1 A contribution to the study of resource and community pattern in a Chir Pine Ecotonal Forest, Pakistan, Khadija Shafiqa,Muhammad Hashim, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Eamon Bushraa, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Adeela Altaf, Nazir Ahmad, Asia Bibi, Shaheen Qadir, Altaf Ahmad Dasti
The forest type under consideration occupying Murree Hills and classified as tropical forests dominated with Pinus roxburgii (Chir Pine). These forests merge upward with temperate mixed conifer forests and downward with dry thorn forests. Study area is quite heterogeneous in topography and elevation ranges from 2200 m- 2600 m (a. s. l). It is located between 33o58.65 N´ to 73o22.60 E. After orientation surveys of the area sampling sites were marked along an elevational transect. As a result of field work, the vascular flora reported in 35 stands contains a total of 72 species, belonging to 69 genera and 42 families. Most of soil cations and anions were significantly associated with vegetation variation along an altitudinal gradient. Current research work provides an integrated view of structure and composition of vegetation of area under consideration and also explains the link between resource pattern and community pattern across the altitudinal gradient
2 Medicinal importance of few plants from moist temperate forest of West Himalaya, Pakistan , Eamon Bushra, Muhammad Hashim, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Adeela Altaf and Altaf Ahmad Dasti
Present study was conducted in Ayubia National Park, which is in District Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study area is a part of Himalayans moist temperate forest with a high diversity of vulnerable plant and animal species. A total of 65 species, belonging to 62 genera and 39 families were recorded. Angiosperms contributed a major share while Pteridophytes contributed little to the floristic richness of the area. The study revealed that 45 plants species belong to 34 families are used in folk medicinal system. The medicinal plants are mostly used to cure amenorrhea, skin allergies, and leucorrhoea, as abortifacient, post-delivery pain, dandruff, eczema, tonic after delivery and for breast milk secretion. All these herbal medicines belong to 65 herbaceous ground floras, 7% shrubs, 21% trees and 7% climbers. The present investigation was intended to describe the knowledge and significance of medicinal flora and their traditional uses in daily life. Keywords: Medicinal plants; Ayubia National Park; Moist temperate forest; Western Himalaya
3 Species Richness and Community Composition along Glaciated Alpine Lake, Pakistan, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Adeela Altaf, Muhammad Hashim, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Eamon Bushra, Muhammad Ayaz Munir, Nazir Ahmed, Khadija Shafiq, Asia Bibi and Altaf Ahmad Dasti
The study area is comprised of catchment area of glaciated lake locally called lake Saif-ul-Malook. The vegetation was studied along the altitudinal gradient located between 2500 m a.s.l to 3500 m a.s.l. and represent the mountain ranges of Western Himalaya. Overall vegetation may be classified as grass-scrub distributed along the rim of a glaciated lake (Saif-ul-Malook). From the study area a total of 91 plant species belonging to 75 genera and 37 families were recorded. Angiosperms contributed a major share in the study area. Among the Angiosperms, 36 families comprised of 90 species were recorded. Among these species dicotyledonous species had the largest share (94.5%) followed by monocotyledonous species which contributed very minor share (4.4%) to the floristic riches of the area. Data were analyzed by multivariate statistics including Cluster Analysis, Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and spearman correlation coefficient to detect the relations between altitudinal and environmental factors with the composition and structure of plant communities. DCA axes 1 and 2 were used for data interpretation. The three groups produced by cluster analysis were plotted on the first two axes as scattered diagram. There were significant differences in the floral composition as well as the edaphic factors along the altitudinal gradient. The present research work showed an integrated effort to analyze and discuss ecological community attributes, as well as their correlation with environmental variables, using multivariate analyses.
4 Small Scale Altitudinal Variation in Gap Vegetation in Temperate Forest: A Case Study in Mukhshpuri, Ayubia National Park, Pakistan, Laila Rubab, Muhammad Hashim, Shazia Javaid, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Eamon Bushra, Adeela Altaf, Rashid Naeem, Muhammad Jamil and Altaf Ahmad Dasti
The current knowledge of the relationship between vegetation and environment in Himalayan conifer forests of Pakistan is based on subjective descriptions of ecological conditions from field experience and interpretation. Wet temperate forests of Pakistan are interesting because at suitable elevations it merges downward with the tropical forests and upward with the alpine meadows. Vegetation from 57 stands (10 x 10 m) established between 2500 - 2800 m (a.s.l.) along an elevation transect were sampled in the study area under consideration. Soil was analyzed for their chemical properties. The presence absence data of all the species from each sampling stand were clustered with hierarchical method of classification. The stands were also be subjected to Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) using the DECORANA package. The relationships between soil characters, altitude and other unmeasured environmental factors were determined using Spearman’s rank correlation. It is concluded that elevation play an important role in species distribution and richness and other soil parameters also show variation along altitude. As altitude increases organic matter, electrical conductivity, calcium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, carbonates and bicarbonates decreases and show adverse effect on species diversity and richness.
5 Community Composition and Species Diversity in an Upland Conifer Forest: A Case Study in Rajwal Forest, Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, Rashid Naeem, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Muhammad Hashim, Eamon Bushra, Muhammad Jamil, Muhammad Kashif, Laila Rubab, Shazia Javaid, and Muhammad Eyaz Muneer
The present research work was conducted in Rajwal Reserve Forest, which is the part of moist temperate forests of western Himalaya, Pakistan with a rainfall from 400 mm to 800 mm. The altitudinal range is from 1500 m to 3000 m (a. s. l). The floristic variation in these Himalayan forests is poorly understood especially in the study area. Vegetation from 30 stands in between 1500 –3000 m altitude was sampled. A total of 79 species, belonging to 24 genera and 13 families from 30 stands were recorded. Soil samples were collected to document edaphic conditions. Soils were chemically analysed. Ordination (DECORANA) and classificatory techniques were used to analyse the vegetation data. Soil chemical properties were significantly (P= 0.05; F=2.11) associated with the vegetation variation along an altitudinal gradient.
6 Bioassay Test of Allelopathic Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) against Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek), Areeba Nafees, Alia Abbas, Iram-us-Salam, and Faisal Hussain
The Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been well- documented for its high allelopathic potential against different weeds and crop plants. The allelochemicals released by Helianthus annuus influenced the germination and growth of other species. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to elucidate the allelopathic potential of H. annuus against Vigna radiata. In this research study laboratory experiments comprised of petri- plate trials which were accomplished by the application sunflower whole plant extracts in different concentrations as 4%, 8% and 12% extract to the germinating seedlings of test crops while the control seedlings were treated with distilled water. Greenhouse experiments were distinguished by whole plant powder was incorporated with soil in different amounts like 4, 8 and 12 g applied to the potted plants, whereas control plants were only filled with soil. The growth parameters like percent germination, germination index, radicle and plumule elongation, seedlings growth, fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll contents of test crop were significantly inhibited by the application of extracts as well as with powder 12 % extract showed greatest inhibition in the growth parameters of test crop. During this research study, the plumule lengths of V. radiata were much more affected by the extract concentration as compared to control. Powder extract also contained phytotoxic compounds that caused remarkable reduction in plant heights and chlorophyll contents of test species. It was obvious during this research study that V. radiata was resistant against the phytotoxic effects of sunflower. So, it can be concluded from this research observed the allelopathic effects of sunflower extract and powder showed inhibitory effects on different growth parameters which all are essential for plant growth. The main objective of present study is to explore the allelopathic effects of sunflower against mung bean, to determine the bioassay test of different plant parameters of test crop and allelopathic effect during plant growth.
7 Production and Synthesis of Bacterial Cellulose and Its Applications: A Review, Irish Atiq, Abdul Sammad, Ammara Mumtaz and Muhammad Saleh
The bacterial cellulose is produced by various bacteria, has proven itself versatile biomaterial as compared to the plant cellulose. Bacterial cellulose is gaining attention day by day because researchers are focusing on low-cost preparation and production of cellulose in high quality as well as quantity. This review article represents all information about unique structure, fermentative production, sources, factors, purification, and some biomedical and industrial applications of bacterial cellulose.
8 Applications of Alpha (α)-Amylase in Biotechnology: A Review, Mudasir Hussain and Bisma Jabbar
Alpha-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes alpha-bonds into lengthy polysaccharides linked to the alpha bonds, such as starch and glycogen in order to form shorter chains, dextrin and maltose. 1, 4-alpha-D-gylcosidic linkage endohydrolysis is catalyzed by amylase, including 3 or more, 4-linked glucose units (E.C. The enzyme is utilized to free starches, glycogen and oligosaccharides from reduction groups. In numerous industries, this enzyme has several applications including food, textiles, bakery, pharmaceutical products, and starch processing and detergent products. With thebiotechnological Progression, the range of its applications in various sectors have increases including clinical sector, medicinal, and analytical chemistry.
