1 Comparative biochemical analysis of wild introgression lines in response to short-term exposure to salinity, G. PUSHPALATHA1, ARCHANA GIRI2, N. SARLA1 AND VANDNA RAI3
The two high-yielding rice BC2F6-7 (backcross populations of O. sativa (IR58025A/KMR3) x O. rufipogon) introgression lines (ILs) were used to analyze biochemical changes in response to salinity stress for 24 h on 10th day. Plants were grown in normal Hoagland’s media for 10 days, treated with 150 mM NaCl for 24 h and were analyzed for chlorophyll, proline, antioxidant enzymes and sugar content. The results revealed ~two folds reduced concentrations of chlorophyll and ~three folds increased level of proline in K198 (salt-sensitive) under salt stress conditions. The salt-tolerant K478 showed chlorophyll reduction by ~one fold and proline increase by ~two folds in salt treated samples. The antioxidant enzyme activity in these contrasting introgression lines under short-term exposure to salt stress exhibited significant difference. An increased activity of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase was recorded under salt stress conditions whereas, a decreased trend of catalase activity was observed in both the ILs. Peroxidase activity on the other hand, showed an increased trend in K478 (salt-tolerant) and decreased in K198 (salt-sensitive) under 150 mM 24 h NaCl treatment. A highly significant result was noticed in the content of total and reducing sugars and starch. The reduction over control in total sugar content was less in K478 and high reduction was recorded in K198. This further indicated possible salt tolerance of K478 in comparison to that of K198
2 Variability, heritability and character association in okra [Abelmoschus esculents (L.) Moench], PAWAN KUMAR1 AND RAJEEV KU
The genetic variability, heritability and correlation analysis were studied in 55 diverse genotypes including 10 parents and 45 crosses of okra for fruit yield and its component traits. From the analysis of variance, it was observed that mean squares due to genotypes were significant for all the traits, indicating the presence of genetic variability in the experimental material. The values of PCV were higher than that of GCV values for all the ten characters indicating influence of environmental effects in the expression of these characters indicating influence of environmental effects in the expression of these characters. The GCV, heritability and genetic advance over mean were higher for first fruiting node, days of first picking number of branches per plant, plant height, number of fruits per plant and yield per plant which might be indicative of likely effectiveness of selection for such characters.The total yield per plant has significantly positive correlation with first fruiting node, days of first flowering, and early yield per plant.
3 Bioreduction of chromium by the bacterial isolate from tannery effluent treatment plant, M. SUMATHI AND S. UMAGOWRIE
Tanneries are the oldest industries started to promote cottage business in India. Only after several years it was realized that the effluent had adverse effect on the environment. Many initiative steps were taken to treat the effluent in Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs). CETPs discharge treated effluent with organics and chromium toxicant higher than the statutory limit for discharge into the surface water bodies. This study aims to remediate the contaminated environment by biological means with the indigenous bacterial population from the tannery effluent treatment plant by reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent form. The bacterial strains isolated from different stages of the treatment plant were characterized based on the morphological and biochemical properties. The chromium resistance and reduction potential of the isolates were done to identify the efficient chromium reducer. Bacillus sp. tolerated up to 2000 ?g/ ml and reduced hexavalent chromium to trivalent form by 77.4 %. This strain can be used to remediate the chromium contaminated environment. Further molecular identification and approaches for strain improvement can enhance the reduction potential of the strain effectively
4 Studies on the effect of carbon source on adhesion properties of lactic acid bacterial strains, M. KARTHIKADEVI AND K. VIJILA
The influence of the carbon sources present in the reconstituted MRS medium on adhesion properties of lactic acid bacterial strainsEnterococcus durans Afm50, Lactococcus lactis Gfm34 and Lactococcus lactis Brd10 was examined. The results demonstrated that variation in the carbon sources in the reconstituted MRS medium had a significant influence on the cell surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of all strains but remained the Lewis- acid/base characteristics in the outer cell surface of LAB strains. The weakly hydrophilic strains E.durans Afm50 and L.lactis Gfm34 displayed high electronegative charge whereas strong hydrophilic strain L.lactis Brd10 had less electronegative charge measured in terms of zeta potential as a function of pH. Model surface of polystyrene microtiter plate on adhesive ability of LAB strains revealed that the strains adhered with varying abilities on the carbon sources. Knowledge of the bacterial adhesion on various carbon sources can have advantages in food biotechnological processes.
5 Study of paddy genotypes for physiological variation under upland cultivation, C.M. KAMBLE, K.M. SONAWANE AND V.S. PAWAR
A field trial conducted at MPKV, Rahuri Post Graduate Institute farm during Kharif under upland condition in Randomized Block Design with three replications and twelve treatments. Paddy genotypes namely PBNR 89 II-6, PBNR 89, II-53, PBNR 90 III-64, PBNR 90 III-4, PBNR 90 II-11, PBNR 90 III-10, PBNR 89 I-3, PBNR 93-9, PBNR 93-4 and varieties Sugandha. (check), Parag (check), Basumati-370 (check) were tested. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for stem dry matter, leaf dry matter, total dry matter, absolute growth rate, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, chlorophyll content, harvest index etc. None of genotypes was found to surplus the grain yield than genotypic check Parag and Basumati-370 under upland condition
6 Estimation of genetic divergence among indigenous and exotic accessions of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), MUKUL K. SRIVASTAVA, VISHAL K. AGRAWAL AND R.K. AGRAWAL
Mahalanobis’s D2 analysis was employed to estimate the distances between and within the clusters formed from the test genotypes. Ten clusters were formed using Tocher’s method. Cluster I, III and X were having 16, 3 and 2 genotypes, respectively, rest of the seven clusters were solitary and having single genotype each. The highest inter-cluster distance was found between clusters IV and X whereas lowest distance was observed between cluster VI and VIII suggested a closer relationship between these clusters and low degree of diversity among the genotypes. The maximum contribution towards divergence was accounted by plant height, seed index and yield per plant (~15% each) followed by fruits per plant, juice-pulp ratio, pericarp thickness and flowers per cluster. Results also revealed that there was no association between clustering pattern and eco-geographical distribution of genotypes. On the basis of the divergence study the genotypes could be selected from the most divergent clusters for hybridization and further selection programme.
7 Evaluation of Bt cotton hybrids for fibre quality under rainfed conditions, SANTOSH A. BHONGLE, B.R. PATIL AND SUDHIR A. BHONGLE
Ninety seven Bt Cotton hybrids were evaluated along with two Bt and two non Bt check hybrids under rainfed conditions at AICCIP, Cotton Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (M.S.) during Kharif 2008-2009. Results revealed that, the minimum and maximum range for fibre length was found to be 23.2 mm to 35.7 mm, strength was observed between 15.4 g/tex (low) to 27.0 g/tex (strong), whereas micronaire value ranged between very fine (2.2 ?g/inch) to very coarse (4.5 ?g/inch).The uniformity ratio for all the hybrids were recorded in the range of 43 to 53 per cent. The highest ginning outturn was obtained from the hybrid UPLHH-2Bt (36.5%). The desirable hybrids in respect of fibre quality were, MRC-7918 BG II, MARGO Bt and SANDIP Bt during present investigation. However it needs further confirmation on multilocation basis.
8 Diversity analysis of lentil (Lens culinarisMedik.) germplasm using morphological markers, AMIT KUMAR SINGH1, PANKAJ KUMAR2, JITENDER SINGH2, ROSY RANI1, ANCHAL RANI1,PRADEEP SHUKLA1 AND PRAGATI MISRA1
Diversity analysis among the seventy six germplasm of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) was estimated using morphological markers. Morphological characterization was done based on different parameters like plant height, primary and secondary branches per plant, number of leaves per plant and fresh weights carried out at different stages of the crop and showed wide variability. Dry matter partitioning viz., leaf dry weight, pods dry weight, total dry weight, yield and yield components, pod per plant, seed per plant, 100 seeds weight and seed yield per plant, were recorded at the time of harvest. The results of present investigation suggested that genetic relationships in lentil germplasm using morphological data may be useful for plant improvement and an efficient way to conserve genetic resources of lentil
9 Somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration in castor (Ricinus communis L.), V.K. ZALAVADIYA1, D.R. MEHTA1, R.M. JAVIA2, S.M. PADHIYAR1 AND R.B. MADARIYA1
An in vitro propagation system developed for castor-bean (Ricinus communis L.) through hypocotyl derived callus cultures. Seeds were surface sterilized with 5 per cent bavistin for 30 min followed by 0.01 per cent HgCl2 for 4 min to obtain in vitro seedlings germinated with growth regulator free MS medium. The impacts of different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins were evaluated for callus induction, shoot proliferation and root induction. Hypocotyls were excised from 10-12 days old in vitro seedlings and were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration of BA, KIN and 2IP. White compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained on the MS medium fortified with B5 vitamins and 1.0 mg/l BA (80.84%) or 2.0 mg/l BA(80.17%). Shoot induction from the callus cultures was achieved on MS medium with 0.5 mg/ l KIN + 0.25mg/l BAP (75.00%). Use of 0.2 mg/l GA3 in combination with 0.5 mg/l KIN and 0.25 mg/l BAP induced maximum number of shoots per explants (7.00) as well as shoot length (6.49cm). For root induction, in vitro shoots were transferred to rooting media containing IAA, IBA and AgNO3 singly or in combinations but root induction was not achieved even after 30 days of culture
10 Radiation induced variability and gene effects for polygenic traits in ricebean (Vigna umbellata Thunb, Ohwi and Ohashi), MADHU PATIAL1, ABHISHEK CHAUHAN2, RITU SOOD3 AND K.P. SINGH3
The study was conducted to induce variability and to identify the important radiation dose for induction of useful variation for maturity, yield and yield attributes. Two varieties of ricebean (BRS-1 and Totru Local) were treated with three different doses of ?-rays (30kR, 40kR and 50kR). Range, mean and co-efficient of variation suggested that the mutagenic treatments had created wide variability. In general, these genetic parameters were higher in M3 generation than M2. Both positive and negative shift in mean were observed for all the traits in both the cultivars in both the generations. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance were observed for pods/cluster, seeds/pod and pod length in both BRS-1 and Totru Local indicating that these traits can respond effectively to phenotypic selection. Most of the traits showed significant positive additive and dominance effects at 30 kR dose in both the genotypes indicating the dose to be most effective in inducing variability. Most of the traits showed overdominance suggesting that the selection should be deferred to the later generation so that the additive effects become more pronounced and fixed
11 Effect of thermal processing on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity ofCoriandrum sativum L. leaves, SNIGDHA CHAWLA1 AND MONIKA THAKUR2
Coriandrum sativum is a promising functional food which not only provides nutrition, but also has medicinal benefits. It is a widely grown herb and most commonly used spice in India.Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of coriander leaves at different temperatures were evaluated to determine the effect of thermal processing on potential health benefits of coriander. The leaves were subjected to blanching (80°C), boiling (100°C) as well as storage at refrigerated temperature (4°C). A qualitative phytochemical screening was performed for the presence of phytochemicals. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The extracts of fresh leaves showed the highest total phenolic content, which reduced significantly after treatment 100°C and similar trend was observed with antioxidant activity. Increase in temperature reduced the antioxidant activity of coriander leaf extracts. Refrigeration also results in reduction of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. This indicates that certain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and phenolic acids are degraded during processing, resulting in reduced antioxidant potential and total phenolic content, thereby decreasing the medicinal value of herb. The study thus, suggests the consumption of fresh coriander leaves to obtain the maximum benefit
12 Effect of harvesting cycles in biomass production of drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.), H.N. SAVITHA, S.M. KALE AND M. PRAKASH
Moringa tree has been of great use not only to the human beings in terms of their health in one form or the other but also for their livestock as moringa makes nutritious fodder for cattles. Further, while the wood had the potential use in pulp industry, pods are used as vegetable and even the roots have potentially used in pharmacy apart from enriching the soil fertility when composted. The harvesting cycles had also effect on leaf biomass production. While, 4 months cycle had produced highest fresh leaf biomass (2810.00 g/plant) as well as dry leaf biomass (713.78 g/ plant). Harvesting at 8months cycle had produced highest fresh wood biomass (9289.75 g/plant) followed by harvesting at 4 months cycle (5698.33 g/plant fresh wood). 8 month cycle had produced highest fresh pod biomass (4671.66 g/plant) as well as dry pod biomass (1957.20 g/plant). The 8 months cycle had produced highest total fresh biomass (13712.50 g/plant) as well as total dry biomass (8993.66 g/plant) compared to other cycles of harvesting. 8 months cycle had produced highest fresh root biomass (7452.50 g/plant) as well as dry root biomass (1686.20 g/plant).
