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Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences

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1 SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE OF PHOTOIONISE PLASMAS, A. K Ferouani, M. K Inal
n this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, witch have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited levels 1s2l towards the fundamental level 1s2 1S0, like appropriate lines. More precisely, the line of resonance w due to the transition 1s2p 1P1 ??1s2 1 S0, the line of intercombinaison (x,y) 1s2p 3 P2,1 ??1s2 1 S0 as well as prohibited line z due to the transition 1s2 3 S1 ??1s2 1 S0. These lines appear clearly in the spectra of astrophysical plasmas. As helium-like ion, we chose two, the oxygen O6+ (Z=8) and neon Ne8+ (Z=10). We carried out calculations of the ration of lines intensity G=(z?x?y)/w of O6+ and Ne8+ according to the electronic temperature in the range going from 105 to 107 K. We will see that, like it was shown by Gabriel and Jordan in 1969 [1], this intensity ration can be very sensitive to the temperature electronic and practically independent of the electronic density. Consequently, the ration G can be used to determine in a reliable way the electronic temperature of plasma observed [2].
2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALITY OF FEED WATERS OF THE EL-OUED CITY STUDY OF CASE (fluorine and Arsenic), S.E. Laouini, S. Ladjel, R. Ouahrani
In these days, of numerous country through worlds are confronted to an excess of fluor and arsenic in the wake of drink and preoccupy by in to minimize consequences on the consumers health. The arsenic and the fluor are to scale planetary polluted them of geological origin more frequently met in underground waters. In of numerous countries in expansion, waters so contaminated are often consummated without any previous treatment. Effects inorganic reserved salts in the wake of drink, benefic or luckless acting of their concentration, are known since of numerous years today already more 1,5 billion of persons have not attack to a healthy drinking-water. According to the OMS, these are 15 million to be human who die each year after to drink of the water no potable, or for want of not to have not attack to the drinking-water . Of numerous countries being in possession regions where some waters present amounts in fluor and arsenic superior to recommendations of the OMS (0,7-1,5 mg/L for fluor and 10 L/g for the arsenic). The fluor behoves against blights and hardens the teeth enamel ;to better concentration it fragilise the bone or induces points of crystallization favoring the appearance of articular distorting arthrosis : this is her fluorose. Effects ought to the arsenic are numerous: l?sions of the peel, canker, illnesses cardiovasculair or pulmonarias, hypertension and cancers. This work has been realized on the water of five boreholes of the town of El-Oued in collaboration with the laboratory of the waters Algerian (ADE). The experimentation was aiming to define them plenty of fluor and arsenic exists in five boreholes to study and in fine to estimate the quality consumptive waters.
3 ELECTROCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCENE/FERRICENIUM REDOX COUPLE AT GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE, N. S. Neghmouche, A. Khelef and T. Lanez
In the present work the oxidation of ferrocene, , to the ferrocenium cation, , was examined in the solvents dichloromethane, and aqueous ethanol using the technique of cyclic voltammetry. The anodic (Epa) and the cathodic (Epc) peak potentials, as well as the corresponding anodic (ipa) and cathodic (ipc) peak currents, were obtained at different scan rates (0.05, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50 V.s-1). The diffusion coefficients (D) have been calculated using the Randles-Sevcik equation. The effects of changing the scan rate on the electrochemical behavior of ferrocene have been examined.
4 INHIBITION EFFECT OF FLAVONOID EXTRACT OF Euphorbia Guyoniana ON THE CORROSION OF MILD STEEL IN H2SO4 MEDIUM, S. Chihi, N. Gherraf, B. Alabed, S. Hameurlain
The influence of flavonoids extracts of three parts of Euphorbia Guyoniana towards the corrosion of type API 5L X52 steel in 15% H2SO4 has been evaluated by weight loss method and polarization technique. The results showed that extracts are a good inhibitors for API 5L X52 steel in this medium. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extracts concentration. The inhibition is attributed to the adsorption of the surface of the metal. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied inhibitors behave as a mixed type.
5 STUDY OF THE SEMI-THEORETICAL RELATION OF THE HYDRAULIC JUMP EVOLVING IN AN U-SHAPED CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED, A. Ghomri, M. Debabeche, F. Riguet
This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in U-shaped channel, with smooth bed is proposed.
6 STUDIES OF CHANGES OF SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS AMONG WORKERS OF CEMENT OF EL MA EL ABIOD TEBESSA ALGERIA, M. Aouimeur,T. Goudjil, A. Rouabhia, M. Hamiri
In Algeria, the industrial development engenders the appearance of the sanitary and environmental problems resulting from the pollution due to these certain industries such as the industry cimentire. With the aim of estimating the sanitary state of the workers of the cement works; a study was made for 30 workers of the cement works. This study is based on the determination of the values of 07 parameters hmatologiques (red blood cells, haemoglobin, hmatocrite, average spherical volume, The corpuscular concentration averages in haemoglobin, The corpuscular content averages in haemoglobin and the number of white blood cells) and two parameters considered as markers premature of the inflammation (sedimentation speed and protein-C-reactive). These results are compared with two other populations, one of the inhabitants of the region and other one of the inhabitants far from the cement works avec 60 km. The statistical analyses are based on the comparison of the variances and the analysis in main constituent (ACP). The comparison of the variance of the various variable of the individuals show a resemblance between the workers and the inhabitants close to the cement works but significant differences appeared between both populations and those of the cement works for some parameters. The global analysis of these results with the ACP showed a general coherence. The observation of the groups allowed removing some peculiarities.
7 EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THIN LAYERS OF TITANIUM POSED ON STEEL 100C6 SUBSTRATES WITH PVD METHOD, R. Gheriani and R. Halimi
We proposed to prepare hard coatings based on titanium carbides by deposition of thin layers of pure Ti by sputtering method on steel substrates 100C6 of 1 %mass carbon. The samples were annealed under vacuum in the temperature range of 400 C to 1000 C, in order to activate the reaction between the two parts of the system which results the formation of carbides of Ti due to the diffusion of carbon from the substrate towards deposited layers. We therefore note an improvement in mechanical properties such as hardness. To demonstrate the effect of deposition parameters, we have prepared two series, the first one with a high pressure of argon and remarkable energy of extracted atoms, and in the case of the second one the pressure and kinetic energy are relatively less important. The samples of series 2 show features more important: a compact structure and good mechanical properties. The reaction between thin films and substrates is studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measurements of microhardness were performed with the Vickers method.
8 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HYDRAULIC JUMP EVOLVING IN AN U-SHAPED CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED, A. Ghomri, M. Debabeche and F. Riguet
This study aims to examine and analyze the experimental approach of controlled hydraulic jump threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottom rough, linking the different characteristics of projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom.
9 STUDY ON THE ENERGETIC PARAMETERS IN A PHOTOTHERMIC SENSOR WITH BLACK POLYMERIC FILM , A. Benmoussat, N. Baba Ahmed, S. Ainad Tabet and B. Belahcene
Renewable energies such as thermal solar energy are accessible energy hydrous for desalination water, recycling and hot water production. Heat is produced by greenhouse effect in the sensor. It is no polluting form of energy according to the sustainable development. In this paper the design of sensor photothermic prototype with polymeric film absorbing, the materials radiation properties, the analysis of different energy losses in the system and the energy balance will be presented. The evolution of incidental solar illumination on the horizontal plan of sensor and the temperature distribution are studied. Results showed that the temperature obtained by thermal conversion depends on the absorbing characteristics of the polymeric film, radiation intensity and time exposure.
10 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF DEPENDENCY EMISSIVITY IN FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE, N. Baba Ahmed, A. Benmoussat, T. Benouaz
We propose a direct method of measurement of the total emissivity of opaque samples on a range of temperature around the ambient one. The method rests on the modulation of the temperature of the sample and the infra-red signal processing resulting from the surface of the sample we model the total emissivity obtained in experiments according to the temperature to establish linear correlations. This leads us to apply the method of optimal linearization associated the finite element method with the nonlinear problem of transfer of heat if thermal conductivity, the specific heat and the emissivity of studied material depend on the temperature. We obtain a good agreement between the resolution of the nonlinear equation of heat and the results obtained by the experimentation.
11 EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTOR ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF AEOLIAN BLADES: APPLICATION OF HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS, F. Mili, A. Lekrine, L. Bouyaya and F. Bourouis
The great interest which the wind power brings in the development of the various economic sectors encourages to contribute in the improvement of the hydrothermal and mechanical performances of the blades of wind rotors with horizontal axis. The use of composite materials involves a profit of substantial weight, strength to the directional constraints that the blade will undergo during its work and a reduction of the aerodynamic and mechanical losses. The adoption of composite materials with unidirectional reinforcement carbon/epoxy makes it possible to get for the structure a high wear resistance and a reduction of the phenomenon of bearing pressure created around the airfoil of the blade moving relative compared to the speed of the wind. The evaluation of the behavior of such composites with [+?/- ?]4S stacking sequence, with the combined effect of the temperature, the moisture and the tensile effort constitutes the principal axis of this contribution. In order to minimize the costs, our analysis will direct towards hybrid composite materials glass-carbon/epoxy being presented in the form of symmetrical laminates [+?/0]2S and antisymmetric [+?/0/90/-?]. The results obtained showed that their use contributes to the improvement of their thermomechanical behavior by involving profits of performance, weight, cost savings and energy.
12 ECO-CASTING OF AEOLIAN BLADES AND SOLAR PANELS WITH COMPOSITES MATERIALS VIA RTM TECHNOLOGY, B. Attaf
The technique used for manufacturing composite wind turbine blades and solar panels must be sure of environment-friendly. In order to achieve this objective, the closed mould manufacturing process that takes into account environment preservation and health protection besides assurance quality will be the subject of this article. The requirements of sustainable development and ecodesign are the objectives to be fulfilled with an acceptable degree of tolerance in relation to the new regulations and eco-standards.
13 OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT FOR WATERS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY, A. Bensalem, A. Oudai, A. El-maouhab and A. Bouhentala
The hydropower management along a short-term planning horizon is a determinist problem, which consists in determining the amount of water to be discharged from each reservoir of the system over the defined planning horizon so that to meet the hourly load demand assigned previously. The prime objective here is to perform the operating policy with the lowest use of water; which is achieved by avoiding spilling and by maximizing the hydroelectric generation, besides satisfying all operating constraints. The maximization of electrical power production is achieved by maximizing the heads. Consequently, this allows maximizing the reservoirs content. To solve to the deterministic hydropower management problem, we use the discrete maximum principle. While solving the equations relating to the discrete maximum principle, we use the gradient method. However, to treat equality constraints we use Lagranges multiplier method. To treat the inequalities constraints we use the augmented Lagrangian method. The developed algorithm gives a satisfactory solution for the problem and turns out to be very efficient.
14 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION BASED OF THE MAXIMUM PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER TRACTIOQG UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS , Y. Labbi, D. Ben Attous and H. Sarhoud
Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed for maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panel, are used to generate the optimal MPP, such that solar panel maximum power is generated under different operating conditions. A photovoltaic system including a solar panel and PSO MPP tracker is modelled and simulated, it has been has been carried out which has shown the effectiveness of PSO to draw much energy and fast response against change in working conditions.
15 OPTIMIZATION METHODOLOGIES OF MIXED ELECTRICAL GENERATORS IN ALGERIA BASED ON RENEWABLE APPLICATION TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, H. Zeraia, A. Malek and C. Larbes
This article deals of the optimization of renewable energy electric generators, for the alimentation of radio telecommunication systems. The principals interests of this system are the independence production, and the supplying of electric energy in isolated localities. Have at ones the energetic and economic models, and simulation tools, we effected an optimization study based on mixed productions. For this approach, the energetic resources of sites where are implanted telecommunications systems and their consumption are supposed known. Then the problem is the optimization of electric generators using these resources, enable to have an optimal type system for the powering of telecommunications equipments in rural site of Algeria. Next it is quite possible to command these optimized generators by a control circuit. This circuit make possible to have according to availability of resources, one of mixed systems found, then telecommunications system be always supplied in any possible case, and without any shortage.
