1 Biodiversity assessment under cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations of Tamil Nadu, N.S. VIGNESH, M. MAHESWARI AND P. DORAISAMY
World over the scientific community is working for improving biodiversity beyond protected areas. In this context, lot of scientific research has been conducted in agro plantations, which is increasingly projected as the second best option to protected areas. Among the plantation crops, cocoa has received special attention as it grows under the canopy of diverse shade plants. There are many scientific studies to show that cocoa agro forests are environmentally preferable to other forms of agricultural activities in tropical regions. Research conducted in Latin America indicates that the capacity of cocoa plantations to conserve birds, ants and other wildlife is greater than in any other anthropogenic land use systems. The influence of cocoa plantations on faunal biodiversity was studied under cocoa intercropped plantations in comparison with coconut monoculture plantations at two different ago climatic zones of Tamil Nadu namely Western zone (Pollachi and Theni) and Cauvery Delta zone (Thanjavur). The similarity matrix at Western zone and Cauvery Delta zone were 53.4 and 48.14 per cent, respectively which indicated a drastic change in the floral diversity. ANOSIM gives the R values of 0.86 and 0.53 for Western zone and Cauvery Delta, respectively which belongs to category ‘distinguish’ and hence, indicates greater dissimilarity. The Shannon (H’) indices for avian diversity at Western zone and Cauvery Delta were 1.23 and 0.76 which were invariably higher compared to coconut mono culture plantations (1.03 and 0.69). The dendrogram classified the data into 23 clusters and further analysis indicates that the coconut mono culture at Western zone did not form close cluster and exhibited minimum similarity with other samples. Cocoa as an intercrop in coconut enhances the faunal, floral and avian diversity. Cocoa cultivation also improves the soil physical, chemical and biological properties and lead to a better carbon and nutrient dynamics, apart providing additional income to the farmers with the existing land. Hence, it is a win-win strategy to cultivate cocoa as an intercrop under coconut plantations
2 Study of productivity, runoff, soil and nutrient loss in cotton under contour cultivation practices, S.M. TALEY, S.C. VILHEKAR AND S.M. PONGDE
The study was undertaken at Agro-ecology and Environment Farm, Dr. PDKV, Akola to find the impact of contour cultivation practices on runoff, soil and nutrient loss and physio-chemical properties of soil. The study area was divided into three plots (T1, T2 and T3) under cotton (AKA - 07). The experiments were designed in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 4 replications. The land slope was maintained at 1.6 per cent in shallow soil. Each plot was treated with different cultivation practices viz., T1- Along the slope cultivation with opening of the tide, T2 – contour cultivation with opening of alternate furrows and T3 – contour cultivation with opening of furrows (R and F). Runoff was measured by H’flume with automatic stage level recorder installed at outlet of each plot. Amount of soil in runoff samples was determined by oven dry method. The analysis of soil samples was done to find out the nutrient losses (N, P and K) in the soil. Moisture content at 20, 40, 80 DAS and at harvest upto the depth of 60 cm was recorded. Changes in physio-chemical properties of soil were studied during the crop period. Cotton was sown on 2nd July 2012 and harvested by four picking (duration of crop – 152 days). The results of the study showed that the runoff, soil and nutrient loss was found lowest (0.79%) in T3 followed by T2 (4.09 %) and T1 (30.70 %). The moisture levels were also found to be better in T3 followed by T2 and T1. The bulk density was found to be improved in T3 (1.35) followed by T2 (1.41) and T1 (1.54). Field capacity was also found to be increased under T3 compared to other treatments. While, organic carbon and soil resistance were found to be reduced in T3 followed by T2 and T1. From the study, it was revealed that the treatment T3 - contour cultivation with opening of furrows (R and F) was effective in controlling runoff, soil and nutrient loss and improving physiochemical properties of soil compared to other treatments
3 Evaluation of water quality: Physico – chemical characteristics of Ganga and Yamuna river at Allahabad, SYED SUAIB NAUSHAD, ALOK MILTON LALL, AMIT ALEXANDER CHARAN AND ARADHANA IRENE CHARAN
Rivers are especially at high risk of contamination by different contaminants from anthropogenic sources including heavy metals since change of the sediment regime often occurs. The present study was carried out to study the changes in physiochemical parameters of the water samples of Ganga and Yamuna River in Allahabad region. Water samples under investigations were collected from the different sites of Allahabad and following parameters were investigated such as water temperature, pH, DO (mg/l), BOD (mg/l), COD (mg/l) and TDS (mg/l), chloride (mg/l), total alkalinity (mg/l), total hardness (mg/l), calcium (mg/l), magnesium (mg/l), turbidity (mg/l) and conductivity (?Scm-1). Analysis of observation reveal variation in the value of temperature from 210C to 240C, pH of river ranged from a minimum 7.8 and 8.3, D.O ranged from 4.5 to5.8 (mg/l), BOD ranged from 11.0 to 16 (mg/l), COD ranged from 8 to 21.6 (mg/l), TDS ranged from 359 to 455 (mg/l), chloride ranged from 5.7 to 6.8 (mg/l), total alkalinity ranged from 25 to 26.6 (mg/l), conductivity ranged from 480 to 573 ?Scm-1, total hardness ranged from 212 to 246 (mg/l), calcium ranged from 110 to150 (mg/l), magnesium varied from 72 to 136 (mg/l), turbidity ranged from 11 to 18.5 (mg/l). All the physicochemical parameters for pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons are within the highest desirable or maximum permissible limit set by WHO except turbidity which was high while NO3-, Cl-1 and F- are less than the values prescribed by WHO
4 Evalution of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater of the villages of Osmanabad district ofMaharashtra, SAYYED HUSSAIN, H.A. TIRPUDE AND VINOD MANE
The analysis dealt with the investigation of physico-chemical parameters of ground water of the different villages of dist.Osmanabad (M.S). The physico-chemical parameters like, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, sulphate were determined. The results were compared with standards given by WHO and IS10500. In the investigation, it was found that the ground water of some villages like Kangara, Irla got slightly polluted.
