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Indian Journal of Microbiology Research

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1 GROUP A BETA HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIER STAGE - IS SURVEILLANCE REQUIRED?, Anita Devi K
Indian Journal of Microbiology Research (IJMR) is a multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with reputable academics and experts as members of its Editorial Board. IJMR publishes information on basic and applied microbiology for a worldwide readership. It publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews and opinion letters dealing with all fields of microbiology and it addresses the international scientific community. The special fields covered are microorganisms (eukaryotes: protoctists, moulds, yeast; prokaryotes: bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea; viruses, prions), microbial biology (physiology, ecology, morphology, taxonomy, genetics, pathogenesis) and microbial applications (environmental, soil, industrial, food, medical microbiology, biodeterioration, bioremediation, biotechnology).
2 STUDY ON SYNERGISTIC ACTION OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM (CINNAMON) AND ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES, Vijay N. Charde, Shweta M. Bhiwankar, Pratik M. Bezalwar
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become an important cause of infection, especially in patients with compromised host defense mechanisms. Thus, it is a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Development of drug resistance in Pseudomonas is worldwide problem and tough challenge to medical practitioners; Methods: Present study involves the isolation of Pseudomonas from the patients suffering from the ailments like respiratory tract infection, UTI, etc. and studying the antibiotic resistant pattern of these isolates and synergistic action of cold and hot water and methanol extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the activity of antibiotics by agar diffusion method; Results: Out of 28 isolates of Pseudomonas isolates five isolates exhibiting wide resistance pattern were selected for study. The results showed synergistic effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on the antibiotics which are ineffective against the Pseudomonas isolates. Cold methanol and cold water extract showed good synergistic effect with antibiotics AK, CTX, CAZ, PI, G, CPZ, CPM, CB, NET, TCC, CTR, IPM, AT & AZ against Isolate P-19 making it susceptible to these antibiotics. Hot extract of both methanol and water showed no synergistic effect against Isolate P-19. All the extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum have shown no significant synergistic effect on the antibiotics against Isolate P-3, P-4, P-20 and P-26; Conclusions: Cinnamom extract is effective in combination with antibiotic in dealing the drug resistance problem of Pseudomonas and such synergy is important in exploring the new options for drug resistance problem of many pathogens.
3 DESIGN OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER MONITORING SYSTEM WITH BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS, Laik Rajesh, R.N.Gupta
Background: When a patient goes to hospital, first thing in traditional system of Hospital, patients has to wait for a long time, to get appointment, but in this old system, manual register entry of patients name-age-time- and token was used, the token number was called by Doctor, till then the patients has to wait. But in case of emergency also the patients were the sufferer. Many times rural India suffers a lot due to lack of such modern technology and wireless network. So the demand of ZIGBEE technology is very alarming. To arrive at Zigbee stage at first the frequency of wireless system of hospital is specified, though. We need to know the category of patient, their clinical history, either Genetic disease which is inherited disorders, and then we can compile the patients convert into data-profile of each patient coming to Hospital. The data profile of patient is converted into into paper and Files documentation this file is feeded into system to make it more flexible, and then the patient is given an I.D from the registration Counter where he or she stands in a Queue. The patient is assigned a Digital card, to track his/her status that I.D card of Hospital becomes the personal information of the Patient via which the communication is done to the respective diagnosis lab/Doctors/Nurse/Medicine to get the required facilities the patient need for the treatment. Here we design a Biomedical sensor network with the help of low-power ZIGBEE technology, this can transfer Data of cancer patients from Server – Modem – system sitting at home to hospital- Doctor thus early screening of patient is alerted and important treatment can be taken. Specifically for cancer monitoring system, which will be easily accessible by sitting at home, with the help of medical base station, set-up will be at cancer hospital the data of the patient will be documented in system and transmitted to Doctor, Nurse of hospital, for appropriate care. Bioinformatics web-server will be used, to develop health care monitor server. Collection of Patient I.D – documentation- uploaded to health base station – server – system. Components of the Zigbee network are microcontroller (8051).