9 An Analytical Study of Historical Contribution of Muslims Scientists in the Field of Sciences and its Applications as Practical Knowledge during 680-1000 A.D: A Review, Sohail Akhtar Sakhani, Faisal Hussain, Muhammad Farooq and Syed Farooq Ahmed Shah
The paper primarily deals with Muslim’s contribution in Science. As Islam declared education as a religious obligation and Islam also proved itself as a torch bearer of knowledge of the world after its advent in Arabia and extended its boundaries from Arabia to the edge of Asia and Africa. The Muslim rulers were the great patronage of modern sciences i.e., Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Astrology and Medicine. Among the different Muslim Scientists Prince Khalid, Imam Jafer Sadiq, Jabir Bin Hayayn, Abu Ali Seena, Abul Qaim Zaharavi, Abu Rehan Al-Baironi, Muhammad Bin Yahaya Idreesi, Muhammad Bin Zikriya Al-Razi, Ibn-ul-Haitha, Abu Nusa AL-Khuarzami, Ibn-e-Nafees and many other were very important. The Muslim Scientists were the followers of practical knowledge, and they always propagate the application of knowledge as practical rather than oral or theoretical. This paper highlights the role and contribution of Muslim Scientists in the field of Science while it also explores that Muslims were the founder of scientific knowledge in the world.
10 Proximate Analysis of Nutritional Composition of Antifungal and Antinematicidal Activities of Different Seaweeds from the Coast of Karachi- Pakistan, Shaheena Arshad Khan, Muhammad Abid, Abdul Majeed Khan and Faisal Hussain
Seaweeds inhabit almost everywhere and known as the omnipresent organisms. They are renewable living resources which are also used as feed, wastewater treatment or for the industrial production of phycocolloids, thickening, and gelling agents in food and pharmaceutical industries. This research article is based on chemical composition and nutritional values from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan using sixteen seaweeds belonging to three different Phylum including Chlorophytcota, pheophycota and Rhodophycota. The oil was extracted with n-hexane then it was subjected for physical, chemical and biochemical composition of different marine algae by means of some of the known tests, like tests for lipids, carbohydrates, protein etc. After that the residue of these seaweeds were examine in vitro condition for antifungal activities using food poising technique against three pathogenic fungi e.g., F. oxysporum, R. solani and M. phaseolina and for nematicidal activities using mortality and hatching test against M. javanica species and conclusion, got highly significant results. This study has revealed an interesting array to create a nutritional data to the alternation of an efficient food for Pakistan food industry and envisage pesticides invention for agricultural department.
11 Allelopathic Effects of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) against Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem, Areeba Nafees, Alia Abbas, Iram-us-Salam and Faisal Hussain
The Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) has been considered for allelopathic plant and it has potential properties against different weeds and crop plants. The sunflowers usually release the allelochemicals to influence the growth and germination of different plants and crops. In present study, screenhouse and lab-based experiments were carried out to explore the allelopathic effect of H. annus against test crop Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. The petri-plate method was applied in lab by the application of whole plant extract of Sunflower with different concentrations (4, 8 and 10%). The seedling germination of test crop L. cylindrica was evaluated in petri-plate experiment and the control seedling was treated with distilled water in lab-based conditions. However, clay pot method was applied in greenhouse conditions. The soil was amended by whole plant powder extract with concentration of 4, 8, and 12g was inoculated in soil of clay pot and control plant were filled without soil treatment inoculation. The growth parameters like percent germination, germination index, radicle and plumule elongation, seedlings growth, fresh and dry weights and chlorophyll contents of test crop L. cylindrica were studied. During this research study, the plumule lengths of L. cylindrica were much more affected by the extract concentration as compared to control. Powder also contained phytotoxic compounds that caused remarkable reduction in plant heights and chlorophyll contents of test species. In addition, it can be concluded from this research observed the allelopathic effects of sunflower extract and powder showed inhibitory effects on different growth parameters of L. cylindrical.
12 Ethnoflora of Tehsil Kharian, District Gujrat-Punjab, Pakistan, Afifa Mukhtar, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Syed Mazhar Irfan, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Syeda Sadaf Zehra and Iqra Ashraf
Peoples of all civilizations always depend upon plants for their primary needs (foodstuff, protection, warmth and medication). In the present study an ethno-medicinal analysis was conceded out in Kharian, District Gujrat, Punjab-Pakistan. A series of surveys were conducted in support citations of essential ethno flora along with information beginning from local community about the medicinal uses of plants in their surroundings. As many as 49 plants were identified and characterized regarding ethnobotanical uses. Various plant parts are used for medical use. The plants were belonging to different families. The plants were selected, and herbarium sheets were submitted in herbarium established at University of Gujrat, Gujrat. These surveys were carried out from February 2018 to April 2019 in close vicinity of University of Gujrat (UOG), Pakistan.
13 Air Contamination in Metropolitan Environs and Wellbeing Related Snags: A Case Study, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Mudassir Asrar Zaidi, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Manzoor Iqbal Khattak and Muhammad Abid
This study explores the effects of ambient air pollutants on urban environment and human health using both qualitative and quantifiable assessment methods. The investigation of (one-hour average) particulate matter (PM10μm, PM2.5μm) and toxic gases (CO, SO2, and NO2) revealed that the study area (Quetta city) was obviously contaminated by air pollutants. Seasonally air quality indexes (AQI) of all the investigated air pollutants were pragmatic highest during autumn and lowest during winter season. Individually, CO remained moderate to harmful for the people whose belong to sensitive group, SO2 was found good to moderate, while NO2 was testified moderate to harmful for the people of sensitive group. SPM10μm and SPM2.5μm fall in the categories of very harmful for all the peoples of the urban areas during all the four seasons. Data regarding impact of air pollutants on human health exhibited that the percentage of peoples suffering from, Headache, Eye irritation, Nose/ Throat and Chest/Lungs/Asthma diseases were found highest as compared to Blood pressure and heart diseases in the urban area.
14 Impact of Different Shading Color Nets on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) in Cold Climatic Conditions of Balochistan, Shamsuddin Panezai, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Muhammd Anwar Panezai, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain and Muhammad Faheem Siddiqui
An experiment was conducted to study the influence of various coloured shade-nets on yield and quality of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). Plants were sown under different coloured shade-nets, viz. red, green, black, and white along with control (without shade net). Various weather parameters and plant development parameters were analyzed at different crop growth stages. Coloured shade net have special optical properties and also effect the microclimate. Plants grown under coloured shade-nets gave satisfactory result in terms of plant height, number of leaves, biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic rate, harvest index etc. compared to control. All the shade-nets decreased heat, light intensity and improved relative humidity. Red and white shade-nets gave higher photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, μmol/m2/s) and transmittance than other coloured nets. Plants grown under red and white shade-nets show better result in term of biological and morphological process. The harvest index was better under red shade net. Red and white shade-nets were found best in enhancing plant and weather parameters and hence they can be used in place of the commercially used green shade net for better yield of Tomato.
15 Exploitation of Phytoremediation Potential in Different Plants for Reducing Heavy Metals Burden on Contaminated Soils of Gujranwala District, Punjab-Pakistan, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Syed Mazhar Irfan, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Syeda Sadaf Zehra, Iqra Iqbal and Iqra Ashraf
The current study was conducted for determination of pollutants absorption capacity in local plants growing in the contaminated sites. The four sites were selected randomly from Gujranwala District (Punjab) for determining their pollution status of the soils and uptake level of different heavy metals in the growing vegetation. The plant samples (roots, shoots and leaves) were subjected to acid digestion. The conc. of Ni, Zn, Cd, Mn, Fe, and Cu metals was determined by atomic absorptions spectrometry. The selected soil samples were analyzed for the determination of heavy metals. The Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn & Cd were found relatively at higher concentrations at the soil surface in most of the samples, however, Fe, Ni, Mn, and Cu were reported to be higher below 6-12 inches in some soil samples. Plants samples were analyzed of Achryanthes aspera, Amaranthus spinosis, Eichornia crassips, Typha latifolia, Polygonum glabrum and Trianthema portulacostrium species for heavy metals absorption. It was recorded that almost all the selected plants absorbed relatively higher concentration of the metals as compared to the respective habitat soil. Nevertheless, different plants showed variable performance on different conc. of metals exposure. It was interesting to note that shoots and leaves accumulated relatively higher concentrations of certain heavy metals than those of the roots. In a nutshell, the preliminary study of the selected sites divulges that further scrutiny of these plants may be helpful to tag some candidate plants to be used for controlling heavy metals pollution.
