1 The Relationship Between Organizational Justice And Commitment: A Case Study In Accommodation Establishments, Yaz?c?o?lu ?rfan, Topalo?lu, I??l
The main purpose of this study is to determinate the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment in accommodation enterprises. It was also aimed to determinate that relationship in term of distributive justice, process justice and interaction justice. In this scope a case study was carried out on 426 employee who work in holiday village and 4-5 stars hotel in Mu?la province. The questionnaire forms were used to collect data from sample group. According to the analyzing of collected data, a significant relationship was found between general organizational justice, distributive justice, process justice, interaction justice and organizational commitment at the 0,05 significant level. The level of the relationship for general organizational justice and organizational commitment was 62,4%. The level of justice and commitment was 45%, between interaction justice and commitment was 62%. Also the differentiation of those relationships in term of gender, education level and the type of enterprises were searched
2 Evaluation of Social Carrying Capacity of Topkapi Palace By Employees and Visitors, Ünlüönen Kurban, Tokmak Cüneyt
Visitors’ using attraction resources at an optimum level is essential for the sustainable usage of areas. In fact Topkap? Palace arouses a considerable level of interest in terms of resources it has and this interest consequently leads to a concentration of visitors and a high degree of usage. The concentration in the area has utmost importance in terms of visitor carrying capacity. One of the groups who can evaluate the concentration present in this area most efficiently is the employees of the palace who are in continuous interaction with the visitors. One of the main objectives of this study is revealing the opinions of the employees on visitor carrying capacity. In order to gather information from the employees, face-to-face interview technique has been used and the evaluations of the employees have shown that visitor concentration has reached a level which may cause some negative results.
3 Effects of Films and Television Dramas on Destination Image, ?ahbaz R. Pars, K?l?çlar Arzu
The aim of this study is bring up the effects of films and television dramas on destination image. Image is a picture and a imagery which ia about destination and also image affects the purchase decision making. The population of the study contains domestic tourists who visited Mardin. The result of the study suggests that there is a substantive relationship between destination images and films and television dramas.
4 The Effect Of The Applied Performance Methods On The Objective Of The Managers, Kara Derya
Within the changing management concept, employees and employers have the constant feeling of keeping up with the changing environment. In this regard, performance evaluation activities are regarded as an indispensable element. Data obtained from the results of the performance evaluation activities, shed light on the development of the employees and enable the enterprises to stand in the fierce competitive environment. This study sets out to find out the effect of the applied performance methods on the objective of the managers. The population of the study comprises 182 hotel enterprises with five stars operating in Antalya, ?zmir and Mu?lawith 2184 managers. Sample population was comprised of 578 managers. The results of the study suggest that the effect of the applied performance methods on the objective of the managers counts. The objective of the managers applying 360-degree performance evaluation method is found to be “finding out the training and development needs”, while the objective of the managers applying conventional performance evaluation methods is found to be “enhancing the existing performance”.
5 A Study into Safety Perceptions of Tourist Visiting ?stanbul, Seçilmi? Cihan, Ünlüönen Kurban
Safety is one of the priorities of a tourist when choosing his/her destination. The need of safety is one of the natural characteristics of a human being. People need to feel safe in order to live a peaceful life. The goal of this study is to draw attention to safety in tourism by determining whether ?stanbul is regareded as safe by tourists, and to produce ideas towards the subject. In this research, the concept of safety has been covered from different aspects and connecting with the tourism sector; thus, safety issues are examined from the point of law. Tourists’ safety perception about Istanbul has been putted via a survey applied to local and foreign tourists. The results reveal that ?stanbul has an image as an unsafe venue in some aspects.
6 The Views Of Academic Staffs on The Principle of “Leadership of Top Management” of Total Quality In Higer Education, Alk?? Hüseyin
The importance of the application of quality concept is increasing in education sector like other competitive sectors. Because of universities are the central of science and development. The importance of the application of the quality concept is increasing much more than other sectors. The aim of this study is to search opinions of academic staffs about application of leadership of top management which is one of the four basic rules of the total quality management. In this scope, this study was prepared to investigate the application of the principle of leadership of the top management of total quality management in a university in Ankara. According to the result of study the significant differences were found between the views of academic staffs.