4 DRUG RESISTANCE PATTERN IN ESBL PRODUCING E.COLI IN CLINICAL ISOLATES FROM STAND ALONE DIAGNOSTIC CENTRE IN CENTRAL MADHYA PRADESH, Sodani Sadhna, Hawaldar Ranjana
Background: Growing multiple drug resistance in microorganisms is of great importance and so is the knowledge about the current drug susceptibility pattern for deciding the empirical usage of antibiotics. E.coli is one of the commensals in the human intestinal tract and contributes to the maintenance of Health of the person. However when E.coli enters into unnatural sites, it can cause variety of infections, bacteremia, meningitis and other soft tissue infections. The emergence of antibiotic resistance in Ecoli is threatening the effectiveness of many antibiotics which has resulted in increased hospital stay of patients, which in turn causes economic burden. Extended spectrum Beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E.coli has tremendously increased worldwide and it is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality associated with hospital acquired infections. Objective: The present retrospective study highlights the susceptibility pattern of E.coli in clinical specimens obtained at Sampurna Sodani Daignostic Clinic Indore (MP) Microbiology department for the year 2014 from January to July. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of ESBL producing E.coli in different clinical specimens including urine, blood, pus, vaginal swab, stool, semen, aural swab, BAL fluid and conjuctival swab obtained from out patients at Sampurna Sodani Diagnostic Clinic Microbiology department located in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) from January to July 2014 and reported in fully automated Microscan (Siemens) according to CLSI guidelines. A total of 542 samples were reviewed. A total of 29 antibiotics were assessed for the resistance pattern in E.coli isolates. Results: Out of 542 E.coli isolates grown in the lab from urine, blood, pus, vaginal swab, stool, aural swab, BAL fluid, and conjunctival swab. 420 isolates showed sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactum in more than 70 % cases. Conclusion: ESBLs are enzymes that mediate resistance to extended spectrum Beta lactamase (third generation) cephalosporins (eg. Ceftazidime, cefotaxime, & ceftriaxone) and monobactums (eg. Aztreonam) but do not affect cephamycins (eg.cefoxitin) or carbapenems (eg.meropenem or imipenem). 40. 95% isolates of E.coli were ESBL. Among oral antibiotics highest sensitivity was observed to nitrofurantoin (68.33 %) and Amoxy/ Clavulinic acid (44.8%) which can be the drug of choice for E.coli infections specially in UTI. Injectable drugs like Imipenem (90.4%) and Amikacin showed sensitivity in 84.87% isolates but being injectable drugs, should be used with caution.
5 PEVALANCE OF ENTEROTOXIC E. COLI IN RAW VEGETABLES AND SPROUTS SOLD IN MARKETS OF GOA, Vishal Musale, Satyajit Kale, Abhay Raorane, Swapnil Doijad, Sukhadeo Barbuddhe
Background of the study: The infection of E. coli has been associated with the consumption of a number of raw vegetables and sprouts. Since last decade the raw vegetable and sprouts have been revealed as a potential source for the transmission of E. coli. Method: A preliminary study was carried out to determine the incidences of E. coli in raw vegetables and sprouts sold in local markets of Goa. A total of 110 samples (raw vegetables, n=65 and sprouts, n=45) were collected from local vendors and investigated for prevalence of pathogenic E. coli. The samples were processed as per the method defined by ISO-16654 to isolate E. coli that has optimised particularly for leafy vegetables. Isolate were further studied for their in-vitro pathogenic potential by detecting the heat-labile enterotoxin (lth) gene. Result: A total of 45 (40.90%) presumptive E. coli isolates were obtained which were further confirmed by their morphological and biochemical characterisation. Out of 45 E. coli, 21 (46.66%) showed haemolysis on 5% Sheep blood agar. The haemolytic isolates were further tested for their pathogenic potential in-vitro, by screening the lth gene. The lth gene was present in 15 (71.42%) of the haemolytic E. coli isolates. Conclusion: From this study it can be inferred that, potentially pathogenic E. coli are prevalent in raw vegetables and sprouts sold in local markets of Goa. It can be concluded that the marketed sprouts are of poor microbiological quality. Presence of such pathogens in day-to-day food is matter of concern.
