• We are available for your help 24/7
  • Email: info@isindexing.com, submission@isindexing.com


International Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Journal Papers (406) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Drought mitigation interventions of Krishi Vigyan Kendra for enhancing chances of successful harvest in rainfed areas of Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, R.S. NEGI1, S.S. KAUSHIK1, P.S. GURJAR1, A.K. SHARMA1 AND U.S. GAUTAM*
Drought is a major constraint to rain-fed crop production. Analysis of drought on the basis of rainfall pattern of Satna district revealed that the distirct experiences three types of drought in Kharif sown crops; early season drought, mid season drought and terminal drought resulting in seedling, pre-flowering and post-flowering drought stress. Post-flowering drought stress manifests in crop lodging, disease, reduced seed size, premature plant senescence and death of plants. In Satna district, rice, pigeonpea and soybean are the main crops grown during Kharif. Yield losses vary according to severity and the type of drought. Prolonged droughts at any stage results in crop failures. When crop fails farmer rely on relieve measures from governments and welfare organizations. Drought affects livelihoods of more than 1.46 lakhs families in the district. To minimise impact of drought, Krishi Vigyan Kendra have assessed and demonstrated drought mitigating technologies to increased chances of successful harvests. The technologies include varieties that escape/tolerate drought due to early maturity and drought management techniques. Short duration, drought tolerant, disease tolerant varieties of rice, pigeonpea and soybean have been demonstrated and promoted to address drought problem in the district particularly in areas receiving less rains and poorly distributed rainfall. The rice varieties IR-64 and IR-36 (maturing in 115-120 days) have been replaced by early maturing rice varieties JR-201, NDR-97 and Vandana; soybean varieties JS-335 replaced by JS-9305 and JS-9560: long duration pigeonpea varieties have been replaced by short duration ICPL-88039, TJT-501 and TJT-401 in rain fed drought prone areas. These varieties escape terminal drought because of early maturing. The early maturing crops like sesame, black gram, green gram and cowpea have also been introduced in drought prone areas. Further, the improved short duration, disease tolerant varieties are integrated with drought management techniques to reduce drought effects. Management techniques included water harvesting and moisture conservation techniques like ridge and furrow sowing, mulching, compost application, conservation tillage, planting time manipulation and use of cover crops to reduce drought effects. Weather advisory services were provided to farmers on daily basis through Kisan Mobile Advisory. KVK also organized technology demonstrations and trainings, celebrated technology weeks to educate the farmers on drought management About 921 extension programmes comprising meetings, field days, goshthis, farmers fairs, exhibitions and film shows were organized on drought-mitigation strategies with the participation of about 59660 farmers and extension personnel of the district that encountered drought. During the year, seeds of short-duration and drought tolerant varieties of crops were provided to the extent of 994.46 quintal sufficient to cover an area of 2920.5 ha benefiting 4505 farmers in these droughts hit areas. The technologies resulted in better moisture management, better crop establishment and growth, less frequent crop failures and raised crop yields.
2 A comparative study of sweet pepper fruits nutritional composition produced under conventional and organic systems, TALEB R.ABU-ZAHRA
Consumers demand organic products because they believe they are more flavorful and respectful to the environment and human health. A plastichouseexperiment was carried out at Humrat Al-Sahen; about 15 km from As Salt-Jordan, During the 2010-2012 seasons; to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cow, poultry and sheep manure in addition to compost) in which 4 kg organic matter m-2 were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Barottered pepper fruit quality, by using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replicates.Conventional treatment influenced the total yield per replicate, produced the biggest fruit size, and the highest water content, lycopene and titratable acidity, while fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only; addition of animal manure increased sweet pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibreand intensity of red color.In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the lowest fruit lycopene content and the smallest fruit size.
3 Effect of integrated nutrient management on floral and cormal parameters in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus L.), R.VASANTHA KUMARI*, D.P. KUMAR, B.ARUNKUMAR ANDM. MAHADEVAMMA
Field investigations were carried out to know the response integrated nutrient management on floral and cormal parameters in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus l.) cv. AMERICAN BEAUTY was carried out at precision farming development centre, Division of Horticulture, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, UAS, Bangalore during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The application of bio-fertilizer along with two levels of NPK with vermicompost have shown significant result in the treatments both in Kharif and Rabi seasons. The treatment T11 (52.31) and (48.49) took minimum days for spike emergence followed by T10, T9 and T8 treatments during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively. Less number of days taken for flower bud opening, more number of florets per spike, more durability of spike (days) increased spike length, spike girth, floret length, floret diameter, number of florets opening at a time and total number of spikes/plant, fresh weight of spike was found best in the treatment T11 the combination of VAM + Azospirillum + Trichoderma with 75% RDF and vermicompost had shown significant result followed by T10 the combination was 50% RDF + VAM + Azospirillum + Trichoderma with vermicompost 3 tons/ha, during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively. cormal parameters such as number of corms/plant, weight of corms, number of cormels, cormel weight, was maximum in T11 treatment followed by T10 in both Kharif and Rabi seasons
4 Grain yield and nutrient uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L. ) under crop residue incorporation and different nitrogen management practices, C. RADHA KUMARI*, D. SRINIVASULU REDDY1 AND G. LALITHA SIVA JYOTHI1
Field experiments were conducted in the wetland farm of S.V. Agricultural College (Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University), Andhra Pradesh for two consecutive years 2002 2003 and 2003 2004 and results revealed that by raising a reasonably short duration leguminous crop (either a pulse crop or vegetable crop depending up on the farming situation) preceding to rice and incorporation of the crop residues after picking the economic yield and supply of 100 per cent recommended dose of nitrogen through fertilizer to rice was found the best nitrogen management package for rice in terms of higher grain yield, nutrient uptake and economic returns. Incorporation of fieldbean crop residues (C3) was found superior to any other crop residue incorporation with regard to dry matter production, yield and nutrient uptake. The highest gross returns and net returns as well as benefit-cost ratio recorded with the incorporation of crop residues of fieldbean (C3). Supply of 100 per cent N through fertilizer to rice (N2) was found to be superior to any other nitrogen management practices, with regard to dry matter production and yield.
5 Studies on methionine secreting micro-organisms from sago industrial wastes and standardization of growth parameters for maximum methionine secretion, N.ARUNKUMAR*, S.P. SUNDARAM, R.ANANDHAM, N.O. GOPAL AND S. BALAKRISHNAN1
Methionine is a dietary essential amino acid secreted by various microorganisms and can be supplemented in food and feed for enhancing the growth and body functions of the mammals. From a total of141 microorganisms isolated from various sources such as curd, yogurt, cheese, and sago industrial waste 2 yeast culture and 2 bactreial cultures were confirmed to be elite methionine secreting organisms. The microorganisms through molecular characterization were identified as Candida tropicalis ITEM10456, Kluyveromyces marxianus CHY1612, Acetobacter tropicalis NRIC 0312, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans JCM 1171. Various parameters such as carbon and nitrogen requirement, optimum pH and temperature for maximum methionine secretion were also investigated. The organisms were found to secrete maximum methionine, Candida tropicalis ITEM10456 (1134 ?g/ml),Kluyveromyces marxianus CHY1612 (1320 ?g/ml), Acetobacter tropicalis NRIC 0312 (1412 ?g/ml), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. Tolerans JCM 1171 (1078 ?g/ml) after standardization of the growth parameters
6 Effect of nutrient management on leaf chlorophyll and productivity of yellowing affected arecanut (Areca catechu L.), D. JACOB*, MERCY GEORGEAND P.S. JOHN
Among various factors associated with yellowing of arecanut, soil health and balanced nutrition are profoundly important. Field experiment was conducted in sixteen year old irrigated arecanut (Areca catechu L.) plantation in farmers field during 2004-2006 to study the effect of application of sulphur, magnesium, silicon, zinc, boron and varying levels of calcium, potassium and organic manure on leaf chlorophyll and yield of yellowing affected arecanut. Prevailing farmers practise and recommended practice were taken as controls. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with five replications. Observations taken on leaf chlorophyll content, yellowing index, kernel weight and fruit number were analysed. Magnesium sulphate application significantly increased leaf chlorophyll-a by 221 per cent, chlorophyll-b by 200 per cent and total chlorophyll by 201 per cent than the pre-experiment contents and thus significantly lowered yellowing index by 77 per cent. Applications of sulphur together with potassium markedly increased fruit number resulting in 6 per cent increased kernel yield compared to treatments where higher than recommended rate of potassium alone was applied. The study indicated that application of 150 g lime, a minimum of 15 kg farm yard manure, fertilizer at 100 g N, 40 g P2O5 and 200 g K2O/palm/year applied in two equal splits in February and September by way of including a sulphur containing fertilizer source to supply a minimum of 100 g sulphur, 60 g magnesium sulphate, 20 g zinc sulphate and borax at 20 g/palm/year may be adopted for managing yellowing affected arecanut palms cultivated in irrigated terraced upland toposequence of Western ghat
7 Bioefficacy of post emergence herbicides for weed control in soybean [Glycinemax (L.) Merrill] under Chhattisgarh conditions, ANUJ ROSHANTOPPO, DEVENDRA KUMAR DEWANGAN* AND E. SAHU
A field experiment was conducted at the Research cum Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.), during Kharif season of 2010, to find out the bioefficacy of post emergence herbicides for weed control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] under Chhattisgarh conditions. All the weed management practices were found effective in controlling the weeds. The maximum total and species wise weed density of Ecinocloa colonum, Cynodon dactylon, Bracharia ramose, Digitaria sanguinalis, Dinebra retroflexa, Cyperus rotandus, Alternanthra sessilis, Parthenium hysterophorus and Euphorbia geniculata were observed under weedy check (T13) and minimum were observed under treatment farmers practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12). Highest weed control efficiency and seed yield was noted under treatment hand weeding twice at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12) and lowest weed control efficiency was observed in weedy check (T13). The economic returns in terms of net returns, additional return over weedy check and B:C ratio were maximum under hoeing twice (by wheel hoe) at 15 DAS and 35 DAS (T11) followed by farmers practice (hand weeding twice) at 20 DAS and 40 DAS (T12), imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb hoeing (by wheel hoe) at 35 DAS (T10) and imazethapyr 10 SL @ 100 g ha-1 fb HW at 35 DAS (T9).
8 Effect of integrated nutrient management and planting geometry on growth and yield of aerobic rice, V. PARAMESH*, C.J. SRIDHARA1, K.S. SHASHIDHAR2 AND S. BHUVANESWARI2
A field experiment was conducted with three integrated nutrient management practices and three spacings were laid out in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during Kharif 2009 at College of Agriculture, Shimoga. The integrated nutrient management practices including 50% RDN through chemical fertilizers and 50% RDN through organic sources like farm yard manure, poultry manure and vermicompost with three spacing viz., 30 x 30 cm, 20 x 20 cm and 20 x 10 cm. Among integrated nutrient management practices (M3) 50% RDN through chemical fertilizers + 50% RDN through vermicompost recorded significantly higher plant height (80.54 cm), leaf area (1537.69 cm2), number of tillers hill-1(30.04), total dry matter accumulation hill-1 (84.78 g) grain yield (39.48 q ha-1) and straw yield (52.9 q ha-1). Wider spacing of 30 x 30 cm (S3) had registered significantly higher plant height (84.26 cm), leaf area (1538.12 cm2) number of tillers hill-1 (33.32), total dry matter accumulation hill-1 (87.18 g), grain yield (40.61 q ha-1) and straw yield (53.63 q ha-1).
9 Study on general trade practices and price structure of bullocks at Chandrapur district of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, M.U. TANPURE*, Y.M. INGALE, R.M. ZINJARDE AND P.K. BHAISARE
By survey and the analyzed data of cattle markets of Chandrapur district it was observed that at all the markets under study majority of bullocks sold were non descript. The trend indicated that there was no special priority to have the bullocks of descript draft breed. The farmers or sellers sold young and adult bullocks to get more income from selling, while old bullocks are sold to replace new bullocks. Greater number of sellers (78%) sold their bullocks through brokers and very few seller (5%) had trust on broker about guarantee of payment. Maximum farmers (71% and 60%) sold their bullocks due to financial and fodder problems, respectively. All bullock purchasers (100%) considered bullock teeth to select the good bullocks. 91% sellers brought their bullocks at market place on the market day. Mostly (75%) bullock sellers came to the market along with their bullocks by walking from their villages. To sale low quality bullocks Warora market is good and for marketing of medium quality bullocks Brahmpuri market is better and also to sale best and excellent quality bullocks Brahmpuri market is better.
10 Combining ability studies through diallel analysis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.], A.S. BHADALIA1, K.K. DHEDHI*, H.J. JOSHI AND J.S. SORATHIYA
Combining ability was studied in 8x8 diallel set, including reciprocals, for grain yield and its 11 component traits in pearl millet. Both GCA and SCA variances were highly significant for all the characters. The ratio of GCA and SCA revealed preponderance of non- additive gene action in expression of all the characters viz., grain yield per plant, days to flowering, days to maturity, number of effective tillers per plant, ear head length, ear head girth, ear head weight, plant height, number grains per square cm, 1000-grain weight, dry fodder yield per plant and harvest index. The parents like J-2467, J-2511 and J-2405 could be used in hybridization programme to exploit their GCA effects for grain yield and some important attributing traits. Inbred J-2405 was also found to be good source of genes for earliness. The crosses viz., J-2454 x J-2467, J-2454 x J- 2511, J-2290 x J-2480 and J-2290 x J-2511 were the most promising having good SCA, coupled with high per se performance and heterobeltiosis for grain yield and some of its components. Analyses of crosses revealed majority of the superior crosses were involved poor x good or average x poor or average x good and few cases good x good general combiners. The development of new inbred lines with high per se performance and good combining ability, through appropriate breeding methodology is suggested
11 Association studies for morphological and biomass traits of Bauhinia variegata Linn., R.K.ANAND* AND S.V. DWIVEDI
Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar) is an important tree species of India which produces nutritive and palatable leaf fodder. It is generally preferred by the farmers of Himachal Pradesh and Uttrakhand for livestock feeding at the time of fodder scarcity. Keeping its importance, 48 plus trees were selected from different parts of Himachal Pradesh. Seeds were collected from these trees and sown in nursery under randomized block design to assess the association among different morphological and biomass traits. After 16 month growth, data were recorded and statistically analyzed for association studies. A strong simple, genotypic and phenotypic correlation was observed between biomass traits and some morphological traits especially collar diameter, plant height and leaf area. The phenotypic correlation coefficients were lower than their corresponding genotypic values, which revealed that magnitude of correlation coefficient at genotypic level was higher than their corresponding phenotypic coefficient of correlations. Present study indicates that collar diameter, plant height and leaf area are the common causal factor that influences biomass productivity of Bauhinia variegata genotypes. Therefore, these characters may be given proper emphasis during selection programme of a fodder tree species where the amount of leaf and biomass production is of immense importance
12 Beneficial effects of kinetin on shelf life of kinnow mandarin, NIRMALJIT KAUR*,ANIL KUMAR AND P.K. MONGA
The present investigations were undertaken to extend the shelf life of Kinnow mandarin without affecting the fruit quality at Regional Research Station, Abohar. The harvested fruits were treated with different concentrations of kinetin (15 and 20 ppm). The treated fruits were stored under cold storage (4oC, 90-95 % RH) and ambient conditions (6-210 C, 51-85 % RH) after packaging in CFB boxes (10 kg). The physiological loss in weight, rotting, juice, total soluble solids, vitamin C content were recorded at different times of interval of the fruits stored under different conditions. From the data it has been observed that the minimum physiological loss in weight and rotting was recorded with the application of the growth regulator as compared to control under both the conditions. The mean physiological loss in weight (5.02 %) and rotting (6.66 %) were observed to be minimum up to 60 days with the post harvest application of kinetin (20 ppm) , while these were minimum with the same treatment when stored up to 28 days under ambient conditions. The maximum retention of TSS, vitamin C and juice content was observed with the post harvest application of kinetin (20 ppm), while acidity decreased under the cold storage and ambient conditions. Therefore, the shelf life of Kinnow fruits can be extended up to 28 days and 60 days with the post harvest application of kinetin (20 ppm) under ambient and cold storage conditions, respectively without affecting the fruit quality of kinnow mandarin
13 Effect of paddy straw and paper mill effluent on growth attributes and yield of wheat, SUSHIL KUMAR SHARMA* AND SHAYAM DAS
A field experiment was conducted on the field of progressive farmer at Nalhera village district Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh fromRabi 2006-07 and 2007-08 to study the effect of paddy straw and paper mill effluent on growth and yield attributes of wheat rhizosphere. The experiment was carried out in RBD with 12 treatments and three replications. In the study different levels of NPK were mixed with various proportions of diluted paper mill effluent and fixed amount of 5 ton paddy straw. During the study of growth and yield attributes it was obsereved that application of 100 % recommended NPK + 5 ton paddy straw recorded 10.0 and 10.3 no. of tillers in 2006-07 and 2007-08 which were at par with 150% NPK and 100% NPK treatments. Differences among treatments for effective numbers of tillers per square meter were highly significant in both the years. The minimum no. of tilleres was obsereved in the application of 75% recommended dose of NPK+100% PME. The highest plant hight was recorded with application of 150% recommended dose of NPK was75.6 and 75.0 cm in both the year application of chemical fertilizers and with paddy straw give significantly higher plant height. The result revealed that maximum average plant dry weight and length of ears were observed that application of 150 % recommended NPK was 21.39, 21.94 g 9.30 and 10.20 cm per plant in both the years, respectively. The data on grains per ear envisage the differences in treatment highly significant during both the crop seasons. The result show that NPK alone 150% and 100% application with paddy straw were significantly different in all the growth attributesviz., plant height, plant dry weight, no. of tillers, ear length etc. compared with application of paper mill effluent in irrigation
14 Evaluation of paddy genotypes for morphological character under upland cultivation, C.M. KAMBLE*, K.M. SONAWANE AND P.N. RASAL
A field trial conducted at MPKV, Rahuri duringKharif under upland condition in Randomized Block Design with three replication and twelve treatments . Paddy genotypes namely PBNR 89 II-6, PBNR 89, II-53, PBNR 90 III-64, PBNR 90 III-4, PBNR 90 II-11, PBNR 90 III-10, PBNR 89 I-3, PBNR 93-9, PBNR 93-4 and varieties Sugandha. (check), Parag (check), Basumati-370 (check) significant differences were observed among the genotypes for plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area index, leaf area duration, dry matter production and grain yield. None of genotypes surplus the grain yield than variety parag and Basumati-370 under upland condition.
15 Effect of plant spacings on the yield and yield attributes of groundnut varieties, K. HARICHARAN REDDY1, J.S.ARUN KUMAR* AND GAUTAM GHOSH1
The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Desigh (FRBD) with eight treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of 30 x 15, 20 x 15, 35 x 15 and 35 x 20 cm plants spacing and two varieties Kaushal (Bunch type), Chitra (Spreading type). The results showed that plant spacing of 35x20 cm gave higher yield, lowest yield was recorded in plant spacing of 20x15cm. The growth and yield attributes of groundnut were significantly reduced when the crop was provided with less spacing, groundnut required wider plant spacing (35 x 20 cm) to express its maximum yield potentiality
16 Yield and economics of sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars as influenced by plant population and fertility levels on yield attributes and their interaction effect under zone IV a of Rajasthan, J.X. MASSEY*, B.L. GAUR AND H.K. SUMERIYA
A field experiment was conducted duringKharif 2001 and 2002 to compare efficacy of three cultivars, three plant population and three fertility levels in sweet corn at the Instructional Farm (Agronomy), RCA, Udaipur (Rajasthan). The test cultivar Madhuri recorded maximum net returns (Rs 56941 ha-1) and B/C ratio (5.99:1) and remained at par to genotypes JKSCH 211. Among plant population, 75 thousands plant population recorded significantly maximum green cob and green fodder yield and fetched maximum net returns and B/C ratio than 55000 plants ha- 1. With regards to fertility levels, application of 90:45 kg N: P2O5ha-1 and 120:60 kg N: P2O5ha-1 levels of fertility remained at par with each other in terms of yield and economics and application of 90:45 kg N: P2O5ha-1 recorded 21.13 and 15.72 per cent higher in green cob and green fodder yield and 23.18 and 16.31 per cent higher in net returns and B/C ratio. Combined application of 75000 plant population alongwith 90:45 kg N: P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher green cob and green fodder yield by 33.59, 28.93 and net returns and B/C ratio by 37.19 and 23.52 per cent higher over 55,000 plants ha-1 alongwith 60:30 kg N: P2O5ha-1 level of fertility
17 Genetic analysis of sugar content in segregating populations derived from cross between grain sorghum x sweet sorghum, VEMANNA IRADDI*, PARASHURAM PATROTI, SANTOSH PATIL1
The present investigation on inheritance, correlation and path analysis study was undertaken in the segregating populations derived from cross between grain sorghum and sweet sorghum. An intervarietal cross of sweet sorghum was generated during Kharif 2010 by crossing the parents (27 B with NSSV 13) which were contrasting for the trait of interest i.e., sugar content. The F1 generation was raised during Rabi 2010 - 11 and F2, B1 and B2 crosses were anticipated. Based on sugar yield, plants were classified into two distinct groups i.e., high sugar and low sugar content. By employing the chi square test, goodness of fit was tested for the segregation ratio and it was evident that sugar content governed by simple monogenic pattern (3High sugar: 1low sugar) of inheritance with high sugar content being governed by dominant and low sugar by recessive allele. Further, correlation studies in F2 generation revealed significant and positive association of sugar yield with juice yield, total biomass, brix per cent, total soluble sugars, bioethanol yield, fresh stalk yield, grain yield and juice extraction per cent. While path analysis studies revealed maximum positive direct effect of total soluble sugars and juice yield on sugar yield. These correlated traits can be effectively utilized in formulating indirect selection schemes.
18 Dynamics of food grains production in Jammu & Kashmir and Haryana, ANIL BHAT*, MANISH SHARMA1 AND S.P. SINGH
The growth in the foodgrains production, area and yield in Haryana was found higher as compared to Jammu and Kashmir. Yield and its interaction with area are the main factors to increase the production. In Jammu and Kashmir in the triennium period 1979 -1982 and current period 2006-09, average area, production and yield of foodgrain crops has shown an increase of 7.25 per cent, 19.93 per cent and 11.85 per cent, respectively whereas in Haryana these variables has shown an increase of 11.50 per cent, 167.79 per cent and 140.20 per cent, respectively. The production of food grains in Jammu and Kashmir and Haryana has increased 59.46 per cent and 83.55 per cent, respectively due to yield effect and 4.16 per cent and 9.60 per cent, respectively due to interaction between yield and area. In Haryana the estimated area, production and yield of food grains will be 4560.82 thousand hectares, 18940.79 thousand tonnes and 4296.53 kg/ha., respectively whereas for Jammu and Kashmir it is estimated as 881.44 thousand hectares, 1584.06 thousand tonnes and 1803 kg/ha., respectively for the year 2019-2020.
19 Integrated nutrient management in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping sequence in semi arid condition of India, PRADEEP KUMAR*, RAKESH SINGH1,ARCHANA SINGH, DINESH PALIWAL2 AND SUSHIL KUMAR3
A field experiment was conducted at Raja Balwant Singh College Agricultural Research Farm, Agra during 2009 2010 to evaluate the effect of different fertility levels on the productivity of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) - wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.)] cropping sequence under semi arid condition. The combined application of organic manures and fertilizers had significant and positive effects on productivity of the system. The results indicated that the productivity of the wheat and pearl millet crop can be sustained by the application of balanced use of nutrients to the crops through integration of organic manures and fertilizers. The quality of both the crops in respect of protein, nitrogen and phosphorus and potash utilization increased significantly with conjoint use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers
20 Heterosis and combining ability analysis in Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss, V.K. DHOLU1, N. SASIDHARAN*, K. SUTHAR1, B. BHUSAN1 AND J.N. PATEL1
Heterosis and combining ability were studied in 8 x 8 diallel set of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss]. Analysis of variance for combining ability revealed the presence of genetic variability due to gca among the parents and due to sca among the crosses for all the traits. The ?2gca and ?2sca ratio indicated that non-additive gene action was predominant for the inheritance of all the traits except days to 50% flowering, plant height, length of siliquae, seeds per siliquae and 1000 seed weight for which additive gene action was more important. Parents GM-2 and IC-560696 were good general combiners for seed yield per plant and its related attributes. On the basis of per se performance and estimates of heterosis hybrids, IC-491446 x IC-560696, IC-560696 x Vardan and Laxmi x GM-2were found to be most promising for seed yield and other desirable traits, hence, could be further evaluated to exploit the heterosis or utilized in future breeding programme to obtain desirable segregants for the development of superior genotypes. The maximum positive significant heterosis over better parent for seed yield was observed in the hybrids IC-491446 x IC-560696 (45.31%)Laxmi x GM-2 (41.93%) and IC-560696 x Vardan (16.37%). The gca and sca mean squares were significant for aphid resistance. The dominance ratio (?2gca/?2sca) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene effects for the inheritance of aphid resistance. The estimates of general combining ability suggested that parents GM-1 and GM-3 were good general combiner for aphid resistance. The estimates of specific combining ability effects revealed that the cross combinations viz., IC-491446 x GM-2, IC-560696 x Vardan, IC-491446 x GM-1, Laxmi x Vardan and Laxmi x IC-560696 were observed to be most promising for aphid resistance. The morphological characters of plant viz., siliquae per plant, seeds per siliquae and yield per plant were negatively correlated with the peak aphid population. The oil content was negatively correlated with peak aphid population while, protein content was positively correlated with peak aphid population
21 Management of Rhizoctonia root rot of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by integrated biological and chemical approach, LAXMI RAWAT*,YOGENDRA SINGH1, BIJENDRA KUMAR ANDARVIND SHULKLA2
An experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy of Trichoderma isolates (Th-14 and Th-21) alone and/or in combination with the fungicide Topsin-M against pea root rot caused byRhizoctonia solani Kuhn (R-15) under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Both the Trichoderma isolates inhibited mycelial growth of R-15 in paired culture method. The compatibility of both the systems (Trichoderma and Topsin-M) was also evaluated for successful integration of biological and chemical methods for controlling Rhizoctonia root rot of pea. The growth of Trichoderma isolates were not effected by Topsin-M even at concentration of 600 mg/l. Whereas, the growth of R-15 was significantly reduced even at concentration of 100 mg/l. Per cent germination, seedling survival (%), shoot and root dry weights were reduced in untreated plants in infested soil (check1). However, Plants obtained fromTrichoderma and/or Topsin-M treated seeds showed comparatively higher per cent germination, shoot and root dry weights. Reduction in root rot severity was more when seeds were treated with Trichoderma isolates alone or in combination with Topsin-M compared to Topsin-M alone. The population density ofR. solaniwas reduced significantly in the rhizosphere of pea seedlings obtained from seeds pretreated with Trichoderma and/or Topsin-M. Minimum CFU/g of R-15 was obtained from soil sample collected from the pot given T4 (Th-14+ Topsin-M+ R-15) treatment. Thus, the two systems (Th-14 and Topsin-M) showed a synergistic effect for controlling Rhizoctonia root rot of pea
22 Efficacy of fungicides and phytoextracts againstAlternaria spp. causing leaf spot on cotton in vitro, P.K. MEENA* AND R.S. RATNOO
Of the eight fungicides tested in vitro, mancozeb and hexaconazole were found most effective to inhibit the mycelial growth of Alternaria spp. at 0.2% concentration. Phytoextract, azadiractien was superior over karanz oil and mustard oil to inhibit the mycelial growth. In potted plants, minimum disease severity were obtained in mancozeb and hexaconazole followed by copper oxychloride and tilt. All treatments as foliar sprays were able to reduce disease severity over untreated control at 0.2% followed by 0.1% concentration. Mancozeb and hexaconazole were found effective in management of Alternaria leaf spot of cotton
23 Influence of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of coleus (Coleus forskohlii Briq.) under northern dry zone of Karnataka, SADASHIV NADUKERI*, K.N. KATTIMANI AND SHASHIKALA S. KOLAKAR
Coleus (Coleus forskohlii Briq.) belonging to the family Lamiaceae is an Indian medicinal plant grown for its tuberous roots. It is used against hypertension, glaucoma and congestive cardiomyopathy. It needs to be cultivated in large scale. A field experiment was conducted on sandy loam soil under irrigated conditions at the Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Karnataka, India, to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of coleus. The results of the experiment revealed that application of 75 Per cent RDF (Recommended dose of fertilizer) + 10 t FYM + vermicompost 5 t per hectare produced increased plant height (66.49cm), number of branches per plant (85.95), leaf area index (7.49) at harvest, absolute growth rate (3.394g/plant/day), crop growth rate (0.943g/m2/day) and relative growth rate (0.0460g/g/week) were recorded at 120-160 days after planting. The maximum fresh tuber yield 225.47 and 250.52 g/plant and q/ha, respectively and dry tuber yield 29.53 and 32.81 g/plant and q/ha, respectively.
24 Intensification and diversification of rice (Oryza sativa) based cropping systems for productivity, profitability and water expense efficiency in Jharkhand, UDAY SHANKER MALL*, R.P. MANJHI AND R. THAKUR
A field experiment was conducted at BAU, Kanke, Ranchi under irrigated medium land condition in 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11 to evaluate the production potential, nutrient uptake, water expense efficiency and economics of seven rice based cropping systems. Seven cropping systems viz., rice-wheat, rice-mustard-green gram, rice-rajma-green gram, rice-potato-green gram, rice wheat + mustard (5:1)-green gram, rice-wheat+ rajma (5:1)-green gram, and rice-potato + wheat (1:1)-green gram were evaluated in this study. Among the cropping systems, ricepotato + wheat (1:1)-green gram recorded highest rice equivalent yield (215.81 q/ha), system productivity (59.13 kg rice/ha/day), water expense efficiency (35.74 kg/ha/mm) and land use efficiency (95.89%) as compared to other cropping systems. Crop sequences with potato as Rabi crop resulted in significantly higher N, P and K uptake. The use of resources and their efficiencies were higher i.e. economic analysis revealed that the maximum net profit (Rs. 120602), benefit: cost ratio (1.26) and monetary efficiency (305.41 /ha/day) were recorded in rice- potato + wheat (1:1)- green gram crop sequence closely followed by rice potato green gram which were significantly superior over other cropping system. Hence, rice- potato + wheat (1:1)-green gram and rice-potato-green gram were found to be the most productive, resource- use efficient and remunerative cropping system under irrigated conditions and can be followed in place of rice-wheat systems for higher profitability.
25 Effect of different plant growth regulators and micronutrients on fruit quality and plant micronutrient content of tomato, S.S. DESAI*, R.S. CHOVATIAAND VIRENDRA SINGH
An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different plant growth regulators and micronutrient on fruit quality and micronutrient content of tomato at Horticulture Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India during 10 December, 2010 to 10 April, 2011. Eleven different treatments which consist of four plant growth regulators and three micronutrients were used, viz., T1= (Gibberellic Acid) @ 50 ppm, T2= (Gibberellic Acid) @ 75 ppm, T3= (Naphthalene acetic acid) @ 50 ppm, T4= (Naphthalene acetic acid) @ 75 ppm, T5= Boron 50 ppm, T6 = Boron 75 ppm,T7= Zinc 0.5%, T8= Zinc1%, T9=Iron 100 ppm, T10= Iron 150 ppm and T11 = Control (No application of plant growth regulator and micronutrients) in the study. The fruit quality and micronutrient content parameters in plant were significantly differed due to different plant growth regulators and micronutrient on tomato. The maximum acidity per cent (1.41%) and ascorbic acid (109.33 mg/lOOg pulp) were found in T4= (Naphthalene acetic acid) @ 75 ppm, maximum reducing sugars (1.68%), non-reducing sugars (1.98%), total sugars (3.67%) and TSS (4.33 OBrix) were found in treatment T2 (GA375 ppm), whereas maximum boron content (31.00 ppm), Fe content (31.00 ppm) and Zn content (22.33 ppm) were found in treatment T8 (Boric acid 75 ppm), T10 (FeSO4150 ppm) and T6 (ZnSO4 -1%), respectively the minimum for all the parameters were found in control treatment
26 SPH-1635 A dual purpose high yielding Kharif sorghum hybrid, R.B. GHORADE, V.V. KALPANDE AND S.A. BHONGLE
SPH 1635 is the new, dual purpose Kharif sorghum hybrid developed by using a new diverse ms line AKMS 30 A with restorer AKR 456. It is a mid late maturity hybrid maturing in 108 days. In the project trials it had recorded 2.23 % more grain yield over CSH 16 and 14.37 % mover over CSH 23 on all India basis. While, for fodder yield it gave 14.58 % and 19.55 % increase in yield over CSH 16 and CSH 23, respectively. Similarly in the state trials, this hybrid gave 25.10 % increased grain yield over CSH 14 and 7.32 % over CSH 16 while for fodder yield this hybrid showed 14.76 % and 6.07 % more yield over CSH 14 and CSH 16, respectively. In the university trials SPH 1635 exhibited 8.95 %, 24.92 % and 25.23 % increased grain yield over CSH 9, SPH 840 and CSH 16, respectively and for fodder yield the increase was 15.35 %, 16.71 % and 23.07 % over popular hybrid CSH 9, SPH 840 and national release CSH 16, respectively. This hybrid gave higher grain and fodder yield over the check CSH 9 in the adaptive trials on farmers field. Similarly this hybrid recorded promising performance against major pest and diseases as compared to the checks. Further, the grain and stover quality parameters of the said hybrid have been promising and comparable with widely used checks. Therefore SPH 1635 has been identified for release for commercial cultivation in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra at joint agrosco held at Akola during 2012
27 Effect of vermicompost and zinc on yield attributes, yield and quality of green gram [Vigna radiata var. aureus (L.) wilczek] in arid western Rajasthan, SITARAMTAK*, S.K. SHARMAAND M.L. REAGER1
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season to find out the Response of green gram [Vigna radiata var. aureus (L.) wilczek] to vermicompost and zinc application in arid western Rajasthan. The treatments comprised of five organic manure (Control, FYM @ 10 tha-1, vermicompost @ 5 tha-1, vermicompost @ 7.5 tha-1 and vermicompost @10 tha-1) and four spray of zinc sulphate (control, at initiation of branching, at initiation of flowering and at initiation of branching as well as flowering) were laid out in randomized block design. Application of increasing levels of vermicompost from 5 to 7.5 t ha-1 significantly enhanced the pods per plant, pod length, grains per pod, test weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield, harvest index, NPK and Zn, content in seed and straw and protein content in seed of green gram. Further an application of foliar spray of zinc at both branching and flowering stage in green gram significantly increased the pods per plant, pod length, grains per pod, test weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield, harvest index, NPK and Zn, content in seed and straw and protein content in seed of green gram as compared to single application of foliar spray of zinc at branching as well as flowering and control.
28 Analysis of genetic diversity in wheat genotypes, SHASHIKALA S.KOLAKAR*,R.R. HANCHINAL1 AND SADASHIV NADUKERI
D2 analysis was studied for yield and its component characters in 169 wheat genotypes. Analysis was done using Mahalanobiss D2 statistic (1936) as described by Rao (1952). Following the cluster analysis all the 169 genotypes showed that the genotypes were grouped into twelve clusters, with the variable number of genotypes in each cluster. The inter cluster distance was found to be highest between cluster VIII and XI; hence accessions from these clusters are suggested to obtain improvement in seed yield of wheat. Days to 50 per cent flowering, number of spike lets per spike, grain yield per plot and productive tillers per meter length are the most important characters contributing to total divergence.
29 Genetic analysis for oil content and oil quality traits in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.], R.A. GAMI* AND R.M. CHAUHAN
Heterosis and combining ability was estimated for oil content and oil quality traits in Indian mustard with the help of line x tester matting design of total 34 accessions comprised of ten parental genotypes (six female and four male) and their 24 F1 hybrids of Indian mustard at S.D.Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar. Eight hybrids recorded significant and positive heterobeltiosis for oil yield. The range of heterobeltiosis varied from -9.48 per cent (SKM-9033 x GM 2) to 6.96 per cent (BPR-610-50-6 x VARUNA). Parent PUSA BOLD was proved to be good donors for oil content, linolenic acid and glucosinolate. PBR-122 for oil content, oleic acid, linolenic acid, erucic acid and glucosinolate, PCR-7 good combiner for erucic acid, SKM-9033 having good gene for increasing oleic acid and linoleic acid content. Parent BPR-610-50-6 good for oil content, oleic acid, linolenic acid and glucosinolate. The hybrid SKM-9033 x VARUNA pursued by BPR-610-50-6 x VARUNA and BIO-902 x PUSA BOLD and SKM-9820 x GM 2 proved high sca effects for oil content
30 Effect of growth regulators on mycelial growth and yield of Pleurotus eous, D.P. PAL*, S.P. MISHRA, C.S. SHUKLA1 AND L.R. VERMA2
The research experiment was conducted in mushroom research laboratory at Danteshwari College of Horticulture, Raipur (C.G.). Five different growth regulators viz., naphthaline acetic acid (NAA), giberlic acid (G.A.), cytokinin, 2, 4-D- dichlorophenoxy acitic acid (2, 4-D) and indole butaric acid (I.B.A.) were evaluated. Highest mycelial growth and yield ofPleurotus eous was more recorded in gibberlic acid incorporated medium. However it was least in 2, 4-D incorporated medium
31 Evaluation of heterosis and inbreeding depression for seed yield and its components in castor (Ricinus communis L.), H.P. VIRANI1, K.K. DHEDHI* AND H.L. DHADUK1
Heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis was studied by using generation mean analysis involving six generations, namely P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of five crosses of castor (Ricinus communis L.). The high magnitude of heterobeltiosis was observed in crosses JP 101 x SKI 215(86.51 %) and JP 96 x JI 368 (25.90 %) for seed yield per plant. Among the five crosses studied, JP 96 x JI 368 (52.20 %) exhibited the highest significantly positive standard heterosis over the check hybrid (GCH-6) for seed yield per plant followed by JP 101 x SKI 291 (21.24 %) and JP 101 x SKI 215 (9.00 %). Hybrids showing high positive heterosis for seed yield also depicted high to moderate heterotic effects for majority of its component traits in desirable direction. The magnitude of inbreeding depression varied from cross to cross indicating influence of genetic constitution of crosses. Either low or moderate amount of inbreeding depression in desired direction was found for most of the traits. Association of high heterosis with high inbreeding depression was observed for seed yield and some of its component traits. Most of the crosses in majority of the traits showed positive inbreeding depression indicated the presence of dominance gene effects. Suitable breeding strategies were suggested for theimprovement of seed yield in castor
32 Forecasting wheat production using ARIMA model in Punjab, BARUN BISWAS1, L.K. DHALIWAL*, SOM PAL SINGH AND S.K. SANDHU
In the present study, area, production and productivity data of wheat for Punjab was analyzed by time-series method. Yearly wheat yield data for the period of 1950-51 to 2009-10 was used as input to forecast the yield upto the year 2020-21.The Box-Jenkins ARIMA method was put into use to forecast the yield. The validity of the model were tested by standard statistical techniques. The past 60 years data revealed that wheat yield was increased from 0.8 t ha-1 in 1950-51 to 4.3 t ha-1 in 2009-10. The model projected 15.3 per cent increase in wheat production in the years to come by 2020-21 in Punjab. Based on ARIMA output, wheat production of Punjab is likely to increase from 15844.7 thousand tons in 2010-11 to 18271.7 thousand tons in 2020-21
33 Effect of biofertilizer and different sources of phosphatic fertilizers on the growth and yield of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in alluvial soil, SHALINI KHAJURIA1, TARENCE THOMAS2 ANDVIJAY KUMAR*
An experiment was conducted during Rabi 2001 to assess the effect of biofertilizer (Rhizobium) and different sources of phosphatic fertilizers (Diammonium phosphate and single super phosphate) on the growth and yield of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in alluvial soil. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and four replications. In this experiment, it was observed that the diammonium phosphate + Rhizobium had higher values of plant height, number of leaves, nodules per plant, fresh and dry weight of plant and grain yield followed by single super phosphate + diammonium phosphate. The diammonium phosphate +Rhizobium had given favorable results with regards to at various stages of 20, 40, 60 and 80 days after sowing. The diammonium phosphate + Rhizobium and single super phosphate + diammonium phosphate were found to be more effective in producing maximum growth extension than rest of the treatments, although the difference was significant among the treatments. Field pea crop applied with diammonium phosphate +Rhizobium recorded highest yield (102.6 q ha-1) followed by single super phosphate + diammonium phosphate (98.6 q ha-1) while minimum in control (77.4 q ha-1). Among the diammonium phosphate + Rhizobium evaluated, showed better response compared all the treatments.
34 Socio-economic status of Lac growers in Korba District of Chhattisgarh, GOVIND PAL* AND R.K. YOGI1
The study pertains to data collected from randomly selected 100 Lac growers in Korba district of Chhattisgarh during the year 2008- 09. The study indicated that 48 per cent Lac growers were marginal farmers followed by small (27 %), medium (18 %), semi-medium (5 %) and large (2 %). The majority of Lac growers had education up to middle level. Share of income fromLac was 19.8 per cent and 36.3 per cent of total income and farm income, respectively of Lac growers. In case of off-farm income, maximum income was contributed by labour activity which was 21.2 per cent of total income of farmers. The host utilization percentage was maximum for kusum (56.2 %) followed by palas (44.6 %) and ber (13.1 %). About 68.0 per cent Lac growers produced Lac with average production of 48.6 kg., 21.0 per cent Lac growers had average production of 118.9 kg. and 11.0 per cent Lac growers had average production of 336.8 kg. annually. The study of marketing behavior indicated that around 95 per cent grower sold their produce either in village or in the market/ haat up to 5 km radius. Grading practice was less operational in the area. Lac was used as a cash crop and majority of farmers sold Lac in the lots of 5-10 kg. Around 85 per cent farmers sold Lac immediately after harvesting. Implications of the present study will be helpful in strengthening the socio-economic condition ofLac growers and Lac marketing scenario in Chhattisgarh.
35 In vitro technology for propagation of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cv. KEW, P.H. NIKUMBHE*, P.N. SONAVANE AND P.A. SABLE
Pineapple fruit cultivation, production and multiplication is entirely dependent upon vegetative meansi.e. crowns, suckers and slips. The availability of suckers, slips and crowns on large scale as planting material and poor suckering habit of the commercial varieties like Kew are the major problems in the pineapple planting and production. Micro-propagation studies in Kew variety of pineapple were attempted to release standard protocol for in vitro clonal multiplication. Slips apical section used as explants. Surface sterilization with 0.1 per cent HgCl2 for 8 minutes, followed by 0.2 per cent ridomil 15 minutes treatment for reducing contamination of cultures. MS medium was found better when supplemented with 1.5 ppm BAP + 0.5 ppm NAA and 2.0 ppm BAP + 0.25 ppm NAA resulted in 80.53 per cent shoot establishment, and 7.10 numbers of shoots induction occurred. MS medium with 2 ppm IBA and MS medium with 1.5 ppm IBA + 0.5 ppm NAA resulted in 92.66 per cent rooting and 5.61 numbers of roots induction occurred.
36 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, physiological parameters and productivity of lentil (Lens culinarisMedik.), DASHRATH SINGH* AND R.P. SINGH1
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season at All India Co-ordinated Research Project on MULLaRP (mungbean, urdbean, lentil, lathyrus, rajmash and pea) Department of Agronomy, R.A.K. College of Agriculture, Sehore (M.P.) during 2007-2008, with the objective of studying the effect of INM practices on growth(plant height and branches), physiological parameters (leaf area, LAI, NAR, CGR) and seed yield of lentil. The results of the study could be concluded that all the growth, physiological characters of lentil were improved 11.2 to 52.0 % Leaf area, 18.7 to 43.7 % LAI at 60 DAS and 1.8 to 64.8 CGR, 11.1 to 88.8 % NAR at 45-60 DAS, 29.7 to 50.9 % root nodule at 60 DAS and 16.5 to 43.7 % yield as compared to control due to balance use of NPKS @ 20:40:20:20 kg/ha + FYM @ 5 t/ha. Further it was suggested that the INM is best option to improve the seed yield of lentil
37 Economical assessment of critical period for crop-weed competition in rainfed sesamum (Sesamum indicum), H.S. MAHAJAN1 AND N.A. HIRWE
A field experiment was conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Oilseed Research Station, Mamurabad farm, Jalgaon (M.S.) to assess critical period of crop-weed competition and find out ideal weeding time for rain fed sesamum. The results revealed that, 15 to 30 DAS were more crucial and critical period for crop-weed competition. Minimum loss (16.71%) was observed with weeding at 30 DAS and produced significantly more yield (553kg ha-1) than weeding at 45 and 60 DAS . It also increased net monetary return (Rs 14332 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.86) which indicated that, hand weeding at 30 DAS economically more feasible than other growth stages for rainfed sesamum in the region
38 Influence of crop geometry, intercropping and topping practices on green cob yield and fodder quality of baby corn (Zea mays L.), S. RATHIKA
A field experiments was conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore with an objective to study the effect of crop geometry, intercropping and topping practices on green cob yield and fodder quality of baby corn. Two levels of crop geometry (60 x 20 cm and 75 x 16 cm), two intercrops (baby corn alone, baby corn + fenugreek (greens), baby corn + fodder cowpea) and four topping practices (detasseling alone, topping beyond 9th, 10th and 11th internode) were studied in split plot design. Results revealed that crop geometry at 75 x 16 cm produced higher green cob and fodder yield over 60 x 20 cm spacing. There was no significant variation in green cob and fodder yield of baby corn under the intercropping system. Among the topping treatments, topping beyond 10th internode registered higher green cob yield over others. However, the green fodder yield of baby corn was not varied significantly due to topping practices. Neither crop geometry nor intercropping systems did influence on fodder quality of baby corn. But topping beyond 10th internode recorded the highest fodder quality (crude protein, crude fibre and NFE) followed by topping beyond 9th internode
39 Allelopathic influence of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) root exudates on germination and growth of important field crops, M.AMEENA*,V.L. GEETHAKUMARI AND SANSAMMA GEORGE
Purple nutsedge, a native of India is a pernicious perennial weed in 52 crops in more than 90 tropical and subtropical countries and is ranked as one of worlds worst weeds. It asserts allelopathic effects on crop plants through inhibition of germination, growth or metabolism.Under field conditions, the deleterious effect of weeds may be facilitated by exudates, leachates from decomposing residues and residues incorporated to the growing medium. In the present study, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the allelopathic influence of nutsedge root exudates collected at different growth stages on seedling growth of rice, cowpea, sesamum, okra and brinjal. The nutsedge root exudates collected at sprouting stage inhibited the germination and growth of all the crop seeds tested which would be due to the release of some inhibitory chemicals from nutsedge tubers into the medium during the process of sprouting. However, the exudates collected at later stages did not elicit any response on growth characters of crop seeds. Significant reduction in vigour index was observed in sesamum and okra indicating that nutsedge inhibits the growth of associated crops by the production of inhibitory substances as root exudates
40 Effect of land preparation techniques, NP levels and bioinoculants on soil available nutrients and soil microorganism in aerobic rice production, T. SARAVANAN
A field experiment was conducted during 2010-2011 at the Wetland Farm of Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi to study the effect of land configuration techniques, NP levels and bioinoculants on soil available nutrients and soil microorganism for aerobic rice. Postharvest soil analysis clearly showed that the soil available nitrogen was highest (219.7 kg/ha) for the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers+ biofertilizers which was at par with the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers + biofertilizers+ AM fungi seed treatment. Lowest P status of 9 kg/ha was observed for the application of 100% recommended dose of fertilizers + biofertilizers+ AM fungi seed treatment. This was due to the solubilisation of P in the soil by AM fungi which is made available for crop growth. Application of bio fertilizer enhanced the N availability and solubilized the unavailable P which in turn recorded higher N availability and low P status indicating better P uptake when applied along with recommended dose of fertilizer for aerobic rice. The population ofAzospirillum, phosphobacteria, Pseudomona and VAM,where is notably higher because of the increase microbial load due to application of bioinoculants along with the fertilizers
41 Identification of chilli genotypes through simple sequence repeats (SSR) makers, J. PADMA* AND K. SIVASUBRAMANIAM
Investigations was carried out to study the varietal characterization of chilli genotypes through SSR markers. Twelve SSR primer pairs (CM0002, CM0004, CM0005, CM0008, CM0009, CM00010, CM00011, CM00012, HpmsE015, HpmsE016, HpmsE035 and Tom 196) were used in the study. Among them, Tom 196 and HpmsE016 reported highly polymorphic primer. TOM 196 primer was useful for the identification of chilli genotype PLR1 from rest of the genotypes. HpmsE016 was used for identification of chilli genotypes viz., CO1, K2, PKM1, KKM1, CA97, Sln1 and CCH1.
42 Changing direction of Indian onion exports, D.K. KUSUMA* AND B.R. KUMARA
South Asia is native to onion (Allium cepa) and India is the second largest producer of onion after China with 15118000 million tones of production. The export of onion has increased from 9084.30 lakhs in 1990-91 to 174155.41 lakhs in 2010-11. This was made due to increased production, increased export to countries of import and changes in composition of onion to various destinations. The markov chain analysis was attempted through linear programming method to assess the transition probabilities for the major onion markets. It was estimated that during 2010- 11 the major onion export destinations were Bangladesh (36.55 %), Malaysia (21.03 %) and others contributing about 16.47 per cent. The increasing share of other countries clearly shows the need to explore and exploit the market potential of other countries. Efforts are also needed to improve the efficiency of production and quality in order to stabilize the markets
43 Genetics of agronomic characters in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] under normal and late shown conditions, D.K. UPADHYAY* AND K. KUMAR
Analysis of generation means viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of eight crosses of B. juncea (L) Czern & Coss. was performed under normal and late sown conditions to determine the nature of gene action governing seven agronomic traits viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), primary branches per plant, secondary branches per plant, number of siliquae on main raceme and length of main raceme. Types of gene action varied with the plant traits, crosses and treatments. Additive as well as dominance effects were significant in inheritance of agronomic characters but prevalence of additive x additive interaction coupled with additive effects in the present study implied that selection for desirable agronomic characters would be effective in early segregating generations. Dominance effect and additive x additive type of epistatic gene action were found important in controlling inheritance of all these traits. Despite high magnitude of dominance gene effect, the dominance would not be exploitable because of duplicate type of epistsis found for these traits. However, additive x additive gene effect can offer only limited possibility of genetic improvement through simple selection procedures. The direction of fixable and non fixable gene action and of duplicate epistasis implies the use of biparental mating approach/intermating in early segregating generations
44 Effect of nitrogen on wheat genotypes in Jharkhand, NIRU KUMARI, C.S. SINGH, RAJESH KUMAR AND UDAY SHANKER MALL
A field experiment was conducted at Birsa Agricultural University Farm, Ranchi during Rabi season on sandy loam soil (silt 20% and clay 19.6%), acidic in reaction (pH 6.6), low in available nitrogen (182 kg N/ha), medium in phosphorus (24 kg P2O5/ha) and potassium (198 K2O kg/ha), to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen on growth, development, yield, nitrogen utilization and profitability of wheat genotypes. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design consisted of 3 nitrogen levels viz., 120, 150 and 180 kg/ha in main plot and 6 genotypes (NW 2026, WH 736, HD 2790, HUW 468, PBW 343 and HD 2733) in sub plots and replicated thrice. The results revealed that crop with 150 kg N/ha produced higher grain yield (49.37 q/ha), grain production rate (138.93 kg/ha/day), physical productivity (40.76 kg/ha/day), straw yield (77.12 q/ha) and biomass production rate (104.54 kg/ha/day), productive tillers (387.06/m2), spike length (8.96 cm), fertile spikelet (17.79), grains/spike (48.01), net return (Rs. 26,918/ha), benefit cost ratio (2.25) and monetary productivity (222 Rs./ha/day) than the crop with 120 kg N/ha. Crop with 150 N/ha also absorbed more nitrogen (104.23 kg/ha) than the crop with 120 kg N/ha (85.12 kg/ha). Further increase in nitrogen beyond 150 kg N/ha was not at all beneficial. Wheat genotype NW 2026 produced maximum grain yield (51.43 q/ha), grain production rate (141.84 kg/ha/day), physical productivity (42.50 kg grain/ha/day) nitrogen utilization efficiency (34.28 kg grain/kg N applied) and biomass production rate (100.31 kg/ha/day) because of higher productive tillers (424.47/m2) than the remaining genotypes tested. NW 2026 wheat also had maximum net return (27,293 Rs./ ha) benefit cost ratio (Rs. 2.28 per rupee investment) and monetary productivity (226 Rs./ha/day) compared to rest of genotypes tested. Further PBW 343 was the second best genotype having grain yield of 48.97 q/ha, net return of 25,645 Rs./ha and benefit cost ratio of Rs. 2.14.
45 Quality characteristics of rice grains as influenced by varying irrigation regimes in furrow and bed transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.), NAVJOT SINGH*, KRISHAN KUMARVASHIST, S.S. MAHALAND NEERJA SHARMA
A field investigation was carried out in Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana during the Kharif season 2005 to evaluate the effect of varying irrigation management practices on crop growth and grain quality characters in bed and furrow transplanted rice. Data on the brown, milled and head rice recovery indicated that the effect of different treatments on crop grain milling characters was non-significant. With reference to physico-chemical properties, all the treatments showed soft gel consistency i.e. gel consistency values varied from 87.7 to 97.0. Different treatments recorded low in gelatinization temperature (55-69oC). Protein content in grains was also not significantly affected. Grain yield reduced significantly in bed and furrow transplanted rice under all the irrigation methods in comparison to recommended practice. The magnitude of reduction was highest (37-38%) in F irrigation method followed by 22.1 to 24 per cent in Inun. B+F and 9.1 to 14.3 per cent in Inun. B over recommended practice-[Flat (BM)].
46 Impact of dissemination and diffusion of conservation agronomical practices on area expansion in Hamirpur district of Bundelkhand, RAJIV
For promoting intensification and diversification of agricultural and horticultural programme, demonstrations were conducted on pulses, oilseeds, cereals, vegetables, cucurbits and spices for dissemination and diffusion of conservation agronomical practices on farmers fields during 2008-09 to 2010-11 at Hamirpur district of Bundelkhand zone of Uttar Pradesh under Diversified Agriculture Support Project (DASP). Conservation agronomical practices included mainly the integrated crop management technologies, integrated pest management technologies, bio-composting, judicious use of chemical inputs, site specific improved/hybrid varieties, value added production, production in relation to markets opportunities and best management of available resources through actively participation of farmers. For skill upgradation and improvement in the knowledge level of the farmers about conservation agronomical practices, several transfer of technology programme like farmer-scientist-interaction, specialized farmers training, field day, exposure visit, environment camps, kisan mela etc. were organized to fulfill the target. The results of the activities, which were conducted under Diversified Agriculture Support Project (DASP) showed that dissemination and diffusion of conservation agronomical practices had positive impact on area expansion by 1012.4 ha in pulses, 586.3 ha in oilseeds, 634.4 ha in cereals, 389.6 ha in vegetables, 179.2 ha in cucurbits, 178.6 ha in spices and 23.3 ha in medicinal crops during three years. Agricultural crops viz., pulses, oilseeds and cereals recorded 20671.5 q, 6774.5 q and 25376.0 q volume of the produce from area expansion with the value of Rs. 652.87 lac, Rs. 227.59 lac and Rs. 317.20 lac, respectively. Among horticultural crops, maximum volume of 100945.5 q was recorded in vegetables followed by 28947.0 q in spices, while lowest was 23650.0 q in cucurbits from area expansion with the value of Rs. 2225.21lac, Rs. 688.59 lac and Rs. 510.42 lac, respectively. These results indicate that there was great impact of dissemination and diffusion of conservation agronomical practices on area expansion as well as volume and value of produce from area expansion of above crops at Hamirpur district of Bundelkhand (U.P.).
