1 Political analysis of Turkish-American relations at the present stage , Beka Makaradze
At the end of the XX century and in the 10s of the XXI century, there was observed some tension in Turkish-American relations, that were not developed in accordance with the expectations of Turkey. This was due to problems related to Armenia, Syria, Israel, Iran, Kurds, which were the most important and sensitive for Ankara. The end of the "cold war" in the 1990s and the "withdrawal" from the political map of Turkey's main threat - the Soviet Union - provided Ankara with an opportunity to act independently in the region, And at the beginning of the XXI century, Turkey began to work most actively in this direction. Turkey's modern foreign policy is distinguished by many features. This is the "New Turkey" model, which is especially concentrated on the Middle East and Islamic countries. The main goal of the policy is to influence the Muslim population of this region and spread neo-Ottoman values. Turkey attaches great importance to its international relations. Turkey occupies a leading position and is at the head of the triangle of the Balkans - Caucasus - Middle East, and it should not be thought that all this is connected only with the subjective self-realization of Turkey. The Turkish Republic was brought to this state by the attitude of other Western states. Relations between Turkey and the United States began in the middle of the XX century, although the idea of ??Turkey as a secular, democratic Muslim state became more widely known only in the early XXI century. At the beginning of the XXI century, Turkey's renewed foreign policy approaches, of course, also influenced its relations with other countries. First of all, there have been some changes in relations between the Republic of Turkey and its long-standing strategic partner, the United States. Turkey, which wants to transform itself into a country with a "world-class economy" and become a state with a liberal democracy, will inevitably have to forge ties with the United States, which in part will require it to clarify its foreign policy priorities.   Keywords: Turkey; UnitedStates of America; Political analysis.
2 In labyrinths of Japanese way of thinking , Mariam Chalabashvili
Japanese mainstream way of thinking prevails as a puzzle for the whole world including Georgia. Several Japanese words and phrases are hard to grasp even after the translation; Ikigai (????) and Wabi-sabi (????) are the two striking examples. Both of them could be deemed as not only words, but also as the way of thinking or the way of life. The word etymology of Ikigai (the reason, value of life) derives from the Heian period (794-1185). According to the clinical psychologist Akihiro Hasegawa, Gai comes from the Japanese word Kai - shell; during the Heian period (as well as much earlier) shells were perceived highly valuable as artists decorated them by hand, and used them in a shell-matching game called Kaiawase. Kaiis also used in other Japanese words and actual verbs such as hatarakigai (the value of working); yarigai (the value of doing) and asobigai (the value of playing). Since Gai relates to value, Ikigai could also be translated as the value of life, something worth living for. The concept of Ikigai could be compared to a sunflower, the sunflower seeds in the center could be perceived as the source of Ikigai and petals of the flower as one’s feeling about the ikigai object - Ikigai-kan (Ikigai feeling). As the Japanese proverb goes, "ten people, ten colours". Therefore, Ikigai could be as diverse as the number of people and the Japanese tend to follow their own Ikigai, without clarifying the word. Another Japanese concept - Wabi-sabi (which gradually transformed its initial gloomy connotation since 14th century) offers us to perceive beauty even inimpermanence, incompletion andimperfection. Even though, the concept is intricately entangled with the everyday life, that makes it very difficult for Japanese people to convey the meaning, the essence of Wabi-sabi could be comprehended in the ancient craft of Kintsugi and Japanese house design as well.   Key words: ikigai; wabi-sabi.  
3 Gulf countries in Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy , Maia Kapanadze
Saudi Arabia is one of the most important countries in the Middle East and the Gulf countries. Saudi Arabia is trying to play a leading role in the Gulf countries.In turn, the Gulf states are trying, and some are even trying, to weaken Saudi Arabia's influence on it, which is not so positively reflected in Saudi Arabia's foreign policy not only in the Middle East but also outside the region. Often Saudi Arabia tries to change the foreign policy vector of the Gulf countries in its favor and also to make some changes in their attitude, both towards their own Saudi Arabia and towards each other. Nevertheless, some Gulf countries try to act independently of Saudi Arabia, not to be influenced by it (Qatar, Kuwait) and to plan its foreign policy independently.                                     This attempt by some Gulf countries often ends in fruitfu for them. Often they themselves have some influence on the foreign policy course of Saudi Arabia as well.  The latter, together with various methods, tries to use the "Gulf Cooperation Council" to gain influence in the Gulf countries, through which it often achieves the desired result. The same organization is also used by Gulf countries to influence Saudi policy.It should also be noted that the Gulf Cooperation Council is a nation-wide organization. Saudi Arabia is one of the Gulf states,  which has the  problems with Iran the most.  Their troubled relationships  always differ from those of other countries. Iran is not a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council, and therefore Saudi Arabia cannot use the organization to influence over Iran.   Keywords: Gulf countries; Saudi Arabia.              
The article covers recent relationship of modern world’s two great powers – Russia and China, with main focus on identifying causes and goals behind positive reflection of China in the Russian media, which is becoming a trend during last couple years. As it is known, the media has a great influence on the formation of public awareness, stereotypes, attitudes, therefore, the control of media space, to some extent, also means control of public opinion. Less democratic the country is, more opportunities for such kind of control it has. In such countries, the tightening of control over the media can be caused by many factors - political, economic, cultural, and so on. Modern Russia has put herself in a difficult position in many directions. The sanctions initiated by the West are pushing the Russian government towards the East, particularly China. The connection between Moscow and Beijing over the past decade has been unprecedentedly close, which needs to be justified by a special campaign in a country like Russia, where the attitude of the population and political elites towards China is traditionally cautious and negative. Chinese culture, language, economic success, political, etc. arrangement are being intensively promoted in the Russian media to justify the Eastern path. Even special information applications have been created.  By analyzing political and economic relationship of those countries in the article it is obvious that in contrast to the disagreement with the West, Russia is becoming more dependent on China. Accordingly, it is enhancing the positive role of China in the Russian media.   Keywords: Russia-China relationship, Xi Jinping, China media corporation    
5 Cem „Sultan“ fight for the throne   And Pope Alexander VI Borgia , George Akhalkatsishvili
The discussion of the second half of the 15th century in the history of the Ottoman Empire and its diplomatic relations with Europe is inconceivable without the history of Jem "Sultan", as these processes played a major role in Ottoman-European relations, especially with Rome. This paper presents one of the most important events in Ottoman history, related to the struggle of Prince Jem against his brother Sultan Bayazid and his European voyage. The struggle of Prince Jem for the throne has not been studied in detail in Georgian historiography. There is only general information in the scientific literature on this issue, which led to the writing of this article. In the process of working on the paper, we tried Georgian, Turkish and foreign authors related to this issue (H. Inalcik, D. Emecen, I. H. Uzuncharshil and N. Yorga, G. Japaridze, I. Khubashvili, M. Svanidze, M. Makharadze and others. ) We were informed of the opinions. As far as possible, we studied the sources and, through critical analysis, presented the content of the first extensive work on the tragedy of Prince Jem (who called himself  "Sultan" for the rest of his life), which is a novelty in itself. When working and translating foreign literature, we first maintained the accuracy of the information, compared it with other materials, and based our opinion on the arguments. This issue is relevant because it concerns not only the European policy of the Ottomans, but also the foreign policy of the Roman pontiffs and European countries - Res Orientalis. The paper shows how all of them tried to use the Jem for their own mercantile and political purposes. Finally, we must say that European-Ottoman relations are one of the most pressing issues in the history of the Middle Ages and are the subject of constant interest of scholars. So maybe the discovery of new sources will show us a completely different reality and turn another new page in history.   Keywords:         Ottoman empire; Europe in the 15th Century; Roman pontiffs; Jem sultan;                                      Pope  Alexander VI Borgia.      
6 Georgians in China in the first half of  the 20th century , Shalva  Chikhladze Otari  Tchigladze 
For centuries, citizens who left Georgia voluntarily or by force have played an important role in various states in Eurasia, both militarily, politically, and economically. The Far East was no exception, where Georgians were involved in political and economic processes at various times and enjoyed influence. it is unclear  when and under what conditions the first Georgians arrived in distant China, although the emergence of the first community dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century and the city of Harbin. Due to political and economic factors, various ethnic groups, including Georgians, have gathered in the Far East from various parts of the Russian Empire. Information and archival materials about the Georgian community existed more or less before, but the study found many new facts that provide a broader picture of what and how the Georgian community operated in the East. According to Georgian, Chinese and Russian sources, the Georgian residents of Harbin were involved in both economic and entrepreneurial activities, they were actively involved in local political processes, as well as in connection with the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Besarion Lominadze, a member of the Comintern, is another Georgian who has left an interesting mark on Chinese politics. Three-year national consensus between the Communist and Nationalist parties finished in 1927, and the antagonism between them increased even more. It was during this period that the Kremlin sent a new Comintern delegation led by Besarion Lominadze and Heinz Neumann for instruction.  Comintern Delegation forced Chen Duxiu to resign  as party chairman. They also planned to elect the new politbureu of CCP. Moreover, with the involvement of Lominadze and Neumann, young Mao Zedong became a temporary member of the Politburo, thus significantly increasing his influence. The activities of the Comintern were not limited to this, they recommended the launch of armed resistance and local uprisings, the failure of Guangzhou uprising became Damocle’s sworld on him. Another Georgian Bolshevik who was the Kremlin's direct representative in the Chinese civil war was Alexander (Aliosha) Svanidze. Svanidze was the brother of Stalin's first wife, who held influential positions at various times. In 1934, as a representative and ambassador of the State Bank, Svanidze arrived in Xinjiang and gave instructions to the military ruler there on the economic, financial, and military modernization of the Sheng Shiqai region. Svanidze stays in the region for some time and oversees organizational matters, for which he has received numerous verbal or written thanks from local authorities. The above-mentioned episodes have not been studied in the Georgian Academy, Georgian community in Harbin and Soviet individuals had an interesting role and missions in the Republic of China. The study is the first attempt to gather the involvement of Georgians in the political and economic processes of China in the first half of the twentieth century, to describe their personal and professional role in the civil role of China. The research is based on Georgian, English, Russian and Chinese sources, which gives a broad picture in unity and makes it possible to verify the facts.   Keywords: Geogians in China, Harbin, Republic of Georgia, Comintern.  
7 Return of the Taliban – Preconditions and the interests of regional key players , Simon Gureshidze
The article discusses and analyzes the current situation in Afghanistan. The military operation launched by the United States against the Taliban in this country in 2001, after 20 years ended with the return of this movement. The United States has spent 2.26 $ trillion over the past two decades in Afghanistan to eliminate a variety of challenges facing the country, one of these efforts included training and arming the 300,000-strong Afghan army. However, contrary to expectations, the army was reluctant to resist the Taliban, and the movement soon gained control of the entire country and the capital Kabul, which eventually ended with the departure of President Ashraf Ghani and new caretaker government was announced by the Taliban.                                                                                   Because of these reasons, world's attention remains focused on Afghanistan. Particular interest is the development of events in this country and throughout the region. One of the main question is, will this country become a polygon of terrorist organizations again or a center of confrontation between various ethnic and religious groups during the reign of the Taliban? Therefore, the purpose of the article is to rethink and analyze the situation in Afghanistan before withdrawal of the US troops.                                                   Accordingly, the article discusses the Taliban interim government and brief characteristics of its members. Preconditions for the withdrawal of US troops. The interests of the Taliban, internal Afghan and regional actors: the Taliban, the Haqqani network, the Islamic State of Khorasan Province, the influence and factor of the sheikhs of the local tribes, the phenomenon of Panjshir Province. Also the interests of Russia, China, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Qatar. Weapons and sources of funding in the hands of the Taliban since the withdrawal of U.S. troops.                             The final section and conclusion broadly outline the main arguments why the Taliban could be an acceptable force for control of Afghanistan for the US and for the listed regional actors, and was the interests of the regional key players the main reason for the fall of Panjshir province.   Keywords: USA, Taliban, internal and regional actors, Pnjshir province.