5 Influence of micro-climatic factors on biodiversity of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations in Tamil Nadu, N.S. VIGNESH, M. MAHESWARI AND P. DORAISAMY
In India, cocoa is a viable intercrop in coconut, arecanut and oil palm plantations. Presently, the area under cocoa cultivation is expanding and this necessitates systematic investigations to assess the influence of cocoa plantations on micro-climatic factor and biodiversity. In this context automated micro-climatic analyzers with sensors were installed in both cocoa intercropped with coconut and coconut monoculture plantations in the farmer’s field for continuous monitoring of weather parameters to assess the impact of cocoa cultivation as an intercrop on micro-climatic factors. The observations from automated micro-climatic analyzers with sensors showed a decrease in the air temperature under cocoa intercropped with coconut to a extent of 0.110C to 0.340 C and a reduction in the soil temperature to a tune of 0.030 C to 0.70 C. The wind velocity was reduced drastically as the cocoa trees act as the wind barriers. The average solar radiation was reduced by 68.8 per cent under cocoa canopy. The soil moisture was high in the cocoa cultivated soil by 19 per cent as the cocoa litter fall acts as a mulching agent. The relative humidity was also altered by the cocoa cultivation. An increase in the faunal population by 34 to 42 per cent was recorded with the introduction of cocoa as an intercrop with the coconut. Drastic increase in the insect diversity, intensity and distribution were observed, as the shade and humid condition encouraged the insect diversity. The bird species diversity was not much altered but there was an increase in population as the cocoa has higher insect population. Overall field observations unequivocally demonstrated the positive impact of cocoa as an intercrop with coconut plantations in improving the biodiversity. Cocoa alters the micro-climatic factors which it turns provides a favourable condition to improve the biological health
6 Mycoremediation - a potential tool to control soil pollution, MONIKA THAKUR
One of the major environmental problems faced by the world today is the contamination of soil, water and air by toxic chemicals. The distinct and unique role of microorganisms in the detoxification of polluted soil and environments is well recognized. Mycoremediation systems basically depend upon microorganisms (fungi) native to the contaminated sites. Examples of fungi used as mycoremediators are - Pleurotus ostreatus, Rhizopus arrhizus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, P. sordida and Tramates hirsute, T. versicolor, Lentinus edodes and L. tigrinus. Mycoremediation application falls into different categories. In situ mycoremediation treats the contaminated soil in the location in which it was found, whereas, ex situ processes require excavation of contaminated soil before they can be treated. However, despite being the living dominating biomass in soil, fungi have not yet been significantly exploited for mycoremediation of such polluted environments. More extensive research needs to be carried out on the use of fungi in mycoremediation. The present review aims to promote the potential of fungi as mycoremediators to remediate soil pollution
7 Effect of meteorological parameter on distribution of particulate matter and air quality, R.K. SRIVASTAVA AND KALPANA SAGAR
Air pollution byparticulate matter has concerned much interest, in resent time due to current epidemiology. The effect of variations in meteorological parameters on particulate matter and air quality has been investigated thoroughly. Ambient concentrations of particulate matter of less than 10?m and their activities are being aerodynamic measured in every country. Some of the resent researches have been renewed in this paper
8 Microbial groundwater contamination and effective monitoring system, A. KUMAR, L. NIRPEN, A. RANJAN, K. GULATI, S. THAKUR AND T. JINDAL
Global urbanization and livestock agriculture are responsible for microbial contamination for groundwater aquifer. Presence of pathogenic microbes and hazardous chemicals in the water bodies has deteriorated the water quality and poses a serious threat to public health. The objective of this review is to summarize the microbial groundwater contamination, their transport system into groundwater aquifer, existence, survival rate and various monitoring system. Livestock agriculture as well as urban wastewater is considered as one of the most important causes of bacterial contamination of surface and groundwater. Factors influencing fecal bacteria and enteric virus survival include moisture, soil type, temperature, pH, manure application rate, nutrient availability and competition. Cool, moist environments are considered optimal for bacterial survival. Field scale transport studies have shown significant transport of bacteria and viruses from sewage to groundwater through infiltration. Methods employed for microbial detection represent multitude culture, molecular and chemical techniques. The basic and rapid monitoring tactics for microbial analysis provide the effective tools to control the fundamental source for groundwater contamination
9 Waste water treatment by photo-catalytic oxidation process, AMIT KUMAR GUPTA AND SACHIN GUPTA
