1 Morphology Investigation of Carbon Nanostructures Synthesized with Gold Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition CCVD, Abdul Qader Dawood Faisal ; Ahmed Flaih Hussia ; Sadek Hani Laftta
Abstract Carbon nanostructures with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were successfully grown on silicon (100) pre-coated with gold nanoparticles as a catalyst using electrochemical method. Different thicknesses of gold films (10nm, 20nm, 80nm,140nm, 170nm, and 280nm) were used. These films were thermally annealed at temperature of 600ºC for 1h with argon environment. The CNTs were grown at 700ºC, argon and acetylene as a precursor source of carbon (Ar -500sccm, C2H2 -200sccm). The gold deposition after annealing was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The produced carbon nanostructures were also characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The observed carbon structures of the SEM and TEM results are straight, curved, helical, and Y-junction with diameter rang of 100nm-200nm, which is attributed to carbon nano fibers with different size and shape of gold catalyst nanoparticles.
2 Re –archiving Climate Data for Iraq Using GIS Technique, Nawal K. Ghazal
Abstract In this research, GIS techniques have been used to produce vector contour line layers for some archive climate elements that observed in 1953. These elements are average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature and the precipitation for 10 metrological stations within different regions in Iraq in two months (January and August).The outcome of this research is getting a set of new vector contour line layers as a result of using the two dimensional interpolation methods according to kirging method.
3 Effect of Side and Central Obstruction For Circular Aperture on Image Intensity of Optical System Using Triangular Object, Azhr A. Raheem
Abstract: In this research , the effect of obstructed circular aperture from the sides by line or by hyperbola has been studied to the specific values of the obstruction (0.25,0.5,0.75) on the image of triangular object by studying triangular spread function of triangular object for ideal optical system or contains focus error (W20= 0.5?, 1?) or spherical aberration (W40 =1? ) or astigmatism aberration (W22=1?) with rotation angle)?=0(,the results have been compared with the circular aperture and obstructed circular aperture centrally in same values of side obstruction. The results showed that increasing the side obstruction in the ideal system leads to increase depth of focus of the image while the increasing ratio of central obstruction leads to increase the resolution power of the optical system, as for when there are focus error or aberrations in the optical system, the side obstruction is working to increase the intensity in the formed image and reduce the effect of aberrations on the distribution of intensity at plane of the image, while the central obstruction lead to distortion the formed image by the triangle. The side obstruction gave good results for the distribution intensity of image and increase the side obstruction lead to increment image clarity, so the value of side obstruction (0.75) better than the other cases selected in the search, so that using the aperture obstructed by line better than using aperture obstructed by a hyperbola as given the preference in values of intensity of the formed image.
4 Interframe compression using Adaptive Discrete Cosine Transform (ADCT) , Ebtesam Fadhel Kanger
ABSTRACT Image and video image compression techniques are paramount in the development of digital image and video systems. It is essential to develop compression methods which can both produce high compression ratios and preserve reconstructed quality in order for the creation of high quality, affordable image and video products. In this rsearch was produce New algorithm to optimize the compression performance by DCT classification scheme for the image blocks is adopted, a bit allocation matrices them, designed to assign a given number of bits for each retained transformed coefficients. Also was introduce New Three Step Search (NTSS) for motion estimation technique was produced.
5 Determination and Mapping of Activity Levels of 40K in Madloom Region in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf , Hussein H. A. Al-Gazali, Ammar M. H. Al-Ayashi
Abstract Ninety nine soil samples were collected from Madloom region in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf. The gamma rays spectral measurements were done for all samples by using Sodium Iodide activated by Thalium NaI(Tl), its dimension 2"× 2", from the spectral analysis identified Potassium 40K radionuclide. The activity concentration was calculated for 40K, ranged from 66.53±1.39 Bq.Kg-1 to 225.32±2.84 Bq.Kg-1, and the mean value were 142±2.16 Bq.Kg-1.