8 Turkey on the road to European Union , Zaza Beridze
The relationship between Turkey and European Union was started by the commonwealth relationship between Turkey and Europe and Turkey applied for its membership yet in 1987. The committee has prepared its resolution on December 18, 1989 in which it was stated that the negotiation with Turkey on becoming a member was premature. The committee brought the economic, as well as the political reasons for that, also the fact that there was a dispute between Turkey and Greece and the existing events in Cypress. On February 5, 1990 the committee approved the resolution, according to which Turkey would become a member of the European Union after creating the appropriate environment. In order to meet the necessary criteria for becoming a member of the European Union Turkey has carried out several reforms in 1990s and 2000s that were successful to some degree and on December 13, 1995 the Euro parliament gave the green light to the creation of the customs union. The customs union was a serious step toward Turkey and the European Union getting closer. By getting closer to Turkey the European Union showed the Islamic world that religion is not a hindering factor for the integration. In turn, an aspiration to Europe was strengthened in Turkey. The customs union was an excellent incentive for passing democratic reforms in Turkey that gave political leverage to the supporters of integration in the west. During talking about the relationship between Turkey and European Union we should start counting from the Luxemburg summit of December of 1997. This summit was a significant starting point. The following summits that were held in Cardiff and Helsinki were also significant steps forward.In the process of integration in the European Union, Turkey has passed several economic and political reforms that gained the big scales after 2002 when Justice and Development Party came to power that was declaring the integration of Turkey into the European Union as its political priority and has actively continued the reforms, which included the wide-scale constitutional and general legal changes and their first package was enforced in 2004. Despite Turkey's attempts, the Euro integration process was so problematic first of all for European countries. In the case of integration of a large country like Turkey, they besides were afraid of significantly increasing its role in the internal affairs of Europe, they also thought that Turkey was different from the European Union countries due to religious, cultural, or other factors. These and similar statements created the thought in Turkey that the European Union was a “Christian Club” and the religion was playing a significant role in determining the position of the European countries with regard to Turkey. Finally, when Turkey has transferred toward the authoritarian presidential system after the repressions that started on July 15, 2016 the European Union stopped sending the financial help to Turkey and in March of 2019 the European Parliament supported suspension of the negotiations on Turkey membership in the European Union.Despite the tense relationship the European Union and Turkey are forced to cooperate on the basic issues. It can be said that the political partnership is very important for both parties. Full isolation from Turkey is not desirable for the European Union, because Turkey controls large parts of Black and Mediterranean seas and balances Russia in the region. At the same time Turkey is one of the main energy pass way that is vitally important to Europe. Turkey has in turn its interests with the European Union. The strategic partnership and existing projects have high priority for Turkey. We mean the economic projects, membership of the European Customs Union that creates a significant economic welfare for Turkey. As we mentioned the main factor for Turkey that forces it to cooperate with the European Union is the economy. The European Union is a large trading partner for Turkey. For example half of the goods exported from Turkey were exported to the European Union in 2018. The amount the European Union countries pay to Turkey on the basis of the agreement made in 2016 in order to stop Syrian or other non-European labor immigrants from passing borders of the European Union is also very important. Turkey will close the borders to potential illegal migrants and will agree on repatriation of the individuals for certain period who illegally cross the European Union borders, in exchange Turkey will receive 6 billion Euros in different stages, together with the non-visa movement right to the European Union countries and certain advantages in the process of Turkey becoming a member of the European Union. It is true that at one glance the agreement turned out to be successful, but it soon became a blackmail tool for the Turkish government and the president of Turkey often uses the migrant factor to blackmail the European Union countries in order to receive financial or other kind of support. Such strict attitude brings the process that we call the integration to the European Union to a dead end.   Keywords: Turkey; European Union.
9 The Lazs in Adjara (historical, ethnographic and ethnocultural aspects) , Luka Tandilava
The purpose and task of the scientific work "The Lazs in Adjara (historical, ethnographic and ethnocultural aspects)" is to acquaint a reader with the historical, ethnographic and ethnocultural aspects of the traditional life of the Laz people living in Adjara. The article deals with various aspects of the material and spiritual culture of the Lazs, as well as their traditional way of life in general, by comparing them with ethnographic materials or written sources, in particular, the geographical area of ??the settlement, structure, rural toponymy and history, ethnographic features of the Laz house. The specificity of the Laz cuisine and the special place of fish in the Laz cuisine are analyzed. The article is mainly based on a case study that I conducted in Sarpi village. During the research, I met with the elders of the village, with whom I talked about my research problems, and based on the information they provided, I have conducted the research on the present topic. In the work, I have used a rich visual material, which once again convinces us that the inclusion of relevant illustrations in the process of ethnological research makes it possible to draw interesting conclusions.   Key words:  the Lazpeople; Adjara; ethnography.  
10 The Structure of Georgian and Turkish Idioms With the Same Semantics , Ana Akhaladze
The paper, based on relevant examples, discusses the structure of Georgian and Turkish idioms from a semantic and stylistic point of view, given that the idiom in Turkish is not strictly separated from phraseology and the word „deyim” (“idiom” is rarely used there) covers all phraseological units, which is different from proverb-aphorisms. It is interesting, that we also find monosyllabic idioms in Turkish, although most Turkish scholars usually consider a combination of at least two words as an idiom. As it turns out, two-, three-, and four-word idioms make up 95% of the total number in Turkish, most of which are of course two-word.Verbal (predicative) idioms predominate in both Georgian and Turkish, but Nominative idioms are much fewer. Adverbial idioms are even more modestly represented in these languages.In Turkish idioms we often find a doubling, ie an event when the same word is fully, in most cases - partially repeated. In some cases such words are not translated directly. Although the idiom is a solid, unchanging unity of words, in Georgian, unlike in Turkish, in some cases the principle of word order is violated. Word replacement and reduction-expansion is observed in both Georgian and Turkish languages. The reason for everything is to be found in the nature of these languages. It should also be noted that in most cases it is difficult to determine which form of idiom is primary- reduced or widespread.   key words Idiom; phraseology; Georgian language; Turkish language; component; structure; reduction.      
11 Verb peculiarities in Maradid Klarjuli , Natela Phartenadze
Disappearance of person markersis rare (it refers to only ?- prefix of the first subjective person, before labial ?’ vowel and the cases of the loss of the third indirect objective person prefixes before voiceless consonants), while the alternations of person markers are quite common. Functionally the most loaded are -?? and -?? person markers of the third subjective person in plural. The frequency of their use instead of other affixes also points to it. It does not distinguish structure, combination of persons and number. To express the plurality of objects, ??-‘ prefix is replaced by?-??; ?-??,?-??, ?-??confixes. -?suffix is almost never confirmed for depiction of object plurality. Alternation of -??, -??’ suffixes is not typical for only Maradidi speech or general Klarjuli speech. It can be understood as a common Georgian phenomenon as far as it is met in other dialectsof the Georgian language. However, their use with such frequency can be considered as a significant feature for southern (Samkhruli) dialects, Maradidi speech in particular. Neither the alternation of preverbs is lawful, as in some cases they can be explained but in general, this phenomenon is very interesting because in different dialects there are many different derivations and interesting forms. The unity of functions should lead to the substitution of preverbs. Sometimes the same function can be conveyed by several preverbs; in addition, two different preverbs can indicate one and same direction. In certain situations, the preverbs can replace one another. Not all the preverbs van express additional nuances, it can only be the specific feature of one of them. Additional nuances of the preverb relate to the expression of the perfective aspect. All the verbal forms that contain some specific content and have additional nuances are, first of all, of perfective aspect. The system of theme suffixes is unstable and changeable. If we scrutinize the speech of Maradidians, the problem will be visible and there fore much more impressive. Verbs with one themeoften have theme suffixes and vice versov – verb forms with theme suffixes need no suffix at all. In the speech of Maradidians , there are reduced forms of theme suffixes (gatsurven, darekhven, momkidvida, gakidavda…) and variety of theme suffixes are found (-??, -??//-?; -??//-??; -??//-??; -??//-??; -??//-??; -??//-??; -??//-??; -??//-?? (-??); -??//-?? (-??)...   Key words: dialects; verbs; preverbs; person markers; theme suffixes.    
12 Turkish elements in Maradidi's speech , Lile Tandilava
In the world, there is no language without borrowed words. The Georgian language is not an exception in this regard. It has undergone many historical upheavals, which arereflected in the language vocabulary. As it is known, most of the territories of South Georgia and Lazeti are located on the territory of modern Turkey, and the Georgian population, living there, are citizens of the Republic of Turkey, who speak two languages, one of which is the native Georgian language, and the other is Turkish, the state language of the country, through which people communicate with all existing institutions in the country.Turkish has become the dominant language for them, and its scope is much wider. Thus, the Turkish vocabulary was introduced into the spoken Georgian language. In 1921, the official border was drawn between Turkey and Georgia. Two villages of Georgia - "Maradidi" and "Sarpi" shared the same fate: they were divided in half. Not only the villages were divided, but also families, relatives and homeland. This severe pain has not been healed and was passed down from generation to generation. Turks call the village of Maradidi "Muratli". Exactly one century later, a group of scientists from Batumi University came to this village for the first time. They found, recorded and published materials for the monograph "Maradidi". I was interested in the material included in the monograph, and I set out to find out how much Turkish vocabulary is included in the Georgian language, which is spoken in this particular geographic region. In the course of the research, interesting grammatical and phonetic changes were found: in the research material, borrowings mainly refer to the nominative parts of the language, where there occurs deafening of voiced sounds, their alternation and addition.The borrowings in the verb part are quite few.In the Georgian Maradidi dialect,there is relatively less Turkish vocabulary than in the Laz dialect. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1.  In Maradidi, there are used parallel,borrowed words, both Georgian and Turkish. Still, 100 years later, people remember and speak Georgian; 1.???????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ????????.(837) Ceviz ??????. (211) – (walnut) 2. The old borrowed vocabulary is preservedand cannot be regarded as new borrowed words, because the same vocabulary is used in the local dialects (perhaps this is an old extant borrowed vocabulary); 1.?????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.(800) Kilise ???????, ??????.(8520)  (the word “Kilise” – „Church, Cathedral” remains unchanged). Borrowing new vocabulary, what is not characteristic to our dialects, occurs in small doses; ????????? ???, ????? ?????? ?????????.(803) Marangoz ???????.(942)   G>? - (Carpenter)     2.?? ???????? ?? ????? ??????.(824)    ?dare etmek ??????. (654)  - (Management) -the nominal part is unchanged, while the verb is Georgian or it is a calcified form; 4. It is also noteworthy, that in the modern Georgian language, we no longer have the letter "iota", but in Maradidi Georgian, this old letter has been preserved. This may be due to the use of the letter "iota", which exists in the Turkish language. However, this is found not only in borrowed words, but also in the Georgian dialect, which unequivocally gives the right to say that this letter has survived from the ancient Georgian and is still used today. 1.???????? ???????? ??.(800) Soyad? -?????(1267)  I>? - (Surname) 5. It is also noteworthy that theletter „K“at the end of a word in Turkish is conveyed by letters„?,?,?“ in the Adjarian dialect. In the Laz language, the trend has changed: the final Turkish letter „K“ is more clearly pronounced as the sound / k /. In Turkish, the final „K“ becomes voiced in front of a vowel, and is pronounced ? - / gh / in both dialects. Therefore, it is often used in accordance with this phonetic pattern in Laz and Maradidi speech. 1.???? ??????????, ?????-???? ??????????.(909) Kar?? beri ???????????.(794 )  K>? - (opposite) 2.?????????? ?????????.(830)  (do the washing-up) Bula??k ???????.(182 ) U>?;      I >?;    K >?;- (dishes) There have also been found some cases of making consonant voiceless: 1.???????? ????????, ?????????? ????????.(818) Haç ?????.(568)  H>? - (cross)” In the Turkish language there are umlaut vowels, due to their absence in the Georgian language,they are transmitted by the corresponding Georgian sounds, thus, the harmony characteristic of the Turkish language is violated; ?????? ??????, ????? ?????/??????? ??????? ??????????.(876) Göl ???, ?????, ??????.(538) – (Lake, pond)      8. In the word "S?GARA", borrowed from the Turkish language, the letter „S”is pronounced as Georgian “?” - / dz / in the Maradidi and Laz dialects; the Adjarian dialect has a similar borrowing. Perhaps, this is an old borrowing. 1. ??????? ?????.(839) Sigara ????????, ????????(1257) – (Cigarette)is a European word, it is also a borrowed word in the Georgian language; it changes its form in the same way in the Laz and Adjarian dialects. If we have a combination of vowels and consonants, typical for the Turkish and Georgian languages, then the borrowed vocabulary enters the language without changes. ?????? ???, ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????????.(800) Kilise ???????,??????.(8520) -(Church, Cathedral) is unchanged. There are words with Georgian affixes as well. 1.????? ???????? ???????? ????????.(811) Dü?ün ???????.(391)Ü >?/u/ ?>? /g/  - (wedding).   Key words:  Turkish elements in Maradidi's speech.  
13 Tevpik Pikreti (1867-1915) – „Fog“ , Asmat Japaridze
He is a representative of new Turkish literature. The influence of French literature can be traced in his work. In his early works, he adhered to the principle of "art for art's sake", and in his later poems he became interested in social problems. In the poem "The Fog", Tevpik Pikreti expresses hatred for Istanbul and calls it a prostitute. This is the first time such anthis attitude towards Istanbul is found in Turkish literature. It is known that representatives of ancient Turkic literature considered Istanbul the center of world civilization and extolled it.   Keywords: new Turkish literature; poem; fog.
14 Review of Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Professor Nani Gelovani Monography "Muslim community in Georgia" (1801-1917) , Department of Oriental Studies of Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University
???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????  ????????  ???? ?????????  ???????????? - „???????? ????????? ????“ (1801-1917), ???????, 2021.       ?????? ????????­???????  ????­?????­???? ?????????? ????­?­????? ?? ???????­?????? 1801-1917 ?????? ???????? ????­????? ????? ????­??????, ??????-??????????? ?? ?????????     ????????? ?????????? ???????.      ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????????? ????­????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??  ???????? ?????????????? ???????? (??????? ?? ????????) ????????? ?????????????? ????????­????? ?? ???????????, ????? ?????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????? - ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????.     ????? ????? - ???????? ????????? ???? 1801-1917 ?????, ??????????? ??????? ?????­?????? ???????????? ??????????, ???????? ?? ??????­??????? ??????? ??????????, ?????????? („???????????“, „?????????????“, „??????“, „????­????????? ???????“) ????????????????. ??????????? ???????? 1832-1917 ??????   ????­????????? ?????. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?????????????. ?????? ????? - ?????????????? ????????? ??????  ???????? ???????? ?????????????. ????­?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????. ????? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????­???? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????­???????, ?????? ??????? ?????? ????????­????? ????????????? ?? ????. ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ????????????  ?????????? ???????????. ???? ????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????? ????­??????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ???????????????? ?????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????­???­??????? ????????­??????, ????????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ???­??????.  