13 Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), L.VENKATESH1, NIRANJANA MURTHY2, S.D. NEHRU3 AND MANJAPPA1
One hundred germplasm accessions of grain amaranth were evaluated during Kharif-2011 for assessing the genetic variability present in the material for grain yield and yield related traits. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters studied. High PCV and GCV was observed for stem girth, plant height, panicle length and grain yield per plant. On the other hand, low PCV and GCV were observed fordays to maturity and grain protein content. All the traits studied exhibited high heritability. High genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for days to 50 per cent flowering, stem girth, number of leaves per plant, plant height, panicle length, panicle width and grain yield per plant indicating scope for improvement of the traits of interest through hybridization and selection
14 Study of transmembraneous protein using bioinformatics and data mining, SHAHEEN JAMAL AND SUNITA
Membrane proteins perform diverse functions in living organisms such as transporters, receptors and channels. The functions of membrane proteins have been investigated with several computational approaches, such as developing databases, analyzing the structure function relationship and establishing algorithms to discriminate different type of membrane proteins. However, compilation of bioinformatics resources for the functions of membrane proteins is not well documented compared with their structural aspects. The purpose of the present work was to assess the study of transmembraneous protein using bioinformatics and data mining. Bioinformatics is the application of information technology to the field of molecular biology. Protein structure prediction is the important application of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics also provide researchers with software’s and tools for analyzing the sequence data and deriving biologically meaningful information from a string of letters. By using application of bioinformatics one can predict isoelectric point, molecular weight, transmembrane helix and secondary structure of transmembrane protein
15 Evaluation for genetic purity and diversity in isoenzyme?- Esterases of ten pearl millet hybrids (Pennisetum glaucum), M.B. VAJA1, P.J. RATHOD2 AND M.K. MANDAVIA1
The prospective of biochemical marker like seed esterases, was investigated in the present study. Ten pearl millet hybrids (Pennisetum glaucum) genotypes were used to examine the suitability of esterases for characterization of pearl millet genotypes. Banding pattern at 9 DAG showed that band number1, 2 and 4 (Rm = 0.332 0.549 and 0.674) were present in all the hybrids. Band number 3 (Rm = 0.636) was present in six hybrids i.e. GHB-526, GHB-558, GHB-577, GHB-732, GHB-744 and GHB-757. Band number 5 (Rm = 0.728) was present in all hybrids except for GHB-538. Among the 10 genotypes studied, two could be differentiated from each other. Total 13 bands of esterase isozymes were observed at 3, 6 and 9 day after germination (DAG). Polymorphism was observed 75%, 100 per cent and 40 per cent at 3, 6 and 9 DAG, respectively. Genetic distance revealed that ten pearl millet hybrids fell into two main clusters A and B. The cluster A included two sub clusters A1 and A2. Sub-cluster A1 further divided in two sub-sub cluster A1a and A1b. A1a comprised of four hybrids i.e. GHB-526, GHB- 558, GHB-577and GHB-235, while A1b consisted of only one hybrid GHB-744. Sub cluster A2 comprised of three hybrids i.e. GHB-732, GHB-757 and GHB-316. Cluster B included two hybrids GHB-538 and GHB-719. Thus, results clearly indicated that highest similarity was found between hybrids GHB-732 and GHB-757 while lowest similarity was observed between hybrids GHB-538 and GHB-744
16 Studies on the allelopathic potential of various crop biomass for controlling weeds in wheat crop, V.K. VERMA, SANJAI CHAUDHRY, VISHRAM SINGH, A.K. SRIVASTAVA, MOHD. ASLAM AND SOHANVEER SINGH
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2010-11 at Students’ Instructional Farm of C.S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur. six crop biomass viz., mustard, field pea, sorghum, maize, rice and wheat straws were incorporated in soil before sowing and their allelopathic potential was compared with weed free and unweeded treatments and analysed on germination and growth of weeds in wheat crop. The crop growth parameters, yield attributes, yield and economics of wheat were also computed. The results obtained shown that mustard straw, sorghum straw and maize straw were more effective to suppress weed germination and growth. The application of mustard straw before sowing registered maximum grain yield of wheat (42.0 q/ha) followed by sorghum straw (41.33 q/ha), maize straw (40.66 q/ha), field pea straw (38.75 q/ha), wheat straw (35.83 q/ha), paddy straw (35.66 q/ha) and minimum grain yield (33.58 q/ha) was noticed in unweeded control treatment. The incorporation of mustard straw, sorghum straw and maize straw registered 25.07 per cent, 23.03 per cent and 21.08 per cent, respectively more grain yield than unweeded control treatment. Allowing weed growth though out crop growth period in unweeded control treatment caused on an average 31.26 per cent reduction in grain yield of wheat i.e. 44.08 q/ha of wheat variety UP 2338 in control in plain zone of Uttar Pradesh
17 Threatened weeds of Bt cotton field inNimar region of Madhya Pradesh, SUDIP RAY AND JEETENDRA SAINKHEDIYA
The weeds in the Bt cotton field of Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh, India were studied and 55 weeds belonging to 21 families and 47 genera have been reported. Present study reveals that some exotic weeds have established them dominant in the Bt cotton field and suppressed to grow other plants which were commonly found before Bt cotton cultivation. 11 weed have been recorded to be threatened in Nimar region due to of Bt cotton cultivation
18 Combining ability analysis for growth and yield components in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), SANTOSH CHOUDHARY AND R.P. DIDEL
Combining ability studies on growth and yield components were conducted from 10 × 10 half diallel cross of brinjal. The analysis of variance for combining ability selected revealed that mean squares due to GCA and SCA variance were significant for all the characters which indicated that all the characters were controlled by both additive and non-additive gene effects. However, the ?2 gca/?2 sca ratio being less than unity for all the characters except fruit diameter and plant height indicating that the non- additive gene action was more important in the inheritance. Among the parents, based on fruit yield DBSR-91, followed by DBR-31 were found to be best general combiners, DBSR-91 was found to be best general combiner over all the characters. DBR-31 was found to have desirable GCA effects only for plant height, crude protein content besides fruit yield. Pusa Purple Round x Pusa Kranti followed by DBR-31 × Pusa Kranti, HLB-12 × DBR-31, Hisar Shyamal × Pusa Purple Round and HLB-25 × DBSR-91 were the best crosses based on SCA effects of fruit yield
19 Dynamics of fresh and dry biomass production in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) genotypes, H.N. SAVITHA, S.M. KALE AND M. PRAKASH
A study was carried out at College of Horticulture, Bagalkot, Karnataka to know the dynamics of fresh and dry biomass production in drumstick genotypes during the year 2012-13. The experiment consisted of four genotypes viz., MS/SP-11, MS/LP-11, KDM-01 and S-6/4 laid out in Randomized BlockDesign with six replications. Result revealed that the, biomass production potentiality of the drumstick genotypes highest fresh and dry leaf biomass (2033.08 g/plant and 549.78 g/plant, respectively) was recorded in MS/SP-11. Also the same genotype MS/SP-11 was produced highest fresh and dry wood biomass (5943.33 g/plant and 1264.54g /plant, respectively). Whereas, genotype MS/LP-11 produced highest fresh pod (4652.44 g/plant) and dry pod (370.08 g/plant) biomass. Also the same genotype MS/LP-11 produced highest fresh and dry total biomass production (9759.16 g/plant and 5704.19 g/plant, respectively). Whereas, genotype MS/LP-11 produced highest fresh and dry root biomass production (4700.83 g/plant and 1143.53 g/plant, respectively).