6 Structural and Optical characterization of Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin film prepared by spray pyrolysis technique, Adel H.Omran Shymaa K. Hussian
Abstract Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide SnO2 thin films have been grown on cleaned glass substrates at 450 C? using spray pyrolysis deposition technique, prepared from two precursor solutions SnCl2.2H2O and SnCl4.5H2O.The XRD analyses showed that these films have polycrystalline in nature with tetragonal rutile structure with preferred orientation of (110),(200),(211) and the crystalline size (grain size) of thin films are found to vary from 32.6 to 56.98 nm . UV -VIS spectra of the films were studied using the optical absorbance measurements which were taken in the spectral region from 190 nm to 1100 nm. The transmittance and ref1ectance spectra of the films in the UV -VIS region were also studied. Optical Constants such as optical band gap, absorption coefficient and extinction coefficient, were evaluated from these spectra. All the films were found to exhibit high transmittance greater than (~ 85 %), and high absorbance values at ultraviolet region which they decrease rapidly in the visible / near infrared region. The optical band gap energy was found 3.98 eV for sample A and 3.97 eV for sample B.
7 Annealing Effect on The Structural and Optical Properties of CuS Thin Film Prepared By Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD), Adel H. Omran Al-khayatt, Mustafa D. Jaafer
Abstract Thin films of copper sulfide (CuS) with various molarities values of Cu concentrations (0.2,0.3,0.4)M have been prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique on glass slides substrate at room temperature . The prepared films with different ion concentrations were annealed in air at constant temperature 400 ºC and constant time (180) min .Structural and optical properties of CuS thin films were investigated and analyzed extensively before and after annealing . The structure of the prepared films has been found with amorphous structure at different Cu ion concentrations , annealed CuS films also showed amorphous structure. The optical properties of CuS thin films has been studied by transmittance and absorbance spectral in the range of wave length (190-1100)nm by using UV- Vis. spectrophotometer. Transmittance decreased with increasing the Cu ion concentrations of CuS films, also the transmittance increased with annealing process for (CuS) thin films. The fundamental absorption edge of (CuS) thin films shifted to word the lowest photon energies with increasing the Cu ions concentrations before and after annealing. From the absorption coefficient values which calculated from the absorbance spectrum which is larger than 10-4cm-1 gives an indicate that CuS films were direct semiconductors and the electronic transition was a direct transition. The optical energy gap values of CuS thin films for allowed direct transition found vary in the range between (2.433-2.526) eV with (0.2- 0.4 M) Cu ions concentration and in the range of (2.416-2.349) eV for the same concentrations after annealing. The optical constant such as reflectance ( R ), absorption coefficient (?), refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (K) were evaluated and analyzed .
8 Study of Energy and some atomic properties for electronic shells at ground state of three electron systems by analysis Hartree-Fock-Roothaan wavefunction, Rukia Jaber Dosh Qassim Shamkhi AL-Khafaji,
Ground state energies and other properties of the atomic systems at open shell of three electron systems for N+4 and O+5 are given by Hartree-Fock-Roothan wavefunction published by Clementi and Roetti(see ref.41) (1974). The radial expectation values for one electron ?????1????? and for inter electrons?????12?????where m=(-2,-1,0,1,2) ,repulsion energies ?Vee? ,attraction energies ?Ven? ,potential energies ?????? ,kinetic energies ?????? , and Hartree-Fock energies are tabulated by using partitioning technique ,wherever in this series there are three shells K-shell ,???L?-shell, ??L?-shell . with analysis the one electron radial density function D(r1) and inter electron density function f(r12) for each shell .
9 The Influence of Substrate Temperature on the Structural , Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition, Adawiya J. Haider,Nahida B. Hasan,Ali S. Hasan
Effects of substrate temperature on the microstructure, morphology, and optical properties of ZnS thin films were investigated. ZnS films were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures using a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser is presented . The structure and morphology of the film were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, the average surface grain size and RMS surface roughness of the films increases with increasing substrate temperature. Optical properties of the films were determined from the transmittance data using Swanepoel model,Transmittances of film were measured by spectrophotometer. Additionally, the increase of the substrate temperatures increase the pores and the transmittance in the films, it was observed that the energy band gap is increased from 3.4 eV to 3.6 eV of the films are decreased with the increase of substrate temperature . Moreover , considerable improvement in blue response of the films was noticed with increasing substrate temperature .