15 Review of Ivane Javakhishvili State University Professor Jaba Samushia Monography "Battle of Didgori" , Otar Gogolishvii
???????? ????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????  ????????  ???? ????????  ???????????? - „ ???????? ??????“ ?????? ??????????, ???????, 2021. ???????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????, ????????????, ???? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?? ???????  „?????????? ??????? ?????????“. ????­???? ???, ??? ?????????? ?? ??? „?????? ??????????“ ?????, ???? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????, ????? IV ????????????  ?? ??? ??????? ?? „?????? ???????“ ?????. 2021 ???? ???????? 900 ???? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????­??­?????? ?? ?????? ???????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ???????? ?????­??????, ???????? ???? ????????, ???????? ?????????? - „???????? ??????“. ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????. ??? ???????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????. ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ???? ???????, ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???????, ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ????:  „?? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???????, ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ??????? „?????? ??????????“, ????? ???? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????? ???????, ?? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????. ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????­??­???? ????????? ???? ????? ?????????????. ???? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????, ???????  ??????? ???????????? ,,??????? L’’-??, ??????? ??????? ?????, ?????????? ?? ???????????????. ???????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????-???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????, ????????  „???? ???????“ ???????. ??????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ????-???????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???????????????, ??? ????? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????????? „???? ???????“, ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???. ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????, ??????? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ?????. ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????­?????, ??????? ????????????????, ?? ???? ??????? „???????????????“, „??????????“ ?? ?. ?. ???????????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????, ?? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ?????, ???? ?????? ??????, ????-????????. ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ????, ?????? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ??????????????, ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????­????? ??????. ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ???? „?????????? ?? ??????????“. ?? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????, ????? ??????????. ?? ?????  ?????????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ????­??­???? ????????????????, ???? ????? ?????????????? ??, ??? ????????, ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????????? ????? ?????????????? ?? ????? ????. ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ????????????. ????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ????? IV ???????????? ?????? ????-???????? ?????????? (???? IV) ?? ????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????? (???? V).  ????-???????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????. ??? ??? ??????????? ????????, ?????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ??      ?. ?. ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????????, ??????? ???????? ???????, ??????, ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?. ?. ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????, ???????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????. ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ???? ?????­???? ?????? ???????????. ????? ?????????????  ??????? ?? ?????????, ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??, ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ????, ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????, ????-???, ????????? ???? ?? ????? ????, ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????, ??????? ????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????????????, ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???????, ?????? ??????, ????? ?????? ???????????????, ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???????. ??????????? ???????? ??????? ????, ??????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ??????????????, ????? ????????  ??????????? ??????????. ????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? „???????? ????????-????????, ??????? ?????????“,  ????? ?????????????  ??????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????.   ?????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??? (????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ?????????????),  ?? ?????  ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????????????????. ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ????????, ?? ??? ????? ???????? ??????, ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???? ???????????. ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ???????, ????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????. . ???? ????????  ??????????, ????? ????????? ??????? ????­??????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ?????? ???????????????,  ?????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????­???­??????? ????????­??????, ????????????? ?? ???????????? ????? ???­??????.    
16 Jubilee Lile Tandilava - 60   , Emzar Makaradze
???? ????????? - 60 ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????­????? ????????????? ?????????????­??????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??????????,  ????­?­??­???? ?????? ???? ?????????. ????????? ???? ????????? ??????? 1961 ???? 12 ?????, ??????????? ??????? ????? ??????. 1977 ???? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ????? ????­??­??­?­??? ????????? ???­????? ?????­????? ??????­??????? ???????­????­????????? ?????­??­???, ??????? ????? ?? ??????­????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ?????­??????, ???­??? ????? ????? ???????? 1982 ????. ????????? ???? ?????????  1983-1987 ?????? ???????? ???­??? ??????? ??????? - ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????????????. 1992 ???? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??­???? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ????????????, ???? 1994 ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????, ??? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ????????????,  ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???­??????, ???? 2015 ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????­????­????. ???? ?????????? 2004 ???? ????????? ???????? ????? ????­???????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????­???­???? ??????? ???? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????. ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ????, ??????- ?????? ???????? ???­??????????  ??????. ???? ????????? ???????????, ???????????????????? ????????. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????­??? ?????????? ????????????. ???? ??????????  30 ???? ??????????? ????? ????; ??????? ???? ????????????? ???????????? ???????, ??????????; ??????????? ???????????? ???????????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????????; ???????? ??????????; ?????????????? ???? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????. 2021 ???? 12 ?????, ???????? ???? ?????????? ???­???????? 60 ???? ?????????. ??????? ???? ?????????? ????­?????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????         ???­??­­­??????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????­?????????????? ????????????? ???­?­?­????????, ?????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????? ????????,  ????????? ????­??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ???­?­??­??????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ??????­?????, ???? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????.  ????????? ????, ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ????????? ??????­?­??? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????­????? ????????????????.    
17 Issues of political persecution in modern Turkey , Emzar Makaradze
President of the Turkish Republic Recep Tayyip Erdogan accuses the renowned Turkish theologian Fethullah Gulen and his supporters of organizing the failed coup in Turkey on July 15, 2016. This has become one of the main reasons for massive human rights violations and political persecution of certain segments of the population in modern Turkey. In August 2016, one month after the attempted coup d'état, the number of asylum applications from Turkey to the EU increased by 45%. Among the countries that have granted asylum to political refugees, the top three are Germany, France and Switzerland. 14,640 Turkish citizens applied for asylum in the European Union in 2017. The target of political persecution in Turkey was certain sections of society that tried to leave their homeland legally or illegally, in order to take refuge in neighboring countries and get to Europe and the rest of the world by the shortest route. It seems that “doors” to the EU are closing for a long time to Turkey, and the part of society that has become the target of political persecution, will be a serious loss for Turkey, This factor destroys the foundation on which Turkey's European perspective stands. I believe that the time will come when Turkey will take its rightful place in the civilized world along with European states.
18 Common religious shrines and its influence on regional security , Maia Kapanadze Shorena Sigua
Jews and Arabs are people of common Semitic descent. And Abraham is their common ancestor. Therefore, they have common sanctities, which have been a major point of contention between them for several years. Conflict cannot be resolved on this ground, both Jews and Arabs are demanding recognition of their exclusive rights to common religious shrines. External forces in the region are also involved in this conflict, which prolongs the problem and has a negative impact on regional security. There is a serious dispute over Jerusalem besides other common sanctuaries  that recognize both Israel and Palestine as its capital. It should also be noted that Jerusalem is a holy city for both Jews and Muslims. Recently, the US position on Jerusalem has posed a serious problem for the security of the Middle East. The recognition of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel by the United States has caused concern not only to the Palestinians, but to the Muslim world as a whole, because, as we have already mentioned, this city is sacred to both of these religions. Added to this is the fact that the city has common religious - Jewish and Islamic shrines.
19 The Kurds in Iran , Bukhuti Sitchinava
The Kurdish question is considered one of the most difficult and unresolved issues in the Middle East region. Although the Kurds have lived in this region for many centuries, they still do not have their own state. According to various statistics, there are 35-45 million Kurds scattered in the world. In the region, they are represented in four countries: Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Iran. Kurds living in Iran, who, like other Kurds, demand autonomy, often face resentment from the Iranian government, which is why the government has banned ethnic parties and groups in the country. To gain autonomy and independence, several Kurdish political parties were formed in Iran during the last century. Other than gaining autonomy, they also support the transformation of Iran into a democratic, secular and federal state. Kurdish political parties and groups play an important role as the preservation of Kurdish identity is the result of their strong engagement in political and military activities. The parties formed by Iranian Kurds, along with Kurdish groups in Turkey, Syria and Iraq, are actively fighting the Islamic State.
20 U.S.-Taliban peace deal, successful move or the beginning of the new challenges? , Simon Gureshidze
The article begins with a short description of details of the U.S.-Taliban peace deal. Separately is discussed the short story of the U.S. -Taliban relations from the mid of 1990-ies, till 2020; with the main reasons, how as Al-Qaeda and Taliban were formed in Afghanistan. Recently, the main part is devoted to understand influence of internal actors-Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Haqqani network, on the future political life of Afghanistan. And the Relations between listed movements, beyond the U.S.-Taliban peace agreement. Also, the main part examines the expectations of analysts and international organizations about the Taliban and Al-Qaeda's future behavior. The final section covers the influence of external actors and interests of the regional key players on the country. In particular, TAPI-Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India gas pipeline. The main focus in on perspectives of the involvement and participation not only above listed countries, but also China, Iran, Turkey and Russia and expectable consequences in the aftermath of Taliban-Al-Qaeda, Taliban-Iran, Russia-U.S., India-Pakistan, Turkmenistan-China, Turkey-Pakistan relations. And finally what kind of soil can prepare factionalized Afghan society for regional and international key players.
21 Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the United States during the Cold War , Beka Makaradze
Active military, economic and political relations between the Turkish Republic and the United States began shortly after the end of World War II.  Through the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, the United States provided Turkey with a massive $ 100 million in financial aid in 1947, most of which was spent on military development in the country. In May 1951, the United States recommended Turkey to join the North Atlantic military bloc (NATO), and in October 1951, there was signed a protocol on Turkey’s admission to NATO in London. On February 18, 1952, the Turkish Grand National Assembly ratified the NATO Accession Treaty. Geopolitical shifts after World War II replaced Turkey's de facto foreign policy neutrality with a pro-Western course. The rapprochement between Turkey and the United States began, However, it was under the threat of the expected aggression from the Soviet Unionthroughout the Cold War. Significant changes have taken place in Turkish-American relationssince 1980. Current political developments in both Turkey and the United States have made relations between the two countries more diversified. It is also true that they relied on elements of relations that existed in earlier periods, but nevertheless, the new form was significantly different from the previous one.
22 Doctrine of Turkish Foreign Policy , Maia Manchkhashvili
To create a complete picture and to clarify the essence of the Turkish models of regional security in the South Caucasus, we must consider the new foreign policy doctrine of the Republic of Turkey. Turkey's foreign policy has been based on this doctrine for more than ten years. This doctrine had been developed for many years and it became known in a relatively complete form in the late 1990s. As mentioned above, its author is a Turkish scientist, Professor of International Relations Ahmet Davudoglu (2001). Within this doctrine, he analyzed political, economic, and cultural processes from historical depths — as far back as the Ottoman Empire — to the present day, and came to some interesting conclusions.
23 South Caucasus Regional Cooperation In the geopolitical context of the Middle East , Madona Gogitidze
The Caucasus is one of the outstanding regions for the Middle East and the whole world. The special importance of this region is determined by the geostrategic location, ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious diversity. The interstate relations and internal state situation in the Caucasus region are especially noteworthy. The rate of stable development of the region has changed significantly in the recent period, which was determined by the actions of external entities along with regional processes. The stable political and economic situation of the region at the end of the XX century and even today is delayed by the existing conflicts between the states. This is the kind of problem that Karabakh has between Armenia and Azerbaijan. New political-strategic orientation are being formed in the Caucasus. The fact is that the fate of the conflicts between the countries of the region, the political or economic visions of the states will still have to be reconsidered.
24 Recep Tayyip Erdogan's political way , Zaza Beridze
Recep Tayyip is the current president of Turkey, party leader of the AKP. We must say that he is one of the most powerful person of the XXI century in the near east region. Political way of Recep Tayyip Erdogan is quite tangled. However, he still managed to achieve his goal. He changed the republic of Turkey from parliamentary to presidential government. He got all the power in his hands which gave him the opportunity to govern the country the way he wanted. Turkey is getting closer and closer to Washington and Brussels, sometimes to Moscow and other political poles such as Peking, Delhi, Teyran and so on which leaves quite unexpected impression. After that situation, there will definitely be serious political instability on the regional and global stage as well.
25 Europe will rescue Georgia , Otar Gogolishvili
Georgia had great troubles during the conflict of August, 2008. The Russian neo-empire began a direct aggression against Georgia. A lot of civilians were killed and lots of civil buildings were destroyed as a result of the Russian neo-imperialism. On those difficult days Georgia was supported by Europe. From the very beginning Europe immediately required from Russia to stop this act of aggression and the military action. The direct support of the European leaders, including their arrival in Tbilisi on those days, took a great part in bringing to a halt the active part of the Russian aggression.
26 Some Issues of Georgia’s Foreign Policy 1990-1991's , Davit Etsadeishvili
A new national government had many challenges to deal with inside and outside the country as well. Unfortunately, deeply complicated inside conditions gave the small period of time to the first national government for active foreign policy. However we cannot assess the foreign policy as passive during the first national govrnment despite the fact that it took small period of time. But it is worth mentioning that the complicated inside policy relations, high confrontation between the govrnment and oppostiional parties have made negative impact at foreign relations, these complications were noted towards USA and Russian Federation. Despite of small period of time and inside complications various kinds of cooperation and other kinds of Agreements were concluded in political, cultural, socio-economic, agricultural, trading, environmental protection fields and negotiations were carried with Azerbaijan, Austria, Moldova, Belgium, Hungary, Poland, Latvia, Russian federation, euro-parliament. According to the Author’s evaluation foreign policy of national government was the first inexperienced diplomatic relations which earned positive results for our country.