Water shortage and water quality are the main issues in the global water crisis. As the population increases, there is ever growing demand on water resources. Due to increased industrial activities and urbanization, availability of good quality water is diminishing day by day. Purification of water is essential for availability of good quality water. Advance oxidation process (photo-catalytic oxidation process) is a method for degradation of organic compounds in waste water through a semiconductor catalyst i.e. TiO2 with UV light. This paper discusses the organic and inorganic pollutants in waste water and there removal via photo-catalytic oxidation process. The mechanisms of photo-catalytic oxidation process have been discussed to radical formation i.e. OH*. These radicals (i.e. OH*) are capable to destroy the organic pollutants in waste water. This paper also discusses the several other conventional methods for purification of water
10 Hydro chemical appraisal of ground water in R.S. Pura tehsil and adjoining areas of district Jammu (J&K), PRAGYA KHANNA AND PRIYA KANWAR
The present study aims to assess the physico-chemical parameters (pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), carbonate (CO3 2-), bicarbonate (HCO3 -), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 -2), nitrate (NO3 -), fluoride (F-), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), iron (Fe), total hardness (TH)) of the underground water in tehsil R.S. Pura, district of Jammu, J&K, India. The water samples were collected from tube wells and hand pumps in 30 chosen sites during the pre-monsoon period (Mar. 2013 to May 2013). The results were compared with standard values of drinking water prescribed by IS:10500, BIS and WHO. It was observed that certain parameters like electrical conductivity, bicarbonate, total hardness, calcium, sulphate, nitrate and iron as determined from the groundwater samples of tehsil R.S. Pura were above the limits set by IS:10500 and BIS at certain places. To analyse the data with statistical point of view, the statistical parameters like mean, range, standard deviation, co-efficient of variation, correlation co-efficient, kurtosis, skewness were systematically calculated for each parameter. Also, single factor Anova tables, piper diagram and schoeller graph were prepared to signify the major results. Also, an account has been prepared to analyze the factors like sum of anions (meq/ l), sum of cations (meq/l), calculated TDS (mg/l), dissolved minerals (mg/l) like halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl), carbonate (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), anhydrite (CaSO4), permanent hardness, temporary hardness and alkalinity
11 River water quality: A case study of Yamuna at Allahabad, IBADAIAHUN MYRTHONG, RICHA SHARMA, GIDEON SYNREM AND SUSHIL KUMAR
Rivers are an indispensable part of our biosphere which is essential for the overall development of the present civilization. The present study was focused on the different areas of the River Yamuna at Allahabad city. Sampling and analysis was conducted as per the guidelines of CPCB. The results revealed that there was significant difference in months due to the variations in temperature, weather conditions and even rainfall but there was no significant difference between the sites. The results revealed that the water was suitable for irrigation purpose as the values were found to be within the permissible limit except for DO whose values were found to be slightly less than the permissible limit which makes it unsuitable for bathing purpose. Data shows that the water quality of Yamuna river falls under C category of the surface water quality criteria by CPCB
12 Geo-statistics and heavy metal indexing of surface water around Okaba coal mines, Kogi State, Nigeria, AMEH E.G.
Because of the role of surface water and indeed water in our daily lives, this research was carried out to evaluate the impact of coal mining. Consequently, ten (10) dry season water samples were collected and analysed for major ions, physiochemical and heavy metals. The data acquired were subjected to factor /cluster analysis. The heavy metals were further evaluated using anthropogenic factor (AF), heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and metal index (MI).The factor/cluster analysis suggested significant heavy metal inputs into the water due to coal mining and related activities. The relatively enhanced level of these heavy metals was also due to the acidic nature of the environment. NO3 and SO4 were also high for the same reason, particularly SO4. AF result suggested higher input from mining with respect to all heavy metals, particularly Cd, Zn, Ni and Fe. The HPI though below the critical value of 100 was above the half mark while the MI implies water contamination.Geostatistical and heavy metal indices key to data evaluation. Mining companies need to put in control measures to forestall surface water contamination. The communities and regulators also need to be sensible and responsible to what happens in their environment.
13 Flood and health hazard: a seasonal environmental problem of Nagarbera revenue circle in Kamrup district of Assam, India, D.C. KALITA, N. KAR AND D. NATH
An attempt has been made in this paper to analyse the impact of flood on public health in Nagarbera revenue circle of Kamrup district, Assam. During monsoon period of 2010, an epidemiological survey was conducted in 9 purposefully selected sample revenue villages of the circle. Considering the health indicators - sanitary, drinking water and health care facilities of the villages, primary data/information were collected from 300 randomly selected households. Total 1,351 respondents were interviewed with specially designed questioner - cum - schedule. The study revealed that 45.50 per cent respondents were infected by dysentery, 30.86 per cent by viral fever, 20.70 per cent were suffering from gastroenteritis and 2.93 per cent were infected by jaundice. Dysentery and viral fevers are the major seasonal diseases of the flood prone villages. A village level health care awareness programme and need base plan is urgently necessary for public health care.