7 Evaluation of the Practices of Modular Educational System: A Field Study in Anatolian Hotel and Tourism Vocational High Schools, Seçilmi? Cihan, Ünlüönen Kurban
The goal of this study is to determine whether the tasks to be done in order to ensure the full functionality of the modular teaching system are completed. According to statistics obtained from General Directorate of Trade and Tourism Education in 2008– 2009 academic year, the size of the universe of the study is 626. The study was conducted between March and June 2009. 243 responses were returned in mail and via e-mail, and it was discovered that all of these responses were valid. Frequency analysis, t-test and ANOVA test were applied to the study regarding the teachers. Statistical analyses reveal that the level of satisfaction of the administrators and teachers, and the sufficiency of the facilities are significant factors for evaluation of the program.
8 Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case, Arslantürk Yalç?n
Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s laborintensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.
9 Determination Of The Attitudes Of Lecturers Towards Overcoming The Stress in Terms Of Some Variables, Kara Derya, Koç Hakan
Lecturers who are one of the important part of education are under stress of and as a result of this they have different attitudes towards overcoming stres. The study made an attempt to determine the attitudes of lecturers towards overcoming the stress. The population of the study is a total of 3578 lecturer working at Gazi University. The sample diameter of the study consists of 350 lecturers. The study concluded that seeking for active planning dimension of the attitudes towards overcoming the stress displayed statistically meaningful difference depending on age, tittle and time of working; external-help and escape-abstraction (sensual-action) deimensions age, income, tittle and time of working; acceptance-cognitive and rebuild dimension gender and tittle.
10 A Study on Employees’ Attitudes towards Transformational Leadership and Organizational Attachment, Yavuz Ercan
The aim of this research is to determined the employees’ attitudes on the organizational commitment and transformational leadership behaviors. The study was conducted in the four and five stars hotels in Antalya, Ayd?n and Mu?la. The multiple factor leadership scale (MLQ) and Allen and Meyer’s organizational commitment was used in the study. It is found that employees have middle level attitudes against to the organizational commitment and transformational leadership according to results.
11 Evaluation of Motivation Factors: A Research in Ankara, Sedar Tarakç?o?lu, Alptekin Sökmen, Yasin Boylu
The main objective of this study is to examine which motivation factors are meaningful for employees who work in chosen health firm in Ankara. Thinking that theoretical and practical study would be useful; by making a short literature search over motivation topic primarily theoretical part of the study was finished. After that empirical investigation is conducted in this field. This study aims to identify types of motivation factors by using Evaluation of Motivation Factors Survey. This survey is conducted on 123 employees who work in a health company in Ankara. By using the survey, this study aims to identify which factors may be more affective on employees according to their evaluation. The results of the exploratory factor analysis indicate that, there are three types of motivation factors.
12 Factors affecting the different results in terms of acceptance and refusal of free cash flow to equity and free cash flow to firm in investment decisions on a project, Hasan Bal
Decisions on whether investment projects will be invested are based on such methods as net present value and internal rate of return. These methods focus on net cash flows that will be provided throughout the economic life from the investment. In determining the cash flows there are the methods of free cash flow to firm and free cash flow to equity. In the evaluation of an investment project, each method finds the net present value with a different result. It is such that concerning some projects, while one method finds a positive net present value; the other method can find a negative net present value. This study sets out to examine the factors affecting the conflicting points of the each method, free cash flow to equity and free cash flow to firm, in the acceptance of an investment project.
13 Job Satisfaction Levels of Employees in Hotel Establisments: A Research on Employees in Resort and City Hotel Establishments, Elbeyi Pelit, Yüksel Öztürk
No matter in which sector they function, the job satisfaction of the employees at desired level has the utmost importance for the employees’ performance and organizational efficiency. In this respect, applications and studies related to defining job satisfaction and the factors affecting job satisfaction also have importance for establishments to provide data sources to perfrom their functions in the long term. For this reason, establishments should revise their employees’ job satisfaction levels at times. Especially the issue is much more significant for labour-intensive hotel establishments. In this context, to determine the job satisfaction levels of the city and resort employees in hotel establishments ,this research is carried on 1854 employees employed at 114 five-star hotels in city and resort areas of Turkey using “Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale” to collect data. It is concluded that the employees whose job satisfaction is measured by questionnaires are not satisfied with such issues as the wage, making their own decisions, company policies and promotion opportunities. In the further analyses performed (independent-samples t test and ANOVA), it is found out that the job satisfaction level of the employees working in resort hotel establishments is higher than the employees working in the ciy hotel establishments. In addition this, it is found out that there are some differences between the job satisfaction level and education level of the employees.
