1 Determination of Herbicide (Gramoxone 20 Ls) for Weed Control as Pre-sowing Application on Wheat , Md Ahsan Ali1, Golam Faruk1, Rabiul Islam2, Panjarul Haque2, Mohammad Afzal Hossain3*, and Md Abdul Momin3 1Regional Station, Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute, BWMRI, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh; 2Regional Agricultural Research Station, RARS, Hathazari, Chattogram - 4300, Bangladesh; and 3Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, BRRI, Gazipur - 1701, Bangladesh.  *Correspondence: engr.afzal@yahoo.com (Dr. Mohammad Afzal Hossain, Senior Scientific Officer, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, BRRI, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh).
During two successive rabi seasons 2019-20 and 2020-21, a field experiment was undertaken at the Regional Station of Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute (BWMRI), Gazipur to establish the optimum amount of herbicide application (Gramoxone) before sowing wheat under late-planted conditions. Four optimum doses of application were applied as pre-emergence. Herbicide (Gramoxone) spraying at 6 liter/ha for 5 days before sowing provided the best weed control. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. The major weeds in the experimental plot such as Biskatali (Polygonium hydropiper), Chapra (Elusine indica), Bathua (Chenopodium album), Banpalong (Sanchus arvensis) and Banmasure (Vicia sativa) were found. Weed count was 92 m2 and 89 m2 in 2019-20 and 2020-20 respectively, when herbicide (Gramoxone) was sprayed @ 12 liter/ha at 5 days before sowing (DBS). Highest weed monitoring efficiency (78%) in T2=herbicide (Gramoxone) treatment @ 6 liter/ha at 5 DBS. Grain yield and wheat biological yield were statistically diverse, while the other metrics were insignificant. When herbicide (Gramoxone) was treated at 6 liter/ha at 5 DBS, a numerically greater average grain yield (2.57 t/ha) was obtained. The control plot produced a numerically lower average grain yield (1.56 t/ha). When herbicide (Gramoxone) was administered at 6 liter/ha at 5 DBS, the maximum benefit-cost ratio (BCR) was 1.30 which is the best method for weed management prior to wheat application. 
2 The Effect of Feed Supplementation on Cow Milk Productivity and Quality: A Brief Study , Abdi Hassen, Petros Chavula, Siraj Shek Mohammed, and Abrahim Dawid
Milk and milk products are an important source of food that provides nutritional energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins of high quality. Feed supplementation could be an excellent way to improve nutrient digestibility and absorption in dairy cattle, resulting in higher milk output and productivity by addressing the cow's nutritional needs through a feeding schedule. Whatever improvements in the genetic makeup of local dairy cows, they only account for about 30% of productivity; the remaining 70% depend on nutrition, appropriate supplementary diet, and other factors management. Supplementing diverse kinds of feedstuffs and giving a well-adjusted diet has a major effect on milk yield and productivity, but not on milk quality. However, milk production efficiency affects milk quality because of the efficiency of nutrient absorption as described by the ingestion of dry matter. The ability to maximize milk productivity can be determined by the ingredients formulated in the feed supplement. However, local milking cows are minimal milk outcomes since the shortage of nutritional quality and unavailability of feed, if smallholders use appropriate supplementation of different feeds and improve the nutritive values of feeds for dairy cows, the production, productivity, and quality of milk from dairy cattle should increase as well. 
3 Reflective Critical Thinking on Education and Teaching during the COVID-19 Pandemic , Ferri Susanto, Md. Rasel Hossain, Mst. Sadia Arefin, and Md. Badiruzzaman
The purpose of this research was to find out Reflective Critical Thinking of Teaching in Class Discussion Learning in the new normal period in the midst of the Pandemic Corona Virus Disease 19 at the Science, Business, Sharia Faculty for the 2021-2022 academic year. Applying critical thinking skills is a challenge for lecturers to find effective teaching alternatives. Qualitative methods and quantitative descriptions were used because the results of the observation and interview processes in the form of percentage values, field notes, and interviews were analyzed. Observational data reveal positive behaviors, ideas, and feelings. Focus on experiences, feelings, and re-evaluation of experiences/ events/ phenomena. Making conclusions or reflective critical thinking commitments that have been carried out by students in class discussions. Perform verbal reasoning, arguments, and decision making. Open questionnaire and interview data revealed the application of Reflective Critical Thinking in class discussions. The results of the research indicated that the discussion class on teaching still lacks the application of reflective critical thinking practices. The impact of the pandemic has resulted in rigidity in learning. This research provides suggestions that Reflective Critical Thinking could be used as a teaching solution in the new normal period. 
