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Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Journal Papers (21) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in Pharmaceutical Formulations, PSRCHNP Varma D and A Lakshmana Rao
A simple, precise and rapid HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was carried out using Zorbax C8 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 m) and mobile phase comprised of mixture of dilute orthophosphoric acid solution pH 2.40.02 as buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30 v/v and degassed under ultrasonication. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the effluent was monitored at 252 nm. The retention times of Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine were 1.81 min, 2.80 min and 7.30 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and by performing recovery study. Linearity was in the range of 600.13 to 1800.39 g/mL for Efavirenz, 300.54 to 900.44 g/mL for Tenofovir and 200.46 to 601.38 g/mL for Emtricitabine respectively. The percentage recoveries of all the three drugs were ranging from 98.2 to 101.9 for Efavirenz, 99.7 to 101.9 for Tenofovir and 98.7 to 101.6 for Emtricitabine respectively from the tablet formulation. The proposed method is suitable for the routine quality control analysis of simultaneous determination of Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.
2 Design and Optimization of Aceclofenac Sustained Release Matrix Tablets Using 32 Factorial Design, Raavi Kishna Swetha, K. S. G. Arul Kumaran, Jenila B, Ganesh P C, Sravan Kumar Y
Design, development and optimization of Aceclofenac SR matrix tablets by direct compression technique. It is composed of two different ratios of waxes. The optimization was carried out by using 32 factorial designs with Design Expert Software. IR studies reveled that drug and the waxes are compatible with each other. The tablets were subjected for various evaluations like pre and post compression parameters. All the parameters are within the limits. The release profile showed that as the concentration of bees wax increases the drug release decreases and it was not steady after definite concentration of bees wax. This may due to poor binding between the drug and waxes. The formulation (F7) with the ratios of 0.31:0.15 bees and lanette waxes respectively Show best sustained release and flow property. The dissolution profile showed 58.74% at 8th hr. It was observed that the bees and lanette waxes fulfilled the conditions for an optimum formulation for sustain release.
3 Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Flowers of Tridax Procumbens, D.S. Mohale, A.R. Pokrna, C.V. Sanghani, S.R. Rasekar, A.S. Rathi, A.S. Rathod, G.R. Mehetre, A.V. C
Herbs are natural remedies for the disease with higher safety profile and efficacy . India is gifted with varieties of large number of medicinal herbs because of variety of climatic conditions and seasons favorable for growth of many species of plants. Amongst the large number of herbal drugs existing in India, very few have been studied systematically so far. Tridax procumbens (L) is a highly valuable drug and is one of the essential ingredients in the most of the compound preparations included in Ayurvedic literature. It is well known for number of pharmacological activities like hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, Antidibetic activity, hypotensive effect, immunomodulating property, bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhea and to prevent falling of hair, promotes the growth of hair, and antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The leaf juice shows antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, against conjunctivitis and is used also to check hemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds insect repellent. It is also used as bioadsorbent for chromium. Here we try to make attempt for focusing on antimicrobial activity of Tridax procumbens flowers. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated in vitro against clinical bacterial isolates. In effort to identify novel bacterial agents, this study was initiated to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of Tridax procumbens flowers extract against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus by using disc-diffusion assay. The flower plant extracts demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against these bacteria tested with inhibition zones. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extract against the tested bacteria were found to 67.3 mg/ml and 48.20 against E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The methanolic extract of flowers exhibited a pronounced activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found in methanolic Extracts of Tridax procumbens against test organisms.
4 Development and Validation of Lercanidipine Hydrochloride and Atenolol by Using RP-HPLC and UV Spectroscopy, Priyadarshani S. Bansode, Mahendra Singh Ranawat, Ravindra Kamble, Chetan Singh Chauhan
Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LCD), a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker is used in the treatment of hypertension. Atenolol (ATN), a cardio selective ?-blocker is used as antihypertensive, antianginal and antiarrhythmic. The proposed method was development and validation of UV-Spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC for determination in bulk and tablet dosage form. In UV Spectroscopic method, LCD showed ?max at 237 nm in 50% v/v acetonitrile. The RP-HPLC analysis was performed by using a mobile phase of methanol: water (95:5 v/v), at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. By comparing validation results of both the methods, UV-spectrophotometric method is found to be simple, economical and rapid and RP-HPLC method were found to more precise, accurate, rugged and robust.
5 Assessment of Quality of Life in patients with Migraine Receiving Topiramate, Dwajani. S and Ugargol. A.P
Improvement in the total mean MIDAS score was observed in these patients receiving TPM. The frequency, intensity and duration of migraine attack were reduced thereby improving the quality of life in migraineurs. Use of topiramate can improve the QOL and wellbeing of these patients.