14 Study on hydro-chemical parameters and their influence on ichthyofauna diversity in a lentic water body : a model in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh, B.K. RAVINDAR, RAMULU NARASIMHAAND G. BENARJEE
Freshwater bodies are one of the most common and stable habitats of biosphere. The freshwater habitats have their own physico-chemical and biological characters which are subjected to modify by local conditions and physiographic features. Now a days, the ecology of reservoirs is under stress conditions due to fast pace of industrial development, deforestration, cultural and agricultural practices. These activities trigger the rate of sedimentation of the reservoir bed characterised by silt and organic suspended matter, which initiates the process of eutrophication at a very early stage and show a deterioration of the quality of the habitat. The water quality parameters have a great influence on the growth and other factors of aquatic organisms. Therefore, the lentic water body gives a good source for fisheries. The present investigation deals with limnological and physico-chemical parameters and their influence on ichthyofauna abundance in a lentic water body. The study was carried out for a period of one year i.e., from October, 2008 to September, 2009. The investigation was focused on the determination of hydro-chemical parameters such as water temperature (24.5-33.9ºC), pH (7.4- 8.7), EC (0.28-0.33 millimhos), TDS (140.2-425.5mg/1), DO (7.1-10.9 mg/1), free CO2 (5.0-11.7mg/1), total alkalinity (94.0-240.5mg/1), chlorides (27.0-70.7mg/1), total hardness (96.7-142.0mg/1) and BOD (3.4-11.1mg/ 1). The values of these parameters were higher during summer months. The study was made to record fish fauna availability. In this reservoir, it was recorded that 18 species of fishes were identified, the major fishes in this, were common carps and cat fishes. In the light of recent literature, the data have been discussed and it is concluded that limnological and physico-chemical parameters in this reservoir are most comply with suitability of human consumption and favourable for fishery.
15 Bioremediation of organic pollutants by using free and immobilised cells of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, K. TULASI RAMKRISHAN AND C. SIVASUBRAMANIAN
Immobilisation of cells on a suitable support simplify the treatment of liquid waste as the entrapment of living cell increasing the retention time of cells on contaminated water. The present study aimed at free and immobilised cells of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used as remediating material for the removal of organic pollutants from tannery effluent. Removal of organic pollutants is drastic under immobilised conditions compared to free cells of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compared to free cell, immobilised cells of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are more efficient in the removal of organic pollutants from tannery effluent. Immobilised cells of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited maximum percentage bioremediation level of organic pollutants from tannery effluent.
16 Adsorption of malachite green usingNPP-modified bentonite in synthetic medium and textile wastewater, B.N. SANDEEP AND S. SURESHA
Adsorption of malachite green (MG) using sodium pyrophosphate modified bentonite (NPPbentonite) in synthetic medium and textile wastewater was investigated in batch method. The effect of pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial dye concentration on MG adsorption was studied. XRF technique was employed for composition study of NPP-bentonite. The adsorption equilibrium was attained at 60 min and adsorption efficiency reached maximum of 94.90 % at pH 7.0 with adsorbent dose of 1 g/L and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L. The equilibrium data showed good fitting for Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed applicability of NPP-bentonite as an effective low cost adsorbent for adsorption of MG from textile wastewater.
17 Assessment of different types of waste water formulations with cattle dung for generation of electricity., SHIVARAJKUMAR M.ARIKATTI, M. MAHADEVA MURTHY, MOHAN RAJU, D. RADHAKRISHNA AND T.K. NAGARATHNA
Electricity generation through microbial fuel cells using different types of waste water formulations with cattle dung was studied. This experiment revealed that, in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC), among different types of waste water formulations made with sterilized cattle dung slurry, it was found that, biogas slurry was producing stable and maximum voltage followed by sewage waste water.
18 Agro - ecological management of natural resource managament of the Galo tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, India, SUDIPTA SANKAR BORA, JYOTI PRASAD LAHANAND MADHUMITA BAROOAH
The importance of sustainable system of agriculture that co-exists with nature and be resilient to environmental stress has gained importance during the recent times. In contrast to the technology-intensive farming systems that have brought a variety of environmental and social problems, many ethnic tribes/communities such as the Galos of Arunachal Pradesh, India, have been practicing farming system that maintains harmony with the environment. Over the generations, the Galos have acquired traditional knowledge of sustainable use of natural resources. They traditionally practice shifting cultivation (Jhum kheti) which involves intensive labor and often employs the entire village during cultivation and harvesting of the crops. Their cropping systems are based on rich indigenous ecological knowledge gained over the generations. Field preparation, choosing of crop varieties and season of sowing, intercultural operations, soil and water conservation techniques, harvest and storage methods reflect their rich traditional knowledge of an agriculture system that is self-sustaining. This paper highlights the agro-ecological management of natural resources in Galo plateau of Arunachal Himalaya in North east India.
19 Levels of protein metabolites inCyprinus carpio (L) on sublethal exposure to synthetic detergent linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), S. GOPAL, M. NAGABHUSHAN REDDY AND P. INDIRA
Synthetic detergents deposited in the aquatic environment may accumulate in the food chain and cause ecological damage and even threat to human health. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), an anionic surfactant is now-a-days widely spread in many aquatic environments, where it has a significant potential. During this research sublethal effects of LAS on the levels of total proteins, urea, amino acids and protease activity in various tissues of freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus were studied. The levels of total proteins and urea decreased initially at 24 h in relation to control and up to day 15. After day 15, these levels increased gradually through day 20 and reached nearer to control at day 30. The increase in the levels of total proteins and urea was more in liver followed by muscle and gill. The levels of both free amino acids and protease activity followed a reverse trend to that of both total proteins and urea. It was evident that there was drastic protein utilization through proteolytic activity in all the tissues for releasing extra energy to cope up with the energy crisis developed during the toxic stress of synthetic detergent (LAS). These changes support the ability acquired by the fish exposed to LAS toxicity stress which might have achieved by activating the detoxification process.