16 Efficiency of Gypsum and Compost for Restoration of Wastewater Irrigated agricultural Soil and Spinach Growth, Maria Noor, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Saqib Bashir, and Faisal Hussain
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in wastewater irrigated agricultural soils has become a serious environment concern due to its toxic effects on organism and the food chain. Possible eco-friendly solutions for Cd immobilization were required to reduce its mobility through biochar. This study evaluated the comparative efficiency of vegetable waste induced compost and on Cd mobility and its accumulation in spinach which is highly Cd accumulating crop. Results showed that the soil chemical properties pH, EC and bioavailable Cd concentration were significantly altered after these amendments. Concentration of Cd decreased in CaCl2 extract by 57.03% and 55.74% when gypsum and compost were applied at 3% application rate respectively, relative to control. Moreover, the Cd contents in the spinach shoots and roots were significantly decreased and thereby increased spinach shoot and root dry biomass, Furthermore, incorporation of gypsum and compost has prominent effect on chlorophyll contents. Overall, compost and gypsum at 3% application rate demonstrated positive results as soil amendments for Cd immobilization and thereby, reducing its bioavailability in the Cd contaminated soil to mitigate food security risks.
17 Pigment Contents in Seventy-Three Wild Medicinal Plant Species of Juniper Forest Ecosystem at Ziarat Balochistan, Pakistan, Saadllah Khan Leghari, Mudassir Asrar, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Basira Sher, Tariq Ismail, Manzoor Iqbal Khattak, Hasnain Farooq, Azhar Ali Marri and Abdullah Baloch
This study was conducted to determine the pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) contents in seventy-three wild medicinal plants species, through spectrophotometer methods. Leaf samples were collected from 73 wild medicinal plant species (including trees, shrubs and herbs), grown in the Juniper Forest ecosystem under same environmental condition of district Ziarat Balochistan Pakistan. Significant variation in the leaf contents (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid) was noted among the 73 wild medicinal plant species. Lowest level of chlorophyll a (0.4 mg/g fw) was noted in Achillea welhelmsii L. and Alhagi maurorum Medic and highest content were in Perovskia abrotanoides Karel. and P. atriplicifolia Benth. (Around 2.0 mg/g fw). Chlorophyll b was minimum in Caragana ambigua Stocks., Daphne mucronata Scherb and Allium ascalonicum L. (0.1 & 0.15 mg/g fw), respectively and maximum (0.48 mg/g fw) was found in Pistacia atlantica Roch. F. and Serriphedium quettense. Carotenoid content was minimum (around 0.1 mg/g fw) in Arnebia griffithii Boiss. Allium ascalonicum L. and Asparagus neglectus Kar. & Kir., while the maximum level (0.8 mg/g fw) was observed in Berberis baluchistanica Ahrendt. Lowest value of total chlorophyll contents was established for Alhagi maurorum Medic. and Achillea welhelmsii L. (0.6 & 0.65 mg/g fw), but Perovskia abrotanoides, Karel. showed highest value (2.34 mg/g fw). Maximum content of chlorophyll a/b ratio (9.0) was reported in Caragana ambigua Stocks. and minimum was found in Achillea welhelmsii L. (1.6). The ratio of total chlorophyll/carotenoids was maximum in Arnebia griffithii. (9.6), while minimum value was observed in Berberis baluchistanica Ahrendt. (1.16).
18 Socio-Economic Impact of Covid-19 in Pakistan: A Case Study of District Dera Ghazi Khan, Sohail Akhtar, Faisal Hussain, and Sajeela Parveen
The last couple of month of 2019 shared the news of a new virus from Wuhan (Li et al., 2020) a city of China. Initially no one gave attention to this pandemic. Chinese government took it serious after the deteriorating situation. WHO warned the world about this fatal disease continuously and suggested precautionary measures. But the year 2020 is considered very important in the modern world with the human progress. It will also be remembered as a most critical time due to the dangerous pandemic of Corona which got fame as a Covid-19. This Covid-19, which wreaked havoc on the world. The most developed countries of the world looked helpless before this pandemic of Covid-19. The covid-19 devoured human demons regardless of color or religion, and the world took a new turn in the face of this dangerous and hidden enemy. During the time of most fatal pandemic of Covid- 19 in modern world of 21st century the world has seriously affected due to the impacts of this Covid-19 which proved dangerous enemy of humanity. This hidden enemy changed the behavior of humanity strongly during the era of this pandemic. Covid-19 spread in the entire world, and it realized the need of global level cooperation among the world because Covid-19 influenced badly on the socio-economic life of the people of underdeveloped countries not only but also destroyed the powerful and developed western countries i.e., education, health and economy which is a serious human issue. This paper highlights the socioeconomic effects of Covid-19 in Pakistan especially in Dera Ghazi Khan during this pandemic era.
19 Ecological status, threats and future trends of wild Olive (Olea ferruginea Royle) in Dumera forest near by Ziarat, Balochistan, Atta Mohammad Sarangzai, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Alia Ahmed, Basira Sher, Bakhat Zareen, Ghulam Razaq Shawani, Abdul Kabeer Khan Achakzai and Nazir Durani
The wild Olive (Olea ferruginea Royle) forest is composed of patches stands and grows naturally in an isolated transitional zone and remote valley of Dumera close to Ziarat Juniper Forest in Balochistan. Twenty forests stand dominated by Olea tree species were sampled in 2019. Plant composition, density of ha־ ¹and area m² ha־¹, health status, sex ratio, estimated number of fruits of Olea, age, growth rate and soil analysis of forest land wild nature has been studied. Based on relative frequency values, shrubs (Spirea boissieri) were found dominant, followed by grasses (Stipa himaliaca) while herbs (Nepeta glomerulosa) were contributed as third dominant in the study area. Density of O. ferruginea trees (>6 cm dbh) ranged from170 to 352 trees haˉ¹ with overall mean of 427±170 trees ha-¹; the average basal area recorded was 538 m² ha-¹. Satisfactory recruitment might be to better humid condition of transition zone of O. ferruginea was observed. Highest seedling (< 6 cm dbh) density was recorded from the northeast facing slope while tree density was higher on the west facing slopes. Results revealed that healthy trees were dominant (36%), followed by unhealthy trees (21%) and over mature (07%). The sex ratio showed predominance of female as compared to the male across all the stands. The average tree age of O. ferruginea is 222 years, with the oldest age (434 years) recorded from a 50 cm dbh tree. Growth rate ranged from 5 year/cm to 17 year/cm. Trees with thick fruits were found abundant as compared to trees with low fruits. Sized class structure showed diverse forms in various stands. The study showed the predominance of small individuals in the Dumera forest. Two population phenotypes have been recorded, namely the inverted J shape and the irregular phenotype. Soil variables were not correlated with density and ground area. Increased human population, fuelwood collection, overgrazing, illegal cutting, debarking and agriculture extension are the major threats. Present situations are threatening and alarming. Therefore, urgent actions, management and conservation plan should be initiated to rehabilitate and save these forests for upcoming generations.
20 Gamma Irradiation a Potent Mitigant of Saline Stress in Maize Crop, Saher Nawaz, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel Ahmad, Atia Nazir, Aneela Nijabat, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Muhammad Abid Khan, Ayesha Noor Awan, Zainab Naseem and Usman Shafqat
Salinity as main environmental factor constrains the growth and production of cereals especially maize in all over the world. Its effects can be alleviated by various mitigants like gamma radiations. Therefore, a pot experiment was design with pre-sowing gamma irradiated maize seeds and different concentrations of salinity i.e., control (no salts), 50mM and 100 mM. Results indicated that salt stress negatively affect almost all morphological, biochemical characters with ionic imbalance because of augmented uptake of Na+ and Cl- contents in irradiated plants. However, gamma irradiated plants showed improvement in all morphological and biochemical parameters except shoot length and root fresh weight. It also increased the absorption of K+, Ca+ with reduction of Na+ ions in root and shoot.