47 Effect of various mulches on soil moisture content, soil properties, growth and yield of kinnow under rainfed condition, VIJAY KUMAR*,V.B. SINGH, PRIYANKA SOHAN1 ANDSHALINI KHAJURIA2
An experiment was conducted during 2009-2011 to assess the response of various mulches (Bajra straw, maize straw, Ficas leaf, brankad (adhotada vassica), farm yard manure and black polyethylene) on moisture content, soil properties, growth and yield in Kinnow. Different organic and inorganic mulches significantly increased the soil moisture status in various soil depths. Black polyethylene mulch recorded the maximum moisture percentage followed by farm yard manure and brankad. Black polyethylene, farm yard manure and brankad (adhotada vassica) had given favorable results with regards to soil moisture content of the soil. The black polyethylene and farm yard manure were found to be more effective in producing maximum growth extension than rest of the treatments although the difference were non significant among the treatments. Plant treated with black polyethylene mulch recorded highest yield (3.62) followed by farm yard manure (3.45) and brankad (adhotada vassica) (3.36) while minimum in control plant. The poor aeration, non decomposable nature and high cost are the constraints of using black polyethylene as mulch material. Organic mulch of farm yard manure is decomposable nature and high costs are the constraints of using mulches material (Bajra straw, maize straw, grasses, brankad). Fruit yield/plant and fruit size and total soluble solids were highest with black polyethylene mulch, followed by farm yard manure and brankad. Among the organic mulches evaluated, brankad better responses are low cost, easily available local areas followed by bajra straw, maize straw and grasses
48 Temperature induction response technique - A physiological approach to identify thermotolerant genotypes in rice, SAPNA HARIHAR, S. SRIVIDHYA, C.VIJAYALAKSHMI AND P. BOOMINATHAN*
Thermotolerance is one of the various acquired stress tolerance phenomenon observed in many living organisms, when the stress is imposed gradually. It is extremely important to develop screening tools for identification of thermotolerant genotypes in the context of increase in average global temperature. Temperature induction response (TIR) technique has been standardised to identify thermotolerant genotypes in rice. This technique involves exposing rice seedlings to gradual induction temperature immediately followed by lethal temperature and measuring growth of the surviving seedlings at the end of the recovery period of 72 h. The accuracy of the TIR technique depends on optimum induction cycle and lethal temperature. The standardization of induction temperature and lethal temperature is based on per cent growth reduction and survival percentage at the end of recovery period. The induction temperature was standardized as 36-44oC for 5 h and the lethal temperature as 52oC for 3 h. It is proposed that this technique can be used as a potential tool to identify and select temperature tolerant lines at the seedling level from a large population
49 Agricultural information needs of mango growers, T. SUJAIVELU*AND K. KANAGA SABAPATHI
A study was conducted at Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu state in India which is well known for the production and processing of the mango. Various agricultural information needs of the farmers in processing and producing value added products in mango are analysed and studied. A well structured and pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from 300 randomly selected mango growers. The respondents wanted information in the descending order on the aspects like selection of mango varieties, / hybrids, plant protection measures, pruning in crop, manures and fertilizer management, post harvest technology, preparation of main field, planting techniques, pretreatment of seedling, weed management, method of propagation, irrigation management, intercropping, recommended growth regulators to prevent flower and fruit drop, harvesting techniques and value addition in mango.
50 Simulated and observed yield of cotton based on boll dropping as influence by soil and foliar application nutrients, O. KUMARA*, T. BASAVARAJ NAIK AND B.M.ANANDAKUMAR
In cotton, flowering is a continuous process and 40 to 50 per cent set flowers (square) and bolls will shed due to nutritional deficiency or excesses of nutrient in soil or moisture stress. Dropping of the young bolls (Square drying) is one of the production constraints which is mainly due to imbalance and inadequate nutrition, to overcome this various soil nutrients where imposed along with foliar spray of potassium and boron. The field experiment was conducted with twelve treatments comprised of four fertility levels and three poly feed treatments at peak flowering and boll formation stage. Application of recommended dose of N, P2O5, K2O and foliar application of murite of potash @ 5 kg/ha has recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield (2501.8 kg/ha) as compared to other treatment combinations. Similarly application of Multi-k as foliar spray (Poly feed of 45:0:13 kg/ha N, P2O5, K2O) had recorded higher seed cotton yield (2486.5 kg/ha) as compared to poly feed (19:19:19 kg/ha N, P2O5, K2O) and water spray treatments and physical optimum yield loss of cotton was estimated based on linear and quadratic equations. The equation was fitted using leaf area with number of boll dropped at different stages of crop growth. The application of recommended dose of nitrogen alone treatment, physical yield loss was 2835.2 kg/ha and 1240.4 kg/ha with the application of recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphorus and application of recommended dose of all three elements, the estimated physical yield losses was 219.5 kg/ha in comparison with recommended dose of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and foliar application of potassium @5 kg/ha at early and peak flowering
51 Effect of sulphur and zinc levels on yield and nutrient uptake by hybrid rice in partially reclaimed sodic soil, V.P.S. NIRAJ*,AMIT KUMAR AND VED PRAKASH
A field experiment was conducted to study the individual and interactive effect of S and Zn on yield and uptake of nutrients by hybrid rice. Application of 60 kg S ha-1 recorded significantly higher grain and straw yield and sulphur uptake. Similarly significant response of rice to Zn addition was recorded up to 15 kg-1. Increase in S and Zn levels increased significantly their uptake by rice crop. The interaction of S and Zn was non significant and the highest grain and straw yield were recorded with the combined application of 60 kg S and 15 kg Zn ha-1. Nitrogen, sulphur and zinc uptake in crop increased significantly with S and Zn additions in all treatments
52 Integrated nutrient management in the maize (Zea mays L.) yield and soil properties, K.K. PANDEY* ANDA.AWASTHI
Low soil fertility is one of the bottlenecks to sustain agricultural production and productivity in India. Anthropogenic factors such as inappropriate land use systems, mono cropping, nutrient mining and inadequate supply of nutrients are aggravated the situation. A field experiment was conducted at experimental field of Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad during Rabi season on alluvial, clay soil under irrigated agro-ecosystem of Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. The experiment comprised of four treatment combinativns viz., T1 (Control), T2 (RDF) T3 (RDF +Zn) and T4 (RDF +FYM 10 t ha-1). The treatments were arranged in Randomized Completely Block Design with three replications. The grain yield was higher in T4 (29.29 q ha-1) followed by T3 (28.59 q ha-1). However, straw yield was higher in T3 followed by T4. The result revealed that ratio of grain and straw yield was good and highest in T4 followed by T2.Recommendation of the result was RDF along with FYM is suitable combination of yield as well as straw (fodder) for maize crop in eastern Uttar Pradesh
53 Effect of accelerated ageing on storability of coloured maize inbreds, D. THIRUSENDURA SELVI*, P. SRIMATHI1 AND N. SENTHIL2
The seeds of maize inbreds were visually colour graded into orange, light orange, yellow, light yellow, purple and white and physiological parameters were evaluated to predict their storability through accelerated ageing at 40 1 C and 100 % RH for 2,4 and 6 days. Antioxidant property was evaluated in the seed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay.The results indicated that the yellow coloured UMI 176 inbreds followed by purple coloured CAU M39 inbred were superior to other coloured inbreds for the germination and vigour parameters
54 Growth, yield and economic performance of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal) under rainfed conditions of district Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh, R.K.ANAND*, S.V. DWIVEDI ANDVIDYA SAGAR
Withania somnifera Dunal commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant of family Solanaceae. Its roots, seeds and leaves are used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. Ashwagandha root drug finds an important place in treatment of human ailments and it is also used as an important herbal tonic. It is a drought hardy crop which grows well in dry parts of India. Vindhyan region of Uttar Pradesh is one of the best suited location for the Ashwagandha cultivation. It is also found as wild in the forest of Vindhyan region and other areas of central India. Keeping these points in view, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Sonbhadra has conducted front line demonstration on cultivation of Ashwagandha crop continuously for six years (2005- 2011) at several sites of the district Sonbhadra. A higher range of growth and yield parameters were recorded during the study period. Average root yield during the study period was found 4.14 q/ha which gives an average net return of Rs. 31359 with a benefit cost ratio of 4.02. On the basis of six year performance of the crop it can be concluded that the crop is best suited for district Sonbhadra in terms of growth, yield and economics.
55 A study on impact of the Lac developmental programmes on Lac economy in Chhattisgarh, GOVIND PAL
Lac is a natural resin secreted by an insect known as Kerria lacca (Kerr.) which thrives on the tender twigs of specific host trees viz., palas (Butea monosperma), ber (Zizyphus mauritiana), kusum (Schleichera oleosa), Ficus sp. Lac, yields three economically and industrially important components i.e. resin, wax and dye. The study pertains to the data collected from randomly selected 400 Lac growers (benefited and non-benefited) in four districts of Chhattisgarh during the year 2008-09. The results indicated that the percentage of host utilization had increased in case of benefited Lac growers in comparison to non-benefited Lac growers. Host utilization percentage of benefited Lac growers was 62.1, 36.2 and 44.5 for palas, ber and kusum, respectively. A shift has been observed in case of benefited Lac growers from lower production group to higher production group in both sticklac and broodlac (seed) production. The share ofLac income in total income has increased in case of benefited Lac growers from 17.0 to 25.2 per cent. About 86.0, 60.0 and 63.0 per cent more employment generation and 185.0, 348.0 (ber-rangeeni) 133.0 (ber-kusmi) and 118.0 per cent increase in net return have been found in Lac cultivation on palas, ber and kusum, respectively, for benefited Lac growers over non-benefited Lac growers. Higher level of broodlac production resulted in self sufficiency in broodlac and more utilization of host trees for Lac cultivation. Higher BC ratio and reduction in cost of production of broodlac and sticklac was found in case of benefited Lac growers in comparison to non-benefited Lac growers for Lac cultivation on all three hosts. This implies that there is need for strengthening and widening the extension activity and developmental programmes on Lac production and marketing so that majority of Lac growers can be empowered with scientific knowledge on Lac cultivation for increasing their income and employment
56 Growth, yield, quality and nitrogen uptake of various genotypes of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) as influenced by varying nitrogen levels under late sown conditions in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, ROOP KISHORE*, JAI DEV,ADESH SINGH1 AND SANDEEP SINGH TOMAR1
The field experiment conducted at Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad, U.P. (26.50N, 82.12 0 E and an altitude of 113 m above mean sea level), from 2004-05 to 2005-06 on silt loam soil revealed that the highest mean dry matter accumulation of 87.30 g/plant in mustard was recorded with 120 kg N/ha which was 36.1 and 26.0 % higher as compared to control and 30 kg N/ ha, respectively. The highest seed and oil yield of 19.78 and 7.57q/ha, respectively was obtained with 120 kg N/ha which was significantly higher as compared to all the lower doses including control. But the seed yield was only 1.6 q/ha more over 90 kg N/ha and the per cent increase over control with 90 kg and 120 kg/ha was 19.8 and 17.8, respectively. The highest total nitrogen uptake (106.32 kg/ha) was also reported with 120 kg N/ha which was significantly superior over rest of the treatments. Whereas, among the varieties Urvashi registered significantly more number of branches and dry matter accumulation/plant as compared to all other varieties. The next in the order was Maya. The plant height was highest in case of Maya (176.6cm) followed by Vardan and the smallest plants were noticed in Urvashi with highest (4.35) leaf area index. Urvashi registered the highest mean seed yield (14.50 q/ha) and maximum oil yield (5.68q/ha) which were significantly superior over Vardan and Narendra Rai but statistically at par with Maya (13.94 q/ha). All the yield attributing characters viz., number of siliquae / plant, siliqua length, seeds /siliqua and 1000 seed weight were also statistically higher under Urvashi followed by Maya. Narendra Rai gave the lowest oil yield and next in order were Vardan and Maya. The per cent increase in oil yield of Urvashi over Narendra Rai, Vardan and Maya was to the tune of 21.1, 9.9 and 8.4, respectively. Urvashi also registered the highest nitrogen uptake (75.84 kg/ha) which was significantly superior over Vardan and Narendra Rai but statistically at par with Maya (73.12 kg/ha).
57 Perception of agriculture students towards self employment, DEBABRATA MONDAL
Perception is considered as one of the important traits of personality of an individual. The study was conducted at the faculty of Agriculture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Visva Vidyalaya(BCKV). The objectives of the study were to investigate factors responsible for the acceptability of agriculture to generate income. The data were analysed into frequency, percentage and mean. The population consists of all the last semester students of B.Sc (Ag). A total 70 students were selected for this study. In the context of this study, a higher percentage of students (95%) aspired to be opted agriculture as to secure a job in central govt. Agronomy was the most preferred discipline of the respondents closely followed by Soil Sciences and Agricultural Extension. Among the mass media sources the respondents used news papers as a source for job placement 50.00% followed by Journal 24.28 %. Among the least used mass media sources was radio (only 5.72%).
58 Performance of herbal medicinal crops under sapotajatropha based three-tier agroforestry system, VISHNU K. SOLANKI*, D.B. JADEJAAND M.B. TANDEL
Field experiments were conducted to find out performance of herbal medicinal crops (basil, kalmegh and mint) under sapota-jatropha based three-tier agroforestry system at the Agronomy Farm (Block-E), ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) during rainy season of 2011 and 2012. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and four replications. Three medicinal plants viz., basil (Ocimum sanctum L.), kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Well.) and mint (Mentha arvensis L) were selected for the present study. The observation on fresh weight of plant/plot (kg), dry weight of plant/plot (kg) and economic yield (q/ha) was recorded higher under sole crop of basil, kalmegh and mint as compared to intercrop with sapota-jatropha in both the years. While basil (1.67), kalmegh (1.46) and mint (1.40) when grown as intercrop gave higher economic returns as compared to sole crop in 2011 and 2012.
59 Influence of gibberellic acid and blossom removal on flowering and yield of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Belrubi, RAKESH KUMAR*, S. SARAVANAN1,AMIT JASROTIA, PARSHANT BAKSHI2, RAFIQ SHAH AND VISHAL RAINA
A study was carried out to investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) and blossom removal on flowering and yield characteristics of strawberry cv. Belrubi under subtropical region. Various parameters were monitored with the application of three concentrations of GA3 50 ppm, 100 ppm and 150 ppm and three levels of blossom removal viz., without deblossoming, partial deblossoming and full blossoming. Results showed that the GA3 150 ppm treated plants took minimum days to initiate flowering (54.22/ 53.55) and bud formation (60.77/60.08), meanwhile highest number of flowers per plant (23.64/22.56), fruit yield per plant (288.74/ 269.89g) and (17.67/ 16.50 q/ha) were registered with 50ppm GA3 both the years experimentation. From this study, it can be concluded that 50 ppm GA3 treated plants showed improved the flowering and fruit yield per plants
60 Growth, nutrient uptake and seed cotton yield as influenced by foliar nutrition and drip fertigation in cotton hybrid, P.AYYADURAI* AND P. MANICKASUNDARAM
Field experiments were carried out over two years at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore during winter seasons of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to study the effect of drip and surface irrigation methods with foliar nutrition on nutrient uptake and growth of hybrid cotton. Treatments comprised of three levels of drip fertigation at 50 per cent, 75 per cent and 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) with urea, urea phosphate and muriate of potash in combination with foliar spray of 2 per cent Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and 1 per cent urea phosphate. Surface irrigation with soil application of 100% RDF and drip irrigation with soil application of 100 per cent RDF using conventional fertilizers in combination with foliar nutrition of 2 per cent DAP and 1 per cent urea phosphate were also included for comparison. The highest plant height, more LAI, DMP and higher seed cotton yield of 3676 and 3521 kg ha-1 during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively were recorded under drip fertigation with 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK and foliar spray of 1 per cent urea phosphate. Drip irrigation at 100 per cent recommended dose of NPK and foliar spray of 1 per cent urea phosphate also significantly increased the cotton growth in terms of plant height, LAI, DMP and seed cotton yield over surface irrigation with soil application of fertilizer
61 Morphological characterization of major paddy cultivars in seed chain of Tamil Nadu, R.VIGNESHWARI*,A.VIJAYAKUMAR AND M. BHASKARAN1
Morphological characterization of 13 paddy varieties in seed chain of Tamil Naduwere done using 31 morphological traits in a field trial carried out in Paddy Breeding Station (PBS) of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2011 - 2012. The results ofmorphological characterization clearly indicated that the plant characters showed no variation among the varieties, while the grain characters showed clear variation among the varieties. Cluster analysis based on morphological characters grouped the varieties of medium and long slender grain type in one cluster and short bold grain type into another cluster at about 65% similarity level. The similarity indices range of 0.52 to 0.90 indicated remarkable homogeneity among the rice cultivars in the present study. So advanced technologies like molecular methods can be employed for unambiguous and quick identification of similar or closely related varieties
62 Early generation selection parameters in doubled haploids of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinataA. Braun), SHITOLEAJIT MOHANRAO1 ANDVEDNA KUMARI*
The doubled haploids of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) were evaluated along with mustard under two environments during Rabi, 2010-11. Analysis of variance for different traits such as days to flower initiation, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to 75 per cent maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, siliquae per plant, length of main shoot, siliquae on main shoot, siliqua length, seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight, seed yield per plant, biological yield per plant, harvest index and per cent oil content revealed the presence of sufficient genetic variability for all characters except siliqua length and per cent oil content in Env. I. On the other hand in Env. II, the presence of sufficient genetic variability for most of the traits was observed. Pooled analysis over environments revealed the presence of g x e interactions for all characters except days to flower initiation and per cent oil content. Correlation studies indicated the higher magnitude of genotypic correlations than their corresponding phenotypic correlations for most of the characters studied indicating the inherent association among the various characters. In pooled over the environments, at phenotypic level, the seed yield per plant had significant positive association with plant height, number of secondary branches per plant, siliquae per plant, biological yield per plant and harvest index. Based upon the path coefficient analysis, harvest index and biological yield per plant were observed to be the best selection parameters because of their high positive direct and indirect contributions towards seed yield per plant
63 Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield, quality, nutrient content and uptake of groundnut in shrink-swell soil, SHEETALTATPURKAR*,V.V. GABHANE AND PUSHPA BARANGE
Pod and haulm yield of groundnut was significantly affected by different treatments over control maximum pod and haulm yield (20.95 and 37.87 q ha-1) was recorded by the 150 % RDF (37.5:75:37.5 NPK Kg ha-1) followed by integrated use of 5t FYM ha-1+ 50% RDF + neem cake 500 kg ha-1+ biofertilizers (18.79 and 37.03 Kg ha-1) and lowest being control (10.98 and 27.46 Kg ha-1) regarding quality parameter such as crude protein content in groundnut kernels influenced significantly among various nutrient sources in comparison to control. Among the different combination treatments the highest oil content was recorded by the 150 % RDF (37.5:75:37.5 NPK Kg ha-1) and 5t FYM ha-1 + 50% RDF + neem cake (NC) 500 Kg ha-1 + biofertilizer (BF). The highest nutrient content and uptake was recorded in 150% RDF and found at par with 5t FYM ha- 1+ 50% RDF+NC+BF (3.89, 0.39, 0.89% and 1.81, 0.18, 1.37% nutrient contents) and uptake (72.93, 7.35, 16.70 and 62.08, 6.65, 50.73 kg ha-1) in pod and haulm, respectively
64 Effect of nitrogen and zinc on growth and yield of fodder sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties, MITESH BHOYA1 , P.P. CHAUDHARI2, C.H. RAVAL2 AND P.K. BHATT*
A field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil of the Agronomy Instructional Farm, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar to study the, effect of nitrogen and zinc on growth and yield of fodder sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties during summer season of 2011. Eighteen treatment combinations consisted of two varieties, viz., GFS 4 and GFS 5; three levels of nitrogen viz., 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 and three levels of zinc viz., 0, 2 and 4 kg Zn ha-1 were tried in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results indicated that among the variety of fodder sorghum GFS 5 performed better in respect to growth parameters and green forage (257 q ha-1) as well as dry matter (119 q ha-1) yield than variety GFS 4. Application of 120 kg N ha-1 increasing green forage (262.00 q ha- 1) as well as dry matter yields (120.00 q ha-1) over 40 kg N ha-1 and 80 kg N ha-1.Application of zinc @ 4 kg Zn ha-1 was found significantly superior and produced highest green forage (254 q ha-1) and dry matter yield (120 q ha-1) than 2 kg Zn ha-1.
65 Effect of moisture regime and integrated nutrient supply on yield and economics of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.), SANTOSH KUMAR*, RAVI SHANKER SINGH1 AND LALJIYADAV
A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj) Faizabad (U.P.) on effect of moisture regime and integrated nutrient supply on growth and yield of transplanted rice during Kharif 2010-12.The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design consisted of twelve treatment combinations with four replication. The results indicated that 7 cm irrigation 1 DADPW was found significantly superior over the 7cm irrigation at 3 and 5 DADPW on yield attributes and yield character. The maximum yield attributes and yield were recorded with full dose of NPK 120:60:40 kg ha-1which was found at par with green manuring + 75% NPK through inorganic fertilizers which was significantly superior over rest treatments. The maximum total cost of cultivation was computed with the application of 7 cm irrigation 1 DADPW + 75% NPK + green manuring (I1S4) followed by 7 cm irrigation 1 DADPW + full dose of NPK 120:60:40 kg ha-1 (I1S1) through inorganic fertilizer. The maximum gross income, net profit and B: C ratio was recorded with the application of 7 cm irrigation 1 DADPW + full dose of NPK 120:60:40 kg ha-1 (I1S1) through inorganic fertilizer.
66 Integrated weed management in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) in semi arid regions of Rajasthan, V.D. FAGARIA, K.C. GUPTAAND RANI SAXENA*
A Field experiments was conducted during Rabi seasons of 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study the effect of integrated weed management practices on yield and yield attributes of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Results revealed that two hand weedings at 25 and 45 days after sowing (DAS) recorded minimum dry matter yield of weeds, maximum weed control efficiency (94.5 %). Among the herbicides, preemergence application of pendimethaline @ 0.5 kg ai/ha + 1 hand weeding at 35DAS was most effective in reducing dry matter yield of weeds. It had positive effect on yield attributes which resulted into significantly higher seed (1573 kg/ha) and straw yield (4587 kg/ha), which were statistically at par with yields obtained under two hand weeding. The improvement in seed yield (41.20%) and additional returns by Rs. 5076 per hectare due to pre-emergence application of pendimethaline @ 0.5 kg ai/ha + 1 hand weeding at 35 DAS over weedy check.
67 Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. PANT RITURAJ, SHILPI KASHYAP, SANJAY KUMAR*, SUTANU MAJI AND DEVENDRA KUMAR
An experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm of the of Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow from autumn - winter to spring season 2012 - 2013 with the objective to study the effect of different doses of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of brinjal and to ascertain the best treatment of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers for growth, yield and quality of brinjal cv. Pant Rituraj. The experiment consisted of different doses of FYM (100, 75, 50 and 25 %), Vermicompost (100, 75, 50 and 25 %) and Neem cake (100, 75, 50 and 25 %) along with recommended dose of fertilizer. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and the treatments were replicated thrice. The result showed that maximum plant height (47.33 cm), number of branches (9.22), number of leaves (103.8 per plant) was recorded under 25% RDF+ 75%Neemcake and the maximum number of flowers (16.77) was noted under 75% RDF+ 25% vermicompost while, all the growth parameters were found minimum under control. The yield attributing parameters were recorded maximum in terms of fruit length (32.333 cm), fruit diameter (8.88 cm), fruit weight (123.111g), number of fruits per plant (16.66), fruit yield per plant (2.05 kg), fruit yield per plot (32.80 kg) and fruit yield per hectare (75.93 tonnes) under 25% RDF+ 75% Neem cake while, all the yield and yield attributing parameters were found minimum under control. The quality parameters were recorded maximumviz. total soluble solids (T.S.S) (7.000 0Brix), total sugars (2.627 g), reducing sugar (0.470 g) and Vitamin- C (22.77 mg/ 100g) under 25% RDF+ 75% Neem cake and all the quality attributing parameters were found inferior under control.
68 Effect of application of zinc on yield and yield attributes of chickpea genotypes in calciorthent soil, KAVITA* AND R.A. SINGH
A field experiment was conducted in calciorthent soils at Tirhut College of Agriculture, Research Farm, Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur) Bihar, India to screen chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes against zinc stress. The treatment included eight genotypes from tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible groups, and three levels of zinc application (0.0, 5.0 and 10.0 Zn/ha) in three replicates in a split plot design with zinc in main plots and genotypes in sub-plots. The result indicated that the yield of seed and straw of tolerant genotypes in control plots exhibited higher values. The similar result was also obtained in case of pods per plant, seeds per pod and test weight. The values increased on zinc application in moderately tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The higher total uptake of zinc was observed in tolerant genotypes in control plots
69 Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of summer groundnut (Aarchis hypogaea L.), S.M. DHADGE1 AND N.R. SATPUTE*
A field experiment was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, yield and quality of groundnut under irrigated condition. Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Rhizium + PSB significantly increased plant height, spreed, number of branches, leaf area, and dry matter accumulation and there by yield and quality of groundnut. Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Rhizium + PSB significantly increased growth, yield and quality parameters compared to rest of integrated nutrient management levels.100 % N through organic manure (50 % N through FYM + 25 % N through vermicompost + 25 % N through neem cake + Rhizium + PSB) treatment significantly increased oil content of groundnut kernels.
70 Effect of polyamines on quality attributes of stored peach fruits, SUMMY ULLAH* AND S.K. JAWANDHA
Peach is a perishable fruit and it is difficult to maintain the fruit quality at ambient conditions for a longer time. A study was conducted to enhance the storage life of peach fruits under cold storage conditions. For storage study, peach fruits of cv. Shan-i- Punjab were harvested at physiological mature stage and subjected to post-harvest dip treatments of polyamines viz; spermidine, spermine and putrescine before storage and kept at 0-10C and 90-95% relative humidity for a period of 32 days. During storage fruits were evaluated for quality parameters after 8, 16, 24 and 32 days of storage. During investigation period fruit quality parameters changed with advancement of storage period. Results revealed that postharvest treatments of spermidine, spermine and putrescine were effective in maintaining the peach fruit quality and extending post-harvest life under cold storage conditions. Putrescine @ 3 mmol L-1 treatments was found effective in maintaining firmness, pulp: stone ratio, total soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars during the entire storage period
71 Influence of biofertilizer application methods and inorganic fertilizers on growth, seed yield and economics cost of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] under sub-tropical irrigated area of Jammu, INDER JEET SHARMA, R.K. SAMNOTRA1 ANDVIJAY KUMAR*
The investigation was carried out to find out the effect of biofertilizer application methods and inorganic fertilizers on the growth, seed yield and economics of okra under sub-tropical irrigated area of Jammu at Vegetable Research Farm, FOA, and SKUAST- Jammu, Main Campus Chatha during the spring- summer seasons. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with five levels of inorganic fertilizers i.e. 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of recommended dose of fertilizers (60:30:30:: N: P: K) and two methods of biofertilizers application i.e. seed and soil application with three biofertilizers, Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria. The treatments C4- 100 % recommended dose 60: 30: 30 kg NPK per ha significantly increased plant height (55.34 cm), stem diameter (5.43 cm), number of branches per plant (5.65), number of fruit (12.29), fruit size, diameter (2.10 cm) and length (20.37cm) and seed yield per quintal (12.01 q /ha.). The economic cost was highest C3 treatments RDF gross return (Rs. 97840.00), net return (Rs. 66201.00) and B: C ratio (2.09). In biofertilizer application methods T2 (seed application of Azospirillum) significantly recorded highest plant height (55.75 cm), stem diameter (5.29 cm), number of branches per plant (5.90), number of fruit (12.34), fruit size, diameter (2.15 cm) and length (20.46 cm) and seed yield per quintal (11.87 q /ha.) and economic cost was also highest gross return (Rs. 94920.00), net return (Rs. 64355.00) and B: C ratio (2.11) as compared to other treatments. The interaction between fertilizers x biofertilizers was found some significant and non significant growth attributes and seed yield
72 Effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on growth, flowering, yield and quality of tomato cv. PUSA SHEETAL, RAKESH KUMAR MEENA, SANJAY KUMAR*, SUTANU MAJI, DEVENDRA KUMARAND MANOJ KUMAR
A field experiment on the effect of organic manures and biofertilizers on growth, flowering, yield and quality of tomato cv. PUSA SHEETAL was conducted at the Horticulture Research Farm of the Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow in the year of 2012-13. The experiment consisted of different doses of organic manures i.e. FYM (100% and 50%), vermicompost (100% and 50%) and neem cake (100% and 50%) along with biofertilizers i.e. PSB (2kg/ha and 1kg/ha) and Azospirillum (2kg/ha and 1kg/ha). The result showed that maximum plant height (39.50 cm) was recorded at PSB 2kg/ha and the highest number of branches per plant (6.93) , maximum number of cluster per plant (9.83) were recorded underAzospirillum 2kg / ha while, all growth parameters were found minimum under control. The yield attributing parameters were also recorded maximum in respect of fruit per plant (17.10), fruit diameter (6.28 cm), fruit weight (70.24 g), fruit yield per plant (3.23kg), fruit yield per plot (48.07kg) and fruit yield per hectare (363.60 q) under Azospirillum 2 kg/ha. Maximum acidity (0.59%) was recorded under control and maximum TSS (5.03 0B) and Vitamin-C (26.13 mg/100g) were found under Vermi- compost 100% followed by application of Azospirillum(2 kg/ha)
73 Effect of weeder in yield of wheat crop through system of wheat inentisification method, B.K.YADAV1 AND B.S. KHERAWAT
The OFT was planned in the Rabi of 2012-13. Farmers practice selected was the age old traditional method of hand weeding. Since, several tools and equipments are now available, so dutch hoe was selected as one of the technological option vis a vis chemical control. Chemical weeding with pendimethalin @ 1.5 kg/ha after 2-3 days of sowing +one weeding at knee height stage with Dutch Hoe showed minimum weed population with highest yield (30.2 q/ha) and highest B:C ratio (3.5).
74 Response of summer sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.) to different spacings and levels of nitrogen under north Gujarat condition, H.K. PATEL, R.M. PATEL, C.K. DESAI* AND H.B. PATEL
An experiment was conducted at Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during 2011 on response of summer sesamum (Sesamum indicum L.) to different spacings and levels of nitrogen under north Gujarat condition. Spacing of 60 cm showed its superiority by producing highest seed (569 kg ha-1) and stalk yields (1977 kg ha-1). The same treatment exhibited significant improvement by recording maximum values for the growth and yield parameters viz., number of branches plant-1, dry matter production plant-1, number of capsules plant-1and seed yield plant-1 but plant population and plant height was lower at 60 cm. With regard to N content in seeds and stalk as well as N, P and K uptake by seeds, stalk and total, 60 cm spacing, surpassed rest of the treatments bearing maximum values. Application of nitrogen @ 75 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher seed (630 kg ha-1) and stalk yields (2119 kg ha-1) over 0, 25 and 50 kg N ha-1 and significantly improved growth and yield attributing characters viz., plant height, number of branches plant-1, dry matter production plant-1, number of capsules plant-1, seed yield plant-1 and 1000 seed weight. Application of nitrogen @ 75 kg ha-1 significantly improved N, P and K content (seeds and stalk) and uptake (seeds, stalk and total). Treatment combination 60 cm spacing and 75 kg N ha-1 bearing maximum values of all these parameters ranked at top. Maximum net realization of Rs. 35069 ha-1 and BCR 2.47 was noted under 60 cm spacing. Similarly the respective figures were maximum (Rs. 40795 ha-1and 2.68) when crop was fertilized with 75 kg N ha-1. Experimentation showed that for securing higher yield as well as net realization, summer sesamum should be sown at 60 cm spacing and fertilized with 75 kg N ha-1 along with 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 20 kg S ha-1.
75 Combininig ability analysis for drought tolerance and grain yield in Rabi sorghum, R.B. GHORADE, V.V. KALPANDE*, S.A. BHONGLE AND P.A. BAND
Combining ability analysis to study drought tolerance inRabi sorghum using the line x tester design was conducted using five lines and 12 testers to generate total 60 hybrids. The estimates of gca effects revealed that among the five line, the line MS 104A showed positive and significant gca effect for grain yield per plant along with eight drought tolerance traits. Among the testers, M 35-1 was the best tester with significant gca effects for grain yield along with seven drought tolerance traits. Other promising testers sowing significant gca effects for grain yield and some of the other drought tolerance parameters were SPV-504, CSV-216 R, Ringni, Parbhani Moti and AKSV-13 R. Among the hybrids, the crosses showing high mean performance for grain yield per plant and desirable significant sca effects for grain yield per plant along with some of the drought tolerance traits may be considered for further breeding programme
76 Dynamics of manganese fractions in a calcareous under AICRP-LTFE soils, SUKHA RAM MEENA*, M.S. SOLANKI AND DESHRAJ
Surfaces soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected to study the dynamics of Mn fractions in the selective treatments of the LTFEs conducted on groundnut-wheat crop sequence at Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, during the year 1999 (Initial year) and 2010-2011 (12th year) after completion of crop cycle. The selected treatments were T1- 50 % NPK of RD in Gnut-Wheat sequence, T2 - 100 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence, T3 -150 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence, T4 - 100 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence + ZnSO4 @ 50 kg/ha once in three year to groundnut only (i.e. 99, 02, 05 etc), T5 - N P K as per Soil Test, T6 - 100 % N P of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence, T7 - 100 % N of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence, T8 - 50 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence + FYM @ 10 t/ha groundnut and 100 % N P K to Wheat, T9 - Only FYM @ 25 t/ha to groundnut only, T10 - 50 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence + Rhizobium + PSM to groundnut and 100 % N P K to Wheat, T11 - 100 % N P K of RD in groundnut -Wheat sequence (P as S S P) and T12 - Control. The water soluble Mn was found very trace. The FYM application recorded the highest values of DTPAMn at 12th year. Overall decline in reducible form of Mn were found, but it was found significant only at 12th year. Overall mean registered decrease in total Mn content on the long run basis. After 12th year residual Mn increase in T9 whereas in other treatments. Per cent available and exchangeable of Mn found non significant after 12th year. There were overall decreased in total available form of Mn after a long run
77 Effect weed management practices and fertility levels on soil health in finger milletgroundnut cropping system, O. KUMARA*, T. BASAVARAJ NAIK AND B.M.ANANADAKUMAR
The application of herbicide like butachlor and 2, 4- D Na salt each at 0.75 kg ai/ha in finger millet and, butachlor and pendimethalin each at 1.0 kg ai/hain the succeeding groudnut showed higher microbial biomass in the soil at harvest as compared to hand weeding or unweeded control. Usage of butachlor and 2,4-D Na salt in finger milletand butachlor 0.75 to 1.0 kg ai/ha and pendimelnalin 1.0 kg ai/ha in groundnuthelped in retaining higher N, P2O5 and K2O nutrient status in soil, as compared to hand weeding and unweeded control. Owing to better control of weeds in the cropping system of finger millet - groundnut, application of FYM along with recommended fertilizer recorded significantly higher available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil as compared to mere application of recommended NPK alone. Application of recommended NPK + FYM treatment maintained neutral pH, where as only recommended NPK alone treatment caused reduction of soil pH (acidic).
78 Estimation of heterosis in linseed (Linum usitatissimumL.), SATISH KUMAR1, RAJEEV KUMAR*, SANJEEV KUMAR, HARNAM SINGH3, SANDEEP KUMAR2AND M.P. SINGH4
A field experiment was conducted during 2008 at Experimental Research farm Nawabganj, C. S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.), to estimate the effect of heterosis in different genotypes of linseed viz., RLC-29 or Sheetal, LCK-88062, EC-1465 and Kangra Local for different characters.A significant heterosis over better parent was observed in cross LCK-88062 x EC-1465 for days to flowering, days to maturity. Crosses LCK-88062 x Kangra Local showed positive heterosis for plant height, number of tillers and number of primary branches per plant. Sheetal x EC-1465 cross for number of capsules per plant, three crosses (Sheetal x LCK-88062, Sheetal x Kangra Local and EC-1465 x Kangra Local) fortest weight and two crosses showed positive results (LCK-88062 x EC-1465 and LCK-88062 x Kangra Local) for seed yield per plant. The heterosis over economic parent (sheetal) showed significant results. Cross LCK-88062 x Kangra Local for plant height, crosses Sheetal x LCK-88062, Sheetal x EC-1465 and LCK-88062 x Kangra Local for number of tillers per plant, number of primary branches per plant, number of seed per capsule and test weight, two crosses viz., Sheetal x LCK-88062 and EC-1465 x Kagra Local for seed yield per plant.
79 Effect of spacing and nutrient management on growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) under south Gujarat condition, S.J. SANDHI*, J.G. PATEL1 AND C.K. DESAI
A field experiment was conducted at College Farm, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) duringRabi season of the year 2011-12 to study the effect of spacing and nutrient management on growth and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under South Gujarat condition. Almost all the growth and yield attributes such as maximum plant height at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, higher seed and stover yields were recorded with spacing 30 cm x 20 cm. While, maximum head diameter, number of seeds per head and 100 seed weight were recorded with spacing 60 cm x 20 cm. The highest net realization of Rs. 29990 ha-1with BCR value of 2.04 was accrued with spacing 30 cm x 20 cm. All the growth and yield attributes such as maximum plant height, seed and stover yields, head diameter, number of seeds per head and 100 seed weight were recorded with 125 per cent RDF i.e. 75: 37.5: 00 NPK kg ha-1 which were remained at par with 100 % RDF. Same results recorded with the use of biofertilizer (Azotobacter). Treatment receiving 125 % RDF realized the highest net realization of 30019 Rs.ha-1with the highest BCR of 2.05. There was an appreciable increase in net realization due to biofertilizer
80 Integrated nutrient management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-maize (Zea mays) cropping system, S.M. DHADGE1 AND N.R. SATPUTE
A field experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizer requirment of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) - maize (Zea mays) cropping system on Vertisol of western Maharashtra plain zone. Dry pod and haulm yield of the summer groundnut were increased significantly due to the integrated nutrient management treatments. Maximum and significantly higher dry pod (36.34 q ha-1) and haulm (51.07 q ha-1) yield were recorded due to the application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Rhizobium + PSB.Application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Rhizobium + PSB to preceded groundnut and 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Azobacter + PSB to succeeding maize recorded maximum maize seed yield (36.23 and 40.30 q ha-1) and stover yield (50.99 and 54.96 q ha-1), respectively. However, application of 75 % RDF + 25 % N through FYM + Rhizobium + PSB to preceded groundnut and 75 % RDF + 25% N through FYM + Azobacter + PSB to succeeding maize recorded maximum groundnut equivalent yield (51.70 and 51.55 q ha-1), respecively
81 Evaluation of different rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties for upland situations of Kerala, M.R. BINDU*, SUSAMMA P. GEORGE, G.SUJA,T.N.VILASINIMANDANSUACHAMMAYOHANNAN
The development of a high yielding variety is themajor objective of any breeding programme. So the genetic parameters for yield and its component characters in upland rice were estimated in the present investigation with seven rice varieties during Kharif 2009 at Onattukara Regional Agricultural Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Kayamkulam. Seven characters related to yield were evaluated and variability parameters were estimated. In the study maximum grain yield was recorded by the variety Bhagya followed by Jyothi. Genetic analysis was also conducted and the result indicated that the phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic co-efficient of variation for plant height, number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, grain weight and straw weight. But low heritability was recorded for all the characters except panicle length.
82 Effect of chemical fertilizers and mulching on growth, yield and residual soil fertility status under yam-maize intercropping system, T.R. SAHOO1 AND R.K.TARAI*
An experiment on effect of chemical fertilizers and mulching on growth, yield and residual soil fertility status under Yam-Maize intercropping system was carried out during the year 2003-04 under the rainfed conditions, at the Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, to study the impact of graded levels of chemical fertilizers and mulching on the yam-maize intercropping system. Among the graded levels of chemical fertilizers tried in the present experiment, when 150% of the recommended doses of chemical fertilizers for yam were applied to the yam-maize intercropping system, resulted in the higher production of yam tubers (202 q/ha) and maize cobs (2235 kg/ha) and thereby proved its superiority to the rest of the chemical fertilizer treatments. Higher values in relation to the residual fertility status of the experimental plots were recorded when 150% of the recommended doses of chemical fertilizers for yam were applied to the yammaize intercropping system. Likewise, in case of nitrogen and phosphorus, the residual fertility status also remained at par with the preceding treatment. Mulching the cropping system with the use of farm wastes was found to be of immense use in promoting the growth and development of crops under reference and also resulted in the higher production of yam tubers (160 q/ha) and maize cobs (2067.6 kg/ha), in comparison to those recorded under no mulch treatment.
83 Socio-economic characteristics of soybean growers with existing and alternative farm plans in Latur district of Maharashtra, N. VIJAYKUMAR*, SURESH S. PATIL AND S.B. GOUDAPPA1
The present study was conducted during 2010-11 in Latur district of Maharashtra. About 32 soybean growers were randomly selected from eight villages of Udgir tehsil of Latur district. Data were collected by personal interview method by using pretested schedule. The results revealed that average age of farmer was 38.50 years, with standard deviation of 6.34 years. Average family size was 7.31 members with standard deviation of 2.23 members. Coefficient of variation with respect to family size was 31.28 per cent. Average land holding was found to be 3.45 hectares with standard deviation of 1.64 hectare and coefficient of variation was 47.54 per cent. Bullock pair was 0.53 number with standard deviation of 0.20 and its coefficient of variation was 37.82 per cent. Milch animal was 1.28 in numbers with standard deviation 0.42 in numbers and co-efficient of variation was 32.81 per cent. Investment on commonly used asset was Rs. 9663.44 with standard deviation of Rs. 3567.74 and its co-efficient of variation was 36.92 per cent. Investment on irrigation structure was Rs. 118929.63 with the standard deviation of Rs. 49831.51 and its co-efficient of variation was 41.90 per cent. In existing farm plan, total expenditure on all crops in the form of cost-C was Rs. 134517.47, gross return was Rs. 214568.50, and net profit on cost-C was Rs. 80051.03. Total expenditure of livestock enterprise was Rs. 48215.38, gross return was Rs. 58276.93 and net profit was Rs. 10061.55. With regard to farm as a whole was found to be Rs. 182732.85, gross return was observed to be Rs. 272845.43.and net profit was Rs. 90112.58. In regard to alternative farm plan total expenditure on all crops in the form of cost-C was Rs. 131218.99. Gross return from all crops was found to be Rs. 216617.97, and net profit was Rs. 85398.96. Total expenditure of livestock enterprise was Rs. 48011.35, gross return was Rs. 58381.82 and net profit was Rs. 10370.45. With respect to farm as a whole total expenditure on farms as a whole was Rs. 179230.34, gross return was Rs. 274999.79 and net profit was Rs. 95769.41
84 Measuring perceptions of recommended technologies of sali rice by farmers of Assam, S. SAIKIAAND U. BARMAN*
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for most of the Asian country including India. To achieve national food security, numerous technologies have already been developed to harness the potential yield of rice. But these technologies still awaits their full exploitation by the farmers due to differential perception of farmers towards those technologies. Farmers perception towards the attributes of recommended technologies if studied can provide useful information and help in improving the adoption rate and speeding up the whole diffusion process. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the perception of the farmers towards attributes of recommended technologies of sali rice for adoption decisions. In the present study sali rice varieties recommended by Assam Agricultural University were studied in Jorhat district of Assam. Total 120 farmers respondents were taken as a sample. Total five perceived attributes were studied. The study found that a majority of the respondents perceived the recommended practices like variety, seed selection, field preparation, compost application, transplanting age, depth of planting of seedlings and manual intercultural operations to be relatively advantageous. Recommended practices like seed treatment, line transplanting, number of seedlings per hill, water management practices and plant protection measures were perceived to be complex by the majority of the respondents.
85 Correlation and path co-efficient analysis in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.), K.P. SINGH*, KAMAL KANT, R.K. ROY AND R.N. JHA
Correlation and path coefficient analysis were conducted on Pushi variety of Cauliflower. Yield was found to be highly and significantly positively correlated with all the ancillary characters viz., curd weight (0.9941), number of the leaves (0.9674), leaf area (0.9661), curd diameter (0.9412), plant spread (0.9161), plant height (0.8239) and curd depth (0.8068). All the ancillary characters showed significantly positive correlations among themselves. The path coefficient analysis values also indicated that the maximum positive direct effect accrued due to leaf count followed by curd weight, plant height and curd depth. Whereas plant spread, leaf area and curd diameter showed direct negative effect. The value of residual effect was found to be 0.0801, indicating that the characters included for path analysis were sufficient for inducing the maximum yield of cauliflower.
86 Effects on yield and yield components and water productivity as influenced by drip fertigation of aerobic rice, K.VANITHA* AND S. MOHANDASS
Knowledge on the association of yield components with yield and among themselves will be vital in formulating effective technology development for adoption by the farmers with ease. Drip irrigation at 125% PE with 100% recommended dose of fertilizer treatment recorded significantly higher grain yield of 5643 kg ha-1 which was 16 per cent increase over conventional aerobic rice / control. Accordingly, same treatment recorded higher water productivity of 1.051 g grain kg water-1with total water applied was 537 mm. Besides this yield components viz., number of panicles, number of grains, spikelet fertility, grain filling rate, panicle harvest index and grain harvest index which could be improved substantially with the fertigation practice thus ultimately resulting in significant improvement in grain yield with adequate water supply.
87 Assessment of different rice varieties under acidic soils of West Tripura, LAKSHMAN CHANDRA PATEL
The modern cultivation practices of paddy with proper variety can play a significant role in increasing production for national food security. The present work was performed to assess the overall performance of eighteen different rice varieties under SRI and conventional practice with equal package of practices in acidic soil of West Tripura district during Kharif 2012-13. The plant height, no. of effective tillers per hill, no. of seeds per panicle, filled grains per panicle, unfilled grains per panicle, test weight, grain yield, stover yield, crop duration and pest and diseases were considered as different parameters for comparative assessment among the taken varieties. Results showed that the system of rice intensification (SRI) practice out yielded conventional rice cultivation practice for all the varieties. From the enlisted rice varieties, Pratiksha had been found to perform better than other varieties. Besides Pratiksha, farmers could also choice Ranjit and PAN-819 as other alternatives to MTU 7029 as long duration paddy. On the other hand, in changing climate scenario under rainfed situation in Kharif season, farmers may also opt for growing short duration variety MTU 1010
88 Factors influencing entrepreneurial behaviour of women self help group members formed under Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna in Jorhat district of Assam, A. THAKUR1 AND U. BARMAN
Women have been exposed to gender biases with men at various levels. Women should themselves fight for getting the equal status in society. Empowerment of women is a solution to lower down these inequalities. Improvement of economic condition is the first step for womens empowerment. Involvement of women in income generating activities helps to empower them economically. But, it is difficult for women to start up a new enterprise alone because of lack of finance, self confidence etc. Creation of a group helps to lower down this problem. For the economic empowerment of women Government of India launched a programme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna (SGSY) in 1999 where emphasis is given to form women SHGs for their empowerment. In this programme government provide financial assistance to the group in two phases- Grade- I and Grade -II. But most of the cases it was observed that only few SHGs were able to qualify for Grade- II assistant because they could not run their economic activities properly after getting Grade- I fund. But to become successful in income generating activities, members of women SHGs must possess good entrepreneurial behaviour. Therefore, a study was conducted in Jorhat district of Assam with a view to determine the entrepreneurial behaviour of women members of SHGs. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used for the selection of respondents. Total 100 respondents were selected for the study. The study revealed that the majority (42.00%) respondents belonged to young age, middle school level (46.00%), married (78.00%) and had the nuclear type of family (85.00%), belonged to OBC/ MOBC (68.00%), more than half of the respondents (58.00%) were not exposed to any training. The majority of the respondents (59.00%) had a medium level of change agent contact and medium level of communication channel used (61.00%). The majority (68.00%) of the respondents possessed a medium level of entrepreneurial behaviour. A positive and significant relationship was found between the entrepreneurial behaviour of the members with education, monthly income and training exposure on general training. In case of age, a negative and significant relationship was found with entrepreneurial behaviour. It is the right time to start Entrepreneurial Development Programme for women members of SHG formed under SGSY.
89 Effect of different phosphorus levels on growth, fodder yield and economics of various cowpea genotypes under Kymore plateau and Satpura hills zone of Madhya Pradesh, AMIT KUMAR JHA*,ARTI SHRIVASTAVAAND N.S. RAGHUVANSI
The field experiment was conducted at fodder research farm, JNKVV, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh during Kharif season of 2008-09 to study the cowpea genotype (UPC-626, UPC-628, UPC-629, UPC-4200, Bundel lobia-1 and UPC-9202) to varied levels of phosphorus (40, 60 and 80 kg P2O5 /ha). The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Design with three replications. The two year pooled data revealed that the among the different genotype UPC-629 recorded highest green forage yield (253.9q/ha), dry matter yield (46.2q/ha), crude fibre yield (5.9 q/ha), net monetary returns (19224 Rs/ha) and B:C ratio (2.70). The application of 80 kg P2O5 /ha recorded significantly highest Green Forage Yield (244.8q/ha), dry matter yield (45.6q/ha), crude fiber yield (6.1 q/ha), net monetary returns (18132 Rs/ha) and B:C ratio (2.61).
90 Performance of tuber medicinal crops under sapota-jatropha based three-tier agroforestry system, VISHNU K. SOLANKI*, D.B. JADEJAAND M.R. PARMAR
Field experiments were conducted to find out performance of tuber medicinal crops (kalihari, kali musli and safed musli) under sapotajatropha based three-tier agroforestry system at the Agronomy Farm (Block-E), ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari (Gujarat) during rainy season of year 2011 and 2012. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Block Design with six treatments and four replications. Three medicinal plants viz., kalihari (Gloriosa superba L.), kali musli (Curculigo orchioides Gaertn) and safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum Ker.) were selected for the present study. The observation on economic yield (q/ha) was recorded higher under sole crop of kalihari, kali musli and safed musli as compared to intercrop with sapota-jatropha in both the years. While, kalihari (1.79), kali musli (1.38) and safed musli (1.81) when grown as intercrop gave higher economic returns as compared to sole crop in 2011 and 2012
91 Efficiency evaluation of post - emergence herbicide metamitron 70 SC and ethofumesate 50 SC on weed control and productivity in sugarbeet, S. RATHIKA
Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to evaluate the efficiency of metamitron 70 SC and ethofumesate 50 SC for the control of weeds and to increase the productivity in sugarbeet. The treatments consisted of two doses of new herbicide formulation metamitron 70 SC (2.00 and 4.00 kg ha-1) and ethofumesate 50 SC (1.00 and 2.00 kg ha-1) at two weed leaf stage, two doses of metamitron 70 SC (3.50 and 7.00 kg ha-1) and ethofumesate 50 SC (0.99 and 1.98 kg ha-1) in three splits at 2, 4-6 and 8-10 weed leaf stages, combination of ethofumesate 50 SC and metamitron 70 SC in two doses (0.50 + 0.98 and 1.00 + 0.98 kg ha-1) at two weed leaf stage compared with recommended dose of PE pretilachlor (50 EC 0.50 kg ha-1) and unweeded control. The results revealed that the lowest total weed dry weight and higher weed control efficiency were recorded in pre emergence application of Pretilachlor 50 EC 0.50 kg ha-1 followed by Metamitron 70 SC 7.00 kg ha-1 in three splits. There was not any phytotoxic symptom observed in sugarbeet in any of the herbicides at different doses. The yield parameters and root yield of sugarbeet were higher in PE pretilachlor 50 EC 0.50 kg ha-1. However, it was at par with application of metamitron 70 SC in three splits at both doses (3.50 or 7.00 kg ha-1).
92 Response of Bt cotton hybrids on planting density and fertility levels on growth and yield, O. KUMARA*, T. BASAVARAJ NAIKAND B.M.ANANDAKUMAR
The field experiments were conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Babbur farm, Hiriyur, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore during Kharif 2008 and 2009 under irrigated conditions. The site is located in the central dry zone (zone-4) of Karnataka, India. Treatments of the present investigation included three levels of fertility (150, 100 and 75 per cent of Rec.NP2O5K2O kg/ha) and four levels of spacing (120x120cm, 120x90cm, 90x60cm and 60x45cm) with two Bt cotton hybrid viz., Rasi-530Bt (HxH) and MRC-6918 Bt (H x B). Yield loss of cotton was estimated based on linear and quadratic equations. The equation was fitted using leaf area with number of boll dropped at different stages of crop growth. Adoption of cotton Rasi-530 Bt hybrid (H x H) was found significantly superior in respect of higher seed cotton yield (2731.3kg/ha) as compared to MRC-6918 Bt (H x H) (2641.2 kg/ha). Similarly, predicated seed yield based on linear and quadratic equation, lower the seed yield of MRC-6918 Bt by 302.5 kg /ha. Adoption of optimum spacing of 90x60 cm (18158.5 plants /ha) recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield (2803.3 kg/ha) followed by other spacing and higher dense population (24691.3 plants /ha) has obtained lower seed cotton yield (2602.7kg/ha ) and predicated yield loss was marginally lesser in recommended optimum spacing 90x90cm (224.7 kg/ha)i.e. 90x60cm. Predicated seed cotton yield in 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer was found less yield loss (842.7 kg/ha) over 75 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (1262.0 kg/ha) as compared to 150 recommended dose of fertilizer
93 Response of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) varieties to irrigation for better growth, yield and quality of mustard crop, HARI KISHOR VERMA*, M.M. SINGH1, M.K. SINGH AND SANTOSH KUMAR
A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2008-09 at Agronomy Research Farm, N.D.U.A&T., Kumarganj, Faizabad, to evaluate the response of new released Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) varieties to irrigation for better growth, yield of mustard crop. Treatments consisted of four irrigation schedule I1 (no irrigation), I2 (one irrigation at branching), I3 (one irrigation at siliqua formation), and I4 (two irrigation at branching + siliqua formation) and three varieties (NDYR-8, Maya and NDR-8501). The experiment was conducted in Split Plot Design with four replications. All the growth and yield attributes and yield parameters were increased significantly with I2 treatment (irrigations at branching + siliqua formation) which was significantly superior over rest of treatments. In case of varieties, all the parameters of the growth and yield attributes and yield of the crop were maximum under NDYR-8 which was significantly superior to Maya and NDR-8501.
94 Storage quality and shelf life of horse gram sprouts treated with different forms of garlic, G. BHARAMAPPA*,V.C. SUVARNAAND H.J. PRASAD
Horse gram is a legume of the tropics and subtropics. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and haemoagglutinin activities and polyphenols than most bean seeds. An experiment was conducted to see the effect of garlic pieces, paste forms on shel flife and quality of horse gram sprouts at Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, G.K.V.K., Bengaluru during the year 2009-2011. The results of the experiments showed that the horse gram sprouts treated with garlic paste forms showed more effective than sprouts treated with garlic pieces. Among garlic pieces and paste forms, paste forms showed very less bacterial and fungal population during storage.
95 Effect of application of inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizers on growth components and yield traits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), ROSHAN LAL SAHU*, HANSA SAHU1 AND SACHIN KUMAR
Present investigation regarding the supplementation of chemical fertilizers with biofertilizers for coriander crop was carried out under field condition in Horticulture Research Farm, I.G.K.V. Raipur (C.G.). The experiment was planted in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with the three replications. There were fifteen treatments comprising of different bio-fertilizers with inorganic fertilizers (NPK). Plant height, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, days taken of 50% flowering, number of umbels per plant, number of seeds per umbel, total number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant (g) were the important growth and yield contributing characters taken under investigation.The results indicated that vegetative growth contributing characters (plant height, number of primary and secondary branches and leaf area per plant) were influenced by combination of 100%K and 75% NP along withAzotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB. Yield contributing characters were found maximum in by combination of 100%K and 75% NP along with Azotobacter, Azospirillum and PSB over the treatments. Hence, it is concluded that the treatment T8 (75% NP+100%K+Azotobacter, Azospirillumand PSB) was found economically best (higher yield) than all others treatments studied in this investigation.