20 Domestic and wildlife damage to crops and mitigation strategies around Rajiv Gandhi National Park (Karnataka), M. MAHADEVA MURTHY, N. SHIVKUMAR, G.M. DEVGIRI, N. SWAMI RAO AND T.K. NAGARATHNA
A study was undertaken in the Rajeev Gandhi National Park, Karnataka to assess the crop and live stock damage caused by wild animals and to recommend mitigation strategies to control or prevent such damage. The fringe areas of the park are habitated by tribals who traditionally cultivate food crops for their livelihood. The large population of herbivores and carnivores in the park area live in harmony as long as there is sufficient food and water. They usually do not stray out of the park area if left undisturbed. However, encroachment of the forest area for raising plantations and cultivation of crops in forest fringes attracts the wild animals during cropping and dry seasons. The wild animals stray out and cause wide spread damage to standing crops and plantations by trampling and uprooting. They also attack domestic and livestock browsing in the forest and humans entering into forest area for collection of forest products, collection of fuel wood and other activities. Thus, a conflict between man and animal has been a constant feature in the national park. The study conducted in seven ranges of Rajeev Gandhi National Park revealed that, damage and destruction of crops resulted in crop loss, injury and loss of human and cattle lives and damage to plantation crops. The findings indicated that, coffee, coconut, paddy, ragi, cotton, and tobacco are the major crops grown in the fringe areas and the maximum damage and loss to these crops is caused by elephants and wild boars. Tigers and leopards also caused greater loss of life among domestic animals like cattle, sheep, and dogs. This study recommended that, protective measures like construction or renovation of EPT (Elephant Proof Trench), fencing with electric fence or any other mechanical barrier to control the movements of wild animals and human activity within the park area have to be taken to prevent or minimize man-animal conflict and crop loss by wild animals.
21 Use of pesticides in agriculture and livestock animals and its impact on environment of India, SACHIN KUMAR, ANIL K. SHARMA, S.S. RAWAT, D.K. JAIN AND S. GHOSH
A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore highly exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. Indiscriminate and repeated application of pesticides leads to loss of biodiversity, pest-resistance and other ecological imbalance. Many pesticides are not easily degradable, they persist in soil, leach to groundwater and surface water and contaminate wide environment. In India, the use of pesticides remains the cornerstone of controlling ticks, lice and other ecto-parasites from the livestock animals. In the absence of an effective alternative method of control, reliance on chemicals is bound to increase, which exerts selection pressure on the target organism resulting into the development of resistance. The persistence nature of pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure through consumption of animal products viz., meat, milk, eggs and sea foods. Low dose but long term exposure of pesticides can cause serious health hazards to human health and environment as well. The reports on occurrence of pesticides residues in animal products manufactured in India are fragmentary, but provide confirmation to the fact that Indian consumers do get dietary exposure to these pesticides. Thus, the intensive pesticide application results in several adverse effects in the environment and human health that cannot be ignored.
22 Eco-friendly utilization of wastewater in agriculture, S. RATHIKAAND T. RAMESH
The availability of water is unevenly spread across the country and there is an urgent need to utilize the alternate sources of water for agriculture in order to meet the demand. Increasing industrialization and urbanization in India has brought in its wake the major problem of safe disposal of wastewater. Good quality of water is inadequate when for normal living and is getting polluted due to industrial discharge including those of distilleries, paper and pulp, tannery, textile and other industries. Hence, efforts should be made in future for proper treatment and safe disposal of wastewater and use in agricultural land in order to increase our food grain production and enhancing environmental quality. Characterization of wastewater of various industries, effect of wastewater use on soil and crops and management strategies to be adopted has been reviewed hereunder.
23 Air pollution in textile industry, MEENAXITIWARI AND SUDHA BABEL
The textile industry is plagued by air pollution problems which must be resolved. In particular, smoke and odor arising in the process require abatement. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate, or biological material that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Oil mist and organic emissions produced when textile materials containing lubricating oils, platicizers, and other materials that can volatilize or be thermically degraded into volatile substances, are subjected to heat. Processes that can be sources of oil mist include tentering, calendaring, heat setting, drying, and curing. Acid mist produced during the carbonization of wool and during some types of spray dyeing. Solvent vapours are released during and after solvent processing operations such as dry cleaning and volatile organic compounds from mineral spirit solvents in print pastes or inks. Exhaust gases emanate from polycondensation of melt spinning fibre lines. Dust and lint are produced by the processing of natural fibres and synthetic staple prior to and during spinning, as well as by napping and carpet shearing
24 Isolation and characterization of extracellular cellulase using Bacilluls subtilis from mangrove soil, V. REKA AND T. ANANTHI
A novel thermostable extracellular cellulases producing Bacillus subtilis was isolated from Mangrove soil. The bacteria were grown on carboxymethyl cellulose agar at 45oC and screened for the cellulase activity using Congo red method. The gram staining and biochemical tests had confirmed the microorganisms as Bacillus subtilis. Cellulose is commonly degraded by an enzyme called "cellulase". Cellulase is used for commercial food processing in coffee, textile industry and in laundry detergents. Maximum enzymatic activity was found at following optical parameters pH 7 (0.382 IU/ml) temperature 45oC (0.620 IU/ml); nitrogen source 0.6g (0.398 IU/ml) and incubation period 5 days. In addition, protein determination of different pH, temperatures and nitrogen sources was found to be most suitable for cellulase production.