6 A Pharmacological Review on Cyclooxygenase Enzyme, D.S. Mohale, A. S. Tripathi, J. B. Wahane, A.V. Chandewar
This review provides brief summary of structure, physiology and pharmacological role of Cyclooxygenase. Cyclooxygenase, an enzyme involved in the production of prostaglandins, exists in two isoforms, third isoform has been recently encountered. COX-1 is constitutively expressed and has a gastroprotective function. COX-2, induced at the site of injury, is responsible for the expression of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Despite overall similarities, COX-1 and COX-2 show subtle differences in amino acid composition at the active sites. COX-2 has valine at positions 89 and 523, while COX-1 has isoleucine, resulting in larger space availability in the former. Further, the presence of valine at position 434 in COX-2 as against isoleucine in COX-1 allows a gate mechanism to operate in favour of the former. The activity of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 results in the production of a variety of potent biological mediators (the prostaglandins) that regulate homeostatic and disease processes.
7 Current Research in Drug Nanocrystals Technology, Anita P. Patel, Jayvadan. K. Patel, Vibha R. Champavat
Nanotechnology will affect our lives tremendously over the next decade in many diverse fields, including pharmacy and medicine. Transfer of materials to the nanodimension changes their physical properties which are used in pharmaceutics to develop a new innovative formulation principle for poorly soluble drugs: the drug nanocrystals. Development of poorly soluble and/or permeable drug molecules using nanocrystal formulations has proven to be highly successful due to the greater surface/volume ratio, ensuing in improvements in dissolution and bioavailability as well as enhanced permeability. The drug nanocrystals do not belong to the future; the first products are already on the market. The industrially relevant production techniques, pearl milling and high pressure homogenization, are reviewed and also the physics behind the drug nanocrystals and changes of their physical properties are discussed earlier. Drug nanocrystals consist of the pure poorly water-soluble drug without any matrix material means carrier free drug delivery system. This opinion focuses on recent developments in the preparation of nanocrystals and the role of surface properties on optimizing dissolution and targeted delivery.
8 A review on aqueous film coating technology, Dr. P.D.Bharadia, Dr.Vikram M. Pandya
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology is a International, scholarly Peer-reviewed Journal which Published Four times per year by Innovative Publication. The journal publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of pharmacology and pharmacy. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. The journal also publishes articles, reviews, etc., on any issues from the broadest range of Pharmacy and Pharmacology traditions and that cross disciplinary boundaries, through which it tries to provide the latest information on developments in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, and each issue is striving to bring you critical perspectives and cogent analyses.
9 Levetiracetam induced toxic epidermal necrolysis: A fatal outcome, Dr. Chhaya Goyal, Mr. Mohammad Rafi
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) is a rare, life-threatening dermatological manifestation which usually develops after intake of some culprit drugs. These drugs often belong to antibiotics, sulfonamides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anti-convulsants. We here report a fatal case of an elderly male patient who developed TEN soon after the intake of levetiracetam.
10 Bladder Dysplasia due to Pioglitazone Use, Baweja Himanshu, Gupta Narmada Prasad
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology is a International, scholarly Peer-reviewed Journal which Published Four times per year by Innovative Publication. The journal publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of pharmacology and pharmacy. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. The journal also publishes articles, reviews, etc., on any issues from the broadest range of Pharmacy and Pharmacology traditions and that cross disciplinary boundaries, through which it tries to provide the latest information on developments in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, and each issue is striving to bring you critical perspectives and cogent analyses.
11 A QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP STUDY OF AZOLE DERIVATIVES WITH ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, Mallikarjun B Katte, Jagadishchandra S Ratnakar, Lopamudra Banerjee
It was reported that some 3-amino 2-aryl-1-azolyl-2-butanol have antifungal effects. To understand the structural basis for antifungal activity and guide in the design of more potent agents, we performed quantitative structure activity. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 3-amino-2-aryl-1-azolyl-2-butanol on yeast exhibited a strong correlation with the prediction made by the model developed in the present study. The statistical results of the Training Set, Regression coefficient r (0.841648) and r2 (0.708371) values gave reliability to the prediction of inhibitory activity of a series of Azole derivatives.
