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Engineering Technology in India

Journal Papers (84) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Studies on waterfront advances in sub surface drip irrigation under laboratory conditions, M. SRINIVASULU, A. RAMARAO, K. KISHAN AND H.V. HEMA KUMAR
Proper utilization of water is very much essential to fight against the future water scarcity. India inhabits 16 per cent of the total world population with only 2 per cent of the total land and 4 per cent of the total water resources of the world. The per capita availability of water in India is 1820 cu. m per year whereas, it is 1700 cu. m per year in Orissa state. Subsurface drip irrigation is a better technology over the surface drip irrigation system. In case of SSDI system, laterals are placed at such a depth that wetting front water lies at least 10-15 cm below the soil surface, thus applying water directly into the root zone and leaving 10-12 cm of surface profile dry. In this system evaporation loss is reduced and thus improves irrigation efficiency by around 30 per cent over conventional drip system. Weed growth is little or fully checked due to dryness of upper soil layer. SSDI has advantages like quack plant response to nutrient application, trafficability in the field. Subsurface drip irrigation has also the potential to deliver low fertilizer rates over extended time periods with increased nutrient efficiency and reduces the leaching of nutrient below the root zone with lower cost per harvested unit. As a further development, a new irrigation method namely subsurface drip irrigation with perforated Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDP) tube in sand and gravel tubes is expected to increase the water use efficiency of subsurface applied drip irrigation on permanent tree crops. In this case, the micro tube emitter fitted into the lateral will be buried into the perforated LLDP tube in soil near to the plant root zone and there by evaporation losses can be completely avoided. Study of water front advances with micro tube emitter embedded in perforated LLDP tube placed in the soil, in perforated LLDP tube placed in sand tube, in perforated LLDP tube placed in fine gravel tube and placed on sand tube and fine gravel tube were reported in this article.
2 Evaluation ofMKVs developed deep litter type poultry house, AMOL D. SHURPATNE, SACHIN S. BHAGADE AND KAPIL K. SAMAR
A low cost poultry form has been designed and developed at Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani. Their evaluation has been done on actual field condition. From three year survey work it was observed that developed deep litter poultry house for 100 birds found in good condition, durable, profitable and suitable for all type climate. It is suitable for landless, marginal and small land holding farmer as a supplementary income.
3 Performance evaluation of bamboo sliver making machine, S.P. KURHEKAR AND N.S. SHINDE
The bamboo sliver making machine is electrically operated by a 3-phase, A.C induction motor. The readings were taken at no load condition and at load conditions for fresh as well as dry bamboo of different varieties. The power required at no load condition was 2.23 kW. At load condition for freshly cut bamboo energy consumed was 3.10 kW. Similarly, for dry bamboo energy consumption was 2.43 kW. The capacity for freshly cut bamboo was found to be 36 slivers per minute. Similarly, the capacity of machine for dry cut bamboo was found to be 42 slivers per minute. The cutting efficiency for freshly cut bamboo was found to be 76.19 % similarly, for the cutting efficiency for dry cut bamboo was found to be 77.82 %. The cutting efficiency increases with decrease in moisture content. The percentage damaged for freshly cut bamboo was found to be 23.79 %. Similarly, the percentage damaged for dry cut bamboo was found to be 24.05%. The percentage damage decreases with increase in moisture content
4 Farmers preferences of communication sources in perception of farm technology, S.K. NAYAK AND D.P. RAI
Information channels in modern era are crucial in transfer of farm technology among the farmers further leading to initiate the process of converting in actual practical application to enhance the production
5 Development of micro processor based electronic metering mechanism for seed an approach, V.V. AWARE AND S.V. AWARE
A microprocessor based electronic metering mechanism was design and developed for three row planter to meter the cowpea seeds. The previously developed mechanical metering mechanism exhibited various losses in mechanical linkages and hence proved to be less precise. The metering mechanism was based on the opto electric rotary sensing. The input was given to the micro controller in the form of electric pulses from the sensor and the switches, which defined the spacing of the seed. The performance of developed planter was tested in the laboratory. For the given input of 15 cm, the output seed spacing obtained was 16.2 cm
6 Development and performance evaluation of pedaloperated maize sheller, S.B. PATIL, A.D. CHENDAKE, M.A. PATIL, S.G. PAWAR, R.V. SALUNKHE AND S.S. BURKUL
A pedal operated maize Sheller was designed, developed and built by using locally available material with overall dimensions of 12707601150 mm. The machine could be operated continuously for a comparatively long time with high shelling rate without causing damage to kernels. Four shelling units were provided for shelling of maize cobs and operated with the chain and sprocket arrangement. The results revealed that the machine was easy to operate with an average kernel shelling rate of 110 kg/hr when operated by two persons with no any kernel damage. Shelling efficiency was 98 per cent with collection efficiency of 94 per cent and average rate throughout was 150 kg/hr
7 Tribological properties in electrodeposition of Ni-TiO2 composite coating on tungsten carbide cutting tool, RAJINDER BHOGAL AND JATINDER KAPOOR
In this paper tribological and electrochemical surface properties of Tungsten Carbide cutting tool substrate coated with Ni-Tio2 composite layer via electrocodeposition technique have been studied. The failure modes mechanism was observed via optical microscopy. Results from X-ray Diffractrometry (XRD) analysis revealed that the peaks of XRD pattern corresponding to Ni and TiO2. During electrodeposition effect of current density, pH vale of watts solution on microhardness of the composite layer have been studied. The grain structure of composite layer is characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness of the composite layer was investigated using Vickers microhardness tester. The surface morphology of Ni-Tio2 coated layer shows the deposition of fine grained structures at low currents with higher microhardness value and better adhesiveness with substrate. Moreover at constant temperature and time of deposition, the coating thickness increases with increase in current
8 Studies of mechanical properties of treated bamboo, S.P. KURHEKAR
Steeping method was used for treating bamboo by using Boric acid Borax, Copper Chrome Boron and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid.Treatment was carried out for 14 day. After treatment, quality evaluation of bamboo was done by cutting bamboo in sample size of 61 cm (2) and exposing them to environmental condition. Mechanical properties of 61 cm (2) bamboo (30.5 cm (1) buried in soil and 30.5 cm (1) above soil were determined by using universal testing machine .After preservation time of 14 days it was observed, out of 20 lit of sample, 10 lit Boric Acid Borax liquid, 5 lit of Copper Chrome Boron liquid was absorbed by bamboo and cashew nut shell liquid was not absorbed by bamboo specimens. It was observed that for the tensile strength for bamboo treated with Boric Acid Borax, Copper Chrome Boron and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid was 38.20 N/mm, 30.69 N/mm and 8.03 N/mm for under soil and 48.09 N/mm, 39.09 N/mm and 9.35 for over soil sample and compressive strength was 5.04 N/mm, 4.02 N/mm and 0.39 N/mm for under soil sample and 5.17 N/mm, 4.87 N/ mm and 0.58 N/mm for over soil sample.
9 Effect of tillage practices on soil moisture in vertisol, SACHIN S. BHAGADE, KAPIL K. SAMAR AND AMOL D. SHURPATNE
Effect of tillage practices on soil moisture conservation practices in vertisol was carried out during Kharif-2012 at All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) for dryland agriculture farm, Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, to know the effect of tillage practices on soil moisture content in the soil regime. Four treatments from 10 cm to 40 cm; were adopted. It was found that ploughing across the slope up to 30cm depth is beneficial.
10 Improvement of engineering characteristics of locally available soil mass by use of marble dust, R.P. ARORA, N.K. AMETA, KAPIL K. SAMAR AND K.L. SAMDANI
Marble powder is an excellent material for mechanical stabilization of cohesive soil. A need is existed for thorough understanding of outcomes of various engineering tests when the marble slurry is mixed with soil samples. Very few researchers have been attracted by enhancing the soil properties by marble slurry. Use of marble slurry with soil can be a sustainable solution for its disposal.
11 Development of PLC-based automatic Grape dryer, V.R.THOOL, K.K. NARWADE, A.B. KOKATE, S.D. KHURJULE AND M.B. PAWAR
Grape is a seasonal crop and gets spoiled fast. Therefore, all the grapes of a season must be utilized within short span of 4-5 days. Present natural process of grapes (Kishmish making) requires 12-15 days. Hence, the investment of space and infrastructure are large and cannot be afforded by Indian farmers. To overcome this problem, an experimental drying chamber has been designed and fabricated which simulate the climatic condition. Also a PLC based system is developed to provide flexibility in varying conditions to produce all varieties of raisins (brown, golden, green).
12 Effectiveness of mobile money transfer technology in rural areas in India, REENA HOODA
Owing to the advancements in communication technologies, high processing systems and low-cost software, mobile money transfer is an emergent application that boosts the participation of network operators while reducing the intermediaries like Banks or ATMs, removing the condition of opening an account in a bank. It is a money transfer service that acts through the collaboration of Mobile Network Operators, Banks and Information and Communication Technologies. As notified in recent reports, there are around 1843 Banks having 82439 branches and approx 10 big Network Operators are running in India. Moreover, with increased mobile consumers and a big consumer market, MMT may get immense popularity as well as effectiveness in rural areas having less banking services. The overall effectiveness of this service, possibly will be increased mobility of money, more demand for consumer products, improved socio-economic status of rural population and hence a high economic growth. The current paper discusses various key nugget helpful in enhancing performance of the service, such as cost of availing this mobile-wallet, required infrastructure, finance and mobile literacy by consumers, micro financing in rural areas, laws and regulations to avoid fraud, high speed internet, risk factors and consumer protection.
13 An investigation of lentic water quality parameters and its suitability to irrigated agriculture, DEEPA N. BARKI AND PRADEEP KUMAR SINGA
The water bodies are facing a severe threat of pollution all over the world. To ensure fresh water availability from the local water sources has become a big challenge. The impact of point and non-point pollution sources on the quality of the receiving water and suitability of water for irrigation was evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio and the US salinity diagrams of the lakes was investigated during premonsoon and post-monsoon seasons that is from Dec 2013 to May 2014 The condition of the lakes deteriorated sharply in the pre-monsoon due to low dilution of incoming pollutants during the low water flow lead to the increase the pollution of the lakes. In the vicinity of intensively cultivated areas, the high concentrations of electrical conductivity, nitrogen and phosphorus which were detected in the lakes during pre-monsoon may be partly attributed to the leaching of the applied fertilizers because of nitrogen mobilization and soil erosion
14 Energy auditing of chemical industry and scope for renewable energy, A.U. SANAP, SURENDRA KOTHARI, N.L. PANWAR AND VINOD YADAV
Chemical industry is one of the oldest industries in India. Indian chemical sector has grown a long way since its early days of independence. The chemical industry forms the backbone of the industrial and agricultural development in India and also provides building blocks for downstream industries. This industry is a significant contributor to Indias national economic growth. To know the extent of energy being wasted it is essential to know the amount of energy being consumed. Energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output. The energy audit is the key for decision-making in the area of energy management. This paper presents, electrical energy auditing carried out in production plant of (PIL) chemical industry, in which lighting system was tested according to BEE standards. The annual energy wastage through lighting system was 528.24 kWh and found 600 kWh annual energy saving opportunities by replacing high power rating lamps. It was suggested that 2 kW capacity solar photovoltaic (SPV) system is capable for running indoor lighting system. Payback period of the SPV system comes 44 months compare to conventional electricity.