6 EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON SHOT HOLE BORER EUWALLACEA FORNICATUS (EICHHOFF) (SCOLYTIDAE: COLEOPTERA) FEEDING PATHOGENIC FUNGI FUSARIUM BUGNICOURTII (BRAY FORD), C. Sundaravadivelan, P. Kumar, J. Anburaj, T. Kuberan, S. Sivasubramanian
Tea is one of the major nonalcoholic beverages in the world. Being a perennial crop, it provides a stable environment for a number of pests and diseases. Pests are important factors limiting the productivity and quality of processed tea. Among the pests, the shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is a serious pest of tea in south India. These beetles have a symbiotic relationship with the fungus Fusarium bugnicourtii. The fungal spores are carried by the beetles in special organs called mycangia located in the buccal cavity of head. Spores of the ambrosia fungus borne by the female beetles adhere to the walls of the stem galleries. On germination of spores, the grubs and adults feed on the fungus. Hence a novel approach has been attempted to find out the efficacy of pesticides on the fungus, F. bugnicourtii. Results showed 50 % reduction of fungi while tested with Dicofol, Endosulfan, Quinalphos and Lambdacyhalothrin. The high significance was observed in Dicofol and Endosulfan, and no significance was recorded in Lime sulphur, Ethion and control treatments at 0.05 %.
7 PEVALANCE OF ENTEROTOXIC E. COLI IN RAW VEGETABLES AND SPROUTS SOLD IN MARKETS OF GOA, Vishal Musale, Satyajit Kale, Abhay Raorane, Swapnil Doijad, Sukhadeo Barbuddhe
Background of the study: The infection of E. coli has been associated with the consumption of a number of raw vegetables and sprouts. Since last decade the raw vegetable and sprouts have been revealed as a potential source for the transmission of E. coli. Method: A preliminary study was carried out to determine the incidences of E. coli in raw vegetables and sprouts sold in local markets of Goa. A total of 110 samples (raw vegetables, n=65 and sprouts, n=45) were collected from local vendors and investigated for prevalence of pathogenic E. coli. The samples were processed as per the method defined by ISO-16654 to isolate E. coli that has optimised particularly for leafy vegetables. Isolate were further studied for their in-vitro pathogenic potential by detecting the heat-labile enterotoxin (lth) gene. Result: A total of 45 (40.90%) presumptive E. coli isolates were obtained which were further confirmed by their morphological and biochemical characterisation. Out of 45 E. coli, 21 (46.66%) showed haemolysis on 5% Sheep blood agar. The haemolytic isolates were further tested for their pathogenic potential in-vitro, by screening the lth gene. The lth gene was present in 15 (71.42%) of the haemolytic E. coli isolates. Conclusion: From this study it can be inferred that, potentially pathogenic E. coli are prevalent in raw vegetables and sprouts sold in local markets of Goa. It can be concluded that the marketed sprouts are of poor microbiological quality. Presence of such pathogens in day-to-day food is matter of concern.