10 The Effect of Coma Aberration on Point Spread Function for Array Synthetic Circular Obscured Aperture, Adnan Falih Hassan Aldehadhawe, Ban Hussein Ali Alrueshdy
In this research we study the effect of coma aberration on point spread function (PSF) for array synthetic circular obscured aperture. The equation of point spread function (PSF) have been derived for this case, coma aberration is used in different angles for set of obscured circular synthetic apertures, addition to different obscuration ratios, by using MathCAD programs. The results show an increasing the resolving power by using array synthetic circular obscured aperture and coma aberration leads to decrease the secondary peaks for point spread function (Apodization).
11 Effect Of Quantization Process On FIC For Gray Image by Using Zero-Mean Method , Eman A. Al-Hilo , Kawther H. Al-khafaji
Abstract: this work is show the effect of quantization on the reconstructed image in fractal image compression FIC method. it is based on zero-mean block matching method, at this method the mean of the range blocks is used instead of traditional offset parameter. This reduces and simplifies the computations of the affine parameters during the encoding process. This method is tested on 8 bits/pixel gray image. The test results conducted on Lena image indicated that the quantization increases compression ratio about (69.6%) and encoding time about (18.6%) but the decreases of PSNR around (0.3%), The quality of the reconstructed image is good either we use the quantization process or not used it.
12 Effect of Sputtering pressure and partial pressure on Structural Properties of TiO2thin Films , Raaed S.Atea ,Mahdya A.Yeser
Effect of sputtering pressure and partial pressure on structural properties of TiO2 films prepared using DC-sputtering to glass substrate was investigated. sputtering pressures are changed (1.8,2.8,3.8,4.3 pa) at constant O2 /Ar Ratio(5%). Measurements reveal that the TiO2 films at the sputtering pressure 1.8 pa is amorphous , while at increasing pressure to 2.8 pa becomes crystalline with Rutile phase (110) and when we increase the pressure to 4.3 pa get crystalline structure with anatas phase ( 101) .Grain size is calculated per crystalline structure of the anatas and rutile (15.7) nm and(14.2) nm respectively. For constant sputtering pressure (2.8pa) and changedO2/Ar Ratio(10% ,15% ,20% ,25% ,30% , 35%),TiO2 thin films are a amorphous, except percentage (25%) is crystalline with anatas phase (101) and with grain size (15.7 nm).
13 Density Functional Theory Calculations of Thiophene - Phenylene Systems And Their Adducts , A. H. Raheem, H. M. Abduljalil, T. A. Hussein
Density functional theory was employed to investigate the electronic properties of phynelene and thiophene compounds and their adducts, the interaction between the two structures changes to include six systems. Many important electronic properties were studied in two ways, the vertical energy method and vertical orbital method include the chemical potential, chemical molecular hardness, chemical softness, electrophilic index and polarizability. Full geometry optimization was calculated at the same level of theory. The results showed that the new structures have low chemical hardness with large electrophilicity, and they are more reactive .
14 Nuclear Shell Model Application To Calculate Energy Levels For (14 8O6 ,14 6C8) Nuclei, A.K.Hasan* D.N.Hamed**
In this paper, energy levels were calculated for two nuclei (14 8O6 ,14 6C8) by applying the nuclear shell model by using modified surface delta interaction (MSDI).The (MSDI) succeeded in energy levels calculation for the configuration (hole-hole ( ,this case facilitated the calculation of many holes outside closed shell by using the configuration (hole-hole). Computer programs were used to calculate important coefficients involved mainly in calculating energy levels include Clebch - Gordan , Racha coefficient and matrix element for two bodies by using modified surface delta interaction. Comparison the current values with the experimental values , it was found current values were in perfect agreement with the experimental values .
15 Investigation of natural radioactivity in the soil of Kufa zone , Najaf governorate, Iraq , Ali Kadhim Ekal
The natural radioactivity due to presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in soil of Kufa zone , Najaf governorate, Iraq were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry NaI(Tl) "3× 3". The specific activity of the soil samples ranged from 1.76±2.30 to 77.45±2.35 Bqkg-1 with an average of 25.23±2.94 Bqkg-1, from 7.92±1.22 to 42.58±1.75 Bqkg-1 with an average of 20.09±1.11 Bqkg-1 and from 219.58±1176 to 1994.17±16.15 Bqkg-1 with an average of 984.30±11.86 Bqkg-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices such as radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Absorbed Dose rates (D), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Internal Hazard Index (Hin). These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) values found to vary from 67.80 to 285.80 Bqkg-1, with the average value of 129.74 Bqkg-1, which was less than permitted value (370 Bqkg-1). The absorbed dose rates, ranged from 32. 1 to 142.08 nGyh-1, with a average value of 65.17 nGyh-1 that higher than the permissible limit of 55 nGyh-1. The external and internal hazard index of soil samples were less than unity. Keywords: natural radioactivity, gamma ray spectrometry, Soil samples
16 Theoretical investigation into Electronic Properties of Donor-Acceptor BH3-CO Molecule , Abbas H. Raheem
Abstract This work deals with structural and electronic properties of trihydroborane -carbonyl BH3-CO as a donor-acceptor molecular system. B3LYP density functional theory was employed with various basis sets to calculate some structural and electronic properties for this system. The calculations include the bond length and angles between atoms. And some electronic properties of the studied compound were investigated include the total energy, electronic states, electron affinity, chemical hardness, softness and electrophilic index. The results show that 6-31G (d, p) level of theory gave good agreement values of geometrical parameters with experimental data in comparison with other levels.
17 Estimated the mean of annual effective dose of radon gases for drinking water in some locations at Al-Najaf city , *Ali Abid AboJassim **Ahmed Rahim Shitake
In this work, Radon concentrations in drinking water were measured at 42 locations in Al- Najaf cities, using RAD-7 radon monitoring system of Durridge company USA. The annual effective dose for all samples of drinking water were estimated by equations depending on UNSCEAR organization. It is found that the radon concentrations in samples in studied area were varied from (2.43±0.879 Bq/m3) to (225.5±12.657 Bq/m3), while the mean annual effective dose of Ingestion and Inhalation varied from (0.017739 ?S.y-1) to (1.64615 ?S.y-1) and (0.088807 ?S.y-1) to (0.704526 ?S.y-1) respectively. When the results were compared of radon concentrations with the internationally recommended reference levels (World healthy Organization limit 500 Bq/m3) and the mean effective annual dose for radon in drink water normal limits of world (1 mSv/y), there were no indications of existence of radon problems in the water sources in this survey. therefore the drinking water in Al-Najaf city is safe as far as radon concentration is concerned.
18 Calculationof The Electron Distribution Function And Its Transport Parameters In ?????????????????????Applied Gas Mixture, Raad Hameed Majeed/Abdul RahmanMahmood Husain/Ahmed Mousashweikh
There are two important types of basic gas-insulated apparatus used by electric power industry: i.gas-insulted transmission lines and ii.gas-insulated transformers.SF6?HeMixture are considered to be used in circuit breakers, helium has a very blow dielectric strength (~3% that of SF6 in uniform fields) and contributes virtually nothing to the dielectric strength of the mixture. Helium however, complements SF6 in terms of its cooling capacity because it is very light, and does not react chemically eitherSF6, or the gas impurities present in commercialSF6, or the system components. The motion of electrons in plasma gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and its mixture with inert gas He in the present of applied uniform electric field is simulated by using the numerical solution of Boltzmann's transport equation technique. The numerical solutions are utilized within the international computer code program called ''NOMAD'' written in FORTRAN 77, by using the Finite difference method. The energy distribution function and the swarm transport parameters of electron accelerated by DC electric field in a mixture of SF6?He , are evaluated and compared with experimental result of drift velocity (vd), average energy (??) ,characteristic energy (?k) , diffusion coefficient (D) ,and electron mobility (?). We conclude that the calculation value has a percentage agreement with international published experimental value over the range of E/N in Td units (E is the electric field and N concentration gas molecules). One can interpret the existence percentage error to the accuracy of the using cross section data for both elastic and inelastic collisions, since their exist many laboratory published data.
19 Charge Transport in Dye_Senstized solar cells, H.J.M.AL-AGEALY Mohsin Aneed Hassooni. Mudhafar Jebur Ali
A quantum mechanical model used to study, the electron transfer reaction for the titanium dioxide TiO2,tin dioxide SnO2,and Indium tin oxide ITO semiconductor and the redox thiopyronine (Tp) molecule dye. Theoretical method was adapted to calculate the coupling matrix element coefficient for semiconductor /dye state and the rate constant of electron transfer reaction. The calculated results of rate constant were compared with experimental and theoretical results show good agreement with these results.