15 RF radiation effects on green house vegetation and protection methodologies using integrated EM protectors, A. BENO, K. EMINA DEVI, N. NAZEERA BANU, K. SASI AND R.O. NISHANTHI
This paper presents the design of an intelligent embedded system to analyze the natural growth and yield from agricultural plantations. The system is used to analyze the effect of R.F radiation on plantations with and without radiation. The microwave radiation sources on plantations using R.F Microwave sources in C-Band (4-6GHz) and X-Band (8-12GHz) is applied to study the effects. The system displays the adverse effects of radiation on growth of plantations and products, using the intelligent embedded monitoring system. The paper also presents a novel concept to construct a model plantation with R.F radiation blocking structures to minimize the radiation effects into the artificially made Green House Plantations. The design helps to produce agricultural products without the influence of radiation effects.
16 Finite element analysis of multipass GMAW butt joint for welding of AA7020, K.P. KOLHE AND S. D.WAVALE
This study was conducted for analyzing the major failures of large metal inert gas arc welded structures of AA7020 aluminum alloy joined by using 5636 aluminium alloy electrode wire. The experimental study of two pass AA7020 aluminum alloys are carried out by preparing the standard welded samples as per British welding standard. The mechanical properties of the multiphase welded joint, like tensile strength, hardness and impact strength have been tested and reported. The analysis was carried out by using FEM solver ABACUS for identifying stress, strain and temperature distribution of welding. The number of nodes and elements selected for this study are 19,452 and 15, 840, respectively. Tie contact was used to connect molten and parent metal by using Ansys 6. By using Al-alloys lowering the mass by about 50 per cent can be obtained. However, it makes possible to increase and maintained ship buoyancy to increase its load carrying capacity and speed, as well as improve its stability. For these reasons Al-alloys are used for construction of ship hull and superstructures. Among weldable Al-alloys suitable to plastic working the group of Al-Mg alloys (of 5xxx- series) of good weldability and relatively good service conditions are still the most popular. Their relative insusceptibility to layer and stress corrosion is advantageous. Their disadvantage is low strength of welded joints of elements made of them, not exceeding 300 MPa. In order to more intensive craft of weight Al-Zn-Mg alloys (7xxx series) became more interesting. They are characteristic of higher strength properties as compared with those of Al-Mg alloys.Aluminum alloy 7020 [AA7020] a higher strength aluminum alloy, is widely used in welded engineering structural components, military applications, food processing industries and in aerospace applications.
17 Fluoride content distribution in the underground water of Central India Madhya Pradesh, PURNIMA BEOHAR
Presently our country facing the major fluoride related problem. The severity of fluorosis depends on the concentration of fluoride in the drinking water, daily intake, continuity and duration of exposure and climatic conditions. A number of cases of fluorosis have been reported mostly from the granite and gneissic complex of different states such as Madhya Pradesh. In our state 20 districts including Shivpuri, Mandla, and Jhabua are having excessive fluoride content in drinking water. By the Random method of sampling we analyzed water samples, by Alizarian photometric method. To study fluoride content , requirement of the treatment and disease due to fluoride contaminated water and the distribution of fluoride in the underground water.
18 Removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions by precipitation, R.T. SRINIVASA RAO AND N.T. MANJUNATH
Fluoride although beneficial for the mineralization of tissues in the human body, can be toxic to human being with chronic exposure to elevated concentration. Fluoride considered beneficial in drinking water at levels of 0.5 ppm but harmful once it exceed a level of 1.2 ppm. To date various methods to remove fluoride from water and wastewater have been proposed and applied. An attempt has been made in the present paper to summarise the outcome of study carried out to evaluate the feasibility of using alum to precipitate fluoride from synthetic solution under varied experimental conditions viz., pH (6.5 to 9.5), alum dosage (200 to 500 mg/l), initial concentration of fluoride (Co : 3, 4 and 5 mg/l). Inverse relationship between removal efficiency and Co as well as pH were recorded. On the other hand higher dosages of alum was found to be effective for fluoride precipitation. From aqueous solutions maximum of 78.8 per cent removal of fluoride was recorded with alum dosage of 500 mg/l, pH of 6.5, Co being 3 mg/l. However, all the dosages of alum at all the pH values and Co had successfully reduced the fluoride content from the aqueous solution to the permissible limits.
19 Adsorption of nickel using low cost materials as adsorbents, K.V. MANJUNATH AND N.T. MANJUNATH
Wastewater from industries must ultimately be return to the receiving bodies or to the land. In these wastewaters metals may be present in both soluble and insoluble forms. The concentration of metals must be reduced to acceptable levels before discharging them into environment. Otherwise these could pose threats to public health and may also affect aesthetic quality of receiving bodies. The removal of nickel from aqueous solution by economically feasible adsorbents was investigated, as a part of research work and presented in this paper. The effects of flow rate (contact time) initial concentration of metal ions (Co) for its removal on the adsorbents viz., coconut husk, saw dust and sugar cane leaves have been studied at pH of 4.0. Maximum and minimum removal efficiency under optimum conditions of experimentations were recorded with coconut husk and sugar cane leaves, respectively
20 Customization of CAD/CAM software: a case study of customization of UG/NX 4.0 for modeling couplings using knowledge fusion programming, SUNIL D.WAVALE AND KISHOR P. KOLHE
The CAD/CAM software available in the market are general purpose software. These software are not developed for particular user or a particular task. The process of molding of the software for particular application to suit the specific requirement of the customer is called as customization of software. Various industries use UG/NX to perform the task of solid modeling, assembly modeling and drafting of the various engineering products. Due to the wide variety of applications, couplings of various types are used frequently by many industries. The aim of this work is to customize UG/NX CAD/CAM software, to provide facilities that generate three dimensional part model of Oldhams coupling, and its assembly model using knowledge fusion programming
21 Development of indigenous plough for ridging and inter cultural operations for sugarcane crop, R.T. JADHAV, H.D. RUPNAWAR, B.B. SURYAVANSHI ANDA.P. PATIL
Sugarcane crop has been pride of Maharashtra state and plays a vital role in agricultural economy of the state. Maharashtra state had established enviable position in the Indian sugar industry by contributing 35 per cent of total sugar production (8.5 Million Tonnes of sugar). In spite of this in sugarcane crop system traditional methods of weeding and earthing up is labour as well as time consuming and cannot be done by tractor drawn implements because of restriction for their movement in sugarcane row as well as less land holding capacity of Indian formers. So that, the bullock drawn ridger and inter cultivators have got popularity in the major part of the country. Also all these operations in sugarcane crop are carried out using bullock drawn implements. Keeping above points in view the study was undertaken entitled, with view to fabricate and develop indigenous plough for ridging and inter-cultural operations for sugarcane crops. For the study the popular Kirloskar iron plough was selected as it is widely used in the region. This selected plough was developed such that it has furrowing and weeding tools with view to number of operations at a single pass of implement. It can also used for ridging, earthing up and weeding operation.The testing of developed indigenous plough was carried out in Kagal Tahsil of Kolhapur district for sugarcane crop by following RNAM standard test codes. The power required for ridging, earthing up and weeding operations was 0.91 hp, 1.26 hp and 1.38 hp, respectively. The effective field capacity was obtained about 0.18 ha/hr. 0.21 ha/hr. and 0.24 ha/hr. for ridging, earthing- up and weeding operations, respectively. The field efficiency of implement was obtained about 51.55 per cent, 56.58 per cent and 51.45 per cent for ridging, earthing up and weeding operations, respectively. The cost of operation of implement was obtained as 315.28 Rs./ha, 289.34 Rs./ha and 304.10 Rs./ha for ridging, earthing up and weeding operations, respectively. In this way newly developed indigenous plough had given better results especially for doing earthing up operation. Hence, the performance of newly developed indigenous plough was found satisfactory
22 Development and comparative performance of manually operated tamarind harvesters, G.S. PATANGE, V.B. SHINDE, P.D. BADGUJAR AND B.S. GHOLAP
Traditionally farmers have been using a variety of methods in tamarind harvesting instead of tools and machinery. In India, harvesters may merely shake the branches to cause mature fruits to fall and they leave the remainder to fall naturally when ripe. By using the modern wisdom, these traditional methods needed to standardized keeping in mind the economy of rural poor. Proper designing in accordance with the farmers requirements surely popularize these harvesters in future. Keeping these views in mind design and development of various tamarind harvesters (TH 1, TH 2 and TH 3) was taken at MAU, Parbhani, Maharashtra and comparing their performance with traditional method (TM). On the basis of harvesting output (kg/h), cost of operation (Rs/h), per cent damage and ease of operation, it was found that, the performance was better in case of TH 3 as 10.70kg/h, Rs 31.25/h and 10.71 per cent.
23 Analysis of physical and chemical properties of dill seed, N.N. DESAI, V.M. MODI AND D.B. PATEL
The different physical properties of dill seeds, namely size in term of length, breadth and thickness; sphericity; bulk density; porosity; angle of repose and co-efficient of static friction against different surfaces (wood, steel and glass) were determined at 5.9 per cent moisture content. The average length, breadth and thickness of the dill seeds as 5.06 mm; 2.07 mm and 1.17 mm, respectively. The size and sphericity of the dill seeds found to be 2.28 mm and 0.451, respectively. The average value of bulk density and porosity at 5.9 per cent (d.b.) were found 444.88 kg/m3 and 60.04 per cent, respectively. The average value of angle of repose was 38.22o. The co-efficient of static friction against wood, steel and glass were found to be 0.740, 0.591 and 0.464, respectively. The average values of the chemical composition such as moisture content, crude fat, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate and total ash were 5.9 per cent (d.b.) 2.63, 32.61, 12.25, 51.25 and 7.66 per cent, respectively.