96 Yield optimization in mungbean through improved seed and crop management practices in arid Rajasthan, N.K. SHARMA
Three separate experiments on selection of high yielding varieties, fertilizer management and effect of row spacing and agro-chemicals on crop yield were conducted in Transitional Plain of Luni Basin of Rajasthan. Average seed yield of mungbean varieties varied between 11.67 q/ ha and 14.44 q/ha with the average of 12.80 q/ha. The maximum seed yield was recorded in RMG-492 followed by GM-4 with 14.00 q/ha. However, productivity of all other varieties was almost at par and relatively poor. A fertilizer dose comprising seed treatment with bio-fertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB culture), basal application of N 11.25 kg/ha and P 30 kg/ha; and foliar spray of 1% soluble NPK (19:19:19) @ 600 litre/ha at flowering stage provided maximum yield of 9.57 q/ha, which was 25.29 per cent higher yield over farmers practice. The crop sown at row spacing of 30 cm gave 7.04% higher seed yield over 60 cm row spacing. Foliar spray of agro-chemicals (0.2% K2SO4 + thiourea 1000 ppm or 0.2% K2SO4 + 100 ppm ascorbic acid) during heat and moisture stress provided about 9% yield increase over control
97 Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed quality and field performance of brinjal hybrid cv. ARKA NAVNEET (Solanum melongena L.), SATISHKUMAR*, BASAVEGOWDAAND SHARNKUMAR
A field experiment was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during Rabi 2004 to study the effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed quality and field performance in brinjal hybrid. The field experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design. All pre-sowing treatments recorded significantly higher seed quality, growth and yield parameters over control. However, GA3 (200ppm) recorded significantly higher fruit yield (15.76t/ha) than the other pre-sowing treatments except KNO3 (2%), cytozyme (0.5%) and PEG 6000(-1.0MPa). Similarly initial seed quality, growth and yield components were significantly higher in GA3 (200ppm) whereas control recorded significantly lower seed quality, growth and yield parameters
98 Standardization of seed vigour tests in seven medicinal plants, T. SIVA JYOTHI*, K.V.S. MEENA KUMARI, R.ANKAIAH AND M. GANESH
A lab experiment was conducted during 2007-2008 at the Seed Research and Technology centre of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, and Hyderabad to standardize the seed vigour tets in seven medicinal plants. Evaluation of various vigour tests showed first count (in BP method) and final count (in BP method) for Dulagandi and Kalmegh; Brick gravel for Dulagandi and Senna; cool germination test for Isabgol and Dulagandi; paper exhaustion test for Dulgandi and Isabgol; speed of germination for Senna and Isabgol; mean germination time for Senna, Isabgol and Dulgandi and filed emergence for Dulgandi and kalmegh; were very effective for obtaining higher germinatin percentage and many number of vigourous seedlings which were superior over methods
99 Effect of nitrogen and sulphur levels on seed yield and some other characters in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss], MAHIPAT SINGH1 AND MUKESH KUMAR*
An experiment was conducted during Rabi 2009-10 at the research farm of Institute of Agricultural Science, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi to find out the effect of different levels of nitrogen and sulphur on seed yield and other characters on Varuna variety of Indian mustard. Different levels, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha nitrogen and 15, 30, and 45 kg / ha sulphur significantly out yielded the 0 kg/ha nitrogen and sulphur in seed and biological yield. Almost similar results were obtained in case of siliquae / plant, siliquae length, number of seed/siliquae, harvest index, oil and protein content in seed. The application of 120 kgN/ha and 45 kg S/ha was the best combination for getting higher seed yield with its better quality.
100 Effect of flyash on the physiochemical properties of soil health and mustard crop, ABHISHEK JAMES*, TARENCE THOMAS1 AND SUSHIL KUMAR2
The study was conducted at the Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry Research Farm, School of Forestry and Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University), Allahabad during the years 2008 and 2009 in the Rabi season to study the effect of flyash on the physiochemical properties of soil health and mustard crop. The best treatment combination for growth and yield attributes during both years was observed in S2F2 (Flyash @ 10 t ha-1+ N80P60K40 + S10 kg ha-1). Maximum concentration of heavy metals was observed in T4 (Flyash @ 15 t ha-1) but was under the permissible limit (Ar 3.9, Cd 37, Cr 300, Pb 400, Mn 1800, Ni 1600). T11 (Flyash @ 10 t ha-1+ N80P60K40 + S10 kg ha-1) showed the best treatment combination in terms of cost benefit ratio. Therefore it can be concluded that there is an ample scope for safe utilization of industrial waste i.e. flyash in combination with chemical fertilizers for improving soil fertility, growth and yield of mustard.
101 Pattern of tomato sales - marketing costs and margins, VISHNU SHANKER MEENA1, SHIRISH SHARMA1 AND KRISHNA KANT*
Marketing of vegetable crops is quite complex and risky due to the perishable nature of the produce, seasonal production and bulkiness. The present study was undertaken in two districts of Rajasthan, viz., Jaipur and Kota districts. In this study it was found that 13543 quintal of tomato was produced by the sample households, of which 13425 quintal was the marketed surplus. Due to perishable nature of vegetable, the farmers did not stock tomato for sale in lean months. Therefore, there was no difference in marketable and marketed surplus of tomato. Two marketing channels were found in marketing of tomato. In channelI and channel II, producers share in consumers rupee was 50.0 per cent and 47.27 per cent, respectively in Jaipur Market and 52.73 and 43.33 per cent, respectively in Kota Market. Marketing efficiency was 1.12 for channel-I and 1.07 for channel II in Kota market. In case of Jaipur market marketing efficiency was 1.00 for channel-I and 0.76 for channel -II. Channel I was found more efficient than channel II in all the markets of both districts in Rajasthan.
102 Role of soil microfauna and microflora in agriculture, SUBHA GANGULY
Microbial biomass in the soil contains millions of soil organisms is the living part of organic matter in the soil. The microbial biomass mainly consists of bacteria and fungi, which has active and inactive parts. Some of which are very beneficial to the soil include bacteria and fungi for maintenance of fertility. Apart from these, earthworms, nematodes, protozoa and different arthropods also remain as inhabitants in the soil. The soil contains millions of micro-organisms which are dominated by bacteria and fungi. Bacteria and fungi are associated with crop health problems. Bacteria and fungi are a necessary part of the ecosystem and help with the availability of plant nutrients and plant health. By building up soil organic matter it will increase plant nutrient availability, water-holding capacity and improves soil structure. Management of soil organic matter is, therefore, a major part of the general farm practices
103 Use of parametric and non-parametric stability indices for selection of high yielding stable lowland rice genotypes, L.K. BOSE*, N.N. JAMBHULKAR, M. NAGARAJU AND O.N. SINGH
Twenty two rainfed lowland rice genotypes were evaluated at five locations in Eastern India to identify stable and high yielding genotypes. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Combined analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among genotypes, environments and genotype by environment interactions for grain yield. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis of variance indicated that the genotype-by-environment interaction sum of squares was about 5 times larger than that for genotypes, which determined substantial differences in genotypic response across environments. The presence of genotype-by-environment interaction was clearly demonstrated by the AMMI model, when the interaction was partitioned among the first three interaction principal component axis (IPCA) which cumulatively captured 97.73 per cent of the total GEI. In this study, environments (testing locations) fell into three sections, where most of the tested genotypes showed specificity. AMMI stability value discriminated genotypes 17 and 18 as the stable genotypes based on YSI (yield stability index) and the RS (rank sum)
104 Constraints in potato cultivation in Assam: Farmers'experiences, CHANDAN KUMAR DEKA*, SWAPAN BEHARI MUKHOPADHYAY1 AND SHANTANU KUMAR2
The study was conducted in the purposively selected Barpeta district of Assam during the year 2008. A multistage random sampling technique was utilized for selection of 120 sample farmers. The productivity of potation in Assam is very low as compared to national average and to increase the productivity of potato in Assam and to meet the growing demand, an attempt was made to identify the constraints experienced by the potato growers that would help to prioritize research and extension endeavour and thereby narrowing down the yield gap at farm level. The study revealed that non-availability of quality seed potato, high cost of quality seed, lack of reasonable support price, price fluctuation in the market throughout the year, heavy rottage of potato tuber in the storage, no suitable local method of storage, no cold storage facility in the production site and lack of efficient marketing facilities at village level were the major potato production constraints faced by the farmers. Farmers opinions to surmount these problems revealed that potato farmers must have the facility of cold storage at the approachable distance, supply of quality seed by the govt., supply of production inputs on the subsidized rate, provision of training on scientific method of potato cultivation from time to time, better transport facilities for efficient marketing and low cost on-far storage structure in order to increase the potato production in the state.
105 Influence of testing media on seed germinability and seedling traits in seven medicinal plants, T. SIVA JYOTHI*, K.V.S. MEENA KUMARI1 AND R. ANKAIAH2
A lab experiment was conducted at the Seed Research and Technology centre of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rajendra Nagar, Hyderabad during 2007-2008 to evaluate the influence of testing media on seed germinability and seedling traits in seven medicinal plants.The seeds of these crops were tested on four media to know their germination potential. The germination percentage varied with testing medias and genotypes. Top of paper method was very effective in recording higher germination for Isabgol(87.9%), Kalmegh(88.2%), Senna (94.4%) and Ashwagandha (74.7%). While, Podapatri gave maximum germination (53.7%) on between paper method. Sand (86.0%) and bp (85.0%) methods for Dulagandi and sand method (81.7%) for Tulsi were found very effective to obtain higher germination. Seedling vigour index on length basis differed with testing medias and genotypes. Top of paper method for Ashwagandha and Kalmegh, sand for Dulagandi, Podapatri and Tulasi, between paper for Isabgol and Senna were effective to obtain higher seedling vigour index on length basis. Soil was found very effective for obtaining higher seedling vigour index II for Ashwagandha, Dulagandi, Isabgol and Kalmegh, between paper for Podapatri and Senna. Sand for Tulasi gave maximum seedling vigour index on dry weight basis
106 Evaluation of genotypes of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker F.) under open condition at Yercaud, M. ANAND*, A. SANKARI AND K. NAGESWARI
The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of seventy gerbera genotypes (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hooker F.) under open condition at Horticultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Yercaud during 2008 and 2010. Significant differences were observed for all the characters studied. The results revealed that GJ 13 showed maximum plant height (36.30 cm) and plant spread (44.99 cm). Higher number of leaves was recorded in GJ 23 (22.97). Maximum leaf length was recorded in GJ 11 (23.40 cm) while shortest leaf width was recorded in GJ 36, GJ 53 (3.20 cm). Maximum sucker production was recorded in GJ 11 (8 nos). The highest stalk length was observed in GJ 2 (60.80 cm) while flower diameter GJ 11 (10.20 cm), cut flower production GJ 23 (70) and vase life was higher in GJ 23 (9 d). Considering correlation and path co-efficients of the characters viz., plant height, leaf breadth, stalk length and flower diameter were found to be positive effect on yield. It could be concluded from the present investigation that, out of seventy genotypes evaluated, genotypes GJ 23, GJ 11, GJ 2, GJ 19 and GJ 55 were found to be the best cultivars with superior in qualities for flower production under Shevaroy condition of eastern ghat
107 Microbial biomass and total nitrogen as affected by organic and conventional farming systems in soils of southern Karnataka, India, VIJAY SANKAR BABU MALAYANUR*, V.R. RAMAKRISHNA1 AND M. VIJAYA SAI REDDY1
In the past decade, there has been increased scientific interest in organic farming, especially in comparison with conventional agriculture. Many recent studies compare these two fundamentally different systems for soil properties, in different regions of the world. Soil samples from two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30cm) collected from 4 farmers fields each under different periods of practicing of organic farming (0-3 years, 3-6 years and over 6 years) and same number of soil samples collected from neighboring conventional farming fields in central dry agro-climatic zone and southern dry agro-climatic zones of southern Karnataka during 2008 and 2009 were studied to determine the effects of these two agricultural systems on soil properties at the farm level. The fields under organic management showed significantly better soil nutritional and biochemical attributes; with increased level of total nitrogen, an increased microbial biomass content. Results of the study suggest that, over the period of organic management system strongly affects soil properties
108 Morpho-physiological characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes, K.K. BODAKE, R.S. WAGH* AND D.V. DESHMUKH
Thirty two chickpea genotypes were evaluated in RBD with two replications at Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, dist. Ahmednagar (M.S.) during Rabi, 2009 for Morpho-physiological characterization. The observations on different plant characters such as morphological, physiological, dry matter accumulation and partitioning, phenological and generative growth and sink capacity were recorded. Partitioning of total dry matter between the vegetative and reproductive plant parts played an important role in determining processes. Studies on leaf area revealed a good indicator for increasing photosynthetic efficiency of plant. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were highest at 50 per cent flowering and decreased after 15 days of 50 per cent flowering. The highest yield was recorded by the genotypes, Digvijay,Vijay, ICC-13219, ICC-15868, ICC-1579 and ICC-4593. The most important yield attributes were pod number per plant, grain number per pod and 100 seed weight. These appeared to be the most important characters to determine sink capacity. These genotypes exhibited appropriate behaviour for dry matter production and its distribution in component parts of plant, rate of protosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Therefore, it can be concluded that the significant variation in yield could be seen in different genotypes due to their differential behaviour in respect of growth, development, phenology, dry matter production potential and translocation of photosynthates from source to sink. In high yielding genotypes the photosynthetic rate, number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant, harvest index etc. were observed to be the major yield contributing characters
109 Eco-friendly management of rice sheath rot disease by phylloplane microflora, I. YESU RAJA* AND P. MAHALAKSHMI
The micro-organisms isolated from the phylloplane of rice wereAspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus glaucus, Penicillium sp., Curvularia sp., Cladosporium sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis. Among these, P. fluorescens exhibited the maximum inhibition on the mycelial growth and sporulation of S. oryzae followed by B. subtilis, A. flavus, A. niger and Cladosporium sp. In pot culture, spraying of P. fluorescens (109cfu/ml) was the most effective in reducing the disease intensity by 68.56 per cent followed by B. subtilis (109 cfu/ ml), A. flavus (2x104 spores/ml), A. niger (2104 spores/ml) and Cladosporium sp. (2x104 spores/ml) which recorded 63.07, 44.42, 42.23 and 40.40 per cent disease reduction, respectively
110 Effect of different date of sowing and growing conditions on coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) cv. Gujarat coriander-2, K.M. KARETHA, GIRIRAJ JAT* AND A.R. LADUMOR
The present investigation on the effect of different date of sowing and growing conditions on coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) cv. Gujarat Coriander-2 as leafy vegetable, was conducted at Horticulture Instructional Farm, Department of Horticulture, Collage of Agriculture, Junagadh during the year 2010. Seed germination, growth parameters and yield attributes were influenced by different sowing dates. Among them dry weight of plant (2.11 g), green yield (23.52 tonne/ha) and TSS (5.44OBrix), were found maximum in treatment T5 (sowing at 22nd June). Whereas, minimum mortality percentage (3.48 %), width of leaf (2.04 cm) and maximum fresh weight of plant (6.85 g) and germination percentage (77.71 %) were found in treatment T1 (sowing at 25th April). The number of leaves per branch (4.06) and length of leaf (2.29 cm) were found maximum in treatment T3 and T4, respectively (sowing at 08th June).Among various growing conditions the germination percentage (76.30 %), length of leaf (2.26 cm), dry weight of plant (2.11 g), green yield (21.82 tonne/ha) and TSS (5.36OBrix) were found maximum, but mortality percentage was found minimum (3.73 %) in C2 condition (natural ventilated poly house). The number of leaves per branch (3.98) was found maximum in condition C3 (net house (low-cost). The width of leaf (2.00 cm) and fresh weight of plant (6.61 g) per plant were found maximum in condition C1 (fan pad poly house).
111 Genetic variability and divergence studies for morphoeconomic characters in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), B. ARUNKUMAR*, S.V. SUNIL KUMAR1 AND J. CHANDRA PRAKASH1
Study on the genetic components was carried out to assess the variability, association, direct and indirect effects and divergence of eight morpho-economic characters in thirty four brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes. High PCV and GCV were recorded by the characters viz., number of branches per plant, fruit length, fruit breadth, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight and fruit yield per plant. All the characters were accompanied by high heritability and high genetic advance except for the trait days to 50 per cent flowering. The characters were mostly controlled by additive gene action, hence, it could be inferred that simple selection will be effective for these characters. The characters such as number of branches per plant, fruit breadth, number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight exhibited positive and significant association with fruit yield per plant. Path analysis indicated that the number of fruits per plant and average fruit weight had high directs the effects and were the major factors that determine fruit yield per plant. The selection of genotypes based on these analyzed parameters can be utilized for further improvement.
112 Effect of different sources and levels of potassium on yield, quality and nutrient uptake by lilium (Lilium longiflorum) grown under polyhouse condition, N.R. SATPUTE*, J.M. WAGHMARE1, J.D. JADHAV AND M.B. JADHAV2
The polyhouse experiments were conducted at High-Tech Floriculture and Vegetable Project, College of Agriculture, Pune during 2007-09 to study the effect of different sources and levels of potassium fertilizers on yield, quality and nutrient uptake by lilium (Lilium longiflorum) grown under polyhouse conditions with 12 treatments was conducted in clay loam soil having pH 6.07. Application of potash (through sulphate of potash @ 200 mg plant-1 week-1) to lilium flower crop (var. pollyanna) recorded maximum yield (7992 flower stalk per polyhouse) and net monetary returns (Rs. 77694 per polyhouse) which were at par with K+ (through sulphate of potash @ 250 mg plant-1 week-1) to lilium flower crop. Like number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, plant spread, number of flower stalk per m2, number of flowers per stalk, vase life of flower was also recorded higher with treatment of sulphate of potash @ 200 mg plant-1 week-1 while other treatment of sulphate of potash @ 250 mg plant-1 week-1 followed it closely. The uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was recorded maximum at recommended potash fertilizer practice i.e. @ 200 mg plant-1 week-1. The nutrient status of the soil after the harvest was better when both sulphate of potash and @ 200 mg plant-1 week-1 were applied to lilium crop. Thus, it would be better to apply potash through sulphate of potash @ 200 mg plant-1 week-1 to lilium crop for higher productivity and profitability along with good quality as well as good soil condition
113 Long term effect of NPK in rice-wheat cropping system under irrigated conditions of Madhya Pradesh, B.M. MAURYA*, S.S. DHAKAD AND M.K. TARWARIYA
A long term experiment was conducted on effect NPK in rice-wheat system under all India co-ordinated research project on integrated farming system at college of Agriculture research farm, Kuthulia Rewa during 1977-78 to 2011-12, The study reveals that application of 120kg N/ha, 80kg P2O5-/ha and 40kg K2O/ha gave maximum grain yield, net profit and benefit cost ratio. The wheat equivalent yield was also maximum. The response of nitrogen and phosphorus in rice crop was quadratic while in wheat crop it was linear. The yield of rice crop showed stagnation while wheat crop starts decline. The soil properties after completion of 35-years of rice wheat crop cycle showed increase in organic carbon, available N and phosphorus while potash status in soil showed reduction in available potash as compared to initial soil status
114 Influence of plant bio-regulators on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.), HARSH DEEP SINGH, SUTANU MAJI* AND SANJAY KUMAR
An experiment was carried out at Horticulture Research Farm, Department of Applied Plant Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University,Lucknow during November 2012 to April2013 to study the influence of plant bio-regulators on growth and yield of garlic cv. Yamuna Safed- 4 (G232). The experiment consisted of foliar application of different doses of PBRs i.e. BA (25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm), NAA (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) and GA3 (50, 100,150 and 200ppm).The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and the treatments were replicated thrice. The result showed thatmaximum plant height (70.53 cm), number of leaves per plant (8.43), length of leaves (36.12 cm) and basal diameter of plant (14.60 mm)were recorded under the treatment T9 i.e. application of GA3@ 50 ppm. The yield attributing parameters were also observed better in terms of diameter of bulb(5.42 cm), number of cloves per bulb (40.55 cm), fresh weight of bulb(47.85 g) and yield (22.75 ton/ha) under GA3@ 50 ppm treatment followed by NAA @ 100 ppm
115 Evaluation of soil fertility status in red and yellow soil of Navagarh block in Janjgir-Champa district of Chhattisgarh, H.K. MAHLA*, ALOK TIWARI AND DEEPIKA DEVDAS
A Study was undertaken to evaluate the fertility status of Navagarh block, Janjgir-Champa district, Chhattisgarh, covering 112 villages of Navagarh block and 78 villages under red and yellow soil during 2011-2012. The systematic collection of samples in georeferenced surface (0-0.15,m depth) soil samples from 1984 sites representing, red and yellow soil using Global Positioning System and mapped on 1:4000 scale. The samples were analyzed for DTPA-extractable zinc, copper, iron and manganese and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content for delineation the fertility status in relation to salient physico-chemical characteristics. The statistical description of soil characteristics indicated that the pH of the soils varied from 4.5 to 7.2 (mean- 5.73). The electrical conductivity of soil-water suspension ranged from 0.05 to 0.78, dS m-1 (mean- 0.16, dS m-1). The DTPA-extractable copper content ranged from 0.16 to 10.84, mg kg-1 (mean- 2.13, mg kg-1). The available Mn, Fe and Zn content ranged from 0.32 to 64.8 (mean- 31.57), 3.24 to 51.42 (mean- 26.52) and 0.16 to 5.4, mg kg-1(mean- 0.9 mg kg-1), respectively. These results indicated that zinc is likely to constraint for crop production in soil of Navagarh block. A positive significant correlation was found between pH and EC. Further,the available copper, manganese and iron content showed high status, whereas about 34.42 per cent area under soils delineated as deficient in available zinc content.
116 Effect of biofertilizers and inorganic fertilizers on vegetative growth and yield of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], ASHISH KUMAR SAHU*, SANJAY KUMAR AND SUTANU MAJI
The present experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Farm, Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (U.P) during 2012-13. The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Block Design with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatments include different biofertilizers (Azospirillum, Azotobacter and PSB) with inorganic fertilizers (N,P,K). The results showed that application of PSB along with Azotobacter and full dose of nitrogen, potash and half dose of phosphorus resulted significantly vigorous growth and also increased yield of okra
117 Study on the heterosis for yield and yield component in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], SANJEEV KUMAR, RAJEEV KUMAR*, B.B.SINGH, ANIL KUMAR, SATISH KUMAR1 AND SANDEEP KUMAR2
A field experiment was conducted during summer and rainy season2010 in the Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad (U.P.) India, to determine heterosis in F1 hybrid and inbreeding depression in F2 generation of 21 okra crosses with respect to seed yield and its component traits. Among the hybrid crosses NDO-10 ArkaAnamika gave maximum fruit yield by contributing superior yield components while crosses GB-1 A4 showed lowest value for these attributes
118 Problems of vegetable hybrid seed production in Punjab , BALJINDER SINGH* AND PRABHJOT KAUR
The commercial vegetable growers are quite aware about the importance of hybrid varieties as they are high yielding. At present, more than 100 hybrid varieties of 15 vegetables have been developed by the ICAR system. The area under hybrid cultivars is now increasing and thus hybrid seed production is growing at a rapid rate. The trend of hybrid seed usage in vegetables is increasing in terms of species, cultivars and volume of seeds used. The production of hybrid seeds of vegetable crops is of great importance to their producers as it is a profitable activity but it involves certain technical operations which the farmers might face problems. Keeping this in view the study on the problems of vegetable hybrid seed production in Punjab was undertaken. Data was collected from 80 hybrid seed producers. It was found that majority of the farmers were of the middle age group, secondary to graduate level education and medium land holding. Majority of the farmers were having 0.5 2.0 acre of area under hybrid seed production. Results of the study indicate that more than 80 per cent of the farmers faced problems because of hard work, more that 20 per cent farmers faced financial problems and 2/3rd of the farmers faced problems in maintaining isolation distance and 33 per cent of the farmers faced problems in marketing
119 Effect of flyash on the physio-chemical properties of soil health and mustard crop, ABHISHEK JAMES*, TARENCE THOMAS1 AND SUSHIL KUMAR2
The study was conducted at the Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry Research Farm, School of Forestry and Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences (Formerly Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University), Allahabad during the years 2008 and 2009 in the Rabi season to study the effect of flyash on the physio-chemical properties of soil health and mustard crop. The best treatment combination for growth and yield attributes during both years was observed in S2F2 (Flyash @ 10 t ha-1+ N80P60K40 + S10 kg ha-1). Maximum concentration of heavy metals was observed in T4 (Flyash @ 15 t ha-1) but was under the permissible limit (Ar 3.9, Cd 37, Cr 300, Pb 400, Mn 1800, Ni 1600). T11 (Flyash @ 10 t ha-1+ N80P60K40 + S10 kg ha-1) showed the best treatment combination in terms of cost benefit ratio. Therefore it can be concluded that there is an ample scope for safe utilization of industrial waste that is flyash in combination with chemical fertilizers for improving soil fertility, growth and yield of mustard
120 Correlated response of integrated nutrient management for seed yield and yield contributing traits of pea (Pisum sativum L.), ASHOK CHAUDHARY*, R.A. KATIYAR, POONAM SINGH, C.P. SACHAN, C.L. MAURYA,VIKAS VERMA AND S.K. SONI
An experiment was conducted in RBD with three replications to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management in popular variety of pea, Azad Pea-3. The result revealed that application of vermicompost @ 2.5 tonnes ha-1 + dose of NPK kg ha-1 resulted significantly maximum field emergence (24.18 sqm-1 area), days to 50 per cent flowering (30.66), green pod test weight (4024.77 g), plant height (98.04cm), test weight of seed (220.25 g), volume of 100 seed (21.30 cubic mm) and seed yield (22.52 qha-1). An association study among the major yield characters exhibited significant strong, positive correlation between seed yield and field emergence, plant height, length of pod, number of grains pod-1, number of pods plant-1, green pod test weight, test weight of seed and volume of 100 seed.
121 Canopy temperature (CT), stress degree days (SDD) as influenced by treatments and varieties in soybean, S.R. PATIL*, N.R. SATPUTE1 AND M.G. JADHAV
The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications and two factors viz., date of sowing D1 (MW-27), D2 (MW- 28), D3 (MW-29) and D4 (MW-30) and cultivars V1 (MAUS-47), V2 (MAUS-71), V3 (MAUS-81), V4 (MAUS-158), V5 (JS-9305) and V6 (JS- 335) to find out the optimum sowing time for soybean genotypes. Experiment was carried out at research farm of Department of Agricultural Meteorology, Parbhani The canopy temperature designates the plant water stress. If the canopy temperature of soybean crop is greater, then soil moisture stress occurred in the field. Canopy temperature is one of the most reliable indicators of the crop water stress due to its direct relation with the plant water status. The highest mean canopy temperature (32.00C) and (32.10C) were observed in D4 (MW-30) date of sowing and genotype V1 (MAUS-47), respectively whereas stage P10 (maturity stage) indicated the highest mean canopy temperature 32.40C. The lowest mean canopy temperature (30.90C) and (30.70C) were recorded in D1 (MW-27) date of sowing and genotype V4 (MAUS-158), respectively. Whereas stage P1 (emergence stage) indicated the lowest mean canopy temperature i.e. 30.300C. The variety growth characters like emergence and final plant count, plant height, number of functional leaves, number of branches, number of pods, mean leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter, weight of pods per plant, weight of grain per plant, 1000 seed weight (test weight), grain yield, straw yield and biological yield were observed maximum in D1 (MW-27) date of sowing and in cultivar V4 (MAUS-158). Whereas, minimum observed in D4 (MW-30) date of sowing and cultivar V1 (MAUS-47).
122 Economics of production and marketing of guava in Maharashtra, J.S. KUMBHAR*, P.P. PAWAR, S.D. PATOLE AND A.S. GAVALI
The present study is an attempt to analyse the feasibility of investment in guava orchards and to find out the profitability of guava crop. So, present study was taken up with overall objective of enquiring into economics of guava production and marketing, with the objectives to examine the per hectare resource use pattern and costs and return structure, to study the marketing costs, price spread and problems faced in production and marketing by guava growers. The methodology adopted was, on the basis of area under hi-tech farming of guava, Ahmednagar, Pune and Nasik districts was selected purposively. The data for the year 2011-12 was collected with the help of specially design schedule. The simple statistical tools like averages and percentages were used for interpretation of the results. On the basis of results it is concluded that, the inputs viz., manure, nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were used at lower level than the recommended levels for guava, therefore there is gap in yield. The guava fruit crop is economically viable as B:C ratio is more than unity. The N fertilizers, plant protection and human labour was significant, indicating that these are the important variable for raising the production of guava. Channel observed in marketing of guava is: Producer-Pre-harvester contractor-Wholesaler-Retailer-Consumer. The arrivals of guava are fluctuating in all the markets under study.
123 Influence of pesticides on the entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson, A.H. BARAD, M.N. KAPADIA AND D.M. JETHVA*
A laboratory study was carried out to determine the compatibility of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson with different pesticides including 15 insecticides and 15 fungicides during 2009 10 at the Junagadh Agricultural University, Campus, Junagadh. The results showed that azadirachtin 0.0075 per cent, spinosad 0.009 per cent, fenvalerate 0.01 per cent, endosulfan 0.07 per cent, cypermethrin 0.009 per cent, profenophos 0.05 per cent and acephate 0.15 per cent were the most compatible with N. rileyi. In case of fungicides, sulphur 0.2 per cent proved its superiest compatibility with N. rileyi, followed by zineb 0.2 per cent, copper oxychloride 0.2 per cent and propiconazole 0.025 per cent.
124 Studies on mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of finger millet [Eleucina coracana (L.) Gaertn] in M1 generation and effect of gamma rays on its quantitative traits during M2 generation, A.R. AMBAVANE, S.V. SAWARDEKAR*, N.B. GOKHALE, S.A. SAWANT DESAI, S.S. SAWANT,S.G. BHAVE AND J.P. DEVMORE
Dry seeds (12 % moisture) of two finger millet cultivar viz., Dapoli-1 and Dapoli Safed were irradiated with four doses of gammarays viz., 400 Gy, 500 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy at BARC, Mumbai. In laboratory test, root and shoot lengths of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma rays. Similarly, germination percentage and survival rate of seedlings were decreased with increase in dose of gamma irradiation during field study. In M1 generation, three types of chlorophyll mutations viz., albino, xantha and viridis were observed. Albino and xantha were observed in all treatments, whereas, viridis observed only in lower doses viz., 400 Gy and 500 Gy. Based on the chlorophyll mutation frequency on M1 plants, mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency were computed. In Dapoli-1 variety, two early maturing mutants and three high yielding mutants were isolated from 500 Gy dose and 600 Gy dose, respectively. In M2 generation, the mutagenic treatments were effective in inducing various types of chlorophyll and morphological macro mutants, few of those showed significant change in flowering, maturity and plant height characters and few of them have good breeding value.
125 Study of correlation and path analysis in dual purpose sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], C.N. PATIL, A.H. RATHOD*, P.O. VAGHELA, S.R. YADAV, S.S. PATADE AND A.S. SHINDE
The present investigation was carried out to study the correlation and path analysis in dual purpose sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) with the set of thirty seven genotypes of sorghum grown in Randomized Block Design with four replications. The correlation analysis suggested that the magnitude of genotypic correlations was higher as compared to their corresponding phenotypic correlations indicating the inherent relationship among the characters studied. Path co-efficient analysis considering 15 characters as a causal variables showed that the number of leaves per plant had highest positive direct effect on grain yield per plant followed by panicle diameter, leaf length, protein per cent in grain and thousand grain weight. Grain yield per plant exhibited significant positive association with thousand grain weight, stem girth, leaf length, panicle length, panicle diameter, panicle weight and protein per cent in grain at both genotypic and phenotypic levels
126 Effect of graded levels of nitrogen on micronutrient content, uptake and yield of paddy in Vertisols of TBP command, C.P. SANKALPA* AND J. VISHWANATH
A field experiment was conducted duringKharif 2012 to study the effect of graded levels of nitrogen on micronutrient content, uptake and yield of paddy in Vertisols of TBP command at Agricultural Research Station, Gangavati. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with five treatments and three replications each. There were five levels of N (RDN, 20% extra RDN, 40% extra RDN, 60% extra RDN and 80% extra RDN) and paddy varieties (GGV-05-01 and BPT-5204) were grown with a spacing of 20 10 cm and following standard agronomic cultural practice. Plant height and number of tillers increased with the application of N up to 60 per cent extra RDN. Variety GGV-05-01 recorded higher plant height whereas higher number of tillers was recorded by BPT-5204. Yield attributes (panicle length, weight and test weight) and grain yield increased with increasing levels of N up to N3 (RDF + 40% additional N) and the increase in grain yield (53.46 q ha-1) was 5.7 per cent higher over control (RDF) (50.56 q ha-1). GGV-05-01 recorded the highest grain yield (54.53 q ha-1) compared to BPT-5204 (51.07 q ha-1). The straw yield increased significantly up to N5 (RDF + 80% additional N). The macro and micro nutrient content and uptake increased with increasing levels of N up to N5 or N4. GGV-05-01 recorded higher Fe and Cu content and uptake in grain compared to BPT-5204.
127 Alleviating effect of micro-symbionts on nutrient status and survival of teak seedlings under salt stress, SWATI SHEDAGE*, N.S. PATIL1 AND D.B. JADEJA2
Seedlings of Tectona grandis L. were planted under different salinity levels viz. normal soil (
128 Comparative study of new molecules of herbicides on growth and weed control in soybean, ANKITA GUPTA* AND CHANDRESH CHANDRAKAR
The present investigation was carried out during Kharif season of 2012 at the Research cum Instructional Farm, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.). The experiment comprised of eight weed management practices viz., W1- Sulfentrazone @ 300 g a.i. ha-1 as PE, W2- Sulfentrazone @ 360 g a.i. ha-1 as PE, W3- Pendimethalin @ 1 kg a.i. ha-1 as PE, W4- Metribuzin @ 750 g a.i. ha-1 as PE, W5- Imazethapyr @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 as PoE, W6- Odyssy 70 WG (imazethapyr 35% + imazamox 35%) @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 as PoE, W7- Hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS and W8- Untreated control. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with four replications. The soybean variety JS 97- 52 was grown as test crop. The result of the experiment indicated that the growth characters like plant height, number of branches and dry matter production was maximum under hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS which was found comparable with sulfentrazone @ 360 g a.i. ha-1 as PE, sulfentrazone @ 300 g a.i. ha-1 as PE and imazethapyr @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 as PoE. These treatments also showed minimum weed index. Hand weeding twice at 20 and 40 DAS, sulfentrazone @ 360 g a.i. ha-1 as PE and imazethapyr @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 as PoE were also gave highest weed control efficiency
129 Character association and path analysis in brinjal(Solanum melongena L.), R.A. SHENDE*, S.S. DESAI AND V.V. DALVI1
An experiment on correlation and path analysis involving fifteen F2ss and eight parents of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) was conducted during Rabi 2012-13. Association of fruit yield per plant with number of fruits per cluster and number of fruits per plant were found positive and highly significant at genotypic level. Path co-efficient analysis revealed that length of fruit, number of fruits per cluster, plant height, days to last picking, average weight of fruit and number of fruits per plant would be selection criteria for yield improvement in brinjal.
130 Residual effect of nitrogen levels and its split application on fodder pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. Emend Stuntz] in arid western Rajasthan, M.L. REAGER*, S.K. SHARMA, G.P. NAROLIA1 AND R.C. SANWAL
A field experiment was conducted during winter and summer season of 2002-03 and 2003-04 to find out the residual effect of nitrogen levels and its split application on fodder pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. Emend Stuntz] in arid western Rajasthan. Application of nitrogen in preceding mustard crop at 100 kg ha-1 increased the fresh weight, dry weight, NPK content and their respective uptake fodder pearlmillet in Ist and IInd cutting as well as total of both cutting. The increased of these parameters marginally varied from 163.89 to 177.73 q h- 1 for fresh weight, 24.59 to 28.60 q ha-1 for dry weight, 27.79 to 32.88 kg ha-1 for N uptake, 4.67 to 5.60 kg ha-1 for K uptake by pearlmillet. However, results indicate that effect of nitrogen levels as well as splitting application was non-significant on succeeding crop pearlmillet. Whereas, 100 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higher net returns (Rs. 31636 ha-1) and higher B:C ratio (2.01). Further application of nitrogen in three equal splits (1/3 as basal + 1/3 at Ist irrigation + 1/3 at IInd irrigation) gave significantly higher net returns (Rs. 6806 and 32217 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.25 and 2.06), respectively, in fodder pearl millet and pearl millet with mustard over other split and basal applications of nitrogen
131 Nodulation, yield and thermal requirement of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) genotypes as influenced by date of sowing, DEVIDAS M. RANSING*, A.K. VERMA, M.R. MESHRAM AND P.R. PAIKRA
A field experiment was carried out during Kharif season 2011 with the objective to study the impact of date of sowing on nodulation, thermal requirement and yield of mungbean genotypes (BM-4, RM-03-71, RM-03-79, ML-131, Pusa 1072 and COGG 973). Early sowing(July 20) resulted in absorbing sufficient amount of heat units in less time as compared to late sowings (Aug. 9) which acquired more days to mature and resulted in accumulation of more growing degree days (GDD) as compared to early date of sowing. There was a drastic reduction in yield in case of August 9 sowing compared to July 30 and July 20 sowing date. Genotypes, RM-03-79 produced significantly higher yield than other genotypes except COGG 973 in different date of sowing.
132 Performance of indigeneous genotypes of tikhur (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.) for growth, rhizome and starch yield, DEO SHANKAR*, S.S. RAO1, N. SHUKLA2, R.S. NETAM AND S.C. MUKHERJEE
The investigation was undertaken during the year of Kharif seasons 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Shaheed Gundadhoor College of Agriculture and Research Station (IGKV) Kumhrawand, Jagdalpur, Bastar (C.G.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 20 genotypes of tikhur with three replications. The genotypes were grown randomly in each replication/block in a total of 60 plots of 3.0 m 2.4 m each containing 60 plants per plot. Observations were recorded from ten randomly selected sample plants in each treatment and observed mean value used for statistical analysis. The genotypes showed highest mean performance under growth characters viz., IGDMT-10-1 for plant height, IGKOT-10-1 for number of leaved per plant. IGBLT-10-1 and IGSJT-10-1 for harvest index; under yield attributing characters genotypes IGSJT-10-2 and IGBT-10-2 for weight of mother rhizome per plant, IGSJT-10-3 and IGSJT-10-2 for weight of secondary rhizome per plant, IGBT-10-4 for number of mother rhizome per plant, IGSJT-10-1 and IGSJT-10-2 for thickness of mother rhizome per plant. The IGSJT-10-2 showed highest mean performance for total rhizome yield 30.32 t.ha-1 followed by genotype IGSJT-10- 1(21.52 t.ha-1) and IGJT-10-1(21.18 t.ha-1). The highest mean performance for starch recovery IGSJT-10-2 showed 16.57 per cent followed by genotype IGBT-10-4 starch recovery 15.80 per cent and IGBLT-10-1 starch recovery 15.52 per cent. Highest protein per cent in starch (0.95 %) was recorded in genotype IGSJT-10-4.
133 Variability, correlation and path analysis studies for superior types of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), KAMLESH DIWAN*, D.M. NAIK, YOGESH VADAK, ANIL S. TARU AND BANTESH KUMAR MAHOLIYA
A survey was undertaken during October-2012 to November-2012 during fruiting of Ambia Bahar in Aurangabad and Jalna district of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state and 28 samples were collected from different locations. In present study, the performance of types JAL-11, JAL-13, ABD-1 and ABD-3 showed better values in regards too many characters like number of fruits per tree, length and breadth of fruit, weight of fruit, TSS, total sugar and yield of fruits per tree. Hence, the overall studies indicated that the type JAL-11, JAL-13, ABD-1 and ABD-3 being productive and superior in quality stands for selection and further improvement
134 Effect of various organic mulches on the content of organic carbon in soil of NA 7 aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) under rainfed condition of Shiwalik foothills of Himalayas, VIJAY KUMAR*, ENOCH SPALABAR1, ROHIT KUMAR ARORA1 AND INDER JEET SHARMA1
Organic mulch eventually breaks down and adds organic material to the soil. The increase of the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) is regarded as the main advantage of organic mulches. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the effect of different organic mulches on the content of SOC. The treatments applied : were without mulch, bajra straw, maize straw, palah leaves (Butea monosperma), brankad (Adhotada vassica) and farmyard manure. The influence of organic mulch was investigated in 2006-2009 and their residual effect in 2011-2012. In the article the data of 2009-2012 are presented. A higher content of SOC was established in all mulched experimental tree compared with the unmulched tree. A significant influence of farmyard manure observed during the whole period. The influence of bajra straw, maize straw, palah leaves (Butea monosperma), brankad (Adhotada vassica) and FYM mulches on the content of SOC was significant in 2009-2010 but residual effect of bajra straw, maize straw, palah leaves and brankad was not significant.
135 Combined effect of organic manures with inorganic plant nutrients on major and secondary nutrient uptake of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) crop, A. DHAVAPPRIYA*, V. SANJIVKUMAR AND S.T. KUMARAN1
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural college and research institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural university, Madurai to evaluate the response of bhendi (Arka anamika) with organic sources like goat manure and pig manure combined with inorganic fertilizers on availability of soil available nutrients. There were ten treatment combinations replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design (RBD) in Maddukkur soil series (Typic Haplustalf). The results showed that the plots received 50 per cent RDF combined with goat manure @ 6.5 t ha-1 recorded highest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake (37.54, 9.32 and 36.72 kg ha-1) and the lowest value registered in control plot (24.68, 3.85 and 24.00 kg ha-1), respectively
136 Efficiency of microsymbiont in relation to salt stress in teak seedling, SWATI SHEDAGE*, N.S. PATIL AND M.B. TANDEL1
Seedlings of Tectona grandis L. were planted under different salinity levels viz., normal soil (
137 Studies on integrated nutrient management in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Cosson], VISHRAM SINGH*, SANJAI CHAUDHRY, V.K. VERMA, A.K. SRIVASTAVA, MOHD. ASLAM AND THANESHWAR
An experiment on integrated nutrient management in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Cosson] was conducted during Rabi season 2011-2012 at Students' Instructional Farm (SIF) of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. Eight treatments replicated three were tested in Randomized Block Design. Result shows that significantly better growth attributes, yield attributes and grain yield (22.75 q/ha) were observed with combined application of RDF + vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha over rest of the treatments. The minimum grain yield (19.15 q/ha) was received in treatment RDF (120:60:40:30 NPKS kg/ha). The application of RDF +vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha also showed significantly higher gross income (Rs. 81575) and net profit (Rs. 35725) over rest of the treatments. While benefit : cost ratio was significantly higher (1.96) with the application of RDF (120:60:40: 30 NPKS kg/ha) over rest of the treatments except at par with RDF + vermicompost @ 2.0 t/ha. The minimum gross income (Rs. 69419/ha) was received in treatment RDF (120:60::40:30 NPKS kg/ha). While the minimum net income and B:C ratio was found in treatment RDF + FYM @ 6.0 t/ha.
138 Comparative study on scientific livestock rearing knowledge of dairy farmers of Lakhsar block of district Haridwar, AMIT KUMAR*, VINOD KUMAR, S.S. RAWAT, PURUSHOTTAM KUMAR, A.K. SINGH1 AND DEEPTI CHAUDHARI1
The study was conducted in Lakhsar Block of district Haridwar, Uttarakhand during the year 2012-2013. The major observation was taken on socio- economic condition and elementary knowledge of the dairy farmers in context to the use of scientific livestock rearing practices. The study revealed that 47.50 per cent livestock owner belonged to the middle age group, 31.67 per cent had medium holding, 44.17 per cent were with secondary education group and 86.67 per cent had information sources as newspaper. 88.33 per cent were depending on tube well for irrigation facilities. 57.50 per cent were engaged with district level social and agricultural organizations. 60.83 per cent dairy farmers had small family and 49.17 per cent dairy farmers had one worth generate member in the family system. 68.33 per cent were engaged with integrated crops and animal husbandry practices with additional services or business ,while 17.5 per cent solely depended on dairy farming. Majority (33.33 %) were generally preferred to rear four milch animals. Plantation of trees was increased with the increase of owners land holdings size. Green fodder production area was higher (11.5 %) with medium land holding farmers. There was high population of tractors and pump set in the area. On an average 22.56, 38.85 and 38.59 per cent had high, medium and low level of knowledge regarding calf and heifers, breeding, feeding, water, housing and health management practices of livestock. Thus it was concluded that the dairy owners of water logged Lakhsar block of the district Haridwar possessed medium to low level of knowledge regarding improved animal rearing practices
139 Observations on natural enemies of insect pests in sorghum field, D.R. PATEL* AND M.S. PUROHIT
Field trials were laid out in the Agricultural Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Tanchha, Dist-Bharuch under rain fed condition during Rabi 2006-07, 2007-08 and Kharif 2007-08, 2008-09 to study the population of predators and correlation with host. In Rabi season green lacewing reached peak level in 1st SMW (January, 1-7), lady bird beetle reached peak level at 3rd SMW (January, 15-21) while spider reached peak level in 49th SMW (December, 3-9). In Kharif season the coccinelid and spider reached its maximum intensity 38th SMW (September, 17-23), chrysopid reached its peak at 45th SMW (November, 5-11). The correlation co-efficient study revealed that the chrysoperla predator had significant positively correlated with aphids and plant hopper. Predatory beetle had significant positively correlated with aphids while significant negative correlation with plant hopper population in Rabi and positively correlated in Kharif. The spider population had negatively correlated with aphids population. While it had significant positive correlation with plant hopper (r=0.152).
140 Marketing cost and marketing margin of wheat in Durg district of Chhattisgarh, SARJU PALLEWAR*, RAVI SHREY AND ROPAN BANTE
An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the marketing cost and marketing margin of wheat in Durg district of Chhattisgarh state. The study was conducted in Durg district of Chhattisgarh state with forty farmers who were selected randomly from four villages and 10 wheat growers from each of the selected village considered to collect the required information. The primary data were collected from the wheat producers through personal interview method with the help of well prepare scheduled and questionnaire for the production and marketing year 2010-11. The simple mean and average method was used to work out the marketing cost and marketing margins in wheat trade. It was observed that farmers sale their produce to village traders 17.67 per cent and 3.12 per cent during the first and second quarter, respectively. The quantity sale to the wholesaler was observed as 33.08 per cent and 46.13 per cent in first quarter and second quarter, respectively. The marketing cost computed as Rs.5, Rs.19.90 and Rs. 61.40 per quintal in channel-I while it was observed as Rs. 17.18 and 61.40 per quintal in channel-II. Whereas the net marketing margin was computed as Rs.991, Rs. 64.10 and Rs.88.60 per quintal in channel-I while it was observed as Rs. 1055.82 and 95.62 per quintal in channel-II.
141 Available zinc and manganese status and their relationship with soil physico-chemical properties and its content in wheat crop of internal drainage dry zone of Rajasthan, R.C. SANWAL*, YOGESH SHARMA, M.L. REAGER1 AND S.R. TAK2
Seventy surface soil and wheat plant samples were collected from seventy village of Sri Madhopur tehsil of Siker district (Rajasthan) India. The soils were analysed for textural, separates, physic-chemical properties and status of available zinc and manganese. Grain and straw of wheat plant were separately analysed for determination zinc and manganese content. The majority of soils were found sandy in nature and their textural classes are sandy, loamy sand and sandy loam. Soils of the study area were found slightly calcareous in nature. Soils of study area have low organic carbon and cation exchange capacity. On the basis of pH2 and EC2 values, these soils were found slightly alkaline in nature. Majority of soils under study were found deficient in zinc and adequate available in manganese. The availability of zinc and manganese in soil significantly influenced by soil properties like textural separate, organic carbon, CaCO3, CEC and pH2 soils.
142 Genetic variability and divergence studies in groundnut (Arachis hypogea Linn.), S.R. YADAV, A.H. RATHOD*, A.S. SHINDE, S.S. PATADE, C.N. PATIL AND P.O. VAGHELA
Sixty genotypes of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) were evaluated for the genetic variability and genetic diversity The magnitude of genetic co-efficient of variation (GCV), phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV), heritability and genetic advance as percentage of mean were recorded high for various characters like pod yield per plant, hundred seed mass, harvest index, plant height and shelling per cent. High broad sense heritability estimates were recorded for most of traits viz., hundred seed mass, days to maturity, shelling per cent, pod yield per plant, harvest index, protein per cent indicating that these traits were less influenced by the environment. D2 analysis indicated existence of wider genetic variability in the population of sixty genotypes which were grouped in twelve clusters, based on their inter clusters distance. The maximum inter-cluster distance (D = 7.044) was found between cluster III and X carrying one and two genotypes from each cluster, respectively followed by that between V and X (D = 6.447) and cluster III and XII (D = 5.943). The minimum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster VII and XI (D = 2.770). The intra-cluster distance (D) ranged from 1.909 to 2.863, the maximum being in cluster V (2.863). The minimum intra-cluster distance (D) was found in cluster II (1.909) which includes eight genotypes. Cluster III showed high genetic divergence with cluster X followed by cluster V.
143 Influence of fluazifop-p-butyl on grassy weeds in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and its residual effect on succeeding crops, P.M. VAGHASIA* AND M.V. NADIYADHARA
A field investigation was carried out on Vertisol soil of Main Oilseeds Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, during Kharif 2010 and 2011 to study the efficacy of post-emergence herbicides on Kharif groundnut and its residual effect on succeeding crops of wheat and gram. An experiment comprised of eight weed control treatments, viz., fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4 EC @ 100, 134, 167 and 335 gha- 1 as post-emergence, imazethapyr 10 per cent SL @125 gha-1as post-emergence and pendamethalin 30 per cent EC @750 gha-1as pre-emergence, two hand weeding at 30 and 45 DAS and unweeded check was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The field was infested with complex weed flora comprising both grassy (69 %) and as well as broad leaf weeds (31%). The grassy weeds viz., Echinochloa spp., Dinebra retroflexa and Brachiaria spp. and broadleaf weeds like, Indigofera glandulosa, Commelina benghalensis, Phyllanthus niruri, Euphorbia hirta, Digera arvensis and Tridax procumbens were predominant. Results revealed that among the herbicidal treatments, fluazifopp- butyl 13.4EC @ 167 g ha-1 at 20 DAS recorded significantly least number of grassy weeds and total dry weed matter with weed control efficiency (79.55%) and weed index (20.2%). The highest weed control efficiency (91.05%) was under hand weeding against grassy weeds at 60 DAS. An herbicidal treatment irrespective of its doses was not effective against broadleaf weeds. Shelling per cent, pod yield, haulm yield and kernel yield of groundnut were also superior in plots treated with fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4EC @ 167 g ha-1 at 20 DAS, except hand weeding treatment. Fluazifop-p-butyl 13.4 EC was found safe to groundnut and did not cause residual toxicity to succeeding crops
144 Seed storage quality as influenced by forms of seed and containers during storage in marigold (Tagetes erecta), TEJASHWI P. KUMAR1, B.N. RADHA*, K. VISHWANATH1, G.G.E. RAO1 AND NAGARAJ HULLUR1
Studies were conducted to know the effect of forms of seed and container on seed quality in marigold at Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences. The treatments included two forms seed (dry flower and cleaned seed ), five containers (cloth bag, single layer polythene bag with silicagel, single layer polythene bag without silicagel, double layer polythene bag with silicagel, double layer polythene bag without silicagel). The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design in factorial concept in four replications stored for 10 months under ambient conditions.The results indicated that seed stored in the form of dry flower and stored in double layer polythene bag with silicagel recorded highest germination (53.25%), root length (5.13 cm), shoot length (3.98 cm), vigour index (503), seedling dry weight (4.53 mg), germination rate index (4.53) and field emergence (52.50%) with lowest electrical conductivity (0.898 dSm-1) at the end of storage period compared to cleaned seeds.Irrespective of treatments, moisture content of seed stored in polythene bag with silicagel decreased gradually and maintained constant after certain period, while it remain unchanged during storage in the seeds stored in polythene bag without silicagel. However, seed moisture content fluctuated in concomitant with the prevailing atmospheric relative humidity in seed stored in cloth bag
145 Correlation and regression analysis for rhizome yield and component characters in tikhur (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.), DEO SHANKAR*, S.S. RAO1, R.S. NETAM, D.P. SINGH AND S.C. MUKHERJEE
An investigation was conducted to analyze the correlation and regression in tikhur for rhizome yield and component characters. The experiment was conducted during Kharif seasons 2010-11 and 2011-12 at S.G. College of Agriculture and Research Station (IGKV), Jagdalpur, Bastar (C.G.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 20 genotypes of tikhur with 3 replications. The genotypes were grown randomly in each replication in a total of 60 plots of 3.0 m 2.4 m each containing 60 plants per plot. Observations were recorded from ten randomly selected sample plants in each treatment and observed mean value used for statistical analysis. The results clearly indicated that the correlation co-efficients were influenced by environmental factors. However, some of the characters exhibited some extent of association and not much affected by environment. The improvement of total rhizome yield t/ha and weight of mother rhizome per plant can be possible by practicing individual selection for weight of primary finger rhizome per plant, number of primary finger rhizome per plant, harvest index and thickness of secondary finger rhizome per plant. Hence, these characters must be given importance for further improvement of their population
146 Marketing of rapeseed-mustard in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan, HEMENDRA SINGH* AND PRATHVI SINGH
The present study was conducted in the Rajasthan state as it is one of the major rapeseed-mustard producing states in India. To study the costs, margins, price spread, marketing of rapeseed-mustard in Rajasthan, Bharatpur district was selected. Producers share in consumer rupee was around 90 per cent in to channels of marketing. There was no significant difference in the price received by producer - sellers in absolute as well as in percentage term in different - channels of marketing. The marketing costs ranged from Rs. 138.03 (7.16 %) to Rs. 138.00 (7.16 %) of consumers rupee in different channels of marketing. Marketing margins ranged from 2.58 to 2.60 per cent of consumers rupee in different channels of marketing. It appears that the margins in rapeseed-mustard marketing in the Bharatpur district of Rajasthan are not excessively high
147 Crop co-efficients through lysimetric observations and its comparison with different approaches of groundnut (Arachis hypogea), P.B. MHETRE, P.S. KAMBLE1 AND J.D. JADHAV*
In the dryland region, groundnut (Arachis hypogea) is grown as a rainfed crop, which is exposed to varying sets of weather conditions in general and rainfall distribution is particular. The acute need of water at critical growth stages, through lysimetric observations and its comparison with different approaches may provide information for decision making in irrigation scheduling the measurement of AET by means of lysimeter and it is essential to establish a relationship between the measured value of AET by in lysimeter and the estimated PET by different empirical formulae. Keeping these points in mind, a research project was planned on estimation of crop evapotranspiration in groundnut crop through lysimeter. From the field study it was seen that the Blaney and Criddle, Thornthwaite and pan evaporation methods did not give correct prediction of PET, due to estimated KC values and did not give correct estimation at various phenophases. For estimation of PET under dryland region at Solapur condition, the modified Penman method is the most suitable. The total seasonal actual evapotranspiration (AET) for groundnut was found to be 391.13 mm. This again necessities the application of protective irrigation to groundnut during peg formation to kernal development stage by the modified Penman method
148 In vitro approach for callus induction in kheemp [Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne] : A multipurpose plant, PRATIBHA CHOUDHARY1, ARUN JHAJHARIA* AND DALEL SINGH2
Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forsk.) Decne belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. It is commonly known as Kheemp in India. L. pyrotechnica is an important component of an arid ecosystem and source of fibre, forage, and medicines. In this present investigation, an efficient method has been developed for a rapid callus induction in Leptadenia pyrotechnica. After surface sterilization on MS medium supplemented with cytokinins and auxins (PGRs) individually and with various combinations, nodal, pod and inter-nodal explants from mature plant of L. pyrotechnica were cultured. Cultures were maintained at 30 2C temperature, 5060 mol m-2 s-1 SFP, 16 hr day-1 photoperiod, and 62 per cent relative humidity (RH). Nodal segments proved the best explants (95% callus induction) compared with inter-nodal and pod explants had 11 per cent and 5 per cent callus induction, respectively. Different treatments were employed for surface sterilization of explants revealing that combination of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl2) and mercuric chloride (MC) were found significant. Minimum contamination (9%) occurred at 30 per cent NaOCl2 + 2 g/L MC, while 85 per cent occurred at 30 per cent NaOCl2 + 1 g/L MC. The nodal segments cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA that produced maximum callus (95%) within four weeks. It was followed by 65 per cent callus induction at 5 mg/L NAA + 2.5 mg/L benzyl-adenine (BA) and 25 per cent at 10 mg/L 2,4-D + 3 mg/L 2ip + 3 g/L activated charcoal (AC), while only 15 per cent appeared at control (without hormone application). This study may contribute in conservation management of this native plant species found especially in the Thar desert of Rajasthan
149 Study of personal, socio-economic and psychological profile of khol crop growers of Belgaum district, RAVINDER KUMAR PATIL*, RAJAKUMAR1 AND DHANRAJ1
The present study attempts to examine the personal, socio-economic and psychological profile of khol crop growers of belgaum district of Karnataka state. Belgaum district was purposively selected for the study because, it ranks first in area and production of khol crops in north Karnataka. Belgaum district was purposively selected for the study because, it ranks first in area and production of khol crops in north Karnataka. Primary data for the study were collected through a sample of 100 khol crop growing farmers in 10 villages in the study area in September 2005 to February 2006 cropping season (Rabi season). Multistage random sampling procedure was used in collecting data. The findings of the study reveals that, majority of the respondents 64.00 per cent were 8 years of farming Experience. Whereas 19.00 per cent of the farmers belonging to up to 3 years Farming experience. The study also reveals that, 78.00 per cent of the khol crop growers regularly participated in Krishimela. This might be due to krishimela will be conducted in UAS Dharwad. Which is nearer to the study area and most of the farmers gets the seeds and required information related to khol crops.Mass media participation of the farmers indicated that 56.00 and 21.00 per cent of the respondents were listening radio programmes occasionally and regularly viewing television
150 Effect of integrated soil fertility management practices on production and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in alluvial soils of central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, V.K. VERMA, SANJAI CHAUDHRY*, VIHSRAM SINGH, S.K. GUPTA AND HARVANSH KUMAR
An investigation on integrated soil fertility management practices in wheat crop was conducted during Rabi season of 2011-12 at Students' Instructional Farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. The treatment consisted of seven super imposed doses of vermicompost @ 25.0 t/ha, farm yard manure @ 10.0 t/ha, Azotobacter and PSB as individual and in combination with recommended dose of fertilizer treatment (150 N : 60 P2O5 : 40 K2O : 20 S : 20 Zn, kg/ha). The experiment was laidout in Randomized Block Design and treatments replicated three times. The soil of field was sandy loam in texture, deficient in nitrogen, medium in phosphorus and potash. The wheat variety Mahi (K-402) was sown on 12th December, 2011. The response of integrated soil fertility treatments was analysed on growth parameters, yield attributes and yield as well as economic parameters of wheat crop. All the super imposed fertility treatments responded well in terms of increase in yield of wheat crop to the tune of 6.93 per cent to 22.48 per cent compared to control treatments. The results revealed that the treatment consisted of recommended dose of fertilizers + vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha + Azotobacter and PSB as seed treatment and sprayed at 1st and 2nd irrigation (T-8) registered highest grain yield (56.70 q/ha) of wheat followed by RDF + vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha + Azotobacter and PSB as seed treatment ad sprayed under 1st irrigation (55.55 q/ha), RDF + FYM @ 10.0 t/ha + Azotobacter and PSB as seed treatment (55.32 q/ha) were significantly at par, RDF + vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha + St. with Azotobacter and PSB (54.39 q/ha) differed significantly and lowest grain yield (46.29 q/ha) of wheat was recorded under only RDF treatment (control). The maximum gross income (Rs. 87443.00) and net income (Rs. 37000.00) was also recorded in treatment of RDF + vermicompost 5.0 t/ha + Azotobacter and PSB as seed treatment and sprayed at 1st and 2nd irrigation T-8).
