1 Effect of sperm selection by percoll and swim up techniques on the sex ratio of rabbit offspring, A.M.A. HUSSEIN
This study was conducted to evaluate rabbit the semen characterization before freezing and after thawing. Also, to determine the sex ratio of rabbit offspring’s after artificial insemination (AI) using semen selected by Percoll or swim up method. Semen was collected from New Zealand white rabbit bucks (n=9) and 45 rabbit does in three groups (15 in each) were inseminated with frozen semen (control, G1), semen selected by 67.5 per cent Percoll (G2) or swim up (G3) methods, respectively. Semen was processed in tris-buffer extender at a rate of 1:4. Results showed that percentage of progressive motility, livability and intact acrosome spermatozoa decreased (P
2 Effect of mixed feeding statageis on growth performances of striped cat fish (Pangasianodon hypothalamus) and catla (Catla catla) under polyculture, SWETA PRADHAN, S. NANDA, TULSANKAR SMITA SADANAND, G.C. KUND, D. CHOUDHURY AND R.K. RATH
A 120 days feeding trial was conducted in triplicate in the cement cistern to investigate the effect of mixed feeding statagies on growth performances of striped cat fish (Pangasianodon hypothalamus) and catla (Catla catla) under polyculture system. Both the species of uniform size and initial weight were stocked at a ratio of 60:40 (striped cat fish 60% and catla 40%) by adopting a total stocking density of 30,000 numbers of fingerlings per ha. Experimental diets were prepared containing varying levels of proteins from the plant source like soybean, sesame oil cake, mustard oil cake following the standard procedures for formulation of pelleted feed. The feed ingredients like mustard oil cake, sesame oil cake. soybean, de-oiled rice bran, corn flour, vegetable oil, vitamin and mineral premix were procured and utilized for the purpose. Five experimental diet were prepared as T0 : Control diet with the mixture of mustard oilcake and de-oiled rice bran, Low protein diet (T1) with 15 per cent crude protein, High protein diet (T2) with 30 per cent crude protein,T3 One day low protein and one day high protein on alternate day and (T4) Two days low protein and two days high protein on consecutive manner. The feed was provided to the experimental animals at a rate of 4 per cent of their body weight daily. Among all the different treatments, striped cat fish and catla attended maximum average weight gain under the influence of one day low protein and one day high protein diet in alternate manner (T3) followed by T2 (with high protein diet) and T1 (with low protein diet).The growth performances under the treatment (T4) was considered to be least. The analysis of variance revealed a significant difference (?=0.05) between the treatments and a highly significant difference was reported between the days of culture irrespective of fish species. The treatment (T3) was considered to be the best out of all other treatments in term of average weight gain (g), increment in length, minimum FCR and PER with higher specific growth rate
3 Study on quality of icecream sold in Ahmednagar city, S.J. BASHIR, B.K. PAWAR AND D.M. CHOUDHARI
In this study chemical, microbiological and organoleptic qualities of market samples of ice cream were studied. On the basis of sensory evaluation considering all the attributes, the sample T1 was liked very much by the panel of judges, while samples T4 and T5 both were at par and were not liked by the judges. It was revealed from the study that market ice cream sample contained on average range of acidity 0.22 to 0.27 per cent LA, total solids 32.40 to 38.00 per cent, fat 8.4 to 11.20 per cent, protein 2.96 to 4.64 per cent and sugar 19.4 to 25.4 per cent. In the standard plate counts, the sample T5 has higher standard plate count (396.00 × 103c.f.u./g), while it was lower in samples T1 and T2 (3.52 and 4.56 × 103c.f.u./g). The coliform count in sample T5 was higher (91.60 × 101 c.f.u./g).
