hip following acetabular fracture ten years back, who was operated on with total hip arthroplasty. Various complications were encountered during the management of the patient. The patient developed prosthetic joint infection and was operated with implant removal and antibiotics cement spacer application followed by revision arthroplasty with mega prosthesis, which dislocated following a dashboard injury and had undergone open reduction.
41 Comparison of Functional Outcome between Early and Usual CPM Physiotherapy in Healing Tibia Plateau Fracture, Payam Mohammadhoseini1*, Mohammad Fakoor1, Seyed Mohammad Mohammadi1, Hanon Sadoni1, Hamed Bahrami Yarahmadi1, Seyed Sina Shariati1, Mohammad Mahdi Farzinezhadi Zadeh1
Objective: In order to determine the functional outcome of surgically treated tibia plateau fractures using routine and early CPM physiotherapy following operative treatment a descriptive prospective study was carried out. Methods: 120 patients with tibia plateau fractures were initially included in this study. 18 patients were excluded from the study according to the exclusion criteria and the remaining 102 patients were followed for 1 year. There were 76 men and 26 women in this investigation. The mean age was 39 years old. Fractures were classified according to Schatzker classification algorithm. A 1-year follow-up was done on these 102 patients. Functional outcome of the patients was graded with HSS and SF-36 functional scores. Statistical analysis was performed by means of SPSS analysis software version 22. Results: The average time to union was 13 weeks. A mean ROM of 125 degrees for routine physiotherapy and 140 degrees for early CPM physiotherapy treated patients one year after injury. Functional results showed a mean HSS score of 80 points (Range: 19-100). Schatzker type I, II, III and IV fractures showed statistically significant better results compared to Schatzker type V and VI fractures. With regard to SF-36 score, 1 year after injury of eight SF-36 subscales, the results were better in the patients in 6 subscales in early CPM physiotherapy treated patients compared with routine physiotherapy group. The majority of the patients were able to perform most of the pre-injury daily activities after 1 year. The most important independent factors influencing functional results in this study were doing early rehabilitation procedures, age of the patients and fracture type. Conclusion: Functional results after open reduction and internal fixation of tibia plateau fractures seem to be excellent according to HSS score. However, the overall patient function is more satisfactory in early CPM physiotherapy treated patients’ in comparison with routine physiotherapy group.
42 Feet Don’t Fail Me Anymore! Single-Centre Results Using Low-Dose Radiation Therapy for Feet Inflammatory Disorders and Review of Current Evidence , Beatriz Álvarez1, Angel Montero1*, Ovidio Hernando1, Mercedes López1, Raquel Ciérvide1, Rosa Alonso1, Emilio Sánchez1, Mariola García-Aranda1, Jaime Martí2, Alejandro Prado2, Jeannette Valero1, Xin Chen-Zhao1, Carmen Rubio1
Background: Plantar fasciitis- and tendinopathy-related foot pain are common cause of functional disability. Low-Dose Radiation Therapy (LDRT) has proven to be effective in the symptomatic relief of these disorders. Material and methods: Between February 2016 and December 2021, 31 patients were included in this prospective register. Seventeen patients suffered from calcaneodynia, 11 from tendonitis and 3 from osteoarthritis. 6 Gy (1 Gy/fraction) or 3 Gy (0,5 Gy/fraction) were delivered and repeated after 12 weeks if no adequate relief. Response was evaluated at the end of the planned courses, after 3 months and subsequently every 6 months using Visual Analogic Score (VAS), the Von Pannewitz Score (VPS) and daily analgesic drug needs. Results: Overall, 87% of the patients experienced pain relief. Patients with a VAS score above 5 dropped from 35.5% at the end of LDRT to 32%, 13% and 6% after 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. According to the VPS, 74% showed improvement and 26% remained stable. Lastly, 39% of patients stopped or reduced analgesic intake. Nine patients have been followed up for more than 12 months. The median pre-treatment VAS score in this group was 9 (range 7-10), whereas median VAS scores after 3, 6 and 12 months stood at 5 (range 1-7), 3 (range 0-6) and 1 (range 0-6), respectively (Fig. 2). An improvement in functionality was reported by 7 out of 9 individuals (77.7%). No acute or late complications were observed. Conclusion: LDRT appears to be useful for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the foot.