24 Cost effective opportunities in electrical energy management for dairy industry, D.A. CHAUDHARY, J.B. UPADHYAYANDA.G. CHAUDHARI
Energy is a critical input for the production and consumption activities in the development of economy of any country. In addition to land, labour and capital, energy are the four factors for the production of dairy product. In dairy industry, Energy conservation (EC) is not the suppression of demand for energy use in dairy industry, but efficient use of more and more energy and steep rejection of its wastage. Electrical energy is the most widely used form of convectional energy. Processing of milk and milk products require considerable amount of energy in the terms of the heat and electricity. A major amount of electricity is used for running motors, fan, blowers, and lighting the plant building. Typically, in dairy plant, 80 per cent cost is of milk and remaining 20 per cent comprises of the other variable and fixed costs. The energy cost reflects to ~ 4 per cent of the expenditure. Hence, any attempt to efficiently manage the energy costs will influence the processing costs. The use of energy efficient pump set, soft starter for motor control, variable frequency drive, DG set, etc. in dairy industry would save immense electricity. The removal of incandescent lamps and the use of higher power factor tube light would also save electricity. In the advanced countries, fluorescent tubes are manufactured which are five times as efficient as incandescent lamps. Installing high efficiency motors can reduce energy use, as pumps and aeration systems can contribute 50-90 per cent of the total energy and Capacitor can be connected across large motors to maintain healthy P.F.(between 0.9 to 0.98) correction.
25 Performance of pneumatic planter for sorghum seeds, RANJEET KUMAR, B. M. NANDEDE, D. PADHEE AND HARSHVARDHAN SINGH
The performance of a Pneumatic planter was studied with an objective to select required gear ratio for recommended seed rate of sorghum. For picking single seed, the multi groove metering plate with seed hole (3 mm diameter) and vacuum pressure of 2 kPa were used throughout the experiments. The average values for plant to plant spacing, mean miss index and multiple index, actual field capacity and field efficiency were 101.1 mm, 2.01 per cent, 3.8 per cent, 0.77 ha/h and 89 per cent, respectively
26 Performance evaluation of cono weeder for paddy in farmers field, M.ANANTACHAR, SUSHILENDRA, LOKESH, SUNIL SHIRWAL, RAGHAVENDRAAND MAREPPA
The cono weeder was procured evaluated for its field performance for long duration in paddy crop (Sona masuri) at farmers field. The average row spacing, hill to hill spacing and height of crop were found to be 30cm, 10cm and 38cm, respectively. The average plant population of crop in square meter area was 32. The type of weed observed was Cypruss rotendus andCynodan dectylan. The average height and population of weed in square meter area were 10cm and 125cm, respectively. The results indicated that, the field capacity was in the range of 0.016 to 0.019 ha/h with a field efficiency in the range of 59.23 to 62.07 per cent. The per cent weeding efficiency was observed in the range of 72.00 to 85.0. The average effort required to push the cono weeder was 14.4kgf. The Brinell hardness number of the weeding cone was observed in the range of 159 to 187. The per cent wear on dimensional basis in the right and left weeding cones was observed 4.75 and 3.80, respectively.
27 Low cost of solar still, S.H. SENGAR, Y.P. KHANDETOD AND A.G. MOHOD
Different solar stills were developed and evaluated for comparison with other solar stills available in market. Comparatively more distilled water was obtained from the solar still having an area of 1m2 fabricated in fibre or metal body with glass glazing like single slope, double slope and wick type solar still. Average maximum temperature and humidity was more in double slope, single slope and wick type solar still and hence, the average quantity of distilled water obtained as 1350 ml/day, 1550 ml/day and 2450 ml/day, respectively. The plastic made up of W-shape solar still provided with 3 channels produce maximum distilled water as 2104 ml/day where as W-shape solar still with two channels erected on concrete and ground produced only 1012ml/day and 1443 ml/day, respectively. L shape solar still produce average distilled water was 925 ml/day which was very low among the all type of solar still. Comparative cost of compact nature of solar stills like single slope, double slope and wick type solar still was more than Rs.7000/- which is four times more than newly developed W-shape 3 channel solar still. Comparative output from newly developed solar still was low but it has several advantages that it is cheapest, cost efficient and easy to clean. Concentration of pH, EC, TDS and ions in solar distilled water was found to be similar as conventional distilled water. The cost of W shape three channel solar still is recovered within 4 months 6 days only.
28 An empirical study of leverage and its impact on earning capacity in Indian engineering industry, ASHA SHARMA
The engineering sector in India comprises basic industries such as Metal, Steel, Electrical Machinery, Non-Electrical Machinery and Transport Equipments. Manufacturers, Exporters and Suppliers of engineering machinery and equipment largely produce industrial machines, rolling mills machinery, plant machinery, plastic moulding machines, construction machines and equipment, railway products, die casting equipment and other special purpose machines. Majority of Indian engineering firms are pursuing a systematic approach to quality control and standardization so as to curve out market positioning in the competitive world market place. Engineering industry in India has been constantly updating its technology base and diversifying its manufacturing range in tune with global market requirements. Indian exporters are well aware and do not lag behind in adopting eco-friendly manufacturing techniques which have become the new emerging requirements of the global development. For the purpose of analysis, ratio techniques and to test hypothesis other statistical tools i.e. correlation has been used for the research purpose. The result of the study indicates that there is a correlation between DFL and EPS and the difference is insignificant where as result of correlation coefficient at 5 per cent level of significance showed that the diffidence is significant between DFL and DPS and EPS and DPS. For the purpose of analysis, ratio techniques and to test hypothesis other statistical tools i.e. correlation has been used for the research purpose. The result of the study indicates that there is a correlation between DFL and EPS and the difference is insignificant where as result of correlation coefficient at 5 per cent level of significance showed that the diffidence is significant between DFL and DPS and EPS and DPS.
29 Design modifications of cup in cup feed metering seed drill for seed pattern characteristics study of black gram seeds, M.K. GHOSAL AND S.C. PRADHAN
Proper design of cup in cup feed metering seed drill is very much important to enhance the performance of a seed drill. Earlier the cups used were of semi circular type. Due to vibration and shock, the seed retention and release for these cups were poor. So the cups were modified to cylindrical at top and conical at the bottom. An experimental test rig was developed in the laboratory in the Department of Farm Machinery and Power, OUAT, Bhubaneswar to evaluate the best suitable dimensions of cup for the black gram variety PU-30. Five different sizes of cups of 7.41mm, 4.74mm, 3.29mm, 2.42mm and 1.85mm depths with diameters of 4mm, 5mm, 6mm, 7mm and 8mm, respectively were prepared keeping the volume constant and were used for the study. The five different peripheral speeds of the cup discs were chosen to 6.28 m/min, 9.42 m/min, 12.55 m/min, 18.84 m/min and 23.56 m/min. The belt speed was calculated and maintained to study the seed rate deviation, seed distribution and seed damage. It was found that the dimensions of cup i.e. 6 mm x 2.89 mm was found to be best and was used successfully up to a peripheral speed of 18.84 m/min and an overall efficiency of 79.94 per cent. The above dimensions of the cup may be taken to develop a suitable seed drill for use in the field condition for sowing of black gram seeds.
30 Performance evaluation of different types of emitters, B.L. AYARE, M.S. MANE AND R.T. THOKAL
Drip irrigation system has gained considerable importance in the recent years in view of the need for efficient utilization of water resources. Efficiency of drip system depends directly on the uniformity with which water is discharged by the emission devices throughout the system. Emitter is one of the important components used in drip irrigation system as compared to all other components. The performances of the emission devices have major impact on the success of drip irrigation system. Eight different types of emitters viz., OTif02, O-Tif04, O-Tif08, O-Tif16, JSCPC02, JSCP04, JTKP08, J-Loc16 were selected for the performance tests. The study has been conducted to evaluate the parameter such as manufacturing coefficient of deviation, mean flow rate, coefficient of discharge, emitter discharge exponent, emission uniformity, absolute emission uniformity and flow rate. The study indicated that operating pressure affects flow rates of non-pressure compensating (NPC) type emitters. The relationship between pressure and discharge was linear. The manufacturing quality of all the emitter found excellent. The Otiff-16 having 16 lit/hr nominal discharge was found to be having best manufacturing quality of Cv as 0.018 among all the tested emitters.
31 Optimization and production of bioethanol from cashew apple juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture by solar energy, Y.P. KHANDETOD, A.G. MOHOD, S.H. SENGAR, H.Y. SHRIRAME AND A.S. PATIL
Ethanol fuels unlike petroleum are renewable and can be produced from locally available cashew apple fruit juice (variety Vengurla-4) grown in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, India. The production and use of ethanol in the country has the potential to generate income in the rural areas by boosting the agricultural sector thus bringing social economic development and environmental benefits. The objective of this study was to show the ways ethanol production. Production of ethanol involves two processes fermentation and distillation. Raw fermented cashew apple juice after fermentation was used for ethanol production. Distillation process using concentrating solar cooker having the total distillation rate per day of the system was 2230 ml for first distillation with average distillation efficiency of the system as 33.41 per cent that increase the ethanol percentage up to 18.6 per cent from initial 12 per cent. After second distillation the value of ethanol concentration obtained was 35.5 per cent. Due to higher temperature, the water also evaporated along with ethanol. So it was not possible to get higher concentration of ethanol. Specific gravity and acid value of the 35.5 per cent ethanol were found to be 0.947 and 1.044 mg KOH/ g, respectively. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and the fermentation juice can be used for ethanol production.
32 Performance evaluation of threshing of finger millet by traditional method, PRASANNAKUMAR AND D.B. NAVEENKUMAR
The research was conducted on evaluation and testing of threshing methods for finger millet in the Department of Agricultural Engineering. Finger millet (Eleusine Coracana Craertn) commonly known as ragi is one of the important small millet crops grown in red soil areas of India. It is predominantly cultivated in southern parts of Karnataka. The crop occupies an area of 2.5 million hectares and contributes 2.6 million tonnes of grain in India. The process of seed damage starts right from harvest to storage. More mechanical damage occurs during threshing process. The threshing of crop for grain or seed is generally done by manual beating with sticks or passing stone roller drawn by bullock pair or tractor. These traditional methods of threshing are tedious time consuming and inefficient in operation. The experiment was conducted with the varieties of ragi MR1 and HR911, 3 types of traditional threshing methods were adopted, manual beating with the stick, passing a bullock drawn stone roller and passing a tractor drawn stone roller. These three methods of threshing were experimented at three different moisture content levels of ragi [around 18 to 19, 13 to 15 and 10 per cent (w.b.)]. Among three methods of ragi threshing studied, the tractor drawn stone roller method showed higher threshing efficiency of 91.3 per cent for variety MR1 and 86.9 for HR911. The threshing efficiency increased significantly with decrease in moisture content.
33 Emission characteristics of pongamia (Pongamia pinnata L.) biodiesel and its blends with petro diesel, SATISH R. DESAI AND P. VENKATACHALAM
The acid rain, global warming and health hazards are ill effects of increased polluted gases like SOx, CO and particulate matter in the atmosphere due to use of fossil fuels. Among the various alternative sources to petroleum products, oil from tree seed/crops has a potential for meeting the increasing requirements of diesel. A study was conducted with different bio diesel (pongamia) blends ( B20 to B100) to study the emission profile of a 3.73 Kw diesel engine. The study indicated that the exhaust gas temperature was less using pongmia biodiesel blends and was at par with petro diesel, with less amount of CO and CO2 emission and more NOx emission. The exhaust gas profile of the engine during pumping of water using a centrifugal pump was similar to the laboratory load test of the engine indicating usage of pomgamia biodiesel as an alternative to petro diesel being eco friendly and non health hazards
34 Evaluation of drip and surface irrigation methods for banana in Dharwad district of Northern Karnataka, C.B. METI
The study was conducted on drip and surface irrigation banana in Dharwad district of Northern Karnataka to know the performance of banana under surface and drip irrigation methods revealed that, the increase in application efficiency in drip irrigation over surface method of irrigation was in the range of 12.13 to 14.24, 14.33 to 15.64 and 12.28 to 17.17 per cent in small, medium and large farmers, respectively. The increase in distribution efficiency in drip irrigation over surface method of irrigation was in the range of 11.27 to 13.42, 13.37 to 15.08 and 13.56 to 15.91 per cent in small, medium and large farmers, respectively. The water saved in drip irrigation over surface method of irrigation was in the range of 44.46 to 47.95, 40.28 to 44.80 and 42.83 to 48.08 per cent in small, medium and large farmers, respectively. The increase in banana fruit yield in drip irrigation over surface method of irrigation was in the range of 25.73 to 31.53, 26.14 to 34.97 and 26.78 to 36.91 per cent in small, medium and large farmers, respectively.
35 Circulo - respiratory efficiency of agricultural workers in Odisha, S.K. MOHANTY, M.K. GHOSAL AND J.N. MISHRA
The cardio respiratory performance of male and female subjects was studied in relation to manual types of agricultural work in Odisha. Operations like land preparation with spade, manual transplanting and seeding methods, weeding, harvesting with local sickle and reaper were evaluated. The working heart rate and oxygen consumption rate recorded 136.3 beats/min, 0.98 l min-1 for male and 138.4, 0.92 l min-1 in spading operation. Manual random transplanting required working heart rate of 118.6 beats/min and 114.7 beats/min for male and female workers and higher heart rate of 128.7 beats/min, 133.7 beats/min was recorded in 2 row and 4 row paddy transplanter operated by male workers, and it was 130.4 beats/min and 134.8 beats/min in 2 row and 4 row paddy transplanter for female workers. The 2 row and 4 row transplanter required 9.3 and 20.3 man day / ha for male and female workers, respectively. Weeding in squatting posture required less working heart rate and oxygen consumption rate of 98.3 beats/min, 0.45 l min-1 for male and 100.2 beats/min, 0.4 l min-1 for female workers. Four row pre germinated paddy seeder required the working heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and relative cost of work load of 126.4 beats/ min, 0.80 l min-1 and 41 per cent against 140.2 beats/min, 1.08 l min-1 and 55.4 per cent in case of 8 row paddy seeder operated by male workers. The female workers could not operate the 6 and 8 row pre germinated paddy seeders due to higher pulling force in puddled field. Operation of locally available sickle in squatting posture required. 23.2 and 33.3 per cent lower energy expenditure rate against paddy reaper for both male and female workers. Pedal thresher was about 70 per cent more efficient than manual threshing. The working heart rate, oxygen consumption rate required in pedal thresher was 126.5 beats/min, 0.79 min-1 for male and 124.3 beats/min, 0.68 l min-1 for female workers. The relative cost of workload of pedal thresher was 23.9 and 18.5 per cent lower than that of manual threshing by male and female workers. Proper training and modification of existing tools and equipments will reduce drudgery and fatigue of workers
36 The safety level of agricultural worker while working with dangerous chlorpyriphos, LOKESH, T.V. ARUN KUMAR, T.N. SANDEEP, P. VIJAY KUMAR AND SUNIL SHIRWAL
Pest and disease control operation has become high in demand. Subsequently, pest and disease needs to be controlled so that crops are kept free from pests and food production is maximized in every agricultural farm. Handling of pesticides has led to serious problems on environment and on pesticide handling agricultural workers. To prevent the operator against exposure to pesticides, the operator should wear the personal protective mask. In actual practice sprayer operators are not using these protective masks for various reasons. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate commercially available five masks for their materials of construction, filtering efficiency (NIOSH 5600 method), comfort while spraying chlorpyriphos (modified Corlett and Bishop ten point scale). The masks were found manufactured using foam pad, single and double layered poly propylene and cotton cloth as filtering materials. For preventing chlorpyriphos from inhaling air, masks with double layered poly propylene with water repellent quality filter (M5) was found good with an absolute filtering efficiency of 97.3 per cent and actual filtering efficiency of 78.1 per cent. Sprayer operators opinion indicated that the mask (M5) was found higher wearing comfort rating (7.16) and higher breathing comfort in mask M3 (6.54) based on modified Corlett and Bishop ten point scale.
37 Performance evalution of pneumatic planter using pigeonpea seeds, RANJEET KUMAR, B.M. NANDEDE, D. PADHEE AND HARSH VARDHAN SINGH
The performance of a pneumatic planter was carried out in laboratory with an objective of selecting the required gear ratio for obtaining recommended seed rate of pigeonpea. Based on the results of laboratory tests the performance of the pneumatic planter was carried out in field. Pneumatic planter consisted of frame, aspirator blower, seed hopper, metering unit, multi groove metering plate, vacuum retaining plate, furrow opener, pair of ground wheel with transmission system. For picking single seed, the multi groove metering plate having seed hole of diameter 3 mm and vacuum pressure of 2 kPa were used throughout the experiments. Performance of the pneumatic planter was evaluated in the field and the average values of plant to plant spacings, mean miss index and multiple index, actual field capacity and field efficiency were found to be 101.1 mm, 1.5 per cent, 3.5 per cent, 0.953 ha/h, 88 per cent, respectively.
38 Study of moisture based physical properties of paddy, P.D. UKEY, P.A. PATIL AND S.K. SAWANT
The objective of this study was to determine some moisture based psysical properties of paddy, namely, size, sphericity, bulk density, true density, bulk porosity, angle of repose, thousand grain mass, elongation ratio and flatness ratio. The physical properties of paddy were determined at moisture content 10.01, 13.42, and 19.81 per cent. At 10.01 per cent (d.b.) moisture content the average length, width and thickness of paddy were 8.23, 2.26 and 1.77 mm, respectively. The grain sizes were found increased from 3.20 to 3.42 mm, whereas sphericity increased from 0.38 to 0.41 due to change in moisture content from 10.01 to 19.81 per cent (d.b).The bulk density and true density increased from 562.81 to 688.68 kg/m3 and 1147.31 to 1224.68 kg/m3, respectively. While the bulk porosity decreased from 50.88 to 43.54 per cent in the specified moisture content. The angle of repose increased from 34.29 to 39.25 degrees, whereas the elongation ratio and flatness ratio decreased from 3.64 to 3.51 and 1.27 to 1.14, respectively. Thousand grain weight increased from 14.43 to 16.21 g due to change in moisture content from 10.01 to 19.81 per cent (d.b).
39 Management factors determining the successfulness and illness of sugar factories, B.T. KOLGANE AND D.T. KHOGARE
Maharashtra is said to be home of co-operative sugar industries. In Maharashtra there are some co-operative sugar factories run very successfully. But the number of ill co-operative sugar factories is increasing yearly. In view of paramount the present study was conducted on Manjara Shetkari Shahakari Sakhar Karkhana (SSSK) Ltd., Vilas Nagar, Tq. and Dist. Latur and Shetkari Sahakari Sakhar Kharkhana Ltd., Killari, Tq. Ausa, Dist. Latur were purposively selected as successful and ill co-operative sugar factory, respectively. The present study showed that the employees are less in number but they were working by utilizing their full capacity with co-ordination and cooperation. Upwards and down ward communication was found to be best. Rewards to employees, production of additional bi-products like electricity, minimizing the expenditure on transporting of sugarcane were some of the important suggestion for the progress of factory.
40 Mathematical modeling for cooling by water evaporation over roof of a greenhouse, M.K. GHOSAL AND R.K. DAS
A mathematical model with moving water film over the roof of even span model greenhouse has been developed to study the effectiveness of cooling in the greenhouse. Analytical expressions for flowing water temperature in south and north roof along with greenhouse room air temperature have been derived in terms of design and climatic parameters for summer period. The analysis is based on steady state mode. Flow of thin film of water is maintained over the jute cloth stretched on the roofs of greenhouse. The effects of relative humidity, flow rate of water, absorptivity of shading material (jute cloth) and length of roof on the cooling performance of greenhouse room air temperature are discussed thoroughly with the help of this model.
41 Stochastic modelling of maize evapotranspiration under the climatic conditions of Banswara, S.V. NIRMAL, S.R. BHAKAR, R.C. PUROHIT AND MAHESH KOTHARI
Stochastic modelling of maize evapotranspiration has done using 8 years (19982005) data. The performed statistical tests indicated that the series of the evapotranspiration data is trend free. The periodic component of evapotranspiration can be represented by second harmonic expression. The stochastic components of the evapotranspiration follow third order model. Validation of generated evapotranspiration series was done by comparison of generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series. The correlation coefficient between generated evapotranspiration series and measured evapotranspiration series was found to be 0.99. The correlation was tested by t-test and found to be highly significant at 1 per cent level. The standard error (0.13 mm) is quite low. The regression equation is very near to 1:1 line. Therefore, developed model can be used for future prediction of maize evapotranspiration series.