4 Habitat preference of urban birds, KIRAN PRAJAPATI
Birds have preferences while selecting a habitat. Habitat may be defined as the place where an organism lives or the place where one would go to find it. In the present study, it was found that birds utilize each of the habitat in different ways depending upon what aspect of their requirement was met there. 45 uncommon bird species with low population at four different study areas were selected for habitat study. Bird showed habitat preferences. The various habitats under study were used by birds for different purposes, some for feeding or nesting, other for roosting or perching, or even as temporary resting place while passing through. Data on the habitat requirements of a species could be useful for predicting the effects of habitat alteration due to human or natural communities. Habitat preference of a species might limit its dispersal and subsequent colonization. It is presumed that species restricted to a habitat would be relatively infrequent in a geographical area and its geographical range would be restricted. Its presence depends on the occurrence of a specific habitat in that area. On the other hand, generalist species would be common, occurring over a large area
5 Sensory evaluation of burfi prepared buffalo milk khoa blended with honey, S.N. WADHAVE, R.R. SHELKE, S.U. SURYAWANSH AND P.G. KOKATE
Burfi was prepared from Buffalo milk blended with honey in the Dairy Technology laboratory of Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola. Burfi was prepared from five different combinations of Buffalo milk and honey i.e. 100:00(T1), 96:04(T2), 95:05 (T3), 94:04(T4) and 93:07 (T5) was evaluated for various sensory attributes and it was found that burfi prepared from Buffalo milk khoa blended with 6 per cent honey was superior as compare to other treatments, considering the cost of ingredients it was found that cost of preparation of burfi was increased with increase in the rate of addition of hone but increase in cost of production can be compensate with value addition of honey in burfi
6 Comparative studies on effect of improved methods of drying on biochemical composition of small head ribbon fish, Lepturacanthus savala, S.A. JOSHI, S.B. GORE, S.S. RELEKAR AND P.U. JUVEKAR
Freshly caught small-headed ribbon fish, Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) landed in Mirkarwada landing centre, Ratnagiri was used for the present study. Fish was dried adopting improved methods namely, solar tent drier (STD), raised bamboo platform (RBP) and black polythene sheet (BPS) at College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri. In present study, biochemical quality of fresh ribbon fish showed 75.66 per cent moisture content, 17.66 per cent crude protein content, 2.08 per cent fat content and 0.76 per cent of ash content. Drying time for fish dried by different methods were observed to be 58 h, 82 h and 130 h for STD, RBP and BPS, respectively. Initial moisture content of ribbon fish dried in STD 17.85 per cent, RBP 19.35 per cent, BPS dried 19.95 per cent and dried ribbon fish sample collected from market was 30.6 per cent and same was increased at end of 120 days storage. Higher protein content was found at beginning of storage in range of 40-44 per cent in all the samples except market sample (MS). Crude fat content of ribbon fish dried by different methods fluctuated in accordance with moisture during storage .While initial ash content was 15.55 per cent in dried ribbon fish sample collected from market, it was slightly higher in ribbon fish dried by various methods and same was decreased at end of 120 days storage. Gradually increased pattern showed in case of TMA-N, TVB-N and PV in all the samples of dried ribbon fish while variation of salt content was observed due to increase in drying time. Initially organoleptic quality of ribbon fish dried in solar tent drier was higher compared to the other samples dried by various methods and similar decreased pattern showed in all the samples at end of 120 storage period. However, quality of dried ribbon fish was found superior in STD than other methods studied
7 Effect of dietary supplementation of Azolla on growth and survibility ofLabeo rohita fingerlings, S. PANIGRAHI, D. CHOUDHURY, J.K. SAHOO, S.S. DAS AND R.K. RATH
A feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Azolla, on growth and survival of L. rohita fingerlings. One hundred twenty (4.08 ± 0.02 g) fingerlings were randomly distributed in four treatment groups, each with three replications. Four isonitrogenous (crude protein: 27.75-28.26%) experimental diets were prepared with different percentage of Azolla incorporation except the control group, viz., control (T0), T1 (20% Azolla), T2 (40% Azolla) and T3 (50% Azolla). The physio-chemical parameters were found in the normal range through out the experimental period. The results revealed that the test animals fed with diet containing 40 per cent Azolla showed better growth (15.45 ± 0.24 g in wt. and 13.73 ± 0.47 cm in length) than the test animals fed with 20 per cent, 50 per cent and control diet. The body weight gain per cent was recorded highest in diet containing 40 per cent Azolla (281.57 ± 7.21) than control (175.62 ± 2.31). The specific growth rate (SGR) was found highest in T2 group (0.73 ± 0.01) followed by T3 group (0.67± 0.01) which was (P < 0.05) higher than T1 and control group. The FCR also varied significantly (P
8 Ecological evaluation of water of Sabarmati, Ahmedabad, KIRAN PRAJAPATI
Sabarmati is one of the major rivers in Gujarat. It raises from the Aravalli hills and it covers a distance of 300 km. in the state and finally joins southwards to the gulf of Khambhat. This river can be considered as lifeline of this area, which fulfills the need of hundreds of villages, situated along the banks of the river. Due to anthropogenic activities, rapid industrial growth, domestic and agricultural activities of the region, the river water is being polluted, which is the case with almost all major rivers of the country. A year long study was conducted to measure the various physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters including levels of phytoplankton in the river water. The study revealed that there was indication of pollution in the river and hence preventive measures are required to avoid further deterioration of the river water quality