14 Relation of Market Where Gold Supply And Demand is Intensive With Finance Sector and Analyze Of Present Market Structure in Terms Of Socio-Economic: A Study Based On Survey in ?anl?urfa and in the Region, Mehmet Cihangir, Fatih Sancar
One of the provinces where gold is purchased and sold mostly is ?anl?urfa. Especially trading of gold mostly in some special days following ?stanbul and Ankara has made necessary that jewelry sector in this province where gold is purchased and sold is put under the scope and thereby examination of the contribution of gold to region economy as well as its other aspects. Within this scope a detailed questionnaire study to search gold and jewelry sector in ?anl?urfa in point of social, cultural and economical effects have been carried out and it has been aimed to explain these effects directly from explanations of parties of incident. Considering the inevitability of emergence of some problems in a region where such extensive sale and purchase is made, the problems seen mostly have been determined and proposals regarding the solution of these have been made. In addition it has also been aimed to observe perception manner of gold and its contribution to region economy as a investment vehicle in the region. Especially the damage of misleading of credit card in sector has been tried to determine and made solution recommendations to the problem. It has been pointed out on the benefits in case the gold called mattress and considered its effect to economy is little is gained to ?anl?urfa economy.
15 Body of Cultural Tourism in Turkey and Need of Product Differentiation Based On Tangible Cultural Assets, Bilgehan Gülcan
Although Turkey has started its tourism journey with cultural tourism, after 1980’s sea, sand, sun based and entertainment dominant torism approach has developed. Nowadays, more than half of the foreign tourists come to Turkey for the above purpose. Keeping in mind the cultural assets of Turkey, cultural tourism is often pronounced to be the best candidate to diversify the tourism, but only 6% of the overall foreign tourists visit Turkey for cultural purposes. On the other hand, this ratio has a tendency to decrease year by year. In this paper which has been generated using secondary data, the problems faced in the progress of cultural tourism in Turkey has been identified and discussed. First problem is idenfied being the all-inclusive type accommodation, and the latter one is identified as being the body of the product in cultural tourism which is taken as the focus of this study. According to the results, Turkey’s cultural tourism product is especially based on tangible cultural assets, but this product shows strong dependancy on both geographical and some particular historical periods. In addition, it is identified that existing character of the products has not been changed for a long time and as a result has disadvantages in competitiveness. Thus it has been shown that, differentation is needed in tangible culture based product. In this context, some alternatives for product differentiation oppotunities for product developers are also advised.
16 Comparative Analysis of A, B Type and Exchange Traded Funds Performances with Mutual Fund Performance Measures, Regression Analysis and MANOVA Technique, Mehmet Arslan, S?dd?k Arslan
The objective of the study is to evaluate risk- reward relationship and relative performances of the 4 different groups of mutual funds. To this end, daily return data of these 12 mutual funds (3 type variable fund; 3 B type variable fund; 3 A type stock fund and 3 A type Exchange traded fund) together with daily market index (imkb100) return and daily return of riskless rate for the period from January 2006 to Feb 2010. The 180-day maturity T-Bill has been selected to represent riskless rate. To determine performances of mutual funds; Sharpe ratio, M2 measure, Treynor index, Jensen index, Sortino ratio, T2 ratio, Valuation ratio has been applied and these indicators produced conflicting results in ranking mutual funds. Then timing and selection capability of the fund manager has been determined by applying simple regression and Quadratic regression. Interestingly all funds found to have positive ? coefficient, indicating positive selection capability of managers; but in terms of timing capability only one fund managers showed success. Finally, to determine extent to which mean returns are differs between mutual funds, market index (imkb100) and riskless rate (180 day TBill) results of the analysis revealed that mean returns of individual security returns differs at P?0,01 level. That shows instability in returns and poor ex-ante forecast modeling capability.
17 Analysis Of Customer Complaints And A Field Research On The Logistics In Electronic (Online) Shopping, Ayd?n Kayaba??
Logistics is a series of activities, which has a prominent role within the value chain. Logistics has become a very important means in the process of defining, constructing and transferring value within the current conditions of competition. The fact that logistic activities are developed with amendment and improvement highly affects customer satisfaction. On the other hand, managing customer complaints effectively has an important role in carrying out customer satisfaction. Providing high quality service depends on empathizing customers and evaluating activities from their aspects. The evaluation in question has two dimensions and one of them consists of customer satisfaction and another one consists of managing customer complaints effectively. Deficiencies will be able to be eliminated with the help of knowing customers’ dissatisfactions from activities and so the quality level of services will increase. In this study, it has been aimed to search for customers’ complaints on logistic activities. In accordance with this aim, content analysis and survey method have been used and the data obtained from these analyses has been analyzed. In consequence of analyses, customers’ basic complaint subjects have been determined and advices have been developed accordingly.