20 Character association and path co-efficient analysis for various traits in grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), L. VENKATESH1, NIRANJANA MURTHY2, MANJAPPA1 AND S.D. NEHRU3
One hundred genotypes of grain amaranth were used to estimate correlation and path co-efficients among 10 quantitative traits including grain yield in grain amaranth. At the phenotypic level, stem girth, number of leaves per plant, plant height, panicle length and seed weight exhibited significant positive correlation with grain yield. While, its association with panicle width was negative and significant. Path co-efficient analysis revealed maximum positive direct effect of number of leaves per plant (0.575) on grain yield followed by seed weight (0.234), panicle length (0.221) and plant height (0.124). The study suggests that selection of varieties with higher number of leaves per plant, seed weight, panicle length and plant height will help the breeder to select the genotypes which can give better grain yield
21 Dwarf field pea (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by new varieties and row spacings, SANJAI CHAUDHRY, V.K. VERMA, VISHRAM SINGH, RAM PYARE AND AVDESH KUMAR
A field experiment was conducted at Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh) during Rabi 2010-11 to evaluate the performance of 3 field pea varieties at different row spacings with uniform plant spacing 10 cm within row. The results revealed that variety ‘indra’ gave highest of 18.84 q/ha grain yield, 20.70 q/ha straw yield, Rs. 18008/ha net return and 0.76 B:C ratio. It was followed by variety ‘Sapna’, while variety ‘Jai’ remained at bottom Among row spacings, 15 cm recorded highest values of 19.20 q/ha grain yield, 20.89 q/ha straw yield and Rs, 17695/ha net return. Benefit : cost ratio was computed highest of 0.75 in 20 cm row spacing. The row spacing of 15 cm and 20 cm were found at par in all respect, but 25 cm row spacing performed significantly poorest. Varieties x row spacing interaction was not found significant. However, the combination of variety ‘indra’ and 15 cm row spacing gave highest seed yield of 19.68 q/ha and earned maximum net return of rs. 18749/ha
22 Omega-3 in linseed and its role in human diet, NIDHI KOSHTA, PARDEEP YADAV AND SANGEETA TETWAR
Linseed oil is well-known for its health benefits mainly attributed to its high content of omega-3 alpha linolenic acid (55-57%). Linseed oil is composed of five main fatty acids, namely palmitic (C16:0;~6%) (PAL), stearic (C18:0;~2.5%) (STE), oleic (C18:1cis?9; ~19%) (OLE), linoleic (C18:2 cis?9 ; ??6 fatty acid; ~24%) (LIO) and linolenic (C18:3 cis?9 12, 15; ??3 fatty acid; ~55 57%) (LIN) acid The nutritional significance of flax seed oil is due to the presence of higher level of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) family. ALA, an essential fatty acid, acts as precursor of biological active longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of omega-3 class, mainly eicosapentaeonic acid (EPA) and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA). The positive impact of LC omega-3 on heart health includes: protection against heart attacks by reducing the risk of abnormal heart rhythms; maintaining healthy blood vessels. At present Western diet is “deficient” in omega-3 fatty acids with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 of 15/1 to 16.7/1, instead of 1/1 as is the case with wild animals and presumably human beings.A land plant source of LC omega-3, if achieved and assuming their cultivation will be permitted will be cheaper than using yeast or microalgae. The omega-3 desaturase obtained from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans efficiently and quickly converted the omega-6 fatty acids
23 Role of vacuum packaging in increasing shelf-life in fish processing technology, PURUSHOTAM KUMAR AND SUBHA GANGULY
Vacuum packaging involves placing a product in a film of low oxygen permeability, the removal of air from package and the application of a hermetic seal. Exclusion of the air from the package and thus creating a vacuum is, in effect, a certain type of modification of the atmosphere. The little gaseous atmosphere likely to be present in the beginning in the package will undergo changes during storage because of the metabolism of the product and/or action of micro-organisms and all the volatiles produced as a result of the decomposition are sealed within the package
24 Impact of climate change on quality and nutritional value of food, ANCHAL SINGH
Climate change is recognized as a significant manmade global environmental challenge. It is also treated as a threat. The changing climatic environment is a major cause for concern and is now the greatest environmental challenge facing the world today. The increasing unnatural accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere is now causing global climate change. Carbon emissions related to human activities have been significantly contributing to the elevation of atmospheric (CO2) and temperature. However, the beneficial direct impact of elevated (CO2) on food production and quality can be offset by other effects of climate change, such as elevated temperatures and altered patterns of precipitation. Changes in food quality and nutritional value in a warmer, high-CO2 world are to be expected, e.g., decreased protein and mineral nutrient concentrations, as well as altered lipid composition. We point out that studies related to changes in food quality and nutritional value as a consequence of global climatic changes should be priority areas for further studies, particularly because they will be increasingly associated with food security
25 Uses of pesticide in foods : Curse for health, POOJA MAURYA AND LATIKA YADAV
The World Health Organization and the UN Environment Programme estimate that each year, 3 million workers in agriculture in the developing world experience severe poisoning from pesticides, about 18,000 of whom die. Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) in the year 1952. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several shortterm and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51 per cent of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20 per cent have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides
26 Exploration of banana fibre as low cost eco-friendly waste management, BINAPANI DEKA, PANKAJ DEKA AND RUPAM BORGOHAIN
The production of banana in India is about 27.01 million tons from an area of 0.765 million ha. It provides delicious foods and good quality textile fibre. In most cases, after harvest of the fruits in banana plantations, the stems are wasted and billion tons of stems and leaves are thrown away annually. Such waste provides obtainable sources of fibres, which leads to the reduction of other natural and synthetic fibres’ production that requires extra energy, fertilizer and chemical. Considering the pollution aspect of synthetic fibre, there is a need to search for nonconventional renewable resource for textile to give an effective solution. Banana fibres are good absorbent, highly breathable, quickly dry with high tensile strength, biodegradable and have no negative effect on environment. Utilization of banana fibre as cottage industry may explored for income generation by rural women. Trainings were conducted for extraction of banana fibre and preparation of decorative items. Significant difference was found between pre and post test which was carried out among 25 rural women of Romai area of Dibrugarh District. The ultimate goal of this endeavour was to upgrade the knowledge content about extraction of banana fibre, create awareness and full utilization of banana plants
27 Role of systemic fungicide metalaxyl mancozeb in management of Koleroga (Phytophthora meadiiMc Rae) of arecanut (Areca catechu L.) in Central Western ghats of Karnataka, M.S. LOKESH1, S.V. PATIL2, M.G. PALAKSHAPPA3 AND S.B. GURUMURTHY4
Arecanut (Areca catechu L.) an economically important plantation crop in Central Western Ghats of Karnataka is severely affected by Koleroga/ Mahali (Phytophthora meadii Mc Rae). Under congenial environmental conditions during monsoon, the disease become severe and leads to dropping of young buttons, rotting of dropped nuts, affected trees left without management leads to rotting of crown and in due course end up in death of the tree. By regular practice of 1 per cent Bordeaux mixture application to the bunches after the appearance of the disease does not give satisfactory control. The present investigation revealed that arecanut bunches treated with systemic fungicides viz., metalaxyl mancozeb 72 WP @ 2 gl-1 as spray for twice showed effective reduction of the disease and increase in the yield.
28 Bio-efficacy ofBeauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin againstHelicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on pigeonpea under laboratory condition, M.A. KARKAR, M.N. KAPADIA AND D.M. JETHVA
A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the bio-efficacy ofBeauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin alone and in combination with chemical insecticides against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on pigeonpea at bio-control laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during Kharif season of 2011. The results revealed that polytrin-C 0.044 per cent and chlorpyriphos 0.05 per cent alone recorded the highest mortality, whereas B. Bassiana @1.25 kg/ha combined with polytrin-C 0.044 per cent and B. Bassiana @1.25 kg/ha combined with chlorpyriphos 0.05 per cent were the next best treatments and can be recommended for ecofriendly management of H. armigera in pigeonpea ecosystem
29 Screening of some genotypes of brinjal for their relative resistance against jassid and whitefly, J.A. DAHATONDE1, H.V. PANDYA1, S.B. RAUT2 AND S.D. PATEL1
Studies were carried out on screening of some genotypes of brinjal for their relative resistance against jassid and whitefly on brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) at Regional Horticultural Research Station Farm, NAU, Navsari during 2011-12. The results revealed that out of fourteen genotypes of brinjal, the genotype AB-8/5 (6.65 jassids/three leaves) recorded the lowest population of jassids and genotype AB-8/6 (5.93 whiteflies/three leaves) recorded lowest population of whiteflies
30 Laboratory evaluation of entomopathogenic fungus alone or in combination with edible oils on progeny adult buildup of lesser grain borer on stored paddy, P. JYOTHI1, N. SAMBASIVA RAO2 AND R. LAKSHMIPATHY3
The entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (2 x 106conidia/g), Metarhizium anisopliae (1 x 109 conidia/g) and Lecanicillium lecanii (2 x 107 conidia/g) @ 5 g/l as bag treatment and 5g/kg of paddy as grain treatment alone, their interactions and the compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi @ 5g/kg with two vegetable oils (2 ml/kg) viz., sunflower oil and groundnut oil were tested against the progeny build-up of lesser grain borer, R. dominica. In the grain treatment, least progeny of 122.33 was observed with B. bassiana followed by M. anisopliae (130.67) which were at par at 180 DAT. Among the bag treatment, M. anisopliae recorded the lower progeny of 266.33 followed by B. bassiana (291.00) and L. lecanii (298.67) which were at par with each other but were significantly different from control (366.33). In the study of interaction effects, Beauveria + Metarhizium + Lecanicillium had recorded least progeny of 119.67 followed by Beauveria + Metarhizium (122.00) and were superior over all other treatments. In the study of compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with edible oils, progeny build up recorded at 180 DAT was found to be less with Beauveria + Groundnut oil (118.33) followed by Metarhizium + Groundnut oil (121.33) compared to oils alone, sunflower (307.67) and groundnut (252.33) but were significantly different from control (517.00).