9 Role of dairy co-operatives in information dissemination: evidence from Nainital district in Uttarakhand, PRATIBHA SINGH, D. BARDHAN AND S.C. TRIPATHI
The study investigated Dairy Co-operative Society as an information source in solving problems of the farmers in Haldwani and Bhimtal blocks of Nainital district. The study was carried out on a sample of 80 households, out of which, 44 belonged to member category and 36 to the non-member of Dairy Co-operative Society. The results showed that members’ frequency of contact with milk Co-operatives, doctors and extension agents was significantly higher than that of nonmembers in both the plains and the hills. Highest proportion of information by members in both the areas was obtained from dairy co-operatives, however it was zero in non-members. Positive role of dairy Co-operatives in information dissemination was felt more by members than non-members in both the plains and hills. Hence enhancing the non-members’ participation in DCS by providing appropriate incentives could benefit them in having a greater degree of accessibility to quality information
10 Small ruminant farmers' training needs in Karnataka as perceived by farmers and veterinarians, B.L. BALARAJU, PRAKASH KHANDEKAR, MAHESH CHANDER, H. DILEEP KUMAR AND PRAKASHKUMAR RATHOD
An ex-post facto and exploratory study was conducted to assess the training needs of small ruminant (sheep and goat) farmers as perceived by them and field veterinarians with a sample size of 120 farmers and 66 field veterinarians in Davangere district of Karnataka state. A semi-structured pretested interview schedule was employed for small ruminant farmers and questionnaire for field veterinarians to collect the primary data in the study area. The training needs of small ruminant farmers in major six areas viz., breeding, feeding, health care, housing and management, marketing and finance and products preparation were assessed from the perspective of farmers and veterinarians. Within major areas of small ruminant farming, farmers and veterinarians perceived higher level of training needs in health care followed by feeding and marketing and finance. The study revealed that majority of the field veterinarians’ perceived higher extent of training needs for the farmers than farmer themselves. Independent ‘t’ test values depicted that veterinarians perceived higher extent of training needs for farmers in health care, products preparation and housing and management but farmers perceived higher training needs in marketing than field veterinarians
The diversity of rats of the Manipur, the easternmost state of India remains largely unexplored besides some of the works of the Zoological Survey of India. Out of a total of 4,629 species of mammals known in the world, 372 species occur in the Indian union. Of these, 69 species are reported from Manipur (Mandal et al., 2005). Five subspecies under the genus Rattus viz., Rattus rattus brunneusculus (Hodgson), Rattus rattus bullocki Roonwal, Rattus rattus tistae Hinton, Rattus nitidus obsoletus Hinton, and Rattus manipulus manipulus (Thomas) besides one species Rattus mackenziei (Thomas) had been reported from Manipur.Rattus mackenziei (Thomas) and Rattus manipulus manipulus (Thomas) were included in the genusBerylmys as Berylmys mackenziei (Thomas) and Berylmys manipulus (Thomas), respectively. In this paper we are reporting the occurrence of two more species of the genus Rattus viz., Rattus tanezumi (Temminck, 1844) and Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769) for the first time from Manipur. The morphometric data as well as the osteological data from skull were studied for an unambiguous identification of the two species. The objective of the study was to present the diversity of the rats in Manipur as well as determination of the endemism of the rats
12 Socio-economic factors and their influence on the production performance of commercial pig farms in India, H. DILEEP KUMAR, RUPASI TIWARI AND RAKESH ROY
Socio-personal and socio-economic characteristics influence the accessibility to the resources, participation in decision making, livelihood pattern, standard of living etc. Most of the studies conducted hitherto in the social perspective on pig farming primarily focused on the traditional backyard pig rearing system. Very little was known about the social aspects of pig farmers engaged in commercial pig farming, due to relative newness and geographical scatteredness of this enterprise. Thus, the present study was designed to study the socio-personal and socio-economic characteristics of commercial pig farmers and their influence on production performance of pig farms in India. The cases of 100 commercial pig farmers across five states in India were interviewed using structured interview schedule. The study revealed that most of the pig farmers belonged to middle age group (67%) and were literates (83.00 %). The major religion followed among respondents was Hinduism (73%) and majority of them belonged to other backward classes (38 %). Majority had small land holding (36.00%) and small herd size (42 %). The annual income of most of the respondents (47 %) was found to be Rs.4-8 lakh. Production performance score was given to each farm based on some important production parameters (body weight of boar and gilts at first breeding, body weight of fatteners during marketing, body weight of boar and gilt at 6 months and average litter size at birth). Correlation between the production performance and some important socio-personal parameters was found positive and significant
13 Static bioassay and behavioural responses of cypermethrin on freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita, MOHINI GADHIA AND RAKESH PRAJAPATI
Static renewal bioassay test was conducted to determine the toxicity of pyrithroid Cypermethrin (10% EC) insecticide on a freshwater teleost (Labeo rohita). Fishes were exposed to various concentrations of Cypermethrin for 96 h and the per cent mortality was recorded. The LC50 value was found to be 0.06 ppm. Behavioural changes were observed in fish exposed to lethal concentrations exhibiting erratic and darting movements with imbalanced swimming.