43 A Solution for Knee Osteoarthritis with Adipose-Derived Autologous Stem Cells in Middle-Aged People , Lorenzo Milani1*, Silvana Ferrari2
Background: Adipose tissue has achieved a great relevance as possible fount of mesenchymal stem cells for the healing of different articular pathologies including Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA). Stem cells derived from the Adipose Tissue (ADSCs) have a possibility to differentiate into chondrocyte, can reduce the immune response and can stimulate a local tissue repair, improving also the intra-articular Methods and Findings: Intra-articular injections of ADSCs with other conservative or surgical treatments can lead to an improving of all clinical and functional postoperative outcomes evaluated in middle-aged patients with KOA or chondral lesions. Moreover, some scores based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) demonstrated an incremented quality of repaired cartilage in comparison with the pre-treatment. We observed no serious advent events. Conclusion: The use of ADSCs appeared to be out of danger, effective and it can be supposed an alternative procedure for the healing of chondral lesions and degenerative OA suitable for middle-aged athlete but no specific studies have been focus on this population and no long term follow-up data are available.
44 Distinctive Skeletal Phenotype in Patients with Kniest Dysplasia , Ali Al Kaissi1*, Vladimir Kenis2, Sami Bouchoucha3, Sergey Ryabykh1, Susanne Kircher4, Franz Grill5
Background: A group of children presented with diverse forms of spine and joint pathologies in correlation with heritable bone disorders. Patients and Methods: Five children aged from 9 -13 years, presented with a constellation of growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphic features, axial (scoliotic short and barrel chested with marked diminution of spine biomechanics) and painful enlarged joints and sometimes with the propensity to develop mal-alignment (knock knees). We included a 38-years-old-lady, a mother of an affected boy because of her long term history of joint pain and intractable tinnitus. Clinical and radiographic phenotypic characterizations were the first line tools applied. Results: The clinical and radiographic phenotypes of all five children were consistent with the diagnosis of Kniest dysplasia. Strikingly, the reason behind the tinnitus in the short statured 38-years-old- lady was due to congenital hypoplasia of the posterior arch of the atlas (the hypoplastic posterior arch of the atlas was in connection with the developmental failure of chondrogenesis). Two children underwent the genetic testing and showed a genetic defect of encoding type II collagen (COL2A1). Conclusion: Sadly speaking, soon after birth the vast majority of children born with skeletal dysplasia received the misdiagnosis of achondroplasia by their pediatricians and geneticists. In practice, a misdiagnosis can lead to hazardous repercussions for the affected children and their families. Correctly interpreting the clinical and the radiological phenotypes and relating them to etiologies is an essential basis for the proper management. In the field of hereditary bone disorders, the existence of mild and moderate forms of the same disease within other family subjects is a well-known fact (as seen in a 38-years-old- short statured- lady, a mother of an affected boy with Kniest dysplsia). To counter the overlooked maldevelopment of the atlanto-axial effectively, we need to delineate the disrupted anatomical structures of the craniocervical junction as early as possible. It is important to understand that many of these diseases are so mysterious and daunting that they frighten even some practitioners. Therefore, educating physicians is a priority.