16 FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM (EOLIAN- PHOTOVOLTAIC - DIESEL) WITH PROVISION OF ELECTRIC ENERGY COMPLETELY INDEPENDENT, D. Saheb-Koussa, M. Haddadi and M. Belhamel
In engineering, simulation is an effective and economical, commonly used to make preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design) and normal operation of systems. Currently, several simulation tools, using HOMER, are used in academia. Thus, in this work, we present the principle of feasibility study and optimization of a stand alone hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel). Furthermore, we determined the price per kWh of electricity supplied by the stand alone hybrid system, which amounts to $ 1417 / kWh. The site considered in this study represents the Adrar site located in the south west Algeria. Thus, we have inferred from this work as part of a configuration of the stand alone hybrid system obviously depends on available energy resources and constraints. On the other hand we have highlighted the role of the renewable energy uses in reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied).
17 SIMULATION OF NEW SIMPLE FUZZY LOGIC MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKER FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC ARRAY, H. Serhoud, D. Benattous, Y. Labbi
A new simple fuzzy method used for tracking the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems is proposed. The input parameters and duty cycle D are used to generate the optimal MPPT under different operating conditions, The photovoltaic system simulated and constructed by photovoltaic arrays, a DC/DC boost converter, a fuzzy MPPT control and a resistive load, The Fuzzy control law designed and the results in a simulation platform will be presented and compare to Perturbation and observation (P&O) controller.
18 THE SIMPLE MONO-CANAL ALGORITHM FOR THE TEMPERATURE ESTIMATING OF THE SURFACE FROM IMAGES OF INFRARED THERMAL CANAL OF METEOSAT, A. Labbi and A. Mokhnache
The knowledge of the surface temperature is strongly required in several applications, for instance in agrometeorology, climatology and environmental studies. In this study we have developed an algorithm mono-canal to estimate land surface temperature (Ts) in spectral band as the infrared channel (IR) of METEOSAT-7. This algorithm permits us to join by a relationship of second order the surface temperature to the brightness temperature (Tb) at the sensor level. This algorithm is obtained starting from the radiative transfer equation and requires the knowledge of atmospheric transmittance (?), the surface emissivity (?) and the effective mean atmospheric temperature (Ta). The results obtained were validated by using the LOWTRAN-7 radiative transfer code. For a values of atmospheric water content (W) lower or equal to 3.1 g/cm2 and for values of emissivity equal or higher than 0.98, we had found that the maximum difference between the land surface temperature estimated and simulated by LOWTRAN-7 does not exceed 2C.
19 EFFECT OF THE SPACE BETWEEN TWO GLASSES ON THE SOLAR SENSOR PERFORMANCE OF PLAN IN DOUBLE-GLAZED COLLECTOR, M. L. Ben Guehza and A. Kaabi
The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the theoretical study of the impact of space between the protective glass and the glass through the performance of a solar plan double glazing. Under the climatic conditions in the region of Ouargla Algeria. The study was carried out using a mathematical model obtained by writing the laws of conservation of energy in the system. Type of day June 15, 2008 at Ouargla. To simplify the system of equations of energy, we use the finite difference method with an implicit scheme. The algebraic system obtained and solved by the iterative Gauss Seidel, the program is inscribe FORTRAN. We also took into account the variation of the angle of incidence and refraction of solar radiation in terms of time and its influence on the coefficients of transmission, reflection and absorption.
20 STUDY AND REALIZATION OF DEVICE OF SOLAR SENSITIVE TRACKING FOR A PROTOTYPE OF CYLINDRO-PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR, A. Gama, C. Larbes, A. Malek et F. Yettou
After the realization of a new prototype of concentrator through, we have study the realization of a sun tracking system in order to assure the best system efficiency throughout the day. We started in the first step by the blind sun tracking where we have acquired the good results. In this paper we try to speak about the realization of a new system of sun tracking who is the sensitive sun tracking. In this sort of tracking we have used a special telescope, like a sensitive element in for the detection of sun position. An electronic Card based PIC microcontroller is realized to pilot the mechanic system of the san tracking. In order to controlled the prototype we have put on a chain of data acquisition. The results were compared with the results of the blind sun tracking system and the stationary position, it was noted that the results were better this time and the efficiency is very important.
21 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND DEVELOPMENT OF A WATER BASIN USED AS SOLAR SENSOR, S. E. Laouini, B. Ben Haoua, and M ed. R. Ouahrani
Energy sources play an important role in the development of humanity, with the industrial and technological evolution of our century. Energy demand is increasing every year, for this reason we must seek an alternate source of energy more specifically new and renewable energy including solar energy. Note that solar energy is abundant, especially the south-eastern Algeria, where solar radiation is significant in any year. Given that it is the cheapest of all other energy, many researches and experiments have been conducted to recover the maximum amount of renewable energy and to address the problems of use and operation to reduce and save energy traditional. This work concerns the development of a new device is a basin filled with water used as a solar plane and a storage medium. The results obtained are very important in terms of heating water, the water temperature at outlet of basin reaches up to 74 C, also the inlet temperature is 29 C.
22 THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE DESALINATION SEA WATER IN AGRICULTURAL GREENHOUSE, T. Tahri, A. Bettahar , M. Douani, S. Al Sulaiman Abdul-Wahab, H. Al-Hinai, Y. Al Mulla
The limited resources of fresh water in arid areas like the Middle East and North Africa MENA have led to the use of poor quality water in irrigation agriculture. These can reduce crop yield and environmental damage. Agriculture accounts for 70% of overall consumption in freshwater. Given the evaporation phenomena that occur in arid regions, this figure rises to 90%. This study focuses on the concept of combining the greenhouse with the desalination of seawater This concept is intended for small scale applications in remote areas where only saline water and solar energy are available. The main objective of this research work is to analyze the production of fresh water using solar energy in the desalination of sea water in the greenhouse. This operating system is in need of thorough study of evaporators, condensers and design of the greenhouse. Desalination, combining the greenhouse to the use of sea water while exploiting the phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the air, seems to respond positively to the needs of agricultural irrigation.
23 OPTIMIZATION OF AEOLIAN ENERGY CONVERSION OPTIMISATION DE LA CONVERSION DE LENERGIE EOLIENNE , Y. Soufi, T. Bahi, M. F Harkat and M. Mohamedi
The use of renewable energy increases, because people are increasingly concerned with environmental issues. Among renewable, wind power is now widely used. Their study showed that a value of wind speed, there is a maximum mechanical power supplied by the turbine. So, power is supplied are particularly changes with maximum speed. However, the objective of this paper is to present an algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy based on a criterion optimization that must maintain specific speed of the turbine at optimum speed which corresponds to the maximum power provided by the steady wind turbine. To this end, the object is to preserve the position of any static operating point on the characteristic of optimal. To validate the model and algorithm for optimal conversion of wind energy, a series of numerical simulations carried out using the software MatLab Simulink will be presented is discussed.
24 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION OF SOLAR HYDROGEN IN ALGERIA, W. Bendaikha, S. Larbi, B. Mahmah and M. Belhamel
Hydrogen is a sustainable fuel option and one of the potential solutions for the current energy and environmental problems. In this study hydrogen is produced using a hydrogen generator with a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser. An experimental study is done in the Center of Development of the Renewable Energy, Algiers, Algeria. The experimental device contains essentially a photovoltaic module, a PEM electrolyser, a gasometer and the devices of measures of characteristics of the PEM electrolyser as well as two pyranometers for the horizontal and diffuse global radiance registration. This system in pilots scale is permitted on the one hand, to measured and analyzed the characteristics: of the PEM electrolyser for two different pressures of working (Patm and P=3 bar), on the other hand, to study the volume of hydrogen produces in the time with different sources of electrical power (generator, photovoltaic module, fluorescent lamp), the efficiency for every case is calculated and compared. We present in this paper the variation of the solar hydrogen flow rate produced according to the global radiance and according to the time for a typical days of August.
25 EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES, B. Attaf and M. Bachene
The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yangs theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh). However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length). This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a
26 CALCULATION OF COEFFICIENT OF SHARING OCTANOL-WATER OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS, B. Souyei
A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds to their Octanol- Water partition coefficients, Kow , using molecular descriptors. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate Kow. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlation with the descriptors of blocks fragments of the atom-centered and functional groups (R2 = 0.949, ? = 0477) (R2 = 0.926,? = 0,548) respectively.
27 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN THE VALLEY OF OUED-SOUF (ALGERIA): ISSUES FITNESS FOR A NEW STRATEGY, S. Khechana, F. Derradji and A. Derouiche
This study designed to analyze and evaluate the results of trend scenarios of the strategy management of water resources used in the valley of Oued-Souf, who led the region to a truly dramatic situation and almost desperate: rise of groundwater and its adverse consequences. In terms of this work, we seek a model (plan) for the development of these resources according to criteria of sustainability, and will take into account socio-economic and ecosystem aspect. That by adaptation and implementation of integrated management of water resources (IMWR) in this unit of water resources, to meet the needs of decision support in water management, so as to guide and mobilize progressive human resources, information, financial and material, as well as various private and public sectors towards finding concrete and measurable results of water and ecosystems.
28 APPLICATION OF A PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION IN AN OPTIMAL POWER FLOW, D. Ben Attous, Y. Labbi
In this paper an efficient and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has been presented for solving the economic dispatch problem. The objective is to minimize the total generation fuel and keep the power outputs of generators; bus voltages and transformer tap setting in their secure limits. The conventional load flow and incorporation of the proposed method using PSO has been examined and tested for standard IEEE 30 bus system. The PSO method is demonstrated and compared with conventional OPF method (NR, Quasi Newton), and the intelligence heuristic algorithms such ac genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming. From simulation results it has been found that PSO method is highly competitive for its better general convergence performance.
29 CONTRIBUTION TO THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE HYDRAULIC JUMP EVOLVING IN AN U-SHAPED CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED, A. Ghomri and F. Riguet
This study aims to investigate the threshold-controlled hydraulic jump, moving in channel profile 'U' fully rough for a single roughness value ? = 7,14 mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the jump, showing the effect of bottom friction channel, are obtained as: y2= (-14,19y1 + 6, 42) Q*; y2= 1,13y10,65 exp [0,95y10,61.s/h1] . The method is as follows: we vary the flow volume by manipulating the valve and their measurements are read directly on the meter display ctronique. Supply channel is by means of a pump flow up 40 l / s. The flume was designed in the laboratory 'LARHYSS, University of Biskra.
30 FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED INDUCTION MOTOR SPEED CONTROL, Y. Bekakra, D. Ben Attous
This paper, presents a Direct Field-Oriented Control (DFOC) of doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) with a fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Our aim is to make the speed control robust to parameter variations. The variation of motor parameters during operation degrades the performance of the controllers. The use of the nonlinear fuzzy sliding mode method provides very good performance for motor operation and robustness of the control law despite the external/internal perturbations. The chattering effects is eliminated by a particular function "sat" that presents a serious problem to applications of variable structure systems. The fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed in order to improve the control performances and to reduce the chattering phenomenon. In this technique the saturation function is replaced by a fuzzy inference system to smooth the control action. The proposed scheme gives fast dynamic response with no overshoot and zero static error. To show the validity and the effectiveness of the control method, simulation results are performed for the speed control of a doubly fed induction motor. Simulation results showed that improvement made by our approach compared to conventional sliding mode control (SMC) with the presence of variations of the parameters of the motor, in particular the face of variation of moment of inertia and disturbances of load torque. The results show that the FSMC and SMC are robust against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to SMC in eliminating chattering phenomena and response time.