14 Birds of indroda nature park, Gandhinagar, KIRAN PRAJAPATI
In emerging town Gandhinagar, Indroda Nature Park (INP) is a lush green semi-forest area which attracts good numbers of visitors. Throughout the study period, total 71 bird species belonging to 29 families were recorded. Mean population of birds goes down during monsoon and winter. It was maximum during early summer and remains stable up to summer. Density of birds in the study area recorded 06 that were considered poor. During the study period, total 31 per cent of migratory bird and 69 per cent local species were recorded at study area. Bird diversity index recorded was -0.767. Some specific bird like Oriental White-eye and Asian Paradise Flycatcher are key species found in such kind of habitat. Forest ecosystem may be a root cause for high species richness. Out of 29 families observed, largest bird species represented by corvidae followed by sylviidae and passeridae. Columbidae and muscicapidae represented five species each. Ardeidae represented four species and rest of the families just represented by one to three species
15 Effect of refined soybean oil on weight and internal quality of eggs at room and refrigeration temperatures, S.S. CHAUHAN
A total of one hundred and sixty four fresh, neat clean, infertile eggs of White Leghorn here were procured from a single flock of same age from Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly (U.P.). Remaining 164 eggs were divided into 4 groups, each comprising of 41 eggs. These groups were categorized into two group and were kept at room temperature and remaining two were kept in refrigerator. Room temperature noticed from 220 C to 380 C and relative humidity from 40 to 75 per cent. The temperature of refrigerator was noted as 8±10 C and relative humidity 75 to 85 per cent. Shelf life, weight loss, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit were noted. Significantly lowest percentage of weight loss of eggs was found in refined soybean oil treated eggs. The treatment T2 and T4 enhanced the shelf-life of eggs for a maximum period of 35 days at room and 90 days at refrigeration temperature which are untreated eggs (control) maintained the organoleptically acceptable life for a period of 14 days and 60 days at room and refrigeration temperature, respectively
16 Bio-chemical aspect of Proteocephalidean tapeworms in freshwater cat fish,Wallago attu (Blosch, Schneider, 1801), S.B. PAWAR, D.D. PAWAR AND G.P. JADHAV
The bio-chemical aspect of the cestode parasite is a unique growing field in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. The parasitic bio-chemistry having great importance in the chemotherapy and vaccine production, and a understanding of the complex association involved in the host parasite relationship. However, the information in regards with the bio-chemistry is unlimited. Proteocephalidean tapeworms are the most pathogenic in freshwater fish Wallago attu. The present investigation deals with the bio-chemistry (Protein, Glycogen and fats) of proteocephalidean parasites in freshwater predatory fish, Wallago attu (Blosch and Schneider, 1801).
17 Histopathological changes in the gill ofLabeo rohita (Hamilton) exposed to cypermethrin, RAKESH PRAJAPATI AND MOHINI GANDHIA
Cypermethrin is a widely used selective pesticide. Due persistent character, it is present in the surface waters, contaminating non-target organisms including fish. In the present study, fingerlings of Labeo rohita were exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.03 ppm) of Cypermethrin upto eight days of exposure. The histopathological changes in the gill tissue like mucus secretion, fusion of secondary gill lamellae, damage in central cord, lamellar aneurism, vacuolization, were noticed.