27 Some aspects of traditional values integration into a new reality in post-totalitarian Batumi , Tamila Lomtatidze Manuchar Loria
rise of urbanization tendencies, standardization of living, breakage of traditions caused irreversible changes of ethno cultural elements. Due to historical peculiarities, mountainous village of Ajara presented a closed, less changeable, tameness-oriented space. Such barriers were broken in post- totalitarian period. Economic instability and decrease of living standards caused and promoted migration processes amng village population. The modern political, social-economic and cultural-religious processes put Batumi (which traditionally represented the platform for meeting and cohabitation of different ethno cultures and religious confessions and characterized with diversity and synthesis of religious beliefs and cultural values) to the epicenter of the changes. The ethno confessional picture of Batumi, in line with other factors, was significantly changed by the internal migration processes, increased in Ajara after the Soviet collapse. The paper presents the analysis of the problems and strategies of adaptation of migrated population in new social-cultural conditions.
28 Linguistic Means for Representation of „Death“ and „Life“ (In Georgian and Turkish Languages) , Tsiala Lagvilava
The conceptual field of death-life in the cultures under study is the national-cultural manifestations of the universal field the integral semantemes of which are existence and non-existence (the end of existence). The phenomenon of death-life encompasses the entire organic world, which also makes a difference in its nomination, depending on the biological status of the object of death – concerning humans, animals or plants. In interpreting the research concepts, great importance is attached to the linguistic means of its representation. Conceptual meanings are expressed at different linguistic levels: lexical, phraseological and paremiological units. In addition, it is quite common to convey the content of a concept through figures of speech (metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, personification). Synchronic analysis of the representation of the concepts – “Life” and “Death”, which shows the modern structure of the concept (on dictionaries and discourse materials), is filled with diachronic and comparative excursions based on etymological dictionaries and encyclopedic material.
29 Language as an instrument of international relations in diplomatic discourse and the peculiarities of its translation , Lasha Bolkvadze
A study of the linguistic peculiarities of diplomatic discourse, the analysis of numerous examples revealed that the peculiarities of diplomatic discourse and translation are characterized by pragmatic and linguistic nuances.From the types of discourse, diplomatic discourse has a greater status and responsibility than other discourses.Whereas without successful, well-paved diplomacy it would have been almost impossible to establish peace and normal political or economic international relations in any epoch, and so it is now. The role of translation in diplomatic discourse is given the greatest attention inside and outside the country. The translation of various political and diplomatic discourses revealed the following features at the level of translational transformation.Diplomatic discourse, generally modern translation studies, requires adequate translation.It is therefore important to find out the competence of the translator, as to how competent and knowledgeable is she, in the history, culture and geography of the target language country.Because in many cases uncertainty is caused by intercultural ignorance. Thus, in order for the dialogue between the representatives of different countries to be successful, it is necessary not only to have a perfect knowledge of the language, but also to overcome the cultural and linguistic barriers of the country. The translation practice of the world in different countries once again indicates that the translator in this field must be deeply knowledgeable and competent in the field in which he does translation.
30 The Grave , Asmat Japaridze
????? „???????“ ???????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????. ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??????, ???????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????. ???? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? (2360 ?????) ????? ?????? (189 ?????), ?????? ?????????? ?????? ?????????.
31 Review of Jemal Beridze Monography - "Georgia-Turkey Relations in 1992-2012 (Socio-Political and Cultural-Economic Aspects , Emzar Makaradze
Georgia-Turkey Relations in 1992-2012
32 Review of Beka Makaradze Monography - "Turkey-USA Relations in the Aftermath of the "Cold War" (2000-2017)" , Manuchar Loria
Turkey-USA Realtions in the Aftermath of the "Cold War"
33 Review of Emzar Makaradze, Otar Gogolishvili and Davit Andguladze Work "Lao Jonjau in Georgia" , Department of Oriental Studies
Lao Jonjau in Georgia
34 Jubilee - Emzar Makaradze - 50 , Madona Gogitidze
Jubilee - Emzar Makaradze - 50
35 The First Turkish Parties in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries , Jemal Beridze
Given article considers the formation and developmentof political parties in Turkey before it has acquired the status of republic. Article deals with  the reasons of creation of the first political organisation in the Ottoman Empire and discusses their part in the state's future positive changes.It also discussescertain  aspects of  the establishment of “Youth Ottoman Turk Society”, which had played significant role in the forming of constitution. The last part of the Article is concerned with the first parliam­entary elections in 1877 and its first gathering. It mentions thatthe parliament was trying to act as a truly democratic representative body.
36 Issues of intercultural dialogue and national identity in modern Turkey , Emzar Makaradze
At the present stage, when all the humanity faces new threats and challenges and there occur the irreversible processes of globali­zation,the preservation of national identity has become an issue of great importanceespecially on the background of intensive cultural andreligious dialogue between civilizations. Georgia is a country located on the crossroads of civilizations. Representatives of different religions (Muslims, Christians, Gregorian and Jews) live side by side there. Its neighbors are Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia. No peace is possible without a dialogue between cultures and civilizations and these two important factors lead to the major outcome of what is called the Union of Civilizations. In this regard, wefocus our interest to the issues of intercultural dialogue in the political life ofMmodern Turkey. The events occurred on 15 July 2016 in our neighboring Turkey, a failed state coup attempt, have attracted the attention of the whole world. Naturally, these events were particularly importantfor Georgia and had an inevitable impact on it.
37   Modern Relations of Turkey and Iran , Maia Kapanadze Shorena Sigua
Turkey and Iran are the two largest Middle Eastern countries that are constantly striving for leadership. Due to their political interests in the region, there are often  contradiction between the two countries. In spite of their counteract, there are cases when Turkey and Iran find a common language. This process facilitated to finding a common language between Turkey and Iran, the difficult political situation created in the Middle East over the last few years, which threatened both countries. Here is the Syrian crisis we mean. Although the two countries had a different vision at the beginning of the Syrian crisis, further development of events allowed them to reconcile the common sense, as events in Syria directly impact negatively not only on this country, but also in the region wholly and between Turkey and Iran. The closer relations of these two countries have also been conditioned through the position of the United States, which has taken a negative attitude towards both Turkey and Iran as one of those expressions of are the sanctions.
38 „Arab Spring“ in Syria and Egypt – Comparative Analysis , Simon Gureshidze
The article discusses the processes of the "Arab Spring", starting in December 2010 in Tunis, how the protest march affected region’s countries, were after the revolutionary process, the ruling regimes have lowdown (Tunisia, Egypt, Libya). The focus is on the impact and role of the regional actors which were involved in the Syrian civil confrontation.                  Further in the article is compared the processes in Egypt and Syria before "Arab spring". Resemblance and differences are separated from each other and also in detail reviewed the methods and reactions of both states against the protests.                 The last part of the article is devoted to discussing the details of supporting the regime ofSyria president Bashar Al-Assad.Namely the main factors which maintained the viability of the ruling elite, the role of the multi-confessional armed forces in the state and their financial and economic interests. Also what led to the unification of reviving Sunni and Alawi militaries on concrete locations, which has become one of the main factors for the regime’s enforcement.             The final part summarized the factors, how the privileged castes established by autocratic regimes on ethnic, religious and political soil; are leading country  to the civil war and bloodshed when internal and external political challenges emerging. 
39 Unknown Archive Materials about XIX-XX Century Southern - Western Georgia Evaluated by Foreigners , Otar Gogolishvili Emzar Makaradze
Ottoman Empire (1877-1878), this region returned to its motherland, but this time the Caucasian administration of Russian empire was trying to hinder its development and confront this side to the rest of Georgia. In Russian leaders’ opinion, it should transform to an important bridge-head for Russian expansion in the near east and platform for implementation of far-reaching plans of empire. Foreigners were also interested in this region of Georgia. They visited to this region at many times and left us important information about political, social, economic and cultural-educational life of the southwestern Georgia of that time (XIX-XX cc.).
40 The Problem of Nagorno-Karabakh, as the Factor of Defining Turkey-Azerbaijan Relations , Zaza Beridze
In relation with Nagorno-Karabakh, being as a part of Azerbaijan, thedisagreement rised between Azerbaijan and Armenia is a key defining factor of relation of these countries with Turkey. That is why, all issues or relations between Erevan and Baku are both directly and indirectly related with Karabakh conflict. Negotiations of Minsk Group within OSCE format are fruitless from 1992. Azerbaijanis are „Turks“ for a big part of Armenian society. That is why a link between Armenian Genocide of 1915-1916 and possible aims of Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh was rapidly detected. Karabakh conflict defined Turkey-Armenia diplomatic conflict. Ankara will try to correct relations with Armenia only in case Erevan concedes positions with Azerbaijan. Armenia is not going to concede Karabakh issue. Despite Turkey did not provide active military support to Azerbaijan, Turkey was the most important partner of Azerbaijan in the confilict, which was supported by a series of agreements. Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has also critically important impact upon development of the international relations in South Caucasia. Azerbaijan and Turkey are deeply interrelation with each other. The closed the outgoing borders to Armenia. Isolated Armenia is waiting for danger from Azerbaijan which is constantly equippingits army with arms and seeking for protection in Russia.  Turkey considers Azerbaijan’s demand to keep Armenia isolated.From its turn Baku supports Turkey ambitions to the major player in the region.
41 The Modern Challenges of the Turkish-Georgian Relations , Beka Makaradze
From the beginning of the 90-s of the XX century, after the end of the Cold war and the collapse of the USSR, a new phase in the Turkish-Georgian relations has begun. Particularly, on the 30th of July, 1992, the two states decided to sign the treaty on “Friendship, Cooperation and Neighborly Relations”. Thus begun the new period in the history of the two countries.  The clear example of those relations was the official visit of the Georgian Prime minister to Turkey on 31st of October, 2019.
42 Iran and South Caucasus , Maia Manchkhashvili
The Islamic Republic of Iran has big plans in the South Caucasus. This region is noteworthy and important in terms of its relevance to Iran's security. The US list?  Iran  so-called „axis of evil“ and enactment of sanctions have done it a great deal both materially and strategically. Iran has long been on the cusp of action. However, even under these conditions he is one of the influential and accountable players in the Middle East political arena. Iran began relations with the republics of the South Caucasus from the very first days of the collapse of the Soviet Union and was one of the first to recognize the independence of these countries. Since the Soviet Union had very tightly controlled relations during the Soviet Union, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran had to start with a clean sheet of relations with the South Caucasus republics in the 1990s and define areas of cooperation.
43 Impact and role of national/ethnic minorities in the Middle East and Georgia , Madona Gogitidze
The study of population changes and ethnic composition is one of the most important issues for analyzing the political or socio-economic situation of the modern era. It is especially relevant for countries where ethnic diversity is characteristic. Since the 1990s, the political and economic crisis has been exacerbated by major events in the world, leading to ethnic conflict in some countries. Since the 19th century, the European part of the great states has been doing its utmost to address the ethnic problems that have emerged as a result of the national liberation movement and skirmishes. The national/ethnic diversity characteristic of Georgia is rare for such small and small countries. This is a characteristic of the country’s wealth and chance for integration into a diverse world.
44 Prospects for creating an ethno-visual atlas of Turkish Georgians , Manuchar Loria Tamila Lomtatidze Roin Malakmadze
Ethnographic life of Turkish Georgians keeps some interesting side of Georgian traditional manufacturing practice and material or spiritual culture, many such details, that are either forgotten or just kept at a home usage level in Georgia. But the rapid dynamics of culture causes the disappearance of many elements from the traditional culture preserved by Turkish Georgians. Considering all above mentioned, the importance of video monitoring and aims and tasks of creating video atlas and anthropological film based on visual materials are analyzed in the given study. The creation of a video atlas of this type will play its role in solving the problem of transferring of original traditional ethno culture between generations. Thanks to video atlas enormous spiritual culture accumulated by generations will be available for a new generation of Turkish Georgians, it will create a sense of reciprocity with this culture, will help them to clearly perceive and completely and colorfully comprehend the Georgian culture of different eras, strengthen their sense of national pride and help them to perceive themselves as bearers of the cultural heritage of the people of ancient history and great traditional values. At the same time, this atlas will be important not only in terms of representing and preserving the cultural heritage of Turkish Georgians, but also a great opportunity to wake up and strengthen the interest of the Georgian people in this heritage. More and more people will know the ethnic culture preserved by Turkish Georgians and due to this, a sense of reciprocity of a historical destiny by local people will appear. Films will be the best opportunity for positive contacts for both parties.
45 Laz vocabulary in „Adjarian dialect dictionary resources“ , Lile Tandilava
Material I have found in Noghaideli's "Adjarian dialect vocabulary materials”  shows that the dominance of Laz environment has led to a number of borrowings in Adjarian dialect, which are often used in the conversational part. We will have to divide the materials into several parts: Georgian language is characterized by borrowing the stem while verb borrowing and adding Georgian affixes. Examples below are good illustrations of this. E.g. Adj. “ga -bghez-eba”   J.N 49 p. - get angry nouns that don’t change the form: Example: “dudi“ – head  (J.N) 96/ “dudi” -Head (227) A.T Laz toponyms.   In Present Turkey there is a place – village “Azlagha”, where the Laz Christians were beheaded and  that place is called “Dudi Kvata” . 3.Nouns that change the form: “Nogha” – young forest (J.N.)190/ “Nogha” – village center (A.T.)580. Laz toponyms: in this materials we meet some toponyms: “Ontapura” – gorge in the village Tskavroka (J.N.)195 Onta-pura/Puna Ontonu – dive (A.T) 640. Means “to dive” and this name comes from the diving places in the river “Ontapura”. Pun/ra – is an affix and indicates to the place.  Mtkhie-puna, kvae-puna i.e Tkhil-nari - Riverside rocks – this is Laz toponym.
