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1 EURASIAN ENERGY SECURITY IN THE FACE OF RUSSO-UKRAINIAN TENSIONS AND TURKEY’S ROLE AS A POTENTIAL ENERGY HUB , G?ktug S?NMEZ
After the political and military crisis between Russia and Ukraine in 2014, the EU’s energy security was again in question. In fact, this was not the first time for the EU to question the reliability of the Russian energy supply. Similar disputes sparked controversies over gas prices in 2006 and 2009 in the context of efforts to maintain secure and reliable energy markets. Russia has often used its energy resources as an instrument of threat and blackmail in foreign policy relations with the EU, especially after the 2000s. Regarding alternative energy routes, Turkey has raised an important option since the end of the Cold War. Its location as a geographic bridge connecting east and west, as well as the strategic ownership of gas pipelines such as TANAP increase Turkey’s potential to contribute to the European energy security in case if it becomes a real energy hub rather than a transit country.
2 A DIGITAL LABOR STORE: FLEXIBLE TIME TECHNOPARK SAMPLE , Fikriye CELIK
This study aims to reveal the dimensions of exploitation that has lost its visibility in the flexible working arrangement created by new capitalism, and the relentless race initiated by man with “time”. In this context, the research focusing on the fact that technoparks are one of the places where digital labor is most intensely confessed, focuses on the Erciyes Technopark sample. Semistructured interviews have been conducted with ten technopark employees who were asked eight questions. Interviews have been conducted in January 2019, and the recorded interviews have been analyzed using qualitative content analysis method. The findings show that people who find themselves under flexible working have difficulties in catching up with “time”; to compromise oneself, life, family, environment and labor in order to be faster, more efficient and more productive, and consent to all this without their consent.
3 WATER ISSUE IN CENTRAL ASIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES , Erdal DUZDABAN
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, gained their independence and faced the water issue, which was regulated by the Moscow administration before their independence. Water allocation and regulation are mainly based on the study of Barthold and the USSR Central Asian Department. During the Soviet Union, Central Asian water resources were used without considering the future of water sources and determined only to increase to cotton production of the central apparatus. In this context, the drying up of the Aral Sea is seen as one of the results of the implemented policies. The relations of the states, within the scope of the construction of Rogun Dam and Kambarata HPP 1 Dam, were analyzed through legal means under the water security. Since the research is qualitative, the case analysis method is selected for the evaluation of the collected data.
4 BROKEN DREAMS IN ASHKHABAD: AN OVERVIEW OF TURKMENISTAN’S POST-INDEPENDENCE POLITICAL CONTRADICTIONS AND THE CHALLENGES OF CENTRAL ASIAN MIGRANTS IN RUSSIA , Valdir DA SILVA BEZERRA
This article presents a discussion on olitical contradictions of post-independence Turkmenistan. As part of a broader effort to understand the social and power dynamics resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union, we apply a descriptive analysis of the principal domestic and foreign policy events involving the Ashkhabad government, as well as the implications for the lives of Turkmen migrants in Russia, who have chosen to leave their country of origin in search of better opportunities. The current paper suggests that Turkmenistan not only became a laboratory for the exercise of a local version of a ‘Cult of Personality’ of the leader, but also precariously operationalized its political neutrality due to economic dependence on Moscow and, more recently, on China. Regarding Turkmen migrants abroad, we evidence their difficulties of assimilation in Russia, due, in part, to a ‘stereotyped’ view about migrants on the part of Russian population.
5 Book Review: CHINA’S GLOBALIZATION AND THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE , Asset ORDABAYEV
6 Book Review: THE NEW MAP: ENERGY, CLIMATE AND THE CLASH OF NATIONS , Ilhan SAGSEN
7 ANALYZING MULTIPLE BUBBLES IN THE USDKZT EXCHANGE RATE USING THE GSADF TEST , Mert URAL
Since most of the financial crisis caused by the bursting bubble of financial assets, the investigation of bubble behaviors and the early detection for the prevention of adverse economic consequences is important. This paper investigates whether multiple price bubbles exist in USDKZT exchange rate on the basis of a recursive right tailed Generalized Supremum Augmented Dickey Fuller Test (GSADF) developed by Phillips, Shi and Yu (2015), as well as to determine date stamps of the price bubbles. In this regard, we performed GSADF test by using weekly closing prices of the nominal exchange rate for the period between 23.08.2015 to 04.04.2021. In line with the empirical findings obtained, two explosive bubbles are detected in 2018 and 2020 when USDKZT exchange rate deviates from fundamental value. Our ?ndings suggest that due to the possibility of bubble repetition, GSADF has been verified to be a better test for detecting bubbles.