25 Effect of weather conditions on Kharif groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) at Anand in middle Gujarat agro-climatic zone, P.M. GULED, A.M. SHEKH, VYAS PANDEY AND H.R. PATEL
A field experiment for the two years was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 with the first sowing at the onset of monsoon followed by successive sowings at an interval of 15 days with the varieties namely V1-M 335 (Virginia spreading type), V2-GG 20 (Virginia semi-spreading type) and V3-GG 5 (Spanish bunch type) to study the effect of weather conditions on pod yield of groundnut. The overall performance of groundnut crop in terms of pod yield from the present study suggest that, sowing of groundnut should be taken up for variety V1 between 26th to 27th week, as a good rainfall amount and distribution of 823 to 852 mm under early/ normal onset of monsoon as observed during 2010 resulted in commercial production of groundnut. Whereas, sowing of groundnut should be taken up for variety V2 between 26th to 27th, because reasonably a good crop can be produced on as little as 269 to 298 mm of rainfall under late onset of monsoon as observed during 2009 crop growing season. However, during pod development phase (P6) 79% of mean relative humidity, 23.5 mm of Hg mean vapour pressure and 135 mm of rainfall amount were found optimum with an R2 of 0.61, 0.54 and 0.63, respectively to have significantly influenced the pod yield. Similarly, the values beyond for mean maximum air temperature of 32.5 0C, evaporation rate of 3.2 mm and bright sunshine hours of 4.8 were found detrimental with an R2 of 0.53, 0.77 and 0.59, respectively. The decrease in each unit of maximum air temperature, evaporation rate and BSS hours had resulted in decrease of 567, 332 and 474 kg ha-1 in pod yield levels.
26 Intensive farming and its implications on crop diversification in Tamil Nadu, V. KAVITHA AND K. CHANDRAN
In India as a result of green revolution, increase in area under cultivation and productivity was noticed in almost all the crops. Intensive use of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides and extension of area under irrigation has been an important tool in the drive for increased crop production. It has been of late recognized that the efforts to increase agriculture production through intensive farming resulted in monocropping and thereby decline in area of certain principal crops over the years. In order to assess the implications of intensive farming on cropping pattern and thereby on crop diversification, the study was undertaken in South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu, for the period of 1980 - 2010. The results indicated that co-efficient of variation was higher for non-food crops (41 %) than that of food crops (9 %) and the analysis of crop diversification showed that, during last three decades, the average Herfindahl Index value for crop diversification was found to be 0.20, which showed, the district was diversified in cropping pattern and intensive farming did not create the mono-cropping in the district.
27 Impact of seasonal fluctuation on phytoplankton diversity in fresh water lake of Arekurahatti in Navalgund of Dharwad, R.V. AIRSANG AND H.C. LAKSHMAN
Physico-chemical analysis is considered to be the main feature to assess the quality of water for its best utilization for drinking and irrigation. There is a need to understand the interaction between climatic and biological processes in the water. In the present investigation, the monthly variation in different physicochemical characteristics like pH, temperature, electric conductivity, alkalinity etc. were analyzed from May 2012 to April 2013, to know the water quality and impact of seasonal fluctuation on phytoplanktons in Arekurahatti lake of Navalgund Taluk. The surface water samples from fixed spots were collected and analyzed at an interval of one month for a period of 12 months. The results revealed that the variations in pH, temperature and other physico-chemical parameters played an important role in the phytoplankton distribution in different seasons. Therefore, it can be concluded that Arekurahatti lake water can be used only for domestic purposes and not for consumption. It was also found that there was rich diversity of phytoplanktons especially Cyanophyceae and Bacillariophyceae members.
28 Biodegradation pattern of polyphenols released during husk retting in different bacterial isolates in vitro, J.K. RESHMA, V. SALOM GNANA THANGA AND ANU MATHEW
Phenol and its derivatives are known as major organic pollutants. Despite their often unusual structure only few of these compounds appear to cause environmental problems due to incomplete degradation. Certain efficient microorganisms make use of these organic pollutants for their growth and functioning of cellular process by electron transport mechanisms and help in transformation of otherwise stable end products. Since microbes have the potential to degrade phenolic compounds, and considering the toxicity of phenols, several studies have been focused in this aspect. The present study is aimed to analyze the competency of degrading capacities in ten microbial strains in different time intervals and to determine the most efficient strain capable of surviving in harsh or polluted environment.
Water is very precious for every living organism on this earth. The present study was done to focus on parameters of the different ponds in Allahabad city which is one of the fresh sources of water. The samples were collected for three months with 15 days interval (Jan. 2012 to March 2012) from four different sites viz., Chaka, Mundera, Dubey and Dadri. Sampling and analysis were carried out according to the guidelines provided. The result obtained from this experiment will help us that the pond at Mundera (P2) had the highest pollution level than the other ponds. It may be attributed due to increased intensity of turbidity and BOD, less amount of DO, nitrogen comparable to other ponds.
30 Metals adsorption from aqueous solution by coconut husk, K.V. MANJUNATHAAND N.T. MANJUNATH
The presence of heavy metals in the wastewaters is a major concern due to the toxicity to many life forms. Heavy metals will not degrade into harmless end product, unlike organic pollutants. Thus, treatment of wastewaters containing heavy metals requires secured disposal. This paper throws light on results of batch experimentations carried out to evaluate the potential of coconut husk in adsorbing zinc and copper ions from aqueous solutions. The influence of flow rate (contact time), pH of the solution and initial concentration of metal ions (Co) were investigated. Adsorption of metal ions were found to be pH dependent and results indicated the optimum pH of 7 for the removal of copper and zinc ions. The better removal efficiencies were recorded at flow rates of 40 ml/min and initial concentration of metals being 20 mg/l. Removal efficiency increased with increase in pH upto contain pH value and further decreased with increase in pH value. Also decrease in removal efficiency with increase in metal concentration was recorded. The coconut husk exhibited 80 % and 75 % removal of zinc and copper, respectively from aqueous solutions.