31 EVALUATION OF CEMENT THIXOTROPY FOR THE CEMENT OF OIL WELLS IN AREAS WITH LOSSES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND DAIRY OF HIGH FURNACES, T. Bouziani, Z. Makhloufi, A. Benmounah and M. Bdrina
Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements) pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped. Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement) with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type). Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF) on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally) can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation), which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.
32 SITUATION OF FLUORIDES RATE IN WATERS AND MAJOR CONSUMED FOOD IN WILAYA EL-OUED, A. Zobeidi and A. Messiatfa
The effects of mineral salts in the drinking water, beneficial or harmful depending on their concentration, are known for many years and thus the problem posed by fluoride ions in the waters of the region (Fluorosis Dental and skeletal). This study proposes, the estimated daily intake of fluoride from its water distribution and the main food consumed per capita in the region of El-Oued (dates, tea, couscous, lentils, carrots, potatoes, pumpkin ...), which has a significant content of fluoride in their composition. In addition to the arid climatic conditions, the air temperature is very high in summer, leads to a strong human perspiration. This preliminary result leads us to propose a standard fluoride-specific region of El-Oued. The results showed that the majority of water samples and analyzed the main foods of the region of El-Oued is charged fluoride ions and exceed the maximum dose recommended for adults from 0.05 to 0.07 mg / kg / day.
33 STUDY OF INTRA TESTICULAR REGULATIONS OF SPERMATOGENESIS DIFFERENTIATION BY EX-VIVO APPROACH, A. Adaika, B. Barenton and P. Durand
The aim of this work is to study the regulation of intratesticular during spermatogenesis ex vivo. To highlight the progress of spermatogenesis ex vivo, we developed two cell culture systems of seminiferous tubules to study the role of local factors that control the proliferation and differentiation of male germ cells. Our studies are based on two main techniques: RT-PCR and RNA extraction to examine changes in the expression of some growth factors in the culture of seminiferous tubules as the SCF, c- Kit and TGF. The results show, using RT-PCR, that expression of SCF, c-Kit and TGFb is probably not involved in the alterations of spermatogenesis ex vivo. Indeed, their expressions are not modified during three weeks of culture, and their expressions depend on the proportion of cells where they are expressed. Our results also show that clusterin is a marker of Sertoli cells in the culture of seminiferous tubules and its expression is not altered by the presence of germ cells.
34 APPLICATION OF FUZZY ENSEMBLES FOR OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTION OF POWER IN ELECTRICAL NETWORKS, A. Guediri, D. Ben attous
Optimal power flow calculation (OPF), used to optimize specific aspects of power system operations, usually employ standard mathematical programming techniques. These techniques are not suitable to handle many practical considerations encountered in power systems, including the uncertainty of the operational constraints [1]. They can be relaxed temporarily, if necessary, to obtain feasible solutions. For taking well into account this type of constraints, one proposes in this work the application of a method based on fuzzy sets to the OPF problem. The developed method has been tested on standard scale power systems (IEEE30bus).
35 STUDY OF IONIZATION RATES OF A HELIUM MAWELLIAN PLASMA, S. Dilmi, E. H. Guedda, A. M. Boumali
We have contributed to the study and calculation of ionization rate coefficients from the cross sections of neutral helium. Numerical methods and FAC code are used in this work. Our calculations are comparable to published results.
36 SIMULATION OF THERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS, A. M. Ferouani, H. I. Faraoun
Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the microstructural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.
37 QUALITY OF WATERS OF AQUIFER WEBS OF BISKRA REGION, F. Bouchemal, N. Bouchah, S. Achour
Controlling the quality of water distributed together with sound resource management is a factor of economic and social development. Also, the chemistry and knowledge of geological and hydrogeological aquifer, the object of this work, we identify the water quality examined through physical-chemical parameters. The study of these parameters more precisely the region of Biskra reveals a generally high mineralized whose origin is essentially the geological nature of enclosing land. However, the waters of the continental interlayer (Albian) are the chemical profile weakest; however, its high temperature makes it difficult to use both to supply drinking water as well as for irrigation. After synthesis of the results for different sheets (groundwater, Miopliocene, Eocene, Albian), the limestone is most interesting at least for drinking water, part of its rate of mineralization (medium), the acceptable temperature (24C) and its relatively low salinity (1 to 3 g/l). However, these waters are not used directly for human consumption. They requires further treatment.
38 TOWARDS A MODEL OF CONTEXT-AWARE INFRASTRUCTURE IN MOBILE UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, M. Beggas
The aim of this paper is to propose the main components of a system that provide a model for context aware architecture in mobile ubiquitous computing as a layered architecture. The modeled system provide services should be adapted according to context for end user application, that can be executed in a mobile device as mobile web or mobile application.
39 NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF PERFORMANCES OF A SOLAR CELL BASED ON CdTe, A. M. Ferouani, M. R. Merad Boudia, K. Rahmoun
This article has as an aim the study and the simulation of the photovoltaic cells containing CdTe materials, contributing to the development of renewable energies, and able to feed from the houses, the shelters as well as photovoltaic stations etc. CdTe is a semiconductor having a structure of bands with an indirect gap of a value of 1,5 eV at ambient temperature what means that photon wavelength of approximately 1200 nm will be able to generate an electron-hole pair. One speaks about photogeneration. We will lay the stress, initially, on the essential design features of a photovoltaic module (the open-circuit tension, the short-circuit current, the fill factor, and the output of the cell), our results was simulated with the SCAPS computer code in one dimension which uses electrical characteristics DC and AC of the thin layers heterojunctions. The results obtained after optimization are: VCO = 0.632V, Jsc = 39.1 mA/cm2, FF=82.98 % and the output energy of conversion is 18.26%.Optimization is made according to the temperature and the wavelength.
40 GEOMETRY OF WAVES GUIDES FOR CONTAINMENT OF PROPAGATING RESONANT MODES, Z. Aboura, B. Bouhafs
We are study de mode fundamental de 1D in the two media (MIM and IMI) of a metallic structure (Ag) (silver) in which a small hole is perforated (as e dielectric medium). We take the conditions that resonant modes (PPSs) are confined or the surface .Via the complex permittivity of the metal and those of the dielectric medium .The effective index neff of the elaborated structure controlled remarkably the properties of the propagating modes. Of the structure playing he mode to guide SPP modes .Where the confinement follow the order in sub-wave length scale of the width hole in silver and limited by the attenuation length (skin depth).
41 TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIGS SOLAR CELL, A. M. Ferouani, M. R. Merad Boudia, A. Cheknane, B. Benyoucef
In this paper we are interested in studying the copperindiumgalliumselenium (CIGS) solar cells sandwiched between cadmium sulfide (CdS) and ZnO as buffer layers, and Molybdenum (Mo). Thus, we report our simulation results using the capacitance simulator (SCAPS) in terms of layer thickness, absorber layer band gap and operating temperature to find out the optimum choice. An efficiency of 20.61% (with Voc of 635.2mV, Jsc of 44.08 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.73) has been achieved with CdS used as buffer layer as the reference case. It is also found that the high efficiency CIGS cells with the low temperature were a very high efficiency conversion.
42 STUDY OF PERFORMANCES OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS BY ANALYSIS OF MAIN COMPONENTS, M. R. Merad Boudia, A. M. Faraoun, A. Cheknane, B. Benyoucef
The analysis of the data is currently, in the statisticians, the object of a true phenomenon of mode, characterized at the same time by the passion and the rejection. To determine the characteristics of a whole of data is obviously not an end in itself, but this lapse of memory is unfortunate because the type of data available always influences the direction of research. The factorial analysis in normalized principal components (PCA), is particularly adapted to the reduction of tables of measurements, where one generally works on a matrix of correlation between characters. In this article we will report our results of analysis of performances of organic solar cells by using what one call the datamining materials. All information was presented in the tables envisaged by an ACP method of the studied semiconductors. Factorial analyzes substitutes for primitive measurements of new variables or factors (which are linear combinations of the primitive variables) with the help of which it is thus possible to optimize the visualization of the data in a restricted number of figures. Large at the modo we present, the results related to the development of new approaches of Datamining, Analysis in principal components (ACP), of the data-processing techniques which were applied to organic semiconductors and combined with metals to predict new materials or best performing coatings.
43 EFFECT OF ROUGHNESS TO HYDRAULIC PROJECTION IN AN U-SHAPED CHANNEL, WITH ROUGH BED, A. Ghomri, M. Debabeche, F. Riguet
This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile U bottomed rough for a single roughness. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained.
44 ANALYSIS OF INDUCTION MOTOR WITH BROKEN BARS AND CONSTANT SPEED USING CIRCUIT-FIELD COUPLED METHOD, N. Halem, S. E. Zouzou, K. Srairi
The paper presents the use of the two-dimensional finite element method for modeling the three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor by using circuit coupled method. In order to analyze the machine performances, the voltage source is considered. The Ansys magnetic analysis software is used for calculating the magnetic field of an induction motor having a cage fault. The experimental results prove that the proposed approach constitutes a useful tool for the study and diagnostics of induction motors.
45 THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF Nd3 + ON DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF Pb[Zr0.45Ti0.45(Zn1/3, Sb2/3)0.1]O3 SYSTEM, N. Abdessalem, A. Boutarfaia, M. Abba, Z. Necira
This work aims at, to study the influence of Nd3+ on the dielectric properties of a ceramics material of general formula: Pb[Zr0.45 Ti0.45 (Zn1/3, Sb2/3) 0.1]O3 and of structure perovskite. The selected samples were prepared by the method of synthesis with solid way. The study of the dielectric properties of the system showed that the values of the permittivity, the resistivity, increase with the addition of Nd+3 1%.
46 ANALYSIS OF A DATA BASE OF CHALCOPYRITE SEMICONDUCTORS IN 2 AND 3 DIMENSIONS, A. M. Ferouani, M. R. Merad Boudia, H. Hachemi
The analysis of the data is currently, in the statisticians, the object of a true phenomenon of mode, characterized at the same time by the passion and the rejection. To determine the characteristics of a whole of data is obviously not an end in itself, but this lapse of memory is unfortunate because the type of data available always influences the direction of research. The factorial analysis in normalized principal components (PCA), is particularly adapted to the reduction of tables of measurements, where one generally works on a matrix of correlation between characters. In this article we will report our results of analysis into 2 and 3 dimensions of the molecular weight and energy of plasmon of semiconductor chalcopyrites by using what one call the datamining materials. All information was presented in the tables envisaged by an ACP method of the semiconductors etudies. L' analyzes factorial substitutes for primitive measurements of new variables or factors (which are linear combinations of the primitive variables) with the help of which it is thus possible to optimize the visualization of the data in a restricted number of figures. Large at the modo we present, the results related to the development of new approaches of Datamining, Analysis in principal components (ACP), of the data-processing techniques which were applied to semiconductors and combined with metals to predict new materials or ultra stable coatings.
47 ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE SHELLS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, B. Attaf
An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section) when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies.
48 SQUARE WAVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF LEAD IN COMMERCIAL KOHL USING A GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE, M. A. Saha, M. Alia, A. Rebiai, T. Lanez
A simple sensitive square wave voltammetric method for the determination of lead contamination of several kohl samples purchased from Algeria retail stores was developed using glassy carbon electrode. The peak current response of 5 standards aqueous solution of lead in NaNO3 as supporting electrolyte was observed showing a linear calibration curve in the concentration range of 4.10-3 2.5.10-4 mol/l of lead. Over this concentration range, the equation obtained from the linear calibration graph for lead is Y = 0.00068 + 0.0093x with a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.987. Following this step, the potential of an aqueous solution of 12 kohl samples containing 2 M nitric acid solution as supporting electrolyte is then swept in the same range of potential (-400 to -700 mV). The amount of lead is then deduced using the linear calibration graph for lead. The results showed up to 52.14% of lead present in kohl, this concentration was over the safe limits of lead set by the world health organization standards. However; only five commercial samples of kohl tested contained less than 0.001% lead. Complete recovery of lead from the kohl was obtained by simple nitric acid digestion.