12 EFFECTIVENESS OF A PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAM ON IMPROVING THE KNOWLEDGE ON WARNING SIGNS, RISK FACTORS AND EARLY DETECTION METHODS., Sr. Daisy. PA, Anatha Naik Nagappa, N Udupa, Sr. Neethu Mathew, Dr. Sr. Betty Carla
Context: Presently more than 70% of breast cancer patients report and seek treatment in advanced stages of the disease in India. Aims: The present study aimed at studying the knowledge gap of participants on breast cancer issues and assessing the effectiveness of planned teaching program on the topic in improving their knowledge. Settings and Design: A pre test was conducted and then gave a class room teaching. At the end of the session a post test was conducted. The participants included 112 the staff and students in a pharmacy college of Kerala, India during November 2009. Methods and Material: Structured questionnaire was developed and pre tested for assessing the knowledge of subjects on awareness of breast cancer, the risk factors, signs and symptoms, treatments and nutritional factors. Statistics: paired t test, Chi square and Mann Whitney u tests were applied. Results: The mean age of the participants was 21.22(SD=3.75), 85.5% of participants were females and 91.96% of them were D.Pharm students. The mean pre test score was 6.76 (SD=2.20) and the mean post test score was 10.3(SD=1.88). Only 15.2% of the participants scored above 60% knowledge in the pretest and after the workshop 76.8% of participants scored above 60% knowledge. The paired t test comparing the mean pre and post test score gave significant results. (P= 0.05). Conclusions: Imparting knowledge on breast cancer issues to the students will be promising in cancer control.
13 STUDY OF DRUG UITLIZATION PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROPATHY IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, BAREILLY, U.P., Anju Madhwar, Dharmender Gupta, Sujata Singh, N. A. Ansari
Objective: To determine the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents in patients of hypertensive nephropathy in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out in Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, over a period of three months. A total of 60 patients aged 40-79 years taking treatment for hypertension with associated nephropathy were enrolled in the study. All the relevant data were collected and drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive agents was determined. The study evaluated the percentage of use of multidrug therapy, drugs prescribed from Essential Drug List (EDL) and prescriptions with generic name. The cost of antihypertensive drugs used per day was calculated and linked with socioeconomic status of the patients. Results: Evaluation of the prescriptions demonstrates that a total of 63.3% males and 36.7% females with mean age of 58.911.9 years were enrolled out of which 70% patients were on multidrug therapy while only 30% were on monotherapy. The most common drug prescribed was amlodipine and around 60% drugs were from EDL 2011. Though only 16.67% patients were prescribed generic drugs but it did not affect the economic condition of the patient as most of enrolled patients belong to upper middle class. Conclusion: The prescriptions analysed were in accordance to guidelines of JNC-8 (Joint National Committee 8) and most of the prescriptions were found to be rational and it also shows that management of hypertensive nephropathy needs combination therapy.
14 COST EFFECTIVE ANALYSIS OF COMMONLY USED TOPICAL DRUGS IN OPHTHALMOLOGY, Anil Kumar. P
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of commonly used topical drugs in ophthalmic conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, uveitis, etc. Materials and Methods:Data was collected from the Ophthalmology department at Dr. B.R Ambedkar Medical College for conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, uveitis, etc. Cost effective analysis was done for anti infectives, anti-inflammatory and corticosteroids used in the treatment of above mentioned conditions. Results and Conclusions: Toram was cost effective among antimicrobials. Ketolas - NSAID as analgesic and Predmet for ocular postoperative conditions as a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent was most economical. Toram (tobramycin Rs26/- per bottle), Ketolas (ketorlac-Rs 29/- per bottle), Predmet (prednisolone-Rs 13/- per bottle).
15 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF NIACIN AND SIMVASTATIN IN TABLET DOSAGE, A. P. Dewani, D. S. Mohale, S. Hiware, R. L. Bakal, A. V. Chandewar
This work is concerned with application of simple, accurate, precise and highly selective reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous estimation of Niacin (NA) and Simvastatin (SIM) in combined dosage form. Chromatographic separation was achieved by isocratic mode using a reverse phase C18 column (phenomenx, 150 ? 4.6 mm i.d.). The mobile phase composed methanol:water in ratio 85:15 water consisting of Triethylamine (TEA) (0.05%v/v) v/v at flow rate of 1 ml/min pH was adjusted to 4 with orthophosporic acid. Detection was carried out using a UV-vis detector at 250 nm. The mean retention time of NA and SIM was found to be 1.8 min and 8.5 min. respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 80-120 ?g/ml with mean recovery of 99.39% for NA and 99.18% for SIM. The correlation coefficients for both NA and SIM were close to 1. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and values of accuracy, precision and other statistical analysis were found to be in good accordance with the prescribed values. Thus the proposed method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of NA and SIM in routine analysis of formulation.