21 Genetic variability in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accession for heat tolerance during seed germination, Tahira Ali, Adeel Ijaz Shah, Humaira Shaheen, Rameez Hussain, Amir Ali, Muhammad Bilal Ahmad Khan, Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Saher Nawaz, Muhammad Abid Khan, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Zia-ur-Rehman Mashwani and Aneela Nijabat
Heat stress drastically reduces the production of cool season crops including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seed germination of cool season crops is most sensitive to high temperature and reduced germination led to decrease in plant density and yield. Therefore, present study was aimed to identify the heat tolerant and heat sensitive wheat accessions to improve the yield under heat stress by wheat breeders. Four wheat cultivars (Anmol_90, Chkwal_50, Moomal_2002 and Sindh_8) were evaluated at six temperature (25ºC, 30ºC, 35ºC, 37ºC, 40ºC, and 45ºC) regimes and 37ºC was defined as an appropriate screening temperature for seed germination. Diverse wheat germplasm (n = 50) from National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) Pakistan were evaluated under control (25ºC) and heat stress (37ºC) treatments. Heat tolerance potential of wheat accessions during seed germination was measured by using absolute decrease in seed germination (AD), inhibition index of seed germination (II), relative heat tolerance (RHT), and heat tolerance index (HTI). WB_4721 (winter, 1.21), WB_4515 (winter, 1.09), and WB_6341 (spring, 1.05) are most heat tolerant whereas, WB_4792 (winter, 0.04), WB_6121 (spring, 0.006), and WB_1376CLP (winter, 0.008) are most heat sensitive accessions during seed germination stage.
22 Estimation of Phosphorous use efficiency of Mung Bean cultivars under different Phosphorous regimes, Iqra Mubeen, Usman Shafqat, Muhammad Ussama Yasin, Imran Ashraf, Khadija Siddique, Atia Nazir, Yasir Bilal, Saadllah Kan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Aneela Nijabat, Muhammad Abid Khan and Saher Nawaz
Phosphorus deficiency is one of the major production limiting factors in mung bean. Development of phosphorus efficient genotypes of mung bean which perform well under phosphorus deficit conditions is key strategy to overcome this problem. A trial was conducted following factorial completely randomized design with five mung bean genotypes i.e., NM2010, AZRI, 8009, NM- 2011 and NM-2016, three phosphorus levels i.e., P1 5 mg /kg sand (control), P2 20mg /kg sand and P3 40 mg /kg sand and four replications in sand filled pots. Data was recorded for various morphological and physiological parameters. Significant differences were observed for Shoot length, root length, number of lateral roots, no. of nodules, shoot and root phosphorous contents at different phosphorus levels. Moreover, different genotypes exhibited statistically significant interaction with phosphorus levels for various parameters. Variety NM-2010 gave the highest value for shoot length and root length at minimum phosphorus application. Likewise, highest level of available phosphorus in growing media was observed for variety 8009 with minimum application of phosphorus. These observations indicate that considerable genetic variation is present in available mung bean genotypes for phosphorus use efficiency and this variation may be used to select suitable genotype for evolving phosphorus efficient cultivars.
23 Effects of different seeding days on the development and early productivity of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) under semi-arid conditions of Quetta, Balochistan-Pakistan, Abdullah Baloch, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Ajaz Ahmed, Abdul Hanan, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Muhammad Abid Khan, Aneela Nijabat and Saher Nawaz
Existing research work was imagined determining the effects of different times of sowing on the development and early productivity of Okra plant. Investigation was done at Balochistan agricultural research and development center, Quetta, in the year 2016 by using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Sowing done with the interval of ten days (10th, 20th, 30th April). The ANOVA data on germination percentage, total survival percentage, average height of plant, and number of leaves at the time of flower appearance, days for flowering, average yield/plant, average yield/plot, and yield/acre revealed significant differences in different sowing times. The maximum germination percentage (64.85), total survival percentage (65.46 a), average height of plant (92.74), number of leaves at the time of first flowering appearance (9.70), average yield/plant (341.00), average yield/plot (13958.25) and yield/acre (4222) were noted for T3 treatment (10th April) and lowest (25.51 c, 52.08 c, 76.31, 5.60, 286.25, 3656.75 and 1106) for T1 treatment (30th April) respectively. Similarly, days taken for flowering exhibited maximum for T3 treatment but minimum for T2 treatment (20th April).
24 Vicissitudes in Morphological and Photosynthetic Attributes in Maize (Zea mays) plant by elevating the Cobalt Concentration in soil, Atia Nazir, Abdul Wahid, Saher Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Faisal Hussain, Aneela Nijabat, Muhammad Abid Khan, Ayesha Noor Awan, Usman Shafqat and Zainab Naseem
Many metals in lower concentrations are considered beneficial for the growth of plants. But their elevation in soil severely influences the growth of plants by damaging their biochemical parameters. Co is a beneficial element but its higher amount in the growing medium can also be toxic for the growth of plants. Therefore, to study the toxicity of Co on maize, different levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, & 300 μM) of this metal were applied in the soil. The morphological (Shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, number of roots and leaves, leaf area, stem diameter), and photosynthetic attributes (Chl. a., Chl. b, Car.) were severely influenced by increasing the concentration of Co. The maximum disruption in all noted characteristics was calculated at 300μM while 50μM concentration was less toxic as compared to other levels.
25 A Systematic Review on Heavy Metals Stress in Plants, Abdul Basit, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Muhammad Waqas, Asia Kainat, and Arooj Fatima
Heavy metals like Cd, Pb, and Cr are significant environmental pollutants, especially in areas with high levels of anthropogenic stress. Because phytotoxins from soil organisms and environmental health adversely affect the safety of foodstuffs and economics, cultivation, and environmental health, the build-up by heavy metals in the soil has attracted much attention in agricultural production. The plant’s importance and their metabolic movement are in and ecological redistribution of heavy metals by air, water, and soil pollution. The consequence of heavy metals poisoning is the unnecessary increases of ROS (reactive oxygen species) which can affects the inactivation of enzymes, damage of DNA, and other interactions of plant cells. In this review, we describe the different heavy metals effects on plant’s growth and productivity, and their toxic effects on plant’s. Due to the stress of heavy metals in plants the production of the crops is reduced, it also disturbs the root growth and shoots of plants. Heavy metals stress stops the plant’s growth and height of the plants. Due to heavy metals stress on plants, the production of fruits becomes decreases as a result stress of heavy metals the production of yield decrease.
26 Possible Threats to Agrobiodiversity of Thar Desert in Pakistan, Farzana Usman, Faisal Hussain, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Muhammad Abid Khan, Aneela Nijabat and Saher Nawaz
The Sindh region is located on fertile land, creating conditions suitable for agriculture and irrigation. Being centrally connected to the Indus River has created advantages for year-round farming and agriculture. Thar is considered the largest desert in Pakistan with a rich culture, heritage, traditions, folk stories, dances and music played by people of all religions, sects and clans different created. The main occupation of the people living here is agriculture and animal husbandry. The main occupations of the Thari people are woodworking, wool weaving, leather making, jewelry making, snake charm-making, farming (in some regions) and herd-grazing. Agrobiodiversity in the Thar River has a variety of uses commonly used by local residents such as food, wool production, vegetation and herbs that provide nutritious pastures as well as medicinal plants used by locals. The vegetation in the desert is mainly herbaceous plants or stunted shrubs; drought tolerant plants Acacia sp., Prosopis sp., Tamrix sp., Zizyphus sp., Capparis sp., and shrubs such as Calligonum sp., Calotropis spp., Aerva spp., Crotalaria spp. and Haloxylon sp. grows in all plains. The sparsely populated grasslands are home to black foxes, chinkaras, caracals, and desert foxes that inhabit the plains, grasslands, and salt flats of the central desert. Several game birds, notably francolins (penguins) and quails. Among the migratory and resident birds, Harriers, falcons, buzzards, Peacock, kestrel, vultures, shorttoed eagles, tawny eagles, laggar falcons and bustard are common. Agriculture is not a reliable proposition in a desert region. After the rainy season, at least 33% of the crops fail. Animal husbandry, planting trees and grasses along with vegetables or fruit trees is the most viable model for arid and arid regions. The area faces frequent droughts. The rapidly threatened and endangered agrobiodiversity populations in this ecoregion have recovered in recent years due to a number of possible threats. However, the primary water element is very rare. Although seasonal rain is collected in reservoirs, tanks, wells and canals, it is the main source for drinking and domestic purposes. Most groundwater is unusable because it is located deep underground and is often salty. Recently almost all reservoirs have been exhausted and the Thar River is facing starvation. It suffers from drought every two or three years, causing severe food shortages, leading to malnutrition, disease, and death. Children and pregnant women are the most affected. Agricultural biodiversity is rapidly disappearing in the Thar River due to the lack of water in the area; the conversion of grasslands into arable land is very slow and the illegal hunting of animals for economic purposes. Dust storms, illiteracy of the local people, deforestation, grazing of livestock, mainly sheep and goats are rampant, affecting soil fertility and destroying native vegetation. A large number of children, peacocks and domestic animals have died and perished in the arid and rain-dependent areas of the Thar River due to the development of physical infrastructure, the lack of guiding policies, and support from the government and lack of value-added aspects are key factors related to failures in life. However, the government, there are no significant steps to improve the situation. It is therefore imperative for our local communities and educated people to be directly involved in raising awareness about the agro-biodiversity of the Thar Desert and its importance.