151 Studies on nutrient use efficiency and water use efficiency of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. Longam) cv. KtPl-19 under drip fertigation, G. SATHISH*, V. PONNUSWAMI1, M.S. MARICHAMY2, I. GEETHALAKSHMI3 AND K. SUNDHARAIYA4
Paprika (Capsicum annuum var. longam) is one of the important capsicum group known for its less pungency. Application of fertilizers through drip irrigation is known to play a vital role in enhancing the productivity and quality of many horticultural crops. In this view, studies on paprika (Capsicum annuum var. longam) were carried out at the College orchard, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 2006-2009 to find out the effect of different sources and levels of potassium with reference to nutrient use efficiency water use efficiency. The experiment was conducted for two seasons viz., season I (June 2007- Jan 2008) and season II (July 2008- Feb 2009) to get the concurrent result. From the study, it was observed that the crop paprika responded well to the fertigation treatments. The result revealed that application of 100 % RDF as MAP, Multi-K and SOP recorded the highest nutrient use efficiency of 60.50 kg kg nutrient-1 and nutrient use efficiency of 37.71 kg ha-1mm-1.
152 Effect of irrigation and levels of fertilizers application on growth and yield of zero tilled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), V.N. GAME*, U.V. MAHADKAR AND O.S. KHETRE
A Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy farm of Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli during Rabi season of 2011- 2012 to study the effect of irrigation and levels of fertilizer application zero tilled cowpea. After harvesting of rice, cowpea was sown on zero tilled condition. Results revealed that application of two irrigations (at branching and pod filling) recorded significantly higher growth and yield attributes resulting in higher grain (12.26 q ha-1) and stover (26.17 q ha-1) yield followed by treatments in which one irrigation (at branching) and zero irrigation (control). Application of 100 per cent RDF below seed placement recorded significantly higher growth as well as yield attributes resulted in higher grain (12.62 q ha-1) and stover yield (26.48 q ha-1) followed by 100 per cent RDF through line application, 75, 50, 25 per cent RDF below seed placement and control. Thus, the study revealed that during Rabi hot weather season cowpea crop grown under zero tilled condition should be provided with two irrigations (at branching and pod filling stage) along with 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizer (25:50:00 NPK kg ha-1) applied below seed placement for obtaining higher yield
153 Evaluation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) genotypes for fresh and dry biomass yield under hill zone of Karnataka, ARIF AGASIMANI
The present study was carried out at College of Horticulture, Mudigere (Chickmagalur), University of Horticultural sciences, Bagalkot during January 2012 - March 2012. From the study on mean performance of genotypes, based on growth and yield attributing traits of genotypes viz., DCC 37 (11.65 g), DCC 51 (11.63 g), DCC 49 (11.61 g), DCC 58 (11.52 g), DCC 59 (11.40 g) and DCC 8 (11.39 g ) were identified as high yielding leafy types. Whereas, DCC 49 (4.24 g), DCC 51 (4.23 g), DCC 38 (4.16 g),DCC 8 (4.13 g), DCC 44 (4.12 g) and DCC 37 (4.11 g) recorded the maximum dry herbage yield during the whole season. These genotypes can be used successfully for further breeding programmes.
154 Effect of zinc, iron and boron on yield of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) cv. PUSA VISHESH, J.D. VALA* AND A.B. SAVALIYA1
Effect of zinc, iron and boron on yield of bitter gourd cv. PUSAVISHESH was studies. The experiment consisted of eighteen treatment combinations, comprising of three levels of zinc viz., control (Zn0), ZnSO4 0.5 per cent (Zn1) and ZnSO4 1.0 per cent (Zn2), three levels of iron viz., control (Fe0), FeSO4 0.5 per cent (Fe1) and FeSO4 1.0 per cent (Fe2) and two levels of boron viz., control (B1) and B4O7 0.1 per cent (B2). Among different levels of zinc (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0%), Zn1 (ZnSO4 0.5%) significantly increased fruit yield (15.65 t/ha. Among different levels of iron (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0%), Fe1 (FeSO4 0.5%) significantly increased fruit yield (t/ha) (15.37 t/ha). Among different levels of boron (0.0 and 0.1 %), B1 (Na2B4O70.1%) significantly increased fruit yield (t/ha) (14.96 t/ha). While among all the interactions of zinc, iron and boron, Fe1Zn1 (FeSO4 0.5% + ZnSO4 0.5%) significantly obtained highest fruit yield (16.33 t/ha) over control. The result based on one season data, it can be summarized that foliar application of micronutrients, ZnSO4 0.5 per cent + FeSO4 0.5 per cent at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing along with a recommended dose of NPK (60+60+60 kg/ha) and FYM 20 tonnes/ha to the bitter gourd crop cv. Pusa Vishesh was the most beneficial treatment for obtaining higher vegetative growth and yield of bitter gourd
155 Management of stem and root rot of sesame, C.S. CHOUDHARY*, ANJANA ARUN AND S.M. PRASAD1
Out of 27 entries evaluated against stem and root rot caused byMacrophomina phaseolina, only three entries viz., IC205477, IC 205506 and Krishna were identified as resistant. Dates of sowing trials revealed that early sowing favored Macrophomina stem and root rot. Multiple regression equation between disease index and weather variables exhibited strong relationship among the different components of epiphytotics during 2002-03 and 2003-04 crop seasons (R2 =0.989 and 0.985). This disease appeared during second week of July in the field. Maximum apparent infection rate of 0.122 unit/day and 0.118 unit/day were calculated at July 25, during both years of experimentations, respectively. The mean temperature 26.86 to 28.930C, mean relative humidity 77.49 to 79.4 per cent, rainfall 5.54 mm and 13.24 mm and 12 and 14 number of rainy days were favorable for maximum disease development. Seed treatment with a mixture of carbendazim 50 WP (0.1%) and thiram 75 WP (0.15%) recorded minimum PDI of 11.15 per cent and 9.91 per cent and highest seed yield of 637 kg/ha and 646 kg/ha during above mentioned crop seasons. First spray of carbendazim 50 WP (0.05%) + second spray of T. viride (107 spore/g) were found to be most economical for the management of the disease.
156 Effect of integrated nutrient management on yield attributes and yield of maize hybrid, R. STEPHEN RAJASINGH* AND A. CHRISTOPHER LOURDURAJ1
The effect of organics and fertilizer levels with foliar spray on hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) NK-6240 was evaluated during winter seasons of 2011-12 and winter 2012-13 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. The experiments were laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications. In the main plot, three organic sources were tried (FYM, biochar and vermicompost) and sub plot comprised of seven treatments having combinations of two fertilizer levels(100 % and 75 % of recommended dose of fertilizers) along with foiliar spray of 1 or 2 per cent polyfeed (19:19:19 NPK) and pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria(PPFM). The results of the study revealed that application of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 significantly increased the yield attributes and yield of maize followed by FYM 12.5 t ha-1. Among the fertilizer level with foliar spray treatments, application of 100 per cent RDF with foliar spray of 2% poly feed spray significantly (P =0.05) enhanced the yield attributes and grain yield. The interaction effect between organics and fertilizer levels with foliar spray on maize grain yield was significant. In both the years of study, vermicompost application along with soil application of 100 per cent RDF with 2 per cent poly feed as foliar spray recorded the highest grain yield of 9293 and 8830 kg ha-1 and stover yield of 13403 and 12802 kg ha-1, during 2011-12 and 2012- 13, respectively. From the result of the study, application of vermicompost @ 5 t ha-1 along with 100 per cent RDF (150:75:75 kg NPK ha-1) with foliar spray of 2 per cent poly feed on 30th and 45th DAS may be recommended for increasing hybrid maize yield, particularly in the study area.
157 Effect of planting geometry and nitrogen levels on growth, green cob yield and economics of sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.), AARTI VERMA* AND G.S.TOMAR1
A field experiment was conducted at the Instructional Farm of Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) during Kharif season of 2009. The sweet corn var. Sugar-75 was sown on July 7th 2009 using experimental techniques of Split Plot Design with three replications. Treatment comprised of three planting geometry viz., 60 25cm (P1), 60 x 20cm (P2), 60 x 15cm (P3) in main plots and 5 levels of nitrogen viz., control (N0), 40 (N1), 80 (N2), 120 (N3), 150 (N4), kg N ha-1 in sub plots. Results revealed that all the growth parameters were influenced significantly due to different planting geometries and levels of nitrogen. Wider plant spacing 60x25cm (P1) produced maximum number of green leaves, stem girth, dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate which resulted in maximum green cob yield (9.65 t ha-1) and higher net returns (Rs. 78,371 ha-1) coupled with wider B:C ratio (3.33) as compared to other planting geometries. However, narrow plant spacing (60 15 cm was found to be superior in terms of number of cobs ha-1 (91.63 103), green fodder and stover yields. Application of nitrogen @ 120 kg N ha-1 was found to improve growth and yield attributes of sweet corn and consequently the higher green cob yield (10.23 t ha-1). Wider plant geometry (60 25cm) in combination with 120 kg N ha-1 recorded maximum green cob yield (11.06 t ha-1).
158 Effect of sulphur and phosphorus on growth and yield attributes on summer green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], SITA RAM KUMAWAT1, M.K. KHISTRIYA1, S.L. YADAV2 AND MANOJ KUMAR*
A field experiment undertaken to study the effect of sulphur and phosphorus on growth, yield and quality of summer green gram [Vigna radiata (L.)Wilczek] during summer 2010. The results of the present investigation showed that significantly the highest plant height (43.53 cm), number of branches per plant (5.79), leaf area index (3.97, 4.17 and 4.65 at 20, 40 and 60 DAS, respectively) and dry matter content (4.64, 7.63 and 10.65 g/plant at 20, 40 and 60 DAS, respectively) were observed in treatment S3 (30 kg S/ha). With respect to yield attributes and yield the results indicated that significantly the maximum number of pods per plant (20.47), weight of 100 seeds (4.07 g), seed yield (819 kg/ha) and straw yield (1551 kg/ha) were found with the application of 30 kg S/ha. With respect to phosphorus, the results revealed that the application of phosphorus @ 60 kg P2O5/ha (P3) registered significantly the highest plant height (43.85 cm), number of branches per plant (5.70), leaf area index (3.97, 4.17 and 4.65 at 20, 40and 60 DAS, respectively) and dry matter content (4.65, 7.63 and 10.64 g at20, 40 and 60 DAS, respectively). In case of yield attributes and yield, the results showed that significantly the maximum number of pods per plant (20.83), weight of 100 seeds (4.03 g), seed yield (814 kg/ha) and straw yield (1563 kg/ha) were found with the application of 60 kg P2O5/ha. A combined application of 30 kg S/ha and 60 kg P2O5/ha (S3P3) was found significantly higher in respect of grain yield (937 kg/ha) and straw yield (1853 kg/ ha).
159 Effect of containers and seed treatments on storability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NAGARAJ UDABAL*, RAVI HUNJE1 AND PRAVEEN KOTE
To study the effect of containers and seed treatments on storability of sunflower experiment was conducted during the year 2011- 12, at Seed Research Laboratory of National Seed Project, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The storage experiment comprised of three containers (C1: Vacuum packing, C2: Polythene bag and C3: Cloth bag) and six seed treatments [T1:Sweet flag rhizome powder(5 g/kg),T2: Neem leaf powder(10 g/kg), T3: Custard apple seed powder (10 g/kg), T4: Deltamethrine @ 40 mg/kg, T5: Vitavax (3g/kg) and T6: Control (without any seed treatments).] in three replications with factorial concept and stored for 11 months under ambient condition. The seeds treated with vitavax (3g/kg) recorded significantly higher seed germination (84.37%), hundred seed weight (4.36g), root and shoot (17.66 and 16.25 cm, respectively) length, vigour index (2865) lower electrical conductivity (232dSm-1) and seed moisture content (9.14%) at the end of eleven months of seed storage as compared to other treatments. Among the containers the seeds stored in vacuum packing recorded significantly higher germination (84.45%), hundred seed weight (4.36g), root and shoot (18.05 and 16.70 cm) length, vigour index (2935) lower electrical conductivity (225 dS m-1) and seed moisture content (8.57%) which was at par with polythene bag. Whereas, lower seed quality parameters were recorded in cloth bag at the end of 11 months of storage period
160 Ash weevil Myllocerus spp. dominates Helicoverpa armigera in Kharif groundnut systems, R. PRASANNA LAKSHMI* AND K. MANJULA1
Redgram, castor, cowpea and field bean were grown as intercrops to study the population dynamics of Helicoverpa andMyllocerus spp in groundnut under rainfed conditions. Groundnut + redgram, groundnut + castor, groundnut + cowpea and groundnut + field bean were raised at 7:1, 7:1, 6:1 and 6:1 ratios, respectively along with pure crop of groundnut. Groundnut +cowpea and groundnut + redgram intercropping systems recorded less mean per cent damaged leaves by Helicoverpa (4.06 and 4.69%). The damage was found to be increased gradually and reached maximum of 7.80 mean per cent at 60 DAS i.e. during Ist FN of September, thereafter slightly declined. However, the leaf damage by Helicoverpa has not reached ETL (20% damaged leaves) in the season. Leaf damage by ash weevil was started at 20 DAS i.e. during IInd FN of July which was gradually increased and reached peak (24.19 %) at 60 DAS i.e. during I FN of September and thereafter it was declined. Per cent leaf damage by Myllocerus spp. was comparatively less in groundnut + cowpea system (12.48 %). Whereas damage in remaining treatments ranged from 15.0 to 22.0 per cent. However, irrespective of intercrops, on groundnut, Ash weevil damage was higher than other leaf eaters includingHelicoverpa
161 Studies on splash erosion under simulated rainfall, VIRENDRA N. BARAI*, GAJANAN U. SATPUTE1 AND ATUL A. ATRE
Splash erosion is recognized as the first stage in a soil erosion process. Quantification of splash erosion for various combinations of land slopes and rainfall intensities with the help of rainfall simulation system and modified Morgans splash cup was tried in this study. The clay soil was used to study the splash erosion. The directional splash soil loss rate (kg ha-1), i.e. upslope and down slope were found increasing with increase in rainfall intensity and land slope. The rate of increase in down slope splash was comparatively more than upslope. The highest soil splash i.e. 16369 kg ha-1was observed for combination of 10 per cent land slope and 7.75 cm h-1 rainfall intensity in clay soil. The results obtained showed that maximum average vertical movement of splashed material was 83 cm in clay soil, for the combination of rainfall intensity 7.75 cm h-1and land slope 10 per cent. The maximum average horizontal movement of splashed material was found 100.5 cm for the combination of rainfall intensity 7.75 cm h-1 and land slope 10 per cent. The Splashed soil material was spread near about 100.5 cm in the down slope direction and 69.0 cm in the upslope direction which highlights the need to modify the size of splash cup to study the realistic soil movement during splash erosion.
162 Study on knowledge level of dairy farmers for scientific livestock rearing practices in Bhagwanpur block area of District Haridwar, AMIT KUMAR*, VINOD KUMAR, S.S. RAWAT, PURUSHOTTAM KUMAR, A.K. SINGH AND DEEPTI CHAUDHARI
The study was conducted in dry land Bhagwanpur Block of district Haridwar, Uttarakhand during the year 2012-2013. The major observation was taken on socio- economic condition and elementary knowledge of the livestock owners in context to the use of scientific livestock rearing practices. the study revealed that 49.17 per cent livestock owner belongs to the middle age group, 35.00 per cent had marginal land holdings, 42.50 per cent lying with primary education group and 80.83 per cent had information sources as news paper. All the study respondent had no irrigation facility for their agricultural crops. 37.00 per cent were engaged with different village level social and agricultural organizations. 52.50 per cent dairy farmers had large family size and 49.17 per cent dairy farmers had two worth generate member in the family system. 67.50 percent were associated with integrated crops and animal husbandry practices in addition to service or business work, while 35.83 per cent solely with dairy farming. Majority (35.83 %) were preferred to reared six milch animals. Green fodder production area was higher (29.00 %) with medium-big land holding farmers. Large number of tractors was engaged in transportation, in newely developed industrial area. On an average 42.81, 35.00 and 22.19 per cent had high, medium and low level of knowledge regarding calves and heifers rearing with their breeding, feeding, ,housing and health management practices of livestock. Thus it was concluded that the dairy owners of dry land Bhagwanpur block of the district Haridwar possess high to medium level of knowledge regarding improved animal husbandry practices
163 Studies on splash erosion under simulated rainfall, VIRENDRA N. BARAI*, GAJANAN U. SATPUTE1 AND ATUL A. ATRE
Splash erosion is recognized as the first stage in a soil erosion process. Quantification of splash erosion for various combinations of land slopes and rainfall intensities with the help of rainfall simulation system and modified Morgans splash cup was tried in this study. The clay soil was used to study the splash erosion. The directional splash soil loss rate (kg ha-1), i.e. upslope and down slope were found increasing with increase in rainfall intensity and land slope. The rate of increase in down slope splash was comparatively more than upslope. The highest soil splash i.e. 16369 kg ha-1was observed for combination of 10 per cent land slope and 7.75 cm h-1 rainfall intensity in clay soil. The results obtained showed that maximum average vertical movement of splashed material was 83 cm in clay soil, for the combination of rainfall intensity 7.75 cm h-1and land slope 10 per cent. The maximum average horizontal movement of splashed material was found 100.5 cm for the combination of rainfall intensity 7.75 cm h-1 and land slope 10 per cent. The Splashed soil material was spread near about 100.5 cm in the down slope direction and 69.0 cm in the upslope direction which highlights the need to modify the size of splash cup to study the realistic soil movement during splash erosion
164 Effect of zinc and iron application on yield and acquisition of nutrient on mustard crop (Brassica juncea L.), ANUJ KUMAR1, SATENDRA KUMAR1, PRAMOD KUMAR*, ASHOK KUMAR1, SHIV KUMAR SAVITA ARYA AND SUSHIL KUMAR2
The field experiment was conducted on Pusa Bold variety of mustard with 10 treatments in RBD in Rabi season- 2009-10 at Crop Research Centre of, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology; Meerut (U.P). Maximum primary branches (11.05), secondary branches (31.33), siliqua per plant (545.35), number of seed per siliqua (13.55), seed weight per plant 30.38 g and test weight (1000 seed weight, 6.50 g) were recorded, the biological yield was observed highest (114.80 q ha-1) and the grain yield was also (23.40 q ha-1) in T9{100 % NPK (RDF) + Zn @ 25 Kg ha-1 (B) + Fe @ 25 Kg ha-1 (B)}. The maximum stover yield noticed 91.40 q ha-1as compared to T1 (control) (40.82 q ha-1.), highest total nitrogen uptake by mustard crop, recorded 97.87 kg/ha, in case of phosphorus and potassium uptake by mustard crop was also observed 21.82 kg/ha and 152.82 kg/ha, respectively. The all over present investigation shows that the maximum yield attributes was found when zinc and iron was applied basal with recommended dose of fertilizers.
165 Effect of different sources and levels of potassium on quality of paprika (Capsicum annuum var. longam) cv. KtPl-19 under fertigation system, G. SATHISH, V. PONNUSWAMI*1, I. GEETHALAKSHMI2,M.S. MARICHAMY3 AND K. SUNDHARAIYA4
Investigations were carried out in paprika (Capsicum annuum var. longam ) cv.Ktpl19 at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. To study the influence of drip fertigation on quality traits, the experiment was conducted for two seasons viz., season I (June 2007- Jan 2008) and season II (July 2008- Feb 2009) to get the concurrent result. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design, replicated thrice with seven treatments. The data on quality traits viz., ascorbic acid (mg 100-g of fruit), oleoresin content (%), capsaicin content (%) were taken from randomly selected plants and were statistically analyzed. The result shows that significantly higher ascorbic acid content of 94.67 mg 100-g of fruit and oleoresin content of 15.17 per cent was observed in T7. It was followed by T6 of ascorbic acid content of 87.20 mg 100-g of fruit and oleoresin content of 14.12 per cent. Low capsaicin content of 0.018 per cent were registered when the plants were supplied with water soluble fertilizers at 100% RDF using MAP, Multi-K and SOP through drip irrigation during both the seasons. It was followed by T1 of higher capsaicin content of 0.029 per cent
166 Economic surplus estimates of improved vegetable production technology in Maharashtra, P.P. PAWAR*, S.S. BHOSALE1, M.R. PATIL1 AND R.K. RAHANE1
The paper envisages the detailed analysis of assessment of improved vegetable production technologies on production, resource use economic surplus estimates of vegetable growers in Maharashtra. Among the adopters, maximum share of total cropped area was observed under cereals crops (34.15 %) followed by vegetable crops (25.61 %). Among the non adopters, cereals crops contributed maximum area (38.25 %) followed by vegetable crops (28.85 %). The net present value of cultivation of major vegetables was estimated to Rs. 4849 crores and in case of chilli, okra, brinjal, onion and tomato it was Rs. 1521, Rs. 672, Rs. 46, Rs. 1134 and Rs. 1476 crores, respectively. The benefit cost ratio of an investment made in vegetable research was observed 1:89 for major vegetables in Maharashtra. Among the vegetables, the highest (Rs. 873 crores) consumers surplus was recorded in case of tomato and it was followed by chilli (Rs.621 crores), onion (Rs. 524 crores), okra (Rs. 299 crores) and brinjal (Rs.26 crores). The total surplus in vegetable cultivation especially of five major vegetables due to adoption of improved vegetable production technology was to the tune of Rs. 3168.48 crores and it was Rs. 988.57, Rs. 961.42, Rs. 741.53, Rs. 439.68 and Rs. 37.28 crores in case of chilli, tomato, onion, okra and brinjal, respectively.
167 Genetic divergence in chickpea, A.R. GAIKWAD*, N.C.DESAI1, G.H. PAWAR AND A.M. LANGHI2
The genetic diversity was assessed using Mahalanobis's D2 statistics wherein 40 genotypes were grouped in eight clusters. The clustering pattern of the genotypes was independent of their geographical distribution. Based on inter cluster distance, Cluster VII was the superior for the character seed yield per plant, protein content and number of pods per plant, cluster II for days to 50 per cent flowering and reaction to insect pest (heliothis), while cluster VIII for plant height and 100-seed weight and cluster VII for number of primary branches per plant and number of secondary branches per plant. Therefore, it may be concluded that the genotypes belonging to these groups can be utilized in developing diverse variability and improving seed yield in chickpea. The characters pods per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, 100-seed weight, days to 50 % flowering contributed maximum to the divergence
168 Analysis of adoption and risk perception in innovation system in Kwara state Nigeria : A case study of improved rice, O.E. AYINDE*, M. MUCHIE, K.B. OLATINWO1, A.H. ADENUGA1 AND A.E. OYEWOLE
The critical issues associated with the Nigerian agriculture is that of low productivity and also what the farmers perceive as risk involved in adopting innovative and improved technology. Although rice is a leading staple food crop in Nigeria, domestic rice production has not increased sufficiently to meet the increased demand. This study, therefore, focused on determining the risk perception of farmers on improved rice and consequently the adoption of new technology, a case study of improved rice. Farmers were classified into risk classes using the multi-item scale approach and probit model was used to determine the relationship between socioeconomic characteristics and adoption status. A relatively large group of farmers exhibit a risk taking attitude with only few exhibiting risk indifference attitude. The study revealed high rate of adoption of improved rice. Farming experience, amount of credit available, co-operative membership and risk co-efficients have significant effects on the adoption status of the new rice variety. Inadequate capital, disease and pest, climate change and inadequate input were perceived as a risk situation affecting improved rice production. Consequently the study recommends among others that risk situation and behaviour of farmers should be considered in innovative technology to achieve sustainable development via agricultural development
169 Effect on intermating in early segregating population in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), VIJAYPAL SINGH, NATWAR SINGH DODIYA* AND CHAMPA LAL KHATIK
An investigation was planned to compute and compare the nature and magnitude of correlations among various characters in the biparental progenies (BIPs) and the corresponding selfed generation of F2population derived from KWR 108 X IPC 94-19 crosses of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).The biparental population had higher magnitude of correlation co-efficients than the F3 selfs. In both the populations, association of number of pods with seed yield was high and positively significant, highlighting the facts that pods per plant is the most important yield contributing character in chickpea. The utility of biparental mating in early segregating generations like F2 in breaking unfavourable association in chickpea is emphasised
170 Effect of phosphorus, PSB and zinc on yield attributes and yield of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk), G.P. NAROLIA*, A.C. SHIVRAN AND R.S. NAROLIA
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of four levels of phosphorus (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P2O5 ha-1) two levels of PSB (without and with inoculation) and three levels of zinc (0, 2.5 and 5.0 kg Zn ha-1). The results showed that application of phosphorus significantly increased the yield attributes (number of spikes per plant, spike length and seeds per spike), yields (seed and straw) and net returns of isabgol upto 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. The inoculation of seed with PSB significantly enhanced the yield attributes, yields and net returns over uninoculated control. Application of zinc significantly increased the number of spikes per plant, seeds per spike, spike length, seed and straw yields and net returns upto 5.0 kg ha-1.
171 Economics of fodder sorghum (Sorghum biocolour) as influenced by nitrogen levels and its methods of application, ASHISH BANJARE* AND G.P. BANJARA
A field investigation was conducted during the Rabi season of 2012-13 to study economics of fodder sorghum as influenced by nitrogen levels (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg N ha-1) and its methods of application (Broadcasting, side dressing and band placement). The maximum gross realization (Rs. 33233 ha-1), net realization (Rs. 23577 ha-1) and benefit: cost ratio (2.44) was obtained with the application of 160 kg N ha-1 applied through band placement method followed by the gross realization (Rs.32457 ha-1), net realization (Rs. 22951 ha-1) and benefit: cost ratio (2.41) with the application of 160 kg N ha-1 applied through broadcasting method.
172 Relative bio-efficacy of some newer molecules against shoot and fruit borer (L. orbonalis) of brinjal, J.A. DAHATONDE, H.V. PANDYA*, S.B. RAUT1 AND S.D. PATEL
Studies were carried out on bio-efficacy of insecticide against brinjal jassid (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida) and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius) at Regional Horticultural Research Station Farm, NAU, Navsari during 2011-12. Out of eight newer insecticides tested at different intervals, pooled data indicated that minimum jassid population (4.71 jassids/three leaves) was recorded in plots treated with imidacloprid and lower number of whiteflies were observed in plots treated with imidacloprid (8.08 whiteflies/three leaves).
173 Morphological and biochemical characterization of antagonist Pseudomonas isolates, N. SRINIVASA1, H. RYMBAI*, A.M. RAJESH1, P. GANESHAMOORTHI1, B. RAMANUJAM2 AND K.R. YATHISH3
The morphological and biochemical characterization of phylloplane and rhizosphere Pseudomonas isolates collected from different places were determined. The Pseudomonas isolates antagonistic activity against Alternaria solani, were also tested to determine their capacity to inhibit fungal infection on tomato. The result showed that among the seven isolates of Alternaria solani on potato dextrose agar, isolate HES AL-1 recorded maximum growth coupled with distinct sporulation and colony characteristics. Based on morphological and biochemical characterization of the twelve bacterial antagonists, ten genuses belong to Pseudomonas while two were of Flourescent Pseudomonas. It was also confirmed that the growth of all the seven isolates of Alternaria solani was significantly inhibited by the antagonists Pseudomonas in potato dextrose agar (PDA) conditions. Out of twelve Pseudomonas isolates, five isolates viz., S4B7P (27.74), S1B8P (27.33), S2B10P (25.47), S3B3PF (23.07) and S1B1P (19.69) which showed higher mean inhibition percentage on all the isolates of Alternaria solani were identified as potential antagonistic against Alternaria solani. Further, in pot culture under green house conditions, among the five promising isolates of Pseudomonas isolates, S1B8P isolate and S3B3PF isolate expressed the minimum mean per cent disease incidence (PDI) in all the three methods of inoculation. While, among the three methods of inoculation tested, pre inoculation of Pseudomonas antagonists followed by Alternaria solani showed the minimum PDI (20.68). Therefore, foliar application of Pseudomonas antagonists before inoculation with pathogens may reduce the incidence of early blight in tomato.
174 Knowledge and use of computer by the Scientists of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, BUTANI KETANKUMAR* AND D.S. DHILLON
The present study was undertaken to ascertain the knowledge of scientists regarding computer, its use by them in teaching, research and extension and problems being faced by them in its use. A sample of 200 scientists working in teaching, research and extension system of the PAU was drawn by using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique. The data were collected by using distributed questionnaire approach. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the scientists belonged to age group of 44 to 56 years, hailed from rural families, were Associate Professors, most of them had total annual income of Rs. 7-11 lakhs and had service experience of 7-15 years with two trainings. Majority of the scientist were male, had Ph.D educational qualification and belonged to farming families. The findings of the study further indicated that two-third of the scientists had high level of knowledge of computer mainly for the purpose of computer information retrieval or data updating while more than half of them had experience in computer use up to 5 years. It was further noticed that among various computer facilities available, Internet accessing had an added advantage of its ready availability as compared to others. Insufficient budget provision for the purchase and minor repairs of computer mostly restricted the use of different computer tools whereas the major problem faced by the scientists in the use of computers was the lack of regular training. Therefore, they had suggested that the sufficient budget should be provided for the purchase and minor repairs of computer as well as sufficient number of scientists should be trained regularly from time to time
175 Yield, nutrient uptake and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by fertility levels and biofertilizers and their residual effect on fodder maize (Zea mays L.) under Southern Rajasthan condition, M.K. KAUSHIK*, N.R. BISHNOI, H.K. SUMERIYA AND P. SINGH
A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05 at Udaipur, Rajasthan, to find out a suitable combination of chemical and organic nutritional sources for wheat (Tritium aestivumL.) grown with 9 fertility levels (100 % RDF, vermicompost 1.50 and 3.00 t ha-1, vermicompost 1.50 and 3.00 t alongwith 50, 75 and 100 % RDF ) in main plots and three biofertilizers (Control, Azospirillum, Azospirillum + PSB) in sub plots. Wheat crop under vermicompost 3.00 t ha-1 + 100 % RDF recorded significantly higher grain (4.96 t ha-1), straw ( 6.46 t ha-1) and biological (11.42 t ha-1) yields, N, P, and K uptake and protein content over vermicompost 1.50 and 3.00 t ha-1, respectively. This treatment also recorded the maximum green (25.43 t ha-1) and dry fodder (8.40 t ha-1) yield of residual fodder maize. Seed inoculation of Azospirillum+ PSB recorded significantly higher grain (4.92 t ha-1), straw ( 6.38 t ha-1) and biological yield ( 11.30 tha-1) over Azospirillum and control. Azosirillum + PSB also recorded significantly higher residual fodder maize (26.25 and 8.12 t ha-1 green as well as dry fodder yield) over control
176 Assessment of relative efficacy of different seed treatments in controlling bruchids (Callosobruchus chinensis) during storage in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp], B.H. SUNITHA*, K.P. VISWANATHA1, B.C. CHANNAKESHAVA, J. DEVENDRAPPA1, D.S. AMBIKA2 AND H.B. DINESH1
An experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with seven treatments replicated three times to evaluate the relative efficacy of different seed treatments in controlling bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)] and their effect on seed quality parameters during storage of cowpea variety KBC-2. In the storage study of six months, different seed treatments were used viz., Malathion 5 per cent dust, pongamia oil, neem oil, neem leaf powder, sand and ash. Among the different seed treatments it was observed that sand layer of 2.5 cm thick above the seeds stored was found to be effective in maintaining minimum development of bruchid population (3.6 per 100 seeds), 10 per cent seed damage, 3.13 per cent weight loss of seeds, 67.3 per cent seed germination and 20.8 per cent protein content at the end of storage, followed by neem oil treatment
177 Effect of planting ratios on crop growth, flowering parameters and seed yield of sorghum hybrid cv-SHD-9704, SHARANKUMAR* AND MERWADE
The present investigation was undertaken during 2007 and 2008 at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during Rabi season in 2007-08 and Kharif season in 2008 and their pooled data on effect of planting ratios on crop growth. flowering parameters and seed yield on sorghum hybrid cv-SHD-9704 . The 6:2 planting ratio (P2) recorded numerically more (106.58 cm) plant height at harvest, number of leaves (9.53) at 75 DAS, days to crop maturity (93.84 days), days to primordial initiation (37.64 days) and 50 per cent flowering (69.04 days) compared to 4:2 planting ratios (P1) (101.01 cm, 9.22, 90.71 days, 35.83 days and 66.88 days, respectively). Whereas, leaf area and leaf area index at 75 DAS numerically were more (3068 cm2 and 4.54, respectively) in 4:2 planting ratio (P1) than 6:2 planting ratio (P2) (2968 cm2 and 4.39, respectively). The 4:2 planting ratio (P1) recorded significantly more ear weight (27.64 g), number of seeds per ear (300.00), seed setting percentage (26.77%), seed weight per ear (10.32 g) and hybrid seed yield per hectare (4.54 q/ha) compared to 6:2 planting ratio (P2) (23.99 g, 258.00, 23.41%, 8.85 g and 3.96, q/ha, respectively).
178 Combining ability analysis over environments in diallel crosses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), P.R. PADHAR*, V.P. CHOVATIA, L.L. JIVANI AND K.L. DOBARIYA
Combining ability analysis was undertaken in a 12 x 12 half diallel progeny of bread wheat for grain yield and its component characters under timely (E1) and late sown (E2) conditions. The mean squares due to gca and sca showed highly significant differences for all the characters in both the environments, suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive gene action. However, variances due to sca were higher in magnitude than gca for most of the traits except plant height and length of main spike in both the environments indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. The low predictability ratios for most of the traits in both the sowing dates also confirm the results. However, the predictability ratios for plant height and length of main spike were near unity suggesting the importance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these characters. The estimates of gca effects of the parents revealed that GW 496 (in both the environments), GW 273, MACS 2496 and PBW 373 (in E1) while J 24 and HUW 234 (in E2) were observed to be good general combiners for grain yield and some contributing traits. The perusal of sca effects revealed that the crosses GW 496 x HD 2189, DL 788-2 x GW 173 and GW 496 x MACS 2496 were found to be good specific combiners with considerable per se performance in both the environments. The crosses GW 496 x PBW 373 in E1 and GW 496 x HD 2189 in E2 gave the highest sca effects as well as per se performance in respective generation. These crosses also showed desirable sca effects for the important yield contributing traits like number of tillers per plant, length of main spike, number of grains per plant, flag leaf area, biological yield per plant and harvest index. The crosses showing high sca effects for grain yield per plant involved high x high, high x low and low x low general combiners indicating the involvement of additive x additive, additive x dominance and dominance x dominance type of gene action in the inheritance of these characters. The simple pedigree selection in succeeding generations and non-conventional breeding methods like biparental mating coupled with few cycles of recurrent selection could be utilized for the exploitation of additive and non-additive gene action, respectively.
179 Study on supply-demand gap of rooftop rainwater harvesting in residential premises, R.H. RAJAKUMAR, P. NATARAJAN, H.K.SHIVANAND* AND M.S. MADHUSUDHAN
Study was conducted on supply-demand gap of rooftop rainwater harvesting in residential premises based on rainfall analysis in TNAU Campus, Coimbatore. The present study aims at the role of rooftop rainwater harvesting to facilitate the local needs of TNAU campus to evaluate the technical feasibility and economic viability of rooftop rainwater harvesting system in individual buildings of B type block, C type block, D type block, P.G hostel, P.P.C hostel, Tamizhagam hostel and different buildings in combinations. All hostel buildings combination and all residential blocks combination buildings can generate 34, 48,464 and 40, 92,611 litres of water per annum, respectively. Due to rooftop rainwater harvesting a sum of Rs. 1,03,454 and Rs. 1,22,778 per annum would be saved from all hostels and all residential blocks combination which otherwise could be incurred from transporting water from tanker to these buildings combinations
180 Integrated farming system for strengthening rural livelihood in disadvantaged areas of Bidar district, R.C. DESHMUKH, JADHAV BALAJI AND BIRADAR GAYATRI*
In recent years, food security, livelihood security as well as natural resources conservation and protection have emerged as major issue worldwide. Developing countries are struggling to deal with these issues. So the main objective of this study was to strengthen the livelihood security through integrated farming system under NAIP-3 Bidar. Hence, research on integrated farming system (IFS) was conducted for 240 selected participants by introducing inputs such as improved variety seeds of redgram (BSMR-736), Bengalgram (JG-11), backyard poultry (Giriraja Chicks), azolla cultivation, vermicompost units, horticultural and forestry seedlings and grafts etc. The research was conducted by an ICAR sponsored project on livelihood security through resource and entrepreneurship management in Bidar district with the team of Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bidar, The project area included 24 selected villages of 4 clusters viz., Aurad, Bhalki, Basavakalyan and Humnabad in Bidar district of Karnataka state, The different intervention components of IFS were evaluated by calculating benefit cost ratio (BCR). The results of the study indicated that among the various components intervened, production of worms for vermicompost recorded highest BCR (1:24) followed by increase in milk yield due to feeding azolla (1:14). This was followed by backyard poultry(Giriraja Chicks) (1:13.3), redgram.BSMR-736 (1:5.5), vermicompost production (1:4.57) and Bengalgram.BG-11 showed the lowest BCR. The employment generation was 215 man days per year
181 Variability for root traits in early growth stages of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.], PRASANNA V. SAKHARE*, P.S. DHARMARAJ1, B. FAKRUDIN2 AND R. LOKESHA
Assessment of genotypic variation for root traits among 20 genotypes of pigeonpea chosen from core collection was done. Root traits were measured at 30 days after sowing. Analysis of variance for the 4 quantitative root traits studied revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes. UPAS-120 recorded highest root volume, number of lateral roots, root to shoot dry weight ratio and total dry matter indicating that it has desirable root traits to tolerate drought in later stages of growth. Very low difference between PCV and GCV values were observed for number of lateral roots indicating little influence of environment on the expression of these traits in this set of genotypes. Very high heritability estimates were observed for the characters like root volume, number of lateral roots, root to shoot dry weight ratio and total dry matter. This reveals considerable genotypic component of variability which might be of much value in the selection programme
182 Isolation of root nodule bacteria from Trigonella foenum graceium, POOJA AGRAWAL*, VIDESH PATERIYA1, CHHAYA NAGAR2 AND ALOK GARG3
Wild legumes were collected from three different places of Patkoi village, district Sagar. A total of 27 bacteria were isolated from 3 different samples of wild leguminous plant Trigonella foenum graceium. The nodules of wild methi (Trigonella) yielded bacteria other then Rhizobium with different cultural characteristics. Only eight isolates were circular with exopolysaccharide secretion rest were showing different colony characteristics. The colonies were white in colour and the elevation were found to be convex also called as pelvinate colony. In citrate utilization test all isolates found to be negative except the isolates 13B and W07. Where as all isolates were able to grow at alkaline pH 11 but showed poor growth at acidic pH 4. W07 isolate were given positive result for indole production while remaining 7 isolates were negative. Isolates 13B and W07 shown positive result while tested for 3-ketolactose production
183 Effect of thermal stress management strategies on yield and yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under late sown conditions, JUGAL K. MANI* AND RAJ SINGH
Field experiment was conducted at research farm, Department of Agricultural Meteorology, CCS HAU, Hisar located at 29 10' N latitude, 75 46' E longitude and 215.2 m altitude during Rabi season of 2007-08 and 2008-09 (Last week of December) to study the effect of thermal stress management strategies on yield and yield attributes of wheat under late sown conditions. The grain, straw and biological yields were maximum in T5 (3803, 5829 and 9632 kg ha-1, respectively) and these were lower in T1 (3504, 5617 and 9121 kg ha-1, respectively) during 2007-08. During 2008-09, the grain, straw and biological yields were maximum in T5 (3713, 5814 and 9527 kg ha-1, respectively) and these were lowest in T1 (3417, 5598 and 9016 kg ha-1, respectively). The harvest and attraction index were maximum in T3 (39.6 and 65.5%, respectively) and these were minimum in T1 (38.4 and 62.4%, respectively) during 2007-08. During 2008-09, harvest and attraction index were maximum in T3 (39.1 and 64.1%, respectively) and minimum in T1 (37.9 and 61.0%, respectively). Among post anthesis strategies, the highest grain and biological (3758 and 9659 kg ha-1 in 2007-08) and (3666 and 9551 kg ha-1 in 2008-09) was observed in S3. The harvest and attraction index were statistically at par among all the treatments during both the crop seasons. The pooled LAI (r = 0.94), LAD (r = 0.96), CGR (r = 0.98) at vegetative and the pooled LAI (r = 0.92), LAD (r = 0.98), CGR (r = 0.78) at reproductive phase have shown highly significant and positive correlation with grain yield
184 Influence of planting date and spacing on growth and earliness parameters in onion seed crop, DEBARAJ BARMAN1, RAVINDRA MULGE1, M.B. MADALAGERI1 AND SUKHEN CHANDRA DAS*
Planting of bulbs on first October resulted with maximum plant height (80.4 cm) at 90 DAP (Days after planting) and maximum number of leaves at 90 and 120 DAP compared to first September and first November planting. Planting of bulbs at a closer spacing of 45 x 15 cm resulted with maximum plant height at 90 and 120 DAP over other spacing levels. Onion bulbs planted at a closer spacing of 45 x 15 cm resulted with maximum number of leaves on 90 DAP. However, wider spacing of 60 x 30 cm resulted with maximum number of leaves at 120 DAP. Bulbs planted on first October at 60 x 15 cm spacing resulted with maximum plant height (90.5 cm) at 90 DAP, whereas, first November planting at 60 x 15 cm recorded maximum (103.8 cm) plant height at 120 DAP. First October planting at 60 x 15 cm resulted in maximum number of leaves at 90 (65.60 and 120 (58.4) DAP. Onion bulbs planted on first November took least number of days for first and 50 per cent scape emergence and 50 per cent flowering, however first October planting took least number of days for first flowering. Onion bulbs planted at a closer spacing of 45 x 15 cm took least number of days for first and 50 per cent scape emergence and first and 50 per cent flowering. Onion bulbs planted on first November took least number of days for 50 per cent flowering.
185 Correlation and path co-efficient studies in pumpkin (Cucucrbita moschata Dutch. Ex. Poir.), M.M. SHIVANANDA, M.B. MADALAGERI, SRINIVAS S. CHIKKUR, A.B. MOHANKUMAR* AND K. YATHIRAJ
Correlation and path analysis studies were carried out on 19 growth paremeters, viz., earliness, yield and quality traits in 57 genotypes of pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.). There was the highest significant positive association of fruit yield per vine with average fruit weight followed by vine length, number of leaves per vine, number of seeds per fruit, length of fruit, fruit cavity size, leaf size, hundred seed weight, fruit flesh thickness, number of primary branches per vine, total soluble solids, number of fruits per vine and circumference of fruit. But only number of fruits per vine and average fruit weight had high positive direct effect indicating their true positive and significant association with yield.
186 General and specific combining ability effects for yield and its component in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus(L.) Moench], K.R.KHATIK*, R.CHODHARY1 AND C.L. KHATIK1
The present investigation was conducted to magnitude the combining ability in Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] for identifying desirable parents. The experiment comprised of 36 hybrids obtained by crossing 15 parents (12 lines and 3 tasters) for line x taster analysis. All the hybrids and their parents were sown in a randomized block design with three replications at department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Science, Bundelkhand University, and Jhansi (U.P.). The parents and hybrids were sown in single row and 5 plants were selected randomly for recording observation for all the characters. Combining ability analysis of variances for general and specific combining ability was highly significant for all the characters under study. The study revealed that presents KS-440, KS-448, KS-427and KS- 455 were significantly superior general combiners for yield and its contributing characters. However, the cross combinations KS-448 x KS -404, KS-440 x KS-404, KS-427 x KS-404 and KS-453 x P.K. were found to be significantly superior specific combinations for yield and yield contributing characters. It indicated that both additive as well as non-additive gene actions were responsible for controlling these characters
187 Bhagwa a promising variety of pomegranate for dry regions of Karnataka, K.R. SHIVA PRASAD, G.K. MUKUNDA, A.B. MOHANKUMAR* AND K.YATHIRAJ
Field experiment was conducted at farmers field near Hiriyur, Chitradurga district to know the performance of Bhagwa variety in comparison with Ganesh variety of pomegranate with respect to their physico-chemical characters. The results revealed that the Bhagwa variety of pomegranate is an outstanding variety for all the characters studied. Bhagwa variety recorded the maximum fruit weight and weight of arils (320.60 g and 220.80 g), maximum number of arils recorded in the variety Ganesh and maximum quantum of juice recovered in the variety Ganesh (161.60 ml/fruit).With regard to overall acceptance of fruit for organoleptic qualities, Bhagwa variety emerged as the best variety fetching highest score of 90.80 out of 100
188 Evaluation of different rice varieties in relation to growth indices and economics, CHETAN SINGH PANWAR*, CHHAVI SHARMA AND S.K. VISHWAKARMA
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2008 at Livestock Farm, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) to evaluate different rice varieties in relation to growth indices and economics. Growth analytical parameters viz., crop growth rate(CGR), relative growth rate(RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) differed significantly among the varieties as the growth stages advances and with regard to economics, the net monetary returns was maximum with variety JGL-3844 (Rs. 28487/ha) closely followed by MR-219 (Rs. 27396/ha) and WGL-3828 (Rs. 27228/ha) and B: C ratio was maximum with variety JGL-3844(2.81) closely followed by MR-219 (2.74), WGL-32100 (2.73) and it was minimum (1.53) with Pusa basmati-1 variety
189 Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on content, uptake and quality summer soybean, HEERALAL YADAV*, M.A. SHEKH , S.S. TAKAR, B.S. KHERAWAT1, ASHISH SHIVRAN AND M.C. AGARWAL2
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2010 at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to know effect of phosphorus and sulphur on content, uptake and quality of summer soybean. Result of the experiment revealed that an application of phosphours @ 60 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher content and uptake of N, P, K and S in grain and stover. Similarly, the levels of sulphur @ 30 kg ha-1 showed significantly highest content and uptake in grain and stover. Phosphorus @ 60 kg ha-1 and sulphur @ 30 kg ha-1 gave significantly highest oil and protein in soybean.
190 Effect of chemical fertilizer and vermicompost on yield and nutrient content and uptake by leaf of banana (Musa parasidiaca L.) cv. GRAND NAINE, A.M. BUTANI*, R.S.CHOVATIA1, K.D. PATEL1, K.N.VADARIA AND N.J. RANKJA2
The experiment was carried out at jambuvadi farm, Department of Horticulture,Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during 2008-09 and 2009-10 to study effect of chemical fertilizer and vermicompost on yield nutrient and content and uptake in leaf of banana cv. GRAND NAINE. The highest yield, content and uptake by leaf of banana were recorded with the application F2( Full recommended doze) and V3(8 kg vermicompost) in the both year and pooled results, but it was at par with the treatment F1 and V2 in both the year and pooled results, respectively. The interactive effects between fertilizer levels and vermicompost (FxV), (YxF), (YxV), and (YxFxV) in yield,content and uptake by leaf of banana were found non significant during both the years as well as in pooled results
191 Influence of row proportions on yield and yield components of pigeonpea in intercropping system of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), B.G. KOPPALKAR*, B.T. PUJARI AND B.K. DESAI
Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College Farm, Raichur, Karnataka on medium deep black soils duringKharif seasons of 2005 and 2006 to study the influence of row proportions of pigeonpea and ashwagandha in the intercropping system on yield and yield components of pigeonpea. The seed yield of pigeonpea in sole cropping system (15.80 q ha-1) was found to be significantly higher than that recorded under different row proportions of pigeonpea and ashwagandha (11.34 to 14.04 q ha-1). Similar trend was noticed with respect to yield components viz., dry matter accumulation in reproductie parts, number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant, seed number per plant and 100-seed weight. Among the different row proportions, the pigeonpea seed yield produced under 2:4 (14.04 q/ha) and 1:2 (13.95 q ha-1) row proportions were higher by 24 and 23 per cent when compared to the seed yield recorded under 2:1 row proportion of pigeonpea and ashwagandha (11.34 q/ha). The same trend was indicated in the yield components of pigeonpea
192 Effect of foliar sprays of growth regulators and micronutrients on incidence of mango malformation, VINOD RAJPUT1 , B.S. RAJPUT*, SUDHIR DHAKAD2, H.K. TRIVEDI1 AND R. JAIN1
Malformation disease is not merely a serious threat but a menace to the mango industry in several mango growing areas of the world. It does not result in any malformation of mango fruits as may become notated from its name, but produces abnormal vegetative shoots and inflorescence which do not bear fruits. Floral malformation is a major problem in mango cultivation in India causing heavy loss in yield. Therefore, an incite was made to minimize the menace by the foliar application of different growth regulators and micronutrients at the flower but initiation/flower bud stage. It was found that spraying 200ppm NAA increased the leaf index, length of flower panicles, fruit set, reduction of malformation and even the bio-chemical status like carbohydrate, nitrogen and enhanced RNA and DNA level. Whereas length of terminal shoots, percentage of hermaphrodite flower and level of mangiferin was enhanced by 50ppm GA3. Foliar application of 50ppm AgNO3 reduced the duration of flowering and intensity of floral malformation, yet increased the RNA and DNA and magnese content. Even the micronutrient like 0.3% ZnSO4 effect on increase of leaf index and sex ratio was noticed
193 Response of different sources and levels of potash on growth, yield attributes and yields of isabgul (Plantago ovata Forsk), C.J. PATEL*, J.J. PATEL, S.B. PATEL, R.A. PATEL, N.M. KUMBHAR AND B.V. HIRPARA
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi seasons of the year 2009-10 at College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat to evaluate the productivity of isabgul crop under varying levels of potash. Application of 60 kg K2O ha-1 from potassium sulphate (K2SO4) was most effective for securing higher seed yield and yield attributes, which resulted in to increased seed yield to the tune of 27.04 % over control. Higher net return (91266 Rs. ha-1), cost benefit ratio (1:11.52) and net CBR (1:10.52) were obtained under the treatment combination (application of 60 kg K2O ha-1 from K2SO4). The interaction effect of different sources and levels of potash was non-significant
194 Effect of different fertigation levels on morpho-physiological characters and yield of capsicum under greenhouse condition, S.P. TIWARI*, HEMANT KUMAR PANIGRAHI, D. SHARMA, R. AGRAWAL, N. AGRAWAL AND P. DUBEY
The experiment was carried out at Precision Farming Development Centre (PFDC), Department of Horticulture, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) during Kharif 2011-12. Experiment was conducted in RBD design comprising of four treatments viz., control, 60 per cent, 80 per cent and100 per cent. fertigation levels under the polyhouse condition . Observations were taken plant height, stem girth, secondary branches ,dry matter production, days to first flowering, days to first fruiting and fruit yield. Significantly maximum fruit yield per ha was obtained with T3 (80% RDF) and minimum in control
195 Studies of plant growth substances on the yield components of winter season guava cv. L49 (Sardar), V.R. GARASIYA, N.M. PATEL*, H.S. BHADAURIA AND V. R. WANKHADE
The present investigation was carried out to work out the effect of plant growth regulators on the yield of winter season guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L49 (Sardar). The study revealed that an application of NAA 40 ppm as well as NAA 20 ppm was found to be the most effective in increasing more number of fruits per tree (439.00 and 410.05, respectively). These treatments also increase the fruit weight (153.22 and 136.13 g), fruit volume (127.68 and 114.20 cc), fruit diameter (5.63 and 5.36 cm) and yield (66.39 and 59.90 kg tree-1). The number of seeds per fruit was found to be non-significant. But minimum number of seeds per fruit was observed with GA3 50 ppm (300.01).