45 Quadriceps Muscle Mechanics and Knee Osteoarthritis - A 2022 Update , Ray Marks1*
Background: Knee joint osteoarthritis is a highly disabling disease with no distinct cause that persists unabated despite decades of research. Among the various possible causes and factors that influence the progression of the disease other than age and trauma may be various forms of muscle dysfunction, especially among the key knee extensor muscle group known as the quadriceps femoris. Aim: This narrative review strove to examine some pertinent past and recent 2022 research highlights in this respect and to offer possible research recommendations in this regard. Methods: To achieve the review aims, the PUBMED data base and others housing reports aligned with this topic was searched using the key words knee osteoarthritis and quadriceps/knee extensor muscles. Pertinent 2022 and related data were carefully examined and the study researchers’ approaches, conclusions, and recommendations were duly recorded. Results: Many diverse studies within the desired topical theme prevail, rendering it challenging to discern or extract any meaningful trend or conceptuality sound deterministic theory of causation or pathogenic osteoarthritis insights. Even in the realm where multiple publications are available on a single theme, conclusions and design approaches remain inconsistent and of possible moderate quality at best. Conclusion: Efforts to examine and intervene to avert one or more manifestations of quadriceps muscle dysfunction may prove to be highly important in the realm of favorably influencing or minimizing excess osteoarthritis knee joint dysfunction, regardless of whether knee extensor muscle dysfunction is a reactive, rather than a causative factor, but requires a more profound evidence base.
46 The Effect of Systolic Blood Pressure on Cement Penetration Depth in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty , Michelle Shen1*, Stephen Zak1, Chelsea Sue Sicat1, Andrew Kirk2, Stephen Duncan2, Ran Schwarzkopf1
Background: Cement Penetration Depth (CPD) into bone is an important factor for successful Total Knee Arthroplasties (TKA). Our study investigated the effect of Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) on average tibial, femoral and total CPD in primary TKA. Methods and Findings: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who had a primary TKA between November 2018 and February 2020 at four, academic medical centers were included. CPD was evaluated according to the Knee Society Radiographic Evaluation System on radiographs one month post-operatively. Two independent evaluators measured four zones of tibial penetration and three zones of femoral penetration and averaged their results. The measurements were combined to create an average tibial, average femoral and average total CPD. SBP was collected at the 3/4 time of surgery length- the estimated time of cementation. 1221 primary TKA cases were included in the study – 1128 in the tourniquet group and 93 in the tourniquet-less group. There were no significant differences between the age, sex, BMI, or LOS between the two cohorts. A multiple, multivariate analysis was performed. In the tourniquet-less group, SBP did not significantly affect average tibial CPD (p=0.98), average femoral CPD (p=0.45), or average total CPD (p=0.23). However, tourniquet use was found to significantly increase average femoral (p
47 Chronic Knee Pain is the Paramount Presentation in Patients with Nail-Patella Syndrome, Ali Al Kaissi1*, Sergey Ryabykh1, Alexander Gubin1, Susanne Kircher2, Franz Grill3
Background: Arthralgia in connection with patellar instability have been studied thoroughly in a number of pediatric and adult patients. Small and dysplastic patellae accompanied by hypoplasia of the lateral femoral condyle may results in recurrent subluxation or dislocation of the patellae, knee discomfort and pain. We aimed to detect the underlying etiology of every single patient. Patients and Methods: A total of seven children presented with long term painful knee joints have been refered from the departments of rheumatology. We added adult female patient of a-35-years-old. She was a chronic client of rheumatology clinics since her postadulthood. In addition to her early life knee pain. Recently she experienced additional chronic pain of the groin (located at the posterior buttocks). All our patients showed episodes of knee pain with variable intensity as a constant complaint and all received antirheumatic treatments for years despite the negative results of the implemented tests. In order to commence the diagnostic process, clinical and radiological phenotypic characterization were the main core of our stratregy followed by molecular genetic confirmation. Results: Seven unrelated children (aged from 8-17 years old) were consistent with the diagnosis of Nail- Patella syndrome. The adult female patient of a-35-years-old- manifested patellar instability since her early childhood. Her clinical phenotype was totally compatible with the diagnosis of Nail-Patella syndrome. Surprisingly, the clinical examination of the female patient and the standing AP pelvis radiograph revealed massive encroachment of the medial aspect of the femoral neck and the lesser trochanters onto the ischium. The latter resulted in the diagnosis of Ischiofemoral Impingement (IFI) syndrome. Her genetic tests showed heterozygous mutation in the LIM-homeodomain protein LMX1B on chromosome 9q33. Conclusion: Arthralgia associated with abnormal gait (mostly antalgic gait and waddling gait) was the paramount clinical presentation in all our patients. Dysplasia of the nails and patellar instability were the characteristic clinical findings in our patients with the definite diagnosis of osteo-onychodysplasia syndrome. We approached to the diagnosis from the first session of clinical examination. Interestingly, the constant groin pain in the adult female patient which has been totally overlooked by other instutions, were in favor of the diagnosis of Ischiofemoral Impingement (IFI) syndrome. As well as the existing abnormality of the elbows associated with defective pronation and supination as due to impingement of the olecranon. The task of establishing the diagnostic process in complex clinical conditions is the most challenging. Sadly speaking, none of the aforemnetioned dignostic criteria attracted the attention of dozens of clinicians. Admistering medications to overcome knee pain through dozens of useless laboratory tests were the main false issue. Clinicians who are actively involved in clinical diagnosis with minimal dependency on laboratory aid are generally at the forefront of their medical fields.
48 Morbidity and Total Knee Arthroplasty as a Long-Term Sequela of Tibial Plateau Fractures, Eran Keltz1*, Gabriel Nierenberg2, Nirit Yavnai3, Yaniv Yonai4, Jacob Shapira5, Yaniv Keren5
Background: Tibial plateau fractures comprise a heterogenic group of patients, involving several mechanisms and variability in demographic characteristics. Although short term peri-operative clinical and radiologic outcomes are well described in the literature, long-term prognosis reports are scarce. Hypothesis: Long-term prognosis of Tibial plateau fractures may be correlated with secondary Osteoarthritis (OA) and the need for total knee arthroplasty in rates greater than reported in the current literature, which focuses on short and mid-term prognosis. Methods: 310 patients treated for Tibial plateau fractures, with a follow up period of 10-30 years were attempted contact by mail. They were questioned about their knee function and subsequent surgeries following the index operation. Total knee arthroplasty was defined as the primary endpoint. Results:70 patients had responded. 61 patients were treated surgically primarily with an ORIF, and nine were treated conservatively. The median follow-up period was 211 months (range 121-368). The median Tegner-Lysholm knee function score was 74.5 (IQR 43). 25 patients underwent additional surgery in the injured knee, and 15 patients with inferior Tegner-Lysholm score had TKA. Several distinguished characteristics were found and discussed. Conclusions: Tibial plateau fractures are a heterogenic group of injuries, with a sub-optimal functional outcome and a high prevalence of additional surgeries, in specific, knee arthroplasty.
49 Syndrome of Contractures and Deformities (SofCD): Dysplasia of Hips, Varus Deformity of Shanks, Wry Neck, So-Called Idiopathic Scoliosis Causes Clinic Prophylaxis Therapy, Tomasz Karski1*, Jacek Karski2, Klaudia Karska3
In the article we present one of two main etiopathological groups of pathology of locomotor system. The health of the adults very often depends on the effectiveness of prophylaxis and proper treatment of disorders in the childhood. The treatment of children often can be easy and give good results, what is important for all years of life of everybody. In our experience, the abnormalities described in article are very frequent, due to various reasons. In the article we present one of the causes of pathology.
50 Distinctive Cranial Abnormalities in Children with Early Infancy Insulin Dependent Diabetes in Connection with Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome, Ali Al Kaissi1*, Sergey Ryabykh1, Alexander Gubin1, Polina Ochirova1, Hamza Al Kaissi2, Susanne Gerit Kircher3, Rudolf Ganger4, Franz Grill4
Background: Abnormal craniofacial contour and deformities of the appendicular skeleton of the lower limbs can occur in connection with a long list of skeletal dysplasia. The natural history of chronic/unusual disorders can be a precise key factor towards a successful diagnostic process. Material and Methods: Three unrelated children aged 18-months, 2 and 7 year (two boys and one girl) presented with generalised skeletal mal-development compatible with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. However, in the early months of life these children have been diagnosed with early infancy insulin dependent diabetes. Strikingly, all manifested Wormian bones over the lambdoid sutures. In addition to Progressive malalignment of the lower limbs and thoracic kyphosis associated with significant growth deficiency were the major skeletal abnormalities. Endochondral ossification was diffusely affected associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and appearance of irregular and fragmented epiphyses. Results: Based on early permanent neonatal or early-infancy insulin-dependent diabetes, associated with the clinical and radiological phenotypic characterizations of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and growth retardation as the major abnormalities in these children. Wolcott-Rallison syndrome was the highly likely diagnosis. The most interesting findings in this study; The Wormian bones, not only involved the lambdoid sutures, but also extended to involve the occipitomastoid suture. We confirmed our diagnosis via sequence analysis which revealed a homozygous nonsense gene mutation (EIF2AK3) resulting in a premature stop codon (c.2707 C>T, p.R903X). Parents in two families were identified as heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Conclusion: The significance of this study is to point out the importance of analysing the skull bones in children with skeletal dysplasia. Interestingly, for the first time we detected the downward bulging of the occiput because of the abundancy of the Wormian bones (sites of maximal skull bone fragility) along the lambdoid and the occipito-mastoid sutures is by itself a highly alarming sign of progressive weakness of the weight-bearing zone (which is represented by the lambdoid and the occipitomastoid sutures). The exerting load of the cerebrum on these vulnerable and soft sutures can lead to brain swelling (a serious condition). Despite that lower limb defects in children are the most frequent deformities encountered in the departments of paediatric orthopaedics, because of the real or apparent detrimental effect that they have on gait and upright activity, and it draw immediate and alarming attention to parents. But, nevertheless, it is the responsibility of physicians to pay prompt attention for the necessity to scrutinize the skulls and the craniocervical junction in patients with long term bone disorders.
51 Hip Muscle Atrophy and Hip Osteoarthritis-Evidence and Continuing Challenges , Ray Marks1*
Background: Hip osteoarthritis, a highly disabling disease with no distinct cause, and a disease associated with high degrees of pain, stiffness, and disability continues to affect the lives of many adults of all ages highly adversely and may be influenced adversely by some forms of muscle dysfunction, such as hip muscle atrophy. Aim: To examine the prevailing research support for a mediating or causative role of muscle atrophy in hip osteoarthritis. Methods: An in-depth literature review focusing on hip osteoarthritis muscle atrophy associations was conducted. Results: A fair number of past and recent research reports indicate efforts to examine and intervene to minimize one or more attributes of hip muscle atrophy appears promising in the context of efforts to foster improved outcomes of hip joint osteoarthritis, regardless of the application of high-tech surgery. Conclusion: Future research efforts are strongly indicated.
52 Systematic Review of Lesser Tuberosity Osteotomy Techniques, Outcomes and Biomechanical Testing Parameters: A Critical Appraisal, Trevor Ottofaro1, Suvleen K Singh1, Richard J Friedman1, Josef K Eichinger1*
Background: Given that optimization of management of the subscapularis is essential to ensuring an optimal outcome after shoulder arthroplasty, this review will focus on the ideal method of Lesser Tuberosity Osteotomy (LTO) repair and the methods by which this is assessed. Specifically, we will review the existing literature to determine how suture configuration, number of sutures, type of sutures, and osteotomy size all influence the biomechanics of an LTO repair. Methods: A systematic review was performed in which one reviewer searched PubMed to find studies analyzing biomechanical strength of lesser tuberosity osteotomy repairs after a total shoulder arthroplasty. The following keywords were used to retrieve articles: (biomechanical) and (Lesser Tuberosity Osteotomy) or (LTO) or (subscapularis repair) and (total shoulder). Results: Nine studies met inclusion criteria. LTO was the strongest, most durable repair in most biomechanical studies. However, the biomechanical testing protocols and repair techniques widely varied throughout the literature. Dual row repair with sutures wrapped around the stem as well thin LTO fragments showed superior biomechanical outcomes. There has been minimal literature focusing on how the number, size and type of suture utilized in a repair affect biomechanical outcomes. Discussion: While the LTO repair technique has been demonstrated in multiple studies to be a biomechanically superior method of subscapularis repair in the setting of TSA, there has not been a single study which has analyzed the effects of repair technique, osteotomy size, as well as suture number/type/size using a standardized biomechanical testing protocol. Level of Evidence: Level I; Biomechanics
53 Coping Strategies among Elderly Women with Knee Osteoarthritis Pain at Beni-Suef City: Impact of Socio-demographic Characteristics, Hanan Elzeblawy Hassan1*, Eman Mohamed Alshrbieny2, Mariam Riad Fahmy3
Background: The leading cause of pain and incapacity in elderly women is Osteoarthritis (OA). It affects females more frequently than males. The quantity and quality of coping resources that a person may have at their disposal affect the coping style they ultimately choose. The purpose of this study was to examine how the socio-demographic features of older women in Beni-Suef city who were experiencing knee Osteoarthritis (OA) pain affected their coping mechanisms. Design: The current study used a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The investigation was conducted in the orthopaedics outpatient clinic and the physiotherapy unit at Beni-Suef University Hospital. Subjects: In the current study, 300 studied women were recruited using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. Tools: Pain Coping Inventory (PCI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Interview Questionnaire Results: Based on the visual analogue scale for measuring pain intensity. It demonstrates that 50% of the older women in the study had low coping skills, 49.3% experienced moderate pain, 50.3% had moderate and 50.3% had severe pain. Younger (65-70 years old), women with intermediate education (38.5% and 32.7%), women who were retired and unemployed (48.1% and 32.7%), married (92.3%), women who lived in rural areas (53.8%) and elderly adult women with an adequate family income (92.3%) were more likely to use high levels of coping strategies. There was a positive association between pain level and activities of daily life (r= 0.109 and p= 0.05) and a severe negative link between the overall pain coping inventory and degree of pain (r= -0.280 and p= 0.000). Conclusion: Age, educational attainment, employment position and marital status all significantly influenced how well older women coped with pain. Even Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant correlation between the ability of older women to cope with pain and their monthly income and area of residence. The overall pain coping inventory and the visual analogue scale were shown to have a substantial negative connection. While the Katz scale for ADL and the pain coping inventory showed a positive association. Recommendations: Public health education in the media on osteoarthritis management.
54 Transition to Anterior Approach in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty - Learning Curve Complications , Leopoldo J Maizo1*
Introduction: The recent emphasis on tissue preservation and minimally invasive outpatient joint replacements has resulted in a significant increase in the use of Direct Anterior Approach (DAA) total hip arthroplasty. It has gained interest recently because of its faster short-term recovery, despite concerns about increased complications and operative time, especially during the learning curve period. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether complications of transitioning to a direct anterior approach for primary total hip arthroplasty may impair patient safety. Methods: A total of 51 primary hip arthroplasties were performed in 44 patients with the direct anterior approach technique: 37 unilateral arthroplasties and 7 bilateral arthroplasties, during the first 3 years of the learning curve of this technique and their complications were analyzed. Results: No patient had severe complications or surgical reinterventions associated to transoperative complications. Tearing of the tensor fascia lata muscle was on average the most frequent complication (19.6%), followed by skin lesions (17.6%), difficulty in implant reduction (9.8%) and fractures of the greater trochanter (7.8%). No severe complications occurred. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the transition to the direct anterior approach can be done safely without a significant complication rate. These complications are usually associated with the use of inadequate special instruments, inadequate patient selection and the knowledge of maneuvers of the surgeon and his team acquired during the experience and development of the technique. Even so, they do not require additional treatment, which allows us to conclude that this technique is reproducible and can be safely transitioned.