27 Stress of Cadmium (Cd) Heavy Metal on the Development and Growth of Plants: A Review, Abdul Basit, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Syed Mazhar Irfan and Khush Bakhat Saba Qureshi
Cadmium (Cd) being heavy metal is a non-essential element that is simply engaged by plants. Cadmium heavy metal is a harmful effect on the plant metabolism affecting the growth of the plants. Cadmium heavy metal is released into the atmosphere from various sources, such as power plants, metalworking industries, heating systems, batteries, and urban traffic. Cadmium heavy metal recognized as particularly hazardous pollutant due to higher toxicity and higher water solubility, and it has been listed as one of the major poisons. Cadmium is of great importance to the health of plants and humans have been extensively studied effects on plants at all levels, containing breakdown. The review paper aimed to examine the various properties of cadmium heavy metals on the growth of plants and in the atmosphere.
28 Diversity of Wild Vegetation Along the Aridity Gradient Habitat of Dera Ghazi Khan, Qurat-ul-Ain, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan and Faisal Hussain
The investigation was carried out of wild vegetation along aridity gradient from Sakhi Sarwar to Ghazi Ghat in Dera Ghazi Khan Landscape. Presence/absence data were collected from 13 sampling sites. We used classification as well as ordination methods to analyze the data structure. The main emphasis was on classification, ordination being used in part to check whether the classification results reflect in an adequate way the main floristically gradients in the data set, and also to detect relations between some environmental factors and the composition and structure of natural vegetation. The major axes brought by the ordination were related to soil characteristics. The application of multivariate statistic {detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and cluster analysis} allowed an interpretation of weed species spatial distribution and assemblage. From the results of classification (cluster analysis) samples from fields could be divided into distinct plant associations based on floristic composition. We have shown that there is a clear relation betwe en physical and chemical features of the substrate and the association defined by numerical analysis. In this respect, soil texture and organic matter seems particularly important in shaping the natural communities .
29 Evaluation of Selected Landraces for Yield and Yield Attributes from District Bannu Against Drought Stress, Tahir Muhammad, Muhammad Abid Khan, Saadullah Khan Laghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Anila Nijabat, Saher Nawaz, Abdul Basit and Naseem Ullah
Brassica rapa play an important role in oil production for daily consumption. In the present study 8 different landraces i.e., SSK, SAK, SU, BWA, KA-1, KA-2, IN, BA were collected from the different region of Bannu along with NG as a control from Sarai Naurang Agriculture research station. All the samples were grown in three replicate each in two different blocks. The one block was kept as a control while the other was treated with drought stress. Data for PH, LL, LW, NLP, NSP, NSS, SD, TSW, PGW in replicated from both the blocks were recorded. The data was subjected to correlation and ANOVA and LSD. In control high yield was recorded for KA-1 followed by IN, BA, NG, respectively while maximum seed diameter showed by BA followed by KA-2. BA seed showed resistance against drought stress while IN showed high yield against drought stress. The study further recommends the molecular analysis of different genes involved in pathways that influence plant yield.
30 First Record of Pisolithus tinctorius from Sangla Hill, Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan, Ayesha Noor Awan, Nousheen Yousaf, Saher Nawaz, Atia Nazir, Aneela Nijabat, Zainab Naseem, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain Muhammad Abid Khan, and Muhammad Awais Arif
In this study a species, Pisolithus tinctorius belonging to Gasteroid Mycota have been collected during several field tour of Shangla Hill, Pakistan from July-August 2019. This species has been described, illustrated and identified and are presented here, as a new record from Sangla Hill, Pakistan.
31 Concentration of Proximate and Heavy Metals in Four Selected Vegetables Irrigated by Municipal Wastewater, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Mudassir Asrar Zaidi, Sana-Ur- Rehman Sheikh, Azhar Ali Merri and Muhammad Sadir
The study was conducted to determine the level of heavy metals such as: Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe) and Proximate such as: Moisture, Ash and Protein in four abundantly used vegetables in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. The foliage and fruits of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), Chili (Capsicum annuum L.), Karela (Momordica charantia L.) and Khira (Cucumis sativus L.) were collected from the city areas where these were cultivated with waste and fresh (Control) waters. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results exhibited that there was slightly significant variation in elemental composition of waste and control watered vegetables. The results also specified that heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with wastewater were highly significantly build-up as compared to control water vegetables. The average range of various metals in foliage and fruits of wastewater vegetables were 1.9-2.4mg/kg and1.8-2.2mg/kg for Pb, 0.14-0.25mg/kg and 0.13-0.20mg/kg meant for Cd, 0.73-1.01mg/kg and 0.70-0.91mg/kg intended for Ni, 0.86-1.20mg/kg and 0.80-1.13mg/kg for Cu, 0.16-0.24mg/kg and 0.11- 0.20mg/kg stand for Mn, 1.26-1.60 mg/kg and 1.20 - 1.50mg/kg for Zn and 1.90-2.96mg/kg and 1.50-2.90 mg/kg for Fe, respectively. Result showed that the solitary Pb and Cd concentration in waste watered vegetables were found more than the allowable limit and the foliage exhibited more accumulation of heavy metals with respect to fruit.
32 Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Seedling Growth, Productivity, Biochemical and Heavy Metals Uptake of Zea mays L. and Soil Characteristics in Semi-arid and Climatic Conditions of Quetta Valley, Rafiullah, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Ateeq Ullah Kakar, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Sayed Qaim Shah, Abdullah Baloch and Muhammad Iqbal Jakrro
In this study, the chemical composition of Fly Ash (FA) released from coal based thermal power plants, was characterized its macro and micronutrients to improve the chemical and physical properties of soil. With this concept, a field experiment was conducted to find out the efficiency of Fly Ash (FA) for the growth of Zea mays L. Six various fly ash treatments (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100% w/w) were mixed with soil in pots and Z. mays seeds were sown. Different growth parameters and photosynthetic activity of plant were examined. Fly Ash (FA) treated with soil caused significant improvement in soil quality and germination percentage of Z. mays seeds. The plant growth, chlorophyll, and yield content enhanced with 0% to 40% fly ash (FA), being optimal at 60%. From 80% onwards, the examined parameters tended to reduce. Hence, fly ash (FA) can be utilized as a substrate or as a soil improving material for the growth of plants, leading to the sustainable utilization of solid waste material.
33 Analytical Study of the Historical Contribution of Muslims in Horticulture During 800-1250 AD, Sohail Akhtar
In Islamic history, horticulture had a prominent place in the Muslim era. The Arabs planted gardens in Medina and Taif. In this sense, gardens were an important source of food and trade. Leaving Arabia, when Islam reached Persia and Syria and Egypt and Andalusia, Muslim kings and rulers planted gardens. They not only encouraged farmers but also took personal interest. The Arabs planted fruit trees abundantly in mountainous and desert areas. And when the canals were dug, fruit trees were planted along their banks. Palm groves were plentiful in the Hijaz and later planted in Iraq and Syria. During the Umayyad period, the fruit trade spread throughout Arabia. Similarly, when Muslims arrived in Andalusia, gardening was a common industry. From Abdur Rehman to the end, the rulers were fond of horticulture, thanks to which the cultivation of new plants was promoted, and Muslim botanists played a vital role in the field of horticulture.
34 A Systematic Review on Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Applications, Abdul Basit, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Afshan Fareed, Asia Kainat and Muhammad Waqas
Nanobiotechnology indicates the manufacturing and application of resources on a nanometric scale by convention. The maximum size of nanoparticles up to 100 nanometers has been indicated in the literature. Nanoparticles are used in various fields of life including medical to many subdivisions of industrial production like solar power and oxide fuel cells for energy storage. The nanoparticles are also widely used in the Sterilization, biological classification, and treatment of some cancers. Due to their unique properties, anti-corrosion activity, high oxidation resistance, and high thermal conductivity, nanoparticles have proven very significant in the last decade. Nanoparticles can be synthesized by chemical and biological methods. There are different types of metallic nanoparticles that have major industrial applications including gold, silver, alloys, and magnetism. The main objectives of this review were to describe nanoparticles, with specific reference to their mechanisms and types of biosynthesis. The literature review showed that various combinations of plants and nanomaterials were utilized to reduce the polluted environment.