4 Identification and Affliction of Ixodid Tick Species in Domestic Animals , Hassen Yusuf Bekere1*, Nasrin Tamanna2, Md. Badiruzzaman3, Md. Mosharraf Hossen4, Daniel Abebe1, Mohammed Sham Hussen Harun1, Mohammed Hassen Abdi5, and Yasin Osman Yusuf6 1DVM, Haramaya University, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Life Science, Kongju National University, South Korea; 3Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; 4Dept. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh; 5VLT, Hirna Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Ethiopia; and 6VLT, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia. *Correspondence: hassenyusuf1@gmail.com (Dr. Hassen Yusuf Bekere, DVM, Haramaya University, Ethiopia).
Research on local breeds of cattle was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 to identify major Ixodid ticks species and their prevalence. Sampled livestock from farmer associations was contingent selected by multistage sampling technique and then tested for tick infestation. Out of a total of 425 cattle examined, 120(28.57%) were infected with one or more tick strains. About 947 mature ticks were assembled and identified at the level of genes and species from animal organs. Three tick strains of three (3) genera (Amblyomma, Boophilus, and Rhipicephalus) were recognized. The one flesh prevalence of each strain was A. variegatum (61.08%), B. decoloratus (34.69%), and R. evertsi evertsi (4.11%). A. variegatum shows a higher preference for udder, scrotum, and axial; B. decoloratus were dewlap and mainly available Neck, abdomen, and groin; R. evertsi evertsi prefers perianal and valva, and below the tail area of the body. Tested between different age and sex categories of animals, the transmission was constructed to be statistically insignificant (P >0.05) whereas, transmission between body state values was constructed to be statistically significant (P
5 The Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Security, Environment and Social Vices: Global Perspectives, Dada Abiodun1*, Tasnim Ahmad2, Sumona Sharmin3, Nasrin Tamanna4, Md. Mosharraf Hossen2, Ogunyemi Kayode1, and Odeyemi Taye1 1Dept. of Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ekiti State, Nigeria; 2Dept. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Sociology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Life Science, Kongju National University, South Korea. *Correspondence: bigg_daad@yahoo.com (Dada Abiodun, Department of Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria).
ABSTRACT The Pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus 2019 has made the governments of both developed and developing countries introduce various restrictive mechanisms in an attempt to lessen the menace and its rapid spread, Nigeria is not an exception. In Nigeria, the Federal Government restricts interstate travel, locked all offices, closed all commercial markets, and imposed a dusk to dawn curfew on the people. Security task forces were deployed across the country to enforce the restriction. Hence, this resulted in an increase in the rate of extortion and corruption among the security operatives, the volume of waste unrecycled was on the high side, ecotourism was affected as well as an increase in the occurrence of sexual assault, cyber fraud, abduction and other related vices in Nigeria. This article intends to review the security issues and social vices on the increase in Nigeria owing to the COVID 19 lockdown as well as provide possible solutions and prevent future occurrences.
6 The Prevalence of Lumpy Skin Disease in the Cattle Population: A Brief Study, Israel Gammada1*, Md. Mahbub Morshed2, Tanvir Rayhan Rabby3, and Md. Imran Hossain4 1School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh; and 4Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Dhaka, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: gamadaisrael@gmail.com (Dr. Israel Gammada, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Ethiopia).
ABSTRACT: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a generalized skin disease that is an infectious, eruptive, occasionally fatal disease of cattle caused by a virus associated with the Neethling poxvirus in the genus Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. LSD was first described in Zambia and occurs in other most African countries and sporadically in the Middle East region. The genus Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae is the causative agent of Lumpy skin disease. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is closely related antigenically to sheep and goat poxviruses. In Ethiopia, limited works have been done on this disease so far and few studies have been reported on risk factors assessments, epidemiological aspects, seroprevalence, and financial impacts. LSDV transmission among cattle is by the mechanical haematophagus arthropod vectors. LSD is common during the wet season which is at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. The control of LSD can be achieved through vaccination, restriction of animal movement, and eradication of infected and exposed animals.
7 Meloxicam is the Primary Choice of Analgesic for Dogs and Cats; A Cross-Sectional Clinical Study in Bangladesh, Shuva K. Das1, Saida Zinnurine1, Eti R. Sarkar2, and Suchandan Sikder1* 1Dept. of Medicine & Surgery, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Khulshi, Chattogram, Bangladesh-4225; 2Dept. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Basic Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Chattogram-4225, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: suchandan@cvasu.ac.bd (Dr. Suchandan Sikder, Associate Professor, Dept. of Medicine & Surgery, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Khulshi, Chattogram, Bangladesh-4225).