46 Phonetic changes in the borrowings from the Turkish language , Vardo Chokharadze
Phonetic changes, peculiar to the Georgian language, are striking in words borrowed from the Turkish language.As a result, the borrowed words are pronounced in the same way as Georgian words, in particular: ??????<?????? (?. ?????-?), ??????<??????... In Georgian the letter “g” is mostly pronounced as Turkish “?” and it is more natural for the Georgian language. Both the first letter of the word and the last consonant change. ?????? - (??. gamaz - ?????) - ,,evil”, "Barbarian": ,,?? ???? ???????“ (??.)... ????? – (?apka) - ,,a hat”: ,,?????? ????????? Á???????? ??????? ?????? ???????” (?.?.) Thus, the replacement of consonants in the borrowed words of the Samkhruli dialects is subject to the same patterns that are characteristic of the Georgian language.
47 Mystic-Philosophical Direction Sufism and Wine Symbology in Rumi’s Works , Nona Nikabadze
Mystic-Philosophical direction Sufismand the work of the greatest Sufi poet Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Rumihas long been a sunject of discussion. Mystic-Philosophical direction Sufisms­trongly influenced Oriental poetry and Western scholars also became involved. In Sufism, there is only one authentic God with whom wine is combined with.With Sufi poets, wine is the source of the separation between the human being and the God. “Wine” itself, is a metaphor for the esoteric doctrines of Rumi and other Sufi poets. In spiritual ideology, one can find spiritual wine, this wine is love, and love is God.
48 Laz Records , Nora Kakhidze
Record on Laz Language
49 Specialized dictionaries and Georgian-Turkish lexicography , Zeinab Akhvlediani
The history of lexical works dates back to ancient times, which led to the accumulation of immense experience and content-structural refinement changes. Dictionaries appeared in the second half of the 20th century describing cultural backgrounds beyond language in addition to describing and comparing language systems with the purpose of appropriate, relevant    translation. Sharing of the nation's cultural achievements is done through translation. The function of translator, translating the text into the language of the recipient  is only effective through revealing cultural painting, which links the spiritual world together: it aims to  reveal  cultural traditions and values.
50 English for Specific Purposes (ESP) as a Basis for Professional Communication between Specialists of Corresponding Fields , Anna Teniyeshvili
English has acquired the status of the language of communication of specialists of different fields and it is the language of priority to be learnt in most of the countries. Therefore when the Language for Specific Purposes is mentioned in majority of cases English for Specific Purposes is meant. The term “English for Specific Purposes” appeared in the second half of XX century. The English Language and English for Specific Purposes in particular are very important especially for intercultural comm.­unication - the issue of significant importance for maritime industry and any other professional field. Generally, acquisition of English for Specific Purposes is aimed at successful business communication in specific fields. English for General Purposes or General English is a basis for any branch of English for Specific Purposes and it is very important for future specialists to acquire any ESP course on the proper level. In order to be able to implement effective communication in the professional field in the future, students should have good basis for it and English for General Purposes can be considered to be such a basis. The aim of the present article is to demonstrate how English for Specific Purposes can become the basis for professional communication of the specialists of specific fields and how correct prioritizing during teaching of ESP courses influences efficiency of the received results and formation of specialists of different fields.
51 Review of Emzar Makaradze Work - History of Turkey 1918-2018 (Lecture Notes) , Giorgi Sanikidze
History of Turkey 1918-2018
52 Review of Emzar Makaradze, Otar Gogolishvili and Davit Andguladze Work "Lao Jonjau in Georgia" , Jemal Karalidze
Lao Jonjau in Georgia
53 Jubilee - Nodar Baramidze - 90 , Emzar Makaradze
Nodar Baramidze - 90
54 Jubilee - Nora Kakhidze - 70 , Lile Tandilava
Nora Kakhidze - 70
55 Jubilee - Tsira Lagvilava - 65 , Department of Oriental Studies
Tsira Lagvilava - 65
56 Treaty of Kars of 1921 , Irakli Baramidze
On October 13, 1921, in Kars, representatives of the Soviet Azerbaijan, Soviet Armenia and Soviet Georgia – from one side, and Turkey – from other side, signed an agreement, which identified Turkey-Georgia border and laid the foundation for new neighboring relations. This was preceded by the Moscow Treaty on March 16 of the same year between Russia and Turkey, which included basic provisions that was reflected in the document signed in Kars. However the recognition of the terms of the Moscow Treaty in Kars confirmed by signatures the representatives of the government of Soviet Georgia, who did not express the will of the Georgian people and came to power in advance of the armed forces, by military aggression, the Treaty of Kars proved to be viable and after restoration of Independence of Georgia was recognized as the basis for new relations with Turkey.
57 The main aspects of the Middle East conflict Modern stage (On the example of Israel-Palestine) , Madona Gogitidze
In modern times, international situation has become dependent on the deployment of forces in the Middle East. Conflicts of foreign factors are more determined than military actions. Many countries have been involved in the crisis in the Middle East, which in turn has delayed the process of solving problems. After the first Arab-Israeli invasion, the Middle East has gradually turned into a great deal of struggle to split into large areas of political and economic influence. The conflicts between Israel and Palestine have not yet come to an end. The sides are not ready to go any further. The main aspects of the Middle East conflict are based on the great efforts and reasonableness of the adversary parties. It is still time to get peace in the region.
58 South-Western Georgia (Adjara) within the Geostrategic Interests of the Ottoman Empire in the First Quarter of XX Century , Archil Varshalomidze
The processes occurring in the world politics of the first half of the 20th century, which were the result of the First World War serious consequences, were reflected in Transcaucasia, including Georgia. Even in the course of peace conference new tendencies were outlined in Batumi. The imperialistic policy of Turkey became unacceptable for Germany. Such changes in foreign policy of Germany had been caused by the fact that Georgia carried out the function of the bridge between Europe and Asia. on June 4, 1918 an agreement on peace and cooperation was signed between the governments of the Democratic Republic of Georgia and the Ottoman Empire in Batumi In it the Georgian-Turkish border was determined in accordance with the state borders existing before the Russo-Turkish war in 1828-1929. The Turkish government took the advantage over the hard political situation in Europe caused by World War I and having violated the international Law and the Brest-Lithuanian Treaty taxed Georgia with hard conditions. As a result 9500 sg.m. of the area with 350 000 population was cut off the entire territory. With the assistance of the German government Georgia achieved its way in the results of the Batumi conference to be reconsidered. However, the conference was finally never held. The reason was the defeat of Germany and its alliance. The Turkish government well knew that on the coming place conference its territorial claims would appear inconsistent and it would have to cede most of its occupied territories. Consequently it applied to certain diplomatic methods. Namely, in order to make the union of Batumi-Karsy-Artaani regions a legal document, the Turkish government decided to hold a referendum in these regions. The referendum was held but with significant violations. According to the data of the Turkish side 83 thousand people voted in their favor but only 2 thousand-against them. On the other hand, according to the data of the Bolshevik press of that periods, 11 thousand people participated in the referendum, out of which 8500 voted in favor of the Turkish government. Today it is difficult to trust either of these data but one is clear – neither of them expressed the will of the population or the real situation.
59 Turkish – USA Relations in 2016 - 2017 , Emzar Makaradze
The US - Turkish relations are more important, more difficult and simultaneously less predictable in the modern stage than before. Today the relationship between the two countries is characterized by prevailing uncertainty, which is caused by the following circumstances: 1.the political views of Turkey-the USA on the ways and methods of such conflict resolutions as, for example, the Cypriot conflict, or contradictions existing between Greece - Turkey and Turkey – Armenia; 2. Turkey has shown that it will not support the US on the issue with Syria, as well as the war in Iraq and the Kurdish conflict; 3. Turkey tries to implement a foreign policy independent fromWashington. Nevertheless, the interests of the United States and Turkey are very close to each other or just coincide. Geenerally, the Turkish-US cooperation is based on the following: 1. It should become the force restraining Russian and Iranian geopolitical ambitions in the region, what is unanimously recognized by the Turkish elite; 2. Ankara is interested in participating in the development of European Defence System.It strives to become a full-fledged member of the EU and it is greatly supported by the US; 3. The US-made weapon comprises 80 percent of Turkey's military arsenal, what indicates to a close cooperation of these countries in this field; 4. By cooperating with America Turkey tries to ensure successful implementation of such big projects as "Baku-Ceyhan", at the same time it strives to increase its influence on the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, which is quiet rich with energy deposits; 5. Turkey is ready to install the US missile defense system on its territory, as it will not only provide additional resources in the country and increase its military security, but also strengthen its importance in the region. Assessing Turkish-American relations, it is better to mention the term "strategic partnership". For example, since 2002 Turkey has been trying to conduct "zero problem with neighbors" policy and in this context it took steps of friendship and economic cooperation towards Syria and Iran, to which America is not so well-disposed.These steps do not exclude a strategic partnership, but in 2003 Turkey did not allow the US armed forces to use the Turkish military bases for Iraqi warfare, which is essentially contradicting the basic principle of "strategic partnership". After this fact, Americans did not mention the "strategic partnership" for a long time. And after the warming of relations, American politicians started using this term again. On November 5, 2007 during the visit of the Prime Minister of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan in the US, the President of America George Walker Bush mentioned this term again. However, an attempted coup d'etat,committed on 15 July 2016 in Turkey, caused the period of uncertainty between the two countries. In general, it is interesting to observe how the current policy of Turkey is reflected on the relations with the US. Erdogan's foreign policy almost questioned the issue of partnership between Turkey and the United States.And nowadays, when the relations with Russia have almost been regulated, Turkish policy towards Russia is largely dependent on the cooperation the United States will have with Ankara. We consider that stable relations with the US will not cause Turkey the desire to seek such an ally as Russia. On the issue of the Middle East, regarding to the Syrian problem, Turkey has become an involuntary participant of the big countries - on the one hand, the United States, and on the other hand, Russia. After the US recent bombardment in Syria the positions of Turkey tend toward the US.In this case, we could say, Turkey fixes an indecisive position. However, in the Syrian war, due to the problem with the Kurds, Turkey has its own interests, which are the part of the Ankara new course. Turkey could not manage to gather Turkish-speaking countries around it and head them; it also failed neither tobe the leader of the Islamic world, nor to accelerate the adoption to the EU. Nevertheless, it coulduse the problem of refugees in relations with the European Union, but there is still a lot to do and not everything is clear. If Turkey aims to become a country of "the first world economy" and liberal democracy, it should strengthen ties with the US, which would partly demand to alter its foreign policy priorities and to keep some distance from the Muslim world.
60 Main issues in relations between Turkey - America at the turn of XX-XXI centuries , Beka Makaradze
After the end of the Cold War, within the the new international order, Turkey has chosen a joint move with America. Moreover, there was no anymore such a dangerous force like the Soviet Union. In the process of globalization the balance of economical and political partnership with US and the European Union became a necessary condition, in order to maintain the competitiveness. Thus, in order to get closer to the West, Turkey has come to the need to transform its own internal and external system. If in 90’s of XX century the relations between Turkey and America continued within the framework of a common strategic partnership, after the event of 11th September 2001, this relationship developed in to the fight against international terrorism and the strengthening of democratic ideas. It should be noted that during this period, this relationship was asymmetrical. The term "asymmetric" implies a two-sided concept of relations. An excellent example of political asymmetry is Turkish-American relations. Since Turkey is asymmetric for America, America is asymmetric as well for Turkey. An important element of the foreign policy of the Republic of Turkey is stability in relations with America. The guarantees offered by the United States of America, which affecting the course and the rhythm of Turkey's foreign and domestic policies, are crucial for the country. The interest and desire of the Republic of Turkey to participate in the international system as an active world power is directly proportional to the attitude of the United States. In addition, Turkey's strategic position provides perspectives for meeting these requirements. Turkey and USA has common or personal interests in the many regions of the world. For both country, depending on their own interests, priority is to provide peace and stability in the region. for example Turkey and USA has common mission to solve in Caucasus Region the key conflicts in a peaceful way, provision of territorial integrity in the countries of the region and deterrent of Russia as aggressor, because there is common interests for oil extraction and its transportation. Of course, the different opinions in this kind of issues are inevitable, but to accomplish and reach common goals by the method of mutual understanding   gives ability to make other agreements easier in future . In spite of periodical disagreements, key issues such as Iraq, Caucasus, Afghanistan, Middle East and other conflicts, both countries have a vital potential. This great potential determines the clear perspectives of common partnership on their path of future relation between Turkey and the United States.
61 Russia and South Caucasus , Maia Manchkhashvili
After the dissolution of Soviet Union the southern Caucasian region has activated its strategic function, controlled by the Empire and served its interests. After the obtaining the independence the usage, full using and activation of the foregoing strategic function was the well-defined foreign policy purpose for the young states of the region, but at the same time started activation the Russian political purposes, being in acute opposition to the interests of the South Caucasus Region States. The fighting arsenal of Russia is enough varied and the only scope is to provide control on the South Caucasus Region. In this process every resistance and attempt of new player is recognized by Russia as the intervention on its interests and starts to work Russian experienced fighting methods already to other/necessary direction.