196 Biophysical basis of productivity in little millet(Panicum miliare L), S.G. GOLLAGI*, M.B. CHETTI1 AND V.H. ASHVATHAMA2
Plant regulation of water utilization and loss is important in determining the drought tolerance in crop plants. It was observed that high yielding genotypes had higher stomatal conductance at 60 days after sowing which could be because of higher stomatal frequency on abaxial surface which intern would have enhanced the canopy photosynthesis. The transpiration rate was higher in low yielding genotypes and low in high yielding genotypes. There was a minimum interveinal distance and high vein load frequency in high yielding genotypes
197 Suitability of sulphur extractants and its availability to mustard and safflower in Alfisols and Ultisols of Jharkhand, BRAJENDRA*, L.M.SHUKLA1, B.S. KHERAWAT2 AND MUNNA LAL3
Ten extractants were tested in surface soil samples (0-15 cm) collected from plateau region of Jharkhand comprising the districts of Dhanbad, Giridih, Hazaribagh and Ranchi falling under Alfisols and Ultisols soil order. The commonly used extractant, 0.15% CaCl2 extracted S in the range of 13.00 (in case of Alfisol from Ranchi) to 26.50 mg kg-1 (in case of Alfisol from Dhanbad), with a mean value of 19.26 mg kg- 1. The lowest amount of S (mean value of 8.21 mg kg-1) has been extracted by 0.001M HCl with a range of 3.75 to 14.25 mg kg-1, while highest (mean value 53.95 mg kg-1) by KH2PO4 500 ppm P, ranging from 31.00 to 81.50 mg kg-1. The soil S extracted by different extractants had shown positive and significant correlation with dry matter yield, S concentration and its uptake by mustard. and safflower.
198 Response of quality protein maize (QPM) to integrated nutrient management on yield, nutrient uptake and availability of nutrients during summer, N. RAVI, R. BASAVARAJAPPA*, S.I. HARLAPUR1 AND C.P. CHANDRASHEKAR
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Arabhavi during summer 2010 to study the response of quality protein maize to integrated nutrient management practices. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Significantly higher grain yield (71.79 q ha-1), nitrogen (217.9 kg ha-1), phosphorus ( 29.4 kg ha-1 ) and potassium (160.8 kg ha-1 )uptake and was recorded in T1 (FYM 10 t + 100 per cent RDF) than other treatments. Available N, P2O5 and K2O content of soil (235.5, 26.5 and 271.3 kg ha- 1, respectively) after harvest was significantly higher in T10 (10 t FYM ha-1 + 75 per cent RDF + Sunhemp insitu + Azospirillum + PSB + Panchagavya + Jeevamrutha ) as compared to the rest of the treatments
199 Plant tissue analysis of Nagpur Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) orchards in Jhalawar district of Rajasthan, SHANKER VERMA* AND PRERAK BHATNAGAR
Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 22.22 per cent were found deficient, 33.33 per cent low, whereas 38.88 per cent were found optimum in nitrogen content. An examination of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 11.11 per cent were found optimum, 44.44 per cent in high range, however, 44.44 per cent of leaf samples were found in excess phosphorus content. Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 100 per cent samples of these plants were found optimum in potassium content. Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 16.66 per cent were in deficient range followed by 11.11 per cent in low range, 5.55 per cent were optimum, 5.55 per cent high and 61.11 per cent samples of these plants were found in excess Fe content. Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 33.88 per cent deficient, 44.44 per cent low and 16.66 per cent samples of plants were found optimum in Mn content. Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 16.66 per cent optimum, 5.55 per cent high and 77.77 per cent plant samples were found excess in Cu content. Analysis of Nagpur Mandarin leaf samples revealed that 22.22 per cent optimum and 77.77 per cent these leaf samples were found excess in Zn content. The nitrogen content in growing plants had significant and negative correlations with Mn and Cu. The Fe content in growing plants had significant and positive correlations with Mn and Cu
200 Effect of pre-harvest foliar application of potassium sulphate on storability of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.), RAJIVE KUMAR*, M.K.SINGH1 AND MAHAVIR SODHI2
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of potassium sulphate (0.5%, 1%and 1.5%) sprayed at fruit set and one month after fruit set. Various concentration of potassium sulphate was applied through spray and fruits were harvested after maturity. Uniform size fruits were packed in card board boxes without paper lining and cushioning material and stored at room temperature. Physiological loss in weight increased with increase in storage period in all the treatments up to 8th days. Maximum PLW(Physiological loss in weight) was observed in control fruits after 8th day of storage and minimum PLW was observed in fruits sprayed with 1 per cent potassium sulphate at one month after fruit set.
201 Kinetics of sulphate release in soils of Jharkhand, BRAJENDRA*, L.M. SHUKLA1, B.S. KHERAWAT2 AND MUNNA LAL3
Ten selected soils from Alfisols and Ultisols soil orders of Jharkhand having varied physico- chemical properties were extracted with 0.15% CaCl2 (1: 5 soil solution ratio) at selected time intervals (15, 30, 45, 60, 120, 300, 600 and 1200 minutes). The results indicated that each soil has differential variable with respect to sulphate desorption. The amount of sulphate S desorbed by 0.15 % CaCl2 at different time intervals varied from 11.60 in Alfisol of Dhanbad after 15 minutes of extraction to 63.13 mg kg-1 after 1200 minutes. The mean amount of sulphate desorbed at different time intervals varied from 19.84 to 43.86 mg kg-1 . The per cent of sulphate S desorbed was more in Alfisols as compared to Ultisols. The amount of sulphate S desorbed varied with soil type as the rate of desorption reaction is controlled by the diffusion of sulphate ions through soil particles or aggregates. The amounts of sulphate S desorbed at different time interval were fitted into different kinetic models wherein it was found that the desorption of sulphate in the soils of Jharkhand was satisfactorily described by the first estimate equation.
202 Organic farming studies in maize, K. TEJESWARA RAO*, A. UPENDRA RAO1, A.V. RAMANA2 AND D.S. REDDY3
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutiveKharif seasons of 2003 and 2004 at S.V. Agricultural college farm (ANGRAU), Tirupati , Southern plateau and Hills zone of India on red sandy soils with fourteen treatments comprising of six different sources of nitrogen viz., farm yard manure, vermicompost, neem leaf, poultry manure, pig manure and fertilizer to supply recommended dose of nitrogen on equal nitrogen basis and one absolute control. All the seven treatments were tried with and without the foliar application of Panchagavya, thus, making the total treatments to fourteen. Various parameters of maize were influenced differently by varied manurial practices tried. However, during both the years of investigation, the trend was largely similar between the two years, with respect to all the parameters. All the growth and yield attributes, yield (grain as well as stover) harvest index, nitrogen uptake and the grain quality parameters (protein content, starch content and amino acid content) and gross returns as well as net returns of maize were at their best with recommended dose of fertilizer either with or without Panchagavya spray. However, among different organic manures all the above mentioned parameters were significantly higher with the application of farm yard manure or pig manure or vermicompost in combination with foliar application of Panchagavya than with any other organic manurial practices tried. Foliar application ofPanchagavya could not exert any pronounced effect in combination with recommended dose of fertilizer, while combination of foliar application of Panchagavya would be fruitful only with certain organic manures only
203 Natural occurence of Tobacco streak virus (ilar virus) on Bt cotton hybrids, G.P. JAGTAP* AND UTPAL DEY
Cotton is an important fibre crop. Cotton streak disease was newly recognized in India, identified to be caused by the Tobacco streak virus (TSV). The virus was recognized on 26 coded Bt entries at Cotton Research Station, Mehboob Bagh, Parbhani. Incidence of TSV was noted for the first time in Maharashtra. Disease observations were recorded from July-06 to November-06 at an interval of 15 days. Data revealed that viral disease incidence was recorded at increasing rate up to the end of September 06 and further incidence was noted in decline rate from October to November 2006. Maximum disease incidence was recorded in the month of September with in the range of 36.59 to 83.88 per cent. Lowest incidence was noticed on entry 6108 and highest on entry 6126
204 Pruning studies in some white wine grape varieties for yield and quality parameters under Western Maharashtra conditions, S.U. CHALAK*, S.S. KULKARNI AND A.V. KISHRSAGAR
Present investigation, the effect of five different pruning treatments (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 buds / cane) was studied on four white wine grape cultivars ( Viognier, Ugni Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Chenin Blanc). The response of each variety for yield and quality parameters viz., yield/vine, yield/ha, juice yield/ha and Brix yield was different for different pruning treatments. The acidity was positively correlated with bud number per vine and vis a vis. The TSS and TSS: acid ratios were found in desirpable treat in severely pruned treatments. However, effect on juice recovery was non significant
205 Response of bio-fertilizer Azospirillum on growth and yield of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.)cv. RAJENDRA KANTI, S.P. SINGH
The experiment was conducted at experimental field of department of Horticulture, Tirhut College of Agriculture, Dholi, Muzaffarpur, (Bihar) in Rabi season during 2007-2008 to 2009-2010. Combination of bio-fertilizer Azospirillum + inorganic nitrogen + FYM gave better performance as compared to alone application of bio-fertilizer Azospirillum, organic FYM inorganic nitrogen and other combination. The combination treatment (T1) as soil application of inorganic N (100%) of RDF + Azospirillum @ 15 kg ha-1 + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 gave the maximum number of branches per plant (7.30), number of pods per plant (74.00) and yield per plot (1.18) or per hectare (2.62 t ha-1) and increased the yield 91.24% over control and gave the maximum net profit Rs.45,100 ha-1 or benefit: cost (Rs.2.35) followed by treatment (T2) as soil application of inorganic N (75%) of RDF + Azospirillum @ 15 kg ha-1 + FYM @ 5 t ha-1 i.e. number of branches per plant (7.00), number of pods per plant (69.67) and yield per plot (1.09 kg/4.8m2) or yield per hectare (2.42 t ha-1) and increased the yield 76.64 per cent over control and found the maximum net profit Rs.39,172.00 ha-1 or benefit: cost (Rs.2.17).
206 Effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators and commercial sugar on meristem tip culture on commercial sugarcane variety CoA92081 (87A298), D. ADILAKSHMI*, K. PRASADA RAO, M. CHARUMATI, P. BEBI AND K. JAYACHANDRA
The effect of plant growth regulators and commercial sugar concentration on in vitro morphogenesis of commercial sugarcane variety CoA92081 (87A298) through meristem tip culture was tested. Data on initiation (%), multiplication (%), effect of NAA on rooting (%) and effect of NAA and sugar concentration on rooting (%) were subjected for statistical analysis. Initiation was found to be superior at MS media supplemented with 0.20mg/l BAP and 0.1mg/l KN (80.17) followed by multiplication at MS media supplemented with0.25mg/l BAP and 0.1mg/l KN (84.15) which was significantly superior over other treatments. Rooting per cent was found to be superior at strength MS media supplemented with 5mg/l NAA with 3 per cent sugar (51.48). Among various concentrations tested, 3 per cent commercial sugar appeared to be optimum for shoot regeneration and the same can be used for multiplication and 4 per cent commercial sugar appeared good for rooting along with 5mg/l NAA (84.43). This protocol provides a successful technique that can be used for rapid propagation
207 Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on growth and yield of summer soybean, HEERALAL YADAV*, M.A. SHEKH, S.S. TAKAR, B.S. KHERAWAT1, ASHISH SHIVRAN AND M.C. AGARWAL2
A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2010 at the Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh to Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on growth and yield of summer soybean. Result of the experiment revealed that an application of phosphours @ 60 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher plant height (49.56 cm), branch/plant (5.83), plant spread (36.78 cm), pods/plant (58.78), seed/pod (3.04), test weight (149.22 g), seed yield (2675 kg ha-1), and stover yield (2980 kg ha-1) over control. Similarly sulphur levels also recorded significant effect in increasing all these growth and yield attributes. The highest seed yield (2882 kg ha-1) stover (2940 kg ha-1) was obtained under the application @ 30kg ha-1 followed by application of sulphur 15 kg ha-1. The interaction effect between phosphorus and sulphur were observed significant in respects seed yield and stover yield Significantly highest seed yield (3104 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3408 kg ha-1) was observed with combined application of 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 30 kg S ha-1 (P3S2).
208 Genetic variability, heritability and correlation studies in tomato genotypes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), CHANDAN SINGH AHIRWAR*, VIJAY BAHADUR AND VINAY PRAKASH
Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for different yield contributing characters were studied in 19 genotypes of tomato. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for all the traits. The phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits.Traits like plant height 120 DAT, number of branches 120 DAT, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, number of cluster per plant, fruit set (%), radial diameter and polar diameter (mm), ascorbic acid (vitaC), TSS (Brix), showed positive correlation with fruit yield per ha, plant height after 120 DAT, days to 50 per cent flowering, leaf curl incidence and intensity showed negative correlation at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Genetic advance at 5 per cent was found high for plant height after 120 DAT, number of fruits per plant, ascorbic acid and fruit yield per plant(g). Where as genetic advance as per cent of mean at 5 per cent was noticed high for all the traits except days to flower initiation and days to first harvest. Number of fruits per plant exhibited the highest positive direct effect followed by days to flower per cent, ascorbic acid content, plant height 120 DAT and fruit diameter at genotypic level. In view at the direct and indirect contributions of component traits towards fruit yield per plant, selection on the basis of horticultural traits viz., average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant would be a paying preposition in the genotypes included in the study
209 Quantitative and qualitative enhancement in guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. CHITTIDAR through foliar feeding, RAKESH KUMAR, RAJESH TIWARI* AND B.R. KUMAWAT
The present experiment was conducted at the Department of Fruit Science, K.N.K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.) on six years old guava tree cv. Chittidar during 2011-2012. On the basis of results obtained in present investigation it is concluded that foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.8% + borax 0.4% + NAA 50 ppm + GA3 100 ppm was found best to increase fruit set, fruit retention, volume of fruit, pulp thickness, pulp weight, pulp per cent, length and diameter of fruit at harvest, average fruit weight, and reduced the seed per cent and seed pulp ratio which ultimately increased the yield per tree. Various quality parameters total sugars, reducing sugars, non reducing sugars, TSS, zinc and iron content in fruit pulp were also improved with application of ZnSO4 0.8% + borax 0.4% + NAA 50 ppm + GA3 100 ppm. Same treatment also recorded reduced fruit drop, minimum number of seeds per fruit, maximum TSS/acid ratio and minimum acidity per cent of fruit
210 Performance of varieties and chemical fertilizers on growth and flowering in chrysanthemum, N.S. JOSHI, D.K. VARU*, A.V. BARAD AND D.M. PATHAK
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the performance of varieties and chemical fertilizers on chrysanthemum at Horticultural Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during Rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with twenty four treatments combinations, replicated three times. The treatment consisted of two varieties viz., IIHR-6 (V1), Shyamal (V2); three levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 N kg ha-1), two levels of phosphorus (100 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two levels of potash (100 and 150 kg K2O ha-1). Both the varieties significantly influenced growth and flowering parameters in which higher plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area were observed in the variety IIHR-6 in both the years and in pooled. Similarly, higher fresh and fry weight of plant, flowering parameters like weight of 10 flowers, flowering span and dry weight of flowers were recorded in variety Shyamal. This variety also take more days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Application of nitrogen at 300 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of plant, flowering span, total fresh and dry weight of flower, weight of 10 flowers and diameter of flower during both the years and pooled. This dose (300 kg N ha- 1) also taken less days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Phosphorus also played a significant role in improving all of these attributes at higher level except, leaf area, fresh weight of plant, number. of days taken for first flower open and flowering span. Potash failed to influence all of these growth and flowering parameters during both the years and pooled
211 Effect of inorganic fertilizer (nitrogen) and bio-fertilizer (Azospirillum) on growth and flowering in African marigold (Tagets erecta L.) cv. PUSA NARANGI GAINDA, HIMANSHU KAUSHIK, J.P. SINGH, BRAJ MOHAN*, RAJBEER AND NATHIRAM
The present investigation was conducted atHorticulture Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Gochar Mahavidyalya,Rampur Maniharan, during the year 2010-2011. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design, consisting of 9 treatments with control. Two levels of Azospirillum, i.e.1.5kg/ha and 2kg/ha and two levels of nitrogen, i.e. 100 Kg/ha and 150 kg/ha with one control were taken. All growth and flowering attributes are significantly affected with the application of nitrogen and biofertilizer.The maximum plant spread(50.82cm), no. of primary braches /plant(16.93), no. of secondary braches /plant(11.27), flower stalk length(8.58cm), flower diameter (5.56cm), no. of flower/ plant(19.54), weight of 5 flowers(164.32) and earlier flowering (52.48) was recorded at the treatment A2 (Azospirillum 2kg/ha), while the plant height(69.55cm) was recorded under the treatment N2 (nitrogen 150kg/ha) and earlier no. of days taken to seed ripening(107.54) was recorded at A1(Azospirillum 1.5kg/ha) as comparison to individual treatment and control
212 The factors accountable for professionalism in administration of sugar co-operative sector of South Gujarat, R.M. NAIK, B.M. TANDEL AND N.M. CHAUHAN
Professionalism is essentially a function of modernization in which co-operatives have to emerge as strong business enterprises so as to emerge triumphant amidst the winds of change in the economy. As they have matured as organizations, there is a corresponding need to infuse adequate doses of professionalism in their functioning. They will have to manage change through scientific behavioural tools and innovations. They will have to discard their old norms of functioning, imbibe a new culture and sharpen their powers of resilience so as to march ahead in this tumultuous era. In this pursuit, professionalism competence of co-operatives should come to the force. In order to assess the amount of contribution (influence) of each independent variable to the dependent variable; the effect of other was held constant. Efroymsons (1962) stated that stepwise regression is one such method which has been widely adopted in multiple regression analysis. Out of all independent variables, the professionalism in management of sugar co-operative sector was affected and predicted by four independent variables, namely, knowledge about principles of co-operation, group motivation, family size and perceived benefits of co-operatives and which had together contributed to 63.58 per cent of the total variation in the perception of professionalism. The findings are suggestive of the fact that the farmers having more knowledge about principles of co-operation, higher group motivation, family size and more perception regarding benefits of co-operatives were found to have more perception of professionalism in management of sugar co-operative sector.
213 Genetic divergence analysis in rice, K. SARAVANAN* AND R. PACHIYAPPAN
Twenty three genotypes of rice were grouped in to seven clusters. It revealed the presence of morphological difference between the genotypes. The clusters V vs VII and IV vs V were divergent clusters. Hence, genotypes in the clusters V, VI and VII could be crossed among themselves to produce wider segregation among the progenies. The cluster VI showed high mean for grain yield per plant, plant height, number of tillers per plant number of productive tiller per plant, panicle length, number of grains per plant and kernel L/B ratio. Cluster III showed low mean for earliness. The character viz., number of grains per panicle, thousand grain weight and plant height contributed maximum towards total genetic divergence. Hence, selection may be practiced for these characters
214 Effect of rate and time of nitrogen application on seed yield, quality and economics of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) under loamy sand soils, R.D. BEDSE*, A.U. AMIN, C.H. RAVAL AND S.J. VAGHELA
A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Instructional Farm, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during Rabi season of 2008-09 wherein twenty treatment combinations comprising of four levels of nitrogen (20, 30, 40 and 50 kg ha-1) and five times of nitrogen application i.e., 50 per cent as basal + 50 per cent at 30 DAS, 25 per cent as basal + 25 per cent at 8-10 DAS + 50 per cent at 30 DAS, 33 ? per cent as basal + 33 ? per cent at 8-10 DAS + 33? per cent at 30 DAS, 50 per cent at 8-10 DAS + 50 per cent at 30 DAS and 33 per cent at 8-10 DAS + 33 per cent at 30 DAS + 33 ? per cent at 50 DAS were tested. Crop fertilized with 50 and 40 kg N ha-1 recorded statistically at par seed yield but significantly higher than the lower levels of nitrogen. Increasing levels of nitrogen improved protein and oil content in the seed. Similar trend was observed in case of uptake of N and P by the crop as well as for buildup of N status of soil with increasing N levels. Application of nitrogen in three equal splits at 8-10, 30 and 50 DAS recorded maximum seed yield, but in case of quality parameters, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by crop as well as available nitrogen content in soil it remained at par with application of nitrogen in two equal splits at 8-10 and 30 DAS. The package involving 50 kg N ha-1 applied in three equal splits at 8-10, 30 and 50 DAS was found more remunerative
215 Efficacy of different fungicide against anthracnose of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in Eastern Bihar, GIREESH CHAND, J.N. SRIVASTAVA*, SUNIL KUMAR1 AND SANJEEV KUMAR
India is the largest producer of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in the world accounting for 52-63 per cent of total production. One of the major constraints in mango production is anthracnose disease caused by Colletotricum gloeosporiodes, perfect stage-Glomerella cingulata. It invades on leaves, twigs, inflorescence and fruits reasonably ample loss considering total fruit reduction and production of poor quality fruit produced, rendered decreased rate in price. Therefore, an attempt was made with different fungicides in controlling anthracnose of mango. This investigation suggests carbendazim (4.48% PDI) as the most effective fungicide rendering maximum yield (126.8 kg/ tree).
216 Effect of agro-chemicals on microflora in soybean rhizospheric soil, G. P. JAGTAP* AND UTPAL DEY
After application of agrochemicals at 1, 30 DAS and at harvest the total number of fungi, bacteria, actynomycetes, Pseudomonas, Azatobactor, Rhizobium were counted.The result with regard to bacterial population in soybean field were significantly influenced by bioinoculant viz., Rhizobium. The bacterial populations were inhibited by herbicides alachlor in soybean and fungicides i.e. thiram and mancozeb in soybean. After 30 days of spraying of chemicals the bacterial populations were restored. With regard to Rhizobium population, the bioinoculant were significantly influenced the population soybean field. The herbicides and fungicides significantly decreased bioinoculant population, maximum inhibition was observed in mancozeb treated plot at 30 DAS. The results with regards to Pseudomonas, Actinomycetes and fungi, population were influenced by bioinoculant viz., Rhizobium. While population were inhibited by alachlor, thiram and mancozeb in soybean field. The Pseudomonas, Actinomycetes and fungi population were restored after 30 days of spraying. Yield of soybean was significantly influenced by bioinoculant in combination with herbicide and fungicide
217 Crop diversification and intensification of rice based cropping system under irrigated condition of Madhya Pradesh, M.K. TARWARIYA AND B.M. MAURYA
A field experiment entitled crop diversification and intensification of rice based cropping systems under irrigated condition of Madhya Pradesh was taken at J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya farm of Kuthulia College of Agriculture Rewa during 2010-11 and 2011-12. The study reveals that grain yield of rice increased by 17.12 per cent in rice-berseem, 13.97 per cent in rice-musturd, 13.37 per cent in ricechickpea+ linseed and 10.43 per cent in rice green pea-wheat cropping system as compared to rice-wheat cropping system. The rice equivalent yield of different cropping system was increased by 36.39 per cent in rice-berseem, 41.02 per cent in rice-potato-wheat, 87.43 per cent in ricegarlic, 88.08 per cent rice-toria-onion and 26.79 per cent in ricegreenpea-wheat cropping system as compared to rice-wheat cropping system. The gross and net return was maximum in rice-toria-onion cropping system (Rs- 244896/ha and 152922/ha) followed by rice-garlic (Rs-244039/ ha and 114601/ha) and rice-berseem (Rs- 195960/ha and 140830/ha) which were 26.5 per cent to 68.8 per cent higher than rice-wheat cropping system. The benefit : cost ratio was maximum 3.55 in rice-berseem followed by 3.17 in rice-greenpea-wheat and 3.07 in rice-chickpea +linseed inter cropping.
218 Effect of weed management practices on yield attributes, yield and economics of rice var. MTU-1010 under system of rice intensification, DEVENDRA KUMAR DEWANGAN* AND GOURAV JATAV
The present experiment was conducted at Research cum-Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) duringKharif season of 2009 to find out the effect of weed management practices on plant height, no. of tillers, SPAD value, dry matter accumulation, grain yield and net return of rice var. MTU-1010 under system of rice intensification. The twelve different weed management practices were laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. Rice variety MTU-1010 was grown as a test crop. Rice was transplanted on 27th July, 2009 with a spacing of 20 x 20 cm. The crop was fertilized with 90, 60 and 40 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha-1, respectively.The results of experiment indicated that growth character like plant height, number of total tillers, chlorophyll content, CGR, dry matter of rice, at initial period of crop growth responded significantly better under two ways mechanical weeding performed at 12, 25 and 35 DAT and this was followed by one way mechanical weeding. At later period of growth, significant higher number of effective tillers, total tillers, number of grains panicle-1, panicle length, weed index, straw yield and grain yield were produced under fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 60 g ha-1 + ethoxysulfuron 15 g ha-1 at 20 and 35 DAT, which was at par with hand weeding, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 60 g ha-1+ ethoxysulfuron 15 g ha-1 at 20 DAT + MW performed on two ways at 35 DAT. It was also observed that all the herbicides treatments were effective and significantly enhanced the grain yield over control. In the experimental field was dominated by mainly Echinocloa colona, Alternanthera triendra, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis miliacea throughout the crop season
219 Genetic variability and characters associations in the germplasm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under rainfed conditions of Himalayas, OM VIR* AND SHEIKH M. SULTAN
Presence of genetic variability within available germplasm of wheat is essential to initiate and sustain wheat improvement using plant breeding methods. Field experiments were conducted during Rabi 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 with the aim of estimating variation in the germplasm and also to generate information on associations of yield components and their direct and indirect influence on the grain yield of wheat. Thirty three accessions were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Results shows that there were significant genotypic difference for seed yield per plant, 1000-seed weight, number of spikelets per spike, number of seeds per spike, spike length, plant height and days to 50 per cent flowering in all three years. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from 0.35 for days to 50 per cent flowering to 0.78 for 1000-seed weight. Number of spikelets per spike, number of seeds per spike, spike length, and days to 50 per cent flowering had exhibited positive and significant correlation with seed yield. Number of seeds per spike, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, 1000-seed weight and number of days to 50 per cent flowering had positive and direct effects on seed yield
220 Path co-efficient analysis of yield component in tomato, S. RAHAMAN* AND J.S. BHATT
Thirty four genotypes of tomato were evaluated during Rabi season of 2006 - 2007 to estimate the nature and magnitude of genetic variability based on days to first harvest, number of pickings, plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight plant, fruit size, single fruit weight, number of locules, pericarp thickness and TSS. A wide range of variation was observed among the characters studied which have a great interest for tomato breeders. Single fruit weight gave the highest heritability during 2006; however, it was at maximum for days to first harvest during 2007. Fruit weight plant showed high and positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with number of picking and with number of fruits per plant, thus indicating that these traits were the most important yield components. On the basis of performance and keeping in view the selection criteria observed in the present study, 14 genotypes were identified through path analysis for future testing under wide range of environments.
221 Study on technical feasibility and economic viability of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems suitable for residential premises, R.H. RAJKUMAR*, P. NATARAJAN AND H.K. SHIVANAND
An investigation was carried out to study the technical feasibility and economic viability of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems suitable for residential premises in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Campus. Coimbatore. The technical feasibility and economic viability of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems revealed that among individual residential blocks and all residential blocks combination, the all residential blocks combination was found to be more feasible for installation of rooftop rainwater harvesting structure with a benefit cost ratio of 2.27 and pay back period of 1.78 years. Hence, this combination was more suitable than any other individual blocks for rooftop rainwater harvesting systems. All the residential blocks combination can generate 40,92,611 liters of water per annum. Due to rooftop rainwater harvesting a sum of Rs. 1,22,778 per annum would be saved from all residential blocks combination which otherwise could be incurred from transporting water from tanker to these buildings combinations. The recharge pit can be constructed for all those residential blocks which are having surplus water
222 Rainfall and rainy day trends at Dharwad, Karnataka, U.V. MUMMIGATTI*, N.E. NAVEEN AND B.T. NINGANUR
Rainfall data of 27 years (1985-2011) obtained from Agromet Observatory, Main Agricultural Research Station (MARS), University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad was analysed for rainfall and rainy days. The trend indicated that the tract received a mean annual rainfall of 720.2 mm in 54 rainy days with maximum contribution (62.93%) from south west monsoon (June to September). July was the rainiest month (129.7mm) with 11 rainy days. This region experienced severe drought (mean rainfall of 379.8 mm) during the period 2000 to 2004. On the contrary, during recent the last 7 years (2005-2011), the annual rainfall was exceptionally above normal, which ranged from 866.2 mm to 1140.4 mm with a mean value of 986.8 mm and lower standard deviation (97.72) and co-efficient of variation (13.56 %), indicating lesser variability and more dependability. The annual rainfall variability during the last 27 years (1985 to 2011) indicate that 17 years normal rainfall (-4.8 to 58.2%) and 5 years slightly drought (-13.2 to -24.4%) and 2 years moderate drought (-26.9 to -39.6%) and 3 years severe drought (-49.7 to - 75.7%).There were no significant trend in the mean annual rainfall. The mean annual 54 rainy days of 27 years (1985-2011) was recorded with maximum contribution of 68.72 per cent with 37 rainy days from south west monsoon (June to September).
223 Heterosis studies for drought tolerant and grain yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.), K.T. VENKATESHA*, H. SHIVANNA1, M.ASIF AND K.V. VIJAY KUMAR
The present study was conducted to assess heterosis for drought tolerant and grain yield traits in maize. Seventy F1s generated by crossing ten drought tolerant lines with seven drought susceptible testers were evaluated. The ratio of sca / gca variance revealed that there was preponderance of non additive gene action in the expression of all the traits under study. Among the hybrids, significant standard heterosis over NAH-2049 and NAH-1137 in the desirable direction was exhibited by many crosses for all the characters. Four hybrids SKV-70 SKV-58, SKV-375 SKV-57, SKV-156 SKV-5 and SKV-69 CML-322 showed positive standard heterosis for all the drought tolerant traits viz., SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), specific leaf area(SLA), anthesis silking interval (ASI), carbon isotope discrimination (?13C) and yield, These crosses are from parents with high x low, low low overall GCA effects. Top ranking hybrids were found to have high (H) heterosis status for several characters studied. Nearly 50 per cent (36 out of 70) hybrids had high overall heterosis.
224 Perspective of the farmers about ICT in agriculture, NIKULSINH M. CHAUHAN
The objective of the study was to know the expectations of the farmers regarding Community Internet Center at village level for sustainable agricultural development. Most of the respondents was expected the Community Internet Center (CIC) facilities at Panchayat office of the village. They were also expecting six sets of computer with agriculture graduate having computer knowledge as operator at CIC. They expect that Government should bear expenses to run CIC. The information on farmers related sites was expected by most of the farmers in Gujarati language that too in the audio-visual form. The major purposes to have CIC explained by the respondents were to collect agricultural information, to collect information on governments programmes, and to know more about market prices. Majority of the respondents expressed their desire to use Internet daily or twice in a week by their own .All of them expressed positive response to have proper training about the use of Internet facility through government agency, at CIC
225 Combining ability for yield and yield contributing characters in pigeonpea, S.K. ARBAD*, I.A. MADRAP AND P. JADHAV
Combining ability and genetic variance for nine quantitative traits in pigeonpea [Cajanus Cajan (L.) Millsp] were estimated through line x tester analysis involving four male sterile lines, 23 testers and 92 F1 crosses. The analysis of variance revealed there were significant differences among the parents for all characters and for hybrids except for number of seeds per pod. Non additive gene effects were predominant for all characters. The parents ICPA-2092, ICPA-20108, ICPA-2047, BDN-2, ICP-12320 were good general combiner for grain yield and pods per plant. The two crosses ICPA-2092 x ICP-12057 and ICPA-2047 x BSMR- 253A exhibited high SCA effects for grain yield per plant. The study was carried out during 2009-10 to 2010-11 under International Central Research Institute for Semi Arid Tropics funded project at Department of Agricultural Botany, M.K.V., Parbhani
226 Performance of finger millet varieties to different levels of fertilizer on yield and soil properties in sub-montane zone of Maharashtra, R.D. NIGADE* AND S.M. MORE
Field experiments were conducted at the Zonal Agricultural Research Station, NARP., Shenda Park, Kolhapur (Maharashtra) during Kharif season of three years of 2009 to 2011 to study the response of finger millet varieties to different levels of fertilizer on crop yield and soil properties. The results revealed that, on shallow and lighter type of soils in IX rainfall situation under sub-montane zone of Maharashtra, for obtaining highest grain and straw yield, the long duration varieties should be fertilized with the recommended dose of fertilizer (60:30:00 kg NPK ha-1). The medium duration varieties showed good response to application of 75 per cent of recommended dose
227 Studies on seedling production methods in vegetable crops, S.S. KUSHWAH* AND Y.C. DWIVEDI
The trials were conducted at farmers fields for three years 2000-01 to 2002-03 during both Kharif and Rabi season under National Agricultural Technology Project. Six treatment combinations of crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli during Kharif and onion, cabbage, cauliflower during Rabi) and two methods (farmers practice and improved method) were tested in factorial Randomized Block Design at four locations. Results revealed that during both seasons, nursery raising method and crops exerted significant effect on seedling emergence, total seedlings, mortality (%) and healthy seedlings. Improved method of nursery raising recorded higher emergence of seedlings (%), total seedlings, healthy seedlings, plant height and less mortality as compared to farmers practice. Among the crops during Kharif season, tomato showed maximum percentage of seedling emergence, least mortality, maximum total as well as healthy seedlings per unit area. During Rabi season highest emergence, total number of seedlings, number of healthy seedlings, plant height and mortality were observed in onion. Higher mortality in onion as compared to cabbage and cauliflower indicated that onion is more vulnerable to adverse conditions.
228 Varietal response to different levels of fertility and biofertilizers on yield and quality of summer green gram (Vigna radiata L.), A.V. SHELKE*, V.V. SONANI, V.P. GAIKWAD1 AND S.S. RASKAR2
The field experiment on varietal response to different levels of fertility and bio-fertilizers on yield and quality of summer green gram was conducted on sandy loam soil at Pulses Research Station, Model Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Vadodara, Gujarat during summer season of the year 2009-10.The variety V2 (Meha) produced significantly higher seed and stover yield by 8.60 and 11.59 per cent, respectively as compared to the variety V1 (GM-4). The yield and yield attributes as well as protein content in seed increased significantly with increase in fertility levels up to 75 % RDF (30-15-0 kg NPK ha-1 ) except number of pods plant-1which was increased only up to 50 % RDF (20-10-0 kg NPK ha-1 ). Seed treatment of Rhizobium + PSB significantly improved the seed and stover yields as well as protein content in seed as compared to control.
229 Extent of knowledge of farmers on cauliflower production technology, MAHESH S. SASANE, VIDYA V. TAYDE* AND P.R. DESHMUKH
The present study was conducted in ten villages of two taluka of Parbhani and Nanded district of Marathwada region of Maharashtra State on 80 cauliflower growers with an object to study the extent of knowledge about recommended production technology of the cauliflower growers. The research design adopted was ex-post-facto, since the data were collected by personally interviewing the cauliflower growers and analyzed stalistically. It revealed that regarding the overall knowledge level 65 per cent of respondents had moderate knowledge about recommended production technology of cauliflower crop followed 17.50 per cent of respondents had high and low level of knowledge, respectively. It was also concluded that 95.00 per cent of respondents were having knowledge about recommended quantity of FYM, land requirements (88.75 %), climate conditions required for cauliflower (87.50%), seed rate (87.50%), number of harrowing (86.25 %) , method of irrigation (86.25 % ) , varieties of cauliflower,( 83.75 %), method of sowing (82.50 %), number of hoeing required for cauliflower crop (78.75 % ), size of seed bed for transplanting (37.50 %) , best cultivation season of cauliflower (77.50 % ), diseases on cauliflower crop ( 68.75 %), recommended number of ploughing (62.50 %), spacing for cauliflower crop (63.75 %), disease control (63.75 %) , basal doses of the fertilizers (56.25 %), pest of cauliflower ( 55.00 %) , pest control (50.00 %), irrigation methods for cauliflower crop (86.25%), irrigation interval for cauliflower crop(38.75 %)
230 Effect of planting dates and genotypes on root characteristics and yield of mungbean and urdbean during spring season, AVESH KUMAR*, N.P. SINGH AND SANDEEP KUMAR1
Two sets of experiments one each on mungbean and urdbean were undertaken during spring seasons of 2001-02 and 2002-03 at Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar to evaluate the root characteristics and yield of mungbean and urdbean under various planting dates and varieties. In each set of experiment, nine treatments consisted of three varieties each of mungbean (Narendra M-1, Pant M-2 and Pant M-5) and urdbean (Narendra U-1, Pant U-19 and Pant U-35) and three common planting dates (February 20, March 12 and April 1) were laid out separately in split-plot design keeping planting dates in the main plots and varieties in sub-plots with three replications. Results revealed that March 12 planting of mungbean and urdbean produced higher no. of grains/pod, pods/plant and improved source-sink relationship which led to generation of significantly higher grain yield than February 20 and April 1. While, the bolder grains were recorded under February 20 planting conditions. Grain yield / ha was significantly higher in Pant M-2 variety of mungbean and Narendra U-1 of urdbean, whereas Pant M-5 variety of mungbean and Pant U-19 of urdbean recorded the highest harvest index, respectively during the course of investigation. Planting of mungbean and urdbean beyond February had better root development. The no. of nodules / plant, dry weight of nodules, primary root length and dry weight of root/plant of mungbean and urdbean were recorded higher under late sowing of April-1. Narendra M-1 variety of mungbean and Narendra U-1 of urdbean recorded higher number of nodules/ plant, dry weight of nodules, primary root length and dry weight of root/plant during both the seasons. Despite the production of higher 1000-seed wt., Pant M-5 variety of mungbean and Pant U-19 of urdbean yielded lower
231 Residual effect of organic manures on growth, yield and economics of greengram in maize- sunflower-greengram system, K. TEJESWARA RAO*, A. UPENDRA RAO AND D. SRINIVASULA REDDY
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years (2003-04 and 2004-2005) at S.V. Agricultural college farm (ANGRAU), Tirupati , Southern plateau and Hills zone of India on red sandy soils consisting Greengram was raised as residual crop during summer in a sequence of maize sown in Kharif and sunflower sown in Rabi with the imposition of the treatments to the first two crops of the sequence. Six different sources of nitrogen viz., farm yard manure, vermicompost, neem leaf, poultry manure, pig manure and fertilizer to supply recommended dose of nitrogen on equalent nitrogen basis and one absolute control were applied to first two crops in the cropping system. Various parameters of greengram were influenced differently by varied manurial practices tried. However, during both the years of investigation, all the growth and yield attributes, yield (seed as well as haulm), harvest index, gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost ratio of green gram were at their best with the residual effect of poultry manure either with or without the use of Panchagavya. The uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by greengram crop and protein content of seed was significantly higher with the residual effect of various organic sources either with or without the use of Panchagavya than with fertilizer either with or without the use of Panchagavya. The highest phosphorus uptake of greengram was recorded with the residual effect of poultry manure either with or without the spray of Panchagavya, while the potassium uptake was the highest with vermicompost either with or without the spray of Panchagavya. Gross returns, net returns and benefit-cost ratio of greengram were significantly lesser with the residual effect of fertilizer than with any of the organic sources tried. All the growth and yield attributes, yield, nutrient uptake, harvest index, protein content of the seed and economic returns of greengram were at their lowest with the residual effect of non-manuring through any source to either maize or sunflower, which were statistically similar to those with foliar application of Panchagavya alone to the preceding two crops.
232 Study of grain quality of some traditionally cultivated Basmati and Non-Basmati aromatic rices under organic field conditions, YOGENDRA SINGH
Cultivation and selection by farmers for centuries under varied growing conditions has resulted in a myriad of rice varieties. Rice varieties differ from each other in growth duration, photoperiod sensitivity, grain size, shape and colour, and endosperm properties. India possesses an immense wealth of Basmati and non Basmati aromatic rice varieties and land races exhibiting a wide variability in their grain quality and cooking characteristics. Among all scented rices aroma is considered as most important quality parameter of high quality rice. The major aromatic compound responsible for aroma is considered is 2-acetyl-1- pyrroline, which is degraded by excessive nitrogenous fertilizers. To avoid degradation of 2-acetyl-1- pyrroline and ultimately aroma organic field conditions are preferred.In present study 35 varieties/lines of Basmati and Non-Basmati aromatic rices were evaluated for their physical and quality characteristics. Among all quality characteristics aroma is considered as most important quality parameter of high quality rice. In present study aroma ranged from very low to strong. Only one variety i.e Kalanamak 3120 show very low aroma. Strong aroma was reported for 11 varieties and remaining 19 varieties showed moderate aroma. The gelatinizing temperature ranged from low to high intermediate category. This was indirectly decided by alkali digestion score which ranged from 7.0 (Kalanamak 3216 and Kalanamak 3319) to 1.75 (Basmati 107). Cooked kernel length was recorded 13.65 mm (Hansraj 3072-2) to 8.40 mm (Kalanamak 3319), while cooked kernel breadth ranged between 2.9 mm ( Bindli 3255) to 2.0 mm (Basmati 136, Kalanamak 3121). Elongation ratio was recorded from 2.30 (Kalanamak 3215) to 1.75 (Kalanamak 3319). Most of the parameters of these varieties/lines were compared to premium Dehradun basmati 3020. Based on this study it was revealed that besides Basmati rice other non Basmati aromatic rice varieties should also promoted by scientists and adopted by more and more farmers and traders so the consumers can get better aromatic rice at lower cost and simultaneously we can maintain our traditional non basmati aromatic rice germ plasm
233 Yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) as influenced by different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc, S.S. RASKAR*, V.V. SONANI, A.V. SHELKE1 AND V.B. SAWANT2
A field investigation was conducted during the Rabi season of 2009-10 to study yield and quality of maize as influenced by different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc. The results indicated that application of 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 were at par and produced significantly higher grain and stover yield as compared to 80 kg N ha-1. The mean grain yield recorded under the application of 120 and 160 N ha-1 was 5209 and 5550 kg ha-1 which accounted for 11.35 and 18.64 per cent increases over 80 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen levels had significant influence on the protein content in grain. Protein content increased under the levels of 120 and 160 kg N ha-1 was to tune of 4.93 and 7.68 per cent, respectively over application of 80 kg N ha-1. Application of 60 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 were at par and produced significantly higher grain yield than that of 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. The grain yield showed increase under the levels of 60 and 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 were 8.97 and 10.13 per cent increase over 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Protein content was not influenced significantly due to phosphorus application. Grain yield, stover yield and protein content were significantly influenced due to different levels of zinc. The per cent increase was to the tune of 10.21 in case of grain yield, 7.76 in case of stover yield and 4.15 in case of protein content
234 Studies on effect of growth regulators on flowering, fruiting and quality of sapota, D.S. BHUJBAL*, D.M. NAIK AND S.A. KALE
The results of experimentation confirmed the efficiency of the growth regulators for better flowering, fruit set, fruit retention reduced fruit drop and quality of sapota variety Kalipatti. The study revealed that CCC at 450 ppm significantly increased the number of flowers and number of fruits per tree. Treatment NAA 200 ppm proved better for reducing flower and fruit drop and ultimately increasing fruit set and fruit retention, respectively. The treatment GA3 at 150 ppm was effective for weight of fruit, highest per cent of mean total sugar.
235 Assessment and genetic variability in garden pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Hortense), AKHILESH KUMAR PAL* AND SHIVENDRA SINGH
An experiment was carried out at experimental farm of Department of Horticulture, Janta P.G. College, Bakewar, Etawah during the year 2007-08 to evaluate twenty five diverse genotypes of pea. Analysis of variance indicated highly significant difference among the genotypes for all the characters indicating the presence of wide range of variability in the genotypes. Among the entries evaluated, the genotype VRP-345 recorded maximum plant height (173.50 cm). Days to 1st flower emergence (36.90 days), days to 50% flower emegence (41.70 days), days to 1st pod set (41.80 days) and days to maturity of green pod (63.30 days) was recorded minimum in the genotype VRP-5. The number of primary branches/plant ranged from 1.20 (VRP-301) to 3.10 (VRP-38). The maximum pod length (9.29 cm) and diameter (1.38 cm) was recorded in genotype VRP-7 and VRP-8, respectively. The maximum number of pods/plant was recorded in genotype VRP-190 (47.00). The number of seeds/pod was observed in genotype VRPMR-10 (8.70) and its ranged from 5.60 to 8.70. The 100-seed weight varied from 19.98 g to 28.20 g and maximum in VRP-22. Maximum shelling percentage was recorded in genotype VRP-86 (55.84 %). The maximum green pods yield/plant was recorded in genotype VRP-38 (240.72 g) and it ranged from 74.48 to 240.72 g. VRP-5 was found the earliest flowering and fruiting genotype among all the genotypes under study. The phenotypic variance and PCV were higher as compared to genotypic variance and GCV for all the characters. Maximum GCV and PCV were recorded for plant height followed by number of pods/plant and green pod yield/ plant. The highest heritability was recorded for green pod yield/plant and days to 50 per cent flower emernece and its higher value may be attributed to additive gene action. The estimate of genetic advance showed a wide range from 0.07 to 73.38 and it was highest for green pod yield/plant. High heritability coupled with genetic advance indicated that importance of the considerable additive (heritable) gene effects
236 Mating designs for improving late leaf spot resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), C.C. ANGADI*, B.N. MOTAGI1, G.K. NAIDU2 AND T.R. SHASHIDHAR3
Different crosses of groundnut were evaluated in generating productive, late leaf spot resistant segregants with desirable agronomic features. A large amount of variability was observed for pod yield and resistance when the single and multiple crosses were advanced from s1 to s3 generation by different selection schemes. Back cross and three way crosses were marginally superior over other crosses in mean performance and frequency of desirable segregants for all the yield parameters. On the other hand, single and double crosses were more resistant to late leaf spot. Higher proportion of desirable recombinants in three way and back crosses revealed the possibility of breaking the undesirable linkages in these cross categories. Single and double crosses were poor in giving superior recombinants indicating the need for selective intermating between desirable groups
237 Effect of different plant growth regulators and micronutrients on fruit quality and plant micronutrient content of tomato, S.S. DESAI*, R.S. CHOVATIA AND VIRENDRA SINGH
An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different plant growth regulators and micronutrients on fruit quality and micronutrient content of tomato at Horticulture Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat, India during 10 December, 2010 to 10 April, 2011. Eleven different treatments which consisted of four plant growth regulators and three micronutrients were used, viz., T1= Gibberellic acid @ 50 ppm, T2= Gibberellic acid @ 75 ppm, T3= Naphthalene acetic acid @ 50 ppm, T4= Naphthalene acetic acid @ 75 ppm, T5= Boron 50 ppm, T6 = Boron 75 ppm, T7= Zinc 0.5%, T8= Zinc1%, T9=Iron 100 ppm, T10= Iron 150 ppm and T11 = Control (No application of plant growth regulator and micronutrients) in the study. The fruit quality and micronutrient content parameters in plant significantly differed due to different plant growth regulators and micronutrients in tomato. The maximum acidity per cent (1.41%) and ascorbic acid (109.33 mg/l00g pulp) were found in T4= Naphthalene acetic acid @ 75 ppm, maximum reducing sugars (1.68%), non-reducing sugars (1.98%), total sugars (3.67%) and TSS (4.33 0Brix) were found in treatment T2 (GA3 75 ppm), whereas maximum boron content (10.33 ppm), Fe content (10.33 ppm) and Zn content (22.33 ppm) were found in treatment T8 (Boric acid 75 ppm), T10 (FeSO4 150 ppm) and T6 (ZnSO4 -1%), respectively, the minimum for all the parameters were found in control treatment
238 Yields and economics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) influenced by SWI techniques with varying nitrogen levels, P.K. SURYAWANSHI*, J.B. PATEL1 AND N.M. KUMBHAR
A field experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of the year 2009-10 to study the yields and economics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) influenced by SWI techniques with varying nitrogen levels . Effect of four spacings (S1: 10 x 20 cm, S2: 15 x 20 cm, S3: 20 x 20 cm and S4: 22.5 cm line sowing were) studied on three levels of nitrogen (N1:100 kg N ha-1, N2:125 kg N ha-1 and N3:150 kg N ha-1). The higher grain yield (4,205 kg ha-1), straw yield (6,111 kg ha-1), the highest gross realization (Rs. 53,509 ha-1), net realization (Rs. 35,373 ha-1) with CBR (2.95) were obtained from 20 x 20 cm cross sowing technique. Different levels of nitrogen significantly influenced yields, gross realization, net realization with CBR. Higher grain yield (4,126 kg ha-1), straw yield (6,135 kg ha-1) and gross realization (Rs. 52,577. ha-1), net realization (Rs. 33,791 ha-1) with CBR (2.80) were obtained from 150 kg N ha-1 . Treatment combination S3N3 gave maximum straw yield, gross return, net return with CBR.
239 Influence of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers on growth, flowering and fruit characters of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. ALLAHABAD SAFEDA, S.S. GODAGE, N.S. PAREKH AND D.S. NEHETE*
The present investigation was carried out during Kharif-Rabi season of the year 2011 at Horticultural Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand. There were twenty treatments and the treatments of comprising organic fertilizers (FYM), bio-fertilizers (Azotobacter, PSB), three levels of nitrogen, two levels of phosphorus and 250 g K2O/ha in all trees excluding absolute control were tried in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results revealed that treatment of 75% N + 75% P2O5 + 100% K2O+ Azotobacter 5ml/tree + PSB 5ml/tree obtained significantly maximum tree height (3.80 m), girth of primary branch (28.67 cm), East West tree spread (5.20 m), North South tree spread (5.13 m) at harvesting stage,minimum number of days for flowering (32.33 days), maximum number of flowers per branch (25.33), fruit set per branch (90.20%) and fruit retention (92.96%), fruit diameter (10.07 cm), fruit weight (215.06 g) and pulp weight (193.44 g) while number of primary and secondary branches were recorded non-significant effect at harvesting stage. the treatment of 100% N + 75% P2O5 + 100% K2O + Azotobacter 5ml/tree + PSB 5ml/tree recorded minimum peel weight (15.00 g), minimum number of seeds (111.33) and in treatment of 75% N + 100% P2O5 + 100% K2O + Azotobacter 5ml/tree + PSB 5ml/tree recorded minimum weight of seeds (4.0 g).
240 Evaluation of TwinN in Rabi sorghum on growth and growth parameters in northern transitional zone of Karnataka, R. BASAVARAJAPPA
A field experiment was carried out on TwinN in Rabi sorghum at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad Karnataka during Rabi seasons (2009 and 2010) to evaluate the sorghum growth and growth parameters. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with eight treatments and three replications. The pooled results for two seasons showed significantly higher plant height (230.33 cm), number of leaves per plant (9.23), root length (19.20 cm), dry root mass (84.33 g) and ear head girth (19.07 cm) were recorded in 40:40:40 N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha with two TwinN sprays at 5th leaf and flower primordial stage(T5) which was at par with 80:40:40 N:P2O5:K2O kg/ha. Further dry matter production and accumulation in stem, leaves, ear heads and TDMP (42.44,4.88,22.92 and 68.19 g /plant, respectively) also showed similar trend in T5
241 Performance of guava cv. SARDAR budded on ten different rootstocks, MANDEEP SINGH GILL* AND B.S. CHAHIL1
The present study was conducted in the Department of Fruit Science, Punjab Agricultural University ,Ludhiana during 2004- 2006.The influence of different guava rootstocks on fruit set, retention, weight, yield and quality characteristics of guava cv. SARDAR was studied. Sardar showed best performance on Portugal rootstock in terms of fruit set, retention and fruit yield. The mean maximum fruit length and breadth was recorded on Pear Shaped and Banarsi Surkha, respectively. Fruit quality in terms of fruit weight and TSS was the highest on Sindhajli followed by Portugal but vitamin C content was the highest on Chittidar during both the years. So it may be concluded that Portugal is ideal rootstock for Sardar for producing fruits of good quality with higher yields.
242 Genetic diversity analysis of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] genotypes using RAPD markers, B.N. MOTAGI*, C.C. ANGADI1, G.K. NAIDU2 AND T.R. SHASHIDHAR3
Genetic diversity among 21 released varieties of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] was analysed using RAPD markers. A total of forty primers of two series (OPF01-20 and OPAG01-20) were used to screen the polymorphic primers and the profiles generated by three such primers were used for analysis. The genetic similarity co-efficients among genotypes varied between 0.44 to 0.82. Based on UPGMA and SAHN clustering cowpea genotypes grouped into two main clusters. Cluster II comprised of genotypes CO-7 and GC 3, while other nineteen genotypes were grouped under cluster I. However, the primers OPF 2, OPF 20 and OPAG15 were most polymorphic that can be used to fingerprint cowpea varieties
243 Influence of different methods of seed extraction on seed quality in cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)] cv.HASSAN LOCAL, H.N. CHETHAN1, P.J. DEVARAJU1, H.B. DINESH*, C.S. SHANTHARAJA1, P. DHANANJAYA1 AND S.J. SATHEESH NAIK1
The supply of quality seeds is the constraint in getting higher fruit yield for consumption. Raising the crop for good quality cucumber seed, method of seed extraction is most important to maintain the quality of seeds, which involves removal of pulp and gelatinous substance present around the seed with direct extraction, fermentation, acid extraction and alkali extraction. Improper seed extraction result in inferior seed quality hence, the study on influence of different methods of seed extraction on seed quality in cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)] cv. HASSAN LOCAL was carried out in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore. Crop was raised at the Vegetable Seed Production plot, Department of Horticulture, during Kharif, 2010 by adopting Randomized Complite Block Design, design with four replications following recommended package of practices. The study comprised of six treatments viz., E1 (Natural fermentation for 24 hours), E2 (Alkali extraction) E3 (1% Hcl), E4 (1.5% HCl), E5 (2% Hcl), and E6 (Control). The results revealed that the highest germination (94.50%), maximum mean seedling length (28.28 cm), highest mean seedling dry weight (12.53 mg), higher vigour index I (2671), vigour index II (1183), maximum field emergence (92%) and with low electrical conductivity (341?Sm-1) was recorded in E1. The study can concluded that the seed quality parameters in seeds extracted with natural fermentation is more appropriate for better seed quality in cucumber
244 Biochemical basis of productivity in little millet (Panicum miliare L.), S.G. GOLLAGI*, M.B. CHETTI AND V.H. ASHVATHAMA
Crop yield is mainly dependent on the interplay of various physiological and biochemical functions of the plants in addition to the impact of environment. A cause and effect relationship is necessary to understand interplay of several processed and functions affecting crop yield. The genotypes TNAU-63, OLM-20 and TNAU-89 recorded higher total chlorophyll and nitrate reductase activity. Correlation study indicated that a significant and a positive association of thses parameters with grain yield. Chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and nitrate reductase activity had positive correlation with yield.
245 Effect of potassium and zinc on yield, quality and economics of Gujarat cowpea-4, A.S. CHAVAN* AND H.R.KHAFI1
A field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil of the Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh (Gujarat) during the season of Kharif-2008. Significantly higher grain yields (1587 kg ha-1) were recorded with application of 60 kg K2O ha-1. Significantly highest grain yields (1553 kg ha-1) were recorded with 40 kg zinc ha-1. The maximum grain protein content of 24.85 per cent as well as The higher net realization Rs.21725 ha-1with BCR (3.43) was accrued under the application of 60 kg K2O ha-1. The higher net realization of Rs.20545 ha-1 with 3.18 BCR was realized under the application of 40 kg zinc ha-1. Considering the treatment combinations, K3Zn2 (60 kg K2O ha-1 + 40 kg zinc ha-1.) recorded the highest net realization of Rs. 24344 ha-1 with BCR 3.54. It can be indicated that the potential production and profit from Kharif season cowpea (cultivar GC-4) can be secured by fertilizing the crop with 60 kg K2O ha-1 along with 40 kg zinc ha-1.
246 Effect of plant growth substances on growth, fruit setting and yield of pomegranate cv. SINDURI, J.D. GOSWAMI, N.M. PATEL*, H.S. BHADAURIA AND V.R.WANKHADE
The present investigation of plant growth substances on fruit setting, yield and other components were carried out on pomegranate. Out of 15 treatments, two treatments viz. NAA 50 ppm and Ethrel 200 ppm were found effective for fruit setting, yield and for other components. Application of NAA 50 ppm was found effective in increasing number of fruits per tree, fruit weight, yield , number of stem at the time of pruning, number of hermaphrodite flower, number of fruit per plant and minimum fruits drop per plant. And application of Ethrel 200 ppm was superior for minimum days taken for first ripe fruits, maximum sex ratio and minimum number of male flower
247 Biophysical yield and juice quality in sweet sorghum genotypes, V.H. ASHVATHAMA, S.G. GOLLAGI1*AND S.S. RAO2
In sweet sorghum genotypes, rates of photosynthesis and transpiration , fresh cane weight differed significantly. The high yielding genotypes possessed higher rate of photosynthesis and transpiration. Juice parameters such as extraction percentage, brix, non-reducing sugars, total sugars and enzyme activity also differed among the genotypes. Fresh cane weight and brix were more in high yielding genotypes. There was a positive correlation between fresh cane weight and total sugars, non-reducing sugars and invertase enzyme activity. Photosynthesis rate had positive correlation with transpiration.