35 Burrow Density and Crop Damage Caused by Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) in Talagang, Punjab, Ruqqia Taslim, Sumaira Shabir, Samina Ambreen, Zain Ali, Muhammad Msutaq, Mirza Jawad ul Hasnain, Nusrat Majeed, Muhammad Ihsan Ullah, Muhammad Tariq Perveez, Saif Ullah Khan, Amir Ali, Saher Nawaz, and Aneela Nijabat
The Indian crested porcupine is widely distributed worldwide and largest rodent species in Pakistan. It belongs to old world porcupine group and is notorious for causing significant losses to agricultural crops and forestry sector throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the burrow density and damage caused by this species to crops in Talagang tehsil of district Chakwal. Its burrow density was recorded in two types of habitats from the study area. It includes cropland areas with agricultural activities and the non-cropland areas for study. From these two areas 28 and 27 burrows were found in respective habitats within 5 quadrates of 1km2 in each. The ratio of active burrows was more in noncropland area that specifies its preferred place of living. For estimation of damage caused by the foraging activities of Indian crested porcupine in the study area the data was recorded at three stages i.e., early, premature and mature stage of two major crops, groundnut and wheat. Average 4% and 18.5% damage was observed on premature and mature stages of groundnut while 0.15% and 0.57% damage was found on premature and mature stages of wheat crop respectively. The results might prove to be helpful for the farmers of the region to protect their crop from rodent damage as they are made aware of the patterns of damage of these rodents.
36 Assessment of Month-Wise Variations in the Physico-chemical Parameters of Kori Lake, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan, A.R. Vohra, S.K. Khanzada, A.K. Khanzada and N.T. Narejo
This study was conducted from November 2020 to October 2021 to monitor the monthly variability of physicochemical parameters in Lake Kori, Thatta Sindh Province, Pakistan. Four sampling sites were selected, namely Joryo Wadero Goth, Alano Palejo Goth, Mallah Goth. and Ismail Agheem Goth for analysis, Samples of lake water were collected fortnightly in plastic bottles, mainly from parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, salinity was enumerated by digital multipara meter on site, while dissolved oxygen content was detected by laboratory titration method. The temperature was found to be ranged between 20.0- 33.16°C, pH varied 8.15-8.71, conductivity was 921.75- 1117.5 μs/cm, total dissolved solids from 566.75-643.37 mg/L, salinity was 0.5-0.6 ppt and dissolved oxygen was from 4.0-5.8 mg/L. Slight variation among the parameters were also noted during summer and winter seasons and sampling sites. It was concluded that the lake environment was found to be conducive for the aquatic biota and stocking of commercial fish species.
37 Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antigylcation and Antiurelithaisis Activity of Melia azedarach L., Sana Shabeer, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Zahid Anwar, Iqra Iqbal, Muhammad Ajaib and Muhammad Ishtiaq
Antioxidant antiglycation and antiurelithaisis activity of leaves and fruit extract of Melia azedarach L. were investigated. The antioxidant activity of Melia leaf and fruit extracts was measured through a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. The highest Antioxidant activity in leaves methanolic extract was 78.7±0.01 and in fruit extract was 90%±0.01. Antioxidant activities varied depending upon the concentration of the sample. Antiurelithaisis activity was checked through in vitro struvite crystal growth inhibition that revealed the moderate prevention of kidney stone diseases. The antiglycation activity of leaf and fruit extract was measured through Bovine Serum Assay (BSA). Two weeks experiment was performed after 14 days both leaf and fruit extracts showed the highest activity depending upon concentrations of samples.
38 Impact of Heat Stress on Biochemical and Physiological Attributes of Thermotolerant and Thermosensitive Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Genotype, Rozina Kazmi, Zahoor Hussain, Ghulam Sarwar, Erum Rashid, Faheem Khadija, Shahid Iqbal, Ghulam Mustafa and Asif ul Rehman
This research aimed to compare the growth, physio-biochemical, enzymatic, and yield aspects of one heat tolerant (Safoora F1- Hybrid) and one heat sensitive genotypes (Cucumber Desi). These genotypes were exposed to two heat stress levels (23°C ±2day, 13°C ±2 night and 45°C±2 day and 35°C±2 night). Each pot contained four plants and there were five pots per replication. Ten pots for each genotype were used and the total number of plants was eighty. After 45-day of sowing, heat-stress (45°C±2 day and 35°C±2 night) was applied. The heat-stress at (45°C±2 day and 35°C±2 night) was maintained till the end of the experiment. The current study was laid out with two factors (Genotypes and Temperature) factorial under complete randomized design (CRD). The maximum number of leaves (36, 20), shoot length (62.5 cm,37.37cm), shoot fresh weight (37.46 g, 32.94 g), shoot dry mass (75.39 g, 47.64 g), leaf area (16.66 cm2 ,10.66 cm2), photosynthesis rate (14.55 μmol CO2 m-2 S-1, 5.23 μmol CO2 m-2 S-1) and the number of fruits per plants (18, 10) were achieved in Safoora F1 hybrid and Cucumber desi at 23°C±2 as compared to 45°C±2 respectively. It was concluded that cucumber (both genotypes) showed higher growth, physio-biochemical, enzymatic, and yield aspects when it is grown under 23°C±2 temperature as compared to 45°C±2. Safoora F1-Hybrid (Heat tolerant genotype) showed maximum growth at 45°C±2 as compared to heat sensitive genotype (Cucumber Desi).
39 Exploitation of Agricultural Detritus for the Improvement of Plant Growth , Noureen Basheer, Paras Shah, Abdul Hakeem Shaikh and Muhammad Abid
Plant health is dependent on the quality of soil. Therefore, soil is the most important aspect for agriculture. Use of agricultural waste as an organic amendment is one of those implements that naturally enhance the fertility of soil. In present research, different organic materials were used as soil amendment to check their effects on plant growth. Study revealed the impacts of different doses (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) of organic amendments like alfalfa, rice husk and wheat straw on the growth of A. esculentus. All organic amendments have exhibited positive influence on plant growth parameters such as root, shoot length, fresh and dry plant weight with different extents. 0.2% of alfalfa and wheat straw exhibited greater improvement in plant growth than other doses of amendments and control. Whereas little increase has been obtained by the application of rice husk as compared to control. However, alfalfa has been proved as higher soil amendment for plant growth among all organic treatments. It was concluded that agricultural waste can be a best source of soil conditioning that enhanced soil quality and resulted into the improved plant growth
40 Herbicide Resistance Potential of Canary Grass (Phalaris minor Retz.) Against Fenoxaprop-P-Ethyl, Nadeem Munawar, Hafiz Haider Ali, Muhammad Ather Nadeem, Muhammad Ihsan Ullah, Zain Ali, Ayesha Rasool and Shanza Akram
Excessive herbicidal use emerged as major environmental concern which leads to various severe health issues for human and animals as well. It also triggered herbicidal resistance in various weeds such as annual ryegrass, canary grass, wild oats, and brome grass etc. Herbicidal resistance potential of canary grass is one of the most crucial barriers for wheat growers in Pakistan. Hence, the present study was conducted to check the herbicidal resistance potential of Phalaris minor collected from district Sargodha of Punjab against most commonly used herbicide i.e., fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Pot experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replicates for six treatments (0X, 0.25X, 0.5X, 1X, 2X and 4X). Treatments were applied after emergence of 3rd to 4th leaf of P. minor seedlings and data were recorded after 21 days of treatment application. Visual injury, mortality percentage, plant height, root length and biomass production and resistance index parameters were used to evaluate the herbicide resistance potential of weed. A significant variation was observed in herbicide resistance potential () of P. minor biotypes against fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, chlodinafop-propargyl and sulfosulfuron and all biotypes were found to be herbicide resistant. Hence, present study does not recommend use of fenoxaprop-P-ethyl to control P. minor for sustainable wheat production in Sargodha.
41 New Record of Podaxis pistillaris from Sangla Hill, Punjab, Pakistan, Ayesha Noor Awan, Nousheen Yousaf, Saher Nawaz, Atia Nazir, Aneela Nijabat, Saadullah Khan Leghari, Allah Bakhsh Gulshan, Faisal Hussain, Muhammad Abid Khan and Usman Shafqat
In this study a species of Podaxis pistillaris belonging to secotioid mycota have been collected during several field tour of Sangla Hill, Pakistan. The collected specimens of P. pistillaris have been characterized, illustrated and discussed. Identification of the taxa was based on morphological and anatomical methods. It is a new record from Sangla Hill.