ABSTRACT A cross-sectional clinical survey was conducted on 262 veterinarian participants practicing in Bangladesh with the aim of the current practice of pain management in dogs and cats. The veterinarians were interviewed physically or in online communication with a structured questionnaire. Demographic data of the veterinarians revealed that the majority of them are young males and freshly graduated who use their academic knowledge during practice. The findings of the study also demonstrated that meloxicam is the primary choice of pain management in dogs 66.79% and cats 52.67%. Ketoprofen is the second most choice in both orthopedic and muscular injuries. Among the steroids and opioids categories, dexamethasone and tramadol are recorded respectively as the first choice. Dexamethasone is the primary choice where the pain is the worst. The usual duration of analgesic therapy recorded is less than three days. In most cases, veterinarians suggest H2 blockers in association with meloxicam and ketoprofen to reduce adverse effects. Side effects following analgesic therapy observed are vomition and diarrhea. The current study reviewed the present scenario of analgesics use in dogs and cats in Bangladesh. Further studies are required involving more participants, detailed information on cases, and response to analgesic therapy.
8 Consequence of Environmental Change on the Animal’s Health and Productivity: A Brief Review, Mohammedsham Husen Harun1, K.M. Shafi2, Shuvankar Chandra Dey3, Md. Mosharraf Hossen4, Mostafizor Rahman3&5, Tasnim Ahmad4&8*, Hassen yusuf bekere1, Demri Harun Hussen6, and Michael Abdi Yusuf7 1Tullo Offices of Livestock Health and Fishery Property, Hirna West Hararghe, Ethiopia; 2Dept. of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh; 3Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Gono Bishwabidyalay, Bangladesh; 4Dept. Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 5Bio-research Lab, Provita Group, Mymensingh; 6Ethiopian Food and Drug Control Authority, Moyale, Ethiopia; and 7College of Agricultural and Animal Science, Haramaya University, Ethiopia; and 8Biotech Lab, Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gazipur, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: tasnimbtge@gmail.com (Tasnim Ahmad, Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; and Biotech Lab, Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gazipur, Bangladesh).
ABSTRACT The effects of climate change, especially global warming, can greatly affect the production performance and health of animals around the world. The national average temperature has increased by 1°C since 1970. Most livestock owners in the country feel that weather change is affecting farm animal production and health. The main impacts of weather change on animal production include feed shortages, water shortages, reduced livestock genomic resources, decreased productivity, and reduced mature weight and/or longer time to reach mature weight based on their significance. High temperatures resulting from environmental alteration may increase the level of development of a few pathogens or parasites that found one or more life cycle levels outside the mammalian host. Besides, the spatial disposition and visibility of pasture and water are largely depending on the pattern and visibility of rainfall. Food and water shortages bestow to deduced livestock abundance and reproductive execution. These include slow growth rate of animals, loss of body condition, decreased milk yield, and poor reproductive performance of mature animals. Drought bulls that are debilitated and in poor physical condition cannot provide sufficient drought energy for plowing and thus hinder crop cultivation. Bush encroachment, as well as population pressure, leads to reduced availability of good pastures thus environmental change will have far-reaching consequences for animal yield and health, especially in vulnerable parts of nature where it is essential for nutrients and maintenance. Once more, the environmental change affects farm animal health through various mechanisms; which are effects on parasites, effects on hosts, and vectors, such as alters in precipitation and temperature schemes that can influence both the placement and ample of disease careers; and effects on micropaleontology, such as alteration of transmission levels between hosts. This study has focused to investigate the inherent impacts of environmental alteration on livestock health and productivity.
9 Performance of Aromatic Rice Varieties as Influenced by Nitrogen Doses, Md. Monjur Alam1*, Md. Abu Sayeed Imran2, Sujay Kumar Bhajan3, Umma Hany4, Md. Mahbub Morshed5, and Mst. Mimmi Mizan6 1Dept. of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Islamic University, Bangladesh; 3Dept. of Microbiology at Rabindra Maitree University, Bangladesh; 4Dept. of Agriculture Rabindra Maitree University, Bangladesh; 5Dept. of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh; and 6Dept. of Agronomy, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh. *Correspondence: monjur.bau.kfg@gmail.com (Md. Monjur Alam, Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh).
An experiment was carried out at the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during the Aman season to determine the nitrogen requirement of two aromatic rice varieties (Kalizira, and Chinisagar). There were five N levels, viz. N0 (0 kg ha-1), N20 (20 kg ha-1), N40 (40 kg ha-1), N60 (60 kg ha-1) and N80 (80 kg ha-1). Application of N significantly increased the harvest components, grain harvest, and straw harvest of both rice varieties. Both grain harvest and straw harvest of Chinisagar variety were higher than that of Kalizira. There was no significant difference between the two rice varieties for N concentration in grain and straw. The variety Chinisagar showed statistically higher total N uptake compared to the Kalizira variety. The grain harvest of both varieties without any N application was 1.8 t ha-1 and the application of 60 kg N ha-1 recorded the highest harvests of 3.1 and 3.2 t ha-1 in Kalizira and Chinisagar, respectively. For both varieties, the grain harvest increased progressively with an increase in N application up to 60 kg N ha-1 and thereafter decreased at the higher dose of N i.e. 80 kg N ha-1. The grain harvests due to 40 kg N ha-1 may be optimum for both varieties.