31 Selection of influential parameters for bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R10 by Plackett- Burman design, P. UMAMAKESH AND K. VIJILA
In the present study, Plackett-Burman design was applied to select influential parameters for bacteriocin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis R10, an isolate from fermented radish was investigated. Out of the eleven culture media constituents screened, six constituents namely temperature, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, triammonium citrate, sodium acetate, yeast extract and pH were found to contribute positively to the overall bacteriocin production. Sucrose, peptone, magnesium sulphate, tween 80 and glycerol had a negative effect on bacteriocin production by L. lactis subsp. lactis R10. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important culture media parameters affecting the bacteriocin production
32 Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and neem oil against tomato fruit borer, Helicoverpa armigera under field condition, M. PHUKON1, I. SARMA1, R. BORGOHAIN1, B. SARMA2 AND J. GOSWAMI3
A field study was conducted at farmers field of Jorhat, Assam during 2010-11 to evaluate the efficacy of three commercial biopesticides, two based on insect pathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and one botanical-Neem oil in comparison with chemical-cypermethrin against the tomato fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera). The study revealed the reduction in fruit damage was upto 92.20 per cent in cypermethrin treated plot followed by 91.12 per cent, 88.74 per cent and 87.01 per cent in the plots treated with Neem oil, B. Bassiana and M. Anisopliae, respectively due to H. armigera larvae over control. The study showed that neem oil was nearly as effective as cypermethrin in reducing fruit damage leading to increased yield. The highest increase in yield over control was noticed in cypermethrin treated plots (62.85%) followed by neem oil treated plots (41.83%).The entomopathogenic fungi- Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae could be effectively used as pest management option in production of organic tomato to reduce the pest population below economic threshold level and increased yield.
33 Effect of cold pre-treatment on another culture in different Brassica genotypes, PREETI KUMARI AND A.K. SINGH
Stress is an essential component to enhance callus induction in anther culture. Cold pretreatment has been used in cereal crops but very seldom attempted in Brassica anther culture. In order to assess the effect of cold pretreatment (4°C) of flower buds subjected to a liquid medium for 5, 10 and 12 days for callus induction in different genotypes of Brassica, three varieties (GSL1, DGS1 and RSPN25) of B. napus and three varieties of Brassica juncea (RSPR01, Varuna and Kranti) were evaluated. The appropriate duration of cold pre-treatment of flower buds was found to be 10 days which stimulated the maximum callus induction. Cold pretreatment was also able to promote development including the improvement of embryo quality and acceleration of embryogenesis.
34 Deciphering soil diazotrophic diversity in the wheat-maize cropping system of Punjab using morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques, S.K. GOSAL1, G.S. SAROA2, Y. VIKAL3 AND A. MEHTA1
Soil is the critical resource as well as a basic medium for the growth of natural micro flora present in it. The soil fertility depends on its physicochemical properties and microbial population diversity. Diazotrophs are the nitrogen fixing bacteria which possess nifH gene that is responsible for coding the nitrogenase enzyme involved in the reduction of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. These nitrogen fixing bacteria play an imperative role, function and significance in the soil. Soil samples were collected from the different wheat-maize cropping system of Punjab and analyzed for physicochemical properties as pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, soil texture, ammoniacal as well as nitrate nitrogen. Eighty diazotrophic bacteria were isolated on eight different nitrogen free media and characterized culturally, morphologically, biochemically, functionally and using molecular techniques. The diazotrophic nature of the isolates was confirmed by the amplification of nifH gene using two nifH primers viz. nifH1 and nifH2. The nifH positive isolates were further used for 16S rDNA restriction analysis using different enzymes such as Taq1, Rsa I and Hae III. Based on UPGMA clustering, the representative strains were sequenced and identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus sp., Azotobacter vinelendii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Rhizobium larrymorrei, Flavobacterium anhuiense, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Paenibacillus panacisoli, Azospirillum sp., Pseudomonas putida, Paenibacillus amyloliticus, Bacillus circulans, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Xanthomonas oryzae.
35 Effect of boron and molybdenum application on seed yield of mungbean, ANIL KUMAR SINGH, M.A. KHAN AND ARUN SRIVASTAVA
The experiment was conducted in field at C.S.A. Agriculture University and Technology, Kanpur, during Kharif season 2012. One treatment was kept as control to compare the various treatments of boron and molybdenum applied by different methods. The best treatments emerged out from this study were boron @ 3.75 kg/ha and molybdenum @ 0.75 kg/ha for growth parameters, fruiting behavior and grain yield of mungbean variety PDM-139.
36 Efficacy of newer molecules of insecticides against white grub in sugarcane, PRADNYA B. MANE AND PANDURANG B. MOHITE
A field experiment comprised of seven insecticides was conducted at farmers field in endemic area of pest in Kolhapur district particularly area nearby riverbank during 2009-2010. The application of newer insecticides was done by drenching and the granules were applied along with dry soil. Soil drenching of imidacloprid 40 per cent + fipronil 40 per cent - 80 WG @ 300 g ha-1 was found to be most effective treatment for control of white grub followed by clothianidin 50 WDG @ 250 g ha-1, flubendiamide 480 SC @ 400 ml ha-1 and rynaxypyr 0.4 per cent G @ 125 g ha-1.
37 Helping hand of biotechnology in conservation of medicinally important plant (Asparagus racemosus), H.M. SHERATHIY, R.V. KOTHIYA, B.J. MALVIYA AND P.V. SORATHIYA
Increase in human population, urbanization, cutting trees and use of plants for pharmaceutical purpose leads to destruction of medicinal plant. Not only destruction but some of the species become threaten for their existence. One of them is Asparagus racemosus whose roots and its extracts widely used for the preparation of medicines by the pharmaceutical companies. That’s why, conservation efforts have been required which can be achieved with the help of various plant biotechnological techniques such as suspension culture. Not only for the conservation, it provides an alternative way of producing large amount of active compound directly in to the laboratory. For the establishment of suspension culture techniques a prime requirement is to have a standardize protocol for callus culture. This paper represents optimization of protocol for callus culture and suspension culture from Asparagus racemosus. It has been proved that the plant hormones play vital role for callus induction. In this work MS Medium with different combination of auxin (NAA, 2, 4 D) and cytokinines (BAP, Zeatin, Kinetin) have been tried for callus induction. The best friable callus induction, highest callus induction rate and excellent callus growth were obtained in MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/L ZEATIN + 0.1mg/L BAP. Same medium was then utilized for the establishment of suspension culture. In cell suspension culture of A. racemosus, the maximum growth (7.7 g/l) were observed in suspension culture initiated from leaf explant and the highest saponin production (0.580 mg/g) were obtained from the biomass of suspension culture initiated from root explant at 18 days after culture.
38 Genetic diversity analysis of pumpkin genotypes (Cucurbita moschat Duch ex. Poir) using morphological and RAPD markers, M.S. MURALIDHARA AND N.C. NARASEGOWDA
The study was conducted to ascertain genetic diversity of 20 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschat Duch ex. Poir) genotypes collected from different parts of India, using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The morphological data recorded for growth and yield characters at different levels. CTAB method used for isolation of DNAs from 20 genotypes. A total of 21 markers produced form 3 primers, out of that one band was polymorphic and remaining once were monomorphic. A dendogram grouped the genotypes into 2 clusters A and B at 9 linkage distance. Cluster B was the major group consisted of 12 accessions, CM-14 genotype which is diverse form other genotypes grouped under cluster B. Cluster B again sub divided into 6 sub groups. The second cluster A consisted of 8 accessions separated at 3 linkage distance and divided into 2 groups. The genetic dissimilarity matrix based on Squared Euclidean Distance, showed a maximum dissimilarity (10%) between the genotypes Bangalore local-2 and Magadi local and the minimum dissimilarity (1%) between CO-2 and Solan Badam, CO-2 and Bangalore local-1, KIC-1 and IIHR-5. This analysis showed the potentiality of CM-14 variety due to its less vine length, less number of days to female flower appearance and early maturity as probable parent in hybridization programme.
39 Microencapsulation of micro-organisms and ginger extract, SHAHEEN JAMAL AND SUNITA
Micro-organisms Lactobacillus sp. were encapsulated in 3 per cent sodium alginate solution and 0.2M calcium chloride solution. The capsules formed were hardened in calcium chloride solution. To determine the efficiency of bacteria they are released in phosphate buffer. Encapsulation efficiency of Lactobacillus was 91 per cent. This shows amount of ethanol production do not vary with encapsulation. Further the immobilization of lactic acid bacteria also shows that Lactobacillus, isolated from curd, encapsulated in alginate was further lyophilized for its storage. The ginger juice was also encapsulated. The wet and dry weight of the capsules produced in 100 rpm at 0.2 bar pressure was 53.71g and 4.63g, respectively whereas the wet weight and dry weight of capsules produced in 60 rpm and at 0.2bar pressure was 74.10g and 6.93g. Sensory analysis was done which shows that the capsules retained their odour and flavour. Thus, this study revealed that the encapsulation method helps in the preservation of microorganisms and other flavouring compound.
40 Effect of thermal processing on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Mentha leaves, SNIGDHA CHAWLA1 AND MONIKATHAKUR2
Mint is a promising health promoting herb, which is not only used for flavour and aroma, but also has many potential health benefits. Effect of refrigeration as well as thermal processing methods (blanching and boiling) on potential health benefits of mint was studied by determination of antioxidant activity and content of total phenolic substances in ethanolic extracts of mint leaves. The leaves were subjected to blanching (80°C), boiling (100°) as well as storage at refrigerated temperature (4°C). A qualitative phytochemical screening was performed. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and free radical scavenging activity using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Thermal treatment caused significant decrease in antioxidant activity as well as total phenolic content of mint leaves. Total phenolic content in fresh sample was 115.81 mg GAE/g, which decreased to 3.59 mg GAE/g when leaves were subjected to 100°C. Antioxidant activity reduced from 77.9 per cent in fresh leaves to 48.7 per cent in boiled leaves. The study indicated that polyphenols and phenolic acids, responsible for antioxidant action of mint, were degraded by heat, thereby reducing the medicinal value of herb. The study thus, suggests the consumption of fresh mint leaves to obtain the maximum health benefits
41 Frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], N. VAIRAM, S.M. IBRAHIM AND C.VANNIARAJAN
Greengram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], popularly known as mungbean, is third most important pulse crop of India. Mungbean is a cheap source of dietary protein for the poor, with high levels of folate and iron compared with many other legumes. Variability is low available in mungbean and hence, to replace conventional breeding, mutation breeding has gained its momentum. Induced mutagenesis thus seems to be an ideal methodology for the induction of desirable genetic variability. Chlorophyll mutations, an important index in the estimation of induced genetic changes in mutagen treated population are most widely employed for assessing the potentialities of mutagens in creating genetic variability. An investigation was carried out in two mungbean genotypes CO (Gg) 7 and NM 65 treated by two mutagens viz., gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate. A wide range of chlorophyll mutations was observed and scored in M2 generation. The highest frequency rate was noted at 300 Gray and 10 mM on M1 plant basis and M2 seedling basis in both the genotypes. The mutant chlorina and xantha occurred in all the treatments of gamma rays and EMS at higher proportions.