42 Improving Drought Tolerance in Maize (Zea mays L.) by Osmopriming and Biopriming, Anum Muzaffar, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Sammer Fatima and Iqbal Hussain
Drought causes morphological, physiological and metabolic fluctuations in plants due to which plant growth and development reduced. To alleviate drought stress osmopriming and bio-priming techniques were used in the present study. Seed priming is effective and low-cost technique in which seeds are primed with low osmotic solution or inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizo-bacteria. These bacteria mostly present in the plant rhizosphere form colonies with plant roots and enhance the plant growth. In this research work, Bacillus subtilis and CaCl2 were used as priming agent. Different levels of treatment were applied on three maize varieties (Islam gold, Daka posh and MCEV1530-6) and its effect was studied. Osmopriming and biopriming both showed positive effects on root growth, shoot growth, proline content, protein, chlorophyll, antioxidants and sugar contents. The agronomic traits like cob length, number of grains per cob, number of grains per row, plant height and yield per plant were increased at maturity by withholding water for 7 days at grain filling stage. Biopriming with Bacillus subtilis showed more effective results as compared to osmopriming. Out of three maize varieties Islam gold variety showed more vigorous growth as compared to Daka posh and MCEV 1530-6. It was concluded that osmopriming and biopriming has positive effects on plant growth and development under drought stress but combination of osmo-biopriming treatments gave more positive and effective results.
43 Environmental Stress and Climatic Hazards in Plants and its Control Through Nanotechnology: A Review, Syed Muhammad Salman, Noor Ul Ain Leghari, Pakiza Fatima and Abdul Manan
Various heavy salts accumulate in the soil causing salinity to the soil and damage biological processes occurring in plants such as photosynthesis and light reactions. Climate change also promotes heavy metal accumulation by promoting chemicals in leaf and root cells that cause leaf wilt. Burning coal releases large amounts of mercury metal which has toxic effects on plants. Biological and mechanical treatment methods should be designed to remove salts and hazardous wastes from the surface so that no vegetation eruption occurs on the surface. Nanotechnology has used nanoparticles to capture toxic metals through a more reliable and less expensive biological and chemical process. Various types of nanoparticles in the form of graphene oxide nanoparticles, graphite oxide and CNTs, neutral silica materials have been used to control heavy metal pollution. These nanoparticles are compatible with plant growth by preventing plant diseases by acting directly on phytopathogens. Therefore, it is reliable to control the risk of environmental pollution caused by heavy metals.
44 Identification of Volatile Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Ebenus stellata, Sara Zameer, Samar Ali, Gulmeena, and Rasool Bakhsh Tareen
The mythologies of treating numerous diseases related to medicinal plants have ignited our interest to assess one of the compelling endemic medicinal plants of Balochistan. The main objective was to identify the volatile chemical constituents and to investigate the biological potential of the plant. This work consists of phytochemical screening, antifungal and antibacterial activity assessment along with Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The qualitative analysis construed the occurrence of coumarins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, quinone, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins reported by the qualitative analysis. The quantitative analysis showed that flavonoids content was abundant in methanolic extract (48%) and DCM fraction (40%). The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the occurrence of diverse functional groups present in the methanolic extract and fractions of the plant. The GC-MS technique revealed about fifty-five compounds of different classes in the n-hexane fraction of Ebenus stellata. The antibacterial activity of n-hexane fraction showed (32.63±0.27) and methanolic extract (33.19±0.25) mm inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, whereas extract (20.64±0.27) and n-hexane fraction (24.21±0.21) mm inhibited the growth of Salmonella Typhi. The growth of Staphylococcus aureus inhibited by methanolic extract (30.58±0.28) mm. All these findings indicate the plant to be a worthy foundation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and other important compounds. The combination of the various components suggested that plant Ebenus Stellata Boiss has some compelling agents that could be novel against wide diversities of bacteria, fungi and microorganisms.
45 Cluster Analysis of Indigenous Rice Hybrids of Punjab, Pakistan, Misbah Riaz, Syed Sultan Ali, Tahira Bibi, Farah Shamim, Tahir Latif, Neelam Shahzadi, Samina Safraz and Madeeha Khan
For variation and association seventeen test hybrids of rice were studied. Highly significant differences were found among all the rice hybrids for all the morphological and quality traits. Among the traits the plant height (cm), panicle length (cm), bursting % are highly significant and other traits no of productive tillers, days to 50%, grain length, grain width, grain thickness, cooking grain length, elongation ratio, amylose %, protein % and yield. The cluster analysis revealed that between cluster I and cluster V maximum genetic diversity is observed and minimum genetic diversity among traits was studied in cluster II, cluster III and cluster IV. It was also concluded that none of the tillers involved in useful for direct selection criteria for higher grain yield. Rice hybrids H01, H02 and H09 yielding 9.5t/ha, 9.2t/ha and 8.1t/ha respectively. These hybrids might be used for commercial cultivation after adopting the proper seed production technology.
46 Exploration of Antimicrobial Activities of an Ethnobotanically important Tree Terminalia arjuna of Family Combretaceae, Sumara Baqir, and Zaheer-ud-Din Khan
The present investigation was carried out to explore ethnopharmacological abilities of an important local tree i.e., Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Ex. DC.) Wight & amp; Arn. of Family Combretaceae in terms of its phytochemistry and antimicrobial activity against two gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus), two gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumonia and Burkholderia cepacia) and two fungal strains (Rhizopus stolonifer and Trichoderma viridae). The maceration method was employed for the extraction of crude extracts in polar and non-polar solvents, i.e., n-Hexane, Chloroform, Ethanol, and distilled water. The phytochemistry showed the presence of many components such as tannins, terpenoids, anthraquinone, saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The antimicrobial activity was screened by using the agar-well diffusion method. The results showed that crude extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity, although less than the different antibacterial and antifungal standard discs, i.e., Amikacin (30ug), Streptomycin (30ug) and Griseofulvin (30 ug). The highest zone of inhibition was formed by Ethanol bark extract, i.e.,30.67±0.33mm against Burkholderia cepacia followed by 28.33±0.88mm and 27.33±0.88mm zones of Ethanol bark against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. While the highest zone of inhibition against fungal strains were formed by Ethanol leaf extract, i.e., 36.67±0.33mm against Rhizopus stolonifera and Chloroform bark extract, i.e.,36.33±0.34mm against Trichoderma viridae, respectively.
47 Impact of Sowing Dates on Biomass, Grain and Bioethanol Yield of Sorghum Genotypes, Toqeer Ahmed Shaikh, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Farman Ali Shah, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari, Inayatullah Rajpar, Zulfiqar Ali Abbasi, Lalchand Makwana and Mansoor Ahmed Bughio
The world has been facing two major challenges of biofuel and food grain production. For this sorghum crop has been detected an excellent choice with the wide range of adaptation to different environments. To carry out the tested experiments which were organized with three replicated randomly complete block design on four sorghum genotypes (Bale II, PSC-1010, Acho Kartuho and Sprout) and four sowing dates (18th April, 03rd May, 17th May and 31st May) to determine the sowing dates impact on targeted parameters. The results for genotypes were highly significant at (P
48 Effect of Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) on Soil Bulk Density, Aggregate Stability, Water Stable Aggregates, Cation Exchange Capacity, Available-P and Available-K, Zafar Abbas, Rehmat Ullah, Sobia Noor, Farhat Bashir, Javed Iqbal, Fareeha Habib, Muhammad Awais Piracha, Muhammad Bilal, Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Muhammad Akram Qazi
Reclamation of sodic soils using gypsum is the best ways to restore soil fertility by improving the physico-chemical properties of soil. The problem is that in sodic soils due to heavy amount of Exchangeable sodium, the bulk density of the soil increased, while aggregate stability, water stable aggregates, cation exchange capacity, available-P and available-K are reduced, resultantly soil become unproductive. The key objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CaSO4.2H2O application at various depths for improving the chemical and physical characters of soil. The soil used was alkaline in nature (pH 8.9), organic matter (0.81%), phosphorus (9.6 mg kg-1 soil), Available-K (195 mg kg-1 soil). Cation Exchange Capacity of soil was 51me/100g. The experiment consisted of five treatments with three replicates. The results exhibited that applying gypsum to a depth of 30 cm without weekly mixing was better than the applied at same depth (30cm) when inverted after seven days. Gypsum application improved the CEC of the soil from 51.3 to 53.4 meq 100 g-1 and 51.0 to 52.3 meq 100 g-1 and Water sable aggregates percentage increased from 76.3 to 79% and 77.77 to 79.3 in in 0-15 and 15-30 cm depth, respectively. In 0–15 cm depth, T5 reduced the bulk density to 1.24 Mg m-1 than control (1.30 Mg m-3). The highest aggregate stability (69.2%) was in T5 indicating improvement due to gypsum addition. Increasing gypsum application rate exhibited enhancement in availability of available-K.