49 REINVESTIGATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL CONTENT OF THAPSIA GARGANICA GROWN IN THE EAST OF ALGERIA, S. Ladjel, A. Zellagui, N. Gherraf
Thapsia garganica is a very famous medicinal plant known especially for its therapeutic effects such as diuretic, emetic and purgative. A resin is extracted with alcohol from the bark of the root. The plant has been considered specific in treating pain, though caution is advised since it is poisonous to some mammals. The plant is also strongly rubefacient, producing blisters and intense itching. In the present study, we have undertaken a Reinvestigation of essential oil content of this widely used plant because of its important bioactive effect to heal many ailments.
50 CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMULATION SOFTWARE PERFORMANCE AND SHARING RATIO IN LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION, A. Hadj Seyd, T. Lanez
The present work is to develop software to predict the value yield and the distribution coefficient in the process of liquid-liquid extraction of components of a mixture, from mathematical models expressing these entities, based on equations equilibrium between liquid-liquid phases, and predict the conditions under which the extraction operation is favorable, unfavorable or impossible to realize, by studying the variation of the entities cited, based on the parameters influencing the extraction, which are: initial concentrations, rate of solvent and pH, in the case of a simple extraction (extraction of neutral products) or when it is reactive (extraction of complex acids or bases) for one or more components. The programming language used is "Delphi" which is a very powerful oriented object programming under Windows.
51 PREDICTION OF OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF SELECTED FERROCENE DERIVATIVES USING REKKER METHOD, R. Ahmedi, T. Lanez
In this work we present a theoretical approach for the determination of octanol/water partition coefficient of selected ferrocenes bearing different substituents, the calculation is based on the adaptation of the Rekker method. Our prediction of obtained theoretical partition coefficients values of logP for all studied substituted ferrocene was confirmed by comparison with known experimental values obtained mainly from literature. The results obtained show that calculated partition coefficients are in good agreement with experimental values. For estimation of the octanol/water partition coefficients of the selected compounds, the average absolute error of log P is 0.13, and The correlation coefficient is R2 = 0.966.
52 THE SYNTHESIS OF (5-HYDROXY-5-(1-METHOXYPROPAN-2-YL)-4-METHYLFURAN-2(5H)-ONE, 5-(1-METHOXYPROPAN-2-YL)-4-METHYLFURAN-2(5H)-ONE) AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, N. Gherraf, N. Tamma
Butenolides are a class of lactones with a four carbon heterocyclic ring structure. They are sometimes considered as oxidized derivatives of furan. The simplest butenolide is 2-furanone, which is a common component of larger natural products and is sometimes referred to as simply "butenolide". A common biochemically important butenolide is ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The butenolide and their analogues represent a wide range of the natural compounds of medical and biological importance. In the last decades, a great number of compounds of various structures, in general from Alkylidene butenolide were isolated and showed biological activities. In this work we have studied the reactivity of some alkylidene butenolide and carried out their antibacterial activity.
53 ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF N'-FERROCENYLMETHYL-N'-PHENYLBENZOHYDRAZIDE AT GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE IN DIFFERENT MEDIUM, A. Khelef, N. S. Neghmouche, T. Lanez
The oxidative electrochemistry of N'-Ferrocenylmethyl-N'-Phenylbenzohydrazide FcX was studied in acetonitrile with tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate as the supporting electrolyte and aqueous ethanol using the electrochemical technique. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the FcX/FcX+ redox couple is reversible in this electrolytes. The effects of changing the scan rate on the electrochemical behavior of ferrocene have been examined. A comparison of the electrochemical behavior of ferrocene and N'-Ferrocenylmethyl-N'-Phenylbenzohydrazid have been examined.
54 EVALUATION OF THE INHIBITORY EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE FERROCENE DERIVATIVES FOR CORROSION OF STEEL XC70 BY SPECTROSCOPY OF ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE, O. Rahim Rahim, A. Ben Chenna, T. Zaiz, K. Chaouch, T. Lanez
In this work, we studied the efficacy of corrosion inhibition of carbon steel X70 in HCl 1M solution using ferrocenyl compounds prepared in VPRS laboratory, these compounds are: N-(ferrocenyl methyl)-2-nitro aniline(Fc12), N-(ferrocenyl methyl)-3-nitro aniline(Fc13) and N-(ferrocenyl methyl)-4-nitro aniline(Fc14). The inhibitory potency of these compounds was determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The overall results show that these compounds have varying percentages of inhibition. The adsorption of these compounds on the surface of the metal is a chemical adsorption. In HCl 1M, the compound Fc12 had the best ability of inhibition at a concentration of 70ppm (R = 91.24%).
55 NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATIONmplification, B. Tioua, M. T. Soltani, M. Hamzaoui, M. Baazouzi
Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. in this article will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.
56 MODELLING OF EXTRINSIC FIBER OPTIC SAGNAC ULTRASOUND INTERFEROMETER USED FOR DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENTS, S. Benhamida, F. Rehouma
Ultrasonic waves are used extensively in nondestructive testing both for characterization of material properties, in this paper, we describe a fiber optic sensor suitable for detection of ultrasonic waves. This sensor is based on an extrinsic fiber optic sagnac interferometer. The proposed sensor model can act as a conventional in-phase detector or as a narrowband detector. In this study we use methods interference of ultrasonic waves between the source of ultrasonic waves and the object under investigation is exploited. The main advantages of the proposed sensor are the ability to detect ultrasonic waves on the surface; this sensor possesses higher sensitivity and accuracy than the pulse method. The cavity resonator was very successfully used for measurement of small ultrasound velocity changes. The ultrasonic interferometric technique based on phase-locked loop is the most suitable for measurements of small displacements. This method ensures the highest sensitivity and accuracy.
57 DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTENSITY LIGHT ATTENUATOR BASED ON VITREOUS REFLECTIONS, K. Ferria, N. Belkhir
The light intensity control of a luminous source is a very important operation in many optical applications. Several types of light attenuator exploiting different optical phenomena like diffraction, absorption, and reflection exist and they differ principally in the maximum attenuation rate, the control range, the sensitivity and the spectral band. In the presented work, we have developed and designed a light attenuator based on the progressive decrease of the transmitted light intensity, when it undergoes multiple vitreous reflections across eight plates glasses arranged in a roof shape. Several tests were carried out using a laser light as a source. We have shown that the attenuation rate can be controlled by the choice of the incidence angle on the glasses slides, in addition we have confirmed, for the case of perpendicular polarization of the laser light, that the attenuation obeys to a linear function. The obtained results are very close to those predicted theoretically.
58 SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF MF2 CRYSTALS (M=Cd, Sr, Ba) DOPED WITH RARE EARTH IONS, M. Diaf, S. Khiari, K. Labbaci, L. Guerbous, J. P. Jouart
In the present work, we are interested by studying the spectroscopic properties for optical applications, mainly laser amplification, of MF2 crystals, where M is an alkaline earth (Ba, Sr) or Cadmium (Cd) doped with rare earth ions (Tb3+, Er3+, Ho3+). So far, we present the absorption and emission properties and also the fluorescence dynamics at room temperature of visible and near infrared transitions of the Er3+ ion doping these matrices. We also use the formalism of Judd-Ofelt by use of absorption spectra recorded at room temperature in order to identify the spectroscopic properties inherent in all radiative transitions which can occur.
59 SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF MF2 CRYSTALS (M=Cd, Sr, Ba) DOPED WITH RARE EARTH IONS, M. Diaf, S. Khiari, K. Labbaci, L. Guerbous, J. P. Jouart
In the present work, we are interested by studying the spectroscopic properties for optical applications, mainly laser amplification, of MF2 crystals, where M is an alkaline earth (Ba, Sr) or Cadmium (Cd) doped with rare earth ions (Tb3+, Er3+, Ho3+). So far, we present the absorption and emission properties and also the fluorescence dynamics at room temperature of visible and near infrared transitions of the Er3+ ion doping these matrices. We also use the formalism of Judd-Ofelt by use of absorption spectra recorded at room temperature in order to identify the spectroscopic properties inherent in all radiative transitions which can occur.
60 ANALYSIS OF INDEXED-GUIDED HIGHLY BIREFRINGENT PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FIBER EMPLOYING DIFFERENT CLADDING GEOMETRIE, A. M. Jouri, L. M. Simohamed, A. Boudrioua, O. Ziane, B. Hassini, A. Dadi
In this paper, a comparative study of three geometries of highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers (HB PCF) is presented. The proposed geometries are: V type PCF, Pseudo-Panda PCF and selectively liquid-filled PCF. Based on the famous Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method with the perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary condition, the simulations are carried out in the aim to find a tradeoff between the chromatic dispersion, the birefringence and the confinement loss.
61 FREQUENCY DIFFERENCE IN A LASER He-Ne A 632.8 nm, A. Aissani, M. Alliche, M. Chaalal, O. Ziane
The aim of this work is to show that the emitted signals of a double-output laser cavity exhibit distinctive features, manifesting themselves through typical dissymmetry in the corresponding spectral line shapes. Usually, such a dissymmetry in an inhomogeneously broadened gas laser appears with a clear but unpredictable shift of the maximum intensity level either towards the high or towards the low frequency sides with respect to line centre. In the case of a double-output laser, the spectral profiles show opposite shifts. This means that when the maximum intensity of one output moves towards the high frequency side of the profile, the maximum intensity of the other moves towards the low frequency side. This gives rise to a frequency shift, with respect to the Lamb-dip for a classical laser On the theoretical side, we apply the standard disturbed Gaussian beam model to give a good quantification of the frequency shifts obtained at both sides of the system.
62 THE BRILLOUIN INSTABILITY IN FIBER LASERS DOPED BY POWER, D. M. Bouras, A. Kellou, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez
With the emergence of rare-earth doped fibers, and especially double-clad fibers, there is a renewed interest in Brillouin effect. First of all, the amplification of a continuous signal in a rare-earth doped fiber amplifier can generate high enough intensities to excite Brillouin effect and then to create a backscattered stokes wave. Such back-reflection is detrimental for amplifier applications and consequently it has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Recently, the low frequency self-pulsing instability resulting from Brillouin backscattering has been theoretically modelled [1]. Our main objective is to present a general model allowing to explain the origin of the dynamic instability arising in a fiber lasers as a consequence of Brillouin effect. The effect of Brillouin back scattering is theoretically analysed by two-coupled modes laser model. We consider the Fabry-Perot fiber laser cavity. The rich and complex dynamic behaviours are observed. In particular the quasi periodic dynamic is identified and studied.
63 PLASMA-OXYGEN INTERACTION DURING THIN FILMS DEPOSITION BY LASER ABLATION: DETERMINATION OF THE INTERACTION PRESSURE THRESHOLD AND EFFECT ON THE THIN FILMS PROPERTIESE, S. Lafane, T. Kerdja, S. Abdelli-Messaci, Y. Khereddine, M. Kechouane
In this contribution we study the effect of the oxygen pressure on the plasma dynamics during the ablation of oxides materials into an oxygen gas. The study was done using fast imaging and ion probe techniques. Both techniques revealed that a threshold oxygen pressure is needed to initiate the plume oxygen interaction. This threshold oxygen pressure depends on the ablated material. A clear effect of this threshold pressure on the structural and phase composition of the deposited thin films is shown.
64 CALCULATION OF IONIZATION RATE COEFFICIENTS FOR HELIUM-LIKE IRON, S. Dilmi, E. H. Guedda
The atomic data of the various atomic processes are essential for the radiative collisional models describing plasmas. In this work we present our computation results of the ionization rate coefficients of iron helium like. These ions can exist in all types of plasmas among them plasmas laser. We use a simple numerical method to generate the ionization rates starting from the cross sections. These cross sections are obtained by code FAC (Flexible Atomic Code). Our computation results will be compared with those published.