42 Preliminary results of bowl trapping insects in field bean (Lablab purpureus) ecosystem, M.K. PRABHAVATHI AND SYED NAJEER E NOOR KHADRI
Bowl traps have gained attention as a useful method for sampling many insects and are now commonly used across the world for this purpose. The preliminary results of bowl trapping in a September to November season in field bean ecosystem of University of Agricultural Science, GKVK, Bangalore are presented, including the test of three different color bowls, two different habitats, and the interaction of these variables in insect species number and composition. Blue, white and yellow bowls were used in the random, in seven sampling days between September to November. Bowl traps captured 1390 insect specimens, with calliphoridae, dolichopodidae and Halictidae bees being the richest and most abundant group. Different trails influenced only the composition, while the interaction with different colors did not have a significant effect. These results, as well as the higher taxonomic composition of the inventoried bees, are similar to other studies reported in the literature
43 Residues and dissipation of spinosad in pomegranate fruits, D.R. KADAM*1, B.V. DEORE2 AND S.M. UMATE1
Field and laboratory studies on residues and dissipation of spinosad in pomegranate fruits were conducted during 2010 at the Pesticide residue analysis laboratory, Department of Entomology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Dist. Ahmednagar, M.S. (India). The studies revealed that residues of spinosad persisted up to one day in arils, three days in whole fruits and five days in peel of pomegranate fruits at recommended and higher doses, respectively.
44 Silkworm breeds and their hybrids of Bombyx mori L. to bmnpv stress, M.H. ASHAAND R.N. BHASKAR
BmNPV (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) causes nuclear polyhedrosis in silkworms. This paper reports on the relative susceptibility of silkworm pure breeds and their hybrids reared under BmNPV stress condition. Infection during fourth and fifth instar silkworm Bombyx mori L., with nuclear polyhedrosis virus caused reduction in larval weight and revealed significant results. However, maximum larval weight of 3.67 and 3.98g/10 was noticed in fourth instar inoculated batches (10-1 and 10-3) of CSR2. Among hybrids, CSR4xCSR16 and CSR2xCSR4 have recorded (5.34 and 5.35 g/10) and (4.77 and 5.47g/10) compared to other hybrids. On the other hand, fourth instar inoculated batches of fifth instar also recorded maximum larval weight in CSR2 (13.88 and 14.18g/10 and 11.68 and 11.74g/10). Further among hybrids of same instar inoculated, CSR4xCSR16 recorded (19.06 and 19.90g/10 and 20.21 and 21.63g/10) which was found maximum than other hybrids. Effective rate of rearing (ERR) of fourth instar inoculated batches were realized differently due to the administration of BmNPV. However, the maximum ERR (59.33 and 64.00%) and (62.00 and 62.00%) was recorded in PM which exhibited more survival percentage followed by CSR4 (58.67 and 56.00%) and (58.67 and 59.33%) compare to other two breeds. Among hybrids, PMxCSR4 was recorded highest ERR (60.67 and 58.00%) and (58.67 and 57.33%) when administered with 10-1 and 10-3, respectively. The same trend has been noticed even in control lots. The results clearly indicated that, bivoltine breeds and their hybrids reflected low ERR percentage values inturn more sensitive to BmNPV stress.
45 Silkworm breeds and their hybrids of Bombyx mori L. to bmnpv stress, M.H. ASHAAND R.N. BHASKAR
BmNPV (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) causes nuclear polyhedrosis in silkworms. This paper reports on the relative susceptibility of silkworm pure breeds and their hybrids reared under BmNPV stress condition. Infection during fourth and fifth instar silkworm Bombyx mori L., with nuclear polyhedrosis virus caused reduction in larval weight and revealed significant results. However, maximum larval weight of 3.67 and 3.98g/10 was noticed in fourth instar inoculated batches (10-1 and 10-3) of CSR2. Among hybrids, CSR4xCSR16 and CSR2xCSR4 have recorded (5.34 and 5.35 g/10) and (4.77 and 5.47g/10) compared to other hybrids. On the other hand, fourth instar inoculated batches of fifth instar also recorded maximum larval weight in CSR2 (13.88 and 14.18g/10 and 11.68 and 11.74g/10). Further among hybrids of same instar inoculated, CSR4xCSR16 recorded (19.06 and 19.90g/10 and 20.21 and 21.63g/10) which was found maximum than other hybrids. Effective rate of rearing (ERR) of fourth instar inoculated batches were realized differently due to the administration of BmNPV. However, the maximum ERR (59.33 and 64.00%) and (62.00 and 62.00%) was recorded in PM which exhibited more survival percentage followed by CSR4 (58.67 and 56.00%) and (58.67 and 59.33%) compare to other two breeds. Among hybrids, PMxCSR4 was recorded highest ERR (60.67 and 58.00%) and (58.67 and 57.33%) when administered with 10-1 and 10-3, respectively. The same trend has been noticed even in control lots. The results clearly indicated that, bivoltine breeds and their hybrids reflected low ERR percentage values inturn more sensitive to BmNPV stress.
46 Silkworm breeds and their hybrids of Bombyx mori L. to bmnpv stress, M.H. ASHAAND R.N. BHASKAR
BmNPV (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) causes nuclear polyhedrosis in silkworms. This paper reports on the relative susceptibility of silkworm pure breeds and their hybrids reared under BmNPV stress condition. Infection during fourth and fifth instar silkworm Bombyx mori L., with nuclear polyhedrosis virus caused reduction in larval weight and revealed significant results. However, maximum larval weight of 3.67 and 3.98g/10 was noticed in fourth instar inoculated batches (10-1 and 10-3) of CSR2. Among hybrids, CSR4xCSR16 and CSR2xCSR4 have recorded (5.34 and 5.35 g/10) and (4.77 and 5.47g/10) compared to other hybrids. On the other hand, fourth instar inoculated batches of fifth instar also recorded maximum larval weight in CSR2 (13.88 and 14.18g/10 and 11.68 and 11.74g/10). Further among hybrids of same instar inoculated, CSR4xCSR16 recorded (19.06 and 19.90g/10 and 20.21 and 21.63g/10) which was found maximum than other hybrids. Effective rate of rearing (ERR) of fourth instar inoculated batches were realized differently due to the administration of BmNPV. However, the maximum ERR (59.33 and 64.00%) and (62.00 and 62.00%) was recorded in PM which exhibited more survival percentage followed by CSR4 (58.67 and 56.00%) and (58.67 and 59.33%) compare to other two breeds. Among hybrids, PMxCSR4 was recorded highest ERR (60.67 and 58.00%) and (58.67 and 57.33%) when administered with 10-1 and 10-3, respectively. The same trend has been noticed even in control lots. The results clearly indicated that, bivoltine breeds and their hybrids reflected low ERR percentage values inturn more sensitive to BmNPV stress.
47 Studies on polyphenol oxidase in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), M.R. SHELKE, S.A. FARGADE AND R.V. DARADE
The present investigation was undertaken to study properties of polyphenol oxidase and monitor changes in polyphenal oxidase activity in Ganesh cultivar of pomegranate during storage. The characterization of polyphenol oxidase in pomeqranate fruit extract with respect to effect of enzyme concentration and substrate concentration was studied . for studying changes in polyphenol oxidase activity during storage, the pomegranate fruits at half yellow stage were freshly harvested and stored at ambient temperature and analyzed after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days of storage. The polyphenol oxidase activity has increased up to 8th day of storage and thereafter, decreased slightly on 10th day.
48 Identification and utilization of actinobacteria for biocontrol of rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, SNEHAL J. SHINDE, S.K. PRASHANTHI AND P.U. KRISHNARAJ
Sheath blight of rice is an important soil-borne fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Isolation and exploitation of bioagents associated with rice offers a great opportunity for sustainable management of rice diseases. Actinomycetes were isolated from rice rhizosphere and isolates were putatively selected based on characteristic colony morphology. 16S rDNA and ARDRA confirmed their identification as actinobacteria. Isolates belonged either to Streptomyces spp. or Actinopolymorpha spp. Under in vitro condition, isolates IABT-A1, IABTA2, IABT-A3, IABT-A6, IABT-A7, IABT-A8 and IABT-A9 showed 98-100 per cent inhibition of Rhizoctonia solani, rice sheath blight pathogen. Further, five isolates were evaluated under glass house condition and the potent actinobacteria against rice sheath blight was identified. Among these isolates, IABT-A7 (Actinopoymorpha spp.) was most effective and application as seed treatment, soil and foliar spray was found most promising in terms of disease reduction and plant growth promotion. Actinopoymorpha spp. (IABT-A7) enhanced plant height, root length and root biomass in addition to reduced sheath blight infection in rice. This result indicates the role of actinobacteria isolate IABT-A7, as the probable stimulator of ISR (Induced Systemic Resistance) signaling pathway involved in plant disease resistance.
49 Bioefficacy of different species of entomopathogenic fungi against white grub, Leucopholis lepidophora (Blanchard) infesting sugarcane in Maharashtra, PRADNYA B. MANE AND PANDURANG B. MOHITE
The bioefficacy of three species of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin, Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) and Beauveria bassiana (Balsana) Vuillrmin, against white grub, Leucopholis lepidophora (Blanchard) infesting sugarcane crop was studied under laboratory conditions. In this bioassay Metarhizium anisopliae fungus caused higher rate of grub mortality at an overall concentration range of 4×105 to 2×106 conidia ml-1 as compared to Beauveria brongniartii and Beauveria bassiana The treatments with Metarhizium anisopliae fungus was found to be most effective and recorded 34.48-58.62 per cent grub mortality on 15 DAT at different conidial concentrations. The fungi Beauveria brongniartii recorded 31.03-55.18 per cent grub mortality, while as in case of fungi Beauveria bassiana 24.14-51.72 per cent grub mortality was observed on 15 DAT at different conidial concentrations. The estimated LC50 values for M. anisopliae, B. brongniartii and B. bassiana towards third instar grubs of Leucopholis lepidophora Blanch. were 9.05×105,10.44×105 and 11.78×105 conidia ml-1, respectively.
50 PCR based detection of phytoplasma association in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and guldawari (Dendranthema grandiflora L.), ANCHAL RANI1, PRAGATI MISRA1, JITENDRA SINGH2, PANKAJ KUMAR2, ROSY RANI1 AND PRADEEP SHUKLA1
Flowering plants Calendula officinalis with phyllody and virescence and Dendranthema grandiflora with little leaf and formation of bladder like silique symptoms observed in Uttar Pradesh, India. The presence of phytoplasmas in diseased plants was detected by direct and nested polymerase chain reaction assays using phytoplasma-specific primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R2. In both flowering plants presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by amplification of 1200 bp product of phytoplasma 16S rRNA region with nested primer R16F2n/R2. This is the first report of phytoplasma associated with Calendula officinalis from India.
51 Compatibility study of isolates of Trichoderma spp. with plant extracts, MUKESH MAHESHWARI
The potential Trichoderma is an exceptionally good model of bio-control agent as it is ubiquitous, easy to isolate and culture multiply rapidly on many substrates. There are several mechanisms involved in Trichoderma antagonism namely antibiosis whereby the antagonistic fungus shows production of volatile metabolites including ethylene and acetone as well as diffusible antibiotics and environmentally safe and economically viable strategy for control of various plant diseases has led to an increased plant based products in agriculture. The results of neem leaves, garlic and onion bulb extracts significantly reduced the growth of isolates of Trichoderma species. It was also noted that an increase in the concentration (5 % to 15 %) resulted in subsequent decrease in growth of the isolates. The inhibition per cent at lower concentration i.e., 5 per cent of neem, garlic and onion extracts was ranging from 20.89 to 27.99, 9.51 to 17.11 and 7.95 to 12.5, respectively. Whereas, at higher concentration i.e., 15 per cent, it was 44.53 to 55.09, 34.59 to 39.86 and 31.56 to 39.55, respectively. The average per cent inhibition in mycelial growth of isolates species wise indicated that all the seven species were more or less similar regarding sensitivity towards tested plant extracts.
52 Residues and dissipation of imidacloprid in pomegranate fruits, D.R. KADAM*1, B.V. DEORE2 AND S.M. UMATE1
Field and laboratory studies on residues and dissipation of imidacloprid in pomegranate fruits were conducted during 2010 at the Pesticide Residue analysis laboratory, Department of Entomology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, M.S. (India). The studies revealed that residues of imidacloprid persisted up to 3 days and 5 days in arils, 5 days and 7 days in whole fruits and 7 days and 10 days in peel of pomegranate fruits at recommended and higher doses, respectively.
53 Estimation of fusaric acid from culture filtrate of Fusarium udum by thin layer chromatography, S.B. SHINDE AND H.V. DESHMUKH
The investigation was undertaken to estimate fusaric acid from culture filtrate of Fusarium udum by using thin layer chromatography. Acidic pH (3.00), temperature 28 to 30°C and 20 days after incubation was found to be optimum for maximum fusaric acid production.
54 Antipathogenic potentiality of fluorescent pseudomonads for the management of rice sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani, SNEHAL J. SHINDE AND S.K. PRASHANTHI
Sheath blight (ShB) of rice is an important soil-borne fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) causing up to 40 per cent of yield losses annually. The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of Fluorescent pseudomonads on sheath blight management in rice and impact on plant growth. Fifteen different pseudomonad isolates were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani isolates under in vitro condition. Per cent inhibition of mycelial growth of R. solani by pseudomonads ranged from 74-100. All the isolates showed antagonism against the pathogen. Five strains, 12, 20, 19, soy2 and soy6 were found potent with 87-100 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth. They were further evaluated in greenhouse as seed treatment, soil application, foliar spraying and combined (seed+soil+foliar application) treatment for sheath blight control. Fluorescent pseudomonad isolate 19 was found potent and promising as it reduced the disease to the maximum extent and stimulated plant and root growth.
55 An efficient protocol for in vitro regeneration in java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) through callus, SANTOSH J. GAHUKAR, SNEHAL M. BANSOD AND AMRAPALI A. AKHARE*
The reproducible indirect in vitro regeneration system through callus was developed in Java citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) for genotype Bio-13. Tender leaves from the lower portion of the citronella culms were used as explants. The MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2, 4-D (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 mg/l) alone or in combination of BAP (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/l) were used for callus induction. For regeneration of plantlets MS media with different concentrations of BAP (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/l) alone or in combination with NAA (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/l) were employed. The induction of organogenic callus was highest in medium containing 5 mg/l 2, 4-D with 99.66 per cent explants showing callus formation. At higher concentration of BAP (0.5 mg/l) shoots were initiated rapidly from the callus within 13 days. The root formation response was best in MS medium containing 3.0 mg/l NAA (83.33 % shoots formed roots within 25 to 30 days). The regenerated plantlets transferred to autoclaved garden soil, soilrite and sand in 1:1:1 proportion and irrigated with half strength MS solution showed 85 per cent survival rate after three weeks.
56 In vitro antioxidant activity studies of Artocarpus gomezianus, S.J. PRASHANTH1, D. SURESH*, V.H. POTTY1 AND P. SADANANDA MAIYA1
Extraction of fruits, aerial parts and roots from Artocarpus gomezianus were subjected for pharmacognostic analysis. Also these parts were subjected tohydro-alcohol (30:70) extraction by soxhlet extraction technique. The raw materials were dried and powdered and analyzed for various parameters. The moisture content was found to be in the range of 4.97 per cent to 11.09 per cent, extractive values - 14.92 per cent to 18.75 per cent, chloroform solubility 1.15 per cent to 6.99 per cent and water solubility ranged between 4.52 per cent to 5.77 per cent. Fluorescence analysis and ash values were also determined. Extraction yields with 30:70 solvents indicate the quantitative idea about some of the proximate components. The results are important in planning the extraction, phytochemical analysis and determination of their various beneficial biological activities. The study was undertaken to evaluate qualitatively for the contents of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, Phytosterols, Triterpenoids, oils and fats present in the extracts from the Fruit, Aerial parts and Roots of Artocarpus gomezianus. The extracts when tested qualitatively for various phytochemicals, they found to contain carbohydrates, Glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, phytosterols and Triterpinoids. However, they do not contain saponins, oils and fats. Quantitative estimation of extracts for total phenols and total flavonoids reveals that most parts contain reasonably higher amounts. The results clearly demonstrate that the extracts can be considered for further studies which evaluate the biological activity such as antioxidant activities. Antioxidant assays such as Nitric oxide scavenging assay, Ferric ion reducing activity assay, ABTS free radical scavenging activity assay and total antioxidant assays were performed to ascertain the potency of the extracts. Fruit extract of Artocarpus gomezianus was found to have maximum ferric ion reducing property than other parts studied. Nitric oxide scavenging activity was found to be higher in fruit followed by aerial and root parts. ABTS radical scavenging activity of aerial part extract is found to be 5 mg/ml compared to the standard ascorbic acid with 4 mg/ml. The total antioxidant activity was found to be significantly high for the extract from fruit part than the extracts from aerial and root parts. It is clear from the studies that the extracts of aerial parts, fruits and roots possess potentially beneficial antioxidant activities. In view of their use in ancient medicine coupled with the recent understandings of these plant species, they may be considered for further exploration as they may yield very potent nutraceuticals.
57 Abundance of sucking insect pests of Bt cotton and their natural enemies under different intercropping systems, D.R. KADAM*1, D.B. KADAM1 AND S.M. UMATE2
The abundance of sucking pest of Bt cotton was studied under different intercropping systems during Kharif 2013 at VNMKV, Parbhani, Maharashtra. The results revealed that all intercropping systems were superior over sole cotton in respect of sucking pest population. Cotton + greengram and cotton + blackgram were the most effective intercropping systems that recorded lowest incidence of sucking pests followed by cotton + soybean and cotton + sesamum.
58 Epigenetics: new relation of health and nutrition, LATIKAYADAV AND POOJA MAURYA
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. The nutrients we extract from food enter metabolic pathways where they are manipulated, modified and molded into molecules, the body can use. One such pathway is responsible for making methyl groups - important epigenetic tags that silence genes. Familiar nutrients like folic acid, B vitamins and SAMe (S-Adenosyl methionine) are key components of this methyl-making pathway. Diets high in these methyl-donating nutrients can rapidly alter gene expression, especially during early development when the epigenome is first being established. Nutrients can reverse or change epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby modifying the expression of critical genes associated with physiologic and pathologic processes, including embryonic development, aging, and carcinogenesis. It appears that nutrients and bioactive food components can influence epigenetic phenomena either by directly inhibiting enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation or histone modifications, or by altering the availability of substrates necessary for those enzymatic reactions. As we better understand the connections between diet and the epigenome, the opportunity arises for clinical applications. Enter the future field of nutrigenomics, where nutritionists take a look at your methylation pattern and design a personalized nutrition plan. While we’re not quite to that point yet, your doctor can already tell a lot about your disease risk by looking at your family health history. In this regard, nutritional epigenetics has been viewed as an attractive tool to prevent pediatric developmental diseases and cancer as well as to delay aging-associated processes. In recent years, epigenetics has become an emerging issue in a broad range of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, inflammation and neurocognitive disorders.
59 Genetic markers of antibiotic resistance, I. SOPHIA1 AND R. SANTHAMANI2
The failure of antibiotic therapy in human and veterinary medicine has called the world community into a threatening situation. Various measures have been by policy makers across the globe to combat the issue of antimicrobial resistance. The massive problem of therapeutic failure has microelements as its source. This minireview discusses about the genetic markers involved in antibiotic resistance.
60 Effect of post shooting application of urea and sulphate of potash at the denavelled, distal stalk end of banana cv. Borjahaji, I. SARMA, R. BORGOHAIN AND M. PHUKON
A field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field under on farm trial during 2011-12, in Jorhat district of Assam, to study the impact of post shooting application of urea and sulphate of potash on the improvement of bunch weight of banana cultivar Borjahaji. The denavelled distal stalk end of the bunch was fed with urea, sulphate of potash blended with fresh cowdung soon after the fruit set. The results showed that when the bunch was fed with urea (7.5g), sulphate of potash (7.5g) blended with 500 g fresh cowdung (T4) all the yield attributing characters viz., length of fingers, weight of fingers of first hand, weight of fingers of last hand, girth of fingers, weight of first hand, weight of last hand and bunch weight were maximum as compared to denavelling and application of cowdung only (T2) and application of urea and cowdung at denavelled distal stalk end (T3). The minimum of all these characters and bunch weight were obtained in control(T1) where male bud was retained till harvest. The results revealed that the nutrients moved from the blend into the bunch and significantly enhanced the weight of fruits and bunch. When the bunch was fed with urea 7.5 g, sulphate of potash 7.5 g blended with cowdung 500 g (T4) the response was 34.77 per cent, 11 per cent and 5.9 per cent increase in weight of bunch over the treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively.
61 Effect of shoot pruning on yield and quality attribute of a winter capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) crops in hills protected condition`, CHANDAN SINGH AHIRWAR1 AND N.K. HEDAU2
In greenhouse crops, fruit yield and quality can be increased by managing shoot pruning. An experiment was conducted to study the growth and flowering performance of one varieties of capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) at experimental farm Division of Vegetable, Vivekananda Research Institute of Hill Agriculture, Almora. Was studied for effects on fruit yield, fruit quality and plant growth of greenhouse grown sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. ROBUSTA) during winter 2012-2013 in Uttrakhand Hill. Fruit set was inhibited due to the high temperatures. Marketable yield (number and weight) per m2 increased linearly was greater on plants with four stems than in those with Control, Double Leader system, Triple Leader system, Fourth Leader system. Total marketable yield and extra large fruit yields per plant were greatest in the Fourth Leader system. Plants Red fruits were harvested 79 and 105 days after transplanting. The stem length and the number of nodes per stem increased linearly with the decrease in plant spacing. Stem length and number of nodes per stem were greater in single-stem than in four-stem plants. Number seeds and peal thickness of fruits and total yield were higher in four and two than in single-stem plants. Total stem weight in fourth-stem plants increased linearly with Results indicated pruned to four stems increased marketable and extra large fruit yield in a short harvest period of a winter poly house sweet pepper crop in Uttrakhand hills. Results showed that capsicum (Capsicum annum L.) yield and quality can be effectively manipulated by plant population and stem pruning, while fruit pruning had only a limited effect.
62 Profiling of antioxidant enzymes in cat fish (Clarias batrachus) exposed to phenolic compounds, AMIT ALEXANDER CHARAN1, ARADHANA IRENE CHARAN1, OM PRAKASH VERMA1 AND SYED SUAIB NAUSHAD2
Pollution of water sources due to chemicals plays a primary role in the destruction of ecosystems but chemical analyses alone may not suffice to describe the adverse effects of the complex mixtures of chemicals present at contaminated sites. The potential utility of biomarkers for monitoring both environmental quality and the health of organisms inhabiting in the polluted ecosystems has received increasing attention during the last years. In the present investigation, the antioxidant profile of Clarias batrachus, a fresh water fish was determined by evaluation of antioxidant enzymes, SOD activity, catalase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione-S-transferase activity, reduced glutathione, level of conjugated dienes, hydrogen peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde level. The studies showed that in fishes after exposure to phenolic compounds (treated group), there was a significant abnormal level of all the parameters as mentioned above at P
63 Cellulytic activity of a thermophilic fungusAspergillus fumigatus isolated from paper industry effluent, SHAHEEN JAMAL1 AND SUNITA2
Cellulases are used in numerous industrial applications and for cellulose conversion to value added products. A cellulase producing thermophilic Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from paper industry effluent sample after 72 h incubation on potato dextrose agar at 45°C. In the present study the production of cellulase enzyme by Aspergillus fumigatus cultivated on wheat bran: rice straw (1:4) using solid state fermentation (SSF) technique. The ability to produce cellulase under varying conditions of temperature, pH, moisture content, and nitrogen sources was evaluated. The higher cellulase activity was obtained when the fungus was cultivated on substrate (wheat bran: rice straw (1:4)) with moisture content (1:4), pH 5.5, urea as nitrogen source and incubated in environmental chamber at 450C for 3 days as it give 1.85FPU/ml.
64 Biological control of onion basal rot caused byFusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae, S. MALATHI
Basal rot disease of onion is caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend: Fr. f. sp. cepae (Hans.). Biocontrol agents were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of onion cultivated in different places of Tamil Nadu, India. Efficacy of various biocontrol agents was evaluated for the potential to manage the basal rot of onion in vitro. Among the tested isolates of Trichoderma sp., T. harzianum (TH 3) gave the greatest (83%) inhibition and Pseudomonas sp. (Pf 12) exerted significantly the greatest (75%) reduction of mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. Based on the laboratory analysis, effective biocontrol agents were evaluated in glass house and field conditions. Among the thirteen treatments tested in the field, the combination of bacterial and fungal biocontrol agents (Pf12 +Pf27+ TH3) gave significantly the greatest (85%) disease reduction. These biocontrol agents were useful as an alternative to chemical control of the onion basal rot and to enhanced growth and yield of onion.
65 Residues and dissipation of lambda-cyhalothrin in pomegranate fruits, D.R. KADAM1, B.V. DEORE1 AND S.M. UMATE2
Field and laboratory studies on residues and dissipation of lambda-cyhalothrin in pomegranate fruits were coducted during 2010 at the Pesticide Residue Analysis Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar M.S. The studies revealed that residues of imidacloprid persisted up to 3 days and 5 days in arils, 5 days and 7 days in whole fruits and 7 days and 10 days in peel of pomegranate fruits at recommended and higher doses, respectively.
66 Isolation and functional characterization of cadmium resistant strainsRAN 1 using agronomical parameter of chaulai (Amaranthus tricolor), ANJALI TIWARI1, O.P. VERMA1 AND MANISHI TRIPATHI2
Resistance and tolerance are arbitrarily defined terms frequently interchangeable and after based on weather a given isolate can grow in the presence of selected heavy metal concentration in laboratory media. Total bacterial strains were isolated and screened on the basis of their heavy metal tolerance ability for cadmium and their PGPR activity. It was estimated that they have good tolerance power for cadmium the heavy metals and are plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. If we study morphological aspects we can say that Gram negative rods are more efficient in tolerating heavy metals. In case of treatment I, fresh weight was increased 27.5 per cent and dry weight was increased 25 per cent compared to positive control. In case of treatment II, fresh weight was increased 28 per cent and dry weight was increased 14.81 per cent compared to negative control. In case of negative control, fresh weight was decreased 50 per cent and dry weight was decreased 48.07 per cent compared to positive control. By performing experiment it was proved that the cadmium concentration reduced significant percentage of Chaulai fresh weight and dry weight but increased when treated with strain RAN 1.
67 Effect of newer insecticides to natural enemies in the coastal rice ecosystem of Karaikal district, Union Territory of Puducherry, K.S. KARTHICK, M. KANDIBANE AND K. KUMAR
To study the effect of newer insecticides viz., flubendiamide 39.35 M/M SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, thiamethoxam 25 WG, bifenthrin 10 EC, cartap hydrochloride 50 SP, indoxacarb 14.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG and phosphamidon 40 SL to natural enemies of rice pests, a field experiment was conducted at the Eastern farm of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute (PAJANCOA and RI), Karaikal during late Rabi 2013 (Nov.- Feb.). Two foliar applications were carried out at an interval of fifteen days after leaf folder larvae reached economic threshold level (10 %). The results showed that the overall mean population of coccinellids was found to be more in the untreated check (1.31 and 1.65 / hill) followed by indoxacarb 14.5 SC at 72.50 g a.i. / ha (0.92 and 1.16 / hill) in the first and second foliar application. The overall mean population of spiders was high in the untreated check (1.32 and 1.55 / hill), followed by indoxacarb 14.5 SC at 72.50 g a. i. / ha (1.07 and 1.15 / hill) over the other treatments.
68 Effect of low temperature storage of trichocards parasitised by Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) and Trichogramma japonicum(Ashmead), M. BHARGAVI AND K.V. NAIK
The present investigations were undertaken on laboratory studies of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) and Trichogramma japonicum (Ashmead) during the year 2013-2014 in the bio-control laboratory, Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Dapoli (Maharashtra). Effect of low temperature storage at 150C temperature for varying period on egg cards parasitised by T. chilonis and T. japonicum, 4 day after parasitisation revealed that parasitised trichocards after 4 days of parasitisation can effectively stored up to 15 days without much effect on adult emergence.
69 Development of suitable integrated pest management module for major lepidopteran insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), SOMNATH DESHMUKH, H.V. PANDYA, S.D. PATEL, M.M. SAIYAD AND P.P. DAVE
Investigation on development of suitable integrated pest management module for major insect pest of cabbage (Brassicae oleracea var. capitata) was carried out in experimental field of Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat. In case of larval population of C. binotalis, S. litura, P. xylostella and H. armigera was found in sole synthetic insecticide module M3 (0.23, 0.35, 1.61 and 1.78/ plants, respectively) followed by eco-friendly pest management module M1 (0.23, 0.98, 1.50 and 1.51/ plants, respectively) and botanicals bio-pesticides module M2 (0.30, 0.99, 1.62 and 1.65/ plants, respectively). As far as yield and economics is concerned, module M3 recorded highest yield of cabbage heads (28322.0 kg/ha) and consequently higher net gain over control (122050 Rs./ha) and higher net BCR (1:41.01). However, its effect in destructing natural fauna, polluting environment and causing residual problem should not be overlooked. Eco-friendly pest management module and botanicals and bio-pesticides module was next effective module in recording yield and net profit besides any adverse effect on natural fauna and did not leave any toxic residue.
