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Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology

Journal Papers (25) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Human Scapulae: Supra Scapular Notch, Morphometry and Variations, Dushyant Agrawal, Brijendra Singh and Gitika Arya Agrawal
Aim: This present study meant to describe different shape and dimensions of suprascapular notch, and to classify different types of scapula on the basis of notch. Material & Methods: 293 dried scapulae were observed, examined and studied in detail. Scapulae with supra-scapular notch were included in the present study. Measurements of suprascapular notch were taken with the help of digital Vernier calliper and recorded in millimetres. The superior transverse diameter, Inferior transverse diameter of supra scapular notch, depth were recorded. The data was analyzed statistically. Observations & Results: We observed five types of notch in scapulae, type I: without a discrete notch (ill defined), 36 (12.28%), type II: a V shaped notch, 69 (23.54%); type III: U shaped notch, 132 (45.0%); type IV: inverted V shaped notch, 52 (17.74%); type V with absent supra scapular notch: 4(1.36%). Conclusion: The present classification of the suprascapular notch is simple, easy to use, and based on specific dimensions which help to clearly distinguish five types of these structures. This study will also help clinicians to correlate suprascapular nerve entrapment with a specific type of suprascapular notch.
2 Accessory foramen transversarium and its incidence in atlas vertebrae, Pushpa Potaliya, Abhilasha Dadhich, D.S. Chowdhary
The only ring shaped cervical vertebra present in human body is atlas, having articulations with occipital and axis vertebra. Presence of dorsal and ventral arches is responsible for its typical shape. On the sides where transverse processes are there, one foramen on each side named Foramen transversarium is present. 120 macerated dry atlas vertebrae were studied for the normal and accessory foramen transversarium. The present study is focused to investigate the presence of accessory foramen tranversarium in dry atlas vertebra obtained from bone banks and to understand its significance, if any.
3 Congenital Anomalies of Spleen - cadaveric study with special reference to Multilobulated spleen, Dr. Mallikarjun Adibatti, Dr. Asha K
Congenital anomalies of the spleen range from splenic lobulation, to accessory spleen to polysplenia, absence of the spleen, duplications, Splenoptosis or wandering spleen. Out of these the accessory spleen is the most common anomalies encountered. All these pathological conditions result from an altered embryogenesis of the spleen and are generally associated with other congenital abnormalities. A number of earlier studies reported on accessory spleens and splenunculi whereas, to our knowledge, there are very minimal studies in the literature concerning congenital anomalies of the spleen particularly multilobulated spleen. Hence the present study was taken up to study the frequency of congenital anomalies in cadavers with special reference to multilobulated spleen. Radiologists should be aware of this condition in order to avoid incorrectly diagnosing this ectopic tissue as metastasis, adenopathy or another solid tumor.
4 Growth Impairment and Dental Caries in Thalassemia Major Patiens, Manali Arora, SM Nayeemuddin, Surajit Ghatak, Brijendra Singh
Background: The aim of present study was to determine whether beta-thalassemia major is associated with an increased risk of growth retardation and dental caries. Methods: Anthropometric measurement were used to study the physical growth of 50 thalassemic patients and compared with 50 age- matched healthy controls from Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. DMFT and DMFS scores were also measured and compared with age- matched controls. Results: Both thalassemic diseases of male and female patients were shown to have statistically significant lower height, weight, body mass index, mid arm circumference, chest circumference and head circumference (but not height and head circumference in age group 2-10years) as compared to normal patients with comparable sex and ages. A highly significant difference was observed when all anthropometric parameters of thalassemic males and healthy males were compared but a non-significant difference was seen between thalassemic females and healthy females of control group. Dental caries were significantly higher in thalassemics.
5 A Study of Arterial Dominance in Human Hearts by Perfusion Method, Dr. Pradeep Singh, Dr. Vasundra Kulshrestha, Dr.Brijendra Singh
A study was conducted in 15 postmortem human hearts in anatomy department of S.N.Medical College, Agra. Methyviolet dye and Neutral red dye was injected in left coronary and right coronary arteries respectively to delineate the areas perfused by them. The areas appeared by diffusion of dye from respective arteries is then plotted on graph paper and minimum and maximum areas were measured. The mean surface area perfused by right coronary artery was 12442.4 sq.mm and left coronary artery was 11127.13 sq.mm. Thus, our study showed right coronary artery dominance.
6 Effect of Regular Practicing Bharatnatyam Dancing Exercise on Body Fat of Urban Female Teenagers, Neepa Banerjee, Surjani Chatterjee, Sreejita Kundu, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee and Shankarashis Mukherj
Recently for obesity management approach, body fat has got the prime importance as because it has been identified not the body weight but actually the body fat plays the crucial role for predisposition of various metabolic diseases. To address the problem, regular practicing physical activity is a growing choice. On the other hand, dance is a traditional form of recreational activity involving different body movements and requiring body flexibility. From this point of view, present work has been designed to study the impact of receiving training on Bharatnatyam dancing and practicing it regularly as an exercise on body fat in female teenagers of Kolkata. It has been found that individuals receiving Bharatnatyam dancing training for at least a period of five years and practicing it regularly for at least a period of half an hour have significant favorable value of body fat compared to their age and gender matched individuals of similar socioeconomic condition leading otherwise sedentary lifestyle.
7 Stem Cell: Pluripotent Cell or Reserve cell?, Dr. Brijendra Singh and Dr. Meenakshi Chowdhary
Stem cells have the remarkable properties of developing into a variety of cell types in the human body. Two basic characteristics of stem pluripotent cells are their capacity for self-renewal and multi lineage differentiation. Since then, some advances have been made towards understanding the basic biology of stemness and their differentiation into different cell lineages, but harnessing of their promised potential to usher in the era of regenerative medicine is still a long way to go. The medical community is now researching and developing the ability to use stem cells in the battle against many types of cancer. It has been shown that the transplant of stem cells into cancerous regions of the body results in the formation of cells that target and attach themselves to the cancerous cells and can trigger cell death, eventually reducing the number of cancer cells and size of the tumor as the process repeats many times. This review is aimed at revisiting classification of stem cell with enlightment in newer concepts and ongoing related controversies.
8 A Focused Review Thoracolumbar Spine: Anatomy, Biomechanics and Clinical Significance, Dr. M. Rathore, Dr. D. K. Sharma, Dr. Manisha B. Sinha, Dr. A. U. Siddiqui and Dr Soumitra Trivedi
The knowledge of the Thoracolumbar Spine (TS) Anatomy and Biomechanics is important for prevention of mechanical damage of spine; which is very common and presented with the Low Back Pain (LBP). It is still unknown that how the TS commonly gets damaged during daily activities of life. This paper aims to give a comprehensive account of biomechanics of TS and its anatomical and clinical correlation for the occurrence and prevention of mechanical damage of spine.
9 High blood pressure: How does it affect male fertility potential?, Amit Kant Singh, Santosh Kumar Sant, Ramji Singh, Arun Nagrath, Mohan Singh, ANG Hyder, R.K. Gupta,
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are ubiquitous reactive derivatives of O2 metabolism found in the environment and in all biological systems. Within the cardiovascular system, ROS play a crucial physiological role in maintaining cardiac and vascular integrity and a pathophysiological role in cardiovascular dysfunction associated with several clinical conditions, including hypertension. It is known that oxidative stress affects the testicular function by disruption of germinal cell epithelial division and differentiation along with the induction of germ cell apoptosis
10 Personal Perception: Why Dentistry should not be considered a part of the Medical profession?, Dr. D. K. Sharma
Anatomy is a branch of medical science that deals with the structure and organization of the living organism. Physiology helps in understanding the functions of the organs and both Anatomy and Physiology are inseparable to each other. IJCAP is an international Open Access, peer-reviewed, academic journal that aims to publish researched articles on the structure and function of human body, homeostasis, levels of organization from cellular, tissue, organ to organ system, integration of systems and their harmony and conflict to work together.
11 Levator glandulae thyroideae: a fibromusculoglandular band A case report, Dr Manisha B. Sinha, Dr Abu Ubaida Siddiqui and Dr D K Sharma
In relation with thyroid gland, functional as well as morphological variation is very common in individual to individual. Levator glandulae thyroideae, a band extending from pyramidal lobe to the thyroid cartilage or hyoid usually on left side. We found in a 72years old female cadaver, a band extending from right lobe of thyroid to hyoid bone with hypoplasia of left lobe and band was innervated by external laryngeal branch of vagus. Microscopically this band is fibromusculoglandular. Knowledge of anatomical and developmental variation and its nerve supply will aid the surgeon for safe surgeries.
12 Embryological, radiological and surgical perspects of Duplicated ureter with bilateral aberrant renal arteries - A case report, Dr. Vivek Mishra, Dr. Mrinal P Barua
Duplicated ureter is relatively common congenital anomaly of urinary system and the knowledge of these congenital anomalies along with variations of renal vasculature is must for interventional radiologist, urologist and laproscopic surgeons for urological procedures and intrarenal or pelvic surgeries. In this reported case, the presence of duplicated ureter on left side was seen in 50 years old female with bilateral aberrant renal arteries, both arising from ventral aspect of abdominal aorta 2-3 cms above the bifurcation of aorta. Patients are usually asymptomatic need not to be intervened but if symptoms of urinary tract infections or renal functions impairments appear urgent interventions are must.
13 Variation in Subclavian Artery Branches- A Case Report, SM Nayeemuddin, Manali Arora, Surajit Ghatak and Brijendra Singh
Objectives: To study the origin of subclavian artery and its branching pattern. Material and methods: During routine cadaveric dissection for undergraduate medical students, a unilateral variation in the branching pattern of the left subclavian artery was noted on the left side of a 70 year old male cadaver. Result: Left subclavian artery arises from the arch of aorta and immediately divides into medial branch and a lateral branch. Most of the branches are arises from the medial branch whereas vertebral artery originated from the lateral branch of the subclavian artery. Conclusion: Surgeons must be aware of possible variations of the major arteries and be able to identify them. This is very important for appropriate invasive techniques in order to achieve desired objectives and to avoid major complications especially during vascular surgery.
14 EVALUATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY IN RURAL SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN, Amit Kant Singh, Kirti Jaiswal, KM Shukla, Santosh Kumar Sant, Sandeep Kumar, A N Gayassudin Hyder
Background & Objectives: Arterial blood pressure is an important physiological parameter in epidemiology of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension has been reported to be generally associated with sympathetic over activity. In the study of hypertension, several authors have made use of a technique, known as Cold Presser Test. It was designed to measure the reactivity of blood pressure to a standard stimulus. Thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the response to the standard stimulus in the school going children. Methods: The study was conducted on healthy school children between the age group of 6.5 years to 11.5 years. The blood pressure was recorded using the standard auscultatory technique and cold pressure test was done as described by Hines & Brown (1932). Individuals were categorized into two groups, depending on their reactivity to cold pressure test as norm reactors (NR) and hyper-reactors (HR). Results: The significant increase (p
15 ANATOMY OF NUTRIENT FORAMEN OF TIBIA A STUDY FROM GUJARAT REGION, Chirag R Vadhel, Manoj M Kulkarni, Achleshwar R Gandotra
Background: Preservation of vascularity of tibia is of paramount significance during its surgical interventions. Lack of studies from Gujarat region on nutrient foramen of tibia prompted authors to undertake this study. Material & Methods: 188 dry tibias from tertiary care hospital of Gujarat were examined for nutrient foramina location, number, direction & its relation to other bony landmark. Results: Single nutrient foramen directed downwards was the rule. The location of nutrient foramen closely resembled with the data of previous similar studies done in other parts of the world. Conclusion: The present study generated database for nutrient foramen of tibia from Gujarat region. This can be utilized by surgeons to preserve nutrient artery during operations for fracture repair, tumor and bone grafts involving tibia.
16 STUDY OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AS A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER OF CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY IN TUBERCULOUS PLEURAL EFFUSION, Ishaan Kalavatia, Shashikant Agarwal, Ajay Ku. Bhargava, Atul Tiwari4, M. Hamid
The present study conducted on 100 patients with the aim that ADA estimation is a simple cheaper and quicker biochemical test and could provide additional supportive evidence for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion in clinically suspected cases and will therefore help in early institution of therapy to these patients. The data was collected and interpreted at department of Physiology and Department of Biochemistry, Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar, Rajasthan.
17 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LIPID PARAMETERS IN OBESE AND NONOBESE FEMALES, Nagashree. V, Nausheen Rumana, Revathi Devi. M.L
Obesity, a chronic non communicable disorder is associated with abnormal, excessive body fat accumulation. Obesity has reached epidemic levels worldwide. It is a key risk factor in development of various dangerous complications like dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, infertility etc. This study aims at measuring and correlating values of blood lipid parameters in obese and non-obese individuals. It has been found that obese females having increased waist circumference, BMI and body fat percentage had altered lipid profile. They are at higher risk of developing obesity related complications. Thus, early detection of metabolic impairments will help in pursuing the preventive measure and to halt its progression into irreversible hazardous complications.
18 MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF DISTAL END OF ULNAE OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION, Sainu Susan Oommen
Introduction: The wrist is a complex joint that serves as the link between the forearm and hand and is critical for many upper extremity movements. An understanding of distal end of ulna anatomy allows for appreciation of the biomechanics of wrist movement, which helps the clinician to understand injury patterns, perform an efficient history and physical examination, and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment decisions. Keeping this in mind, anatomy of distal end of ulna is studied on south Indian population. Methods: The distal end of 100 ulnae (50 of each sides) of unknown sex from the Anatomy department of Fr. muller medical college, Mangalore were studied for natural variation in the shape and width of pole, height of the seat, width of fovea and shape and size of styloid process. Results: The average width of pole was 5.13mm.84% of pole showed kidney shape. The average maximum height of seat was 6.5mm and 65% showed sloping. The average width of fovea was 4.32mm and 36% showed absence of vascular foramina. The length of styloid process recorded was 5.6mm and 4% of left ulnae showed absence of styloid process. Also noted that 18% absence in groove of ECU. Conclusion: Careful observation of the lower end of ulna shows that it is made up of four main parts, viz, seat, pole, fovea and styloid process. These parts play an important role in anatomy and physiology of DRUJ and wrist. Any alterations in the morphometric and morphology can produce various clinical conditions like perforation of TFCC, ulnar impaction syndrome, ulnar styloid triquetral impaction syndrome. Keywords: distal end of ulna, head of ulna, seat, styloid process
19 A STUDY OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS OF TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS, Yogendra Raj Singh, Shilpi Verma, Dushyant Agrawal, Brijendra Singh, Ashutosh Bhardwaj, Gitika Arya
Aim: To study the effect of magnesium supplementation on glycemic control in diabetic patients. Material and Methods: Total of 120 patients of diabetes mellitus type-2 (Group I- 60 patients with oral Magnesium & Group II- 60 without Magnesium supplementation) were investigated for Fasting Blood Sugar, Serum Magnesium, at various visits to OPD. Measured data was analyzed statistically. Observations & Result: Mean Baseline value for fasting blood glucose was 144.320.94 and after treatment values at 16 weeks 128.930.75 was observed in Group I patients. In Group II; fasting blood glucose was 145.201.12 and after treatment values at 16 weeks 134.180.94. Conclusion: This difference between before and after treatment was considered highly significant in group I patients than Group II patients. This suggested magnesium supplementation helps in glycemic control.
20 SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF STRUCTURED EXERCISE THERAPY ON MEMORY OF ADULT PATIENTS NEWLY DIAGNOSED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, Harpreet Kour, V.A.Kothivale, Shivaprasad S.Goudar
Background and Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus is a multifaceted metabolic disease that can have devastating effects on multiple organs in the body and in the long run with micro and macro vascular complications that cause significant morbidity and mortality. Cognitive dysfunctions and impaired memory are commonly seen in patients with T2DM. The present study was to investigate cognitive function i.e. various domains of Memory of newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to study the effects of short term structured exercise therapy of eight weeks would improve various domains of memory in diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of age group 20-45 years. Methods: 30 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM were enrolled in Diabetic control group. The structured exercise therapy was given to diabetic group after measuring baseline parameters. 30 normal healthy sex and age matched healthy control were enrolled under normal control group. HbAIc, BMI, and various domains of memory functions were measured. Results: Patients on Interventional therapy showed statistically significant improvement in attention and concentration (p< 0.001), Immediate recall (p < 0.05), verbal retention for similar pairs (p < 0.05), and visual retention (p < 0.05) Interpretation and Conclusion: Exercise therapy along with dietary control and anti-diabetic medication will have a positive influence on various domains of memory functions.
21 A STUDY ON OLECRANO-CORONOID SEPTAL APERTURE (SUPRATROCHLEAR FORAMEN (STF) OF HUMERUS), Mallikarjun Adibatti, Asha K
Introduction: A thin plate of bone separates the olecranon and coronoid fossa which may become perforated in some cases to give rise to a foramen known as septal aperture or Supratrochlear Foramen (STF). Supratrochlear foramen (STF) is an important variation in the lower end of humerus which has been neglected because of paucity of literature. The incidence of foramen ranges from 6-60% in different races. Materials and Methods: The presence of STF was studied in 100 dry adult humeri of unknown sex from Department of Anatomy, J. J. M. Medical College. Davangere and ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Chennai. Each humerus was studied for the presence of the STF, Translucency of septum. Results: The STF was seen in 10% of humeri, oval shape being more common and present more frequently on left side compared to right side humeri. Conclusion: The anatomical knowledge of STF is beneficial for Anthropologists & clinicians for surgical intervention.The knowledge of the presence of supratrochlear foramen (STF) in a humerus may be important for preoperative planning for treatment of supracondylar fractures.
22 A STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN NERVES OF INFRA-TEMPORAL REGION AND ITS EMBRYOLOGICAL EXPLANATION, Nikha Bhardwaj, Dushyant Agrawal, Vineeta Tewari, Brijendra Singh, M.S.Siddiqui
Introduction: The knowledge of the neurovascular relationships of the infratemporal region is relevant in dentistry and surgery. Aims and objective: To study the variations of nerves and maxillary artery in human cadavers through infratemporal dissection. The branches from the posterior division of the mandibular nerve studied and analyzed for abnormal course and branches. Material and method: 85 human cadavers were dissected and studied. Result: A rare type of bilateral communication between the auriculotemporal and inferior alveolar nerve is reported in this study. This communicating nerve is neither related to maxillary artery which is superficial to lateral pterygoid muscle in this case, nor it is related to origin of mylohoid nerve (these type of variations are described in most of the previous studies).Other variations are deep course of maxillary artery, variations in origin of nerve to mylohyoid etc.
23 SUPINE OR STANDING HAMSTRING STRETCH: WHICH IS EFFECTIVE FOR FLEXIBILITY? A COMPARATIVE STUDY TOWARDS ANALYSIS OF A MYSTERY, Mukesh Tiwari, Saurabh
Purpose: To find and compare the effectiveness of standing and supine hamstrings stretching techniques in increasing hamstring flexibility. Methods: A Total of 25 subjects were selected for the study from girls hostel at NIMS University by random sampling. The design used was experimental design. A plastic hand held full circle goniometer was used to measure the hamstring flexibility. Crossbar was used to maintain hip in 90 degree flexion during active knee extension test.A stop watch was used for the time management. Results: The change in Pre stretching and Post stretching values of knee extension ramge of motion(in degrees) was 9.77+5.54 in right and 9.66+4.35 .The comparison of post stretching mean range of motion was 145.27 while standing and 143.61 while in supine position. The mean increase range of motion by standing ans supine hamstring stretching technique were 9.77 on standing and 9.66 while in supine position. Conclusion: Improvement in the knee extension range of motion as calculated were approximately equal. The t value calculated was 0.11, which was not significant at any level. Thus, standing hamstring and supine hamstring stretching techniques are equally effective in improving hamstring flexibility.
24 EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN RELATION TO BODY MASS INDEX, Tejashwini. V. Basarigidad, Saryu Sain, Spoorthi. B. S
Abstract Intraocular pressure varies throughout the night and day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3-6mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. Hence, we wanted to investigate the effect of exercise on intraocular pressure changes in relation to Body Mass Index. The effect of exercise on intraocular pressure and blood pressure was evaluated in our clinical laboratory in 30 voluntary 1st year Medical Students of Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga, after the institutional ethical clearance. Materials used in the study were Schizont tonometer, Measuring tape, Weighing Scale, Treadmill and Paracaine eye drops. After a resting period, the subjects height and weight were recorded. Paracaine eye drops were instilled in both the eyes and then intraocular pressure recorded using Schizont Tonometer after 2 min so that anaesthetics acts. Then they were asked to walk on Treadmill with average speed till they were exhausted, again intraocular pressure was noted as above with all aseptic precautions. The statistical analysis was done using students unpaired t- test using SPSS software. Results were expressed in terms of Mean and Standard deviation. P value was taken significant at 5 percent confidence level (p
25 PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF OLFACTION, Namit Kant Singh, PS Nagpure
The olfactory system represents one of the oldest sensory modalities in the phylogenetic history of mammals. As a chemical sensor, the olfactory system detects food and influences social and sexual behavior. Within the nasal cavity, the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. This area contains more than 100 million olfactory receptor cells. An understanding of the anatomical and physiology of Olfactory System has been given in this review.