55 How Sterile Are Our Operating Rooms? A Comparison of Air Quality During Primary TKA and THA , Gennaro DelliCarpini1*, Chelsea Sue Sicat1, Thomas Bieganowski1, Ran Schwarzkopf1, Joseph A Bosco III1, Joshua C Rozell1
Introduction: Airborne Biologic Particles (ABPs) are a potential risk factor for infection following total joint arthroplasty. Factors such as temperature and humidity may affect the number of ABPs which can increase the risk of infection. Comparisons of ABP count between Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) and Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) have yet to be made. Our study examines the differences in ABP count between primary THA and TKA procedures. Methods: We analyzed all primary TJA procedures done within the same OR at an academic institution from April 2019 to June 2020. All procedures between the dates of March 15, 2020 – May 4, 2020 were excluded to avoid COVID-related confounding. Intraoperative measurements of temperature, humidity, and ABP count per minute were recorded. A report containing surgical data from the same time was generated using the institution’s Electronic Health Records (EHR) system and cross-referenced to the intraoperative measurements using procedure start and end times. ABP was calculated as an average ABP count per minute. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate differences in variables of interest. P-values were calculated using t-test for continuous variables and chi square for categorical values. Results: A total of 168 cases were included in the study, comprised of 98 (58.3%) primary THA and 70 (41.7%) primary TKA. No significant differences in room temperature or particle counts across all particle sizes were found between THA and TKA groups. Similarly, time spent in the room was not significantly different between THA and TKA. The only variable that was significantly different between the two groups was average relative humidity, with higher humidity in the THA group (46.9% + 7.56 vs 44.4% + 8.02, p=0.008). Conclusion: There were no significant differences in temperature or particle count between primary THA and primary TKA procedures, suggesting OR air quality was similar between the two procedure types. Further investigation including additional variables such as OR size, airflow patterns, and different procedure types should be performed to better characterize the role of ABPs in air quality and infection risk.
56 Etiology Understanding Is the Core of Skeletal Diagnosis, Ali Al Kaissi1*, Sergey Ryabykh1, Rudolf Ganger2, Susanne Gerit Kircher 3, Franz Grill2
Background: The term idiopathic is a non-specific disease label, which fails account for proper etiological understanding. The frequent usage of the term idiopathic may indicate clinical incompetence. We describe a number of patients from our practice with a history of complex bone disorders who were falsely given the term idiopathic by other Institutes. The sole tool used by other Institutes to conclude osteoporosis as a diagnosis is the bone mineral density. Material and Methods: Two Austrian families and one unrelated adult female patient (total number of 12 subjects) have been referred to our department with referral letters confirming the diagnosis of idiopathic osteoporosis. All patients manifested a diverse constellation of skeletal deformities. In all these patients, regular courses of anti-resorptive treatment plus calcium and vitamin D supplements. These have been excessively prescribed. Results: Our diagnostic process which is based heavily on detailed clinical and radiological phenotypic characterizations, we refuted the diagnosis of idiopathic osteoporosis for all patients because of the clear-cut clinical features. For the first family, we suggested the diagnosis of a novel type of mucopolysaccharidosis (the genetic results confirmed the diagnosis of a novel subtype of mucopolysaccharidosis (through the identification of arylsulfatase K ARSK). For the second family which has been subjected to a lengthy useless investigation for almost more than a decade, we refuted the diagnosis of idiopathic osteoporosis and the whole exome sequencing was consistent with the phenotypic diagnosis Nasu-Hakola disease (heterozygous missense mutations in TYROBP gene). The other unrelated 42-year-old- female patient was correctly diagnosed with Nasu-Hakola disease. Conclusion: The objective of this study is to minimize and suppress the usage of the term idiopathic. It has been imperative to understand the sequence of pathological events that occurred in these families. The core for diagnosis is the etiological understanding, which stemmed from professional conscientiousness. Patients underwent misdiagnosis of idiopathic osteoporosis and were treated extensively with anti-resorptive agents, calcium supplements and vitamin D. Strikingly, these medications resulted in a combination of serious cranial and cerebral lesions because of massive pathological calcifications. Imaging analysis via conventional radiographs, MRI and CT scan showed massive calcifications of the cranial sutures, inter-clinoid ligaments and hyper-calcification of the skull base. Sadly speaking, early onset dementia emerged in connection with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy. We believe that the exogenous toxic effects of the huge amounts of bone supplements consumed by these patients enhanced the pre-existing metabolic bone and cerebral disorders. Our findings can ameliorate the etiological understanding of early onset dementia and other correlated cranial and skeletal lesions.