65 APPLICATION OF JUDD-OFELT THEORY ON ERBIUM DOPED CHLOFLUOROPHOEPHATE GLASSES SALUTATIONS, A. Babai, K. E. Aiadi, O. Bentouila, F. Rehoma
A series of erbium doped glasses chlorofluorophosphates were prepared and characterized. The absorption spectra were analyzed to determine the Judd-Ofelt parameters. The optical performance of these doped glasses suggesting the relevance of these glasses for optical fiber/ wave guide lasers and optical amplifiers.
66 STUDY OF THE PROPAGATION OF A SHORT PULSE IN LASER CAVITY WITH NUMERICAL SIMULATION SOFTWARE, S. Terniche, A. Kellou, A. Kermaoui, R. Si Fodil, R. Beceker
The purpose of this representation is to show the potentialities (Computational Time, access to the dynamic and feasibility of systematic studies) of the numerical study of the nonlinear dynamics in laser cavity, assisted by software. We will give as an example, one type of cavity completely fibered composed of several elements and then studying the physical parameters of a pulse propagating into this cavity, determining its characteristics at the output. The results are interesting but we also projects to verify them experimentally by making assemblies similar to this type of cavities.
67 MODELING OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR DURING LASER WELDING OF METALS, S. Lemkeddem, F. Khelfaoui
The laser welding provides a very high energy density, this allows the use of welds narrow, deep and at high speeds. Because of its advantages over other joining processes, laser welding is a process of manufacturing the most important. In order to model the thermal behavior, we must study the different phenomena that may be involved in the operation. The temperature distribution in the workpiece can be determined from the heat equation which expresses the energy balance. This is a parabolic differential equation and for resolution we applied the finite difference method using the implicit scheme.
68 ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR ELECTRIC FIELD OF A SINGLE MODE LASER PULSE IN UNIFORM EXPANSION SYSTEM, S. Ayadi
The simplest model of the laser is that of a single mode system homogenously broadened. The dynamical behavior of this laser is described by three differential equations, called Haken-Lorenz equations[1], similar to the Lorenz model [1] already known to predict deterministic chaos. In previous recent work [5-7] we have proposed a simple harmonic expansion method to obtain a series of harmonics terms that yield analytical solutions to the laser equations. This method allows us to derive an analytical expression of the laser field amplitude when this last undergoes a periodic oscillations around zero mean value. We also obtain an analytical expression of the pulsing frequency.
69 EFFECT OF BIT RATE ON THE PULSE OF LASER DIODE, A. Ikhlef, M. Chikh-bled
The qualities required for Laser Diodes are their spatial and temporal coherence, and their performance in terms modulation. This paper presents the effect data rate of optical pulses delivered by diode laser using software COMSIS. Two types of modulation have been considered: direct modulation and external modulation.
70 STUDY OF POLYMORPHISM OF BOROVANADATE GLASS OF SODIUM BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY LOW FREQUENCIES, M. K. Rabia, M. Mayoufi, L. Grosvalet, B. Champagnon
Sodium borovanadate glasses have been elaborated by splat cooling technique. Raman measurements on the un-doped or on the vanadium non-polished samples reveal the presence of tincalconite crystal (Na2B4O7-5H2O) and ?-NaVO3 crystal on the superficial layers respectively. After polishing, Raman spectra characteristic of glasses are obtained with two main bands located at 466 cm-1 and 774 cm-1 in the un-doped glass and four bands at 239, 374, 774 and 934 cm-1 for the vanadium oxide doped glasses. Thermal treatment up to 523?C of the borovanadate glass containing 20% V2O5 leads to separation in two phases enriched in vanadium and in boron with a ?-NaVO3 surface crystallisation. No bulk crystallization occurs before melting. PACS: 81.05.kf; 78.30.-Ly; 78.30.-j; 65.50.-x
71 INVESTIGATION OF InGaN/Si DOUBLE JUNCTION TANDEM SOLAR CELLS, F. Bouzid, L. Hamlaoui
In this work, the solar power conversion efficiency of InGaN/Si double junction tandem solar cells was investigated under 1-sun AM1.5 illumination, using realistic material parameters. With this intention, the current-voltage curves are calculated for different front recombination velocities and the influence of the bottom cell thickness on efficiency has been studied. The results show that a front recombination velocity value of 1e3cm/s is most advantageous and the use of relatively thick bottom cell is necessary to obtain conversion efficiency greater than 27%, at 300?k cell temperature. This efficiency will decrease as the operating temperature increase.
72 STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF YCu DUCTILE INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND BY FIRST-PRINCIPAL CALCULATION, A. Sekkal, A. Benzair
We investigate the structural, elastic and electronic properties of cubic YCu intermetallic compound. Which crystallize in the CsCl- B2 type structure, the investigated using the first principle full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW) within density functional Theory (DFT). We used generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density theory (LDA), which is based on exchange correlation energy optimization, are used to determinate the total energies and the electronic band structures. The latter provide us with the ground states properties such as lattice parameter, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, elastic constants and the structural phase stability with respect to the B1, B3, and L10structures of this compound. Our results are in good agreement with numerous experimental and theoretical data where available.
73 EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E = 9,11mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM, A. Ghomri, F. Riguet, M. Debabeche
This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E = 9,11mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained.
74 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF DATE PALM GROWN IN ALGERIA, S. E. Laouini, L. Segni, N. Gherraf, S. Mokni
In this study, we have determined the phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts from three varieties of leaves tree. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (215.24 to 156.46 mg GAE / g DW) and high antioxidant activity (324. 45 to 206.21 mg GAE / g DW), DPPH (IC50 = 2.98 to 4.83 ?g / ml) and ?-bleaching test (IC50 = 133. 93 to 194. 12 ?g / ml); also the three extracts reveal a considerable antimicrobial potency and antifungal considerable activity , the diameter of inhibition is 14.4 0.6 mm for Hamraya, 19.8 0.5 mm for Ghars and 17.4 0.8 mm for Deglet Nour (concentration 50 mg / ml) from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC.
75 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF APIS MELLIFERA BEE POLLEN FROM NORTHWEST ALGERIA, A. Rebiai, T. Lanez
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of bee pollen produced in the North western region of Algeria. The content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity using the molybdate ion reduction method were determined. The mean contents of phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were 30.46 ? 8.22 mg of GAE.g1 pollen and 8.92 ? 5.5 mg of RE.g1 pollen, respectively. High antioxidant activities were found for the molybdate ion reduction method, with values that ranged from 71.95 to 101.5 ?g of GAE.g1 pollen. The bee pollen of Boufarik showed high antioxidant activity probably due to the high content of phenolic compounds present in pollen.
76 STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF TWO SOUTH ALGERIAN EGGPLANT CULTIVARS, C. Boubekri, A. Rebiai, T. Lanez
In this study the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic EE and water WE extracts from different parts (calyx, peel, and pulp) of eggplant (Solanum melongena L) were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant capacity of different parts of eggplant was measured using ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity assays. The peel extracts of both dark purple and white samples showed the highest antioxidant capacity (66.78 and 75.62 mg/g) followed by pulp (16.54 and 30.56 mg/g), and calyx (14.82 and 21.27 mg/g). These results indicate that antioxidant capacity of eggplant varied by parts and solvents.
77 STUDY OF REACTION SEQUENCES FOR FORMATION OF SOLID SOLUTION: 0,48 PbZrO3-0,47 PbTiO3-0,05 Pb (Cr1/5, Zn1/5, Sb 3/5) O3, N. Abdessalem, Z. Necira, M. Abba, A. Boutarfaia
To study the reaction sequences of formation of solid solution zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) in this work, we took into account the effect of adding oxide dopants on the progress of the reaction, so we added oxides ZnO, Cr2O3, Sb2O3 to our material composition in small quantities so that the solid solution must verify the conditions of the perovskite structure. The results of the X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis allowed us to suggest a reaction mechanism coincide with some authors and in contradiction with others. It is important to note that the substitution of a low concentration of ions forming the perovskite structure PZT (Pb2+, Zr4+ et Ti4+) by other ions (Zn2+, Cr3+ et Sb+5 in our study) alters the reaction sequences training of the solid solution PZT and especially the formation of intermediate phase.
78 CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL XC70 IN H2SO4 SOLUTION BY FERROCENE DERIVATIVE 3-(FERROCENYLMETHYLAMINE)BENZONITRILE, T. Zaiz, T. Lanez
In this work, we studied the efficiency of corrosion inhibition of carbon steel XC70 in H2SO4 0.5 M solution using ferrocenyl compound prepared in our laboratory, this compound is: 3- (ferrocenylmethylamine)benzonitrile (FC). The inhibitory potential of this compound was determined by electrochemical techniques based on Tafel segments. The results show that the studied compound has an efficiency of inhibition which depends on its concentration the adsorption of these compounds on the surface of the metal is a chemical adsorption. The compound FC had the best ability of inhibition at a concentration of 50 ppm (IE = 84.37%).
79 METHOD OF PARTICLE CHARACTERISATION; MORPHOLOGY BY IMAGE ANALYSIS, K. Belaroui, M. N. Pons
The morphology involved in the area of particles analysis, particularly in particle size analysis. Only the sphere can be defined by a single size parameter, its diameter. As soon as one deviates from this form, it is necessary to use several sizes (length, width, thickness,...) and uses a shape factor. The aim of our work is to establish a morphological characterization of particles. The particle size analysis determines the size distribution of a population of particles using a laser granulometer device. The evolution of particle size distributions is complemented by a study on the particle shape. Thus, morphological analysis consists to acquire images of the particles by using a scanning electron microscopy which will be then processed using an algorithm. The treatment is a set of operations that are thresholding, erosion, expansion and reconstruction of the image. Data processing is performed based on a set of dimensional parameters.
80 RHEOLOGY AND SCALING BEHAVIOR OF SWELLING CLAY DISPERSIONS, S. Chaoui, A. Mehamha, N. H. Belkham, D. Benachour
The microstructure and scaling of rheological properties of colloidal gels of bentonite investigated as a function of volume fraction and strength of interparticle interaction over a range of volume fractions, elastic modulus is well described with a scaling law functions of volume fractions, while the role of interparticle attractions can be accounted for by expressing these rheological properties as (f/fg-1)n, where fg captures the strength of particle interaction and n the microstructure. The scaling variable (fp/fpc-1), suggested in percolation theory to describe rheological behavior near percolation transition, acts to collapse G data suggesting that along lines of constant (f/fg-1) these gels are rheologically identical.
81 CHARACTERIZATIONS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL OF THE BIOMETHANATION PILOT APPLIED ON THE ANIMAL DROPPINGS, Y. MSadak, R. I. Zoghlami, S. Barket
This study interested in monitoring energy (quantitative and qualitative) and environmental performances at various pilot digesters of animal biomass. Main results are: - The combined effect of the diet and the substrate on quantitative experimental productivity of gas is in favor of poultry digesters continuously fed. - The biogas produced has better potential especially in industry. - The environmental evaluation virtually shows a certain interest on the depollution for industrial digester.
82 MONITORING AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CO-COMPOSTING PROCESS IN A FOREST NURSERY MODERN (TUNISIA), Y. MSadak, I. Saad, D. Saidi
The objective of this work was to study thermogenesis during the process of Co-composting to assess the possibilities of thermal destruction of the germination capacity of weeds seeds. A regular monitoring of temperature has been achieved, using a probe thermometer, at nine locations of heap crafted. The outlines of temperature profiles allowed the identification of the four phases of the process, from a temperature monitoring, which is taken twice a day. The mid-monthly monitoring of temperature showed no significant differences for the first three dates of monitoring, whatever the depth and whatever time study. The bi-monthly monitoring showed insignificant differences for the first three dates, whatever the depth of the heap and whatever the studied time. The last three dates showed insignificant differences for the time of recording, whereas for the depth, the results obtained were significant.