18 Application of biosensors in dairy-food industry, D.A. CHAUDHARY, J.B. UPADHYAY AND VIVEK KOSHTA
The principle of detection of a biosensor is based on the specific interaction between the analyte of interest and the biological components. As a result of this specific interaction, different properties are changed, which can be detected and measured by transducers. The most important characteristics of biosensors are their specificity, high sensitivity, short response time; act as an integrated system, facility to automate them, versatility and low production cost. Biosensors are an important alternative in the food industry to ensure the quality and safety of products and process controls with effective, fast and economical methods. The use of enzymatic biosensor technology in food processing, quality control and on-line processes is promising compared to conventional analytical techniques. Recently the biosensor market in the food industry has increased by fifteen fold amounting to $150 million. The use of biosensor in the food industry may include nutrient analysis, detection of natural toxins and antinutrients, food process monitoring by measuring enzyme activity and microbial contamination, and rapid detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), proteins, vitamin B complex, essential amino and fatty acids, and hazardous residual materials comprising pesticides and antibiotics. Biosensors are classified according to the transduction mechanisms and biological reception mechanism. The biosensor may be divided into basic four main groups based on the transduction mechanisms which include optical, mass, electrochemical and thermal biosensor. In addition, the biological component used in biosensors include enzymes, microbial, immune, and nucleic acids, biochips (protein, DNA, and cell chips), and biomimetic sensors, which utilize artificial bio recognition elements (electronic nose and electronic tongue)
19 Salmonellosis with special reference to epidemiology and management, CHANDRA SHEKHAR AND S.S. KASHYAP
Salmonellosis is an important emerging food-borne zoonotic disease. Millions of human cases are reported world-wide every year and the disease results in thousands of deaths. It is caused by various Salmonella serovars. Salmonellae are transmitted to humans mainly through meat, egg and poultry products. Many serovars of Salmonella has been recovered from cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, camel, pig, dog, cat, poultry, wild animals, birds and poikilotherms. Poultry and pigs are the main reservoirs of Salmonella organism. Among all the serovars of Salmonella enterica, Salmonella typhimurium is most commonly associated with enteric infections in man and animals. Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella are now encountered frequently and the rates of multidrug resistance have increased considerably in recent years. Patients infected with MDR strains are at greater risk of bacteremia, hospitalization, and death compared to patients infected with susceptible strains. Vaccination and treatment in man and animals, implementation of HACCP system, adequate heat treatment of foods of animal origin, prevention of recontamination of processed foods and personal hygiene may be effective measures in the prevention and control of Salmonellosis in man and animals
20 Chemical composition of peda prepared from cow milk blended with skimmed milk powder, S.U. SURYAWANSHI, R.R. SHELKE, S.N. WADHAVE AND P.G. KOKATE
Peda was prepared from cow milk blended with skimmed milk powder in the Dairy Technology laboratory, Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science, Dr. PDKV, Akola. Peda prepared from five different combinations of cow milk and skimmed milk powder i.e. 100:00 (T1), 40:60 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 60:40 (T4) and 00: 100 (T5) were analyzed for chemical composition and it was found that maximum fat and total solids content was recorded in Peda prepared from 100 per cent cow milk Khoa i.e. 15.76 and 80.94 per cent, respectively. While maximum protein, moisture and ash contents were recorded in Peda prepared from 100 per cent skimmed milk powder i.e. 26.45, 22.23 and 2.20 per cent, respectively
21 Condition of water and soil at skirts of Visnagar-North Gujarat, KIRAN PRAJAPATI
Seven different sites were selected for study. Different parameters relating to water and soil were considered. Method prescribed by Saxena (1998) was adopted for analyzing the data. The quality of water and soil was considerably good, which supported healthy aquatic life as well as other surrounding fauna and flora. At some site due to anthropogenic pressure the quality of water deteriorated. To maintain aquatic biodiversity it is essential to concentrate our mind that such water bodies should be protected.
22 Biology of tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fab.) on different host plants, ANJALI YADAV, MANOJ KUMAR AND A.K.S. CHAUHAN
The biology of tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fab.) was studied on ten different hosts. On the basis of larval period, larval weight, pupal period, pupal weight, survival per cent, sex ratio, oviposition period, incubation period, fecundity, growth and development index values, the cauliflower host was found as the most preferred host (growth index 8.79, development index 3.22, per cent survival 74.66, larval period 11.00 day, pupal period 10.25 and pupal weight 377.00 Mg) followed by cabbage growth index 5.84, development index 2.6 and survival per cent 71.33. Pea, spinach, tobacco were found least preferred hosts and had retarding effects on the growth and development of tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fab.) resulting in a prolonged larval period, least survival per cent, minimum larval and pupal weight and growth and development indices.