70 Isolation, identification, partial purification, optimization and characterization of alkaline protease fromNeisseria flavescence, SHRUTI SHUKLA AND O.P. VERMA
Microbial alkaline proteases are among the important hydrolytic enzyme and have been used extensively since the advent of enzymology. Bacterial extracellular alkaline proteases are of great importance due to its wide spectrum applications in detergent industries, bioremediation, food industries, and leather processing and bio-film degradation. From the various niches eighteen isolates were screened for alkaline protease production, out of which four isolates showed efficient alkaline protease production. Out of four bacterial species one of the isolate i.e. N. flavescence showed significant enzyme activity. Optimization of the pH and temperature conditions for enzyme production was determined and was found to be 7.0 and 600C, respectively. Optimization of carbon, nitrogen sources and metal ions for enzyme production were determined and was found to be 4.64U/ml for sucrose, 0.91U/ ml for gelatin and 0.21U/ml for zinc chloride for the isolates. The yield of alkaline protease was inhibited by copper sulphate. Enzyme activity was assayed using tyrosine-casein method. The purified enzyme preparations of having enzyme activity 0.26U/ ml was also excellent in destaining of ink colour. The molecular weight of different bands of alkaline protease fromN. flavescence ranged from 25kD to 83kD.
71 Effect of andrographolide on feeding behaviour ofPapilio demoleus L., (Lepidoptera: papilionidae) larvae, SRINIVASA RAO VATTIKONDA
Botanical insecticides are currently of interest because of their successful application in plant protection as biocontrol agents. Andrographolide which was isolated from Andrographis paniculata evaluated for its antifeedant activity against the fourthinstar larvae of Papilio demoleus. Preliminary screening after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of exposure at a concentration of 200 ppm exhibited 83.60 per cent and 80.05 per cent antifeedant activity significantly. The protected leaf area at 200ppm was 32.08 ± 0.84 sq.cm and 28.55 ± 0.72 sq.cm after 24 hrs. and 48 hrs, respectively. The antifeedant activity of andrographolide was also examined at 150, 100 and 50ppm concentrations which significantly reduced the feeding ability of larvae. The results imply that extract of A. paniculata, can potentially be used as an alternative pest control agent against the Papilio demoleus larvae.
72 Development ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) incorporated mango leather to enhance the sensory quality and storage stability, M.B. JABEZ1, S.K. MATHANGHI2, K. SUDHA1 AND M.K.S. VENKATESH1
Mango fruit leather was prepared by incorporation of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) for better textural and sensory properties. The mango fruit leather was incorporated with the leaf extract ofO. sanctum at different concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percentages. The natural antioxidants present in the O. sanctum leaf extracts that was incorporated in the fruit leather showed extended shelflife over three months when compared with control, without any added preservatives at ambient temperature. Also the storage stability of the product was studied under two flexible packages of polypropylene and polyester out of that the products packed in polypropylene showed better storage stability.
73 Socio-economic and demographic descriptions of tribal people subsisting in forest resources of Jharkhand, India, M.A. ISLAM1, R. RAI2, S.M.S. QULI3 AND M.S. TRAMBOO1
A field study based on structured interviews and personal observations was carried out to study the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of tribal (Munda, Oraon and Lohara) people subsisting in forest resources of Bundu block in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, India. The primary data were collected from 164 sample households drawn from 9 selected villages employing multi-stage random sampling technique. The results indicated that majority of the respondents were middle aged having low literacy up to primary level, no membership or membership of only one organization with nuclear family systems and large family size. The size of land holding among most of the respondents were either marginal or small, engaged mainly in cultivation having one temporary structured house, one pair of bullocks, medium farm implement possession, 6 to 10 livestock, medium material possession, income from forest resources upto Rs. 8000/ annum and gross annual income upto Rs. 30000/ annum. The surveyed households have higher sex ratio compared to the sex ratio of all India tribal population and over all India population. The unemployment problem is very high among the surveyed population. Hence, the livelihood diversification using existing forest resources should be given topmost priority as important strategy of poverty reduction and socio-economic upliftment of backward tribal people by the policy makers, planners, economists, extension workers and social scientists in the area.
74 Bio-efficacy of insecticides against aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) infesting cowpea [Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walp.], B. SWARNALATA, S.M. PATEL, H.V. PANDYA AND S.D. PATEL
Eleven different insecticides were evaluated for their efficacy against A. craccivora at Regional Horticulture Research Station, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat during Rabi season of the year 2013-2014. The treatment imidacloprid 0.005 per cent (0.19 aphid index/plant) was found to be most effective followed by thiamethoxam 0.01 per cent (0.33 aphid index/plant). Verticillium lecanii 0.40 per cent (0.58 aphid index/plant), azadirachtin 0.002 per cent (0.62 aphid index/plant) and dimethoate 0.03 per cent (0.77 aphid index/plant) were the next in order. The highest marketable pod yield (30.37 q/ha) and maximum per cent increase in pod yield of cowpea over control (84.28 %) was recorded from the plots treated with thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 0.01 per cent.
75 A study of alcohol and its side effect on human physiology, DEBASISH KUMAR DEY AND MEENU SINGH
From the very beginning of ancient time we are using alcohol as a part of our culture just to enhance the fun in different ceremonies, but drinking too much of alcohol or indulging it into one’s habit can cause serious problems to one’s health such as various cancer, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatitis and so on. Not only this much even some time may it lead to a serious accident. But of course this is very true that “Alcohol affects different people differently” as per the tolerance level of an individual. As per Plato “The excessive increase of anything causes a reaction in the opposite direction” the same applies here too in case of alcohol. In fact a moderate drinking has also been proved that it has some positive effects on the body. It only effects negatively to the body when the concentration of alcohol in the blood will be relatively higher say 5-10 m mol L-1 and also at low concentration of alcohol there will be a feeling of euphoria. According to the book “Beyond hangovers” A research demonstrates “low risk” drinking level for men are no more than four drinks per day and fourteen in a week, at the same time three drinks in a day and seven drinks in a week for women. Even after drinking moderately one may have problems, if one drinks too quickly; this case is considered only for those who are over age 65. And for older adults, they should not take more than three drinks in a day and seven drinks in a week. When someone drinks beverage alcohol around 2 per cent to 8 per cent is lost through urine and sweat. The other 92 per cent to 98 per cent is metabolized by our body. At the same time alcohol exerted its effects on CNS by nonselectivity disrupting the lipid bilayers of neurons. Actually alcohol passes directly from the digestive tract into the blood vessels. Within minutes, the blood transports the alcohol to all parts of the body, including the brain. And it affects the brain’s neurons in several ways. It also alters their membranes as well as their ion channels, enzymes and receptors. Alcohol also binds directly to the receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA and also with the NMDA receptors for glutamate.GABA’s effect is to reduce neural activity by allowing chloride ions to enter the post-synaptic neuron. These ions have a negative electrical charge, which helps to make the neuron less excitable. This physiological effect is amplified when alcohol binds to the GABA receptor, because it enables the ion channel to stay open longer and thus let more Cl- ions into the cell. The neuron’s activity would thus, be further diminished, thus, explaining the sedative effect of alcohol. This effect is accentuated because alcohol also reduces glutamate’s excitatory effect on NMDA receptors.
76 Toxicity of newer insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.), S.S. MUNJE, P.B. SALUNKE AND B.S. BOTRE
Efforts were made to study the LC50 values of newer insecticide against brinjal shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) collected from different location of Vidarbha viz., Akola, Amravati, Yavatmal, Washim and Buldhana by using direct spray method carried out in the toxicology laboratory, Department of Agricultural Entomology, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola during 2011-12. Five insecticides viz., rynaxypyr 20 SC, flubendiamide 480 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG, indoxacarb 14.5 SC and spinosad 45 SC were tested for their toxicity to third instar larvae of Leucinodes orbonalis (Guen.). The resultant toxicity in terms of LC50 values obtained for insecticide against different strain were ranged for rynaxypyr (0.127-0.157), flubendiamide (15.551-23.046), emamectin benzoate (0.277-0.351), indoxacarb (2.016-2.457) and spinosad (3.094-4.940) ppm. Rynaxypyr 20 EC and emamectin benzoate 5 SG were found most effective amongst the insecticides tested. Thus, rynaxypyr and emamectin benzoate could be used for management of Leucinodes orbonalis and to delay the development of insecticide resistance.
77 Isolation of ?-glucosidase from different parts of maize (Zea mays) and its specific activity estimation, SANTOSH KUMAR, O.P. VERMA AND AMIT ALEXANDER CHARAN
?-glucosidase is a remarkable enzyme in the field of enzyme technology. Firstly, it helps in producing ethanol from the plant waste and subsequently helps to cope up the oil crisis as well as in alcohol based industries. Secondly, it improves the taste and aroma of wine, tea and fruits. In the present study ?-glucosidase was isolated from different plant parts of maize (Zea mays) and specific activity was estimated. The maximum crude enzyme was found in coleoptile (2.86ml) and maximum specific activity was estimated in thumb leaf (lower most leaf) as 43.446 whereas maximum protein was found in second leaf blade (9.241 mg/ml).
78 Effect of vermicompost and biofertilizer on symbiotic efficiency and yield of cowpea in arid zone of Rajasthan, V.M. KHAN1, R.S. MANOHAR2 AND H.P. VERMA3
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif season of 2012 on loamy sand soil to study the effect of vermicompost and biofertilizers on growth, yield and quality of cowpea. The experiment consisted of four treatments of vermicompost (control, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 t/ha) and four treatments of biofertilizer (control, Rhizobium, PSB and Rhizobium+PSB) thereby making sixteen treatment combinations tested in Randomized Block Design with four replications. The results indicated the application of vermicompost 4.0 t/ha gave maximum and significantly higher the net returns over other treatments and remained at par with 6.0 t/ha of vermicompost. Whereas, seed yield, straw yield, biological yield, total root nodules and leghaemoglobin content significantly increased upto 6.0 t/ha and remained at par with 4.0 t/ha of vermicompost over other treatments. But, protein content in seed and effective root nodules significantly higher upto 6.0 t/ha of vermicompost over other treatments. The nitrogen fixation capacity unchanged under different levels of vermicompost. Results further indicated that combined seed inoculation with the Rhizobium + PSB significantly increased the seed yield, straw yield, biological yield, protein content in seed, total root nodules, effective root nodule, leghaemoglobin content, nitrogen capacity and net returns over control and other treatments.
79 Effect of different insecticides in the control of mango nut weevil (Sternochaetus mangiferae F.), A. RAMA KRISHNA RAO
Among the insecticides tested against nut weevil, carbaryl was effective in reducing the nut weevil infestation followed by endosulfan and malathion. Two applications of insecticides given at the time of flowering and marble size fruit stage were equally effective as in three sprays given at flowering marble size, fruit stage and advanced fruit development stage.