62 Strategic Relationships of Turkey-Azerbaijan and Georgia , Zaza Beridze
The union of Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan creates strategic triangle, the relationship of which conditions the necessity of gaining a vital area for these countries. After decomposition of the Soviet Union, from 1990 up to nowadays, official Ankara realizes quite pragmatic and stable policy in South Caucasus. Turkey prefers the relationships with Azerbaijan. This is explained by as cultural and linguistic nearness so significant geopolitical location of Azerbaijan. The commencement of realization of the projects of “Bako-Tbilisi- Ceyhan” oil pipeline and “Bako-Tbilisi-Erzurum” gas pipeline, also “Bako-Tbilisi-Kars” railway project, acquired great economic (also political) importance to South Caucasus, that is very important for the region. The wish of Turkey was to execute energetic and transport corridor function between Europe and Caspian regions. Logical result of this ambition was significantly increased interest towards Georgia, that is connective link between Turkey and Azerbaijan, also between Central Asia. The necessity of direct connection with Azerbaijan dictates Turkey that it needs minimum one from two – controlling of Georgia of Armenia. Because of the control of Armenia by the Russia and Armenia – Turkey historical disagreement, Ankara decided to choose the strategy of collaboration with Georgia and isolation from Armenia. From the point of view of independence and development perspectives of Azerbaijan, Turkey is very important partner for Baku. Assimilation of energetic corridor function with Turkey and the perspectives of Karabakh conflict, dictates to Baku that it vitally needs to make strategic partnership with Ankara. Georgia, of course plays a significant player in this circle , which have its own interests. The aim of the theme is to analyze correctly historic realities of formation of strategic partnership of Turkey and Azerbaijan, the spheres of overlap and conflict of interests of states and to define Georgian role in this sphere.
63 Regional peculiarities of Eastern collections and of topical editions of Georgian National Museum (visual anthropology research) , Manuchar Loria
Shalom Koboshvili’s artwork causes interest in relation with its display of Georgian reality through the drawings. Shalom was born in 1876 in Akhaltsikhe in a poor Jewish family. In 1937 he started his career at Georgian Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Museum holding gatekeeper’s position. By initiative of Aron Krikhel the museum was established and put into operation on November 23, 1933. The museum had three departments: ethnographic, historical and socialist ones. In 1934-1936 the museum implemented the scientific expeditions to almost all Georgian regions, populated by Georgian Jews communities. The expeditions resulted in collection of a essential ethnographic material. Having increased its scientific potential, in 1940-1945 the museum published three proceedings, playing a great role in increase of the Jewish people self-awareness and promotion of culture of Diaspora. The activities, implemented by Georgian Jewish Historical-Ethnographic Museum deeply impressed Sh. Koboshvili, who started painting at the age of sixty. During five year period, self-taught artist created more than 60 different size pictures, performed in pencil, water color and oil painting. Mainly his drawings display old and new lifestyle of Jews living in Akhlatsikhe. Peculiarities of every day life of Georgian Jews are carefully shown in the following pictures and drawings created by Koboshvili: ajla; agkala; a child, visiting self-taught doctor; missionary, selling amulets; atara; childbirth; taking a child to circumcision, a market in Akhaltsikhe; the Bible of Breti; Jewish district (Akhlatsikhe); Jew bashing; Mikveh; ill woman with self-taught doctor at mikveh; missionary, blessing children; boy-servant; rich jewish man’s wife visiting a bath; groom; bride; taking a bride to the bath; Simhat Torah holiday; money distribution after agkal, Purim; street venders; ritual immolation of chicken; selling of Jewish boy-servant by feudal lords; handiwork; herem-anathema and others. Our work is focused on only some aspects of lifestyle of the Jewish family. On the basis of toponymic, archeologic and ethnographic material it may be stated that town districts in Georgia were arranged under different principles. In some cases there were the distrcits, arranged in accordance with activites, characterizing the persons living there, in other ones, the separate districts were arranged in accordance with the ethnical, religios or other patterns. The same principle also characterized the Jews living in different regions of Georgia. Jewish districts were arranged around the synagogues in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Surami, Sachkhere, Oni, Tskhinvali, Akhaltsikhe, Kula, Bandza... As an illustration we present only several drawings by Shalom Koboshvili: Jewish district in Akhlatsikhe – a painting, which by its charming huts and barracks, drawn in pleasant and attractive colors, displays reality of Jewish life. Only two synagogue buildings are distinctive by their size and arrangement in the district resembling a mountain village. Through this picture, the author wants to mention, that despite the Jews lived in poor barracks and had low-wage jobs, they could construct beautiful synagogues38. This fact is also proved by the other authors, e.g. I. David noted, that “Jewish population of Akhaltsikhe lived in huts, illuminated by sunlights coming from the roofs”. According to census, implemented by Commission of National Minorities of Georgian Government in 1932, Jewish houses in Akhaltsikhe were single-floor ones, sometimes – semi-huts. The houses typically contained two rooms. Rich people typically had three rooms, seldom ten-twelve rooms, in which sixty to seventy people lived. Garbage, discharged from one house, was often collected on the roofs of the other ones. Dirt floor, especially in kitchens, where they spent most of their time, also was a typical characteristic feature of Jewish house. The message, related with the houses of the Jewish people, sent in 1933 to the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union by Ph. Makharadze contained the following description: “the houses, in which the majority of the Jewish people live, are semi-ruined mud huts, they are built from twigs and grove of Jerusalem thorns. The houses are damp, obscure, poorly ventilated, unprotected from winds, rains and cold weather. Almost each member of community has insufficient living space – 1 square meter, multi-child families live in one room of 10-15 square meters and don’t have utility spaces. Because of the density of closely located houses, even a low scale fire will destroy the whole settlement resulting hundreds of thousands victims among Jewish population”. In some cases, Jewish house also had a religious status. According to I. Papismamedov: “16-17 Jewish families, residing in Gori, lived in one two-storey house. One big room on the second floor was allocated for prayer, there was one-pool mikveh on the first floor, which belonged to the whole Jewsih community of Gori”. Inspired by above mentioned, Sh. Kobiashvili in 1938 painted ethnography-related drawing: “Mikveh” and “Ill woman and self-taught doctor at mikveh”. One day prior wedding ceremony, Jewish woman was brought to the mikveh for participation in religious ceremony of ritual purity. Mikveh is a ritual pool filling in only by rain water. After three divings into the pool, the bride (without wiping her body) dressed her dress. According Jewsih customs, the ceremony was related with reproduction and fertility. Through the ritual, the bride was awarded childbirth ability and fertilizing power of water. Fertilizing power of water also played an important role in Georgian ethnographic life. Ritual bathing was obligatory for Jewish women who participated in the ceremony in different cases, for example they were prohibited to share a bed with their husbands without a symbolic purification.
64 Turkish elements in narativs of Georgians (klarjuli) end Laz language , Lile Tandilava
Two indigenous corners of Georgia Klarjeti and Lazati-stayed beyond the boundaries of the Motherland of Georgia.Locals found themselveinside of other state.  However, they learned their language and became bilingual. At home they speak Georgian - outside in Turkish. Centuries have passed but both sides continue to speak on their own native Georgianlanguage. With this standing, today  they preserve the spoken language in which Georgians are proud of them. These two dialects encountered many problems in the parallel mode of the use of the two languages, Georgian??and the Laz language get Turkish elements, which have led to the distortion of the language in the dialects, and the language structure embodies the borrowing language in its language mold. Our research finds that both dialects have either common borrowed vocabulary from Turkish as different from itself.
65 Turkish Vocabulary with Turkish Derivatives in Muhajir Speech , Vardo Chokharadze
The study of the Samkhruli speech has a long history. Accordingly, the study of the Turkish element in the speech of Muhajir is a major problem of Georgian linguistics. Old people speak Georgian in this region, while youthspeaks Turkish. The first information about the "Chorokhi countries" and the speech of people living there, can be foundin the recordings ofsuch famoustravelers and researchers of the XIX century as G. Kazbegi, D. Bakradze, D. Bavreli. The speech of Muhajirs  is full of various Turkish elements,Turkish lexicon with Turkish derivatives. Let's consider some examples on this occasion.
66 The topicality of developing the separate translation theories (based on the translations from and to Georgian and Turkish) , Marine Aroshidze
At the turn of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the vector of the socio-political development of many countries changed. In the first years after the declaration of independence in Georgia, a serious scope of work was revealed, connected with a change in the language situation and language policy in the country. Despite the territorial proximity of Georgia and Turkey, during the Soviet period, Georgian and Turkish language and cultural contacts flowed through the Russian language, this also applied to translation activities. At present, it is necessary to pay close attention to theoretical and applied research focused on two specific languages - the original language and the target language. Based on the specifics of the linguistic and ethnic barrier separating the Georgian and Turkish languages and cultures, the authors of the article analyze the main areas of work in this area: enhancing the comparative studies of the Georgian and Turkish languages, the study of common phenomena in different types of discourse (sociopolitical, scientific and business speech), the study of the cultural image of the world and the analysis of the Georgian and Turkish conceptual framework. Linguistic and cultural studies dictionaries, dictionaries of false translator friends, etc. should become table books of translators. Translation of Georgian fiction into Turkish and Turkish literature into Georgian as well as translation of media texts takes on special significance, since only the extensive thesaurus will enable translation to take into account the connotative meanings of translatable units.
67 On the Credibility of Early Evidence of Arab Geographers About the Turks of Central Asia and the Caucasus , Farda Asadov
The article characterizes the sources and historical conditions for obtaining the earliest information about the Turks of Central Asia and the Caucasus in the first works of Arab geography literature. The importance of this information for achieving the political goals of the Caliphate government on the border with the nomadic Turks is pointed out. Special attention is paid to information about the Turks of Central Asia from two chapters of the Mashhad manuscript of the work of Ibn al-Fakikh al-Hamadani "Akhbar al-Buldan". It is noted that the Meshad manuscript of this monument of Arab geography literature of the beginning of the 10th century preserved the news of the time of the first contacts of Muslim Arabs with the Turks, characterized by open confrontation and struggle for control over the agricultural areas of Central Asia. At the same time, the news of Ibn alFakih makes enables to restore the stages of the gradual transformation of the perception of non-Muslim Turks in Muslim society, as well as to characterize the ideological struggle of the Muslim government aimed at ousting traditional beliefs and spreading Islam among the nomadic Turks. An examination of the composition of the two currently known versions of the text by Ibn al-Faqih gives grounds for the conclusion about the consistent editing of the text by Arab scribes in order to eliminate the first unfavorable images about the Turks that developed during the period of a fierce struggle for dominatin in Central Asia. The change of the images of nomadic Turks in Muslim public opinion and literature is demonstrated by references from the works of Arab authors who wrote in the era of the penetration and adaptation of the Turks in Muslim society and their gradual Islamization (IX-X centuries).
68 The End of Japan's Self-Isolation in 1854 and its Aftermath , Nana GelashviliIvane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
The presented paper is dedicated to one of the most important issues in the history of Japan. In particular, the completion of the country's self-isolation in 1854 or its so-called "opening" with the efforts of the United States and discussion of the following events. Indicated issues in the paper are presented in light of international relations as well as political and socio-economical situation in Japan.To avoid the threat of losing country's political independence and ideological unity, the ruling Tokugawa government pursued a strict anti-Western and anti-Christian policy, which eventually culminated in the closure of the country. Japan was in self-isolation for more than two centuries - from 1639 to 1854. It maintained minimal relations with neighboring Korea and China, and from European countries - only with the Netherlands. With insistence of the United States, on March 31, 1854, the first „Peace and Friendship Treaty“ was signed between Japan and the United States, under which the U.S. gained a number of privileges in Japan. Following the footsteps of the U.S similar concessions were demanded from Japan by the great European powers and Russia. Due to the difficult political and economic situation, government was forced to conclude kabbalistic agreements that violated the sovereign rights of the country with them. It is true that Japan found itself in a network of unequal treaties, however, the main thing in this case was that a whole new page of the country's history was unfolded. In the end, the direct result of Japan's opening was positive innovation processes developed in the country in political, socio-economic and cultural spheres, which are discussed and analyzed in then paper presented.  
69 Batumi and Adjara as Part of the Kutaisi Governorate , Sulkhan Kuprashvili. Akaki Tsereteli State UniversityGoderdzi Vachridze. Akaki Tsereteli State University
The aim of the present paper is to study and analyze the process of military, political and economic establishment of the Russian Empire in Batumi and the Adjara region in general during the existence of the Kutaisi Governorate (Guberniya), and the difficulties that the imperial government faced in pursuing this policy. The imperial government included the Batumi Oblast as part of the Kutaisi Governorate, which was restored in 1883, and divided it into the Batumi and Artvini Okrugs, and the Sukhumi district which was re-formed into the okrug. The position of an Assistant to the Military Governor of Kutaisi was created whose residence was in Batumi. In 1903, Batumi, Artvini and Sukhumi Okrugs were detached from the Kutaisi Governorate. The Batumi and Artvini Okrugs were united and re-formed into the Batumi Oblast which was governed by the Military Governor. The reports of the Governor of Kutaisi and the annual reviews of the Governorate provide the most important information about the main directions of the colonial policy of the Russian imperial government in the Batumi Oblast which contain rich factual material for the study of the new history of western and southwestern Georgia. The paper shows that the reports of the Governor of Kutaisi and the reviews of the Governorate provide an insight into the process how Russia's military, political, and economic establishment in the region took place, and what difficulties the imperial government faced in pursuing the policy of Russification of the region compared to eastern Georgia based on the documents preserved in the Kutaisi Central Archive, works by 19th-century Russian historians and relevant Georgian-language literature. 