31 Landscape level floral biodiversity characterisation and estimation in shendurney wildlife sanctuary using remote sensing and gis techniques, V. SMITHA ASOK AND V. SOBHA
Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve is one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the Western Ghats, the biotic richness and distinct biographic features making it an ideal gene pool reserve. Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary has substantial natural vegetation ranging from the southern secondary moist mixed deciduous forest to southern subtropical hill forest. Remote sensing, with its advantage of spatial, spectral and temporal availability of data covering large and inaccessible area within short time has made it a very rapid and cost effective tool in assessing, monitoring and conserving our natural resources. With an aim of assessing the floral biodiversity of the sanctuary at the landscape (vegetation class) level, remote sensing based supervised classification technique was carried out on IRS P6 LISS III digital imagery. Quantification of each vegetation class was then carried out on the classified image using the tool of GIS which was substantiated with extensive ground survey. The results indicated that more than 40% of the vegetation in Shendurney Wildlife sanctuary falls under the semi-evergreen category followed by evergreen vegetation which comes to 30 % of the total area. Other classes identified include reed brake (3.37 %), grass land (3.30 %) and water-bodies (10.22 %). A fraction of 0.1 % and 2.3 % of the area depicted cloud cover and shadow regions in the imagery, respectively. A Kappa analysis was also performed to estimate the thematic accuracy of the classified image, using the Kappa co-efficient, which is a measure of agreement between classification and verification.
32 Isolation of protease producing bacteria from a biofertilizer generated from a municipal solid waste, G.J.ANILA,AYONA JAYADEV AND S. NAVAMI
Micro-organisms, one of the most potent of organisms on earth, show pronounced capacities to produce different enzymes depending on their source of isolation. Proteases are one among the most important industrial enzymes that execute a wide variety of functions and have various important biotechnological applications. There are various microorganisms which are capable of producing the enzyme protease. In the present study, a biofertilizer generated from Municipal Solid Waste was prospected for proteolytic microorganisms. For this, the total microbes in the product were isolated and then each of the isolate was separately screened for proteolytic activity by plate assay using casein as substrate. A total of 18 colonies were selected from the total isolated bacteria based on colony morphology. Of these, two colonies (C5 and C16) showed halo zone in casein agar medium. These two colonies were later subjected to enzyme activity testing to compare the level of activity among them. Isolate C5 showed to be potent. Gram staining reactions and standard biochemical tests showed that the two cultures with protease producing capacity belonged to Pseudomonas sp. and Klebsiella sp., respectively.
33 Water requirement satisfaction index of rainfed sown groundnut cultivars (Arachis hypogaea L.) during two individual precipitation years in middle Gujarat Agroclimatic zone, P.M. GULED,A.M. SHEKH, H.R. PATELAND VYAS PANDEY
A field experiment for the two years was conducted during the Kharif seasons of 2009 and 2010 with six sowing window combinations with the first sowing done at the onset of monsoon followed by successive sowings at an interval of 15 days along with the varieties namely V1-M 335 (Virginia spreading type), V2-GG 20 (Virginia semi-spreading type) and V3-GG 5 (Spanish bunch type) to study the crop water requirement satisfaction index (CWRSI) for assessing the sufficiency of rainfall vis-a-vis the crop water requirements and its effect on pod yield. The performance of groundnut crop in terms of pod yield from the present study suggested that, sowing of groundnut should be taken up for variety V1 between 26th to 27th week, as a good rainfall amount and distribution of 823 to 852 mm under early/normal onset of monsoon as observed during 2010 which resulted in commercial production of groundnut. Whereas, sowing of groundnut should be taken up for variety V2 between 26th to 27th, because reasonably a good crop can be produced on as little as 269 to 298 mm of rainfall under late onset of monsoon as observed during 2009 crop growing season as the rainfall amount and distribution had determined the crop performance due to the crop water requirements were actually met by the available water vis-a-vis soil moisture content, actual evapotranspiration (AET) resulting in improved CWRSI of the crop. The correlation and regression studies revealed that the CWRSI, soil moisture content, AET and rainfall were having highly significant positive correlation during pod development phase and for the entire crop duration. However, the stepwise regression revealed that the CWRSI during pod development phase determined 93% variation in the pod yield. Whereas, rainfall and AET together had resulted in determining 89% variation in the pod yield for the entire crop duration.
34 Assessment of ground water quality in and around Kinwat region district Nanded, H.A. TIRPUDE, SAYYED HUSSAIN ANDVINOD MANE
The present research work deals with the limnology of two ground water samples selected from in and around Kinwat region, dist. Nanded. Total ten physico chemical parameters such as total dissolved solids, sulphate, pH, dissolved oxygen biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total hardness, chlorides, calcium and magnesium were tested for a period of one year. Considering all the aspects and problems from the present study, it was concluded that there must be regular monitoring of water quality is necessary.