83 STUDY OF FLUORIDE GLASSES DEVITRIFICATION-BASED MAGNESIUM, C. Benhamideche, A. Boutarfaia, M. Poulain
The kinetics of devitrification of fluoride glasses stabilized by magnesium fluoride when heated for some time between the glass transition and melting temperatures. The crystallization kinetics of AlF3-YF3-PbF2-CdF2-MgF2 glass prepared by melting the halide powders were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The heating rate varied between 2 and 10 Kmim-1. Aramis exponent (n) obtained by a non-isothermal method was 1.5 and 2.5 for a AlF3-YF3-PbF2-CdF2-xMgF2 (x= 0, 5, 10) and n > 2.5 for a AlF3-YF3-PbF2-CdF2-15MgF2. According to the classical interpretation of n, these magnitudes correspond to diffusion controlled growth of crystals. The activation energies for crystallization, (E), varied from 195-326 KJ/mol. These results confirm the improved stability of these glasses, which could be used as base glasses for low phonon energy fluoride glass fibers.
84 EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E=5,63mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM, A. Ghomri, F. Riguet, M. Debabeche
This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E=5,63mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained.
85 BEHAVIOR OF ACACIA PLANTS INSTALLED ON SUBSTRATES BASED ON COMPOST SYLVICOLE WITH OR WITHOUT METHACOMPOST OF POULTRY IN A MODERN NURSERY IN TUNISIA, Y. MSadak, A. Ben MBarek, L. Tayachi
The present study aims principally the evaluation of germination and of plant growth of Acacia cyanophylla installed, on the one hand, on the gross forestry compost (CSB) in its purest form, produced in a forest nursery in Tunisia, on the other hand, on the CSB mixed with poultry methacompost (MCA) refined (solid residue from the industrial digester) in its two states, namely the output of the decanter (MCAA) and the outlet of the digester (MCAA') according to the same ratio, of 20 %. Both tested mixtures were the best, due to the direct assessment of physico-chemical properties of various mixtures made. The incorporation of the MCA with the CSB has a notable positive effect on germination, and consequently on the growth of Acacia seedlings in terms of height and diameter. The CSB presented an intermediary vegetative behavior.
86 DETECTION OF STATIC ECCENTRICITY FAULT IN SATURATED INDUCTION MOTORS BY AIR-GAP MAGNETIC FLUX SIGNATURE ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD, N. Halem, S. E. Zouzou, K. Srairi, S. Guedidi, F. A. Abood
Unfortunately, motor current signature analysis (MCSA) cannot detect the small degrees of the purely static eccentricity (SE) defects, while the air-gap magnetic flux signature analysis (FSA) is applied successfully. The simulation results are obtained by using time stepping finite elements (TSFE) method In order to show the impact of magnetic saturation upon the diagnosis of SE fault, the analysis is carried out for saturated induction motors. The index signatures of SE fault around fundamental and PSHs are detected successfully for saturated motor.
87 ECODESIGN CRITERIA FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS, B. Attaf
According to sustainable development principles, the design of a composite product must be in compliance with the new regulations and standards in terms of Health protection (H) and Environmental preservation (E) besides Quality assurance (Q). With this argument as an objective, our contribution aims to innovate and develop new methodologies providing sustainable design of new generation of composite products through the consideration of the three balanced key aspects: H, E and Q. To achieve these requirements, we have defined and developed new criteria in the form of eco-coefficients, which can later on be implemented into mechanical characterization tests, in advanced composite formulations and associated constitutive equations. They can also be integrated into future finite-element computer programs to assess and improve the performance of the H-E-Q interrelated function.
88 ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF In1-xGaxAsySb1-y THERMOPHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS UNDER LOW RADIATOR TEMPERATURES, F. Bouzid, N. Maamri
In this paper, we investigated the heat to electricity conversion efficiency of In1-xGaxAsySb1-y radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) converter with x = 0.8 and y = 0.18, taking account of the photons with energy below the cells bandgap using a comprehensive analytical process. This was done with a computer program designed for this reason, which allowed the computation of the cell performance under a variety of specified incident radiation spectra as well as a variety of material parameters.
89 THERMODYNAMIC MODELING OF A PISTONS ENGINE: CALCULATION OF THE NOX EMISSIONS, N. Mahfoudi, M. Kadja
The internal combustion engines are under development remarkable these last decades, but they represent, currently, a very important source of polluting gas emissions. The nitrogen oxides (NOx) form part of these polluting emissions, and have a harmful effect on human health, as well as the environment. Considering the complexity of the process of formation of the latter, many numerical simulations were developed, to work out a model of calculation close to the reality, which is so complex to describe by the theory. Our work, allows the calculation of the nitrogen oxide rate (NO) in exhaust gases, starting from the developed equations of the chemical kinetics, while being based on the thermal mechanism of Zeldovich. To carry out this calculation, a simulation of the thermodynamic cycle was necessary. A model of combustion at two zones (burned and unburned) was adopted. Simulation is carried out for a spark-ignition-engine (gasoline), and the results obtained, were compared with other simulations as well as with results of measurement from the literature.
90 EXTRACTION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO SPECIES ORIGANUM PLANT CONTAINING PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID COMPOUDS, N. Benchikha, M. Menaceur, Z. Barhi
The antioxidant of ethanolic extract of two specioes of Origanum and essential oil of plant Origanum vulgare were investigated and also the total phenolic and flavonoid content measured. The radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. According to the results the leaves extracts have very important values for polyphenols (266.86 mg GAE / g and 194.78 mg GAE / g) and high antioxidant activity; DPPH (IC50 = 1.37 g / l and IC50 = 1.53mg / l ) for species majoran, and vulgare respectively; also the DPPH of essential oil of Origanum vulgare was IC50 = 15.360 g / l . This data suggest of these extracts as a natural source of phenolic compounds and antioxidant.
91 FLUORIDE REDUCTION FROM WATER BY PRECIPITATION WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND LIME, D. Atia, A. Hoggui
El Oued is known for some diseases caused by fluoride concentration in drinkable water. To reduce it, we have chosen a sample with the highest content of fluoride among many sources in order to precipitate it with Ca(OH)2 and CaCl2. In order to get better reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature) to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH)2, at room temperature and normal acidity.
92 FACTORS LIVESTOCK AND MILKING ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA COASTAL SEMI-ARID, Y. MSadak, L. Mighri, R Haj Mbarek, K. Kraiem
This study was carried out in the Sahel of Tunisia (Monastir region) on a sample covering 40 cattle herds type above ground. We deduced the mastitis risk factors during the survey during visits for breeding and milking as well as from morphological and hygienic cows assessments. The datas descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC), the significant effect factors (P
93 VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA, Y. MSadak, R. Jelalai, A. Ali
The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion) in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasnt moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.
94 A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC ALKANES) USING MOLECULAR DESCRIPTORS, B. Souyei, M. Korichi
A quantitative structureproperty relationship (QSPR) study is carried out to develop correlations that relate the molecular structures of organic compounds (Aliphatic Alkanes) to their normal boiling point (NBP) and two correlations were proposed for constitutionals and connectivity indices Models. The correlations are simple in application with good accuracy, which provide an easy, direct and relatively accurate way to calculate NBP. Such calculation gives us a model that gives results in remarkable correlations with the descriptors of blokes constitutionals (CON), and connectivity indices (CI) (R2 = 0.950, ? = 0.766) (R2 = 0.969, ? = 0.782) respectively.
95 SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIABETES RELATED ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF PHOENYX DACTYLIFERA, S. E. Laouini, S. Ladjel, N. Gherraf, M. R. Ouahrani, S. Mokni
In this study we investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera L. namely: Ghars, Deglet Nour and Hamraya. The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaf extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, radical scavenging activity "DPPH" and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, the antidiabetic effect was evaluated by inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. The total phenolic content measured by Folin-ciocalteu method. The raw leaf extracts of the selected varieties were found to contain a high content of total phenolic content (342.45 mg GAE/ gDW for GE) and therefore exhibited a higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of radicals scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion (IC50=7.44 ?g/mL and 39.11 ?g/mL respectively).
96 THE INFLUENCE OF beta-PBO2 ON PZT PHASE FORMATION, H. Allal, C. Benhamideche, S. E. Bouaoud, M. Poulain
The reactional mechanism of the formation of solid solution lead-zircono-titanate PZT has been studied using beta-PbO2, TiO2 and ZrO2 as starting materials. PZT ceramics were prepared by solid state reaction between oxides at different temperatures. After calcination samples are characterized by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning, Infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Using lead dioxide (beta-PbO2) allows PZT powder to be sintered at a temperature as low as 700?C.
97 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF 2-[(8-HYDROXYQUINOLINYL)-5-AMINOMETHYL]-3-(4-CHROLOPHENYL)-6-BROMO-3(H)-QUINAZOLIN-4-ONE LIGAND AND ITS TRANSITION METAL CHELATES, R T Vashi, S. B. Patel
Synthesis and characterization of 2-[(8-hydroxyquinolinyl)-5-aminomethyl]-3-(4-bromophenyl)-6-Bromo-3(H)-quinazolin-4-one ligand called HAMQ (HL10) was studied. To prepare this ligand anthranilic acid was converted into 5-bromoN-Chloroacetyl anthranilic acid then into 2-[(8-hydroxyquinolinyl) -5-aminomethyl] -3-(4-chrolophenyl) -6-bromo- 3(H)-quinazolin-4-one. This compound was finally condensed with 5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline. New transition metal complexes of Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ of this ligand HAMQ were prepared and characterized by reflectance, 1H-NMR as well as IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis molar conductance and magnetic measurements. The stoichiometry of the complexes has been found to be 1: 2 (Metal: ligand). The data suggested an octahedral geometry around Co2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ complexes, a distorted octahedral geometry around Cu2+ and a tetrahedral geometry around Zn2+ have been proposed. The metal complexes were screened for the antifungal activity.
98 ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT(INDIA), P. Shroff, R. T. Vashi
The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI) for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009). In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Total Alkalinity (TA), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and metals like Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Manganese (Mn). The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.
99 ELABORATION AND DIELECTRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A DOPED FERROELECTRIC MATERIAL TYPE PZT, M. Abba, Z. Necira, A. Abdessalem, A. Meklid, H. Menasra, A. Boutarfaia
The main objective of this work is based on the synthesis and dielectric characterization of a new material in ceramic PZT with a perovskite structure ABO3. We are interested to study the Quaternary system (doping in site A and site B) of general formula: Pb0.96Ba0.02Ca0.02[(Zr0.52Ti0.48)0.94(Zn1/3Ta2/3)0.03(In1/3Sb2/3)0.03]O3 short PZT-PBC-ZTIS. The sample selected for this study was prepared by the method of synthesis with solid way. Heat treatment was applied to these compositions at different temperatures: 1100, 1150,1180 and 1200 ?C successively to optimize the sintering temperature optimal where the density of the sample is maximum (near theoretical density) and therefore the product has better physical quality. The study of dielectric properties of all samples showed a high permittivity dielectric ?r = 18018, low dielectric loss: tg? = 7.62%, for the composition sintered to 1180 ? C included in the phase morphotropique zone (FMP).
100 DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN, K. H. Janardhana, R. Deveswaran, S. Bharath, B. V. Basavaraj, V. Madhavan
Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8). A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.