8 EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON SHOT HOLE BORER EUWALLACEA FORNICATUS (EICHHOFF) (SCOLYTIDAE: COLEOPTERA) FEEDING PATHOGENIC FUNGI FUSARIUM BUGNICOURTII (BRAY FORD), C. Sundaravadivelan, P. Kumar, J. Anburaj, T. Kuberan, S. Sivasubramanian
Tea is one of the major nonalcoholic beverages in the world. Being a perennial crop, it provides a stable environment for a number of pests and diseases. Pests are important factors limiting the productivity and quality of processed tea. Among the pests, the shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) is a serious pest of tea in south India. These beetles have a symbiotic relationship with the fungus Fusarium bugnicourtii. The fungal spores are carried by the beetles in special organs called mycangia located in the buccal cavity of head. Spores of the ambrosia fungus borne by the female beetles adhere to the walls of the stem galleries. On germination of spores, the grubs and adults feed on the fungus. Hence a novel approach has been attempted to find out the efficacy of pesticides on the fungus, F. bugnicourtii. Results showed 50 % reduction of fungi while tested with Dicofol, Endosulfan, Quinalphos and Lambdacyhalothrin. The high significance was observed in Dicofol and Endosulfan, and no significance was recorded in Lime sulphur, Ethion and control treatments at 0.05 %.
9 MUTATION STUDIES ON STREPTOMYCES FOR AMPHOTERICIN B YIELD IMPROVEMENT, Anitha Upadhyaya, Nagasatya A, Thajuddin N, Paneerselvam A, Upadhyaya Giridhara
Four Streptomyces strains isolated from the soil of Western Ghats of India producing Amphotericin B were subjected to random mutagenesis by UV irradiations for yield improvement. The mutants were then screened for their Amphotericin B concentrations and their antifungal activity by agar well diffusion method. Two mutants demonstrated 13% and 16% higher concentration than the isolated strains respectively. Thus mutation can be a very useful tool to minimize production cost with the same benefits.
10 STUDY OF FUNGAL DIVERSITY OF SOME SELECTED NATURAL SPOT OF EAST KOLKATA WETLAND , Souvik Nath and Abul Kalam
Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is a term we use to describe the variety of life on Earth. Microbes are one of the dominant life forms in the earth. Their contribution to the earth and human being is beyond the imagination. Their science is concerned with their form, structure, reproduction, physiology, metabolism and classification. It also includes their distribution in nature, their relationship with each other and other living organisms, their effects on human beings, other animals and plants. Biological diversity (biodiversity) encompasses the variety of life forms occurring in nature, from the ecosystem to the genetic level, as a result of evolutionary history (Wilson 1992). Microbial Diversity is an integral part of biodiversity which includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protozoa and protests. Fungi constitute a major portion of natural resources likely to provide innovative applications useful to man. Fungi are one of the major sources of antimicrobial agents and produce a wide range of other important medicinal compounds, industrially important biomolecules, novel enzymes, insecticides the microbial level is beginning to be recognized, but this richness of diversity amongst bacterial, fungal and virus species has yet to be catalogued particularly in West Bengal. The East Kolkata Wetland (EKW) is situated at 880 20’ E - 880 35’ E and200 25’ N -200 35’ N. Climate here is more or less sub-tropical with the annual mean rainfall around 200 cm. The maximum temperature during summer rises around 390 C. while minimum temperature during winter is around 100 C. The average temperature during most part of the year is around 300 C during day time with a fall in temperature of 50-60C at night. East Kolkata Wetland shows an immense diversity of flora and fauna both at the macro and micro level. Microbial richness of a region is its unseen asset that needs to be explored and conserved. Soil samples collected from East Calcutta Wetland shows the presence of various new strains of microbes which are not only ecologically important but also have commercial value. Isolation, characterization, documentation and conservation of these resources are important considering their strategic importance for future generation as well as complimentary economic growth and prosperity. In this present work several fungi were isolated and purified from diverse area of East Calcutta Wetland out of which about 10 organisms was identified by microscopic studies. Among the isolates it is expected that one or two new genus may obtained.