248 Effect of phosphorus, PSB and zinc on content and uptake of isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk), G.P. NAROLIA* AND A.C. SHIVRAN
An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2003-04 to study the effect of phosphorus, PSB and zinc on growth and quality of isabgol. Result revealed that application of phosphorus up to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1, being at par with 30 kg P2O5 ha-1, recorded significantly higher nitrogen uptake by seed and straw and total N uptake, phosphorus concentration in seed and straw, phosphorus uptake by straw, total uptake of phosphorus and zinc uptake by seed and total Zn uptake. The inoculation of seed with PSB significantly enhanced nitrogen concentration in seed, phosphorus concentration in seed and straw, nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc uptake by seed and straw, total uptake of nitrogen phosphorus and zinc concentration in seed uninoculated control. Results revealed that increasing levels of zinc up to 5.0 kg Zn ha-1 significantly increased nitrogen uptake by seed and straw and total N uptake, phosphorus uptake by seed and total uptake of phosphorus, zinc concentration in seed and straw, Zn uptake by seed and straw and total uptake
249 Analysis of genetic variability in scented rice varieties using RAPD marker, GUNJAN PANDEY, LAXMI RAWAT1, SARVESH SHUKLA, Y. SINGH* AND J. KUMAR
Molecular marker technology is the genetic tool for assessing genetic diversity and relationships among scented rice and other varieties of rice. In the present study, a random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used for genetic diversity analysis among 45 genotypes of scented rice with 9 primers. A total of 57 bands were amplified by 9 pre screened polymorphic decamer primers at an average rate of 6.33 bands/primer and 83.17 were polymorphic. The data of 45 genotypes of scented rice were used to generate pair-wise matrix based on Jaccards co-efficient. The similarity co-efficient ranged from 0.423 in between Sugandha-2 and 3231 to maximum of 0.932 in between IR106 and IR-253U. It indicated the closeness of these genotypes. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed similarity between most of the cultivars. The information of the genetic diversity will be useful for the selection of the parents for breeding rice variety
250 Screening of fungal biocontrol agents against Sclerotium oryzae the causal agent of stem rot of rice, NISHANT PRAKASH AND SMITA PURI*
Scleortium oryzae causes rice stem rot disease which is an important disease of rice. In an effort to develop eco-friendly measures for the control of this disease different Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens isolates were screened. Variability in all the 15 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was tested against Sclerotium oryzae through monoculture. Results of monoculture showed variability amongst the isolates tested. All the isolates of Trichoderma spp. produced volatile compounds and maximum inhibition of the mycelial growth of Sclerotium oryzae (28.88%) was recorded by Trichoderma sp. (isolate no. 4). Cultural filtrate of all the four isolates of Trichoderma spp. resulted in the maximum inhibition of (94.44%) mycelial growth of Sclerotium oryzae when used at 50 per cent concentration. At 25 per cent concentration of cultural filtrate, maximum inhibition of mycelial growth (94.44) was observed in case of Trichoderma isolate 1 and 2. Glass house experiments showed that all the Trichoderma isolates tested were helpful in disease control and plant growth promotion both.
251 Effect of chickpea based intercropping systems on competitive relationship between chickpea and intercrop, R.M. WASU*, D.N. GOKHALE, P.R. DADGALE AND G.T. KADAM
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2009-10 to study the effect of planting geometry and chickpea based different intercropping systems on competitive relationship between chickpea and intercrops. Land equivalent ratio was observed highest in chickpea + linseed at 3:3 row proportions. Competitive ratio of main crop (chickpea) was highest in chickpea + linseed at 3:3 row proportions. It means, chickpea was more competitive in chickpea + linseed at 3:3 row proportions than in any other intercropping system. Intercrop safflower was more competitive in chickpea + safflower at 6:3 row proportions which was at par with sunflower in chickpea + sunflower in 6:3 row proportions. The agressivity of chickpea was highest (0.23) in chickpea + linseed at 3:3 row proportions.
252 Correlation and path co-efficient analyses in F2 generation for fruit yield and its attributes in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench], MAHESH MEENA, K. MALLIKARJUN*, T. BASVARAJ, M. ASIF AND E. GANGAPPA
The present investigation was conducted with F2 generation of three crosses at fields of Department ofGenetics and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during summer season 2011. The present investigation revealed that the magnitudes of fruit yield was positively and significantly correlated with fruit weight, fruit length in respect to F2 generation of C-I, fruit weight and days to flowering in C-II and fruit weight and primary branches in C-III. This indicated that the fruit yield could be improved through indirect selection of these traits in okra. The fruit weight exerted maximum direct effect on fruit yield per plant in all the crosses. In view of positive significant association and maximum direct effect on fruit yield, the trait; fruit weight establishes a conclusive effectiveness of selection.
253 Productivity and quality of maize and wheat under integrated potassium management in maize - wheat cropping system, SANJEEV KUMAR* AND SHIVA DHAR1
A field experiment was conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi to study the productivity and profitability of application of different source of potassium in maize wheat cropping system. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design consists of ten treatments and replicated thrice. Results revealed that potassium application irrespective of sources was superior over control. Application of 60 kg K through muriate of potash + 30 kg K through farmyard manure in both maize and wheat resulted into higher yield attributes, grain yield and nutrient concentration. This treatment was closely followed by 30 kg K through muriate of potash + 30 kg K through farmyard manure in both maize and wheat which was found significantly superior over 60 kg K through muriate of potash alone and treatment without potassium application.
254 Influence of different weed management practices on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.), T.R. SHASHIDHAR1, P.R. DHARMATTI1, C.C. ANGADI2, S.J. PRASHANTH*2 AND B.N. MOTAGI3
Field experiments were conducted for two seasons on medium black soils to know the Influence of different weed management practices on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) . The experiment was conducted with BLG-1 genotype. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with three replications having fifteen treatments each. The treatments consisted of six herbicides with two concentrations each along with two manual weeding treatments and an unweeded control. The cultural practices were practiced as per the package of practices of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. Among the different treatments, the herbicides like chlorimuron and chlomazone were highly toxic to garlic crop and resulted in 100 per cent mortality of the crop. While, least toxicity was observed in hand weeding treatments and the herbicides like oxyfluorfen and pendimethalin. The treatment weed free control was superior for all the growth parameters at all the stages of crop growth during all the seasons, and was followed by oxyfluorfen @ 0.10 kg and 0.20 kg a.i. ha-1 and pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1. While, the least values for all the parameters was observed in unweeded control at all the stages. The yield parameters and yield were significantly higher in weed free control and was followed by oxyfluorfen (0.10 kg a.i./ha), oxyfluorfen (0.20 kg a.i./ ha) and pendimethalin (1.0 kg a.i./ha). While, unweeded control recorded the least yield during all the seasons
255 Effect of different soilless culture systems on growth, yield and quality of strawberry cv. STRAWBERRY FESTIVAL, FRAIDOON KARIMI*, B. ARUNKUMAR1, M. ASIF1, B.N.S. MURTHY1 AND K.T.VENKATESHA1
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of different soilless culture systems (Open-trough, Lay-Flat-Bag and Verti-Gro) on growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberry cv. STRAWBERRY FESTIVAL. Good growth and performance in terms of yield and quality was better with Open-trough as compared to either Lay-Flat-Bag system and/or Verti-Gro system. Maximum leaf area (2478.66 cm2), largest crown diameter (33.75 mm), highest shoot fresh weight (60.97 g) and root fresh weight (16.50g), highest shoot dry weight (21.10 g) and root dry weight (5.74 g) was observed in Open-trough grown plants. Earliness in flowering (43 days) and highest TSS (10.61 B) was also achieved in these plants as well as, highest number of flowers (37.00) and fruits (22.66) and total fruit weight per plant (281.83 g) along with higher marketable fruits (78.33 %). Lower titratable acidity (0.80 %) was observed in the fruits produced from the plants grown in Lay-Flat-Bag and Open-trough (0.83 %) systems. The better performance of the plants grown in open-trough and Lay-Flat-Bag systems were reflected by higher light incidence on leaf surface and photosynthesis rates as compared to those grown in Verti-Gro system.
256 Benefits of ground nut improved production technologies to small and marginal farmers of Datia district in Madhya Pradesh, B.S. KASANA* AND PUNEET KUMAR
Considering that non- adoption of improved ground nut technologies by the small and marginal resource poor farmers is due to non availability of quality seeds, poor knowledge, inappropriateness of technologies etc. In the current study, improved groundnut technologies have been implemented through participatory mode so as to generate awareness about improved technologies among them. The participatory approach could make the farmer to learn, adopt and spread new technologies. The economic indicators have shown that net return of Rs. 28087per ha was realized by adopting improved variety and integrated crop management (ICM) package during Kharif season, and it is higher than the returns realized by growing local variety (Indori/ Junku) with local practice (Rs. 18825/ha). The cost of production has been found to be Rs. 8.83/kg and Rs. 11.10/kg with the improved practice and farmers practice, respectively
257 Benefits of ground nut improved production technologies to small and marginal farmers of Datia district in Madhya Pradesh, B.S. KASANA* AND PUNEET KUMAR
Considering that non- adoption of improved ground nut technologies by the small and marginal resource poor farmers is due to non availability of quality seeds, poor knowledge, inappropriateness of technologies etc. In the current study, improved groundnut technologies have been implemented through participatory mode so as to generate awareness about improved technologies among them. The participatory approach could make the farmer to learn, adopt and spread new technologies. The economic indicators have shown that net return of Rs. 28087per ha was realized by adopting improved variety and integrated crop management (ICM) package during Kharif season, and it is higher than the returns realized by growing local variety (Indori/ Junku) with local practice (Rs. 18825/h
258 Ethno medicinal plants as natural remedies in Chhatarpur district of Madhya Pradesh, VIDESH PATERIYA1, POOJA AGRAWAL* AND BRAJESH TIWARI2
39 locally available plants of 20 families have been listed which are used by the local people of Chhatarpur district against various diseases. Plant species with their botanical names, family, local names, parts used and their medicinal uses are enlisted.
259 Fresh vegetables in India, GOVIND KUMAR
This paper focuses on production, export and marketing of vegetables in India. Consumer preferences have also shifted away from cereals and moved towards high-value agricultural produce like vegetables. The vegetable production in India has touched a new height in recent years. India has occupied second position in production of vegetables after China. During the study, it was found that India produced vegetables in huge amount during 2010-11 in comparison to previous year i.e. 2009-10. India export vegetables mainly to Asian countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Philippines etc. and to the European countries. Marketing of vegetables in India is the traditional phenomenon and the various channels support in marketing of vegetables and these channels are playing crucial roll today. India is suffering with some basic constraints and it comes in production and marketing of vegetables.
260 Role of vermicompost and vermiwash as a biotic indicators for enhancement of soil health in sustainable agriculture, SWATI P. DHOK
Vermicomposting is a promising method of transforming organic wastes into usable substrates. In this process, the digestive tracts of certain earthworm species (e.g. Eisenia foetida) are used to stabilize organic wastes. The final product is an odorless, clean, peat-like substance, which has good structure, moisture holding capacity, organic material containing relatively adequate quantities of N, P, K and several micronutrients essential for plant growth. The end product of vermicompost is rich in essential macro and micronutrients along with microorganisms in a very simple form. Adding vermicompost not only improves the soil structure and fertility but also leads to improvement in overall plant growth and thus increases their yield. Vermiwash is liquid plant growth regulator, which contains high amount of enzymes, vitamins and hormones like auxins, gibberellins etc. along with macro and micronutrients used as foliar spray. These inputs maintain soil fertility by improving physical, chemical and biological soil properties as well as sustain soil organic carbon and humic substances and can be used to promote the development of beneficial organisms in the soil. It improve soil structure, water holding capacity, seed germination, drainage, base exchange capacity, checks soil erosion and also helps in the uptake of humic substances or its decomposition products influencing the overall growth and metabolism of plants, also improves the hormonal and biochemical activities of humus substances. Hence, these can used very beneficially as a biotic indicators for enhancement of soil health in sustainable agriculture
261 Seed hardening, K. SUJATHA*, K. SIVASUBRAMANIAM, J. PADMA AND K. SELVARANI
Pre sowing seed hardening with water and solutions of halide salts and growth regulating compounds to induce early germination, better root and seedling growth and increased yield has been employed by several workers. Seed hardening has been investigated by those concerned with problem of mitigating seed germination and seedling emergence under problematic field conditions. Hence, seed hardening is one of the physiological pre-sowing seed management practice given to seeds to resist drought or saline / sodic soils to boost up the yield and is also being practiced from time immemorial owing to the better performance among the agriculturists
262 Plant origin herbicides: chemistry, mode of action and weed management, D. SUBRAMANYAM*, D. SRINIVASULU1, V. SUMATHI AND K. SAJITHA1
Plant origin herbicides or allelomones are major source of natural herbicides to combat the weed problem in current organic and sustainable agriculture. Some of the secondary metabolites extracted from plant origin provide lead molecules viz., 1, 8-cineole, leptospermone, artemisinin, sorgoleone and benzoquinones act as templates or analogs to produce new synthetic chemical herbicides. Various plant products had sufficient quantities of allelomones that affect the growth and development of weeds directly, however, these effects are concentration dependent. Herbicidal activity of plant aqueous extracts of sorghum, rice, maize, sunflower, eucalyptus and some of the medicinal plants and other plants were explained to control the weeds in different situations. Combined applications of these plant origin aqueous water extracts with reduced rates of synthetic herbicides could be an economic and effective weed management practices in organic and sustainable agriculture to minimize the herbicide load in soil.
263 Clonal propagation in apple, YAMINI SHARMA, SANDEEP KUMAR SINGH* AND NIDHIKA THAKUR
Clonal propagation is to select a source of superior plant characteristics and to reproduce population of progeny with identical genotypes. Most of the fruit plants are heterozygous in nature if they are propagated through seed their unique characteristics are changed. Propagation through cuttings is the most common means of clonal regeneration of number of horticultural crops. Adventitious root formation is pre-requisite to successful cutting propagation. Vegetatively raised clonal rootstock, on other hand are not only uniform but they are also precocious, productive and resistant to biotic and abiotic factors. Thus in apple the use of clonal rootstock has become an acceptable practice of eliminating variability arising from the use of variable seedling rootstocks and of reducing tree size and increasing precocity and productivity. In this review, the scattered information on clonal propagation of apple through growth regulators, bio-inoculants, pre-conditioning (blanching and girdling) on rooting of cuttings and pre-conditioning treatments with IBA is enlightened. This could eventually be helpful in drawing the attention of the researchers and scientists to work on it, besides would be benefitted by utilizing the knowledge reviewed in this paper
264 Pruning in peach, NIDHIKA THAKUR, SANDEEP KUMAR SINGH* AND YAMINI SHARMA
The temperate fruit trees need annual pruning when dormant i.e. before the bud break. The main objective in developing and perfecting a pruning method is to remove the non productive parts so as to divert the energy into those parts that are capable of bearing fruits. Performance of peach trees depends heavily on the proper pruning annually. The peach fruits are born on one year old wood which becomes barren afterwards and no flower bud differentiation or subsequent fruit formation takes place in this part of the branch. If the trees are not pruned annually, the volume of fruiting wood reduces each year and the fruiting shoot move higher and higher getting out of reach. The unpruned trees are oftenly subjected to over crowding between the trees in close planting, exhibiting reduction in productivity and fruit quality. Hence, proper pruning is quite instrumental in regulating the tree vigour, fruit quality and productivity potential in peach plants
265 Plant growth regulators in fruit and vegetable crops, SANDEEP KUMAR SINGH1, NIDHIKA THAKUR* AND YAMINI SHARMA
The use of plant growth regulators in modern horticulture is well established. Indeed certain fields of horticulture such as asexual propagation are heavily dependent on the use of synthetic growth regulators. During recent years, the interest in fruit and vegetable production has increased rapidly because of good price value and place of vegetables in national food requirement. Yield increase in fruit and vegetable crops has been obtained through improved fruit and vegetable varieties, efficient use of chemicals fertilizers and various agronomic practices. Besides, growth regulating chemicals are also becoming important in the field of horticulture for the modification of vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting and quality.This review deals with the use of plant growth regulators in relation to vegetative growth, control of flowering, effects on fruit set and development and quality of fruit in the perceived future
266 Molecular basis of self-incompatibility and its utilization in crop improvement, GULZAR S. SANGHERA1, V. K. SHARMA2 AND SHABIR H. WANI*
Self-incompatibility, is a genetically controlled mechanism for rejection of own pollen. It has been a favourite topic for botanists and geneticists since Darwin who first discussed this phenomenon and suggested its central significance during the evolution of flowering plants. Different genetic and mechanistic systems of SI among different plant families suggest either multiple origins of SI or considerable evolutionary diversification. Within the last two decades, molecular and biochemical analyses which have significantly contributed to the elucidation of the complex series of interactions occurring at the pollen-stigma interface. Molecular analyses of self incompatibility systems have focused on identifying and characterizing the pollen and pistil components of the self-incompatible response as well as other proteins and events that lead to pollen rejection. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive insight for the molecular dissection of this important mechanism for its utilization in crop improvement.
267 Characterization of seed borne Fusarium sp. biodiversity in major cereals through morphological and molecular basis, M. RAJESH*, T. SENTHIL AND K. PRABAKAR
Totally 8 Fusarium graminearum (Wheat) isolates and 16 Fusarium moniliforme (4 sorghum and 12 maize) isolates were obtained. F. graminearum and F. moniliforme, the entire plate was completely covered (90 mm) with in 6 and 8 days, respectively. The colour of the mycelium of F. graminearum was cottony pinkish white in initial days, later it has turned in to red colour or dark red colour. It produced maximum amount of macroconidia and few microconidia. Most of the isolates produced falcate shape macroconidia with foot cells, few of isolates produced sickle shape conidia with foot cells. It has 4-6 septation and 22-24 x 2.5-3.5 ?m in size. But in F. moniliforme, the colour of the mycelium was initially white, later turned in to cream colour or lilac colour. It produced colourless microconidia and rarely produced macroconidia. Molecular analysis of seed-borne Fusarium sp., all the Fusarium sp. isolates were grouped into two major clusters (similarity coefficient at 0.65) such as A and B. The cluster A consisted of nine isolate Fg1-8 and Fm14 and these isolates highly variable from other isolates. Cluster B was divided into two main clusters (similarity co-efficient at 0.69) namely B1 and B2. B1 consisted of twelve isolates and B2 comprised of one isolate (Fm17).
268 Impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in selected local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria, M.O.ADEWUMI, O.E.AYINDE*, K.B. OLATINWO AND M.A. OLOWOGBAYI
Transportation is an essential aspect of agricultural production. However, in many parts of Nigeria, bad transport system is still a problem of rural farmers. Therefore, this study seeks examines the impacts of transportation on the profitability of sweet potato production in Kwara State. The sampling techniques involve the purposive selection of two local government areas (LGAs). Two communities were randomly selected from each of the two LGAs. Then, twenty six sweet potato farmers were finally selected from each of the four communities giving a total of 120 respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit model and gross margin. The study showed that head porterage, motor cycle, motor vehicle and pick up van of less than 3 tons were the most prominent means of transporting sweet potato in the study area. Also, the size of the farm, cost of transportation, quantity sweet potato produced, and average distance from the farm to the market are the factors that significantly affect the choice of transportation means used by the farmers in the study area. The results also showed that the farmers who sell their produce at the market earn more profit than those that sell at the farm gate. Therefore, in other to encourage the farmers to produce more sweet potatoes it was recommended that adequate transportation system be provided
269 Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for physiological characters under different soils, S.V. NIRMAL, S.R. GADAKH AND A.R. GAIKWAD*
Sixteen Rabi sorghum genotypes including four checks were evaluated for physiological characterization under medium and shallow soils at Sorghum Improvement Project, MPKV, Rahuri during Rabi seasons viz., 2008-09- 2009-10 and 2010-11 in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Results indicated the presence of larger amount of variability among Rabi sorghum genotypes for morpho-physiological and yield contributing characters. Therefore, it was concluded that the variations in grain and fodder yield on medium soil due to different genotypes were statistically significant. The genotype RSV 1037 (2705 kg/ha) produced significantly higher grain yield over the high yielding check Phule Chitra (2374 kg/ha). The grain yield was positively correlated with biomass at harvest, harvest index (HI %), stomatal resistance, PAR, grain no./panicle, 1000 grain weight., RLWC %, earhead exertion %, stay green at physiological maturity, per day production of grain and fodder and fodder yield and negatively correlated with leaf temperature difference, CSI and stomatal frequency, stomatal conductance, transpiration and rate of water loss and on shallow soils the variations in grain and fodder yield due to different genotypes were statistically significant. None of the genotypes was found significantly superior over the check Phule Anuradha (1303 kg/ha) for grain yield. The grain yield was positively correlated with LAI, biomass at maturity, stomatal resistance, PAR, harvest index %, grains /panicle, 1000-grain weight., RLWC %, earhead exertion %, stay green at physiological maturity, per day production of grain and fodder yield and negatively correlated with leaf temperature and transpiration rate, CSI, stomatal frequency and stomatal conductance.
270 Integrated approach for nutrient management in guava cv. L- 49 under Malwa Plateau conditions of Madhya Pradesh, MANDEEP KAUR BINEPAL, RAJESH TIWARI* AND B.R. KUMAWAT
An experiment was conducted during 2011-2012 at the Department of Fruit Science, K.N.K. College of Horticulture, Mandsaur (M.P.) on seven year old guava tree cv. L-49 with two levels of nitrogen i.e., 600 g N (100% N) and 450 g N (75% N), two levels of phosphorus i.e., 400 g P2O5 (100% P2O5) and 300 g P2O5 (75% P2O5) and a common dose of potassium i.e., 300 g K2O and 30 g each of Azospirillium and PSB inoculation and 10 kg Vermicompost. The results revealed that the application of 100% N + 100% P2O5+Azospirillium + PSB + 10 kg vermicompost (T9) significantly influence the morpho-physical, reproductive and quality parameters of guava. Maximum increase in plant height (0.65 m), canopy spread N-S direction (0.92 m) and E-W direction (1.00 m), maximum fruit length (7.52 cm) and fruit diameter (7.91 cm) at harvest, fruit volume (217.41 ml), maximum fruit setting (79.56%), minimum fruit drop (20.41%), maximum fruit retention (79.59%), average fruit weight (220.37 g), number of fruits per tree (384), TSS (11.67 0Brix), total sugar (8.06%), reducing sugar (4.17%), non-reducing sugar (3.89%), pectin (0.81%), ascorbic acid (207.90 mg/100 g pulp) and lowest acidity (0.20%) were obtained with treatment T9. The combined application of recommended dose of NPK with vermicompost (10 kg) and biofertilizers (30 g /plant) gave significantly higher fruit yield per tree (84.66 kg) with higher B: C ratio (1:5.27).
271 Knowledge and constraints in recommended kinnow production technology among the kinnow growers, H.D. CHOUDHARY* AND G.S. BANGARVA1
The study was concluded in two Panchayat Samities of Sri-Ganganagar district of Rajasthan. The results indicated that majority of kinnow growers fell into the medium category of knowledge level about recommended kinnow production technology. Majority of farmers had knowledge regarding recommended method of hoeing and weeding and recommended row to row distance whereas only 14.17 per cent farmers had knowledge about recommended growth regulators. Therefore, the instructions on the pack of chemicals should be written in easy language. The constraints most perceived by the farmers in adoption of recommended kinnow production technology where high initial cost in establishing of orchard, irregular water supply from canal, lack of proper market and lack of need based training. So it is suggested that training and visits of demonstrations etc. should be organized for providing kinnow production technology to the farmers
272 Effect of dates of sowing and fertilizer levels on growth and yield of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), G. SARASWATHI* AND K.M. VIDYA1
Afield experiment was conducted,with 3 dates of sowing as main plot treatments and 5 levels of fertilizer as sub plot treatments in split plot design with three replications, at the Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot during October 2010 to February 2011. Maximum plant height, more number of branches and leaves, higher dry matter production per hectare, maximum seed yield per plant and seed yield per hectare, were recorded when garden cress was sown on 1st November and supplied with 80:80:30 kg of NPK/ha (D2F4), under northern dry zone of Karnataka.
273 Stability analysis for yield and its contributing traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), S.V. SINGH*, R.K. YADAV AND S.K. SINGH1
The stability of 10 parents and their 45 F1s and 45 F2s of wheat were studied for days to 75%flowering, number of ear bearing tillers, plant height, spike length/plant, number of grains/spike, grain weight/spike, days to maturity and grain yield/plant at three diverse locations of Uttar Pradesh, India. The stability analysis revealed that the genotypes, environments, genotypes x environments interaction including environments (linear) were highly significant for all the characters, indicating significant variability among the genotypes and significant involvement of environments with different genotypes. The non-linear component (pooled deviation) was also highly significant for all the attributes, exhibiting considerable genetic diversity in yield and its contributing traits. Among parents, K 9107 was found to be high yielder and stable across environments. The crosses namely, K 68 x K 9107, K 68 x K 7903, K 68 x HP 1633, DL 784-3 x K 9107, DL 784-3 x K 9644, K 9107 x K 9644, K 8027 x C 306, K 8027 x K 9644, C 306 x K 9644 and GW 373 x K 9644 were identified as stable and high yielder across environments in both the generations. These crosses can be exploited in further breeding programmes for developing high yielding stable varieties.
274 Plant geometry and nutrient levels effect on productivity of Bt cotton, P.L. GHULE, D.K. PALVE, J.D. JADHAV*1 AND V.V. DAHIPHALE
A field investigation was conducted duringKharif season The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. There were twelve treatment combinations comprising three plant geometries viz., 90 cm x 60 cm, 120 cm x 45 cm and 180 cm x 30 cm and four nutrient levels viz., 80:40:40, 100:50:50, 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha and 75 % RDF + 5 t FYM/ha. The plant geometries were allotted to main plot and nutrient levels were accommodated in sub plots. The plant geometry of 90 cm x 60 cm has recorded significantly higher number of sympodias per plant, the number of picked bolls per plant and seed cotton yield per plant over 120 cm x 45 cm and 180 cm x 30 cm. The seed cotton yield per hectare was also higher in plant geometry of 90 cm x 60 cm than 120 cm x 45 cm and 180 cm x 30 cm. The application of nutrient level i.e. 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha was found superior for enhancing growth parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter. The application of 75% RDF + 5 t FYM/ha recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield per hectare. Based on the results it can be concluded that the yield attributes of Bt cotton were improved in plant geometry of 90 cm x 60 cm. The seed cotton yield of Bt cotton was significantly higher in plant geometry of 90 cm x 60 cm than 120 cm x 45 cm and 180 cm x 30 cm which recorded 23 % and 21 % higher over 120 cm x 45 cm and 180 cm x 30 cm, respectively. Application of 75% RDF + 5 t FYM/ha to Bt cotton was significantly superior than rest of all other treatments which recorded 14, 9 and 5.5 per cent higher yield over 80:40:40 kg NPK/ha, 100:50:50 kg NPK/ha and 120:60:60 kg NPK/ha, respectively.
275 Yield improvement in Bt cotton through foliar nutrition under rainfed vertisol, N. SRITHARAN*, S. GOPALAKRISHNAMOORTHI, K. BOOMIRAJ, R. KAMALKUMAR AND D. JAWAHAR
Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the foliar nutrition on morphological characters, physiological traits and yield attributes in Bt cotton under rainfed condition at Agricultural Research Station, Kovilpatti. The treatments consisted of foliar spray of 1% urea + 0.5% KCl, foliar spray of TNAU cotton plus @1.25% and control were imposed at flowering and boll formation stages. The morphological parameters viz., plant height, number of monopodial and sympodial branches as well as total drymatter production (TDMP) were recorded. Among the treatments, foliar spray of TNAU cotton plus recorded higher plant height, more number of sympodial branches and improved TDMP than other treatments. But no significant difference was observed in monopodial branches due to treatments. Foliar spray of TNAU cotton plus showed more chlorophyll content meter value when compared to other treatments. Significant difference was observed in relative water content due to treatments. The yield and yield parameters viz., number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield were also recorded. Foliar spray of TNAU cotton plus exhibited higher seed cotton yield (2036 kg/ha) than control (1848 kg/ha) and it has resulted 10.2% yield increment over control followed by foliar spray of 1% urea + 0.5% KCl (1929 kg/ha).
276 Screening of different germplasms against floral malformation of mango in Eastern Bihar, GIREESH CHAND, J.N. SRIVASTAVA*, SUNIL KUMAR1 AND R. KUMAR2
Mango germplasm comprised of 51 varieties was evaluated for resistant/tolerance against panicle malformation at Sub Tropical Fruit Farm, Department of Horticulture, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur. Out of these only Rumani was Resistant, 31 were tolerant, 5 were moderately tolerant and 9 were moderately susceptible. While Neelam was highly susceptible under the climatic condition of this region. Attack was highest in Neelam (50.00 %) followed by the Gulabkhas (31.2), Irvin (31.00 %) and Amrapali (27.4 %) and lowest in Lalmohan (1.3 %) followed by Latkampoo, Maldah (Surajgarha), and Mulayamjam (1.5 %) and Gaurjeet (1.8 %). The resistant and lowest affected varieties may be used for incorporating their immune/tolerance in the other commercial varieties through breeding programme
277 A study on physiological attributes and yield in aromatic rice duringKharif season, MAHESH KUMAR MEHTA, S. NARENDER REDDY*, A. SIVA SANKAR AND CH. SURENDER RAJU
An experiment was conducted to study physiological attributes and yield in eight aromatic rice genotypes during Kharif 2010-2011. Results showed that maximum LAI, CGR, NAR, RGR, LAD and LAR were recorded in the variety RNR 2354. Highest dry matter Production was recorded in genotype RNR 2354 while lowest dry matter production was recorded in genotype Pusa 1121.Maximum SPAD values were recorded for genotype RNR 2354 throughout the crop growth period and minimum was found for the genotypes Chittimuthyalu. Highest grain yield was recorded in genotype RNR 2354 and the lowest grain yield was recorded in Pusa 1121. The aromatic rice varieties differed significantly with respect to yield components like number of panicles per meter square, number of spikelets per panicle, 1000 grain weight, filled grain percentage and harvest index.
278 Performance of summer pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum L.) based intercropping with legume crops in different row ratios under middle Gujarat conditions, K.N. PATEL AND A.C. SADHU*
The field experiment was conducted in summer, 2010 on loamy sand soil at Anand to study the comparative performance of different pearl millet based intercropping systems. Results revealed that pearl millet sole produced higher grain and straw yields of pearl millet, but intercropping of pearl millet + green gram at 1:2 row ratio recorded higher pearl millet equivalent yield, net return and benefit:cost ratio and it was found superior than sole pearl millet and intercropping of pearl millet with greengram, mothbean or cluster bean in different row ratios.
279 Growth and yield of lentil (Lens culinarisMedik.) under different sowing dates and tillage systems, JAGJOT SINGH GILL
An experiment was carried out during Rabi season 2007-08 at Khalsa college Research Farm, Amritsar (Punjab) to study the effect of different sowing dates and tillage systems on growth and yield of lentil(Lens culinarisMedik.). Sowing dates for lentil were 15thOctober, 30 thOctober, 14th November and 30th November. Tillage systems were no tillage (Crop sown directly without ploughing), minimum tillage (Crop sown with one ploughing followed by planking) and conventional tillage (Crop sown with three ploughings followed by planking). Sowing on 30th October was found to increase growth parameters as dry matter production (6.89%, 17.72%, 33.81%), plant height(2.13%, 6.75%, 11.86%), branches/plant (6.20%, 25.46%, 64%) and yield(14.09%, 44.10%, 189.73%) on 15thOctober, 14thNovember and 30thNovember. Tillage also had significant influence on growth parameters and yield. Conventional tillage has increased dry matter production (6.70% and 13.63%), plant height (1.55% and 4.79%), branches/plant (3.77% and 6.54%) and yield (8.09% and 30.65%) over minimum tillage and no tillage. The highest yield was recorded with the treatment that received conventional tillage.
280 A study of effect of Sujala watershed programme on ground water recharge and sustainable crop productivity in Kanavisiddageri area of Haveri district, Karnataka, CHANDRU PATIL*, K.S. NIRANJANA AND B.S. SHIVAKUMARA
Water crisis in present days as a result of climate change effect has significantly altered the annual rainfall and river flow regimes, and will in turn affect the groundwater recharging rate. Prevention of stress on ground water can be made possible by way of recharging the ground water through scientific watershed management. Therefore, watershed treatment is an ideal method for recharging ground water and to prevent stress on ground water. In the present investigation, a modest attempt has been made to assess impact of watershed treatment on ground water recharge in Totaganti micro watershed in Hirekerur taluk, Haveri district, Karnataka. The water harvesting structures like contour bund, recharge pit, farm pond, check dam, bore well recharge pit, earthen bunds and desiltation of tanks and agro-forestry were implemented. The nine bore well stations were randomly selected for taking ground water samples in upper, middle and lower reaches of the micro watershed. Out of 115 irrigation sources in the micro watershed, 65 sources were functioning and 50 sources were non-functioning before watershed treatment. After watershed treatment, functioning irrigation sources were raised from 65 to 105. This clearly indicates that there is a net raise in the irrigation sources due to increase in the ground water recharge. Further, the maximum average bore well yield 2.43 l/ sec. was recorded in stations of lower reaches and minimum bore well yield 2.30 l/sec. in stations of upper reaches. It also resulted in an increase in the productivity of some crops such as jowar from 3.0 to 3.7 q/acre, maize from 2.9 to 3.2 q/acre, cotton from 2.6 to 3.3 q/acre and red gram from 2.1 to 2.5 q/acre. This shows that there was significant difference in productivity between before and after watershed treatment. About 25.53 per cent of the farmers are found to be socio economically strong, 54.25 per cent medium class and 20.21 per cent lower class. Majority of people were actively participated in Mandal Panchayat (53.57%), 26.78 per cent in Zilla Panchayat and 19.64 per cent in co-operative society.
281 Screening of bioagents and botanicals against Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Fusarium sp causing root rot/wilt complex of soybean, T.V. SANGEETHA AND SHAMARAO JAHAGIRDAR*
The root trot/ wilt complex has become a major production constraint in Karnataka. The associated pathogens causing the root rot/ wilt are identified as Sclerotium. rolfsii, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Fusarium sp. in northern Karnataka, either in combination of two or more than two pathogens. In vitro screening of bioagents and botanicals was taken up to identify an effective strain/botanical pesticide against all the three pathogens. In vitro studies revealed that Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum, Azadirachtin, Neem oil were more effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of all the three pathogens.
282 Resource allocation efficiency of wheat in western Maharashtra, J.S. KUMBHAR*, S.N. TILEKAR, D.B. YADAV AND V.G. POKHARKAR
Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian economy. Agriculture sector employs more than 58 per cent of population and contribute 14.3 per cent of GDP in economy during the 2010-11. The key issue of this sector in the Maharashtra State is low productivity in foodgrains as compared to national and inters state productivity. Limited availability of agricultural land, quality of land and rainfed agriculture has restricted the scope for increase in agricultural production. The objectives of the study were to examine the per hectare changes in resource use levels and their efficiency in selected cereals and to estimate the per hectare changes in costs and returns structure of selected crops. The emphasis has been given on the simple tabular analysis based on means, percentages. The zonewise cross sectional data of two point of time i.e. 1991-92 and 2008-09 were used for estimating the resource use efficiency. The results indicated that the per cent change in per hectare resource use for wheat at overall level was highly significant in case of P and K fertilizer ingredients. At overall level the per hectare resource use gap analysis showed that the per cent gap in use of seed for wheat crop was found to be negative indicating the excess use and per cent gap for manure, N, P and K fertilizers were decreased over a period of 18 year. During 1991-92 and 2008-09, at the overall level the independent variables like human labour, N and P fertilizers were found positively significant and bullock labour and N fertilizers were observed to be significant, respectively. At the overall level, marginal value product shown that human labour, N and P fertilizers and bullock labour and N fertilizers during 1991-92 and 2008-09 was higher than the unit costs, respectively. At the overall level the per hectare total cost of cultivation i.e. Cost C and gross profit were observed to be increased by 267.50 and 94.21 per cent over the base year, respectively. The B:C ratio of wheat during the year 1991-92 was greater than unity but during the year 2008-09 shown less than unity, it means this crop was in loss.
283 Seed yield of cowpea as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus levels under enceptisol conditions, B.G. MHASKE1, S.M. GHAWADE*, M.J. PATIL2 AND P.P. GAWANDE3
An experiment was carried out during Kharif season of 2010-2011 at plot no. 11, Main Garden, Department of Horticulture, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, entitled seed yield of cowpea as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus level under enceptisol conditions. An experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with sixteen treatment combinations and two factors with four levels of nitrogen viz., 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5 kg ha-1 and that of the phosphorus 0, 25, 50, and 75 kg ha-1 and replicated thrice. The results revealed that, plant height showed significant influence towards application of nitrogen 37.5 kg ha-1 in addition to phosphorus 25 kg ha-1. Main branches plant-1 were found maximum with an application of 25 kg nitrogen ha-1 and 75 kg phosphorus ha-1. The reproductive characters like days to 50 per cent flowering and days to first picking was recorded minimum with the application of 25 kg nitrogen ha-1 and 50 kg phosphorus ha-1. Seed yield and yield contributing characters like pod plant-1, and seed yield ha-1(q) were found significantly maximum, wherein application of 25 kg nitrogen ha-1 in addition to 75 kg phosphorus ha-1 was undertaken. As regards to the interaction effect, N2P2 treatment combination i.e. application of 25 kg nitrogen along with 50 kg phosphorus ha-1 reflected in the production of maximum seed yield of cowpea.
284 Opinion of beneficiaries towards training programmes organized by KVKs, H.C. SINGH1, VINOD PRAKASH* AND RAJESH KUMAR2
The study was conducted in two purposively selected KVKs Dariapur (Rae Bareli) and Tharion (Fatehpur) of Uttar Pradesh. These two KVKs fall under the jurisdiction of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur and are located in two different situations. The beneficiaries were selected randomly for this study, there were one hundred beneficiaries selected from each KVK, who attended the training. Thus, the total number of trainees was 200. The data were collected with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. The statistical methods adopted were percentage, mean and weighted mean. It was found from the study that the most of the beneficiaries in both the KVKs- Dariapur (Rae Bareli) and Tharion (Fatehpur) were of 25-35 years of age, belonged to medium caste, having nuclear type of family and 3-5 members of family size with medium level of family education. Their main occupation was farming (76.00 -80.00 %), getting Rs. 2001-3000 monthly (33.00 -35.00 %) and having up to 1 acre of land and 48-59 per cent were no member of any organization. The majority of the beneficiaries in both KVKs were utilizing neighbours and friends under localite sources, KVK personnels under cosmopolite, and meetings under mass media sources. The evaluation and supporting activities in both the KVKs, i.e., Dariapur (mean = 1.78) and Tharion (mean = 1.73) were found to be below satisfaction while regarding physical facilities their opinion were found to be below satisfaction (mean = 1.84) in KVK Tharion. Regarding the overall usefulness of training programmes in KVK Dariapur, most of the beneficiaries were found to be high level (42.00 %) of opinion while in KVK Tharion, most of the beneficiaries had showed medium level (40.00 %) of opinion.
285 Characterization of chilli genotypes using SDS PAGE protein profile, J. PADMA AND K. SIVASUBRAMANIAM
Proteins are important parameters in biochemical taxonomy. Seeds of 11 chilli genotypes were studied for seed protein. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique was used to study the water soluble protein pattern. The dendrogram was developed using NTSYS analysis provided three major clusters. The co-efficient level ranged between 0.01 to 0.05 and the three main clusters containing genotypes showed similarity within the cluster group, the similarity of the cluster contain genotypes showed the same protein profile due to environmental influence within the Clusters. Hence, the molecular studies are under pipeline.
286 Influence of humic acid spray on growth and yield of chilli (Capsicum annum L.), P.S. FATHIMA* AND G.R. DENESH
A field experiment was conducted for two years duringKharif 2010 and 2011 at Agriculture College, V.C. Farm, Mandya, Karnataka, India to evaluate the influence of humic acid spray on growth and yield of chilli. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications and seven treatments. The treatments included humic acid spray with different concentrations at 30 and 50 days after planting (DAP) and planofix spray @ 0.3 ml L-1 at flowering and control without any chemical spray. The results indicated Increased branches, number of fruits per plant and red chilli yield in treatment T3-humic acid sprayed @ 4 ml L-1 twice, once at 30 DAP and another at 50 DAP. The pooled data of red dry chilli yield for two years showed significant increase due to the application of humic acid sprayed twice @ 4 ml L-1 once at 30 DAP and another at 50 DAP, respectively over control and was at par with humic acid sprayed @ 6 ml L-1 twice( at 30DAP and 50 DAP). The highest B:C ratio was recorded in T3 compared to other treatments. The present study indicated that application of two sprays of humic acid @ 4.0 ml L-1 at 30 and 50 DAP, respectively ( at 50% flowering and fruit formation stage) in chilli is economical and significantly increased the dry chilli yield.
287 Character association and path analysis studies in green chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), MAHANTESH Y. JOGI, M.B. MADALAGERI1, V.M. GANIGER*,G. BHUVANESWARI2, H.B. PATIL AND Y.K. KOTIKAL3
Character association and path analysis in fifty genetically diverse indigenous and exotic genotypes of chilli was studied for 16 important characters. The phenotypic and genotypic association of fruit yield was significantly positive with all the characters except days to first flowering and ten fruit weight. Early fruit yield and late fruit yield per plant were found highly significant and positive correlation with total fruit yield. The genotypic path co-efficient analysis revealed that ascorbic acid and chlorophyll content had high direct positive effect on total fruit yield.
288 Effect of foliar spray of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. DHARIDAR, R.S. WASKELA, R.N. KANPURE*, B.R. KUMAWAT AND B.K. KACHOULI
A field experiment was conducted at Instructional cum Research Fruit Orchard, Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, Mandsaur Madhya Pradesh, to study the effect of micronutrients on growth, yield and quality of guava. Foliar application of zinc sulphate @ 0.75%, significantly increased the shoot length (13.44 cm), leaves per shoot (11.65), shoot diameter (0.52 cm), leaf area (71.60 cm2), fruit length (7.06 cm), fruit width (7.09 cm), number of fruit /plant (164.80), fruit weight (187.18 g), yield per plant (30.90 kg), yield per hectare (85.89 q/h) and all the physico chemical parameters of guava fruits over to other levels of zinc sulphate and control, followed by ZnSo4 @ 0.50%. Magnesium sulphate at 0.75% shows significantly increased the shoot length (12.95 cm), leaves per shoot (11.48), shoot diameter (0.50cm), leaf area (70.81 cm2), fruit length (6.96 cm), fruit width (6.93 cm), fruit volume (175.05 ml), specific gravity (1.040), pulp (96.91%), pulp : seed ratio (32.09), TSS (11.04 oBrix), acidity (0.65%), ascorbic acid (158.24 mg/100g), TSS : acid ratio (16.73), pectin content (0.84%), reducing sugar (3.45%), non reducing sugar(3.45), Total sugar (6.90%), minimum seed (3.09%) and all the yield attributing parameters of guava as over to other level of magnesium sulphate and control. However, magnisium sulphate at 0.50% showed the non significant effects for most of the physico chemical and yield attributing parameters of guava fruits. The combined spray of zinc sulphate @ 0.75% and magnesium sulphate @ 0.75% prove the best for the most of the physico chemical and yield parameters of guava fruits, followed by zinc sulphate @ 0.75% and magnesium sulphate @ 1.0%.
289 Nitrogen content and uptake of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) influenced by levels and scheduling of nitrogen application and date of sowings, G.P. NAROLIA1, R.S.YADAV*, M.L. REAGER2AND R.S. NAROLIA1
A field experiment was conducted at instructional farm of College of Agriculture, Bikaner, Rajasthan to study the effect of levels and scheduling of nitrogen application on N content and uptake of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by sowing dates during winter seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07. The experiment was laid out in the split plot design with four replications on loamy sand soil. The growing environments and nitrogen levels were in main plot and nitrogen scheduling in the sub-plots. The results showed that significantly higher nitrogen content at pre-anthesis, in grain and straw, nitrogen uptake by grain and straw and total uptake of malt barley was observed under normal sown condition compared to late sown condition on two years pooled basis. Further, application of increasing levels of nitrogen from 60 to 90 kg ha-1 significantly enhanced nitrogen content at pre-anthesis, in grain and straw, nitrogen uptake by grain and straw and total uptake of malt barley. Scheduling of nitrogen at 1/3 as basal + 1/3 at Ist irrigation + 1/3 at IInd irrigation brought a substantial improvement in nitrogen content at pre-anthesis, in grain and straw, nitrogen uptake by grain and straw and total uptake of malt barley.
290 Standardization of recipe for sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage preparation and storage, C.N. BYANNA* AND I.N. DOREYAPPA GOWDA1
Investigation was carried out to standardize the recipe for preparation of sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage at processing laboratory in the Division of Post Harvest Technology, Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bengaluru from November, 2008 to June, 2009. Six treatments including control viz., sweet orange and kokum juices blended in the ratios of 97:3 , 95:5 , 92:8 , 90:10 , 88:12 and 100:0 (Control) respectively. In all the treatments, 15 per cent juice, 150 Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity was maintained and these were stored upto 180 days at ambient conditions. Among treatments, significantly highest TSS of16.630Brix, pH 3.24, titratable acidity 0.34 per cent, reducing sugars of 12.27 per cent, non-reducing sugars of 1.57 per cent, total sugars 13.32 per cent, ascorbic acid of 6.17 mg/100 g antioxidant activity of 21.47 mg/100 ml and non-enzymatic browning of 0.192 (at 440 nm) were recorded in RTS beverage of sweet orange and kokum blended juice ratios of 90:10, 97:3, 88:12 ,95:5 , 90:10 , 95:5 , 95:5 , 88:12 and 88:12, respectively.During storage period, the TSS, acidity, reducing sugars and non-enzymatic browning were increased while pH, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were decreased. Sweet orange and kokum at the ratio of 88:12 of 15 per cent juice, 150Brix and 0.3 per cent acidity was found to be best in sensory evaluation. The colour, consistency, flavour and over all acceptability scores were decreased from 0 days to 180 days of storage. Sweet orange and kokum blended RTS beverage had storage stability upto 6 months.
291 Response of chemical preservative on post-harvest life of gladiolus cv. HER MAJESTY, ANUJ KUMAR* AND ANIL K. SINGH
A post harvest experiment was conducted to see the response of chemical preservative on post-harvest life of gladiolus cv. Her Majesty at the post-harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during 2011. Experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with three replications. In this experiment different treatments viz., AgNO3 200 ppm, AgNO3 400 ppm, sucrose 2%, sucrose 4%, sucrose 2%+AgNO3 200 ppm, sucrose 2%+AgNO3 400 ppm, sucrose 4%+AgNO3 200 ppm, sucrose 4%+AgNO3 400 ppm and control (distilled water) were applied. Gladiolus spikes were harvested in the morning and placed straight in the bucket containing water and brought to the post-harvest Laboratory for study. Data revealed that sucrose and biocide played important role in deciding the post-harvest life of gladiolus. Sucrose 2% resulted in early opening of first floret (2.40 days). Days to maximum number of open floret without withering of lower floret and maximum number of open floret without withering of lower floret and days to opening fifth floret was recorded with sucrose 2%+AgNO3 200 ppm. All the treatments of holding solution failed to exert any significant effect on days to opening of fifth floret and days to withering of fifth floret. Treatment sucrose 4%+AgNO3 200 ppm was found beneficial to extend the vase life.
292 Effect of different level of water, N and K application through drip irrigation on growth and yield of guava, PANKAJ BARUA
The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of water, N and K application through drip irrigation on growth and yield of two varieties of Guava namely L-49 and Allahabad Safeda . The results indicated that the different levels of water , N and K application through drip irrigation significantly influenced growth and yield of both L-49 and Allahabad Safeda variety. L-49 variety recorded significantly better plant canopy and Allahabad Safeda recorded significantly better plant girth increment and yield. Among the different water application treatments 100% of evaporative replenishment induced better plant girth increment and yield in both the varieties. N and K fertilizer was applied through drip irrigation and 120% of recommended dose N and K application resulted in maximum plant canopy increment, plant girth increment and yield in both the varieties. Water application at level of 100% of evaporative replenishment and 120 % of recommend dose N and K fertilizer applied through drip irrigation appeared to be the best combination as it induced highest plant girth increment (3.34 cm), highest fruit yield (41.61 kg plant-1) and highest fruit size (216.34 g).
293 Effect of nitrogen and potassium on nutrient content, uptake and grain yield of wheat, PRADEEP KUMAR*, RAKESH SINGH1, ARCHANA SINGH, S.S. MANHAS2, H.K. YADAV1 AND SUSHIL KUMAR3
A pot experiment was carried out in green house to study the effect of nitrogen and potassium on nutrient content, uptake and grain yield of wheat. The increase in nitrogen level increased the straw and wheat yield of wheat. The protein content also increased with the increase in level of nitrogen level. The nutrient content and uptake also increased with the increased in level of nitrogen level. The increase in potassium level increased the straw and wheat yield of wheat. The protein content also increased with the increase in level of potassium level. The nutrient content and uptake also increased with the increased in level of nitrogen level.
294 Soil and water conservation through vegetative bunds on sloppy marginal land of sub-montane zone (M.S.), D.D. PARDHE* AND G.L. CHUNALE
The cultivable area situated on sloppy marginal land is the most vulnerable situation in sub-montane zone (M.S.), where there is maximum runoff and soil loss during continuous heavy rains and neither vegetative nor mechanical measures alone will hold good for conserving soil and rainwater. Under such situation, vegetative bunds - combination of vegetative and mechanical measures are found effective for conserving maximum rainwater in-situ and reducing the soil loss. Vegetative bunds are the small earthen bunds of 0.35 to 0.45 sqm cross section laid on contours at suitable vertical interval and planted with grasses having good soil binding abilities. The bunds planted with grasses like Dichanthium annulatum, Panicum maximum, Themeda triandra and Panicum antitotle were studied at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Shenda park fam, Kolhapur during 1991 to 1998 for their efficiency and structural stability in conserving maximum rainwater in-situ and thereby reducing soil erosion. The bunds once stabilized with grasses were found effective in controlling runoff and soil loss to the considerable extent of 66.67 per cent. Field plot treated with vegetative bunds conserved maximum rainwater in-situ and developed uniform soil moisture status ranging from 25.14 to 28.79 per cent, which was ultimately found beneficial to growth and yield of Kharif crops. The average yield levels of finger millet, soybean and groundnut were increased by 37 to 40 per cent. In addition the vegetative bunds were found structurally stable against any kind of damage or breach even during continuous heavy rains. The hydrological study also proved that the flood peaks resulted during heavy rainstorms was reduced considerably; thereby the bunds reduced its erosive capacity. In present context vegetative bunds are having maximum scope for adoption under NWDP on cultivable area situated on sloppy marginal land in sub-montane zone.
295 Effect of crop geometry, intercropping and topping practices on yield, nutrient uptake and soil fertility status of baby corn (Zea mays L.), S. RATHIKA
Field experiments were conducted at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore to study the effect of crop geometry, intercropping and topping practices on the productivity and soil fertility status baby corn. Two levels of crop geometry (60 x 20 cm and 75 x 16 cm), two intercrops (baby corn alone, baby corn + fenugreek (greens), baby corn + fodder cowpea) and four topping practices (detasseling alone, topping beyond 9th, 10th and 11th internode) were studied in split plot design. Results revealed that crop geometry at 75 x 16 cm produced higher green cob yield and nutrient uptake over 60 x 20 cm. Intercropping systems did not have positive influence on cob yield as well as nutrient uptake of baby corn. Among the topping practices, higher green cob yield and nutrient uptake were obtained with topping beyond 10th internode than detasseling alone. Higher baby corn equivalent yield (BEY) was obtained with baby corn + fenugreek grown under 75 cm row spacing combined with topping beyond 10th internode. Available N status of the soil was higher in baby corn + fenugreek intercropping system but it was at par with baby corn intercropped with fodder cowpea during both the years. The soil available P and K levels did not vary due to crop geometry and intercropping systems. Topping with detasseling alone registered higher soil fertility status over others in both the years
296 Genetic divergence studies in exotic collections of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), B. RAJASEKHAR REDDY*, HAMEEDUNNISA BEGUM1, N. SUNIL2 AND M. THIRUPATHI REDDY1
Genetic divergence analysis following Mahalanobis D2 statistics revealed considerable genetic diversity among 59 genotypes of tomato for all the eighteen quantitative characters which was pertaining to the growth, earliness, yield and quality. Fifty nine genotypes were grouped into 7 distinct clusters depending upon the similarities of their D2 values following Tochers method. Appreciable diversity within and between 7 clusters was observed. The characters fruit weight, number of fruits per plant and plant height were the potent factors in differentiating the germplasm of tomato under study. The use of diverse genotypes from the clusters with high intercluster distance (cluster VI and VII, V and VII and V and VI) in hybridization is expected to result in high heterosis and throw desirable transgressive segregants
297 Motives behind marigold cultivation of marigold growers in Anand district, H.K. VERMA, B.M. PATEL, J.K.PATEL* AND PRADEEP YADAV
A motive is goal directed and need satisfying behaviour. It explains why people do the things they do. It influences a person to do a thing in a certain way. It has the promise for future award at the end of activity or later on. Marigold with their bright and attractive shades are considered good for ornamental purpose. However, these flowers are also known for their medicinal properties. It can be summarized that marigold growers were mainly motivated for growing marigold for getting higher production and income, and to fetch high price. The study was conducted in three talukas of Anand district of Gujarat state, 120 farmers were selected who were involved in marigold cultivation. The data were collected through pre-tested structured interview schedule and appropriate statistical procedures were employed to analyze the data.
298 Impact of weather on performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinumL.) with organic manures and various levels of rock phosphate with PSB grown in vertisol of northern dry zone of Karnataka, S.V. PATIL* AND S.I. HALIKATTI1
A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to study the impact of weather on performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with organic manures and various levels of rock phosphate with PSB grown in vertisol of northern dry zone of Karnataka, at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri, UAS, Dharwad, Karnataka during Rabi season of 2009-10 and 2010-11.The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. There were nine treatment combinations consisting of two organic manures viz., compost and FYM with four levels of rock phosphate (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and an absolute control treatment for comparison. In both the years 2009-10 and 2010- 11 the yield attributing parameters like number of pods per plant(67.76), number of seeds per pod(1.12), test weight(20.71gram), grain yield (2130 kg/ha) and halum yield (3300 kg/ha) were recorded with the treatment combination of compost 5 t along with rock phosphate 200 kg / ha compared to other treatment combination and absolute control.