101 ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENT IN ROD-DISCONTINUED PLANE AIR GAPS USING DISTRIBUTED CAPACITY PROBE, A. Khechekhouche, D. Benattous, A. Mekhaldi, A. Boubakeur
The present experimental carried out investigations aimed at elucidating the effect of earth discontinuity on the breakdown voltage of short rod-plane air gap (80 to 160 mm) under negative lightning impulses (-1.2/50s). We also carried out investigations on electric field measurement on the surface of a discontinuous plane of a rod-plane air gap arrangement. For this purpose, we used a probe with distributed capacity, under negative lightning applied impulse voltage. The probe is incorporated on the same level of plane surface. The interface locally reinforces the electric field. The electric field increases at the interface may lead to a discharge between the high voltage rode and the interface. In the vicinity of the interface, we observe a kind of discontinuity in the evolution of the electric field intensity. This one becomes greater than the value obtained in the case of gaps with homogeneous plane earth.
102 COMPARED PERFORMANCES OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DIGESTERS OF THE ANIMAL BIOMASS, Y. MSadak, A. Ben M'Barek
This study proposes to look further into experimentally of the effect of the variation of certain physicochemical parameters of anaerobic digestion on the quantitative gas productivity of four digesters of treating bovine dejections. Moreover, four digesters supplied with the avicolous droppings, in different concentrations of DM, were followed. The assessments of depollution (SM and BDO5) together with qualitative energy (gas composition and calorific value) were also appreciated. We can release particularly that: the quantity of bovine biogas produced is variable according to the parameters of digestion. It is maximum in the presence of high temperature and under mechanical agitation of the substrate introduced; the quantitative productivity is more interesting in the case of the digesters avicolous. It is more important with the increase of the concentration of solids; the digester with 8% DM presents attractive valuations of depollution and energy efficiency.
103 PRACTICAL COMMON WEIGHT MAXIMIN APPROACH FOR TECHNOLOGY SELECTION, A. Alinezhad, M. Amini
A practical common weight Maximin approach with an improved discriminating power for technology selection is introduced. The proposed Maximin approach enables the evaluation of the relative efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs) with respect to multiple outputs and a single exact input with common weights. Its robustness and discriminating power are illustrated via a previously reported robot evaluation problem by comparing the ranking obtained by the proposed Maximin approach framework with that obtained by the DEA classic model (CCR model) and Minimax method (Karsak & Ahiska,2005). Because the number of efficient DMUs is reduced so discriminating power of our approach is higher than previous approaches and because Spearmans rank correlation between the ranks obtained from our approach and Minimax approach is high therefore robustness of new approach is justified.
104 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HONEY COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT FLORA OF ALGERIA, A. Rebiai, T. Lanez
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical properties of five Algerian unifloral types of honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, color intensity ?????????? and total sugar content, were measured. The mean pH, moisture content, EC and water insoluble solids of Algerian honey were 4.41? 0.58, 15.3 ? 1.5%, 0.324? 0.116 mS/cm and 0.141? 0.065%, respectively. The mean color was 81 ? 72 mm Pfund. The majority of honey samples test results (moisture content, electric conductivity and acidity) levels were within the acceptable range of world honey standards.
105 CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD OF ESTIMATE OF THE TIME OF CONCENTRATION OF THE MAXIMUM FLOWS OF THE RAIN RISINGS, M. Ladjel
Among the characteristics that determine the maximum throughput flood genesis, concentration time has an important place. The maximum phase shift of a flood rain is subjected to different types of river regulation. This is caused by the friction forces in the river bed, by the gradual change of the wetted area by the slope and also by the flow exchanges. The flood speed is proportional to the water level in the river bed or the corres-ponding flow.
106 MAXIMUM RUNOFF OF THE FLOOD ON WADIS OF NORTHERN PART OF ALGERIA, M. Ladjel, E, Goptshenko, V. Ovcharuk
Wadis of Algeria are characterized by a very irregular hydrological regime. The question of estimating the maximum flow of wadis is relevant. We propose in this paper a method based on an interpretation of the transformation of surface runoff in streamflow. The technique of account the maximal runoff of flood for the rivers of northern part of Algeria based on the theory of channel isochrones is offered.The realization of this method is performed on the basis of hydrometeorological data standarts.
107 PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L, K. Arab, O. Bouchenak, K. Yahiaoui
This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g to powder of plant is for leaves 116.49 % and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ? 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules). The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.
108 EFFECT OF COPPER ON PASSIVITY AND CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF FE-XC-5CU ALLOY, M. Ferhat, A. Benchettara, S. E. Amara
The correlation between corrosion behavior rate of annealed Fe-xC-5Cu alloys and their microstructure and phase composition is presented. The metallurgical analyses, including, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive analysis (EDX), and induction hardening characterization are conducted to study the Fe-C-Cu alloys. Corrosion parameters in H2SO4 1N solution have been established by carrying out electrochemical studies such as potentiodynamic (Tafel polarization and linear polarization, LP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coupled effect copper/microstructure is discussed. Alloying Cu showed a beneficial effect on hypoeutectoid steel and harmful effect on hypereutectoid steel. The improved corrosion resistance is related to cementite morphology and by a copper dissolution/re-deposition process.
109 THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF SOLUTIONS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN SOME ORGANIC SOLVENTS AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES, S. Baluja, K. Bhesaniya
The solubility of Sildenafil citrate in some organic solvents; hexane, toluene,1-butanol and 1,2 dichloroethane has been determined using gravimetric method over different temperature range (298.15 K to 328.15 K) at one atmospheric pressure. The modified Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazczak ?h equations were used to correlate the experimental solubility data. Further, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated from these solubility data.
110 NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MODELING OF UNSTEADY FLOW AROUND AN AIRFOIL. (AERODYNAMIC FORM), M. Y. Habib, D. RACHED
During this work, we simulated an unsteady flow around an airfoil type NACA0012 using the Fluent software. The objective is to control the code on the one hand and on the other hand the simulation of unsteady flows. By simulating an unsteady flow Reynolds number (Re = 6.85 * 106) and Mach number (M = 0.3), we have the flowing with a grid (mesh) adequate numerical results and experimental data are in good agreement. To represent the results of the simulation we have validated by comparing the values of aerodynamic coefficients with those of experimental data.
111 VALUATION OF CONDITIONS OF MECHANIZED MILKING OF COWS AND OF THE MAMMARY HEALTH SITUATION IN THE EAST CENTRAL DE SOUSSE (TUNISIA), Y. MSadak, M. Makhlouf, H. Sboui
The aim of this study is to evaluate mainly the conditions the milking and the mammary health status of cows in the central East Sousse (Tunisian Sahel). The study was conducted on a sample of 20 small and means dairy cattle herds aboveground divided into two study areas. This study examined the general conditions of cattle, the practices of trafficking and the situation mammary health of cows, while completing the analysis by assessing quantitative losses caused in the product milk. The situation detected in the elevages requires an effective response against mastitis while trying to control the risk factors in small and medium farms herds aboveground.
112 STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES CARRIED OUT AT THE LABORATORY OF A PUBLIC HOSPITAL (CHR AL IDRISSI OF KENITRA), A. Aziane, M. Elyachioui, A. El Hessni
The present work attempts to make a study on the microbiological analyses of pathogens (bacteria or viruses) that are at the origin of the human disease, carried out in the laboratory of microbiological analyses of hospital regional CHR al IDRISSI of Kenitra for a period that extends from the year 2007 to 2009 in order to clarify the methodology of work and the problem of infections in developing countries. Our work is based on the monthly inventory of pathogens (E. Coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas, Syphilis, hepatitis viruses and HIV) in deferens samples (Urine, Pus, saddle, like and Serum) in patients in relation with total analyses carried out for 3 years. Then we follow their development during this period with the analysis of the results.
113 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING WEIBULL PARAMETERS FOR WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF MAROUA, D. Kaoga Kidmo, D. Raidandi, S. Yamigno Doka, N. Djongyang
In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM), the energy pattern factor method (EPF), the graphical method (GM), and the empirical method (EM) were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.
114 FABRICATION, MORPHOLOGICAL AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY ON POROUS SILICON AS MSM PHOTODETECTOR, H. A. Hadi
We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metalsemiconductormetal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as Schottky contact metal.The junction exhibits good rectification ratio of 105 at bias of 2V. A large photocurrent to dark-current contrast ratio higher than 55 orders of magnitude and low dark currents below 0.89 nA .High responsivity of 0.225A/W at 400 nm and 0.15 A/W at 400 and 700nm were observed at an operating bias of less than -2 V, corresponding quantum efficiency of 70% and 26% respectively. The lifetimes are evaluated using OCVD method and the carrier life time is 100 ?s. The results show that Sb on porous silicon (PS) structures will act as good candidates for making highly efficient photodiodes.
115 ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ETHANOL, 2- PROPANOL AND 1-BUTANOL ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH NICKEL OXIDE FILM, A. Benchettara, A. Benchettara
In this work, we present the modification of a glassy carbon electrode with nickel oxide film which is performed in two successive steps. In the first one, the electrochemical deposition of metallic nickel on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is achieved in 0.1M boric acid; in the second step, the metallic deposit is anodically oxidized in 0.1M NaOH. These two operations were carried out in a three electrode cell with a filiform platinum auxiliary electrode, a SCE as potential reference and a working microelectrode of modified glassy carbon with nickel oxides. This electrode is characterized by several electrochemical techniques, and is used for the catalytic determination of ethanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol in 0.1 M NaOH. The proposed chemical mechanism shows that NiO2 acts as a mediator.
116 EVALUATION OF THE LEAVE AND BUD DECOCTIONS PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL EFFECTS ON THE INDUCED-PHENOL RENAL TOXICITY IN WISTAR RATS, A. Berroukche, S. Amara, S. Halimi, F. Benyamina
Pinus halepensis M. (Pinaceae) has done object many indications in traditional medicine. Several studies have demonstrated a protective activity of essential oils extracted from various plant species against renal toxicity induced by chemicals in the animal model. The objective of this study is to assess the anti toxic effects of decocted leaves and buds of Pinus halepensis M. on Wistar rats initially exposed to phenol C6H5OH (180 mg / kg body weight). The results of laboratory analyzes of biochemical parameters revealed that decocted leaves and buds (250 mg / kg body weight) have shown a highly significant antitoxic activity (p < 0,001). The protective effect of decocted leaves and buds were respectively expressed by a decrease in serum concentrations of biochemical markers urea ( 0,32 & 0,28 g / L) and creatinine ( 121 & 13,8 g / l ) and electrolyte Calcium ( 89,8 & 109,5 g / l ) , Potassium ( 7 & 6,6 g / l ) and Sodium ( 130,5 & 129,6 g / l ) .
117 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND THROMBOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF URENA SINUATA (L.), S. Dibyajyoti, P. Swati
The present study was designed to investigate thrombolytic properties of chloroform extract of Urena sinuata along with phytochemical study for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The plant Urena sinuata was extracted by chloroform. The concentrated extracts were collected and allow to air dry for complete evaporation of chloroform. The whole process was repeated three times and finally, 23.649 gm blackish-green colored, concentrated stem extract was obtained (yield 16.30 % w/w). The significant thrombolytic activity was done by streptokinase and human blood was used as specimen. Phytochemical analyses were found to be positive for carbohydrates and gum, reducing sugar, alkaloid, steroid, glycoside and flavonoids. Chloroform extract of Urena sinuata showed significant (P < 0.001) clot lytic properties in different blood samples. The percent clot lytic activity was compared with water (positive control) and standard enzyme streptokinase (negative control). The mean % of clot lysis for water and streptokinase was found 4.70% and 85.77% respectively. On the other hand the mean percent clot lytic activity of chloroform leaf extract of Urena sinuata was found 47.89%, which is significant compare with the positive and negative control. The present research suggests that chloroform extract of Urena sinuata has significant thrombolytic activity.