Springs are Creating when the water table intersects the land surface and water flows onto the surface. Springs considered the main water for human living, when the surface water is rare or unavailable. This research is a trial to find the source and origin of Hit-Kubasa city springs (W-Iraq), and the relationship between springs and ground water. Springs are found at the eastern edge of the western desert, and extended to about 20 kilometer from Hit to Kubasa city. Hydrochemistry of the springs Shows high salinity and very hard water. Water type of Hit-Kubasa springs is Mg-Ca-Na-chloride. The origin of sprigs is marine origin. Also the springs are Cl-Ca water type. According to Sulins (1975) classification , water springs reflects the marine origin of water bearing formation and long period of marine deposits, so the marine water have been subjected to different diagenetic processes. Source of Hit-Kubasa springs is marine water that has been left during the deposition.
21 LQR Controller for Kufasat , Mohammed Chessab Mahdi, Mohammed Jaafar AL-Bermani
Abstract In this paper, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)controller is applied to the attitude stabilization control of Kufasat. Using the linearized equations of motion for a rigid body in space, the linearized stability, effectiveness and robustness of a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control design were compared with that of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control design. The detailed design procedure of the LQR controller is presented. Simulation results show that precise attitude control is accomplished and the time of satellite maneuver is shortened in spite of the uncertainty in the system.
22 Micro Optics in Solar Power Systems , Fouad Geala Hamz Al-Meleagy, Adnan Falih Hassan Al-Jebory, Ali Hadi Abdul Munim Al-Hamdani
Abstract The usage the a new type of micro optic concentrator that collects the sunlight from hundreds of small aperture lenses within a micro-lenses array and concentrates the sunlight on PV slices. A ray tracking has been performed by using ZEMAX-EE sequential analysis software to model and optimize the efficiency of the micro lenses-array concentrator. A new model for array of lenses concentrator is designed and simulated. This concentrator consists of array of micro lenses to focus solar light on four rectangular slices of photovoltaic Si solar cell. The design aims to reduce the cost of the concentrators by reducing the effective area of the high cost silicon material area and simplifying the structure of the system. This design has high relative illumination efficiency and that indicate a good illumination distribution which improves solar cell efficiency. The results show that micro lenses array concentrator can works well over such a large range in acceptance angles and wavelengths, therefore; this concentrator does not needs to accurate to tracking sun through the daytime which simplifies the design and reduces the total cost of the system
23 Astronomical Refraction above Kufa Astronomical observatory , Mohammed Jaafar AL-Bermani Faeq Abdullah AL-Temimei
Abstract : Astronomical refraction addresses ray-bending effects for objects outside the earth’s atmosphere in relation to an observer within the atmosphere. In this paper is a study of the Atmospheric refraction and its effect on the light coming from celestial body by using Astronomic Refraction model above Kufa Astronomical Observatory at different zenith angles and different weather conditions. These weather parameters were collected from the weather link station of the observatory. The results are perfect agreement with other models
24 Study of atomic properties in K-Shell for Na9+, Mg10+, Al11+ ions in position space , Entessar Farhan Selman Qassim shamkhi
Abstract In this paper the ground state for ions has been studied by using Hartree-Fock wave function, the total energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, radial expectation values ? ? , We found the Hartree-Fock ground energy of Na9+= -114.231 hartree, of the Mg10+= -136.605 hartree and Eh of the Al11+= -160.993hartree. the total ground state energy gives results a good agreement with other results published.
25 Optical Properties,Structure,and Morphology of CuO Grown by Thermal Oxidation of Cu thin film on Glass Substrate , Amar hadee Jareeze
Abstract: Oxidation method was used to prepare nanostructure of cupric oxide (CuO) film. Thin film of Copper metal were deposited on substrate (quartz) in a thermal vacuum evaporator. The thickness of the film was measured to about 20 ?m. The thermal oxidation of this evaporated film was done in a horizontally heated quartz furnace at temperature (400°C) in air for 4 hour. The product was tested by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, The surface properties was characterized using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),UV–vis spectrometer ,the average crystal diameter derived from the XRD data analysis is found to be 27nm and completely converts this Cu film to tenorite structure with composition of CuO with peak appeared at 2? equal to 35.5?, 38.7?. The conversion was also confirmed by the FTIR spectrometer measurement. The UV–vis spectrum of the material shows significant amount of blue-shift in the band gap energy(Eg) and is found to be 3.82eV due to the quantum confinement effect exerted by the nanocrystals.