299 Performance evaluation of capsicum crop in open field and under covered cultivation, K.V. RAMANA RAO*, VIJAY AGRAWAL, LAVESH CHOURASIA, RAVISH KESHRI AND G.P. PATEL
The performance of capsicum crop in open field and under covered cultivation was evaluated at Precision Farming Development Centre experimental field at Bhopal during December, 2011 to May, 2012. Under covered cultivation, black colour shade net having 50% shade factor was used in the study. Same crop cultural practices in the open field and under covered cultivation were adopted for comparison. Drip irrigation system was adopted in both the cases and irrigation system parameters such as frequency of irrigation and wetting pattern were collected. Other parameters such as soil temperature, duration of the crop, morphological parameters of the crop and yield were monitored. The study revealed that under shade net the crop yield was increased by 80 per cent over open field cultivation along with water saving of about 40 per cent in covered cultivation. The wetting pattern from the emitting device of 2 lph indicated maximum spread of 40 cm from emitter in case of crop under covered cultivation where as in open field the spread was 25 cm. Duration of the crop was also extended by 40 more days under covered cultivation
300 Effect of different herbicides on weeds of Kabuli chickpea, N.B. MURADE1 AND D.B. PATIL*
An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2010 in the farm of Pulse Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola to study the effect of different herbicide on weeds in kabuli chickpea. The Experiment was laid out in randomized block design with eleven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments comprised of weed check (T1), weed free (T2), hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS (T3), imazethapyr 75g ha-1 POE 25 DAS (T4), imazethapyr 75g ha-1 POE 35 DAS (T5), imazethapyr 100g ha-1 POE 25 DAS (T6), imazethapyr 100g ha-1 POE 35 DAS (T7), quizalofop ethyl 75g ha-1 POE 25 DAS (T8), quizalofop ethyl 75g ha-1 POE 35 DAS (T9), quizalofop ethyl 100g ha-1 POE 25 DAS (T10) and quizalofop ethyl 100g ha-1 POE 35 DAS (T11).During the period of experiment weeds viz., Cynadon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Commelina benghalensis, Digera arvensis, Celosia argentia, Phyllanthus niruri, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia geniculata, Parthenium hysterophorous, Convolvulus arvensis were dominant weeds observed in chickpea.The treatment weed free followed by two hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS was most effective in controlling the weeds. This treatment increased the weed control efficiency to maximum extent. Amongst all the herbicidal treatments of weed control, best weed control efficiency was obtain with the treatment, post-emergence application of imazethapyr @ 100g ha-1, which is effective against both monocot and dicot weeds. Application of quizalofop ethyl @ 100g ha-1 was more effective to control monocot weeds. The lowest weed index was observed in two hand weeding treatment at 20 and 40 DAS.
301 Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis using RAPD markers in parental li, HARSHAL E. PATIL*, S.B. THAWARI AND RAVIKIRAN S. MALI
Molecular characterization and genetic diversity of seven CMS, seven maintainers and four restorer lines of cotton (Gossypium spp.) was investigated through Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The similarity indices showing the evolutionary similarity varied from a minimum of 0.36 to maximum of 0.90. In case of CMS and maintainers lines, the pairs viz., 1 A and 1 B, 3 A and 3 B, 7A and 7 B exhibited maximum genetic similarities which revealed that these genotype are genetically less divergent or genetically more closure than any other genotypes. The maximum genetic similarity was observed between restorers, RHC 054 and RHC 058 (0.90) followed by RHC 035 and RHC 056 (0.80). The dendrogram tree constructed using Win Boot computational analysis showed two completely distinct groups. The CMS and maintainer pairs viz., 1 A and 1 B, 2 A and 2 B, 3 A and 3 B, 5 A and 5 B, 9 A and 9 B formed a separate cluster, whereas 7 A and 7 B, 10 A and 10 B formed a second distinct cluster. Each CMS and its maintainer line revealed homology with each other. The dendrogram obtained from restorers showed two distinct clusters. Cluster one consisting of RHC 035 and RHC 0056 while, second cluster consisting of RHC 054 and RHC 058. The results revealed that considerable amount of diversity is present among CMS, maintainers and restorer lines of cotton and each genotype is also characteristically indentified by their RAPD marker profile. Moreover, genetic diversity was not only related to the geographic diversity but also natural and artificial selection, exchange of breeding material and genetic drift.
302 Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in Indian bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet), R.M. PAWAR* AND R.M. PRAJAPATI
Analysis of variance indicated significant genotypic differences for all the characters under study. The highest GCV was recorded for grain yield per plant followed by number of inflorescences per plant and number of pods per plant. Heritability estimates were high for days to 50% flowering, protein content, days to maturity, pod length and plant height. The expected genetic advance as a percentage of mean was high for grain yield per plant, number of inflorescences per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and plant height. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance was exhibited by plant height and pod length indicating the presence of additive gene action. Grain yield per plant was found to be positively and significantly correlated with days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of inflorescences per plant and number of pods per plant indicating their usefulness in selection for yield. The traits number of seeds per pod and pod length were negatively and significantly correlated with grain yield. Path analysis revealed highest positive direct effect of number of pods per plant followed by number of seeds per pod, days to 50% flowering, number of inflorescences per plant and 100-seed weight on grain yield per plant, while days to maturity and pod length exhibited high negative direct effects on grain yield per plant
303 Effect of crop rotation and fertility schedules in isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) based cropping systems in hot arid region of Rajasthan, TANOJ CHOUDHARY* , S.K. SHARMA1 AND R.K. SHIVRAN2
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop rotation and fertility schedules in isabgol based cropping systems in loamy sand soil under irrigated conditions at Agronomy Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner for twoRabi andKharif seasons from 2003-04 and 2004-05. The results showed that a significant influence of crop rotation when mothbean was grown after isabgol found highest soil available nitrogen (77.72 kg ha-1), phosphorus (14.30 kg ha-1) and zinc (0.55 ppm) after harvest of Kharif crops, per cent organic carbon and available potassium were at par with the crops. Among four Kharif crops viz., pearl millet, clusterbean, sesamum and mothbean, highest yield ofKharif crops equivalent to isabgol (9.31 q ha-1), cropping systems equivalent yields (19.75 q ha-1), gross return (Rs. 33371 ha-1), net return (Rs.15225 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.94) were recorded in clusterbean growth after isabgol compared to other Kharif crops. Among seven fertility schedules (N, NP, NK, NPK, NPK+Zn, NPK+FYM and FYM) applied as per recommendation of concerned crop, treatment NPK+FYM was found superior among all in terms of per cent organic carbon (0.10), soil available nitrogen after harvest of each crop (79.62 kg ha-1), phosphorus (15.27 kg ha-1) and potassium (154.02 kg ha-1), available zinc was found highest under NPK + Zn. Further highest yield ofKharif crops equivalent to isabgol (8.10 q ha-1), cropping systems equivalent yields (21.51 q ha-1) and gross return (Rs. 34541 ha-1) were recorded under NPK+FYM, net return (Rs. 14247 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.88) were found highest under treatment NPK+Zn, but statistically at par to NPK+FYM.
304 Evaluation of different grasses for their soil binding and soil aggregation properties, G.L. CHUNALE, D.D. PARDHE* AND R.D. BANSOD
The study deals with the quantitative evaluation of ten different grass species for their soil binding characteristics, soil aggregation properties, survival performance and fodder potential under sub-montane zone situation of Maharashtra. The study was conducted during 1994 to 1997 in research watershed at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Shenda Park farm, Kolhapur. The area of watershed represents the typical situation of sub-montane zone condition i.e. undulating topography covered with shallow and lighter types of soils on hill slopes from 5 to 15 per cent and medium to deep soils at foot hills. The soils are lateritic in nature. Pennisetum hohenackeri was ranking first among the ten grass species for having the highest value of soil binding factor 516.51 kg/cm2 i. e. it has comparatively better soil binding abilities as compared to other grass species. It survived better (76.5 %) on sloppy marginal soils and its root system developed better water stable aggregation (48.14 % up to >0.25 mm and M.W.D. 0.616 mm). It was followed by Themeda triandra, Dichanthium annulatum and Panicum maximum, which were not only found better in soil binding ability, survival performance and water stable aggregation, but also found promising for green fodder yield to the extent of 26.0 to 28.0 t/ha. Pennisetum hohenackeri has no fodder potential, but it has better soil binding abilities. Its roots can provide natural reinforcement to the mechanical structures like gully control, runoff disposal and stream bank control etc. and can give better stabilization and effective protection. This grass can be adopted on vulnerable places in combination with mechanical structures for soil and water conservation, where the site protection is the sole object rather than fodder. The other grass species such as Dichanthium annulatum, Panicum maximum and Themeda triandra can be used for vegetative bunds, farm bunds, grass water and riser bunds of terraces etc. for soil and water conservation as well as they can also be used for green fodder.
305 Response of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to levels and scheduling of nitrogen application on yield attributes, yield and economics under normal and late sown conditions, G.P. NAROLIA*, R.S. YADAV1, R.S. NAROLIA1 AND M.L. REAGER2
The field experiment was conducted to find out the effect of nitrogen levels and its split application on yield attributes, yield and economics of malt barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under normal and late sown conditions during winter seasons of 2005-06 and 2006-07. The results showed that significantly higher effective tillers / m row, spike length, grains / spike, test weight, grain, straw and biological yield, harvest index and net returns of malt barley were observed under normal sown condition compared to late sown condition. Further, application of increasing levels of nitrogen from 60 to 90 kg ha-1 significantly enhanced effective tillers / m row, spike length, grains / spike, test weight, grain, straw and biological yield, harvest index and net returns of malt barley. Scheduling of nitrogen at 1/3 as basal + 1/3 at Ist irrigation + 1/3 at IInd irrigation brought a substantial improvement in above yield attributing characters and yields, harvest index and net returns of malt barley.
306 Effect of plant growth regulators on fruit quality of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) cv. ALIGARH, GURPINDER KAUR, ARVIND PREET KAUR*, BIKRAMJIT SINGH1 AND SUKHDEV SINGH
An investigation was carried out in the Department of Horticulture, Khalsa College, Amritsar during the year 2010-11 to study the effect of plant growth regulators (NAA and GA3) on fruit quality of Cape gooseberry under Punjab conditions. In the trial, seven treatments as NAA (5, 10 and 15 ppm), GA3 (10, 15 and 20 ppm) and control were applied immediately after fruit set and that were replicated four times. A unit of 8 plants per plot comprised one replication. GA3 20 ppm proved to be highly effective in enhancing the fruit size (2.3 cm x 2.56 cm), fruit weight (9.23 g), fruit volume (9.78 cc), TSS (12.77 %), reducing sugars (3.19 %), total sugars (9.2 %) and minimizing the acid contents (0.863 %) of fruits of Cape gooseberry. The highest concentration of NAA i.e. 15 ppm was more effective in improving these characteristics than minimum concentration of GA3 i.e. 10 ppm.
307 Influence of fruit harvesting stage on seed quality of cucumber [Cucumis sativus (L.)] cv. HASSAN LOCAL, P.J. DEVARAJU*, H.N. CHETAN AND H.B. DINESH
The supply of quality seeds is the constraint in getting higher fruit yield for consumption. Raising of the seed crop for good quality cucumber seed, the stage of harvest is most important to maintain the quality of seeds. Immature and over mature fruits results in inferior seed quality. Hence, the study on influence of stage of fruit harvest on seed quality of cucumber cv. Hassan local was carried out in the Dept. of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore. Crop was raised at the Vegetable Seed Production Unit, Department of Horticulture, duringKharif, 2010 by adopting Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications following recommended package of practices. The study comprised of five treatments viz., M1: 20 DAA (Days After Anthesis), M2: 30 DAA, M3: 40 DAA, M4: 50 DAA and M5: 60 DAA. The results revealed that test weight (34.3g) were significantly higher with fruits harvested at 50 days after anthesis. Whereas, the highest filled seeds per fruit (288) was more when harvested at same treatment and filled seeds (93.96%) were significantly higher when harvested at 60 days after anthesis where, as other parameters were like germination (95.25%), mean seedling length (26.34cm), mean seedling dry weight (12.85 mg), vigour index-I (2508), vigour index-II (1224) and field emergence (93%) with low electrical conductivity (343 ?Sm-1). The study can concluded that the seed test weight was recorded maximum with fruits harvested at 50 days after anthesis, while, the seed quality parameters in fruits harvested at 50 days after anthesis, except filled seeds per cent. Hence, the treatment with fruits harvested at 50 days after anthesis is optimum for better seed quality in cucumber
308 Regional disparity in performance of micro-finance in India: Policy imperatives, PRAMOD KUMAR*, T.S.V. BANGARA RAJU, R. JAYAKUMARA VARADAN AND V.P. TYAGI
A number of innovative credit delivery systems are devised to purvey credit to rural sector. The SHG-Bank linkage programme is one such system which has been implemented in India since 1998-99. The micro-finance programme has made a remarkable progress, however, the inequitable growth of micro-finance is a cause of concern with most of the developments seems to happen in the Southern and Western regions of the country. The study found that the performance of micro-finance is broadly a seven dimensional feature. The first and most important is connected with the Spread of micro-finance, and is followed by Depth of micro-finance, Thrift behavior, Performance of SHPIs, Performance of micro-enterprise, Performance of financial institutions and Financial deepening of SGSY. The factors that influence the performance of state with respect to micro-finance were found to be loan outstanding to women SHGs (Amt/SHG), SHGs of RRBs (No), loan to SHGs funded by SGSY of RRBs (Amt/SHG), and SHGs funded by SGSY (No.). The states should focus on loan advanced to women SHGs (Amt/SHG), followed by the performance of SGSY promoted SHGs. Thus, the states should make efforts to improve the performance of SGSY scheme. It is the SGSY that provides loans and subsidy for adopting a micro-enterprise. The successful adoption of the micro-enterprise is key to the long term sustainability of the micro-finance programme
309 Effect of varying irrigation regimes on irrigation water saving and water expense efficiency in furrow transplanted and furrow irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) on sandy loam soil in Central Punjab, NAVJOT SINGH, KRISHAN KUMARVASHIST, S.S. MAHALANDAMANDEEP SINGH SIDHU*
A field investigation was carried out in Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana during theKharif 2005 to evaluate the effect of varying irrigation management practices in furrow and bed transplanted rice on irrigation water saving and water expense efficiency. Bed and furrow transplanting under various methods of irrigation i.e. (F), (Inun. B+F) and (Inun.B), were at par with each other. Pretilachlor @ 0.75kg/ha applied as sand mix one DAT gave significantly better control of weeds species in bed and furrow transplanting when irrigation water was allowed just to pass over the bed for first 15 days after transplanting under (Inun. B+F) method of irrigation in comparison to irrigation in furrow throughout after transplanting under (F) method of irrigation. The treatment 2R/F(Inun. B+F) herbicide yielded at par, resulted in 19.9 per cent saving in total water expense, 23.9 per cent saving in terms of net water expense and 27.7 per cent increase in net water expense efficiency when compared with recommended practice herbicide i.e. Flat(BM) herbicide.
310 Agriculture scientists perceptions about climate change and its impacts on agriculture, M.B. DHADWAD*, K. VIJAYARAGAVAN AND PREMLATA SINGH
This investigation was aimed at assessing agricultural scientists perceptions regarding climate change in the context of agriculture. The study was conducted in MPKV, Rahuri and DBSKKV, Dapoli agricultural universities and random sampling procedure was followed in selection of respondent scientists and total sample size was 60. Agricultural scientists perceptions were assessed through a summative rating scale which consisted of five dimensions: scientific understanding of climate change, its causes, changes in climatic parameters, impacts on agriculture and adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change in agriculture. During the investigation, significant and positive relationship was observed between age, education, professional experience, information sources accessed and the trustworthiness of the information source. Regression analysis indicated that work experience and source of information were high predictors of climate change science consistent perceptions and 37 per cent of the variance in climate change perceptions was explained by the regression model.
311 Productivity, quality, nutrient content and soil fertility of summer greengram (Vigna radiata) as influenced by different levels of vermicompost and phosphorus with and without PSB, P.K. BHATT* , P.T. PATEL1, B.T. PATEL1 , C.H. RAVAL, K.G. VYAS AND SHAUKAT ALI
A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during 2010 on loamy sand soil to investigate the effect of different levels of vermicompost and phosphorus with and without PSB on yield, quality, nutrient content of summer greengram and soil fertility status after harvest of the crop. Among the different levels of vermicompost, application of vermicompost @ 1t ha-1 sowed its superiority, producing highest seed (1105 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2379 kg ha-1). The same treatment exhibited significant improvement in recording maximum values for the protein content, nutrients content and uptake of summer greengram. Among the levels of phosphorus @ 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 + PSB standing statistically at par with 40 kg P2O5 ha-1 recorded significantly higher seed (1099 kg ha-1) and stover yield (2301kg ha-1) over PSB only and 20 kg P2O5 with and without PSB. Phosphorus application @ 40 kg ha-1+ PSB performed equally as that of P2O5 40 kg ha-1without PSB, significantly improved the protein content, nutrients content and uptake as well as soil fertility status after harvest the crop.
312 Innovative technique for enhancement of seed germination and seedling establishment of cucurbits (Cucumis sativus L.), BIDHAN ROY
Cucurbits belong to the family Cucurbetaceae. It is an important group of vegetables across the globe. Few of the cucurbits are also being used as fruit. Cucumber can be used as fruit as well as vegetable. The immature cucumber generally used as salad and fruit, whereas, mature cucumber cam be used as vegetable. Most of the cucurbits have hard seed coat, leading to uneven germination and irregular crop stand in the field. Modern agricultural research has brought hybrid varieties in most of the vegetable crops. Hybrid seeds of those crops are produced manually, thus the seed cost is very high. So, germination percentage of the seed must be very high along with the high speed of germination is desirable to minimize the investment on seed. To enhance the germination percentage, farmers have innovated many techniques. One of those techniques studied in detail in this edeavour, such as, germination of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Doing this practice, the seed imbibed uniformly, which improved speed of germination leading to good crop-stand in the field. Farmers technique of seed pre-conditioning and sowing of pregerminated seeds has been found better than the common practice of sowing in dry soil.
313 Some morphological plant characters in relation to army worm,Mythimna separata resistance in sorghum, D.R. PATEL* AND M.S. PUROHIT
Field screening of 12 genotypes of sorghum against armyworm during Rabi 2006-07 and 2007-08 showed that Nizer goti was found less susceptible to armyworm.Among different plant characters, plant height and number of internodes exhibited significant negative influence on army worm population (r=-0.288, -0.393).
314 Genetic improvement in niger (Guizotia abyssinicaCass) by using study of variability, correlation and path analysis, HARSHAL E. PATIL*, RAVIKIRAN S. MALI, AVDHUT R. GIRI AND SACHIN B. THAWARI
In forty genotypes of niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass) substantial genetic variability was observed for nine characters studied. Heritability estimate was low for primary branches/plant, moderate for seed yield/plant and high for remaining all characters. Significant positive and higher genotypic correlation of seed yield with seeds/capitulum, days to flower and days to maturity was observed; while it was moderate with 1000 seed weight and plant height. A positive phenotypic as well as genotypic correlation among days to flower, days to maturity, seeds/capitulum and 1000 seed weight and their positive association with seed yield was observed, indicating that these were the major yield components in niger. However, on the basis of correlation and path analysis, days to maturity, seeds/capitulum and 1000 seed weight were the major yield components. Since late maturity beyond limit is not desirable, greater emphasis should be laid on seeds/capitulum and 1000 seed weight. Hence, strategies for genetic improvement by using study of variability, correlation and path analysis in niger have been strongly adopted for further crop improvement
315 Economic analysis of cost and return for basmati rice cultivation in Jammu district of J&K state, NIMIT KUMAR, S.P. SINGH*, JYOTI KACHROO, HARMINDER SINGH, CHANDAN KUMAR AND NAFEES AHMED1
An investigation entitled economic analysis of cost and returns of Basmati rice in Jammu district of J&K state was conducted in Basmati grown two different development blocks of Jammu district (R. S. Pura and Bishnah) during the agricultural year 2011-12. Four villages from each block were selected randomly. Further, from each village, 10 farmers were selected randomly, so as to constitute a total sample size of 80. Primary data on costs and returns of the Basmati was done by interviewing the farmers with the help of specially structured and pretested schedule and by visiting growers. The per hectare total costs of cultivation (cost-C2) of Basmati rice worked out to be Rs. 34107.21, Rs. 36895.48, Rs. 39414.98 and Rs. 40517.49 in case of marginal, small, medium and large farms, respectively, with an overall average farms of Rs. 38199.29 while as the respective cost A1, cost A2,cost B1, cost B2 and cost C1were Rs. 17876.26, Rs. 17876.26, Rs. 19363.48, Rs. 28521.21 and Rs. 24949.48 in case of marginal farms, Rs. 20305.58, Rs. 21745.58, Rs. 22469.84, Rs. 32691.48 and Rs. 26673.84 for small farms, Rs. 21804.10, Rs. 25004.10, Rs. 24622.52, Rs. 36183.98 and Rs. 27853.52 for medium farms, and Rs. 23094.17, Rs. 26694.17, Rs. 26315.43, Rs. 38287.49 and Rs. 28545.43 for large farms and on an average of overall farms were Rs. 20610.69, Rs. 23410.69, Rs. 22972.38, Rs. 34259.83 and Rs. 26911.84, respectively. The overall per hectare returns of Basmati rice were Rs. 53869.00, Rs. 53585.83, Rs. 53462.04, Rs. 54118.08 for marginal, small, medium and large farms with an average of overall farms was Rs. 53684.06. The benefit cost ratio on the total cost of cultivation was 1: 1.57, 1: 1.45, 1: 1.36 and 1: 1.34 for marginal, small, medium and large farms with an average of overall farms were 1: 1.40.
316 Effect of phosphorus and sulphur fertilization on economics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) and optimum doses of fertilizers, D.K. JAJORIA1,A.C. SHIVRAN1 AND G.P. NAROLIA*
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphorus levels (0, 10, 20 30 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1) and sulphur levels (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg S ha-1) on economics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) and optimum doses of fertilizers. The results showed that application of phosphorus significantly increased the net returns and seed yield of blond psyllium up to 30 kg P2O5 ha-1. Whereas, B:C ratio significantly increased up to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1. Application of sulphur significantly increased the net returns, B:C ratio and seed yield up to 20 kg S ha-1. A level of 37.17 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 28.824 kg S ha-1 were found optimum doses for grain yields of 1288.54 kg ha-1 and 1260.115 kg ha-1, respectively.
317 Response of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durumDesf.) genotypes to different sowing time on quality, nutrient uptake and economics in North Gujarat Agro-climatic conditions, MUKESH KUMAR MAN*, I.N. DODIA1 AND K.M. CHOUDHARY2
A field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar to study the response of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durumDesf.) genotypes to different sowing time in North Gujarat Agro-climatic conditions during Rabi season of the year 2008-09.The experiment comprised of sixteen treatment combinations was laid out in Split Plot Design with four replications. The results of experiment revealed that the highest protein content (11.97 %) was recorded when wheat genotypes were sown on 25th November.The wheat crop sown on 25th November had uptake the highest amount of N, P2O5 and K2O than rest of the sowing times.Protein content of wheat seed remained unaffected due to different wheat genotypes.The variety GW 322 showed higher uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash (115.67, 46.00 and 19.85 kg ha-1, respectively) than GW 1139 and more or less equal values were also gained by GW 496 and GW 173 in respect of uptake.As regards to individual factors, the maximum net realization was recorded by 25th November sowing (Rs.28805 ha-1 with a BCR 2.28) and variety GW 322 (Rs.27917 ha-1 with a BCR 2.23)but in combinations maximum net realization of Rs.30864 ha-1 with a BCR 2.36 was recorded under the treatment of S2V1(25th November sowing x GW 322).
318 Effect of spacing, planting methods and mulching on growth and floral parameters in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus L) cv.AMERICAN BEAUTY, R.VASANTHA KUMARI*, D.P. KUMAR, M. MAHADEVAMMAAND B.ARUNKUMAR
The experiments was carried out to study the effect of spacing, planting methods and mulching on growth and floral parameters in gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus L) cv. American Beauty at the Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore during both Kharif and Rabi seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09. The experiments consisted of eight treatments with three replications were carried out by Randomized Complete Block Design. The experiment comprised of single row 30 x 20 cm and 40 x 20 cm with mulching and no mulching and double row 30x 20 x 60 cm and 40 x 20 x 80 cm with mulching and no mulching. The present investigation reveals that, there was an improvement in the growth and floral parameters in gladiolus in 30 x 20 cm spacing with mulched plots treatments. Improved growth, flower yield and corm yield were observed in plastic mulched plots irrespective of different levels of spacing, planting methods adopted.
319 Effect of potassium application on its transformation and use efficiency under soybean wheat cropping system, B.P. MEENA*, S.D. BILLORE1, A.K. VYAS2, H.K. SUMERIYA3 AND K.K. MEENA
A field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Directorate of Soybean Research (DSR), Indore M.P. during 2006-07 and 2007-08 to study effect of potassium application on its transformation and use efficiency under soybean wheat cropping system. Data revealed that normal sowing date of soybean and wheat recorded significantly higher seed and straw yield (2544 and 2481 and 4908 and 7284 kg ha-1, respectively).Total K uptake by soybean-wheat system and potassium harvest index also higher over late sowing date of both the crops. With respect to K levels, application of 49.80 kg K2O the recorded maximum yield of soybean and wheat, K uptake by soybean, wheat and system and potassium harvest index. The highest agronomic and physiological K use efficiency was associated with 33.2 kg K/ha. Maximum partial factor productivity, recovery efficiency and physiological K use efficiency was recorded with JS 335. Among soybean genotypes, JS 9305 showed its superiority in case of agronomic K use efficiency, internal K use efficiency and recorded higher yield, system, total K uptake and potassium harvest index over control.
320 Yield performance and economic of tamarind based intercropping systems under northern dry zone of Karnataka, B.ARUNKUMAR*, GURUPRASAD HIREMATH1,VERESHKUMAR2 AND N.K. HEGDE
A field experiment was conducted to find out the suitable tamarind based intercropping systems under irrigated situation at Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Gokak, Belgaum (district), Karnataka. Eleven intercrops viz., ajowan, ashwagandha, brinjal, carrot, chilli, coleus, garlic, ginger, lab lab bean, safed musli and turmeric were evaluated for their performance both under intercropping and sole cropping situations. The yield of the intercrops varied significantly between intercropping and sole cropping. Tamarind based intercropping system with safed musli recorded the highest net income (Rs. 3.152 lakh/ha) while the highest benefit cost ratio was obtained in tamarind + ginger cropping system (4.40) followed by tamarind + turmeric (2.49).
321 Studies on performance of Kharif green gram as influenced by fertility levels and biofertilizers under sub-tropical climate conditions, ROSHAN CHOUDHARY* AND RAJESH CHAUDHARI
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of fertility levels and bio-fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of Kharif green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Application of 100 % RDF significantly improved yield components of green gram consequently grain and stover yields. Application of Rhizobium + VAM inoculation also recorded higher values for different yield attributes as well as seed and stover yields with the maximum gross and net realization. Protein content in seed was not significantly affected due to different fertility levels however, an application of Rhizobium + VAM inoculation recorded higher protein content in seed (23.42 %) over control.
322 Correlation co-efficient and regression study in summer greengram showing effects of phosphorus and sulphur on growth, yield attributes, yield, nutrient content and uptake, quality parameters and soil fertility, R.K. BAIRWA*, V. NEPALIA1, C.M. BALAI2 AND H.P. MEENA3
Field experiment was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dungarpur (Rajasthan) during summer, 2010 and 2011 on sandy clay loam soil to study correlation coefficient and regression equation showing relationship between phosphorus, sulphur (independent variable X) and on growth, yield attributes, yield, nutrients uptake, quality parameters and soil fertility (dependent variables Y) on the mean basis. The results revealed that positive and significant correlation between P levels (kg ha-1) and plant height and dry matter accumulation at harvest, LAI and chlorophyll content at flower initiation stage, pods/plant, seeds/plant, 1000-seed weight, grain yield, stover yield, biological yield, protein content in grain, protein yield, N content in grain, N content in stover, P content in grain, P content in stover, K content in grain, K content in stover, S content in grain, NPK and S uptake, available N and P status in soil after harvest the crop. Similarly, S levels (kg ha-1) resulted positive and significant correlation with respect to plant height and dry matter accumulation at harvest, LAI at flower initiation stage, branches/plant, pods/plant, seeds/plant, 1000-seed weight, grain yield, stover yield, biological yield, protein content in grain, protein yield, N content in grain, K content in grain, K content in stover, S content in grain, S content in stover, NPK and S uptake by crop, available PK and S status in soil after harvest the crop whereas chlorophyll content at flower initiation stage were found non significant
323 Influence of long term fertilizer application on nutrient addition through root biomass in maize, H.M. PUSHPA*, R.C. GOWDA, D.V. NAVEEN, D.C. HANUMANTHAPPA AND T. BHAGYALAKSHMI
An experiment was conducted in long-term fertilizer experiment field at the ZARS,GKVK,Bangalore duringRabi 2010-11to find out the effect of continues applied fertilizers on maize root biomass and nutrient addition through root biomass. Long term fertilizer application showed significantly higher (12.94 q ha-1) root biomass and root length (22.35 cm) in T3which received 150 % NPK followed T8 and T10which received FYM and lime along with inorganic fertilizers showed a better results (12.65q ha-1, 12.12q ha-1 and 21.33cm, 19.73 cm, respectively). The higher major, secondary and micronutrients content in maize roots were recorded in the T3which received super optimal doses of NPK fertilizers (150 % NPK) and also in the plots which received 100 % NPK + FYM + lime, respectively over control.The higher uptake of nutrients by root biomass also showed similar results.
324 Effect of post emergence herbicide on nutrients uptake by field pea and associated weeds, MAINPAL SINGH*, SATISH KUMAR1, RAKESH KUMAR1, RAKESH SINGH1 AND SUSHIL KUMAR2
Field studies were conducted in 2008-09 and 2009-10 at Pulse Research Area of Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to determine the effect of post emergence herbicides on nutrient uptake by field pea and weeds. All the herbicide treatments significantly reduced the nutrient uptake by weeds than weedy check. Among the herbicide treatments, minimum and maximum uptake of nutrients by weeds and crop, respectively was recorded under the application of pendimethalin 1.5 kg ha-1 followed by imazethapyr 50 g ha-1.
325 Response of sweet corn cultivars to plant population and fertility levels on yield, NPK uptake and quality characters, J.X. MASSEY* AND B.L. GAUR
A field experiment was conducted duringKharif 2001 and 2002 to study the effect of plant population and fertility levels on yield, NPK uptake and quality parameters by sweet corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars. The test cultivar Mahi Kanchan significantly differed in respect of nutrient uptake and quality aspects while Madhuri recorded maximum TSS (18.59%) and moisture (42.01%). Plant population at 75 thousand plants/ha gave significantly higher green cob and green fodder yield, NPK uptake by crop and significantly maximum TSS, protein, starch and moisture content over rest of the lower plant populations. Significant increase in green cob and green fodder yield, NPK uptake by crop and quality parameters such as TSS, starch, protein and moisture content were recorded with application of fertilizer up to 90 kg N + 45 kg P2O5/ha.
326 Growth and quality of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) influenced by phosphorus and sulphur fertilization, D.K. JAJORIA,A.C. SHIVRAN1 AND G.P. NAROLIA
An experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2002-03 to study the effect of phosphorus and sulphur fertilization on growth and quality of blond psyllium. The results showed that application of phosphorus up to 20 kg P2O5 ha-1wassignificantly increased the number of tillers per plant, plant height and leaf area index, whereas, dry matter at harvest and husk recovery significantly increased up to 30 kg P2O5 ha-1 and all the levels of phosphorus, remained at par with each other in respect to protein concentration in blond psyllium grain. Also significant improvement in growth parameter viz., the number of tillers per plant, plant height, dry matter at harvest leaf area index and husk recovery of blond psyllium were also observed with the application of sulphur up to 20 kg S ha-1.
327 Available micronutrient status of soybean growing soils of Latur district (M.S.), A.S. GAJARE*,A.S. DHAWAN1 AND S.K. GHODKE
The present investigation was carried out to study the status of major micronutrients in soybean growing soils of Latur district during the year 2009-2010. For this purpose 140 representative soil samples were collected from seven tehsils (20 villages from each tehsil) of soybean growing soils of Latur district. From each village one surface (0-15 cm depth) soil sample was collected and subjected to laboratory for analyzing for some chemical properties and status of available micronutrients viz., Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. The correlation co-efficient between chemical properties and available nutrients were worked out. The study revealed that the soils were neutral to alkaline in reaction, safe in limit of electrical conductivity low to high in content of organic carbon and non calcareous to calcareous in nature. The soil samples were deficient in available Zn, medium to sufficient in available Mn and sufficient in available Fe and Cu. The data showed that available Zn had significant negative relationship with pH (-0.249*) and CaCO3 (-0.198*) and significant positive with EC (0.269**). Available Fe had significant and positive correlation with EC (0.281**) and O.C. (0.217*) and significant negative with CaCO3 (-0.291*). Available Mn had negative and significant correlation with EC (-0.278**) while Cu had positive significant relation with EC (0.199*) and O.C. (0.310**).
328 Effect of weed management on yield, quality and weed parameters in dill seed (Anethum graveolens L.), S.K. MEENA, L.J. DESAI1, SHAUKATALI* AND SHIVPRAKASH NAGAR
An experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil of Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, C.P. College of Agriculture, S.D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) during the Rabi season of 2011-12 on weed control study in dill seed (Anethum graveolens L.) in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications and 10 weed control treatments comprised viz., T1 : Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 PE, T2 : Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg ha-1 PE, T3 : Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 PE + one hand weeding after 30 DAS, T4 : oxadiargyl @ 50 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, T5 : oxadiargyl @ 75 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, T6 : Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 PE + oxadiargyl @ 50 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, T7 : Pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 PE + oxadiargyl @ 75 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS, T8 : Weed free, T9 : Weedy check and T10 : Farmers practice (One hand weeding + one interculturing at 30 DAS). Results indicated that significantly maximum grain yield of 1294 kg ha-1 and stover yield of 2255 kg ha- 1 were recorded in the treatment weed free. The treatment involving weed free resulted in significantly highest oil content of (3.95 per cent) and oil yield (51.12 kg ha-1). Besides weed free condition, application of pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 (PE) + oxadiargyl @ 75 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DAS was found more effective in reducing the weed population at periodically (viz., grassy, broad leaved and sedges) and resulted in to lowest dry weight of weeds (18.86 g m-2), highest weed control efficiency (81.71 %) as well as lowest weed index (6.13 %). Treatment pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 (PE) + oxadiargyl @ 50 g ha-1 PoE at 20 DASwas found equally effective with this respect.
329 Genetic variability and inter-relationship among seed quality parameters in field pea (Pisum sativum L.), P. BASAIWALA, N.K. RASTOGI*, M. PARIKH AND P.K. CHANDRAKAR
Thirty-two field pea genotypes were evaluated for seed quality parameters viz., seed density, hydration capacity per seed, hydration index, swelling capacity per seed, swelling index, hard seed % and seed size. Among the quality parameters hard seed % had the highest GCV% followed by swelling index, hydration index and hydration capacity per seed, indicating further possibility of genetic improvement. Moderate heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance was observed for hydration capacity per seed, swelling index, hard seed % and seed size indicating predominance of additive gene action in the expression of these traits, which could be utilized through individual plant selection. Correlation analysis revealed that seed size had significant and positive correlation with hydration capacity per seed, suggesting more intake of water by bold seeded grains. Hydration capacity per seed had significant positive association with hydration index and swelling capacity per seed, suggesting water soaking capacity of the seeds will also influence its swelling capacity which is interestingly preferred by the consumer and fetch higher price. It means that bold seed will intake more water and will increase the swelling capacity of seed. A large hydration capacity per seed leads to decrease in cooking time, better cooking quality and is ultimately desirable to end user. Hydration capacity per seed had positive direct effect and significant positive association with seed size, whereas indirect effect via hydration and swelling index. It is suggested that direct selection of bold seed to increase hydration and swelling capacity of seed would be more rewarding in quality breeding programme of field pea.
330 Influence of integrated nutrient management practices on yield and economics of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.), RAM KUMAR SINGH1, J.S.ARUN KUMAR* AND MOHAMED KALEEM1
The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of 100%, 75% and 50% recommended dose of nutrients (RDN) through chemical fertilizers and 25% and 50% RDN through organic sources like farm yard manure and blue green algae (BGA). Application of 75% of recommended NPK through inorganic + FYM @ 10 t ha-1 + BGA @ 15 kg ha-1 recorded significantly more number of tillers hill-1, panicle length, grains panicle-1 and yield. Highest B:C was observed in 75% of recommended NPK through inorganic + BGA @ 15 kg ha-1.
331 Biochemical characterization and grain quality evaluation of some aromatic rice varieties/ lines for food security, YOGENDRA SINGH*, ANITA BAJPAI1 AND U.S. SINGH1
Aromatic rices are preferred by consumers all over the world due to its flavour and palatability. A large number of these collections are available but there is still scope for systemic analysis on grain quality and genetic divergence front. India possesses an immense wealth of Basmati and non Basmati aromatic rice varieties and land races exhibiting a wide variability in their grain quality and cooking characteristics. In present study forty varieties/lines of Basmati and non Basmati aromatic rices were evaluated for their physical and quality characteristics. Among all quality characteristics aroma was considered as most important quality parameter of high quality rice. In our study aroma ranged from very low to strong. The gelatinizing temperature ranged from low to high intermediate category. This was indirectly decided by alkali digestion score which ranged from 7.0 to 2.0. Cooked kernel length, cooked kernel breadth, elongation ratio, gel consistency and amylose content were also recorded. Various grain quality parameters of these varieties/lines were compared to premium Dehradun basmati 3020. Based on this study it was revealed that besides Basmati rice other non Basmati aromatic rice varieties should also promoted by scientists and adopted by more and more farmers and traders so the consumers can get better aromatic rice at lower cost and simultaneously we can maintain our traditional non basmati aromatic rice germ plasm.
332 Dynamics of zinc fractions in a calcareous underAICRPLTFE soils, SUKHA RAM MEENA*, M.S. SOLANKI AND A.V. RAJANI
Surfaces soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected to study the dynamics of Zn fractions in the selective treatments of the LTFEs conducted on groundnut-wheat sequence at Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during the year 1999 (Initial year), 2010-11 (12th year) after completion of crop cycle. The selected treatments were T1- 50 % NPK of recommended doses in groundnut-wheat sequence, T2 - 100 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence, T3 -150 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence, T4 - 100 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence + ZnSO4 @ 50 kg/ha once in three year to groundnut only (i.e. 99, 02, 05 etc), T5 - N P K as per soil test, T6 - 100 % N P of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence, T7 - 100 % N of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence, T8 - 50 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence + FYM @ 10 t/ha groundnut and 100 % N P K to wheat, T9 - FYM @ 25 t/ha to groundnut only, T10 - 50 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence + Rhizobium + PSM to groundnut and 100 % N P K to wheat, T11 - 100 % N P K of recommended doses in groundnut -wheat sequence (P as S S P) and T12 - Control. The water soluble Zn was present in negligible quantity. Exchangeable forms of Zn differed significantly at 12th year. Potassium enhanced the utilization of exchangeable form of Zn. The application of FYM recorded the highest value of DTPA-Zn at 12th year. Total Zn content differed significantly in T9 (34.55 ppm), while residual form of Zn was found non significant at 12th year. The Y x T interaction were found significant after 12th year in DTPA-Zn, reducible-Zn, per cent available and total available-Zn.
333 Influence of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) cv. NHB-1012, SATISH KUMAR, J.P. SINGH*, RAJBEER, NATHI RAM, BRAJ MOHAN1, HIMANSHU KAUSHIK AND DINESH KUMAR
The field experiment was laid out at Horticulture Research Farm of Gochar Mahavidhalaya, Rampur Maniharan, Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) during 2011-2012. The eleven treatments,T1 -Recommended dose of NPK/ha (120 kg:80 kg:60 kg), T2 -Half dose of NPK/ha + FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha, T3 -Half dose of NPK/ha + Azospirillum @ 5 kg/ha, T4 - Half dose of NPK/ha + FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha + Azospirillum @ 5 kg/ ha, T5 - Half dose of NPK/ha + VAM @ 5 kg/ha, T6 - Half dose of NPK/ha + FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha + VAM@ 5 kg/ha, T7 - Half dose of NPK/ ha + FYM @ 15 tonnes/ha + Azospirillum @ 5 kg/ha + VAM @ 5 kg/ha, T8 - Half dose of NPK/ha + Vermicompost @ 2.5 tonnes/ha, T9 - Half dose of NPK/ha + vermicompost @ 2.5 tonnes/ha + Azospirillum @ 5 kg/ha, T10 - Half dose of NPK/ha + vermicompost @ 2.5 tonnes/ha + VAM @ 5 kg/ha, T11 - Half dose of NPK/ha + vermicompost @ 2.5 tonnes/ha + Azospirillum @ 5 kg/ha + VAM @ 5 kg/ha were evaluated in Randomized Block Design with the three replication. The treatment T11 registered significantly higher value plant height (62.02cm), number of leaves/plant (25.67), width of leaf (25.53cm), length of stalk (12.08cm), spread of the plant (64.38cm), diameter of curd (19.20cm), weight of curd (953.31g), yield of curd (267.30q/ha) as compared to rest of the treatments.
334 Effect of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of sugarcane, P.S. DESHMUKH* AND D.B. PHONDE
A field experiment was conducted in Suru season at Vasantdada Sugar Institute research farm during 2009-10 to study the effect of seaweed extract on growth, yield and quality of sugarcane. Experiment was designed in randomized block design with seven treatments where seaweed extract was applied in soil as well as sprayed on leaves @ of 500, 1000 and 1500 g ha-1. The results showed that application of seaweed extract @ 1500 g ha-1 through soil application alongwith recommended dose of fertilizer increased cane yield by 14.1 % and sugar yield by 23.1%. The juice quality was not affected either by soil as well as foliar application of seaweed extract. The effectiveness of seaweed for promoting tillering and growth alongwith nutrition may be resulted in increased cane yield and sugar yield.
335 Performance of intercrops and interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) under tamarind based intercropping systems, B. ARUNKUMAR*, B. RAHULKUMAR1, GURUPRASAD2, VERESHKUMAR AND N.K. HEGDE
Interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in tamarind (8 year old) based intercropping systems compared to sole cropping in open area was studied at Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Belgaum district, Karnataka. The interception of PAR by all the crops was higher under sole cropping throughout the stages of growth when compared to tamarind based intercropping system. At 120 DAP, turmeric intercepted the highest PAR (39622 lux) among sole crop followed by coleus (38346 lux). Similarly, under intercropping situation also, turmeric intercepted the higher PAR (30713 lux) followed by chilli (28864 lux)
336 Genetic diversity analysis in introgressed lines of American cotton, N.S. BHAGAT, B.R. PATIL, S.B. DESHMUKH AND R.S. MALI*
A study was undertaken to estimate the degree of divergence among the 50 introgressed lines of American cotton using multivariate Mahalanobis D2 statistics at Cotton Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. These genotypes were grouped into seven clusters. Cluster I had highest number of genotypes (19) followed by cluster III (14), cluster IV (8) and cluster II (6),whereas, cluster V, VI and VII represented by single genotypes. The maximum genetic distance was observed between cluster V and cluster VII (D=9.66). Plant height recorded the maximum contribution (22.29%) towards genetic divergence. Cluster VII showed highest cluster mean values for the characters seed cotton yield per plant (78.67g), boll weight (3.7 g) and number of bolls per plant (21.30).Hence, these characters should be considered during formulation of hybridization programme.
337 Impact of improved technologies on productivity and profitability of pulses, oilseeds and wheat at farmers fields in Hamirpur district of Bundelkhand zone in Uttar Pradesh, RAJIV*, H.G. PRAKASH AND D.P. SINGH
Half-field demonstrations were conducted on pulses, oilseeds and wheat with improved technologies against farmers practices at farmers fields during 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11in Hamirpur district of Bundelkhand zone in Uttar Pradesh. Improved techniques included mainly the improved crop variety, proper sowing method and maintenance of optimum plant stand, rhizobium seed inoculation in pulses, optimum fertilizer application and proper weed control. In all the demonstrations conducted were 351 in pigeonpea, 687 in chickpea, 435 in field pea, 255 in lentil, 1055 in sesame, 722 in mustard and 1609 in wheat. The results showed that improved techniques increased seed yield over farmers practices by the margins of 6.93 q/ha or 107.9 % in pigeonpea, 10.77 q/ha or 113.8 % in chickpea, 8.79 q/ha or 71.5 % in field pea, 6.22 q/ha or 75.2 % in lentil, 1.57 q/ha or 135.3 % in sesame, 7.35 q/ha or 89.0 % in mustard, 15.81 q/ha or 60.1 % in wheatT. aestivum and 17.63 q/ha or 81.0 % in wheat T. durum. Net profit due to improved techniques increased maximum of Rs.20665/ha in chickpea followed by Rs.16734/ ha in pigeonpea. Lowest of Rs.3462/ha net profit was increased in sesame. These results indicate that there are great possibilities of increasing productivity and profitability of above crops with adoption of improved techniques in Hamirpur district of Uttar Pradesh.
338 Genetic variability and heritability in cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] for vegetable pod yield and its component characters, S.N. MALAGHAN*, M.B. MADALAGERI1, V.M. GANIGER, G. BHUVANESHWARI2, Y.K. KOTIKAL3 AND H.B. PATIL
An investigation was carried out at College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot during summer 2011 to analyze the variability and heritability in 67 cluster bean genotypes for vegetable pod yield and its growth and yield parameters. All the characters showed highly significant (at P=0.01) difference. Maximum range of variability was observed for ten fresh pod weight (g), number of branches at 90 DAS and number of dry pod per plant (dual purpose type). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean was observed for number of branches at 90 DAS, pod length (cm), and ten fresh pod weight (g). The results of present investigation suggested that selection based on number of dry pod per plant, fresh pod weight, pod length and number of branches at 90 DAS might bring improvement in vegetable pod yield of cluster bean and its growth and yield components characters.
339 Economics and pesticide use efficiency in vegetable crops in district Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, J. RAI
The study was under taken with 60 vegetable growers in Kalyanpur block of district Kanpur during 2007-08 on three major vegetables viz., tomato ,brinjal and chilli. The highest plant protection cost Rs. 1994 per hectare was measured for chilli constituting 6.3 per cent of total variable cost. The plant protection cost of tomato was Rs.1911.37 per hectare with a tune of 8.6 per cent variable cost, while lowest cost of plant protection was measured Rs. 1578/ha in case of brinjal constituted with 10.8 per cent of total variable cost. The pesticide use efficiency analysis for tomato revealed that one per cent increase in value of plant protection reduced the yield by 0.11 per cent reflected the over use of pesticide while production elasticity of labour (0.18 ) and fertilizer (0.14) indicating further scope of enhancing the labour and fertilizer for better yield of tomato crop. The pesticide use efficiency of brinjal indicating positive response and resulted 0.20 per cent increase in yield of brinjal by increasing one per cent more dose of the pesticide. The production elasticity of fertilizer (0.30) and labour (0.29) also resulted positive response and further scope in brinjal crop. The pesticide use efficiency for chilli crop (- .03) showed a negative response for plant protection and restrict the further use of plant protection chemicals. The production elasticity for labour (0.25) and fertilizer (0.43) indicated under use of nutrients and man power. Hence, there is still scope for increasing man power and fertilizers to improve the yield of chilli crop in the study area.
340 Effect of Azotobacter, FYM and PSB on productivity in pearl millet and wheat cropping system, M.F. HUSAIN1, H.G. PRAKASH* AND R.K. PANDEY1
The present study was conducted at Regional Research Station, Kalai (Aligarh), C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur to study the effect of different doses of fertilizers and organic manures coupled with Azotobacter and PSB on yield and its attributes in pearl milletwheat crop sequence. The results of three years experimentation 2004-5 to 2006-7 revealed that application of 100% RDF gave significantly superior grain yield of pearl millet over other treatments including control followed by 100% RDF N and P only. Similar yield pattern was also recorded in wheat yield. The fodder yield in pearl millet and straw yield in wheat were also significantly higher with application of 100% RDF followed by 50% N and P + 5t FYM+ Azotobacter +PSB. The pearl millet yield equivalent of 100% RDF was significantly (p
341 Nutrient management practices for organic cotton production, R.F. CHANNAGOUDAR*, H.B. BABALAD, R.K. PATIL, S.I. HALIKATTI, M.H. MALLIGWAD,M.N. SREENIVASA AND K.K. MATH
A field experiment was carried out at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad duringKharif, 2010 and 2011 to study the nutrient management practices for organic cotton production. The results of the two years pooled data revealed that, among the treatment combinations, integrated application of RDF + FYM and green leaf manure as mulch with application of jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha recorded significantly higher number of bolls per plant (41.37), mean boll weight (5.05 g), kapas weight per plant (116.88 g), kapas yield (1858 kg/ha) over other treatments. Among the organic combinations application of compost (50%) + vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF + green leaf manure as mulch with application of jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha recorded higher number of bolls per plant at 150DAS, mean boll weight, kapas weight per plant, kapas yield , net returns and B:C ratio and was at par with RDF + FYM and which was superior over RDF only. Among the nutrient management practices, application of FYM @ 5t per ha + RDF recorded significantly higher number of bolls per plant (40.13) at 150DAS, mean boll weight (4.87 g), kapas weight per plant (114.69), kapas yield (1777 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 53530) and B:C ratio (2.67) over rest of the treatments. Among the organic manurial treatments, combined application of compost (50%) + vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF recorded significantly higher number of bolls per plant (36.53), mean boll weight (4.42 g), kapas weight per plant (107.96) and kapas yield (1579 kg/ha) over other organic manurial treatments but was at par with crop residue (50%) + vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF. However, crop residue (50%) + vermicompost (50%) equivalent to RDF recorded significantly higher net returns (57220) and B:C ratio (2.80) over other organic manurial treatments. Among the green manuring treatments, application of green leaf manure (GLM) @ 7.5 t per ha with jeevamrutha @ 500 l/ha surface applied recorded significantly higher number of bolls per plant (36.51), mean boll weight (4.46 g), kapas weight (109.08 g), kapas yield (1621 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 55890) and B:C ratio (2.70) over other green manuring treatments and was at par with lucerene + jeevamrutha.
342 Knowledge and adoption of porous pipe drainage technology by the farmers in salt affected soils, G.K. SASANE*, R.P. KHULE AND U.D. JAGDALE
It is indicates that 68.89 per cent of farmers were of old age group, 54.44 per cent of farmers were completed their education up to secondary and higher secondary only. All the farmers having agriculture as a main occupation. In addition to agriculture, 75.56 per cent of farmers enjoying dairy as a subsidiary occupation. About 92.22 per cent of farmers were from irrigated farming category and all the farmers were irrigated their fields by river water. All the farmers had knowledge about parts of porous pipe, distance between two laterals, parallel type of porous pipe drainage , precautions taken during installation of outlets. Large majority of farmers had knowledge about types of porous pipe drainage systemviz., V-shaped (92.22 %), U-shaped (93.33 %), Bone skeleton (92.22 %) and Interceptor (92.22 %). It is revealed that all the farmers were adopted the parallel porous pipe drainage system on co-operative basis. About 55.56 per cent of farmers were completely adopted 25.30 meter distance between two laterals. All farmers this method is very expensive, lack of technical guidance, It is not possible on individual basis, difficult to small farmers. More than 90.00 per cent of farmers mentioned about lack of co-ordination and uneven drainage due to more length between two laterals.
343 Gene action in Indian mustard, SHWETA
The experiment comprising 100 treatments (10 parents + 45 F1s + 45 F2s) was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of the data on seed yield and its ten component characters suggested that dominant alleles were more frequent for most of the traits. Positive and negative alleles among parents were distributed symmetrically for the characters days to 50 per cent flower and number of siliquae on main raceme in both the generations and number of secondary branches per plant, days to maturity, length of main raceme, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant only in F1 generation whereas, for rest of the characters asymmetrical distribution of positive and negative genes in parents were observed. Additive and non-additive gene actions were found important in the inheritance of most of the characters.
344 Effect of herbicides on microbial activities and productivity of maize, H. SHANTVEERAYYA*, C.A. AGASIMANI AND C.R. PATIL
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season 2010 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to study the effect of herbicides on soil respiration, dehydrogenase activity and productivity of maize. The data on dehydrogenase activity and soil respiration revealed that at 60 and 90 DAS weed free check recorded highest dehydrogenase activity which was at par with sequential application of atrazine (0.75 kg ha-1) followed by 2, 4-D (1.00 kg ha-1) and post- emergent application of oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg ha-1) but at harvest dehydrogenase and soil respiration activity was decreased. This was mainly due to the lesser microbial activity at the harvest and lesser herbicidal residual activity at this stage. At recommended dose of herbicides initially stimulates but subsequently inhibits the dehydrogenase and soil respiration activity. Plant height, number of green leaves, LAI and total dry matter production, grain yield, straw yield, test weight and harvest index was higher in atrazine (0.75 kg/ ha pre-em ) followed by 2,4- D (1.00 kg/ ha post- em). Significantly higher net returns (Rs.72992.50) and benefit cost ratio (3.47) was recorded in atrazine (0.75 kg/ ha pre-em) followed by 2,4- D (1.00 kg/ ha post- em). Application of oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg/ ha postem) at 20 DAS showed phytotoxic effect on crop.
345 Effects of organic manures, sources and levels of fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of finger millet (Eleusine coracana G.), M.B.GAWADE, U.V.MAHADKAR AND D.N. JAGTAP*
A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of organic manures and sources and levels of fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of finger millet. (Eleusine coracana G.) on lateritic soil having low to moderate soil fertility status at the Central Experiment Station, Wakawali, Dist. Ratnagiri during Kharif season of the year 2009. There were four main plot treatments and five sub plot treatments. The experiment was laid out in a Split Plot Design with three replications. The four main plot treatments comprised of organic manures viz., poultry manure, farm yard manure, vermicompost and control. The five sub-plot treatments consisted of sources and levels of fertilizers viz., control, 75 per cent RDF through broadcasting, 100 per cent RDF through broadcasting, 100 per cent RDF through urea DAP briquettes and 100 per cent RDF through urea Suphala briquettes. From the results obtained during the present investigation it can be concluded that for obtaining higher yield fromKharif finger millet, the crop should be manured with poultry manure @ 1.32 t ha-1 along with 100% RDF (80:40:00 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1) through broadcasting (two split of nitrogen).
346 Phule Anuradha: New drought tolerantRabi sorghum variety for shallow soil, S.V. NIRMAL*, S.R. GADAKH,A.R. GAIKAWAD AND V.R. PATIL
A new Rabi sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] variety Phule Anuradha identified as drought tolerant because of its superior physiological traits under receding soil moisture condition duringRabi season on shallow soil type of Maharashtra. An experiment was conducted to screen sixteen genotypes for drought tolerance under receding soil moisture condition duringRabi season on shallow type of soil. The grain yield was positively correlated with photosynthesis rate, stomatal resistance, photo-synthetically active radiation, relative water content of leaves (RLWC), leaf area index (LAI), biomass at harvest, grain number per panicle, test weight, ear head exertion, stay green at physiological maturity, per day production of grain with fodder and fodder yield and negatively correlated with leaf temperature difference (oC) , chlorophyll stability index (CSI), stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and stomata frequency under drought stress. Grain yield decreased in all the genotypes as the crop was subjected to progressive drought stress under receding soil moisture situation. Among the genotypes studied Phule Anuradha performed well under drought stress conditions maintaining leaf area, leaf relative water content, biomass at harvest, test weight, ear head exertion(%), leaf temperature, chlorophyll stability index and stomatal frequency.
347 Evaluation of virulence and methods of inoculation of Colletotrichum capsici (SYD.) Butler and Bisby, T. SUTHIN RAJ*, D. JOHN CHRISTOPHER AND H. ANN SUJI1
The aim of this research was to study the four different methods of inoculation which were followed and one which makes chilli plants easily infected was identified and its virulence was evaluated. Among the methods of artificial inoculation, pinpricking + spore suspension spray was found to be the best in fruit and leaf infection. In fruits and leaves C.capsici was inoculated [pinpricking + spore suspension spray] recorded the mean per cent infection was 60 and 50 per cent, respectively and the isolate C.capsici (Cc1) was significantly the most virulent one which recorded the highest fruit rot intensity (69.6 PDI) and leaves infection (62.4 PDI). The incidence of infection on chilli leaves was found to be less when compared to that of its fruits.
348 Effect of different grafting dates and wrapping materials on success of softwood grafting in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) cv. LOCAL SELECTION, ROHAN KHOPADE* AND R.G. JADAV
The experiment was conducted at Fruit nursery, Horticulture Research farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during March, 2010 to August, 2010. The treatments comprised of five grafting dates and two wrapping materials. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with factorial concept and three replications. The results revealed that treatment of grafting date 01-4- 2010 and Degradable tape (D2T2) recorded significantly minimum days for sprouting (12.66), maximum sprouting of grafts (100%), maximum increment in length of scion (16.90%) and highest no. of fully opened leaves (21.80) on scion at 90 DAG as compared to other treatments.