42 Design modifications of cup in cup feed metering seed drill for seed pattern characterstics study of paddy seeds, S.C. PRADHAN AND M.K.GHOSAL
Proper design of cup in cup feed metering seed drill is very much important to enhance the performance of a seed drill. Earlier the cups used were of semi circular type. Due to vibration and shock, the seed retention and release for these cups were poor. So the cups were modified to cylindrical at top and conical at the bottom. An experimental test rig was developed in the laboratory in the Department of farm Machinery and Power, OUAT, Bhubaneswar to evaluate the best suitable dimensions of cup for the paddy variety pathara. Five different sizes of cups i.e. 14.83 mm, 11.71 mm, 9.48 mm, 7.84 mm and 6.58 mm depths with diameters of 8mm, 9mm, 10mm, 11mm and 12mm, respectively were prepared keeping the volume constant and were used for the study. The five different peripheral speeds of the cup discs were chosen to 6.28 m/min, 9.42 m/min, 12.55 m/min, 18.84 m/min and 23.56 m/min. The belt speed was calculated and maintained to study the seed rate deviation, seed distribution and seed damage. It was found that the dimensions of cup of 10 mm 9.48 mm were found best with a permissible peripheral velocity up to 23.56m/min. and an overall efficiency of 80.94 per cent. The above dimensions of the cup may be taken to develop a suitable seed drill for use in the field condition for sowing of paddy seeds
43 Ergonomical designing of multifunctional wheel chair for children with cerebral palsy, JYOTSNA TRIPATHI, U.V. KIRAN AND ANJALI MATHUR
Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a group of disorders affecting body movement and muscle co-ordination. Cerebral palsy is not a life threatening condition and in itself, is no barrier to leading a long and productive life. People with cerebral palsy enjoy satisfying careers, university education, social life etc for which wheel chair proves to be the best option. Seating and wheel chair devices like a wheelchair provides a patient with the freedom to accomplish many tasks on his/her own. The present study was designed to develop user compatible design criteria for the wheel chairs based on case analysis and related review and to evolve computer aided design of multifunctional wheel chair which includes features such as easily adjustable, portable and foldable, dynamic seat, 45 degree posterior tilt in space, wheels with easily controllable rakes, adjustable and detachable foot rest, attached commode, straps for arms and legs, lap table, padded arm rest, bag to keep immediate essentials and a bottle holder.
44 The impact of the man-made river project in providing domestic water in Benghazi Plain, Libya, G.S. MANSOR AND M.E. TORIMAN
This article focuses on examining the contribution of the man-made river project (MMRP) Water Transfer Project of Libya in providing domestic water in the plain of Benghazi, Libya. The MMRP documents literature reports and journals are the main sources of secondary data. Besides, this study applies a questionnaire survey carried out on July 2010 to a sample of 200 respondents in order to assess the role of the MMRP in providing the plain of Benghazi with potable and domestic water. The study compares the sources of potable and domestic water in the plain of Benghazi before and after the MMRP. The survey findings reveal that MMRP provides the plain of Benghazi with enough water for domestic use. About 87 per cent of respondents mentioned that the MMRP provided their needs of domestic water. The remaining 13 per cent of the respondent make a claim that the MMRP has not provided for their domestic water needs. However, it has not been able to provide enough potable water, as 69.5 per cent of respondents said that the MMRP did not provide enough potable water. Only 29.0 per cent mentioned that it could provide potable water.
45 Performance evaluation of improved cook stoves, MANOJ MAHAWAR
Biomass is the organic matter produced by plants. Incomplete combustion of biomass fuel generate high levels of indoor pollutant gases like CO, NO2, SO2, sulphur oxides etc. A modified version of the traditional cook stoves is the improved cook stove in which the biomass is burnt more efficient with respect to fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and also makes them convenient for cooking and much safer from a health point of view. The thermal efficiency of MS rod was 23.80 per cent while it was 24.10 per cent for the cook stove made of GI wire and 24.30 per cent for the cook stove made of perforated stainless steel as compared to that of 12.20 per cent for traditional cook stove. The combustion efficiency of husk cook stove with central fire port made of stainless steel perforated mesh was highest (74.10 %) as compared to 71.3 and 70.8 per cent for that of GI wire and MS rod, respectively while it was 56.4 per cent for traditional cook stove. So it is concluded that the improved cook stoves are more efficient than traditional cook stoves for thermal applications.
46 Sub basin water transfer studies in upper Krishna river basin, B.K. SATHE AND M.V. KHIRE
In India, the Central Water Commission has classified upper Krishna river basins as Upper Krishna (NW) 15A, Upper Krishna (East Yerala) 16A, Upper Krishna East Agrani (16B), and remaining Bhima (downstream of Ujani including Man (18B)). This area is flood prone and necessitates proper water management. In these river basins, as a remedial measure, it is proposed to divert abundant water form river sub-basin 15A to Sub-basin 18B by gravity (diverting water from upper river Krishna to sub-basin of Man to Jath, Atpadi, Talukas of Sangli district and Sangola taluka of Solapur district.) through tunnels. This would be useful in contributing to minimize flood in Krishna basin and also utilization of extra water. It is proposed to divert water to fed existing water resources and small storages in Man sub-basin. This study was carried out by remote sensing and GIS techniques. Using ERDAS, ARC-INFO and Landsat7 imagery a detail topographical studies are carried out along with field survey .It helps to get actual ground levels, high flood levels and topography features to locate inlet and outlet. Satellite imagery substantiated to calculate areas under benefits and economic aspect of the proposal.
47 Yield response and economic feasibility of cauliflower under drip irrigation, R.G. BHAGYAWANT, D.D. KHEDKAR, P.G. POPALE AND S.B. JADHAV
The experiment was conducted during the year 2008-09 in Rabi season at department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani.The experimental plot was 3.6 m wide and 4.8 m long. The statistical split plot design was used. The treatments constituted the combination of three irrigation levels and three fertilizer levels with two replication. The climatological approach i.e. pan evaporation (PE) is one of the irrigation scheduling criteria. The treatments were a) Main treatmentsI1 Irrigation of 0.4 PE by drip, I2 Irrigation of 0.6 PE by drip, I3 Irrigation of 0.8 PE by drip, b) Sub treatments F1 50 per cent RDF, F2 75 per cent RDF,F3 100 per cent RDF, c) Control: I4 Surface irrigation at IW/CPE = 1.2. Irrigation applied at I3 (0.8 PE) level recorded significantly higher yield than other irrigation levels. I3F3 (0.8PE with 100% RDF) was significantly superior for yield of cauliflower crop (variety- Hunsa) which was 187.07 q/ha for drip irrigation and 157.61q/ha for surface irrigation. Drip irrigation system recorded higher water use efficiency than surface irrigation method. It was also observed that the benefit cost ratio of drip irrigation system (1.88) was higher than surface irrigation method (1.62).
48 Evaluation of hydraulic characteristics of different micro and mini sprinklers, M.S. MADHUSUDHAN, M.S. AYYANAGOUDAR, H.K. SHIVANAND AND D.T. SANTOSH
The study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of different micro and mini sprinklers in the department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering at College of Agricultural Engineering, Raichur. The results reveal that the average discharge was found in rate for micro sprinkler at 0.5 kg/cm2 was 24.47 lph, at 1 kg/cm2 it was 41.58 lph but for mini sprinklers the average discharge was increased 26 lph to 45.42 lph as pressure increases from 0.5 to 1 kg/cm2 . The coefficient of uniformity for micro sprinkler was found to be 40.4 per cent at an operating pressure of 1.0 kg/cm2, but it was 48.4 percent in mini sprinkler. The moisture distribution pattern for both micro and mini sprinklers of different make found to be excellent, the moisture content of soil can be increased only to a depth of 25 cm when operated the mini sprinkler for 2 hours at a operating pressure of 1.0 kg/cm2 and having discharge rate of of 65 lph in deep black cotton soil.
49 Studies on physical and chemical properties of velvet bean, an underutilized wild food legume, UMA SUNDARAM AND P. GURUMOORTHI
The present investigation was carried out to ascertain physical and chemical properties in the fractions of two different germplasm of velvet bean, an underutilized wild food legume (Valanadu black and Kailasanadu white). VB registered for higher values both for complex and basic geometric traits in the studied fractions than KW. Solid density, porosity and surface area of VB ranged from 0.17 to 0.25 (g/cm3); 136.38 to 259.67 (%) and 375.89 to 651.26 (mm2), respectively and significantly differed in fractions (p< 0.05). But it was less significant for chemical traits in fractions and germplasm. Crude protein, crude fat and moisture contents were higher in VB germplasm i.e., 22.65 to 29.67% (DM); 6.01 to 8.05%; 6.72 to 9.56% (w.b) whereas, the lowest coefficient static fraction was noticed against stainless steel surface than on other studied materials in both the germplasm. Whereas, angle of repose ranged between 26.43 and 30.230 for VB; 30.82 and 35.980 for KW. To sum up, germplasm VB exhibited significance physical and chemical properties for further processing for industrialization and commercialization.
50 Studies of FRP butt joint and welded joint by using Universal testing machine, S.W. MAHARKHEDE, K.P. KOLHE AND A.O. AMALKAR
Structural material finds application in various industries, such as shipbuilding pressure vessel, bridge construction industries etc. The joining of two components together is an important and essential aspect of fabrication and erection. Every structure includes assemble materials into more complex shape. Often joint of a pipeline is the weakest link, as strength of joint is lower than strength of parent material, for example, joint of structural application with the welding, the failure occurs in most of the cases at the welded region. In critical applications, the assembly team is responsible for avoiding its failure; however, there is need to check the welded joint on a regular time interval. Many different kind of techniques are available to join the pipelines of various industries. These are broadly classified as bolting, welding, brazing and soldering, adhesive bonding etc. The winding machine is developed to wind coarsely woven fabric (600 g s m) found to be quite satisfactory, when tested under three point bending test on universal testing machine (UTM). To make a fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) joint, the E-glass fibre is cut into an appropriate trapezoidal shape, which is wetted in epoxy and wound over steel pipe. The FRP sleeve thus obtained is of uniform thickness in its central position. Experiments are performed on different piles on pipes. In this study, a buttjoint between two mild steel pipes of 25.29+ - 0.05 mm outside diameter and 2.00+ - 0.05 mm thickness wall thickness was made by wrapping a glass fiber fabric. The fabric was wetted in epoxy before it wrapped around the joint. The joint was tested under different load condition, three point bend test, four point bend test, and tensile test. The strength of the FRP-joint was compared with the strength of welded joints
51 Study on cost analysis of rooftop rainwater harvesting in residential premises, R.H. RAJAKUMAR, P. NATARAJAN, H.K. SHIVANAND AND M.S. MADHUSUDHAN
An investigation was carried out to study the cost analysis of rooftop rainwater harvesting in Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Campus. Coimbatore. The cost analysis revealed that among all individual residential blocks, all hostel buildings and buildings in different combinations, all hostel combinations was found to be more feasible for installation of rooftop rainwater harvesting structure with a benefit cost ratio of 2.82 and pay back period of 1.32 years. For individual residential blocks and all residential blocks combination, the all residential blocks combination was found to be more feasible for installation of rooftop rainwater harvesting structure with a benefit cost ratio of 2.27 and pay back period of 1.78 years. Hence, these combinations are more suitable than any other building combinations for rooftop rainwater harvesting systems. All hostel buildings combination and all residential blocks combination buildings can generate 34,48,464 and 40,92,611 litres of water per annum, respectively. Due to rooftop rainwater harvesting a sum of Rs. 1,03,454 and Rs. 1,22,778 per annum would be saved from all hostels and all residential blocks combination which otherwise could be incurred from transporting water from tanker to these buildings combinations and a computer program C programs were developed for water budget calculation and design of rooftop rainwater harvesting structure for residential and hostel buildings
52 The study of rigid and flexible pavement in transportation engineering with special reference to N.H.-1, ARVIND DEWANGAN AND D.P. GUPTA
Rigid pavements are those which posses note worthy flexural strength or flexural rigidity. The stresses are not transferred from grain to grain to the lower layers as in the ease of flexible pavements layers the rigid pavements are made of Portland cement concrete-either plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete. The plain cement concrete slabs are expected to take up about 40 kg/cm2 flexural stress. As the rigid pavements slab has tensile strength, tensile stresses are developed due to the bending of the slab under wheel load and temperature variations thus the type of stress develop and their distribution within the cement concrete slab are quit different. The rigid pavement does not get deformed to the shape of the lower surface as it can bridge the minor variation of lower layer.
53 Signal processing though wavelets, PREETI CHAUHAN AND GEETA KAUSHIK
Noise has been a primary deterrent in signal transmission and processing. It results in faulty information after processing the signals reducing their usability. In persent work, different kind of wavelets (such as haar, daubechies ,coif, etc) were used to filter out the noise from different kind of signals(such as electrical signals, sine waves, EGC etc). For this purpose the wavelets tool box of MATLAB software was used and tried to find out the best wavelets for these signals.
54 Design and evaluation of electronic weight grader for sapota [Manilkara achras (Mill).Fosberg] grading, SYED MAZARA ALI, S. C. MANDHAR AND AMBRISH GANACHARI
The investigation was carried out to develop weight grader for sapota [Manilkara achras (Mill).Fosberg]. Weight grader fitted with singulation unit is found to be more precise than any other. Since singulation unit will feed the fruits individually to electronic balance, single fruit grading can be achieved. The singulation unit fed the fruits to the load cell individually, where in fruits were weighed and carried to the grading unit, which actually consists two gates which were operated electronically using the signal generated by the load cell depending on fruit weight.The overall separation efficiency of the grader was found to be 93.8%.Separation fficiency of W3 grade (>120g) was found to be best .The speed was optimized for 20 rpm,which gives best overall efficiency.The cost of grading for cricket ball was found to be low i.e. Rs.0.06 / kg in comparison with cost of manual grading (Rs 0.4/kg).
55 Energy management in Isabgul processing plant, V.M. MODI, N.N. DESAI AND D.B. PATEL
Energy audit was carried out in Isabgul processing plant to optimize power consumption. The power requirement of the traditional plant was 21.0 horsepower. The manufacturing of Isabgul processing machinery is not an organized industry. Actual need for power at each operation is not specified by the manufacturer resulting into wastage of energy by installing higher hp motor. Energy utilization efficiency can also be improved by identifying the federate and clearances between under runner disk, where maximum husk recovery is obtained. Study was carried out to determine total energy required for processing of Isabgul seed at each operation and identify the scope to conserve energy by technology upgradation, increasing efficiency of machinery by proper selection of feed rate, clearances between emery disk and reduction of process time. The result shows that the percentage of husk recovered was affected significantly due to different feed rate and clearances. The 175 kg/hr feed rate recorded highest husk percentage i.e., 27.15 per cent under treatment combination of Set-3 (Clearances between under runner disk ranging from 1.55 mm. to 1.18 mm.) and total energy consumption was found 5.46 kwh.
56 Techno economic feasibility of rice combine harvester, HIREGOUDAR SHARANAKUMAR, R.UDHAYKUMAR AND K.T. RAMAPPA
To assess the post harvest losses and its techno-economic feasibility of using combine harvester (Escorts Class- Crop Tiger) was carried out by determining pre and post harvesting losses, timeliness of harvesting, field capacity, fuel consumption and other problems during the operation viz., noise and dust pollution, frequency of repair/maintenance and operating cost of the machine. The results revealed that the rice combine harvester had an average post harvesting losses of about 2.96 per cent of rice yield and grain breakage losses (1.50 %) were bit less. The machine was able to harvest 1.0 to 1.2 acres in an hour. The fuel consumption of the combine was found to be 8 to 9 litre of diesel per acre. As the machine was not equipped with a proper cab, dust and noise pollution posed threat to the operators health. The cost of operation in conventional harvesting was 2.28 times more and costs about Rs. 550/acre . The pay back period was found to be less than one year, if the machine could harvest 2500 acre per year. The combine is an efficient, economical, labour and time saving machine but its initial cost is quite high.
57 Effect of drying on physical properties of nutmeg, S.P. DIVEKAR, N.J. THAKOR, H. Y. MULLA AND M.V. SAWANT
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) is an important tree spice, which produces two distinctly different spices namely nutmeg and mace. The area under nutmeg cultivation in India is 3763 ha with the production of 3457 MT. To design and development of different process equipments there is a need of engineering properties of nutmeg. The properties are also important for developing machineries for mass handling and storage of these nutmegs. By keeping in view the importance of these properties a study on measurement of physical properties of nutmeg was undertaken. The average values of dimensions of nutmeg were 26.33, 21.49 and 18.76 mm length, breadth and thickness, respectively. Where as the average value of sphericity, flatness ratio and elongation were 0.78, 1.35 and 1.05, respectively. The unit volume, surface area and projected area of the nutmeg were found to be 5237.56, 1419.65 and 359.80, respectively. The average value of the bulk density and the true density was 481.8 and 1006.1 Kg/m3, respectively.
58 Hydraulic performance of drip irrigation system, P.G. POPALE, V.T. BOMBALE AND A.P. MAGAR
The experiment was conducted at the leveled field to evaluate the hydraulic performance of drip irrigation system with two emission devices viz., online dripper (8 lph) and drip-in dripper (1.3 lph) for varying pressure viz., 0.75, 1 and 1.25 kg/cm2. Experimental set up was installed for determination of uniformity coefficient, emission uniformity and coefficient of variation. The result revealed that different hydraulic measures such as uniformity coefficient, emission uniformity and coefficient of variation at different operating pressure for online drip irrigation at 0.75 kg/cm2 was 97.05%, 95.75% and 2.94%, respectively, similarly for the operating pressure 1.00 kg/cm2 it was 97.99%, 97.08% and 2.00% and for 1.25 kg/cm2 it was 98.15%, 98.33% and 1.84% also for inline drip irrigation uniformity coefficient, emission uniformity and coefficient of variation for operating pressure 0.75 kg/cm2 was 97.25%, 98.72% and 2.74% and for pressure 1.00 kg/cm2 it was 97.30%, 99.44% and 2.69%, respectively, and at 1.25 kg/cm2 it was 98.92%, 99.53% and 1.07 %, respectively. The above result shows that the uniformity coefficient and emission uniformity increased while coefficient of variation decreased as operating pressure increased for all emission devices
59 Feasicbility studies of reusing of industrial waste water for irrigation, H.N. THIPPESWAMY AND N.T. MANJUNATH
This paper throws light on the results of experimentation carriedout to evaluate the feasibility of reusing industrial effluents and combination thereof for irrigation to grow root crop radish. The parameters namely germination percentage, leaf numbers and plant height were considered for study. The impact of sugar mill and distillery effluents and their diluted combination with sewage, along with control irrigation (water) on the parameters selected are discussed in this paper. It was abserved that industrial effluent from sugar mill and distilleries and their diluted combination with sewage con be productively reused to grow radish. TDS and organic conteuts of waste water had significant influence on yield and growth.
60 Influence of industrial wastes on growth, yield and yield attributing characters of rice, S.P. GAIKWAD AND M.H. KAUTE
The present investigation was undertaken with an objective to study the utilization of industrial solid and liquid wastes in the cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the net house of Agricultural and Food Engineering department, I. I. T., Kharagpur. The results revealed that the growth, yield attributing characters and yield increased considerably by the combined application of rice mill water with chemical fertilizer and FYM @ 5 t ha-1. However, combined application of industrial solid wastes with MW and CF was found to be more effective than their individual application alone. Among the treatments, the maximum grain yield was recorded under MW + FYM + CF. The increase in grain yield was associated with increase in number of panicles per pot and grains per panicle. The maximum uptake of N and P by rice was found in case of CF alone whereas for K it was in case of MW + FYM. The results further revealed that application of chemical fertilizer could be dispensed with by the application of rice mill water in required quantity and at regular interval during the growing period of the crop.
61 Rainfall and dry spell anaylasis for beed district, M. D. ABUJ, A.P. MAGAR, V.T. BOMBALE, P.G. POPALE AND S.A. BIRAJDAR
Efficient utilization of water resources is essential increasing agriculture production. Rainfall has a major role in rainfed agriculture. The important characters of rainfall influencing production from rainfed farming are the date of onset monsoon, the duration of rainy spells, the dates of occurrences and duration of intervening dry spell and distribution of weekly /minimum rainfall and number of rainy days. The daily rainfall and evaporation data of the beed district was obtained for the analysis from the collector office, Beed. This data was analyzed to find the minimum, maximum and normal monthly rainfall, average annual rainfall and number of rainy days .the dates of onset and end of effective monsoon were determined for individual years by applying the criteria stated by Ashok Raj (1979). Also mean dates of OEM and end of / monsoon with standard deviation were determined. Dry spells were found during every year. Mean dates of critical dry spells along with their mean duration were also determined. The average dates of starting and ending of wet spells were also determined. The present study revealed that, the average monthly rainfall for Beed was found to be varied from 4.39 mm to 190.41 mm. The average annual rainfall at Beed was / recorded as 758.23 mm. The 852/0average number of rainy days was found to be 37.6 days. The mean dates of OEM were found to be June 29. The mean date of end of monsoon was found to be October 9. The mean dates of critical dry spells were July 14 with duration of 21 days for first, August 21with mean duration of 23 days for second, August 27 with mean duration of 21 days third and September 24 with mean duration of 21 days for fourth CDS. The mean dates of wet spells were June 29 to July 13 for first, August 4 to August 20 for second and September 24 for third wet spells.