26 Imaging and Diagnosis of hMPV , RSV and Measles Viruses by Fluorescence Microscope , Mohammed.J.F. Al-Bermani Intidhar . J.K. Al -Yasari
Abstract The use of fluorescence microscopy for imaging biomedical specimens has been expanded into all fields of diagnosis for different kinds of viruses , three viruses were imaged and diagnosed by the fluorescence microscope at Al-Sadr educational hospital at Kufa city . The human metapneumo viruse hMPV , the respiratory syncytial viruse RSV and the measles chicken emberyo fibroblast viruse have been imaged and diagnosed by the fluorescence microscope in Al-SADR Eduacational hospital at Kufa city . Three types of dyes were added to the specimen solutions separately ,Rhodamine B , Fluorescene and Evans blue in order to obtain high resolution and contrast images. The absorption and fluorination spectra of these dyes were measured by EUV-visible spectrophotometer and fluorospectrophotometer respectively .
27 Structural and Electronic Properties of Donor- Acceptor Molecular System DFT calculation., Nahida B. Hassan
This work deals with structural and electronic properties of trifluoroborane-carbonyl BF3-CO as a donor-acceptor molecular system. B3LYP density functional theory was employed with various basis sets to calculate some structural and electronic properties for this system. The calculations include the bond length and angles between atoms, and some electronic properties of the studied compound were investigated include the total energy, electronic states, electron affinity, chemical hardness, softness and electrophilic index. The results show that 6-31G (d, p) level of theory gave good agreement values of geometrical parameters with experimental data in compared with other levels.
28 Measurement of exposure dose due to X- ray in Al-Sader medical city in Al-Najaf city, Talib Abdulridha Abdulwahid, Hayder Hamza Hussain
Abstract : Many worker in radiation field are expose to different doses of ionization rays . one of this ray is X-ray . The instruments that produce X-ray are available in hospitals. In this project we measure exposure dose due to X-ray instrument in al-sader medical city in Al najaf city . Our measurements were done to determine the exposure dose by using RAD-CHECKTM PLUS equipment for different time intervals and different locations in the unit . The obtained results show the values of exposure dose for workers in X-ray unit and patients are within the permitted limits .
29 Natural Radioactive Survey around Kufa cement factory , H. H. Hussain, A. S. Ali2
ABSTRACT The specific activity in soil samples around Kufa cement factory were measured by using NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometer. The range and (average) of specific activity for 238U, 232Th and 40K were 21.11±5.90 to 87.04±7.42 Bq/kg (50.12±6.49 Bq/kg), 16.18±2.65 to 74.55±4.25 Bq/kg (39.55±3.10 Bq/kg) and 592.04±12.20 to 1654.20±24.32 Bq/kg (941.25±15.98 Bq/kg). The values of absorbed dose one meter above in air ranged from 59.81 to 132.08 nGy/h with an average value of 86.96 nGy/h. all values of the absorbed dose were higher than the permissible level fixed in UNSCER (2000). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the external and internal hazard index were also calculated and compared with the world wide average and found to be within the permissible level.
30 Groundwater Pollution by Trace and Secondary Elements in Alton Kupri Basin. N. Iraq , Saadi A. J. M. AL Dahaan
Abstract The secondary group (Nitrate NO3, Boron B and Fluoride F) with group of Trace elements (Cadmium Cd, Lead Pb, Manganese Mn, Iron Fe, Cupper Cu, Zinc Zn, Nickel Ni and Chromium Cr) of Inorganic category are tested in water wells of Alton Kubri Basin to get suitability for human and agricultural consumption. Result shows the concentration of No3 is more than recommended limits at Nabi- awa, kuchuk bibani, qalwazi and Buyuk- hisar groundwater wells. The concentration of Boron in water wells of Nabi-awa and Zardic shows enrichment above the recommended limits in some months of year. The concentration of Nickel is also higher than the recommended limit in water wells of Dobozni, Qalwazi and Buyuk-hisar wells. Study is illustrated enrichment in the concentration as above reputation of water wells at local area only. The source of enrichment for Nitrate NO3, Boron B and Nickel Ni is originated from the agricultural activities and the natural occurrence of these elements in the rocks consists aquifer.