11 DETERMINATION OF THE SEVERITY OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN DIESEL FUEL OF A STORAGE TANK., Prahlad Rangra, Tina Chaturvedi, Amit Bhattacharya
Background: Hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms has been reported from fuels including diesel (1). Current literature suggests that microbial species can be metabolically active in complex hydrocarbon and degrade up to 66% of diesel oil in just 28 days (5). In this study the diesel samples collected from storage tank were found heavily contaminated with microorganisms which are already reported as potential biodegrades. Method: Detection of the microbial contamination was done by serial dilution plating on R2A for aerobic bacteria, PDA for fungal and Sulphate API agar for anaerobic bacteria. Further isolated bacterial species was identified by Biolog system. Results: Diesel samples were found heavily contaminated with species known for degrading oil and its products. Conclusion: This study has proved that diesel oil is highly prone to the microbial contamination which can lower down the product performance to a great extant therefore; the need is to prevent diesel oil from getting contaminated with the microbial species. Addition of high quality and environment friendly biocides is important to prevent microbial growth in Diesel.
12 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF STANDARD TUBE TEST WITH ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBANT ASSAY AND INDIRECT FLUORESCENT ASSAY USING BRUCELLA ABORTUS S 99 SONICATED AND HEAT EXTRACTED ANTIGEN., Supriya Christopher, P M Giridhara Upadyaya
Background: Brucella sps are Gram negative, facultative intracellular bacteria causing brucellosis in humans and animals. Since it is a multi-organ disease and symptoms are nonspecific the diagnosis by clinical finding is difficult and can be missed .Many serological tests have been used form the diagnosis of human brucellosis. This study compared the diagnostic value of in-house ELISA and IFA using lipopolysaccharide heat extracted antigen (LPS-HE) and Lipopolysaccharide sonicated extracted antigen (LPS- SE) with STT. Methods: The present study was carried out to evaluate the two different antigenic preparations from smooth strains of Brucella abortus S99 for standardising ELISA and IFA as the alternative test for STT. Standard Tube test antigen and Standard anti brucella serum was obtained from IVRI, Izatnagar were used as controls for standardizing ELISA and IFA. 81 human sera (cases) were collected from people working in organized farms including veterinary staff, 32 animal sera from organized farms mentioned above, 100 human sera (controls) collected from KIMS, Bangalore Blood bank. 100 WIDAL positive samples from Department of Microbiology used to check for cross reactivity. All the serum samples (cases, controls and WIDAL positive samples) were tested with STT. Result: Out of 81 human sera 8 (9.87%) was found to be positive with SAT showing a titre of ? 1:80. Whereas by ELISA, 10 (12.34%) & 9 (11.11%) cases showed positive in LPS –SE and LPS –HE coated plates respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for IFA was 77 and 87.5. Conclusion: It was found that ELISA was considered to be better test over IFA and STT. It is cheap and reproducible and a specific assay for the diagnosis of Brucellosis.
13 PRODUCTION OF BIOSURFACTANT OF MICROBIAL ORIGIN USING DIFFERENT RAW MATERIALS, P. W. Deshmukh, N.S .Kulkarni, M. G Bodhankar
Surfactantsare widely used for industrial, agricultural, food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Most of the compounds are chemically synthesized. However, it is only in the past few decades that surface active molecules of microbial origin, referred to as biosurfactants, have gained considerable interest. Biosurfactants have advantages over their chemicals counterparts because they are biodegradable, have low toxicity, effective at extreme temperatures or pH values and show better environmental compatibility. To overcome the production cost and to compete with synthetic surfactant inexpensive substrate and effective microorganism must be develop. The present study deals with the positive use of industrial and agricultural waste as the possible subatrate for biosurfactant production and oil has proved to be an attractive substrate for biosurfactant production.
14 MICROBIAL PRODUCTS: NEW SOURCES FOR A PROMISING CONTRACEPTIVE AGENT, Vijay Prabha, Harpreet Vander, Sonia Gupta
Contraception is a well-known conventional method for stabilizing the world population. Traditional contraceptive techniques that have been used for several years are associated with disadvantages and side effects. There is urgent need of improvements in prevailing birth control methods available to us. Various vaginal contraceptive agents marketed today are chemical or detergent based that are accompanied by numerous negative effects on vaginal flora and epithelium. Therefore, novel mode for birth control that is attaining limelight at the present time is the use of microbial products.