18 Does The Consumption Behavior of Tourists Differ by Culture/Nationality? A Study into German and Russian Tourists, Ahmet Tayfun, Mustafa Y?ld?r?m
In the era where the fierce competitive settings are ever increasing, the success of establishments is heavily dependent upon the internal Dynamics of the firm along with environmental settings as well as market conditions. Parallel to the technological development in the 20th century, the growth of transportation and communications facilitate the access of goods and services to the consumer markets and the abundance of the goods and services offered in the market paved the way for a complicated consumer market. This study dwells on the consumer behavior observed in tourism sector and research was conducted over German and Russian tourists in Alanya district. The statistical data gathered indicate that individual factors are in the first place in shaping the consumption behavior, in the second place comes marketing components and socio-economic ones are in the last place. The result of t-test suggests that there is a significant difference at 0.05 significance level in terms of the nationality and the level of effect of the three dimensions used in the study.
19 An Empirical Study on the Efficiency of Performance Appraisal System in Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), India, V.K. SINGH, Bani KOCHAR, Sedat YÜKSEL
The study provides a crisp and comprehensive picture of the objectives with which the Indian organizations apply systems to appraise their employees,the basis the companies use to appraise their employees and the reasons for which the companies have attempted to adopt new systems of performance appraisal. Further the study works upon empirical data pertaining to the above system with special reference to Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC), India. Also, certain suggestive schemes which this state statutory body has come up to overcome the limitations of the existing system and survive in the dynamic environment, have been mentioned.
20 A Research on Class Teachers Related to Determining the Effects of Consumers’ Personal Values on Sustainable Consumption Behavior, R?dvan Karalar, Hakan Kirac?
The world’s sources about to running out have been realised as a result of that population increase and economic development to be lived in the twentieth century have caused the transformation from the notion of unlimited economic development to sustainable development notion. Sustainable development is a model that predicts existing generation satisfies their needs without that next generation’s satisfy their need. Projection of sustainable development on marketing area have been actualized by means of coming up with sustainable marketing approach. Sustainable marketing approach predict to create sustainable solutions by adding conformity with eco-system in addition to achieving organizational goals and satisfy consumers’ needs which traditional marketing’s goals. The target of sustainable development notion in regard of consumption is to be accepted sustainable consumption behavior. It requires inquiring factors affecting behavior in question because sustainable consumption pattern to be accepted and spread to the world. In the study examined that individual values affecting sustainable consumption behavior of class teacher who work at elementary schools in Kutahya, Merkez. The findings indicate the significant effect of universalism and security values type in sustainable consumption behavior. Also, it is found that frequency of sustainable consumption behavior is mid-level. The results of this research have significant implications for stakeholders of sustainable consumption and future research.
21 The Prediction Performance of Asset Pricing Models and Their Capability of Capturing the Effects of Economic Crises: The Case of Istanbul Stock Exchange, Erol MUZIR, Nuriye BULUT, Süheyla ?ENGÜL
This paper is prepared to test the common opinion that the multifactor asset pricing models produce superior predictions as compared to the single factor models and to evaluate the performance of Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) and Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). For this purpose, the monthly return data from January 1996 and December 2004 of the stocks of 45 firms listed at Istanbul Stock Exchange were used. Our factor analysis results show that 68,3 % of the return variation can be explained by five factors. Although the APT model has generated a low coefficient of determination, 28,3 %, it proves to be more competent in explaining stock return changes when compared to CAPM which has an inferior explanation power, 5,4 %. Furthermore, we have observed that APT is more robust also in capturing the effects of any economic crisis on return variations.
22 .A Research on Employee Ethnocentrism, Alptekin SÖKMEN, Serdar TARAKÇIO?LU
This study aims to identify ethnocentric behavior tendencies of 129 boundary spanning role employees, who works in 5 star hotels of Ankara, using Employee Ethnocentrism Survey. Also in this study, independent t-test and analysis of variance tests were used to investigate differences, among respondents’ demographic variables. The results demonstrated that, boundary spanning role employees of 5 star hotels in Ankara have moderately ethnocentric tendency, and several significant differences in terms of respondents’ age and gender. Male employees, 39 age and elders, and high school graduates show a higher ethnocentric tendency among the hotel employees.