62 Application of solar energy for thermal comfort in the house, JAYSHREE B. MAHAJAN AND SONALI S. NAIK
Solar energy is one of the forms of energy which can be effectively used to create thermally comfortable indoor situations. Solar energy is available in abundant quantity. It can be used for heating and cooling of building. According to use of any mechanical device or fan, the systems can be classified as passive system or active system. This paper covers different methods to be adopted for various situations and their comparative analysis for proper selection for prevailing environmental outdoor conditions
63 Regression models for assessment of post harvest grain losses for rice combine harvester, HIREGOUDAR SHARANAKUMAR, R. UDHAYKUMAR AND K.T. RAMAPPA
Rice is harvested, when the panicle start changing its colour, the depended factor of moisture content and timely harvesting is one of the vital operations for getting optimum yields. To understand the complex conditions, regression equations would judge or forecast the suitable time for the machine (Escorts make class combine harvester) and crop (rice) parameters before harvesting. These equations would help to suffice for minimising the pre and post harvest grain losses.
64 Studies on irrigation efficiencies with different drip systems and their economic analysis for bitter gourd (Momordica chanrantia L.), VIVEK S. DEVARANAVADGI, S.S. SHIRAHATTI AND M.G. PATIL
A field experiment was carried out to study the irrigation efficiencies with different drip systems and their economic analysis for bitter gourd under semi arid conditions of Raichur during Rabi/summer 2009-10. The different drip irrigation levels included T1 - 60 % ET, T2 - 80 % ET, T3 - 100% ET, T4 - 120 % ET and T5 furrow irrigation (control). The results of the study indicated that 80 and 100 per cent ET level with drip irrigation exhibited superior values for different irrigation efficiencies when compared to other drip irrigation levels and furrow irrigation. All the drip irrigation treatments recorded higher benefit: cost ratio (2.64 to 3.86) except 60 per cent ET level (0.94) as compared with furrow irrigation (2.13).
65 Development of shaking and pod exposing attachments for tractor drawn groundnut digger, S.H. BHUTADA, A.P. MAGAR, S.L. SURYAWANSHI AND S.A. BIRAJDAR
Harvesting of groundnut is a labour consuming, expensive and tedious operation. The farmers required to repeat the operation of harrowing several times to expose detached and left out pods. Therefore, this operation requires more time, labour and energy, which ultimately increase in the cost of crop production. Hence, the shaking and pod exposing attachments were developed and attachments were tested for its performance in the medium black soil for semi spreading variety of groundnut. The test results for digging and exposing indicated that the average draft requirement was 782 kg and 691 kg with an average speed of 3.79 km/h and 4.28 km/h, respectively. The average effective field capacity and field efficiency in case of digger shaker were 0.35 ha/h and 80.10 per cent while for the pod exposure it was 0.41 ha/h and 81.33 per cent, respectively. The average digging efficiency of digger shaker was 90 per cent and the pod exposing efficiency of pod exposure was 93.28 per cent. The fuel consumption was found to be in the range of 3.7 to 4.14 l/h.
66 Improve the operation of IC engine with 100% biogas as fuel, JYOTI POHARE, K.C. PANDEY AND D.M. MAHALLE
World is facing energy crisis due to the increased industrialization coupled with rapid population growth. Limited reserved of fossil fuels, increasing use pattern of energy, fluctuating prices of petroleum products and the deteriorating environmental conditions are adversely affecting whole world. Hence, it must be necessitate concentrating our efforts to search for environmental friendly renewable fuels. Biogas is one of the ideal and clean energy rich fuel and can be used to produce heat, power and also used as vehicle fuel. A 5HP (3.7kW), Kirloskar diesel engine was modified to run on 100% biogas as fuel. The conversion kit used in the selected engine was provided by M/s Gas technologies India, New Delhi. The five different engine timings were selected for study. The engine parameters were studied to improve the operation of the engine on 100% biogas as fuel. The engine timing of 410bTDC gave optimized results for the selected engine
67 A Study on effects of pulse parameters on the bead geometry of welded Aluminium Alloy 7039, PAWAN KUMAR, KISHOR P. KOLHE AND C.K. DATTA
The pulsed-current Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) Welding process is employed for a high rate of current rise, decay and a high pulse repetitive rate, widely used in the joining of precision parts. The main aim of pulsing is to achieve maximum penetration without excessive heat built-up. The use of high current pulses is to penetrate deeply and allow the weld pool to dissipate some of the heat during a proportionately of longer arc period at a lower current. Aluminium Alloy 7039 is employed in aircraft, automobiles, high-speed trains and high-speed ships due to their low density, high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. The present paper depicts the application of Pulsed GTA welding for AA7039 using pure argon gas as a shielding gas with sinusoidal AC wave. In this investigation, the bead geometry and metallographic study of welded (AA7039) aluminium alloy have been carried out at various pulse currents, secondary currents, pulse frequencies and duty cycles
68 Design characteristics of mackerel encircling gill nets of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, T.G. KAZI, A.S. MOHITE AND R.R. JADHAV
Gill net fishing is one of the popular fishing methods along the west coast of India. The paper deals with design and general characteristics of mackerel encircling gill nets operated from Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Webbing of the nets were found to be fabricated with polyamide (PA) monofilament of diameter 0.23 mm, mesh size ranged between 45 to 60 mm and hanging coefficient varied from 0.40 to 0.54. The hung length and hung depth of the encircling mackerel gill net ranged in between 38.88 to 76.92 m and 8.28 to 17.62 m, respectively with the total fleet length of 410 to 960 m. For this type of net 110 to 140 number of plastic floats and oval shape lead sinkers of 50 to 140 number were used. Ten to sixteen number of units were joined together to form netting fleet. The mackerel encircling gill nets are locally known as Phatyachi rapan and Bangdyachi rapan.
69 A trial study on on hormone induced spawning and biochemical changes in Etroplus suratensis, S. ALBIN DHAS, M. MICHAEL BABU, MARY JOSEPHINE PUNITHA, T. CITARASU AND T. SELVARAJ
A study on induced spawning was carried out by using synthetic hormones such as ovaprim, HCG+LHRH in the fish Etroplus suratensis grown in aquarium tanks of 5 tons capacity. Biochemical parameters such as triglyceride, total protein and cholesterol level in the blood, liver and gonads were estimated in hormone treatment and it was compared with the control. The length and width of the egg development stages such as oocyte, pre-vitellogenic and matured eggs were also analyzed in different hormone treatments and were compared with the control. The percentage of eggs in the ovary of control and hormonated ovary were also compared. In all these studied parameters, the combined hormone HCG+LHRH administered experimental fishes showed the highest increased level was recorded in the present study. It was suggested that the administration of the synthetic hormone HCG+LHRH to get success on induced spawning in E. suratensis.
70 Design aspects of ring seine nets without pocket of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, R.R. JADHAV, A.S. MOHITE AND T.G. KAZI
Ring seine was a very recent introduction in Ratnagiri and was operated mainly to catch oil sardine and mackerel shoals moving in the surface and column waters. The ring seine was operated from small fibre glass reinforced plastic (FRP) craft fitted without board motor (OBM). The design, construction and operational details of the ring seine without pocket operated from Ratnagiri have been described in this paper. The total length of the ring seine without pocket was in the range of 336.6 to 540 m with depth of 36 to 45 m. The webbing of the ring seines were made of polyamide (PA) knotted netting having mesh size of 14 to 20 mm. Ring seine without pocket were mostly operated near to the coast in the depth less than 30 m using the basic principle of encircling the shoal with the help of 8 to 12 crew members.
71 Empowering rural people to use information technology services, P. NAGARAJAN AND G. WISELIN JIJI
Education has played a vital role in developing the nation and it is well known that majority of the people in India come from a rural background. Knowledge and information should be provided for people effectively as they can use it in their life. Empowering rural people to use formation and knowledge is necessary and important than its transfer. This work creates awareness to the suppressed rural people about the development in the country and motivates them to come out of their ignorance and give confidence to the people about their life and makes the first move to the rural people to learn about the Information and technology and the facilities that can be bought at home through e-learning.
72 Design and technical specifications of pomfret gill nets of Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, T.G. KAZI, A.S. MOHITE AND R.R. JADHAV
The present investigation deals with the design and general characteristics of pomfret gill nets operated from Ratnagiri, Maharashtra. Webbing of the nets were found to be fabricated with polyamide (PA) monofilament of diameter 0.23 to 0.32 mm and the mesh size ranged between 100 to 130 mm with the hanging coefficient of 0.41 to 0.56. Nets were used with the hung length and hung depth of 47.25 to 108.57 m and 4.41 to 11.92 m, respectively. Pomfret gill nets in Ratnagiri had a total fleet length of 182 to 915 m and depth of operation varied between 10 to 55 m. Head rope and foot rope of polypropylene (PP) of 3 to 4 mm diameter was used without mounting rope. Five to twenty numbers of units were joined end to end to form a netting fleet. The pomfret gillnets are locally known as Papletchi jali.
73 Six sigma strategy for world class quality A case study, S.H. MANKAR AND KISHOR P. KOLHE
Six Sigma methodology provides the techniques and tool to improve the capability and reduces the defects in any process. It concentrates on measuring product / service quality, reducing variation, driving improvements and saving the cost. The original application was to eliminate assembly line defects, but since then it has expanded into almost every corporate operation. Six Sigma is described as a philosophy, methodology and breakthrough strategy to solve the problems. There are many organizational examples (mainly USA and UK based) of large scale improvements in defects and process measures attributed to this approach. Six Sigma methodology improves any existing business process by constantly reviewing and returning the process. To achieve this, Six Sigma uses a methodology known as DMAIC (Define opportunity, Measure performance, Analyze opportunity, Improve performance, Control performance).Six Sigma strives for perfection. It allows for only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction for world class quality. Six Sigma relies heavily on statistical techniques to reduce defects and measure quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities of the implementation of Six Sigma strategy to the book publishing industries in India, which is not very old and not as advanced as in developed nations
74 Just in time (JIT) production system : Not just an option but an imperative - A study of an agro-machinery manufacturing company in Kerala, P.K. MANOJ AND V.N. NARAYANAN NAMBOOTHIRI
Just in Time (JIT) production system offers good prospects for enhancing operational efficiency and productivity through minimization of inventory. Though, JIT is yet to pick up momentum in a significant way in Indian manufacturing companies, probably because of high level of bottlenecks in obtaining the critical inputs, some less stringent forms of JIT (sometimes called, Indianised JIT) are being practiced meaningfully by many companies where the inventory is maintained at substantially low levels, though not to the extent that an ideal JIT production system requires. In the above context, this paper (i) makes an overview of JIT, its major features, benefits, key pre-requisites, and also the status of JIT implementation in Indian companies; (ii) makes a detailed study of inventory management system at KAMCO an agro-machinery manufacturing company based in Kerala; (iii) locates the need for scientific inventory management through JIT in view of the significantly lower inventory turnover ratio vis--vis national benchmark, and (iv) finally suggests strategies for adoption of JIT production system in a systematic and phased manner, for better operational efficiency.