349 Unusual occurrence of erwinia stalk rot of sorghum in tarai region of Uttarakhand, BHUPENDRA SINGH KHARAYAT ANDYOGENDRA SINGH*
In sampling for detection of destructive soft rot bacterium, Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech) and to identify the locations that are severely affected with stalk rot disease, highest disease incidence (46.85%) was found in Pantnagar (location 1, 2) followed by Haldwani (41.50%) and Doraha (Bajpur) (38.90%). Least disease incidence (7.50%) was noted in Tanakpur. Pathogen was detected from all the five samples randomly selected fromSailanigot, Pantnagar, Haldwani, Sultanpur (Kashipur) followed by Rudrapur (four out of five samples). Therefore, for these Ech
350 Inbreeding depression and residual heterosis for kernel characters in F2 generation of aromatic rice, M. RAJENDAR REDDY*, CH. SURENDAR RAJU1, D. SRAVANI AND S. NARENDER REDDY
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi, 2009-10 and Kharif, 2010 involving 7 parents, 7 F1 hybrids and their corresponding F2 populations to study the inbreeding depression and residual heterosis for kernel characters i.e. kernel length, kernel breadth, L/ B ratio in aromatic rice. The cross combinations, PUSA1121 BM71 and PUSA1121 MTU1010 for kernel length were identified as better crosses for further advancement to develop pure lines with high yield and quality
351 Post harvest losses of agricultural produce, SUBHA GANGULY
Losses incurred at post-harvest are quite common and enormous leading to valuable food loss. At every stage of post-harvest practice, agricultural products are deprived from quality due to physical, chemical, biological and mechanical factors. In this article an overview has been presented on the major and common reasons for post-harvest food losses.
352 Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on post harvest life of gaillardia (Gaillardia pulchella cv.D.G.S-1), B.V. SOWMYAMALA* AND H.T. NAGARAJU1
A field experiment comprised of nine treatment combinations with three sources (FYM, pressmud and vermicompost) and two levels of (75 % and 100 % RDF) of inorganic nutrients was conducted. To study post harvest life of gaillardia, lab experiment was conducted at college of Agriculture, V.C Farm, Mandya during 2006-07.The post harvest parameters of gaillardia in terms of vase life (days), shelf life (days) and water uptake (ml) increased considerably with 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers with pressmud at 10 t/ha. It is therefore, recommended that, to obtain maximum post harvest life, crop should be supplied with 100 per cent recommended dose of fertilizers with pressmud at 10 t/ha.
353 To evaluate the efficiency and effect of paddy weeder on the yield and economics or rice crop, B.K. YADAV1, B.S.KHERAWAT*, RAJESH KUMAR AND SUSHIL KUMAR2
An On Farm Trial was initiated in the Narayanpur village of Garhwa. The On Farm Trial was planned in the Rabi of 2008. Source of technology selected was Japanese weeder and cono weeder. Grain yield harvested was significant in all the treatments. The maximum grain yield of 41 q/ha were recorded in treatment 2 wherein weeding was done with Japanese weeder followed by three treatment these which weeding was done with cono weeder (34q/ha). The least grain yield of 20.5q/ha was recorded under farmers practice in which hand weeding was done. In terms of energy efficiencies, cost to benefit ratio noticed, and higher grain yield output, weeding with Japanese weeder was considered to be successful on farm trial followed by weeding with cono weeder
354 Physico-chemical properties in soils from Tuljapur tahsil of Osmanabad district, O.Y. HIREY*, S.K. GHODKE AND A.S. CHEKE
The present research work was carried out during the year 2011-12 to study the physico-chemical properties in soils from Tuljapur Tahsil of Osmanabad District. For this purpose 180 representative soil samples were collected from 30 villages of Tuljapur tahsil. Collected soil samples were categorized into different soil orders. Out of the total collected soil samples 34 per cent soil samples were grouped under the order Vertisols while 47 and 19 per cent soil samples were grouped under the order Inceptisols and Entisols, respectively. These soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties. In physical analysis, particle density, bulk density, porosity and colour were studied. Average particle density, bulk density and porosity was 2.44 gcc-1, 1.49gcc-1 and 38.14 per cent, respectively. The soils under the study were alkaline in reaction, safe in limit of electrical conductivity and moderately calcareous to calcareous in nature. These soils were low in content of organic carbon.
355 Seasonal variations of environmental parameters of the Mirya sandy shore, Ratnagiri, SNEHAL S. LOKHANDE AND A.D. ADSUL
The present study deals with seasonal verification of the physico-chemical parameters of intertidal sandy shore for a period of one year from April 2011 - March 2012. Seasonal variation occured in certain physico- chemical properties due to surface run-off.
356 Environmental importance of coral reefs with other prominent, SUBHA GANGULY
Corals are not only the ocean bed dwellers, but also play immense role in the biosphere maintenance and in climatic and environmental ecology. Their population is currently under stake from intruding unnecessary human activities, which needs to be properly constrained and regulated by imposing strict regulations from the governmental level. Corals have also significant importance for biomedical purpose, especially in the treatment of serious human illnesses and in surgical interventions as bone implants etc.
357 Effects of nutrients and compaction levels on amino acids and protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain, INDRA RAJ SINGH* AND S.P. MAJUMDAR
Afield experiment was conducted during the winter season on loamy sand soils of Rajasthan, India to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen, potassium and compaction on total amino acids (TAA), proline, lysine, methionine and total protein (TP) concentration in wheat grain. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1), three of potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) and four levels of compaction (0, 4, 8 and 12 passing of 500 kg manually driven iron roller). The results showed significant increases in total grain amino acid, lysine, methionine, and total protein concentration with increase in compaction levels, while proline content decreased. Increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium significantly increased in total amino acids, proline, lysine, methionine, and total protein content in wheat grain and improved the nutritional quality by increasing the protein and amino acids content.
358 Effects of nutrients and compaction levels on amino acids and protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain, INDRA RAJ SINGH* AND S.P. MAJUMDAR
Afield experiment was conducted during the winter season on loamy sand soils of Rajasthan, India to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen, potassium and compaction on total amino acids (TAA), proline, lysine, methionine and total protein (TP) concentration in wheat grain. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1), three of potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) and four levels of compaction (0, 4, 8 and 12 passing of 500 kg manually driven iron roller). The results showed significant increases in total grain amino acid, lysine, methionine, and total protein concentration with increase in compaction levels, while proline content decreased. Increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium significantly increased in total amino acids, proline, lysine, methionine, and total protein content in wheat grain and improved the nutritional quality by increasing the protein and amino acids content.
359 Effects of nutrients and compaction levels on amino acids and protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain, INDRA RAJ SINGH* AND S.P. MAJUMDAR1
Afield experiment was conducted during the winter season on loamy sand soils of Rajasthan, India to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen, potassium and compaction on total amino acids (TAA), proline, lysine, methionine and total protein (TP) concentration in wheat grain. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1), three of potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) and four levels of compaction (0, 4, 8 and 12 passing of 500 kg manually driven iron roller). The results showed significant increases in total grain amino acid, lysine, methionine, and total protein concentration with increase in compaction levels, while proline content decreased. Increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium significantly increased in total amino acids, proline, lysine, methionine, and total protein content in wheat grain and improved the nutritional quality by increasing the protein and amino acids content.
360 Effects of nutrients and compaction levels on amino acids and protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain, INDRA RAJ SINGH* AND S.P. MAJUMDAR
Afield experiment was conducted during the winter season on loamy sand soils of Rajasthan, India to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen, potassium and compaction on total amino acids (TAA), proline, lysine, methionine and total protein (TP) concentration in wheat grain. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1), three of potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg K2O ha-1) and four levels of compaction (0, 4, 8 and 12 passing of 500 kg manually driven iron roller). The results showed significant increases in total grain amino acid, lysine, methionine, and total protein concentration with increase in compaction levels, while proline content decreased. Increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium significantly increased in total amino acids, proline, lysine, methionine, and total protein content in wheat grain and improved the nutritional quality by increasing the protein and amino acids content.
361 Estimation of aflatoxin production in the seeds of Beta vulgaris var. Cicla, Amaranthus tricolor and Portulaca oleracea at different relative humidity levels during storage, GANGAPURAM SETHUMADHAVA RAO, AMBALLA HINDUMATHI* AND BHIMANATHINI BHADRAIAH
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of relative humidity and moisture content on seed germination and aflatoxin production of three vegetable seeds during storage. Six Aspergillus flavus strains were isolated from the three leafy vegetable seeds and screened for aflatoxin production. The evaluation of toxigenic potential of the isolates showed that 73.33 per cent of the A. flavus strains isolated from the seeds of three different leafy vegetables collected from Mbnr and RR districts presented a toxigenic potential. Among the A. flavus 66.67 per cent isolates were producers of aflatoxin B1 and 33.33 per cent of the isolates produced aflatoxin G1.Aflatoxin B1 was detected in the A. flavus treated seeds of Bv and At collected from both Mbnr and RR dist. While, aflatoxin G1 was detected only in Bv samples of Mbnr and RR dist. The results showed that the storage period of vegetable seeds is a critical phase, as indicated by the high percentage of aflatoxigenic isolates.
362 Effect of different levels of row spacing and nitrogen on yield characters in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa), E. ARIVAZHAGAN* AND A.K. RAJA
Investigation was carried out to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen and spacing on the yield characters in roselle. A field trial was conducted in a Factorial Randomized Block Design with five levels of nitrogen (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of row spacing (60, 90 and 120 cm). The results of the present study revealed that the spacing of 120 75 cm and nitrogen application of 250 kg ha-1 was found to be superior in improving the yield characters like number of flowers plant-1, number of fruits plant-1, yield of fresh and dry calyces plant-1, yield of fresh and dry calyces yield plot-1, yield of fresh and dry calyces ha-1, seed yield and dry matter production.
363 Yield, yield parameters and economics of hybrid pigeonpea (cv. Icph-2671) as influenced by planting methods and geometry, C. MALLIKARJUN, U.K. HULIHALLI* AND SHANTVEERAYYA
A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Annigeri (district Dharwad) during Kharif, 2011 to evaluate the performance of the planting methods and geometry of recently released pigeonpea hybrid ICPH-2671. The results revealed that the transplanted hybrid pigeonpea recorded significantly higher seed yield (1899 kg ha-1) and net returns (Rs. 36,005 ha-1) as compared to dibbled hybrid pigeonpea (1376 kg ha-1, Rs. 23,531 ha-1, respectively).
364 Effect of system rice intensification on microbial population, nutrient status, growth and yield of rice, K. RAJENDRAN* AND V. GANESA RAJA1
Field experiments were carried out during Rabi 2007-08 and 2008-09, to evaluate the crop establishment techniques and weed management practices under system of rice intensification. The experiments were laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications with main plot consisted of three levels age of seedlings viz., 14, 18 and 22 days old seedlings were evaluated with two levels of planting methods viz., SRI planting and mechanical planting. Four levels of weed management practices viz., hand weeding two times at 25 and 45 DAT, mechanical weeding three times at 10, 25 and 45 DAT, pre-emergence application of butachlor @ 1.25 kg a.i. ha-1 + two mechanical weeding at 25 and 45 DAT and unweeded check were assigned to sub plot. Transplanting of 14 days old seedlings with manual planting and pre-emergence application of butachlor @ 1.25 kg a.i. ha-1 + two mechanical weeding at 25 and 45 DAT significantly higher microbial population, nutrient uptake and improved the growth parameters, yield attributes and yield of rice.
365 Problems and the requirements of the women organic farmers of agro-climatic zones of northern Karnataka, RAJESHWARI DESAI* AND P.R. SUMANGALA1
Women are the major stakeholders in organic farming. Women often shoulder the increased labour to a greater degree than men. Hence, the present study is an attempt to identify the problems and requirements of the women organic farmers, the present study was conducted in the selected agro-climatic zones of northern Karnataka. The results revealed that irrespective the agro-climatic zones, women organic farmers were facing many personal, marketing and production related problems like lack of encouragement, non availability of certified seeds, less rains, time consuming certification procedure, lack of proper storage facilities and lack of consumer awareness regarding organic markets. The selected women organic farmers demanded the training on rain water harvesting, integrated farming system and role of bio fertilizers and bio pesticides in organic farming, marketing strategies and linkages, labeling and packaging, value addition to organic produces and scientific and organic methods of preservation of organic produces were on list for future action. These programmes were suggested to help the organic farm women to overcome the problems related to production and marketing, to update their knowledge with recent technologies and research.
366 Genetic variability and trait association studies in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), V.R. AKABARI* AND M. NIRANJANA
Thirty six Indian mustard genotypes were evaluated to estimate variability, heritability and genetic advance in yield and yield components at Anand Agricultural University (Gujarat). The experiment was conducted using a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Significant genotypic variability among the test genotypes was observed for all traits studied. Higher values of phenotypic co-efficients of variation and genotypic co-efficients of variation were observed for number of secondary branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant and yield per plant indicating the existence of higher magnitude of variability among the test genotypes for effective selection in respect of the above characters. Higher heritability estimates values were recorded for number of siliqua per plant, yield per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, length of main branch, days to 50 per cent flowering, 1000 seed weight, number of secondary branches, Siliqua length, protein content and plant height, indicating these traits were less influenced by environmental factors and selection for them is fairly easy. Higher values of expected genetic advance as per cent of mean was recorded for yield per plant, number of siliqua per plant, number of secondary branches, number of seeds per siliqua, length of main branch, siliqua length, and 1000 seed weight, indicating that selection would be more useful to improve these traits. High heritability values coupled with high genetic advance was observed in case of number of siliqua per plant, plant height, length of main branch and yield per plant, indicating that selection for these traits would be effective in Indian mustard improvement. Inter-character association studies were also conducted. The characters which showed positive significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with yield were plant height, length of main branch and number of siliqua per plant. These characters are playing important role in indirect selection for yield.
367 Studies on time-mortality response of diamondback moth, Plutela xylostella L. larvae to different insecticides and in combination with streptocycline, D. SIDDARTHA*, REVANNA REVANNAVAR1 AND R. SOMU
The toxicity of insecticides with bactericide and individual insecticides to test insect was quantified by adopting leaf dip bioassay method and the compatibility was assessed based on median lethal time (LT50). The results clearly revealed that in some combinations toxicity was enhanced while in others the toxicity was lowered. Among seven insecticides in combination with bactericide streptocycline tested for efficacy, four insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, proton and profenophos) showed synergistic effect (SF 1.09, 1.04, 1.03 and 1.03, respectively), whereas three insecticides (indoxcarb, novaluron and hamla) were antagonistic (SF 0.95, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively) against P. xylostella larvae.
368 Effect of crop geometry, drip irrigation and bio-regulator on growth, yield and water use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), S.R. BHUNIA*, I.M. VERMA, MOHD. ARIF, R. GOCHAR AND N.C. SHARMA
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season, 2011-12 at Niche Area Excellence Farm, Bikaner to study the effect of crop geometry, drip irrigation and bio-regulator on growth, water use efficiency and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three irrigation schedules viz., 60, 80 and 100 per cent ETc, two crop geometry levels viz., 22cm paired row spacing-4 rows (120 cm lateral spacing) and 22 cm normal spacing sowing (60 cm lateral spacing) and two levels of bioregulator viz., control (water spray) and thiourea (500 ppm) foliar spray twice at vegetative stage and flowering stage. The study indicated that there was increase in dry matter accumulation, plant height, grain yield and biological yield with increase in irrigation level from 60 per cent ETc to 100 per cent ETc. The study further indicated that dry matter accumulation and plant height was maximum in paired row as compared to normal planting whereas grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were maximum in normal planting as compared to paired row planting. The study indicated that dry matter accumulation significantly increase only 60 and 120 DAS and plant height at only 120 DAS with the thiourea (500 ppm) as compared to control. The study also indicated that the interaction effect of irrigation and geometry gave maximum grain yield, biological yield and WUE at 100 per cent ETc +60 cm drip line spacing, maximum harvest index at 60 per cent ETc + 60 cm drip line spacing whereas maximum WUE at 80 per cent ETc + 60 cm drip line spacing.
369 Effect of planting geometry and timing and source of nitrogen application on yield and yield attributing character of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under system of rice intensification, PRAGYA PANDEY*, TRILOCHAN BARIK, SAHAJA DEVA AND ANOOP KUMAR RATHORE
An experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Station, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during Kharif season of 2012 to study the effect of different fertility levels, planting patterns per hill and their interaction on productivity of rice variety Lalat under SRI. F2 (FYM @ 15 t ha-1 + vermicompost 2 t ha-1 + neem cake 250 kg ha-1) gave highest yield (8.76 t ha-1). It was found that twice or thrice splitting of N was at par (7.62 and 7.57 t ha-1). Highest harvest index was recorded from F2 (51.11 %) among main plots and P1 (2525cm spacing with 1 seedling hill-1) i.e. 50.41 per cent among subplots. F4 (FYM @ 5 t ha-1 + N : P2O5 : K2O @ 30:30:30 kg ha-1 basal) and P3 (3030 cm spacing with 1 seedling hill-1) gave the lowest harvest index (45.74 % and 43.33 %, respectively). Three plants per hill with wider spacing of 3030 cm gave the highest yield among all planting patterns. Wider spacing was found more beneficial. More than one plant per hill had given increased yield due to higher plant population per m2 in comparison to one plant per hill. Fertility level (F4) with half of RDF of nitrogen, recorded the lowest yield (5.87 t ha-1). Among the subplots the lowest yield was recorded in P3 i.e. one seedling per hill at 3030 cm spacing (6.75 t ha-1).
370 Nutrient uptake, yield and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as influenced by irrigation and sulphur levels in medium black soils, D.V. SRINIVASULU*, R.M. SOLANKI, C. RADHA KUMARI1 AND M. VIJAY SANKAR BABU1
A field experiment was carried out at Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Gujarat during Rabi 2010-11 to study the nutrient uptake, yield and quality of chickpea as influenced by irrigation and sulphur levels. Irrigation and sulphur have shown significant influence on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and protein content of chickpea. Among four irrigation schedules, irrigation scheduled at 0.9 IW/CPE ratio recorded significantly higher values for nutrient uptake, grain and stover yield, protein content and BCR which was at par with 0.7 IW/CPE ratio. As for as sulphur levels are concerned application of 40 kg S ha-1 recorded significantly higher nutrient uptake, grain yield, protein content and BCR and was at par with application of 20 kg S ha-1. However, interaction between sulphur and irrigation levels, 20 kg S ha-1 and 0.7 IW/ CPE recorded higher seed yield and net returns.
371 Effect of sources and levels of phosphorus on yield, quality and phosphorus uptake in pigeonpea, S.H. AHER*, D.N. GOKHALE1, S.R. KADAM AND P.N. KARANJIKAR1
A field trail on effect of sources and level of phosphorus on yield and quality of pigeonpea was conducted at Experimental Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani (Maharashtra) during Kharif season of 2011-12. The present experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with twelve treatment combinations of four phosphorus levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 kg P2O5 ha-1) and three sources of phosphorus (single superphosphate diammonium phosphate and 20:20:00) replicated thrice. Yield attributes like number of pods per plant, weight of pods and weight of seeds per plant were increased due to application of 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 than 25 kg P2O5 ha-1. However, it was at par with 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Among sources single superphosphate influenced the yield attributes. The combination effect of levels and sources of phosphorus application was non-significant for different yield attributes. The yield of pigeonpea was significantly influenced by levels and sources of phosphorus. The maximum seed yield (19.66 q ha-1) was recorded under 100 kg P2O5 ha- 1 than 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 (13.80 q ha-1). However, it was at par with 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Among sources, single superphosphate was beneficial for improving pigeonpea seed yield (19.56 q ha-1). Similar results were obtained in case of biological yield and harvest index.In case of protein content, an application of 100 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave higher protein content (20.52 %) than 25 kg P2O5 ha-1 (18.87%) and at par with 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. While, single superphosphate gave higher values of protein content (20.00%) than the other sources of phosphorus.
372 Studies on the impact and efficiency of integrated nutrient management on yield, major and secondary nutrient content of okra crop for sustainable agriculture, A. DHAVAPPRIYA*, V. SANJIVKUMAR AND S.T. KUMARAN1
Combined use of animal wastes is necessary in order to obtain adequate amount of organic manure for use in crop production. Hence, field experiment was conducted in Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai to evaluate the response of okra (Arka anamika) with organic sources like goat manure and pig manure combined with inorganic fertilizers on yield, major and secondary nutrient content. There were ten treatment combinations replicated thrice in Randomized Block Design (RBD) in Maddukkur soil series (Typic haplustalf). The results revealed that application of 50 per cent RDF + goat manure @ 6.5 t ha-1 registered highest total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content and yield (1.71%, 0.44%, 1.58%, 1.36% and 0.68% and 13.0 t ha-1). The least value recorded in the untreated control (1.30%, 0.20%, 1.22%, 1.10% and 0.35%) and 11.90 t ha-1, respectively.
373 Soil fertility and uptake as influenced by different intercropping in summer pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), B.L. YADAV*, B.S. PATEL1 AND S.K. YADAV2
A field experiment was conducted during the summer season 2010 at Agronomy Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar (Gujarat) to study on intercropping in summer pearlmillet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. Emend. Stuntz]. Thirteen treatments of sole crops and intercropping systems viz., T1: pearlmillet sole, T2: cowpea sole, T3: greengram sole, T4: mothbean sole, T5: sesame sole, T6: pearlmillet + cowpea (1:1), T7: pearlmillet + cowpea (1:2), T8: pearlmillet + greengram (1:1), T9: pearlmillet + greengram (1:2), T10: pearlmillet + mothbean (1:1), T11: pearlmillet + mothbean (1:2), T12: pearlmillet + sesame (1:1) and T13: pearlmillet + sesame (1:2) were evaluated in a Randomized Block Design with three replications. The soil was loamy sand, neutral (pH 7.0) low in organic carbon (0.17%), available nitrogen (149 kg N/ha), medium in available phosphorus (46 kg P2O5/ha) and high in potassium (281 kg K2O/ha). The higher available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were observed in pulses sole and intercropping systems. Green gram sole established its superiority by recording available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Intercropping of cowpea, greengram, mothbean and sesame at 1:1 and 1:2 row ratios in pearlmillet recorded significantly higher N, P and K content (%) of pearlmillet. While, in case of N content (%) found significantly higher in intercrops when grown as sole crop, but P and K content (%) found higher in intercropping systems.Maximum total N, P and K uptake of pearlmillet was recorded under sole crop, though when pearlmillet crop intercropped with pluses and sesame crop. All intercrops sown as sole crop recorded higher total N, P and K uptake as compared to intercropped in pearlmillet.
374 Evaluation of system of rice intensification (SRl) in farmers fields of Anantapuram district of Andhra Pradesh, C. RADHA KUMARI*, P. LAKSHMI REDDY1 AND M. JOHN SUDHEER1
On-farm demonstrations were conducted to popularize the SRI method of paddy cultivation among the farmers under supervision of DAATT Centre (Extension unit of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh), Anantapuram for three years during Kharif, 2007-08 to 2009-10. The comparison was made between SRI method of paddy cultivation and farmers practice with an objective to obtain higher productivity, to reduce the cost of production of paddy and subsequently improve the returns from unit in farmers fields. The results revealed that during three years of demonstration more number of tillers and panicles m-2 were recorded in SRI compared to farmers practice. SRI recorded higher grain yields compared to farmers practice which was 20.3 per cent higher over farmers practice. Higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio were also associated with SRI than conventional method of rice cultivation. The cost of cultivation was comparatively lesser in SRI which resulted in gaining an additional net profit of Rs. 15697 ha-1 as compared to farmers practice of rice cultivation. In SRI method grain and straw yields were enhanced by 20.3 and 21.0 per cent, respectively over farmers practice.
375 Response of wheat varieties to different levels of fertilizer on growth and yield under late sown condition, S.T. KALE*, S.R. KADAM, D.N. GOKHALE1 AND P.K. WAGHMARE
A field experiment was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani during Rabi season of 2009-10 with a view to find out a response of different fertilizer levels and varieties on growth and yield of wheat and to find interaction effect of fertilizer levels and varieties. The results of study showed that the fertilizer level 120:60:60 kg NPK ha-1 was found beneficial in improving growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to 80:40:40 kg NPK ha-1, 100:50:50 kg NPK ha-1 and 150:75:75 kg NPK ha-1 under late sown condition. Variety Lok-1 proved to be superior in growth characters, yield attributes and yield as compared to SKFPS645 and NIAW34 under late sown condition.
376 Relationship between seed yield and its component characters of cluster bean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.], SHEELA MALAGHAN*, M.B. MADALAGERI1 AND ANAND NARASANNAVAR2
Relationship between seed yield and its component characters of sixty seven cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) genotypes were studied during February, 2011 to May, 2011. The seed yield and its twelve component characters were studied to know their relationship. cluster bean seed yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation with number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, ten dry pod weight, ten dry pod seed weight, number of seeds in ten dry pod, fifty seed weight, number of dry pods per plant and dry pod yield per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic level. The path analysis revealed ten dry pod seed weight, dry pods per plant and dry pod yield per plant had high direct effect on seed yield per plant, hence, these parameters are effective for selection to increase seed yield in cluster bean.
377 Response of different plant bioregulators for retaining marketability of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits cv. CISH G-1 stored under ambient temperature, PAWAN KUMAR*, R.B. RAM, DEEPA H. DWIVEDI, SHREESH KUMAR GAUTAM AND NAMRTA SINGH
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly perishable fruit with intense metabolic activity after harvest. Thus, novel methods need to be explored for increasing its shelf life. PGRs (Plant growth regulators) are known to modify physiological processes within a plant. Guava fruits (cv. CISH G-1) at greenish yellow stage were dipped in four different concentrations of gibberellic acid and benzyl adenine after harvest in February 2007 and were subsequently stored under ambient temperature. A wide variation was observed in various physico-chemical parameters studied. GA3 100ppm (T3) was found to be best for improving significantly, length, breadth, specific gravity, CPLW per cent and acidity of guava fruits. BA 50ppm (T4) was beneficial for enhancing TSS and GA3 50ppm (T2) retained maximum ascorbic acid in guava fruits. These treatments were found to be effective for storage up to 8 days after harvest even under ambient condition.
378 Growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes of American cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrids under different spacing and nitrogen levels, KULVIR SINGH
Field studies were conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Station, Faridkot during Kharif 2013 to evaluate the performance of two hirsutum hybrids (FHH200 and LHH144) in main, two spacing levels (67.575 cm and 67.590 cm) in sub and three nitrogen levels (i.e. 112,150 and 187 kg N/ha) in sub plots of Split Plot Design replicated thrice. FHH200 recorded significantly highest seed cotton yield (SCY) of 2953.1 kg/ha followed by LHH144 (2495.2 kg/ha), while among spacing levels differences were non-significant. Among tested N levels, 150 kg N resulted in highest SCY (2868.1 kg/ha) followed by 187kg N (2738.1 kg/ha) while statistically least SCY was recorded with 112 kg N (2566.3 kg/ha). Though cost of cultivation increased with each increase of nutrient levels, but gross as well as net returns improved significantly only up to 100 per cent RD and declined thereafter. B:C ratio was significantly higher under 150kg N/ha (2.34) as compared to 187 kgN/ha (2.15). Farmers should opt for FHH200 and a spacing level of 67.575cm for hirsutum hybrids and must apply N @150kg/ha to realize higher SCY and consequently remunerative returns.
379 Screening of sorghum genotypes against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.), G.R. BHANDERI*, G.G. RADADIYA AND D.R. PATEL
Research study on the screening of sorghum genotypes against rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.) on stored sorghum was carried out during the year 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the Main Sorghum Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Surat, Gujarat state. Among twelve sorghum genotypes tested, the rice weevil preferred DJ 6514, SR 666, SR 1905 and SR 2460 genotypes for development as compared to other genotypes. On the basis of growth index and susceptible index, the genotypes SR 770, IS 6566, ICSV 700 and 168 II 108 were found less suitable. Among different varieties the sex ratio (male: female) ranged from 1:0.95 to 1:1.31. The genotype DJ 6514 was most susceptible genotype on the basis of damage, weight loss and population build up. The SR 770 maintained maximum germination per cent.
380 Enhancement in seed quality, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through polymer seed coating, T.N. TIWARI*, DIPTI KAMAL AND R.K. SINGH
Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years (2009-10 and 2010-11) during Rabi seasons at the research farm of Directorate of Seed Research, Mau to study the effects of polymer seed coating along with insecticide, bio-agent and natural fillers on seed quality parameters, growth and yield of wheat. One year old seeds of two wheat varieties (HUW-234 and HD- 2824) were coated with 5 different treatments viz., polykote @ 3 ml/kg seed alone (T1), polykote @ 3 ml/kg + Trichoderma viride @ 3 g./kg seed (T2), polykote @ 3 ml/ kg + insecticide (carbaryl) @ 3g/kg seed (T3), polykote @ 3 ml/kg + neem oil @ 10ml/kg seed (T4) and in combination of polykote @ 3 ml/kg + insecticide (carbaryl) @ 3g/kg seed + neem oil @ 10ml/kg seed (T5), one uncoated set of seed was kept as control (T0). The seeds were shade dried after coating and sown in field using Factorial Randomized Black Design in 3 replications with applying recommended doses of NPK (120:60:40). Results obtained revealed that wheat seed coating with polykote @ 3 ml/kg seed + insecticide (carbaryl) @ 3g/kg seed (T3), + neem oil @ 10ml/kg seed significantly increased the seed quality parameters, growth, total dry matter production, yield attributes and finally the yield of wheat over uncoated control. Moreover, polymer (polykote @ 3 ml/kg seed) coating in combination of insecticide carbaryl @ 3g/kg seed or neem oil @ 10ml/kg seed separately also showed at par results compared to the combination of polykote @ 3 ml/kg + Trichoderma viride (@3 g./kg seed) which showed non-significant results on above parameters.
381 Impact of various sterilization methods on growth and yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida), MANOJ KUMAR KALITA
Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) are one of the most appreciated mushrooms due to their high nutritional value, flavour, very good taste and medicinal value. It is grown in various lingo-cellulosic agro wastes thereby reduce the environmental pollution caused by its decomposition. In the process of mushroom cultivation, one of the most important aspects is the disinfection of the substrates. In the present study different substrate sterilization methods viz., hot water treatment for 30 min., autoclaving at 15lbs pressure for 20 min, treatment with formaldehyde solution (50ml/ ltr.water), treatment with bavistin (2g/ltr. water) and treatment with ordinary water (control) were investigated. Paddy straw was used as the substrate for mushroom cultivation. In the investigation, it was found that substrates sterilized by autoclaving was the best as it took less time for spawn run (15.0 days), pin head formation (20.3 days), fruiting body formation (23.3 day) and produced the highest mushroom yield per bed (892.35g) with biological efficiency of 89.24 per cent. Substrates sterilized with bavistin (890.25g/bed) and hot water (886.23g/bed) also produced good yield of mushroom which was comparable with those produced in autoclave sterilized substrate. Formaldehyde treatment behaved poorly as it took highest time for spawn run. As autoclaving of huge quantity of substrates in big farms is not convenient, chemical sterilization with bavistin can be practiced.
382 Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of golden rod (Solidago canadensis L.) cv. LOCAL, A.B. SAVALIYA AND J.D. VALA*
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on growth and yield of golden rod (Solidago canadensis L.) cv. LOCAL using twelve treatment combinations consisting of three levels of nitrogen viz., 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha, two levels of phosphorus i.e., 100 and 150 kg/ha, two levels of potassium 50 and 100 kg/ha were tried in Randomized Block Design with factorial concept (FRBD) with three replications. The results revealed that the application of nitrogen @ 250 kg/ha, phosphorus 150 kg/ha and potassium 100 kg/ha (half dose of nitrogen and full dose of phosphorus and potash at the time of planting and remaining half dose of nitrogen at 30 days after planting) significantly increased growth parameters viz., plant height, plant spread, fresh and dry weight of plant, number of suckers per plant and yield attributes like fresh and dry weight of panicles, number of panicles per plant and number of panicles per hectare.
383 Yield of fodder oat and balance sheet of nutrients influenced by tillage practices and nutrient management, SAHAJA DEVA
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi, 2011-12 to study the effect of tillage practices and nutrient management on growth, fodder yield and quality of oat (Avena sativa L.). The treatments comprised of zero tillage, minimal tillage and conventional tillage in main plots and 75 per cent RDF, 75 per cent RDF + bio-fertilizers, 100 per cent RDF, 100 per cent RDF + bio-fertilizers in sub plots. Biofertilizers are Azotobacter and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria. Highest green and dry fodder yields were recorded in the plots treated with conventional tillage. Highest net available soil nutrients were recorded under plots treated with conventional tillage. In case of nutrient management highest green fodder and dry fodder yields and highest net available soil nutrients were recorded in the plots treated with 100 per cent RDF + biofertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB).
384 Influence of plant growth promoters and growing systems on physiological parameters of Dendrobium cv. EARSAKUL, M. RAJA NAIK* AND K. AJITH KUMAR1
The study was carried out to investigate the influence of plant growth promoters and systems of growing on physiological parameters of Dendrobium cv. EARSAKUL. The main objective was to assess the response of combination of nutrients, plant growth regulators and plant growth promoting root endophyte (PGPRE) in two age groups of Dendrobium cv. EARSAKULplants (six month old and three year old at planting time) under three growing systems viz., two level shade house (S1), top ventilated polyhouse (S2) and fan and pad system (S3). Results revealed that leaf area (29.99 m2), relative growth rate (0.013 g g-1 day-1) and number of stomata (41.14) were highest in six month old plants, whereas, dry matter production (20.92 g plant-1) and crop growth rate (0.148 g m-2 day-1) were highest in three year old plants in the treatment POP + OM + VW + PGPRE + bone meal + GR (T4). Dry matter production (14.27 g plant-1), crop growth rate (0.131 g m-2 day-1), rate of photosynthesis (6.36 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) and transpiration rate (6.56 ?mol m-2 s-1) during day time were highest in the treatment POP + OM + VW + PGPRE + bone meal (T3) in six month old plants. Among the systems of growing, maximum values for physiological parameters were recorded in top ventilated polyhouse. The interaction of plant growth promoters and systems of growing had significant effect on physiological parameters.
385 Efficacy of different isolates of bacterial antagonist against Aloe vera soft rot pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) under in vitro, M. SYAMALA
Fifteen pathogenic isolates of Erwinia chrysanthemi, the soft rot of pathogen of Aloe vera were established from 15 different areas of Southern Tamil Nadu and their identity was confirmed by Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC) and Gene Bank, Chandigarh. Among the different Pseudomonas isolates tested in vitro, Pf 32 and Pf 45 was the most effective against the pathogen followed by Pf 4 and of the ten Bacillus subtilis tested in vitro, Bs5 was the most effective against E. chrysanthemi.
386 Effect of plant density on yield and quality of different cultivars of sweet pepper, M.L. CHOUDHARY1 AND S.K. SINGH*
An experiment was conducted on effect of plant density on yield and quality of different cultivars of sweet pepper at Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad during the year 2009-2010. The experiment was laid out in 35 Factorial Randomized Block Design having 15 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment T8 (variety Lucky star-165 with spacing 6045cm) was found to be superior and statically significant over other treatment combinations, which recorded highest plant height (34.50cm), plant spread (60.66cm), number of leaves/plant (137.00), number branches/plant (9.57), time of flower bud initiation (52.41 day after transplanting), number of flower buds/plant (74.66), number of flowers/plant (51.20), number of fruits/plant (4.25), fruit length (4.91 cm), fruit yield (916.33g/plant), fruit yield (33.93t/ha), vitamin-C (130mg/100g) and T.S.S (17.26 %).
387 Effect of agronomic manipulations on growth, yield attributes and seed cotton yield of American cotton under semi-arid conditions, KULVIR SINGH
Field studies were conducted at Punjab Agricultural University, Regional Station, Faridkot during Kharif 2012 to evaluate the performance of three hirsutum genotypes (Bihani251, CSH3129 and LH2076) in main, two plant geometries (67.560 cm and 67.575 cm) in sub and three nitrogen levels (56, 75 and 94 kg N/ha) in sub plots of Split Plot Design replicated thrice. None of the tested new genotypes i.e. Bihani 251 (2074.5 kg/ha) and CSH3129 (1969.6 kg/ha) could out yield check variety LH2076 (2281.1 kg/ha). Among plant geometries, 67.560 cm recorded significantly better SCY (2258.7 kg/ha) as compared to 67.575 cm spacing (1958.1 kg/ha) primarily owing to higher plant population though bolls per plant were significantly superior under wider (44.6) over the narrow (40.9) plant geometry. Seed cotton yield also differed non-significantly for nitrogen levels. Though cost of cultivation increased statistically with each increase of nutrient levels, but gross as well as net returns and B:C ratio could not improve significantly indicating 56 kg N to be optimum level under semi-arid conditions.
388 Studies on the effect of pre-harvest application of plant growth regulators and chemicals on yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. L.-49, M.I. MANIVANNAN*, S. IRULANDI AND K. SHOBA THINGALMANIYAN1
A field experiment to study the effect of pre-harvest application of plant growth regulators and chemicals namely giberellic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, calcium chloride, zinc sulphate, potassium sulphate and control on yield and post harvest quality of guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. L.-49) was conducted at the Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam during the year 2012. The experiment was laid out with six treatments replicated three times in a Randomized Block Design. In the present investigation, application of potassium sulphate (1 %) significantly enhanced the yield parameters viz., fruit length (9.0 cm), number of fruits (145.1), fruit weight (138.3 g) and yield per tree (20.06 kg) and quality parameters viz., TSS (9.5 %), acidity (0.25 %), total sugars (9.25 %), reducing sugars (4.76 %) and ascorbic acid (130 mg/100g pulp).
389 RAPD based molecular diversity analysis of different varieties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), AMOL S. SHINDE*, SAGAR R.MAHAJAN AND SAGAR H. KAKDE
Genetic diversity of eight pomegranate varieties was carried out using five RAPD primers. The DNA was extracted from young leaves using CTAB method. The PCR for RAPD was performed with two primers from OPA series, and four primers from OPB series. The RAPD analysis with five arbitrary oligonucleotide primers amplified a total of 28 DNA bands out of which 25 were found to be polymorphic. The average polymorphism recorded by the RAPD loci was 89.28 per cent. The number of DNA fragment varied from four to seven. The mean number of polymorphic bands per primer among eight pomegranate varieties was 5.6 and per cent polymorphism ranged from 75 to 100. The size of PCR amplified DNA fragment ranged from 88.49 to 1430.11bp and PIC value varied from 0.70 to 0.83. The dendrogram constructed using pooled RAPD loci data clearly showed two varieties (Ganesh and Mrudula) were highly similar and different from other genotypes. The genetic similarities ranged from 0.32 to 0.72 and mean similarity co-efficient was 0.61.
390 Influence of plant growth regulators on growth, seed yield and seed quality in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cv. GAO-5 under middle Gujarat condition, ANIL KUMAR RAVAT* AND NIRAV MAKANI
A field experiment was conducted, to study the effect of plant growth regulators on growth, seed yield and seed quality of okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] cv. GAO-5 under middle Gujarat condition. Among the different treatments GA3 @ 100 ppm was the best for growth and seed yield characters viz., plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of internodes per plant, days to flower initiation, days to 50 (%) flowering and GA3 @ 50 ppm was the best for growth and seed quality characters viz., average pod weight (g), 100 seed weight (g), seedling dry weight (g) and seedling vigour index-II, while the plants sprayed with thiourea @ 500 ppm yielded the best for growth and yield characters viz., leaf area (cm2), LAI, total dry weight of plant (g), number of pods per plant, length of pod (cm), number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant (g) and seed yield per hectare (q).
391 Genetic divergence in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus L. (Moench)]q, R. KANDASAMY
Twenty five genotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) were evaluated for genetic divergence for yield and its attributing characters. The genotypes were grouped in seven clusters on the basis of relative magnitude of D2 values. The maximum genetic distance was observed between cluster II and VI followed by Cluster VI and VII. However, cluster III and IV showed lowest degree of divergence. The mean value of different clusters, genotypes having high yield along with plant height, internodal length, fruit weight, fruit length, 1000 seed weight were observed in cluster VI having genotypes like AE 13 and AE 21. Cluster II showed lowest mean values for maximum characters.
392 Contribution of liquid fertilizers to improve productivity of late sown wheat in western plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, SANJEEV KUMAR, A.K. KATIYAR* AND ANUJ KUMAR
The field experiments were conducted in Muzaffarnagar districtof Uttar Pradesh in winter of 2011-12 and 2012-13 to estimate the effect of liquid applied nutrients on the yield of late sown wheat at ten farmers fields. The wheat variety PBW-373 was grown in both the year experiments. Soil of the experimental site was physico-chemically analyzed before sowing of experiments. Nutrient solution were prepared for liquid application as one per cent sulphur solution prepared from 80 per cent W.P. sulphur, 1 per cent iron solution prepared from 19 per cent ferrous sulphate, 0.5 per cent zinc solution prepared from 21 per cent zinc sulphate and 0.5 per cent manganese solution prepared from 30.5 per cent manganese sulphate commercially available from the market. These solutions were sprayed on standing crop at tillering and boot stage (30 and 60 days after sowing). All the liquid applications were in addition of farmer used fertilizer. Farmers in Muzaffarnagar district generally using NPK 145:80:40, as 5 bag NPK (12:32:16) and 5 bag of urea (46 % N) in one hectare of wheat production.The maximum grain yield (41.4 q/ ha) was recorded from zinc application and lowest (39.0 q/ ha) from control treatment. Grain yield 40.08 q/ ha had been obtained from sulphur application and 39.6q/ ha from iron 40.3q/ ha application and 39.6q/ ha from manganese treatment in Rabi 2011-12. It was also noted that zinc application was significantly increased yield over control.The maximum yield (39.6 q/ ha) was observed from zinc application followed by sulphur application (39.2 q/ ha) which was significant over control treatment in Rabi 2012-13. Lowest yield (38.0 q/ ha) was found from control treatment, 38.5 q/ ha from iron application and 37.8 from manganese treatment. Straw yield 50.1 q/ ha recorded from zinc application, followed by sulphur (49.6 q/ ha), iron (48.6 q/ ha) and 48.1 q/ ha from manganese treatment. It was observed that number of tillers, grain and straw yield were significantly increased over control fromliquid application zinc both the year of experiments.
393 Socio-economic impact of system of rice intensification (SRI) and traditional rice cultivation in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu : experiences from TN-IAMWARM Project, V.K. RAVICHANDRAN* AND K.C. PRAKASH1
The study has assessed the socio-economic impact of rice intensification. The results of the study revealed that, variables namely age, education, farming experience, SRI experience, information seeking behaviour, training attended, extension orientation, economic motivation, risk orientation, market perception, innovativeness and attitude were found to be positively significant at 1 per cent level of probability with their extent of adoption of SRI technology. The most important constraint in SRI cultivation has been identified as usage of cono-weeder (58.21 %) followed by nursery management (56.61 %). The adoption of SRI technique has helped increase the rice production without increasing the area under its cultivation and has proved to serve as an alternative method for rice cultivation.
394 Effect of micronutrient on quality seed production of soybean, PRITIA. SONKAMBLE*, ARUNA S. KATOLE AND MADHURI M. SADAFALE1
A high quality seed that provides adequate plant stand is the basis for profitable production of soybean crop. Soybean is an energy rich crop and hence the requirement of macro and micro nutrients is high for soybean. The use of micronutrients in soybean is one of the ways to boost up the productivity and to improve the seed quality parameters. Therefore, the field experiment was carried out at Seed Technology Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola to study the effect of micronutrient on quality seed production of soybean var. JS-335 during Kharif 2010 and 2011. The experiment consisted of 9 treatment combinations of soil application and foliar spray of ZnSO4 as the experimental field was deficit in Zn. Among all the treatments, significantly highest number of pods per plant (39.50), 100seed wt. (11g.), seed yield (24.60q/ha), highest vigour index (39.48) and seed recovery (91 %) were obtained from the plot treated with ZnSO4 @ 30 kg /ha soil application and ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent foliar spray. Hence, soil application of ZnSO4 @ 30 kg /ha along with foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent found most effective for seed yield and yield contributing characters as well as seed quality parameters.
395 Effect of different levels of potassium on yield, quality, available nutrient and uptake of blackgram, P.P. KURHADE*, H.N. SETHI1 AND R.S. ZADODE
A field experiment was conducted on PKVU-15 blackgram during the Kharif season of 2013 at Pulse Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola to study the effect of potassium on yield, quality, available nutrient status and its uptake of blackgram. Yield quality, nutrient status and its uptake of blackgram were significantly increased due to increased level of potassium fertilizer. RDF + 40 kg K2O ha-1 significantly improved the quality of seed, available nutrient status and nutrient uptake of blackgram over the application of RDF only. Treatment RDF + 40 kg K2O ha-1 was at par with RDF + 30 kg K2O ha-1 and RDF + 20 kg K2O ha-1, treatment RDF + Foliar spray of KCl 1.5 per cent (at flowering and 10-15 days after flowering) significantly improved the quality of blackgram and nutrient uptake over the application of RDF (20:40 N:P kg ha-1) only. This treatment was at par with soil applied RDF+ 20 kg K2O ha-1.
396 Effect of different levels of potassium on yield, quality, available nutrient and uptake of blackgram, P.P. KURHADE*, H.N. SETHI1 AND R.S. ZADODE
A field experiment was conducted on PKVU-15 blackgram during the Kharif season of 2013 at Pulse Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola to study the effect of potassium on yield, quality, available nutrient status and its uptake of blackgram. Yield quality, nutrient status and its uptake of blackgram were significantly increased due to increased level of potassium fertilizer. RDF + 40 kg K2O ha-1 significantly improved the quality of seed, available nutrient status and nutrient uptake of blackgram over the application of RDF only. Treatment RDF + 40 kg K2O ha-1 was at par with RDF + 30 kg K2O ha-1 and RDF + 20 kg K2O ha-1, treatment RDF + Foliar spray of KCl 1.5 per cent (at flowering and 10-15 days after flowering) significantly improved the quality of blackgram and nutrient uptake over the application of RDF (20:40 N:P kg ha-1) only. This treatment was at par with soil applied RDF+ 20 kg K2O ha-1.
397 Effect of various plant growth regulators on yield and quality of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. LUCKNOW-49, R.P. RAJPUT, H.J. SENJALIYA*, G.S. VALA AND G.S. MANGROLIYA
The present investigation was carried out to determine the suitable and optimum concentration of boron and plant growth regulators for maximum productivity and quality of guava cv. LUCKNOW-49 during Kharif season. From the present study it can be concluded that the treatment T10 (0.2% boron + GA3 60 ppm+ NAA 150 ppm + ethrel 750 ppm) was found best for physical parameters and treatment T5 (0.2% boron + NAA 150 ppm) for yield point of view, while for quality point of view the treatment T9 (0.2% boron + ethrel 1000 ppm) was found best. As far as the relative economics of the treatment is concerned, the maximum net realization of Rs. 1,72,807 per hectare with highest 1:6.6 cost benefit ratio (CBR) was obtained by the treatment T5 (0.2% boron + NAA 150 ppm) as compared to other treatments. Therefore, the treatment T5 (0.2% boron + NAA 150 ppm) is best among all treatment for higher production.
398 Effect of organic manures and liquid organic manures on growth, yield and economics of aerobic rice cultivation, DIVYA SAHARE* AND AVINASH MAHAPATRA
Field experiment was conducted to know the response of organic manures on growth, yield, quality and economics of aerobic rice during Kharif 2011 at MARS, Dharwad. Results indicated that among organic treatments combined application of EC(1/3) + VC(1/3) + GLM(1/3) equivalent to RDF + FYM in combination with foliar application of jeevamrut @ 500 l ha-1 at planting, 30 and 60 DAS + panchagavya @ 5 per cent at panicle emergence and flowering stages recorded significantly higher growth parameters with higher grain yield (3837 kg ha-1) and straw yield (5855 kg ha-1) which was on par with control treatments i.e., RDF + FYM and RDF only. But the net return (Rs.36,366) was higher with combined application of EC(1/3) + VC(1/3) + GLM(1/3) equivalent to RDF + FYM in a combination with foliar application of jeevamrut @ 500 l ha-1 at planting, 30 and 60 DAS + cow urine @ 10 per cent at panicle emergence and flowering stages and B:C (2.49) was higher with combined application of EC(1/3) + VC(1/3) + GLM(1/3) equivalent to RDN + cow urine @ 10 per cent at panicle emergence and flowering stages this might be due to lower cost of cultivation with these treatments.
399 Effect of irrigation and tillage practices on yield and economics of fodder maize (Zea mays), B. SUBBA REDDY*, C. GEORGE THOMAS AND SAHAJA DEVA
A field experiment entitled irrigation and tillage practices for fodder maize (Zea mays L.) in rice fallows was undertaken at the Department of Agronomy, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University conducted during 2012-2013. The treatments comprised of no irrigation (with residual moisture), irrigation at IW/CPE: 0.4, irrigation at IW/CPE: 0.7, irrigation at IW/CPE: 1.0 in main plots and zero tillage (with herbicide), minimum tillage and conventional tillage in sub plots. The experiment conducted showed that green fodder yield was highest under irrigation at IW/CPE: 1.0 and zero tillage (with herbicide). B: C ratio also followed the similar trend as yield.
400 Comparative study of physical properties with organics and rice-crop establishment methods of winter maize (Zea mays L.) in calciorthents, SUDHANSHU BHOOSHAN1, AWADH KISHOR PRASAD1 AND PAWAN KUMAR SRIVASTWA*
An experiment was conducted during the Rabi season of 2011-12 at south Kisan Vidhya Peeth block of Crop Research Centre of Rajendra Agricultural University, Bihar, Pusa (Samastipur). The experiment was conducted in a Split Plot Design with 30 treatments, which were replicated three times to the comparative study of physical properties with organics and rice-crop establishment methods of winter maize (Zea mays L.) in calciorthents. The main plot treatments consisting of six methods of rice-crop establishment A1 (ZT), A2 (DS), A3 (PDS), A4 (PT), A5 (SRI) and A6 (PT + BM) and the sub plot treatments consisting of five different form of the organic matter enrichment i.e., B1 (M), B2 (Vc), B3 (1/3CR),B4 (M+Vc), and B5 (control).
401 Studies on effect of biofertilizers with chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), JITENDRA KUMAR MEENA, SANJAY KUMAR*, SUTANU MAJI, MANOJ KUMAR AND DEVENDRA KUMAR
The present investigation entitled studies on effect of bio-fertilizers with chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) was conducted at the Horticultural Research Farm, Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (U.P.) during the years 2012-2013. Three bio- fertilizers viz., Azospirillum, PSB and Rhizobium were used at 2 levels of N, P and K as compared with control (recommended dose of NPK through chemical fertilizers) in the fenugreek. The result of all experiment showed that the maximum plant height (36.84 cm), number of branches (3.33), number of pods (7.20), days to 50 per cent flowering (66.33), days to 50 per cent germination (13.00) length of pods (8.53 cm), yield (15.57 q/ha), yield per plant (5.85 g) and days to maturity (145.26) were recorded under 50 per cent RDF+ 50 per cent Rhizobium whereas, minimum was recorded under control.
402 Evaluation of different methods of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) plantation, AJAIB SINGH* AND SUMANJIT KAUR
A study on different methods of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) planting was carried out at farmers field of district Hoshiarpur to evaluate the growth and yield of turmeric. The mean length of turmeric rhizomes for T1 (planting of turmeric manually at 30cm 20cm spacing), T2 (planting of turmeric manually at 45cm 15cm spacing) and T3 (planting of turmeric with semi-automatic potato planter at a spacing of 60cm 15cm) after uprooting was 7.85cm, 7.91cm and 8.20cm, respectively while the mean diameter of turmeric rhizomes for T1, T2 and T3 after uprooting was 3.05cm, 2.64cm and 3.45cm, respectively. The number of rhizomes per kg for T1, T2 and T3 were 34, 30 and 24, respectively. The yield of turmeric rhizome was highest (130.0 q/acre) in T3 which was 17.65 per cent and 8.33 per cent more as compared to T2 and T1, respectively because the rhizomes were grown on ridges and the overall size of rhizomes was bigger.
403 Assessment of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa) under farmers condition in the east and south eastern coastal plain zone of Odisha, S.C. SAHOO*, M. BEHERA AND P.K. BANERJEE
An on-farm experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2013 in four villages of Khorda district in east and south eastern coastal plain zone of Odisha to assess the performance of rice hybrid Rajalaxmi in the farmers field. The results revealed that there was increase in 60.07 per cent grain yield, 47.8 per cent straw yield and 68.6 per cent net profit due to the hybrid as compared to prevailing variety MTU 1010. The increase in yield of hybrid variety was due to 56.1 per cent more number of panicles/m2, 22.8 per cent more grains / panicle and 2.98 per cent heavier grains than the high yielding variety.
404 On farm assessment of performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties in semi-arid region under arid agroecosystem of Rajasthan, S.R. DHAKA
Four barley varieties were evaluated and compared with farmers local variety for their grain yield at farmers own field. The results revealed that barley varieties differed significantly for grain and straw yield. Among varieties, RD 2592 recorded highest grain (4570 kg ha-1) yield. The results proved that the RD 2592 was most suitable varieties under prevailing climatic condition of the study area.
405 Nutrient content, uptake and fertility influenced by sources and levels of sulphur in Kharif sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), BHAINRU SAINI*, B.T. PATEL1 AND B.L. YADAV2
An field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Instructional Farm, Chimanbhai Patel College of Agriculture, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during Kharif 2012. Total eight treatment combinations comprised of two sources of sulphur viz., S1=Elemental sulphur and S2=Gypsum and four levels of sulphur viz., L1= 15 kg S ha-1, L2= 30 kg S ha-1, L3= 45 kg S ha-1 and L4= 60 kg S ha-1 were tried in Randomized Block Design with factorial concepts with four replications. Sesame variety GT 2 was used as a test crop. The soil of the experimental field was loamy sand in texture, alkaline in reaction and soluble salt content under safe limit. It was low in organic carbon, available N and S; medium in available P2O5, K2O and DTPA-extractable Fe and Zn and having sufficient DTPA-extractable Mn and Cu status. Application of 45 kg S ha-1 produced significantly higher seed (814 kg ha-1) and stalk (1899 kg ha-1) yields, over other levels of sulphur, however, it was statistically at par with 60 kg S ha-1. Significantly higher content and uptake of N, P and S by seed and stalk and available S content in soil at harvest were recorded with 45 kg S ha-1, however, this treatment was statistically comparable with 60 kg S ha-1.
406 Food consumption pattern among lactating mothers, BANASHREEBARUAH
The period of lactation is a relatively brief and very special time in a womens life that is fondly remembered with a measure of pride. A lactating mother will need to take some extra care to assure that she produces and provides to her infant abundant, high-quality milk. Lactating mothers who eat a nutritious diet ensure good health for themselves and optimal growth pattern for their babies. In India it is observed from various nutritional surveys that the nutritional status of lactating mothers and infants is not satisfactory. Keeping this in mind this present study was carried out with the objective to find out the food consumption pattern among lactating mothers of Digboi, Assam with a total sample of 100 lactating women from rural areas of Digboi. An interview schedule was used as a tool. Majority (75%) of women had up to secondary level education and rest 25 per cent had up to primary level education. None of the mothers was working. Majority (72%) had knowledge that diet should be changed by increasing, adding or avoiding some special food items in the diet during lactation, but only 11 per cent practiced them. The reasons for this deficient knowledge and practice of dietary intake are lack of nutritional knowledge and poor economy. However, this can be overcome by improving nutritional knowledge and dietary practices of population in general and vulnerable groups on the use of locally available low cost nutritious foods and to avoid undue food restrictions.