16 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MATRIX TABLETS OF ROPINIROLE HYDROCHLORIDE FOR ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE, M. Mohan Varma, and M. Santosh Kumar
The objective of the present investigation is to prepare and evaluate the controlled release matrix tablets of a water soluble drug (ropinirole hydrochloride) using direct compression and Wet granulation technology. Ropinirole Hydrochloride is a hydrophilic drug and has pH independent solubility. It is used in the treatment of idiopathic parkinsonsdisease. The controlled release matrix tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride were prepared using various polymers: guargum, sodium alginate and carbopol 940P.The matrix tablets were prepared using two strategies: direct compression and wet granulation. The tablets were evaluated for the various quality control parameters and the drug release was evaluated in pH 1.2 and in pH 7.4 buffer. The optimized formulation containing drug and guar gum controlled the drug release up to 8 hours. The drug release from the optimized formulation (drug: guar gum,1:2.5) followed first order kinetics and showed non-fickian diffusion mechanism. The FTIR studies indicated the lack of drug-polymer interaction. The formulated controlled release tablets can decrease the frequency of drug administration, decrease the plasma drug fluctuation and it can improve the patient compliance.
17 THYROXINE: A PUTATIVE NEUROPROTECTANT IN CHEMOTHERAPY INDUCED PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN RATS, Hariprasad M .G, Rema Razdan, Yash T. C
Anti-neoplastic drugs like Cisplatin, Taxols are associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy (PN). Severe neuropathy can occur in 3% to 7% of treated cases with single agents but can increase to 38% with combined regimens. The treatment options for PN currently include anti-depressants, anti-convulsants and opioid analgesics. These agents are modestly effective for symptomatic relief, but they do not affect the underlying pathology nor do they slow progression of the disease. Therefore, effective treatment for chemotherapy induced neuropathy would be a major advantage for cancer patients. It is well established thyroid hormones lays an important role in regulating the development and regeneration of the nervous system & local administration of triiodothyronine (T3) at the level of transected rat sciatic nerve increased the number and diameter of regenerated axons and SCG10 protein levels about two-fold in the different segments of transected nerve during the regeneration period.SCG10 protein is a regulator of microtubule dynamics in growth cones. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of thyroxine in Cisplatin-induced PN in rats.
18 HYPOTHESIS, PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS - CURRENT TREATMENTS FOR ALZHEIMERS DISEASE: A REVIEW, Dinesh Raja, K.S.G. Arul Kumaran, C. Sankar, K. Selvaraj
Alzheimer disease is one of the most complex and challenging neurodegenerative disorders. It has recently received considerable attention, especially in areas related to new treatments. Alzheimer disease is clinically characterized by progressive cognitive decline associated with impairment in activities of daily living and progressive behavioural disturbances throughout the disease course. The cholinergic system plays a vital role for learning and memory, and the memory impairment severity in Alzheimer disease is mainly associated with cholinergic dysfunction. Hence, restoration of cholinergic neurotransmission may help in treating patients with Alzheimer disease. Studies have revealed encouraging results with cholinesterase inhibitors to increase acetylcholine concentrations in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease.
19 DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS IN MEDICAL ICU, Baweja Himanshu, Mishra Shyam, Mehta Yatin
Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology is a International, scholarly Peer-reviewed Journal which Published Four times per year by Innovative Publication. The journal publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of pharmacology and pharmacy. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference. The journal also publishes articles, reviews, etc., on any issues from the broadest range of Pharmacy and Pharmacology traditions and that cross disciplinary boundaries, through which it tries to provide the latest information on developments in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, and each issue is striving to bring you critical perspectives and cogent analyses.
20 ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION IN TEACHING PHARMACOLOGY: COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN PHARMACY CURRICULUM, Vadivelan R, Santilna K. S, Elango K, Sirisha S.
Computer assisted (CAL) techniques as an alternative to animal experiment is having a greater advantage due to increasing difficulty to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, strict regulations and ethical issues. Previously, the practical classes in pharmacology for undergraduate pharmacy course in India included more than 15 animal experiments with frog, mouse, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit and were mandatory for the students to carry out animal experiments to pass the exam. At present in 2014 with the notifications by Pharmacy council of India (PCI) and University Grants Commission (UGC) the animal experiments have been replaced by alternatives with CAL techniques. Typically these techniques can fulfill the learning objectives of B. Pharmacy and Pharm D students to a greater extent and must be implemented with practice in institutes to overcome the barriers.
21 CACTUS GRANDIFLORUS: A HOMEOPATHIC REMEDY FOR CARDIAC AILMENT, Syed Ehtaishamul Haque, Ravindra Kumar Verma, Vasim Khan, Sumit Sharma
This review deals with homeopathic approach of treatment where focus is given to its principle, potency concept dosing pattern and symptomatic treatment. Special attention is given to a homeopathic drug Cactus grandiflorus. This review is a compilation of all therapeutic benefits of Cactus grandiflorus, giving more stress on cardioprotection.