23 Consumer Decision-Making Styles and Young-Adult Consumers: An Indian Exploration, Anubhav Anand MISHRA
The economy of India is on a growth spree since the last two decades. This growth has increased the shopping options available to the consumers. The present study has tried to ascertain the decision-making styles of young-adult consumers so as to provide information to marketers interested in the decision-making profile of Indian consumers and thus enabling them to build their marketing efforts accordingly. The research has made use of Sproles and Kendall’s (1986) consumer styles inventory (CSI) on a sample of 425 young-adult Indian consumers and has attempted to examine the generalisability of the scale. Factor analysis has been employed to summarise the 38 variables identified into smaller sets of linear composites that preserved most of the information in the original data. The study has confirmed the applicability of the original US characteristics as well as two new traits specific to the Indian context. Furthermore, similarities and differences between different cultures have been discussed and implications have been proffered.
24 Job Satisfaction among Pharmaceutical Sales force in South Africa – A Case with Special Reference to Cape Town, Vinod Kumar SINGH
Job satisfaction is an attitude that employees have about their work and is based on numerous factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job satisfaction is important from the perspective of maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organization, it is about fitting the right person to the right job in the right culture and keeping them satisfied. Job satisfaction at salesforce level has become a topic of growing concern since significant proportion of marketing budgets, especially in pharmaceutical industry of South Africa, is spent on them to achieve the assigned targets in the circular market. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction in diverse range of the cultures, subjects and occupations yet none has attempted to explore the impact of job content and context factors on the job satisfaction among pharmaceutical salespersons in South Africa. Thus, the current study intends to determine the variance in salespersons’ overall job satisfaction through job content and context factors as a whole. This study also extends the total repercussion on the sales persons and their satisfaction level that cement the good will of the company and personal upliftment.
25 The Relationship between the Training of the Hotel Staff and Their Level of Organizational Commitment: A Study in Five-Star Hotels in Belek Region, Ahmet TAYFUN, Karabey PALAVAR, Serdar ÇÖP
Nowadays it is highly hard to gol on the life of the enterprises in a dense competition conditions day by day. New perspectives emerge in the organizations with the competition process. There is a constant and rapid change and progress in some positions such as job satisfaction, motivation, communication and the organizational commitment. In this developing process, the organizations are in search for competition without stopping. In this context, the contributions of the servers have been analyzed for years and still go on their consistency. In addition to the contributions of the servers to the organizations, the expectations of the servers are examined and according to the survey results, the individuals who get positive reply to their expectations buckle down to their duties. One of the methods that are applied for increasing the benefit from the servers becomes education in time and the most important motive for prefer for organizations. The main aim of our study is underlying the level of the relationship between the organizational commitment and education; and the lower dimension of the organizational commitment such as the permanence, the normative and the emotional commitment and education. Whether the stated organizational commitment and the lower dimensions level change or not according to the general education, tourism education and service training is examined. The Belek region is chosen as a field of application of the study. The application is carried out at five star hotels in the Belek region. The study underlines the relationship between the training and organizational commitment and put emphasis on the importance for increasing thee emotional commitment.
26 Secondary Market Products in the Mortgage System and Global Practices, Erhan ERO?LU
In general terms, the mortgage market has two faces, the primary and the secondary markets. The primary market covers housing mortgage loans. On the other side of the mechanism, these loans are securitized and issued in financial markets with different form of securities in secondary markets. The common name of these instruments is “mortgage backed securities - MBS”. A mortgage backed security is a financial instrument issued in capital markets for investors, derived from either backed by the cash flow of the housing loan repayments (which is called pay-through) or backed by directly selling the mortgage pools to the MBS issuers (which is called passthrough). The most trading secondary mortgage market instruments and world practices are explained in this article.
27 Alternative Tourism and Ecological Farms on Creating Diversification of Tourism Product: Example of Pastoral Valley, Burhan KILIÇ, Alper KURNAZ
The changes at mass tourism activity within the human consumption demands, in recent years in tourism product diversification efforts has caused to emerge alternative tourism types as an alternative to the classic tourism product called sea, sand and sun trilogy. Various investments were made to meet the demand and get the most important share of tourists having special interest in those areas. The studies on product diversification in tourism industry indicate that the product itself has an attractive new product features as well as supporting other products may also be possible to specify. Mugla, which has a very rich flora in the region also has many endemic plant species and is a tourist area. The region which is a very important destination as a classical tourism product, at the same time has a very significant potential for alternative tourism mobility. The aim of the study is to examine the Pastoral Valley Ecological Farm Life which has been developed within the scope of product diversification policy, ecotourism, farm and agricultural tourism practices and could be an example on this topic. In this study, case study method which is one of the qualitative methods was used.