8 THEORIZATION IN IR AND THIRD WORLD STATES: THE PROMISE OF HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY IN EXPLAINING THE NEXUS BETWEEN DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL SPHERES , Yihenew Wubu ENDALEW
Until alternative theories that sought a serious consideration of third world states in International Relations (IR) proliferated in the last quarter of the 20th century, knowledge production remained monopolized by dominant Western-centered theories. Historical Sociology in International Relations (HSIR) is one of the approaches that aimed at directing IR towards more inclusive inquiries that acknowledge temporal and spatial variance; especially against ahistorical and ‘asociological’ foundations of Neorealism. Despite this motivation, most of the studies and debates within HSIR are concentrated on illustrating the approach’s applicability in the study of Western states. Through a review of the available literature, this paper aims to demonstrate the promise of HSIR in explaining the relationship between domestic and foreign affairs of third world states. To achieve this objective, the paper mainly draws from the works of John Hobson and Fred Halliday and suggests the incorporation of third world states in the inquiries and debate within HSIR.
9 POWER GAMES ON THE SILK ROUTE: A JOURNEY FROM HISTORICAL TO MODERN ERA , Shoaib KHAN
The real aim of the programme is an extension of Chinese power and influence. As per an analyst, it is a game where China is steadily placing counters across Asia and Europe. In the Western views, it is easy to interpret comments as a strategy of China, with the aim of extending Chinese influence in a series of carefully planned steps. Around 114 BC by the Han dynasty, the trade routes of Central Asia were expanded largely through the missions and explorations of Chinese imperial envoy Zhang Qian. The world’s greatest economic construction and development project ever is being undertaken by China. In the economic map of the world the New Silk Road project is a revolutionary change. The geopolitical conflicts over the project could lead to a new cold war between East and West for dominance in Eurasia as it is becoming clearer every day.
10 Book Review: NO CONQUEST, NO DEFEAT: IRAN’S NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY Ariane M. Tabatabai. No Conquest, No Defeat: Iran’s National Security Strategy. New York, Oxford University Press & Hurst Publishers, 2020. pp. 390.   , Bayram SINKAYA
11 CONTEMPORARY GEOPOLITICS OF EURASIA AND THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE , Mohamad ZREIK
In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping launched the Belt and Road Initiative. This modern initiative aims to revive the ancient Silk Road and connect China with many neighboring and distant countries and economic blocs. China invests mainly in infrastructure by developing a network of land and maritime roads, facilitating communication, trade and transportation. The various projects under this initiative will make China a leader in international trade and an attractive region for giant partners. This paper analyzes the Chinese presence in Eurasia after the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative and the contemporary geopolitics of Eurasia in light of the great Chinese expansion. This study contributes to clarifying the China-Central Asia relationship and represents this relationship within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. This study is based on data issued by governmental institutions and international research centers, which makes it an important reference in Central Asian studies. This paper concluded that the Belt and Road Initiative will have a significant impact on the economy of Central Asia and its geopolitical position through the great Chinese openness and dependence on Central Asia in China’s regional and international trade. The paper also discusses the Sino-Russian contrast that may arise with the Chinese penetration into Central Asia.
12 UZBEKISTAN EXTERNAL MIGRATION: KEY TRENDS AND DIRECTIONS , Mirzokhid RAKHIMOV, Farkhod YOKUBOV
At present Uzbekistan is the largest Central Asian exporter of labor and education migration. Remittances play important role in the national economy. The article examines the emergence and main factors of migration in contemporary Uzbekistan. Based on the study of diversity research literature and sources, it was used the comparative study of key trends, dynamics, and transformation of labor and educational migration from Uzbekistan to Russia, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey. It elaborates on the internal factors of the migration issue in Uzbekistan and provides an analysis of the status, conditions, and challenges of the migrants in foreign countries.
13 UZBEKISTAN’S FOREIGN POLICY UNDER MIRZIYOYEV: CHANGE OR CONTINUITY? , Beishenbek TOKTOGULOV
After Mirziyoyev came to power in December 2016, impressive developments have taken place in Uzbekistan’s relations with the Central Asian republics, regional and external powers, and international institutions. These developments have led some to concur that Uzbekistan is going through remarkable or milestone/drastic changes in its foreign policy. The objective of this paper is to analyze Uzbekistan’s foreign policy under Mirziyoyev, in comparison with that of his predecessor, and to reveal whether there have been changes or continuities in Uzbekistan’s foreign policy under his administration. The study puts forth that Uzbekistan under Mirziyoyev has continued to maintain its military neutrality and prioritize Central Asia in its foreign policy. This demonstrates that Karimov’s core foreign policy strategy has been maintained under Mirziyoyev. The only difference has been his country’s constructive foreign policy approach to its relations with the regional and external actors.
14 Book Review: THE SPECTRE OF AFGHANISTAN: SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA Kirill Nourzhanov and Amin Saikal. The Spectre of Afghanistan: Security in Central Asia. London, I.B.TAURIS Bloomsbury Publishing Plc., 2021, pp. 249.   , Zhandos KUDAIBERGENOV
15 Book Review: CENTRAL ASIA: NARRATING AND UNDERSTANDING THE REGION Adeeb Khalid. Central Asia. A New History from the Imperial Conquests to the Present. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2021, pp. 702.   , Laura YEREKESHEVA