70 Philip the Good, Feast of the Pheasant and the Failed Plan to Launch a Crusade to Retake Constantinople , Levan JanjgavaIvane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
The definition of the Crusades have experienced a change since the crusades of the holy land 1095-1291. The very interpretation of what the crusades were never changed in principle, a holy alliance of the European Christianity against the Saracen of the east. Nevertheless, there is a significant gap between the Crusades and the Anti-Ottoman Alliance. It has become obvious that the crusades have been used as an umbrella term even for the post-1291 campaigns against the Muslim states. As Constantinople fell, the European powers remained in awe. 1453 not only saw the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire but the end of the Hundred Years’ War. With Europe fresh out of a conflict of their own, not many were keen on living up to their Crusading past. A new enemy was on the horizon, the Ottoman. Mehmed Fatih had proven to Europe that he was no mere conquering Muslim like those that Europe had previously faced. Mostly all in Europe feared confrontation with the new Kayser-i Rum. All but one, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. A Valois of tremendous power and influence found himself at the helm lobbying a campaign against the Conqueror Sultan and retake Constantinople and even Jerusalem. Only weeks after the fall of Constantinople, Philip the Good hosted a feast in his favored castle Lille, attended by some hundred lords and high army officials, out of which many were members of Philips’ own Order, the Order of the Golden Fleece. The feast came to be known as the “Feast of the Pheasant” and marks the beginning of Philips arduous quest to unite Europe against a common enemy. Philips’ quest was riddled with disappointments however. Not only did he receive direct threats from Mehmed II upon hearing of Philip’s plan to retake Constantinople, but his closest allies who initially lent their words that they would join or facilitate Philip’s cause, either pulled out or died. In the end, Philip died never amounting to a Crusade against the Ottomans. He died pleasing to god that he could forgive him for his inability to carry out his holy mission. Nevertheless, although he died never going into a battle against the Ottoman, his plan played a role in transforming the Crusades into an Anti-Ottoman Alliance, which many know, began the new epoch of European-Ottoman wars.
71 With the Heads of an East - India Trading Company , Izolda BeltadzeBatumi Shota Rustaveli State University
We aimed to learn from the economic history of England in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, the preconditions for the origin of the East India Company, one of the richest companies in England, its initial capital, profit and importance in the colonial expansion of England. It turns out that the establishment of the East India Company in England was due to a number of factors: the development of the Maud industry, trade (from 1507 BC) the existence of the London MerchantAdventure Company (which was engaged only in continental trade), from which the company was separated into a rich , The development of capitalism, the relocation of sea lanes to the east, the search for the English Maud key and the bases of raw materials (silk, cotton). All of this contributed to the creation of the Joint Stock Company, which had a larger working capital, and brought greater profits to the country than the London Adventure Company. This company was founded in 1600 during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England (1558-1603), who by charter gained monopoly rights in Asia, Africa, America and all the islands from the Cape of Good Hope to the Strait of Magellan. From the very beginning, this company engaged in non-equivalent, barter exchange of goods, thus making large profits, which covered the costs of customs duties and transportation of goods. After the Industrial Revolution, metals were imported from England to the East Indies from the 18th century onwards, producing spices, cotton and silk raw materials, salt, tea, potassium nitrate, opium, and other commodities. The East India Company was no longer limited to trading with India alone. It is also associated with Iran and Japan. The company's profits were so great that in the eighteenth century its capital reached 66 million. Thus, the East India Company played an important role in finding key markets for English Maud, importing oriental raw silk, cotton, and increasing working capital obtained through Eastern products such as pepper, cloves, cinnamon, indigo, nutmeg, etc. In the creation of the empire, in the conquest of South and Southeast Asia.
72 Political Portrait of Ali Khamenei , Maia KapanadzeCaucasus International University Tamta KoduaCaucasus International University
The spiritual leader of Iran is an important figure for this state. He is not only a spiritual but also a political leader. He has quite a lot of power in his hands, which is enshrined in the country's constitution. Quite interesting is the current leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran Ali Khamenei. His political activities are also distinguished. Therefore, he attracts attention, not only as a spiritual but also as a political leader. It is noteworthy that before Ali Khamenei became the Rahbar (spiritual leader) of Iran, he was the president of the country for 8 years and ruled the country together with the first spiritual leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ruhola Khomeini. Ali Khamenei is quite active in the political life of the country, which is his legitimate right. He played a key role in lifting sanctions on Iran in 2015, along with then-President Hassan Rouhani. He is still actively involved in the ongoing negotiations on sanctions against Iran.
73 The Problem of Turkey and its Unification in the European Union , Lasha KhozrevanidzeBatumi Shota Rustaveli State University
In the twenties of the twentieth century, special political processes for the future of the country began in Turkey. In particular, Kemal Ataturk took over the presidency and created the Republic of Turkey, which laid the foundation for the transfer of the Turkish people to the European vector. All of the above opened a new window on TurkeyEU relations. It should be noted that the history of relations betweenმ Turkey and the EU dates back to 1987, when official Ankara applied for EU membership. For the successful coronation of the above process in 1990-2000. The Republic of Turkey has implemented a number of important reforms within the country that have met the declared criteria for an EU member state. The above-mentioned reforms were not delayed and Turkey received the first signal from the EU, which was reflected in the Republic of Turkey's accession to the European Customs Union in 1995. The "Justice and Prosperity Party" came to power in Turkey with a majority in 2002, with the aim of joining the European Union as the main political ideology of the party. The ruling party continued its ongoing political reforms within the country, which included improving its legislative framework, as well as a comprehensive package of constitutional amendments that were to become the basis for meeting the criteria for Turkey's EU membership. The article discusses a number of problems and lists the historical preconditions that prevent the Republic of Turkey from joining the European Union. It will be internal political crises or legislative gaps in the country.
74 China's foreign policy before the collapse of the USSR (1980-1991) , Marine JibladzeFree University ; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
The paper discusses China's foreign policy before the collapse of the Soviet Union. The aim of the study is to do an analysis of Chinese foreign policy in the period before the collapse of the USSR, in particular, discussing China's relations with the US and the USSR and the triangle of these relations at different times and circumstances. A set of methods that include the historical-descriptive method, the retrospective method and a systematic analysis of historical processes. Despite obstacles and some difficulties along the way, China, with consistent, prudent and, if necessary, swift action, quickly became one of the most powerful and influential players on the international arena. Stability along with a correct foreign policy, prioritizing national interests and focusing on matters that are crucial for development, have brought steady economic progress to China. The scientific novelty is that we demonstrate China's ability to react sharply and swiftly remodel their foreign policy; Details of the peculiarities of diplomatic moves in foreign policy; A principled but flexible defense mechanism of one's own interest; Careful, prudent and, at the same time, effective policy on the international arena; The specifics of the sequence of diplomatic steps; Priorities in the geopolitical environment before the collapse of the USSR. As for the practical value of the paper, it is possible to reasonably understand and use future opportunities in diplomatic activities. The paper is valuable for both theoretical researchers and practicing specialists.
75 Function of the suffix -sA in Turkish , Giga KamushadzeAkaki Tsereteli State University
In this article we have investigated the suffix -sA, which belongs to the form of indicative mood and and is referred to in grammar textbooks as the conditional mood which has gone through several stages of formation: In Old Turkish it was used with the form of -sar, - ser. Later, with the loss of the sound-r, it took the form of -sa, -se. From Middle Turkish, suffix -sa / -se Formally, has the function of producing two different moods. It should be noted that this situation remains in Turkish today. In terms of form and function, due to the connection of two different suffixes over time, it combined two functions, to express the subjunctive and conditional mood. In Turkish grammar textbooks, it is also used to express subjunctive -conditional mood (dilek-şart). Research has shown that suffix has the function of expressing desire, condition, command, ability, comparison and contrast, » Also, the functions of expressing the condition, differ according to the noun and the verb. Simple and complex sentences, simple and complex verbs are important. Accordingly, the suffix is a function of "desire" in verb phrases, while in simple sentences and simple verb forms it has the function of "condition".  
76 Narrative features of Maradidi Klarjuli , Natela PhartenadzeBatumi Shota Rustaveli State University
Dialect, as a kind of language, is characterized by a type of linguistic immunity, which contributes to the preservation of verbal originality. Since the dialect is a presentation of oral speech, special importance is attached to the manner of speech, such as: intonation, tempo of speech, grammatical and expressive features, modalexpressive forms of behavior, vocabulary-phraseology, etc. In this regard, the narrative of Maradidi Klarjuli and its features are very diverse and interesting. The manner of speech in the process of oral speech is significantly influenced by the tone and intonation of a speaker, thereby the narrator expresses his emotional attitude to what is being said. In addition, intonation performs not only the function of expression, but also has its own content as an essential component of sentence construction. Sentences of this structure are often found in Maradidi's speech. In particular, the intonational circulation of the interlocutor creates a kind of compressed construction of a complex sentence with the conjunction რომ (“that”), it mostly concerns the entire dependent sentence and always indicates a positive, somewhat exaggerated action. It is often used for personal praise (ჩვენ იმდონი სიმინდი მაქვან, რუმე...). In such cases, the vowel sound in the conjunction რომ is pronounced for a long time, and it is in this intonation that the content and main meaning lie. The intonational-expressive function of the conjunction-particles თუ -“or’’ and და - “and” is clearly expressed in Maradidi Klarjuli, what is especially noticeable in the question-answer compressed constructions, mainly in the final position (– მე და შენ ერთი ვართ თუ? – ბათუმი აქავრზე კაÁა თუ? – ძალი ჩემთანაა თუ? - ქალაქშია; რამ არ უშავს, რამ ეტყვის თუ? – წეხვიდეთ, თუ?...). A conjunction-particle can be rarely found in the middle position (იცი თუ ბაÁრამი? სხვა’ნა მოხვიდეთ თუ კიდო?...). ცი თუ ბაÁრამი? სხვა’ნა მოხვიდეთ თუ კიდო?...). The conjunction-particle და-“and” is mainly characteristic of the southern dialects and is well expressed in Maradidi Klarjuli, which in some cases has the intonation of a request and often no longer requires continuation of the thought; the sentence ends with the prolonged intonation or, occasionally, is continued with a clarification (– გაბიწყდება’და, ბევრი დრო გეჲარა; – გურჯი ვარ’და, ჩემი ლაპარიკი ვერ არიგებენ; – მოთხვე’და!; – ვილაპარიკე’და, სხვა რამ არ ვიცი...). The intonation factor is so important in a conversation that it creates a specific sentence construction, thereby revealing the speaker's attitude to the narrated. The adverb მერე//მემრე -“then” is often used in the Maradidi dialect. However, it is sometimes replaced by the form with the same meaning - იმის უკან. The above forms in this case are conjunctions and do not convey a specific time; but they are time determiners of the entire sentence and, together with a joined verb-predicate, show the result of the previous narrative, or the intensity of the action process, the usual action... Obviously, the adverbs მერე//მემრე//მემრენ//იმის უკან create a semantic field of the future tense, although in these contexts the verbpredicate, attached to it, expresses not a specific time, but an indefinite, general time, and also includes an understanding of the plurality of action. All this confirms the generally accepted position, according to which universal timeliness and ordinariness are sought in the internal dimension of each tense. Maradidi Klarjuli's narration focuses on the relationship between real and grammatical tense. For a speaker, relative tense is often more important than grammar, what supports the notion that "time is a somewhat semantic category, not a grammatical one". The same question is related to the time transfer factor: an action taking place in the present is transferred to the past and future (რატონ მოხველი და ახლა შიმიყვარდენ და არ’ნა დამავიწყონ...). In this case, the action transmitted by the present is understood as something that happened in the past or will happen in the future, but does not contain a specific understanding of time. In fact, this is a common present, which points to a common spatial thinking. In the narration of Maradidi, a transitional stage of the structural form of the sentence is observed, what is manifested in paratactical constructions. In particular, this applies to cases when the same wordmember is intensively repeated in a conversation, especially a verbpredicate (– მე მაქინა მაქვან, ყველაფერი მაქვან... ძველი ინსნების უსტობა არ მაქვან; – ალთუნი ევღეფთ, ჩასაცმელები ევღეფთ, რაცხა უნდანან ის ეÁღებენ; – ტათლი მეÁთხოვდენ. ბიჭის სახშიგოგოს თერეფი მეÁთხოვდენ ქათამი, თხილი...). The verb-predicate არის-"to be" is also often used with a commonindefinite meaning, when it is functionally independent and is not part of the compound predicate (აქ ყველაფერი არი: ჩაი არი, თხილი არი, სხვა რამ არ არი...). In addition to the verb-predicate, the intensive repetition of another word-member is also confirmed (– პაწაÁ ლობიაÁ, პაწაÁ სიმინდი, პაწაÁ ბიბერი მაქ დარგილი...). In the Maradidi narrative, duplicated composites are especially striking. The second part of them is always a form with the prefix მand they are used mainly in cases where a number of things need to be listed. (თხილი-მილი; თოფი-მოფი; საჭმელები-მაჭმელებს; ღვინომინო...). Various variants of a word უნდა -“should/must”, found in three forms, create an interesting and peculiar intonation in a speech. It is attached to almost every part of speech and can be used several times in one and the same sentence: უნდა’→ნა’/და’/ნდა’. It can be said that it is impossible to accurately convey what was said both on paper and to a reader, any well-written text only approximately reflects oral speech. The researcher is obliged and tries to preserve as much as possible the natural sound of the written text, how to write the material so that the reader correctly perceives the peculiarity of the dialect pronunciation, how to reflect in the dialect text the characteristics of live speech, for example, restrained conversation, which thus distinguishes the dialect of one village or valley from another. That is why the written dialect material is correctly perceived and understood only by the native speaker of the given dialect, since for a speaker of another dialect, the degree of his perception-understanding decreases with the increase in dialectical features.