118 STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ALUMINUM CONTENT AND C / S RATIO ON THE PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE MADE FROM SAND DUNE, Z. Damene, M. S. Goual, I. Saiti, Ahmida F
This research is a contribution to the development of local materials especially in the development of a cellular concrete with dunes sand. This is an experimental study whose objective is to see the influence of the C/S (dosage of cement compared to sand) and the dosage of aluminum on the physico- mechanical and thermal performance of lightweight concrete cellular type. The results showed that the cement compared to the sand has a remarkable effect on the reaction and that on expansion the mechanical behavior as well as the dosage of aluminum in the composition of cellular concrete has a certain threshold Aluminium beyond which provides no relief benefits. Based on these results, the cellular concrete made from sand dune can be classified as light structural concrete with insulation suitable for very hot and arid environment of our region power.
119 PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L. (PISTACIACEAE) IN BOUMERDES MOUNTAINOUS REGION (ALGERIA), L. Bendifallah, A. E. Benmahfoud, Y. Hameni, S. Mameche
Pistacia lentiscus L. (Pistaciaceae) is widespread in the Mediterranean basin. It is among the most important medicinal plants in Algeria that is known for its antifungal and antimicrobial properties. For this study, the leaves were collected from the mountainous region of Boumerdes, in northern Algeria. In such a propitious context, the aim of this study was to enhance Pistacia lentiscus as a medicinal herb. The phytochemical screening methods are used. For their antimicrobial activity, extracts of tannin and polyphenols were screened against three pathogenic bacterial strains and one pathogenic yeast strains using agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis results showed a remarkable combination of chemical components including a high content in tannins, in leucoanthocyanins, in glucosids, alcaloids, flavono?ds and in saponosids. The tannins and the polyphenols have strong antimicrobial activity against some species. The maximum zone of inhibition was noted for polyphenol and tannin extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (17mm, 9mm) and an antifungic activity against candida albicans (07mm, 19mm). These results indicate to some benefits of Pistacia lentiscus leaves which can use to treatment the microbial infection.
120 COVARIANCE CORRECTION FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER LEVEL USING DETERMINISTIC ENSEMBLE KALMAN FILTER, J. Behmanesh, M. M. Bateni
The most important quantity in groundwater resources management is groundwater level at various locations of the aquifer. Many attempts have been made to predict this quantity by modeling. The main problem in developing such a model is to determine model parameters, particularly hydrogeologic coefficients, in a precise way. In this research, Deterministic Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF) is described as a modern sequential method for data assimilation and a localization scheme within the framework of DEnKF is applied. Najafabad aquifer (in Iran) with area of 1150 km2, is modeled in the time window of Oct. 2000 to Sept. 2007, with time steps of one month, to obtain water table level data when its values of hydrogeologic coefficients calibrated and verified. DEnKF assimilated 45 observations of true run into the model with 2, 5, and 10 times of calibrated values of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield. This filter has been run both with and without use of localization. Results show that application of this new filter with inexact model parameters has greatly improved the results of the model. Major error reduction is obtained at the first few time steps. After that, due to appearance of false correlations in the covariance matrix, the error has an increasing trend. By localization, this upward trend is replaced by a falling one. For the case of inexact specific yield, to which the model is more sensitive, the increasing trend is attenuated. It is shown that easily-implemented localized DEnKF is favorably robust in groundwater flow modeling.
121 VALORIZATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY AND AGRONOMIC OF BIOMETHANISATION INDUSTRIAL OF THE AVICOLOUS BIOMASS, Y. MSadak, A. Ben M'barek
This work consists in studying the anaerobie fermentation of the avicolous droppings on the level a digester pilot industrial. It was interested towards substitution partial of Forestry Compost (FC), produces locally in one seedbed except ground, by the avicolous methacompost refined in its two states, namely at the exit of decanter (AMCA) and at the exit of digester (AMCA') according one rate of 20%. The synthesis of the principal results is: the best assessments of depollution are obtained on the level of the mud tank as well concerning SM and DBO5; the incorporation of the avicolous methacompost with FC has a remarkable positive effect on germination, and consequently, on the growth of the seedlings of Acacia cyanophylla, in terms of height and of diameter; the best results of growth in height and diameter correspond to the mixture 80% FC + 20% AMCA'.
122 CHARACTERIZATION QUALITATIVE OF SOEL FOR A VALORIZATION BEST OF THE BIOMASS PRODUCED, Y. Msadak, I. Saad
The main objective of this study was to qualitatively characterize biomass of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (or SOEL) to highlight the essential alternatives its valorization. At first, we studied the potential of composting biomass of this plant. The physico-chemical characterization of biomass silverleaf nightshade has detected a wealth in organic carbon, which highlighted the potential value of this plant in the Co-composting with other biodegradable waste. In a second step, we assessed the possibility to develop this plant in the area of treatment in textile effluents by biosorption of dyes on fibers from the biomass of this plant, especially after the discovery of high levels of cellulose in its different organs.
123 EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS SOEL, Y. MSadak, I. Saad
The object of this work was to study the effect of thermal treatments (in the oven and in the compost) on the seed germination SOEL. The laboratory evaluation on the treatment in the oven berries at two temperatures (50?C and 60?C) for three exposure time ( one day, two days and three days) gave a germination rate zero for 60?C for an exposure time of one day. The spatio-temporal thermal monitoring of forestry compost windrow which was introduced to deal with berries SOEL showed a substantially homogeneous distribution of the temperature rising to 60?C and even longer swath stretching and used for a time period of 5 consecutive days. The germination rate was zero for all fruit seeds treated before the first reversal fact, regardless of the depth and location of the windrow considered that the berries were introduced. Thus, composting can be a solution to prevent the spread of SOEL by seed.
124 STUDY OF PATHOLOGICAL CASES IN THE DISTRICT OF ZGUEGUE ELHEDJAJ IN LAGHOUAT, Z. Damene, M. S. Goual, T. Bourzgue, Y. Daikh
Laghouat is one of the prestigious Saharan cities of Algeria who inherits an architectural and urban heritage (habitat) of national importance. Zguegue El Hadjaj is one of the oldest quarters reflecting the historical and cultural value of the city. He is now in a very advanced state of degradation threatening the health, comfort and safety of its occupants. As part of the rehabilitation of old buildings and to preserve the historical heritage, this study is to identify the different forms of damage in this neighborhood and try to implement an approach to diagnosis and intervention suggestion on some pathologies. Our goal is not to solve all the problems, by cons we present the state of play in this neighborhood and the outlines of a rehabilitation technique through our acquired knowledge, which will serve as a reference tool and encourage the various actors to safeguard this heritage.
125 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab (MYRTACEAE) METHANOLIC EXTRACT, M. Touaibia, F. Z. Chaouch
This work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of an endemic species of the central sahara: Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. The methanolic extract of this plant was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, five different groups of mice were established and the extract was administered orally in three different doses. The dose of 400 mg/kg was able to reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei.
126 METHOD OF OPTIMAL OPERATION OF SMALL DAM IN IRRIGATION, M. M. Ladjel
In several Arab countries; agriculture is considered as the largest user of sweet water. This noble resource is distributed erratically by time and space. For the month of irrigation, this resource became scanty. Thats why; it is require to storage it; protect it and use it reasonably based on a deep knowledge of hydro meteorological policy and irrigation. This contribution is to propose the hydrological method of exploitation if the resource of water regulate by a small water dam. This is ascertained by the equation of the hydratical balance. Because it is possible to improve the yield of the water dam by the apliment of operating rules during irrigation season based on probabilistic projections of the fundamental components of the water balance.
127 RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELING IN THE TURKEY RIVER USING NUMERICAL AND REGRESSION METHODS, J. Behmanesh, S. Ayashm
Modeling rainfall-runoff relationships in a watershed have an important role in water resources engineering. Researchers have used numerical models for modeling rainfall-runoff process in the watershed because of non-linear nature of rainfall-runoff relationship, vast data requirement and physical models hardness. The main object of this research was to model the rainfall-runoff relationship at the Turkey River in Mississippi. In this research, two numerical models including ANN and ANFIS were used to model the rainfall-runoff process and the best model was chosen. Also, by using SPSS software, the regression equations were developed and then the best equation was selected from regression analysis. The obtained results from the numerical and regression modeling were compared each other. The comparison showed that the model obtained from ANFIS modeling was better than the model obtained from regression modeling. The results also stated that the Turkey river flow rate had a logical relationship with one and two days ago flow rate and one, two and three days ago rainfall values.
128 QUALITY OF IMPORTED HONEYS MARKETED IN ALGERIA, L. Haderbache, A. Mohammedi
Honey is mostly used for therapeutic purposes, thats why its quality must be closely monitored. This study focuses on the controle of 40 imported honeys coming from 13 countries (2004 2011). We revealed that they do not always have the required quality to be consumed as such. In addition to the labeling and organoleptic problems, often they contains too much moisture (?18%); 70 % of these samples had an average HMF of 78 mg/kg and a pH less than 3.5, indicating an advanced aging and inapropriate thermal past. Pollen analysis and electrical conductivity was used to confirm presumed origins, and proline rate reveals some inverted sugar fraud. We aim by this work to catch consumers and local authorities attention in order to strengthen honey control. It is about everyone's health, and it concerns the prosperity of the national beekeeping which faces unfair competition.
129 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA, M. Toauibia
The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC were observed ranges from 0.563to 36 mg/ml.
130 SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA), P. Shroff, R. T. Vashi
Groundwater is an important precious natural resource. For optimum utilization of water resources, it is necessary to know both the quality as well as quantity of water. The present investigation is focused on seasonal variation in groundwater quality of Valsad district of south Gujarat(India). Groundwater samples from fifteen sampling stations were collected for two year i.e. from Aug 2007 to July 2009 and analyzed for pH, Colour, Total Hardness (TH), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Total Alkalinity (TA), Chloride and Sodium. Marginally higher level was observed in almost all parameters in summer season. No significant change observed in pH, Colour and Calcium.
131 CHEMICAL PROFILES OF HONEYS ORIGINATING FROM DIFFERENT FLORAL SOURCES AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS EXAMINED BY A COMBINATION OF THREE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES, D. M. Meloncelli, S. A. M. Windsor, P. Brooks
The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS analysis of volatiles and semi-volatiles, RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolics and flavonoids and HPLC-DAD analysis of derivatised dihydroxyacetone, hydroxymethylfurfural and methylglyoxal. This study found that Tasmanian and New Zealand Manuka honeys have high concentrations of methylglyoxal. However, syringic acid was only detected in Manuka honeys grown in New Zealand. The Tasmanian honeys can be distinguished by the higher concentration of 3-phenyllactic acid in Manuka compared to Leatherwood floral sources.
132 CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-PRODUCTS OF THE PILOT DIGESTERS TO ANIMAL BIOMASS IN TUNISIA, Y. MSadak, A. Ben M'Barek
This work consists in evaluating the Co-products of the biomethanisation applied to the animal biomass on the level of various types of digesters (experimental I, II, III and IV, rural and industrial). This work made it possible to arise certain number of observations: The energy performances are more interesting in the case of the digesters powered with the avicolous droppings; the reduction of the polluting load as of SM is more important in the case of the industrial digester, whereas for the BDO5, it is in favor of the experimental digester II; The agronomic use of the secondary by-products proves very encouraging and powerful.
133 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF Beta-CYCLODEXTRIN-EPICHLOROHYDRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT, K.N Poornima, R Deveswaran, S Bharath, B.V Basavaraj, V Madhavan
A water soluble Beta-cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin complex (Beta-CDEPI) was synthesized by one-step condensation polymerization. Drug- Beta-CDEPI inclusion complexes were prepared and characterized. Inclusion complexes prepared using lyophilization technique was used to formulate orodispersible tablets. Compatibility studies showed no interaction and characterization proved substantial inclusion complex formation. Drug content was found between 97-99%. In-vitro disintegration time was found to be less than 3 minutes and all the formulations showed complete drug release of 100% within 15 minutes. The formulations were found to be stable for a period of 6 months. Beta-CDEPI polymer enhances the solubility and thus effectively can be utilized to improve the aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.