35 Removal of iron from waste waters by precipitation using lime in conjunction with alum, R.T. SRINIVASA RAO AND N.T. MANJUNATH
In recent years, increasing awareness of the environmental impact of heavy metals has prompted a demand for the purification of industrial waste waters prior to discharge into natural waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using lime in conjunction with alum to precipitate iron from synthetic solution under varied experimental conditions, viz., pH (8 to 12), alum dosage (400 to 1100 mg/l) and initial concentration of metal (Co 2 to 6 mg/l). Increase in removal efficiency with increase in pH, alum dosage upto certain limit was observed. Maximum removal efficiency of 98% was recorded at alum dosage of 700 mg/l, pH of 10, Co being 4 mg/l. However, all the dosages of alum, at all the pH values and Co, have successfully reduced the iron content in synthetic solution to permissible limits.
36 Temporal variation in physico-chemical properties of Basupur Handia wetland, Allahabad, ANAND MOHAN AND D.R. MISRA
The temporal variations in physico-chemical parameters of Basupur Handia wetland in Allahabad, like temperature, pH, D.O., B.O.D., total alkalinity, turbidity, chlorides contents and electrical conductivity were analyzed from (Sep. 2009-Aug. 2010). All these parameters were found to be higher in cooler season compared to other season, which may be due to the temperature changes which showed inverse relationship with water temperature. The water was alkaline during entire study period and alkalinity was found highest in the month of June and lowest in the month of August. The study revealed the changes in physico-chemical characteristics of this wetlands, which will be a beneficial study to monitor the environmental changes of such water bodies
37 Estimation of lycopene content in different tomato varieties and its commercial products, SHYMA P. DARSAN, J.K. RESHMAANDANU MATHEW
Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid in tomatoes, exhibits the highest antioxidant activity and singlet oxygen quenching ability of all dietary carotenoids. The present study evaluated the lycopene content of fresh tomatoes, temperature treated and commercial products (sauce, ketchup and puree) procured from Thiruvananthapuram city, Kerala. The raw tomatoes showed the highest lycopene content (Bella rosa 10.44 mg/ kg fresh wt) and commercial products showed least values (sauce 0.137 mg/kg fresh wt and ketchup 1.23 mg/kg fresh wt). This study recommends the usage of a tomato product daily to reduce the rate of chronic diseases.
38 Community structure of clambds in tropical estuary, Mangalore, N. SIVASHANKAR AND GANGADHARA GOWDA
A study was conducted to know the community structure of the clam beds of Mulky estuary in Mangalore. The seasonal and spatial variations in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the macrobenthic population indicated the dominance of mollusca, polychaetes and crustaceans. Higher populations were observed during the premonsoon and post monsoon season. The population density of macrobenthos varied between 228 to 915 no/m2. Four species of polychaetes were recorded in clam beds in which Seballaria sp. and Dendroneries were the most abundant. Crustaceans were represented by amphipods, isopods, barnacles and crabs.. Molluscan population were represented by bivalves, and gastropods. Four species of bivalves were recorded in Mulki estuary among which,Meretrix casta and Paphia malabaricawere the dominant. Bivalves contributed significantly to the macrobenthic population.
39 Estimation of PET measurement and actual AET in groundnut by various methods, P.B. MHETRE, P.S. KAMBLE AND J.D. JADHAV
A field experiment was conducted at dry farming research unit, Solapur. The experiment was conducted with groundnut crop in a field where two weighing types of lysimeter were installed. The experiment was nonreplicated and estimation of reference crop evapotranspiration was measured on daily basis. At the same time, the daily weather data were recorded at nearby observatory and were tabulated. The PET were estimated and compared with lysimetric observations. The study revealed that among the methods tested, modified Penman method was found to be suitable for advocating the irrigation scheduling as it matched well throughout the crop season. The Blaney and Criddle and Pan evaporation estimation methods underestimated the values when compared with lysimetric data. As these methods are based on only air temperature, pan evaporation and other parameters such as radiation, relative humidity, bright sunshine hours. Wind factor was not included which also played a significant role in affecting ET. The results obtained through these methods are not comparable.
40 Urbanization as a major cause for biodiversity erosion-A case study along the bank of kali river, SHILPI AGGARWAL AND VEENA GUPTA
The present study was carried out upon polluted river bank to investigate the impact of urbanization on plant genetic resources. Soil seed bank study was carried out by seedling emergence method and phytosociology by quadrat method. A total of 21 plant species were recorded in belowground vegetation and 73 plant species were recorded in overlying vegetation. The dominance of species differed between above ground and below ground flora. The present study showed that the availability of plant genetic resources was governed by relationship between above ground and below ground flora in peri-urban region.
41 Impact of weather parameters on incidence of chrysomelid beetles (Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister) in gajar-ghas (Parthenium hysterophorus Linn.), A.K. KULSHRETHA AND MANOJ KUMAR
Field survey experiments was conducted during 2008-09 and 2010 years in different areas of Agra region to study the impact of weather parameters on incidence of chrysomelid beetles (Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister) in gajar- ghas (Parthenium hysterophorus Linn.) growing areas. The incidence observed to start in March months but the maximum incidence (87.27%, 87.09%and 76.19) was recorded in August months of 2008 and 09 and September month of 2010 which was highly positive significant correlation with temperature (max. and min.) and rainfall (mm) while it was positive non-significant correlation with relative humidity (max. and min.) but no incidence recorded in December and January months due to cold and foggy weathers.