75 A review of methods used for recognition of Indian language speech, P.P. AGNIHOTRI, R.V. SHINDE AND P.B. KHANALE
Automatic Recognition of Voice commands by the machine is a need over a long period of time. In India the language of the peoples changes over every 300 kms. Speech is most complex signal and powerful tool for communication. The Indian Languages are syntactically and semantically different from global language like English. This paper represents the existing methodologies used for recognition of Indian language speech.
76 Optimization of pulsed GTAW process parameters for bead geometry of aluminium alloy 6061 using Taguchi method, PAWAN KUMAR AND C.K. DATTA
The selection of process parameters for obtaining optimal weld bead geometry of aluminium alloy 6061 (AA6061) with pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. The bead geometry includes bead penetration, bead width and bead height. All these characteristics were considered together in the selection of process parameters using Argon as a shielding gas with sinusoidal AC wave and modified taguchi method was used to analyze the effect of each welding process parameter on bead geometry properties. Experimental results were furnished to illustrate the approach.
77 Design rainfall estimation using probabilistic approach for Adilabad district of Telangana, A.M. WAGHAYE, V. SIDDENKI, NIDHI KUMARI AND V.K. INGLE
This paper presents the estimation of design rainfall of Adilabad district at different probability levels. The 30 years (1972-2001) monthly rainfall data of Adilabad district were analyzed by EasyFit software to identify the best fit probability distribution. Chi square test is used as a goodness of fit criteria. It was found that general extreme value, Gamma distribution and Gumbel max were best fitted to monsoon (June-Sept.), post-monsoon (March-May) and pre-monsoon (Oct.-Feb.) season, respectively. The data was then processed to identify the design rainfall received in a monsoon (June-Sept.), pre-monsoon (March-May) and post-monsoon (Oct.-Feb.) season. Analysis of 30 years (1972-2001) rainfall data in the study area showed an average annual rainfall of Adilabad district is 1024.8 mm. According to Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), the meteorological drought year is defined as a year in which less than 75 per cent of the average annual rainfall is received. Based upon these criteria, the years 1972, 1974, 1984 can be characterized as drought years. After fitting the probability distribution, the frequency factor method was used to estimate the design rainfall at different probability level which can be use to design catchment to cultivated area ratio of micro-catchment water harvesting system.
78 Water requirement on drip irrigated tomatoes grown under shade net house, PRIYANKA SHARMA, MAHESH KOTHARI AND S.S. LAKHAWAT
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of irrigation regimes on drip irrigated tomatoes grown under shade net house at the plasticulture farm, CTAE, Udaipur, Rajasthan. Four different levels of drip irrigation equivalent to 100 per cent, 80 per cent, 60 per cent and 40 per cent of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) with five replications based on gravimetric method were tested for determining the crop water requirement inside the shade net house. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentumMill., badshah variety) plants were grown under the shade net house of 50 per cent shade and results are compared with the open cultivation system where the ETcwas calculated by PenmanMonteith (PM) method. The results revealed that the optimum water requirement for the tomato under the shade net house is around 80 per cent of ETc outside the shade net house. Based on this, the actual irrigation water could be recommended between 1.62 and 4.58 mm day-1 for tomato crop in the shade net house.
79 Development of spectral signature curve for the suspended sediment using spectroradiometer, S.S. RAUT AND B.K. GAVIT
Water resources and environment management is important for all living beings on the earths surface. Capacity of the water resources are reducing due to soil erosion or sedimentation and quality also decreasing due to overflow of the reservoir. The analysis of sedimentation data of Indian reservoirs show that the annual siltation rate has been generally 1.5 to 3 times more than the designed rate and the reservoirs are generally losing capacity at the rate of 0.30 to 0.92 per cent annually (NRSA). Remote sensing is a useful tool for in-situ monitoring of suspended sediments in surface water for a variety of reasons such as the multi spectral nature, large area coverage, and temporal data sets. Considering the necessity of the assessment of the sediment as well as advantage of the remote sensing technique. The present study is taken to develop the spectral signature library for different sediment concentration. These results integrating with satellite data yield significant. A controlled experiment was conducted in outdoors condition with a 40 lt water tank (white painted) having natural sunlight condition. A different soil series viz., Gulvanch, Targaon, Rahuri, Pather etc. were added and suspended in the tank filled with water. A total 10 levels of Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) (from 1000 ppm to 10000 ppm) were added for each type of treatment. Reflectance was recorded using an HR 1024 Spectroradiometer, and reflectance factor was computed and analyzed. The linearity in the SSC-reflectance relationship increased with wavelength between 400 and 900 nm. For relationship between suspended sediment concentration and reflectance data four different functions, viz., exponential, linear, logarithmic and power were tried. The best fit model was found to be power by regression analysis.
80 Preservation of bamboos using pressurized bamboo treatment unit, S.P. KURHEKAR, S.K. JAIN AND P.P. CHAVAN
Bamboo is a woody, valuable, strong and exceptionally fast growing grass. Bamboos are mostly used for structural purposes in rural and tribal housing. But the presence of large amount of starch makes bamboo highly susceptible to attack by staining fungi and powder-post beetles. It deteriorates in a couple of years, putting heavy pressure on the resource, owing to increased demands for frequent replacements. This adversely affects the supplies of bamboo, even in bamboo rich regions. Preservation can extend the life of bamboo and can maintain its quality and hence, make it suitable for the use as construction material. Different preservation methods are used for this purpose. In present study, pressure treatment was developed for treating bamboo by using copper chrome boron, cashew nut shell liquid and cow urine. By using developed treatment unit bamboos can be treated within 2 hours. Tensile strength for Mes above soil was found to be 30.16 N/mm, 29.40 N/mm and 26.94 N/mm for CCA, CCB and untreated, respectively and compressive strength was found to be 13.06 N/mm, 12.58 N/mm and 10.38 N/mm for CCA, CCB and untreated, respectively after 90 days of environmental exposure. The tensile and compressive strength of chemically treated bamboos was found to be better than untreated bamboos.
81 Response of coloured capsicum under protective cover for different irrigation and fertilizer levels, U.S. KADAM, P.M. INGLE, R.T. THOKAL AND D.M. MAHALE
The experiment was conducted during year 2008-09 at Hi-Tech Project, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Ratnagiri under shed net condition to study the response of coloured capsicum for different irrigation and fertilizer levels in terms of growth and yield. The study concluded that the coloured capsicum showed positive response to the different irrigation and fertilizer levels under shed net house over open field condition. The alternate day irrigation and split application of WSF fertilizers with different levels through drip irrigation system responded well by coloured capsicum in terms of growth and yield. The higher levels of irrigation and fertilizer were also boost the yield of coloured capsicum under shed net house. The study suggested that treatment I3F3 (1.0 PE, 120 % RD) gave maximum gross monetary returns (Rs. 239.50/m2) and B:C ratio. (8.60).
82 Evaluation of rotary mode of application of ponies/horses for generation of electricity in Imphal, Manipur, R.K. TIWARI
The animal driven rotary mode system was evaluated to generate electricity for battery charging. The cost economics of electricity generation and storage was worked out. The ponies energy in rotary unit to generate the electricity for battery charging was best utilized with proper work-rest cycle and nutritive feed. The main objective of the establishment of rotary power transmission system was to utilize power of pony during idle period. Fatigue score was found to be increased with duration of work. The physiological responses of the pony viz., pulse rate, respiration rate and rectal temperature increased with duration of work whereas speed of operation decreased. The battery (12 V, 35 Amp.-h) could be fully charged (specific gravity = 1.265) after 6 hours of pony operation following work-rest cycle of half an hour: 1 hour rest. The CFL (8 W, DC) were used for test trial which were glowing brightly. The average speed of pony at no load and loads were 4 and 3 revolutions/min, respectively. The overall body length and girth of pony were 1150 and 1450 mm, respectively. Time of charging was depended on the size of the battery as 35Ah battery required 6 hour for full charging. The alternator started emitting current at 1265 rpm and at this stage the battery started drawing current. Voltage increased and current drawn decreased with the state of charging. The power output reduced with reduction in current drawn. Battery charging was recommended at 50 per cent discharge level. At specific gravity of 1.200 the battery is charged at 50 per cent level and the draught requirement was observed to be 53 kgf which was well within the draught capacity of animals. Thus, it is recommended that battery should be put on charge at 50 per cent discharge level. Below this the draught requirement was observed high. The cost of pony and labour was therefore may be excluded from cost estimation. After excluding the cost of animal and labour the cost of battery charging was worked out as Rs. 9.62 and total cost for charging a battery of 35 Ah was found to be Rs. 57.72.
83 Strength analysis of bamboo and steel reinforced concrete beam, S.K. JAIN, S.P. KURHEKAR AND CHETAN WADEKAR
Bamboo possesses excellent strength properties that are as good as other building materials like steel, concrete and timber; therefore bamboo is widely used in the construction industry as reinforced material for reinforcement of concrete, for columns and as propping system for supporting structures in construction industry. The average flexural strength of unreinforced concrete beam (mass concrete) after 28 days curing period was found to be 5.73 MPa. The average flexural strength of steel reinforced concrete beam after 28 days curing period was found to be 11.39 MPa. The average flexural strength of singly bamboo strip reinforced concrete beam after 28 days curing period was found to be 8.69 MPa. The average flexural strength of doubly bamboo strip reinforced concrete beam after 28 days curing period was found to be 12.38 MPa. Cracking moment for beam found to be 7.22 kN-m. Flexural strength of bamboo is good and can be used as reinforcement in R.C.C. structure for low cost housing.
84 Agriculture operation monitoring system with Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) including RFID, GPS and CCTV, DEVEN J. PATEL, KAPIL K. SHUKLA AND BANKIM L. RADADIA
This manuscript proposes an agricultural environment monitoring server system for monitoring information concerning an outdoors agricultural production environment utilizing Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The proposed agricultural server collects environmental, agricultural land, seeds and soil information on the outdoors through WSN-based environmental and soil sensors, collects snaps information through CCTVs, area information through RFID and collects location information using GPS modules. This collected information is converted into data and saved into a database through the agricultural server consisting of a sensor manager, which manages information gathered from the WSN sensors, an image information manager, which manages image information collected from CCTVs, RFID and a GPS manager, which processes location information of the agricultural server system, and provides it to producers. In addition, a solar cell-based power supply is implemented for the server system so that it could be used in agricultural environments with insufficient power infrastructure. This agricultural server could even monitor the environmental information on the outdoors, and it could be look forward that the use of such a system could participate to increasing crop yields and improving quality in the agricultural field by supporting the decision making of crop producers through analysis of the collected information.