77 Translation of the Cultural-Specific Words in the Turkish Translation of „The Knight of the Panter’s Skin“ , Nona Nikabadze
The paper presents the difficulties due to the cultural-specific factors of the Turkish translation of "The Knight of the Panter’s Skin”. Based on the comparison of the texts, we will empirically establish the proximity of the original text to the target text and evaluate the literary translation of the text. In assessing the quality of the translation of a literary text, particular importance is attached to the question of the artistic expressions used in the source text and transferred to the target text, such as, for example, the transfer of epithets and metaphors to the Turkish translation of "The Knight of the Panter’s Skin”. The translation of sociocultural concepts is also noteworthy. Our aim is to explore the principle of selecting equivalents and evaluate translator strategies.
78 The Artistic Transformation of Plato's ,,Cave Myth” in the Chronicles of Narnia by Clive Lewis , Nino Nikolaishvili
The classic works in the fantasy genre of C.S. Lewis’ ,,The Chronicles of Narnia" follow the mythological tradition with all their archetypal and mythological arsenal. The Chronicles are another unique version of cosmogonic myths, which are reworked and, therefore, go far beyond the mythical idea of cosmogony. According to the myth-archetypal embroidery, the Chronicles also begin the post-cosmogonic era of the ,,Golden Age“ (Crete-Yuga), which continues with successive regressive yugas and ends with the end of the eschatological world. In the Chronicles of Narnia by Clive Lewis, we find not only mythological and religious archetypes and paradigms, but also the influence of philosophers on them. The philosophy of Plato, his world of ideas, and the myth of the cave deserve special attention. Lewis' fiction is saturated with platonic elements. This is most evident in The Last Battle, where Narnia, described in the previous six chapters, differs from Narnia in ,,The Last Battle“. Plato's influence is evident in Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia. Knowledge of the works of Plato and a great interest in him is visible in the texts of Lewis. It is also evident that Plato's ideas merged with his own and were viewed in mythological, Christian, and philosophical terms. Some elements of Christian Platonism in Lewis' fiction are easily recognizable, while some of them are so embedded in Lewis's theology that their Greek origins are almost indistinguishable or difficult to understand. Lewis's vision of the sky, conveyed in the final battle, the disappearance of old Narnia and the creation of a new, real heavenly Narnia that we did not know before, corresponds to the idea of "form" and "copy". Narnia, in which children traveled and constantly had to free themselves from enemies or witches, turns out to be a copy, imaginary, in contrast to the real, eternal Narnia. Both, Plato, and Lewis both believed in an immutable world of ideas that included eternal, objective, and ethnic standards. They also concluded that this current, transitory world is a shadow of a more realworld outside of it. Lewis's ,,Last battle“ is syncretic. The events reflected in it clearly show the influence of Christian eschatology, Scandinavian mythology, and Greek philosophy.
79 Koizumi Yakumo (1850-1904) – Yuki-onna ( 雪女 ) „Snow woman“ , Mariam ChalabashviliIvane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
Yōkai ( class of supernatural monsters, spirits or demons ) plays an important role in Japanese folklore, such as Yuki-onna – Snow woman. There are distinctive variations of Yuki-onna. As the author notes he heard this story from a farmer who lived in Musashi Province. The Snow woman is first mentioned during Muromachi period (1336-1573) Sōgi Shokoki Monogatari by the renga poet Sōgi (1421-1502). There are different names of Snow woman: Yuki-nago ( snow girl ), Yukionba ( snow granny ) and etc.
80 Orhan Kemal (1914-1970)–“Wonderful Child” , Asmat JaparidzeTbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University
Orhan Kemal is a Turkish realist writer. His real name is Mehmet Raşit Ütçü. In the beginning, he tried his luck at writing poetry, but later, following the advice of Nazim Hikmet, whom he met in prison, he started writing stories and novels instead. In his writings, Orhan Kemal introduces us to the lives of "little people." Social problems are the main theme of his work.
81 Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam - (1048-1131) - Rubaiyat , Tina ShioshviliBatumi Shota Rustaveli State University
The name of the greatest Iranian poet and thinker, Omar Khayyam, is known and respected by many people around the world, including Georgians. Omar Khayyam's deep-seated Rubaiyats were so loved and embraced by the Georgian people that some of them even underwent folklorization and create variants. The first Georgian interlinear translation of Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyats was published in 1924 (translated by Justine Abuladze), and the first poetic translation - in 1946 (translated by Ambako Chelidze). Translators of Omar Khayyam are also: Magali Todua, Vakhushti Kotetishvili, Tamaz Chkhenkeli, Alexander Elerdashvili. Omar Khayyam's poetry is being actively translated by members of the Georgian Translators' Association, one of whom is Professor Tina Shioshvili, whos works are being introduced to the public.
82 George Sanikidze - 60 , Emzar Makaradze
George Sanikidze - 60
83 Gocha Japaridze - Reminding , George Akhalkatsishvili
Georgian school of the oriental studies and generally Georgian science and society felt the irreparable loss.  Orientalist and historian, Arabian, doctor of the history’s learning, a leader of the oriental studies’ teaching and stientific institute of the humanitarian learning faculty of the Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, a leader of the chair of history of the east – Gocha japaridze died on November 15 2020 (10 July 1942 – 15 November 2020)
84 NATO peacekeeping mission in Kosovo, Giorgi Doborjginidze
Nowadays, the concept of the security of states in the world is no longer limited by the borders of one state, the stable situation in the state depends on the integration processes developed at the regional and global level. Among the numerous organizations in the world, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) occupies a central place. The answer to the question of what are the main reasons for the success of this organization must first be found in its principles and values. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), established in 1949, was able to fulfill its main duties, namely to protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its member states. After the end of the "Cold War", when the issue of its absence became active, NATO was able to transform itself and continues to function successfully to this day. The North Atlantic Alliance has undergone a number of changes in the history of its existence, one of these changes is the decision to engage in peacekeeping operations and crisis management, regardless of the geographical location of the conflict. The Alliance recognizes that today threats are no longer confined to a single specific location, and in the context of globalization, threats are seen as a holistic problem. In the 90s of the 20th century, NATO carried out peace operations for the first time, namely in the Balkans (Bosnia-Herzegovina) in 1995, in Kosovo in 1999, and in Macedonia in 2001, where the bloody conflict of the breakup of the former Yugoslav Republic posed a serious threat not only to regional but also to common European security.
85 Relations Between China And Russia At The Initial Stage (XVII Century), Davit Andguladze
Sino-Russian relations have entered a new phase recently. A few centuries ago, the reality was different. The fighting for the division of the northeastern region of Asia lasted almost the entire seventeenth century. Despite the narrative of the "peaceful annexation of the Far East" prevalent in Russian historiography, Chinese sources talk about different reality. Due to border skirmishes and wars, Russia was forced to make several territorial concessions. Establishing trade relations with China turned out to be a very important foreign-economic factor even then. In addition, the young Qing Empire was also a powerful military force and was the political and cultural dominant of Central and East Asia.
86 The Islamic Factor In The Kosovo Crisis, Levan Tarieladze
The end of the "Cold War" laid the foundation for important political processes around the world. Especially in Europe, where many countries have experienced territorial changes, some have even been formed anew. Among the most outstanding of the mentioned processes are the events developed on the Balkan Peninsula, in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, where the disintegration processes developed with unprecedented cruelty and tragedies after the World War II. On the basis of ethnic, linguistic and religious differences in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia consisting of six republics and two autonomous provinces (Kosovo and Vojvodina - Serbia), the humanitarian disaster that developed in the heart of Europe shook whole Europe and the world in general. From the wars of Yugoslavia, with its cruelty, scope and international involvement, the events of Kosovo stand out, which is a special and arguably the most resonant event of the post-Cold War world politics, the development and content of which were influenced by many factors. One of the main ones was the Islamic factor, since 90 % of Kosovo population was made up of ethnically Albanian Muslims. Islam is widespread in the Balkans, a region that has always had an exceptionally complex ethno-religious picture. The escalation of the crisis in Kosovo forced the Islamic states of the Middle East to pursue a forced foreign policy in the region. The Persian Gulf countries began to direct significant financial flows to the Balkans. Charitable foundations and organizations were launched, such as "Al Haramein", "Kosovo and Chechnya Aid Committee", "Kosovo Aid Committee" and others. As a result, Islam in the Balkans has become a serious political factor that affects the contemporary international relations of the region.
87 Science Development and the Role of Translation in the Process of Knowledge Exchange, Anastasia Makharadze
The present article is dedicated to the development of science, its spread from Europe to other countries of the world, knowledge exchange and the role of translation. In these processes, translation was one of the important factors, thanks to which it became possible to spread scientific achievements, which originated mainly in European countries, from Europe to other regions of the world, in which translation played one of the main roles. In order for scientific achievements to become accessible to other nations, all this had to be presented in a language they could understand. The article presents an interesting model of scientific progress and knowledge spread proposed by the researcher George Basalla. The article discusses the scholar’s three-phase model of knowledge spread, where it is described how, in what way and by whom scientific achievements were transferred from Europe to other continents. It is also discussed how colonial science became an independent science in different countries, which ultimately, made these countries advanced. The achievements of European science were translated into the language of those nations where these innovations reached in different ways. This is where the great role of translation lies in the process of science development and knowledge exchange.
88 Ottoman Clay Tobacco Pipes From Petra Fortress, Giorgi Tavamaishvili
The paper presented to you is dedicated to the original pottery - tobacco clay pipes, which were found during the excavation of Georgian material cultural monuments, especially during excavations of military-strategic sites, such as fortifications. The fact that these artefacts are being found in such a specific environment is not surprising, as both in Europe and in Eastern countries, active smokers of tobacco (including pipes) were mostly among military personnel. Our region is no exception in this context. The aim of the work is to present the Ottoman clay smoking pipes found on the territory of the Georgian seaside historical monument - Petra Fortress, which were discovered by different generations of the Archaeological Expedition of South-West Georgia in 1964 and 1985. The study of these artefacts is interesting and topical, because even today, Georgian archa­eologists have some differences of opinion about the early period of the spread of Ottoman clay pipes in our country, which, not infrequently, is reflected not only on the process of dating of the pipes, but the accompanying materials as well. After reading the works of European and Turkish scholars, we have more reason to suppose the appearance of Ottoman clay pots on the territory of Georgia from the second half of the XVII century, when, during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I, the restriction on tobacco consumption was partially lifted. This assumption is supported by the archeological material found on the monuments of the late Middle Ages of Georgia, where only a small part consists of samples of the XVII century, and essentially a larger share falls on the work pieces of the XVIII-XIX centuries. In southwestern Georgia, tobacco clay pipes are found in large numbers in the area of ​​Gonio-Apsaros and Petra fortresses, where, at a certain period, the Ottoman element was present, regulated by the real situation (military service), but with signs of a traditional local lifestyle. The archeological material of Gonio-Apsaros is more numerous and diverse, because the Ottomans occupied the fortress much earlier and would "stayed" for a longer time than in Petra-Tsikhisdziri. Accordingly, if the age of the tobacco clay pipes found in Gonio-Apsaros dates back to the XVII-XIX centuries, similar artefacts found in Petra Fortress date back to the XVIII-XIX centuries, which is in full chronological agreement with the period of Petra-Tsikhisdziri in the historical sources.
89 Abdulhak Hamid Tarhan (1852-1937) –„Place of Inspiration“, Asmat Japaridze
Abdulhak Hamid Tarhan (1852-1937) is a Turkish playwright and poet. He is one of the leading lights of the Turkish Romantic period. Elements of Western and Eastern culture and poetry are closely connected in his work. Abdulhak Hamit in the poem "Place of Inspiration" secludes himself in the bosom of nature, away from the noise of the city, to give himself time to think. He sees divine harmony in nature. For him, God and nature are one whole. The lyrical hero of the poem wants to be a part of this whole, but the pain of his soul and longing for his homeland prevent him from doing so.
90 Koizumi Yakumo (1850-1904) - „Oshidori“; „Buried secret“, Mariam Chalabashvili
Yōkai (class of supernatural monsters, spirits or demons ) plays an important role in Japanese folklore, such as Oshidori and Buried secret. Many of them are written by Koizumi Yakumo. Oshidori is a mandarin duck (one of the species of ducks). It’s also called the Far East rainbow. In China and Japan Oshidori is considered a symbol of eternal love for married couples. In Japan there is a saying of oshidori-fūfū, which means loving couple.
91 Sabahatin Ali (1907-1948) – „Swallow“, Nato Kharshiladze
Sabahattin Ali was born in Eğridere in 1907. His father was an Ottoman officer. He became a teacher in 1926 and , after a stay in Germany, taught German in Turkey. He started writing poetry and then short stories. While working as a teacher in Konya, he was arrested for criticising Atatürk’s policies and libelling two journalists and spent several months in prison. He was released in 1933 and was eventually given a job in the publications division of the Ministry of National Education. He served in the army during World War II and was again imprisoned and then released in 1944. He applied for a passport but was denied. He was killed at the Bulgarian border in April 1948, possibly by a smuggler who had been paid to help him pass the border and who turned out to be an agent of the National Security Service. He wrote poetry, stories and novels.