49 First Report of Devriesia pseudoamericana from Pakistan , Fakhra Zahid, Nousheen Yousaf, and Muzammal Abbas
In this study, a fungal taxon belonging to genus Devriesia has been isolated from some spoilt fruit samples collected from markets of Chichawatni. This filamentous fungus was isolated from infected parts of spoilt fruits by culturing methods using PDA medium after surface sterilization and identified as Devriesia pseudoamericana. This species has been recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Its morphological descriptions, light micrographs and illustrations have been provided in this paper.
50 Impact of Awn Removal on Grain Weight, Number and Yield of Wheat Genotypes Under Terminal Water Stress Conditions, Shabana, Shaista Anjum, Jahanghir Khan, Ayesha Masood, Amna Bano, Huma Batool, Mahjabeen Tafazul, Ola Aljaafreh and Tariq Ismail
Annual genetic increase in wheat is around 1.6 and required to be doubled to sustainably produce wheat for 9 billion people till 2050. To increase grain number and grain weight breeders need to concentrate on different traits to reduce partitioning to other traits and divert assimilates to grain. Present work was conducted in BARDC Balochistan to study the influence of awns on grain yield, grain numbers and grain weight under terminal water stress condition. All genotypes were de-awned at anthesis and were compared to awned spikes of the same genotypes. Awn’s removal had significant impact on grain weight where 1000 kernel weight data showed higher grain weight (32.9 – 58.2) with awns removed at anthesis stage as compared to similar genotype with awns which ranged from 30.3 to 50.0 grams. In contrast, the grain number was reduced in spikes where awns were removed while awns showed positive impact on grain number in the study under terminal drought. Significant (p
51 Chemical Analysis of Bacopa monnieri L. (Water Hyssop) and their Medicinal Importance from Kori Lake, Thatta Sindh-Pakistan, A.R. Vohra, S.K. Khanzada, A.K. Khanzada, N.T. Narejo, and B. Sadiq
The Bacopa monnieri L. is the most important medicinal plant used in medicine since ancient times. B. monnieri belongs to the family Plantaginaceae and is commonly known as water hyssop. B. monnieri. It was collected for biochemical composition (total lipid, total carbohydrate, total protein, water, and ash) of various parts of Lake Kori watershed Thatta. Plants were collected in the winter and summer seasons, respectively. The current study showed that the highest water content was observed in stems (61.51%) in winter, followed by leaves and rhizomes (60.28%, 60.26%). For the summer season, the highest moisture content was observed in the pseudorhizome (75.72%) followed by leaves and stems (69.31%, 68.90%). Ash was observed highest in winter season in leaves (15.23% followed by in stem and rhizoids (13.78%, 11.24%) while in case of summer season it was noted that the ash was highest leaves (25.32%) followed by rhizoids and stem (19.65%, 17.55%) in the highest percentage of protein was observed in leaves (1.91%), followed by stems and rhizomes (1.21%, 1.09%) respectively in winter. On the other hand, for summer season leaves (3.25%) followed by stem and rhizoids (2.94%, 1.62%). During winter the highest reading of carbohydrate was noted in leaves (17.11%) followed by stem and rhizoids (13.78%, 11.24%) while in summer season leaves possess (23.42%) followed by stem and rhizoids (21.74%, 10.63%). Lipid percentage was found to be extremely low. It was concluded that leaves of B. monnieri considered admirable and better quantity in terms of nutrition all through the study period.
52 Development of Improved Production Technology to Enhance Biomass, Grain and Biofuel Production of Sorghum Genotypes: A Review, Toqeer Ahmed Shaikh, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari, Inayatullah Rajpar, Zulifiqar Ali Abbasi, Farman Ali Shah, Mansoor Ahmed Bughio and Lalchand Makwana
Sorghum crop is an excellent source of food, fodder and biofuel. During this modern age of renewable energy, biomass is considered to produce ethanol to cope with increasing energy crisis. Masses must find new solutions and well understanding of climate change effects that will assist scientists for guiding farmers about crop management decisions like crops selection, genotypes, planting geometry, judicious use of fertilizers and seeding dates to mitigate environmental hazards. The research study was conducted on effects of different genotypes with row spacing, fertilizer application methods, sowing dates including integrated approach in sorghum crop. The promising results were obtained with row spacing, fertilizer application methods and sowing dates interventions. The integrated approach resulted highly significance impact in terms yield traits. The study unearthed new research areas that have significant effects on sorghum planting establishment to develop enhanced ethanol production to overcome the global energy crisis through safest source of biofuel.
53 Clinical Investigation of the Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts on MRSA and VRSA Isolates, Agha Asad Noor, Nazir Ahmed Brohi, Rasheed Ahmed Soomro, Mushammad Ashraf Sial, Zaheer Ahmed and Rana Asghar Ali
To reduce the high costs of allopathic treatments and to combat microbial resistance to antibiotics, plant extracts comprising a variety of phytochemicals are known to have antibacterial properties. According to this study, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) are susceptible to the antimicrobial effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), and leaf extracts (VRSA). S. aureus ATCC 25923 culture was cultivated on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar Mannitol salt agar (MSA) and incubated for an entire night at 37 °C. Later, two sets of MHA plates were inoculated by one milliliter (mL) of fresh cultures. The antibiotic discs were placed on the surface of Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates and the Neem and Tulsi extracts on other set of MHA plates. A sum of 105 MRSA and VRSA isolates from 148 clinical samples were investigated, which revealed that the ethanolic leaf extract of Neem has greater effect 15 mm and Tulsi 13.5 mm zones respectively at 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 0.9 mL/100 mL (v/v). Spectroscopy revealed values of 0.168, 0.141, 0.127, 0.076, and 0.153, 0.113 and 0.113, 0.056 at A600. According to these findings, neem and Tulsi have a substantial impact on test strains and can be employed in a variety of pharmaceutical preparations as well as at-home therapy in the form of juice or paste.
54 Performance of Various Sweet Corn Genotypes under the Agroclimatic Conditions of Nowshera, Atif Jan, Ijaz Ahmed, Yasir Khan, and Sultan Akber Jadoon
This experiment was conducted at Cereal Crop Research Institute, Nowshera during the summer cropping season, 2021. The experiment consisted of five sweet corn genotypes which were planted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in triplicate. Data on days to 50% pollen shedding, days to 50% silking, plant height, plant population ha-1, ears height, ears ha-1 and grain yield were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for all the traits under study except plant population ha-1. The data was also subjected to genetic analysis including variances (genetic, environmental and phenotypic), heritability and genetic advance. Among the sweet corn genotypes, G-1 was found early in 50% pollen shedding (59.3 days) and 50% silking (62.6 days). The genotype, G-2 produced short stature plants (92.2 cm). The genotype, G-3 produced ears at the middle position with a value of 33.90 cm. The genotype, G-5 among the sweet corn genotypes yielded greater ears ha-1 (40889 ears ha-1) and higher grain yield (6041 kg ha-1). Genetic variance (3.58) for days to 50% pollen shedding was greater than environmental variance (0.9) which indicated that the aforementioned trait was under the control of genes. Trait of days to 50% silking was less influenced by the environment due to high value of genetic variance. High values of genetic variance for ear height and grain yield exhibited the traits were under the control of genes. On the basis of superior performance among the sweet corn genotypes, the genotypes, G-5 followed by G-3 are recommended for further improvement in future breeding program.
55 Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Tehsil Pattoki, Pakistan, Ali Zeeshan, Saira Aslam, Shama Shaukat, Aquib Nazar, Humaira Akram and Amtal Riaz
The Survey of the current study was to investigate the medicinal plants in Pattoki, Punjab, Pakistan. In order to collect information from the locals of the area, a series of field visits were planned. These trips included semi-structured individual interviews, openended questionnaires, unofficial interviews, and group discussions. The study was conducted from February and August of 2021– 2022. A total of 71 medicinal plants were collected in this study belonging to 38 different families. Out of 71 plants 17 were herbs followed by 16 shrubs and 27 were trees. Solanaceae was largest family contributing 6 species. From the result it recorded that leaves are the frequently used plant part used in medical formulation. Excessive use for medicinal purposes, over grazing, deforestation is the main threats to these medicinal plants. From the result it is concluded that people awareness among the people of Pattoki is very necessary. This is the first detail ethnomedicinal report of Pattoki, District Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan.