1 The Role Of Geographical Indication In Sustainable Gastronomy Tourism Mobility, Fügen Durlu Özkaya, Serdar Sünnetçio?lu, Ay?e Can
However with the globolazation process, cultural values are being exhausted and the sustainability of cultural values started to be discussed and the need for protection has to face today. As a tangible reflection of the intangible heritage food and beverage has got its share from it.With the globalization and eating fast food while it occurs a uniform eating culture, regional and gastronomic values began to disseppear.In this context, this theorotical study we try to put forward that sustainable gastronomic tourism which supports local farming and local gastronomic heritage in a destination and the role of geographical indicators as a tool for a economic value-added, protection of gastronomic regional heritage and promotions. For this purpose, the concepts of sustainable gastronomic tourism mobility and geographical indication has been analyzed by a detailed review of the literature. As a results of this analiyze the role of geographical indicators in sustainable gastronomic tourism has been shown in a model.
2 A Field Research on Personal Hygiene Practices of Personnels Working in Restaurants of Four and Five Star Hotels in Gaziantep, Bahar K?nac?, Hakan Çetiner
In this research, it has aimed to identify the personal hygiene practices of personnels working in restaurants of four and five star hotels in Gaziantep, and investigate whether these practices are statistically significant difference depending on the variable of gender. In this research was used descriptive survey model and it was carried out in the months of July and August in 2011 with participation of 200 personnels. 33% of the personnel who participated in the research are female and 67% are male. When the situation about the hand, face and foot washing practices of personnel is examined, having highest point average of both females and males related to “washing hands after toilet” shows that watched out most to this issue. In spite of that, having least point average among females of “washing hands before toilet” and among males of “washing hand-face when came from outside” shows that personnel is not implement enough these practices.
3 Perception Of Visitors’ Related With Psycohogical Pricing In The Food And Beverage Businesses: Case Of Ankara, Emrah Örgün, Ali Soluno?lu, Özgür Yayla
Although pricing is one of the strongest drivers of profitability, little empirical research has examined how a firm should organize pricing internally. As it is known, food and beverage service products are the ones that are affected by the interests of the staff, design, atmosphere and the ambience of the establishment only when the customers can get insight and information into the nature of the product on benefiting from the product besides their tangible nature. Psycolojical pricing is one of the items in the price strategies. This study aims to put forward position of psychological pricing strategies in terms of behavior of consumer purchasing in food and beverage establishment and to explain the strategies of psychological pricing strategies in detail.
4 The Reasons of University Students’ Preference to Fast Food Products, ?rfan Yaz?c?o?lu, Alper I??n, Burcu Koç
Fast food system is a system, services to a large number of consumer in a little while, produced and sold food prepared by standard methods. More limited people’s time than in the past, as a result of tecnological developments; spreading of innovations, occur in different parts of the world, in a wide area more quick than in the past and the interaction between life forms have increased the demand for fast food in recent years.The increase in demand made the factors affected the consumption of fast food products, preferred almost every country of the world today to be examine momentously. External resource-based fast food consumption habit is a species often preferred by young people and children. This condition make this kind of food consumption that appeal to a wider audience to be evaluate necessary. The aim of this study, identify and classify the variables which can be effective in Gazi University students’ preference to fast food products.
5 (Comparative Analysis of Number of Tourist Arrivals in Turkey and Tourism Revenue According to Data of Turkish Statistical Institute-TurkStat, Nermin Erol, Azize Hassan
The present study analyzed the revised number of tourist arrivals in Turkey between 2001 and 2012 and tourism revenue figures thereof published by Turkish Statistical Institute. The results of analysis detected that the number of tourist arrivals and tourism revenue figures are not parallel to each other by years. The study also exhibits the fact that differentiation in nationalities of the tourists affect the tourism revenue.
6 A Study on The Effects of Political Instabilties on the Tourists Destinaton Choice, Yüksel Öztürk, Erdem ?im?ek
Despite that tourism supports many countries’ economy; tourism industry has a sensitive and fragile structure due to wars, terror and robbery, social and political crisis. This damaged fragile structure as a result of political instabilities impairs investment and interrupt economic progress. During the survey valid data obtained from 770 participants and these data analyzed in terms of percentage, frequency, t-Test, ANOVA and Tukey HSD. According to the findings local tourists paid more importance than the foreign tourist because of the political instability. Female tourists paid more importance relatively than the male tourists to the context of political instabilities. Also correlation detected between increased educational level and paid importance to the political instability. According to the analyses nationality does not affect destination choice process while political instabilities exist. Finally between income and paid importance to the political instabilities there is a linear correlation was detected.
7 Role of Word of Mouth Communication in Tourists’ Touristic Good Preferences: A Research on Domestic Tourists, Ahmet Tayfun, Mustafa Y?ld?r?m, Lütfiye Ka?
The present study analyzed the revised number of tourist arrivals in Turkey between This work which aims to find how domestic tourists use the word of mouth resources in their touristic good preferences is a survey study. Within this context, this work aims to find the views of domestic tourists regarding the word of mouth resources in their touristic good preferences. The study starts with a conceptual framework for defining the concept of word of mouth and related concepts. Next, we have developed a survey by benefiting from previous studies on the subject. The survey was conducted in various touristic sites of Ankara. The survey data obtained by participation of 424 domestic tourists has been analyzed by using statistical packet software. Cronbach’s Alpha on reliability of the survey scale has been found ? = 0,83. This indicates that the survey scale is a highly reliable one. Demographic characteristics of participants have been given in the form of frequency and percentage. The next part deals with the degree to which tourists were influenced by word of mouth resources and participated in word of mouth activities in displaying their satisfaction and dissatisfaction. One sample t-test and ANOVA have been employed in order to determine the extent to which these degrees have changed in accordance with demographic variables. Besides, paired samples t-test has been used to determine existence of a statistically meaningful variance when they participate in word of mouth activities in case of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
8 Gastronomic Identity in Terms of Destination Competitiveness and Travel Motivation, Osman Çal??kan
Gastronomy is not only art of eating and drinking but also each component is associated with food and drink that consist of the interaction of science, art and culture. In this respect, it covers a large area. Tourism is one of these areas where tourism and gastronomy has a close relationship especially increasing tourist interest of local cuisine in tourism destination, rising of research in the restaurant management, getting importance of eating habits, food science and safety in the tourism industry. The gastronomic identity is an issue that addresses the relationship between gastronomy and tourism in sense of cultural, social, economic, and ideological. In this study, gastronomic identity that cannot be replicated original features takes place in gastronomic tourism blending with the culture and environment of destination. In the study, the relationship with gastronomy tourism and gastronomic identity is discussed in literature especially in terms of the effect of increasing the destinations competitiveness and tourist travel motivation. Finally, there are suggestions in regards to gastronomic identity to the actors related with destination management, gastronomy and tourism.
9 Set Menus Effects on Foreign Tourist Perceptions as a Product-Bundling Practice in Restaurants, F?rat Biçici, Ça?r? Köro?lu
Aim of this study is to put forward the effects of set menus on perceptions of foreign tourists as a price bundling practise in restaurant establishments, whose customer mass consists of foreign tourists. In the study set menus are evaluated in terms of price bundling strategy, menu-price relations and the consumer buying behaviour. For this purpose, research workers handed menus and asked questions to 298 foreign tourists. The data is evaluated by frequency tables, chi-square test and correlation analysis. According to the analysis results obtained from the previously mentioned data, it is ensued that set menus effect buying preferences of foreign tourists and creates good-value perception.
10 Food Tourists’ Intentions Within The TPB Framework , Gül?ah Akku?, Orhan Erdem
According to the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), attitudes toward behaviour (AtB), subjective norms (SN) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) affect intentions (BI). The purpose of this paper is to examine food tourists’ intentions using TPB. A convenience sampling survey method was used to collect data. A social networking group of gourmets in Turkey were selected for the sampling frame and 137 usable surveys were obtained. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the model. The results showed that food tourists’ intentions can be predicted simply through AtB and SN (adjusted R2 =0.29). PBC did not reveal any effect on intentions. Behavioural and normative beliefs were also significant. Research model was converted to the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).
11 The Effect of The Ethical Leadership on Perceived Organizational Justice and Organizational Identification of The Employees: The Case of Tourism Businesses , ?ükran Öktem
In this study, the effect of the ethical leadership on perceived organizational justice and identification has been researched with a case study. The researches? views have been examined by performing a literature review. The study has been realized with the individuals working in the tourism businesses in Ankara (Turkey). The questionnaire has been applied with the face to face interviews. The hypotheses have been evaluated by looking at the interactions of the ethical leadership with the organizational justice and the organizational identification separately from the data. Regression models for organizational justice and organizational identification have been founded on ethical leadership and ethical leadership change according to gender has been checked by t-test. When previous analysis merged, it was determined that there was no difference between genders on ethical leadership affecting organizational justice and organizational identification
12 Relationship Between Agro-Tourism and Sustainability: A Research TaTuTa Farms In Mu?la Religion, Makbule Civelek, Taner Dalg?n, Hüseyin Çeken
Destructiveness and irreversible effects of mass tourism diverted touristic customers to alternative types of tourism. As a result of consumption of natural resources and damage, countries have given place for alternative types of tourism in their development and strategic plans. Agro-tourism is one of tourism types that takes part in sustainability and minimizes environmental damage. Agro-tourism signifies that it protects resources and does not harm the environment. Also, it is intertwined with local community and business. In this study, by examining the relationship between agro-tourism and sustainability, activities of agro-tourism enterprises in Mugla region towards sustainability were tried to put forth. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used as research tool. Results obtained from the research show that agro-tourism enterprises operating in Mugla region, act in accordance with environmentally friendly agro-tourism. As a result of the findings obtained from participant observation revealed awareness of touristic consumer profile.
13 Analysis Of Expectation Levels Of University Students Enrolled In Different Schools According To Some Variables, P?nar Köseo?lu, Gökhan Aksu, Özel Sepetçi
Despite that tourism supports many countries’ economy, tourism industry has a sensitive and fragile structure due to wars, terror, robbery, social and political crisis. This damaged fragile structure as a result of political instabilities impair investment and interrupt economic progress. During the survey valid data obtained from 770 participants and these data analyzed in terms of percentage, frequency, t-Test, ANOVA and Tukey HSD. According to the findings local tourists paid more importance than the foreign tourist because of the political instability. While female tourists paid more importance relatively to the male tourists in the context of political instabilities. Also correlation detected between increased educational level and paid importance to the political instability. According to the analyses nationality does not affect destination choice process while political instabilities exist. Finally between income and paid importance to the political instabilities there is a linear correlation was detected.
14 (Psychological violence in Organization: A Case of Service Businesses, Ercan Yavuz, Arzu Gürdo?an
One of the major problems which is psychological violance/mobbing at work for employees. After a while even the superior skills of the staff, the effect of psychological violence can be even more devastating than physical violence. In this study, demographic characteristics of employees in the hospitality enterprises was examined whether differences in the perception of mobbing or not. In this research survey method was used that 442 employees who are in service sector in Mugla. According to the results that employees have the perception of psychological violence, staff, who have an administrative duties, are higher perceptions of psychological violence than other staff, staff who are in the primary education has been found that the perception of higher psychological violence than other staff.
15 For Local Appeals to Tourism Attitude of Local People: Çank?r? Salt Cave Case, Ramazan Pars ?ahbaz, Ercan Karaçar
In this context, this study was done in Cank?r? City Centre in order to determining local people’s attidudes in Salt Cave’s acquire of tourism. Quessionnaires, distributed to the local people, firstly, demoghraphic characteristics were asked people.After that, It was trying to learn how economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits and harms of tourism perceived by the local people and finally, the questions were asked to measure their support fort he development of the tourism. The datas obtained from this study subjected to various analyzes and the conclusion was that local people had positive attitude for opening the tourism to Salt Cave. As a result of this study, it was also analyzed seperately Salt Cave,opening the tourism, how created an attitude in terms of economic, social and enviromental. In addition, with support, given to the development of the tourism, perception of the benefits of tourism and local governments’plans concluded that there was a positive relationship attitude of people
16 Chemistry of Meal: Past, Current and Future of Molecular Gastronomy, Hande Y?lmaz, Saniye Bilici
Recently, with increase prevalence of obesity, new techniques of meal preparations have begun to attract attention of food and beverage sector workers and workers contributing to food-related developments. Innovation in field of gastronomy has prepared ground for that “Molecular Gastronomy” isn’t only cooking techniques or presentation but also field of science with contribution of chemistry and physics scientists, as well as cooks. It is expected to increase interest in molecular gastronomy with developing of the food industry in the future. History, scope, possible future using of molecular gastronomy are included in the article.
17 Factor Affecting Perception of Taste, Suzan ?eren Karaku?
Taste of the food is the most important thing in terms of its consumption. There are various items with flavor in nature. These tastes divided into five groups as sour, bitter, sweet, salty and umami. In general people level of sensation of these tastes differs. Many factors play role in formation of these differences like age, sex, genetic, diseases, psychological status, socio-cultural differences, habits and characteristics of the food tasted. Further studies may discover the new factors or reveal that the effects of certain factors stem from some other reasons. It is expected that this study will contribute to establishments serving food and beverages like hotels, restaurants etc. about determination of consumers’ expectation of tastes, understanding different reactions to consumed foods and preparing menus according to consumer profiles and selecting panelists in food industry.
18 Destination and Purpose Denominations in Developing Tourist Relationship Management (TRM) Framework , Arup Kumar BAKSI
Conventional relationship management frameworks, namely Customer Relationship Management has been inadequate to explain the critical dyadic relationship between the tourists and the tourism service providers, although the dimensions of the same are relevant enough to lend partial support to understand the relationship . There seems to be some missing factors, still unexplored, which may be pivotal in understanding this relationship. This study attempts to develop a tourist relationship management (TRM) framework by assimilating assorted dimensions. The basic foundation of the TRM framework will be rested on customer relationship management (CRM) model with justified addition of dimensions compatible to tourism dynamics. The study used survey method, with adequate justification of sampling & scaling procedures and factor-constructs measurements, to identify and assess the significance of ‘destination’ and ‘purpose or motivation to travel’ as decisive elements in the relationship architecture. The study confirmed convergence of dimensions to justify TRM framework with adequate internal reliability and validity of the scale. The default model also holds good to lend support to the theoretical findings.
19 A Research on Determination of Personality Traits of the Tourism Enterprises Managers, Muharrem Tuna, Fatih Türkmen
The determination of the personality traits of the managers is important due to the potential impact of the personality traits over the employees working in an organization. This study attempts to determine the personality traits of the managers working in the labor-intensive tourism sector and to assess the influence of the demographic characteristics and the enterprises’ characteristics over the personality traits. Within this context, a survey was conducted over the managers of 1098 tourism enterprises operating in various provinces of seven regions of Turkey. The first part of the survey includes questions to determine the personal characteristics of the managers and the characteristics of the enterprises that they manage whereas the second part comprises 64 expressions that are used to determine the personality traits of the managers. In order to assess the validity and the reliability of the survey scale, percentage, frequency, t-test, variance analysis, ANOVA analysis, Bonferroni test and Tukey (HSD) test has been used. The analysis of the survey research reveals that there are meaningful differences between the personality traits of the tourism managers, their demographic characteristics and the characteristics of the tourism enterprises that they work.
20 A Study on Educational Tourism: Impacts of Foreign Students on the Perception of Local Turkish Students: Evidence From Northern Cyprus , Hasan Evrim Ar?c?, Müjdat Ertürk, Onay Orcan
This study investigates the impacts of educational tourism. In this point, the paper aims to examine the effects of foreign students that are from Middle-East countries and study at Girne American University (GAU) in North Cyprus on the perception of the domestic students with respect to islamic countries and communities. In the literature reviewing, there has been many studies regarding educational tourism and its effects. On the other hand,it was observed that this impact of foreign students has never been studied by scholars in the previous investigations, however there are many students who are from islamic countries and have close relationships between these foreign students and local students. Specifically, this article explores the changes in perception of local students after recognizing islamic students.This paper concantrates on the qualitative case study method that evaluated the perceptions of undergraduate local students and accordingly, the sample of the study is ten students studying at different faculties of GAU.The data were coded and classified for generated issues, this study used data analaysis constant comparative method, known as Grounded Theory Method.Owing to little sample size, evidences were analized as indicative. Findings showed that there are important effects of Islamic students on Turkish students in terms of changes of their perceptions regarding Islamic countries. The effects of Islamic students on Turkish students were centralized on nine major titles; (a) perceptions about foreign languages in Islamic communities, (b) perceptions about positive sciences developments in Islamic communities, (c) perceptions about the role of women in social life in Islamic communities, (d) perceptions about social relations in Islamic communities, (e) perceptions about dressing styles of people in Islamic communities, (f) perceptions about individual freedom and human rights in Islamic communities, (g) perceptions about the effects of religion in social life of Islamic communities, (h) perception changes about Islamic culture, (i) contibutions of Islamic students on the learning experience of Turkish students.This study was carried out with ten students studyingat GAU in North Cyprus. To generalize the findings, the other universities might be included and the sample size can be increased in the future research process. The other limitations are specified in the last part of the study.
21 Palm Oil and Health, Sedanur Macit, Nevin ?anl?er
Palm oil is an oil which is obtained from palm tree’s fruit,although being vegetable oil, contains high saturated fat (% 50) and semi-solid in the room temperature. Because of being cheaper than other oils, it’s commonly used in the food industry. In the sector, it is prefered to make prepared foods like biscuit, cake and margarine, Increasing demand, palm oils production areas increasingly growing. Malesia and Indonesia are the main producers and exporters of palm oil. The reason palm oil contains much antioxidants like tocoferols and carotens, it has the protective feature from disease like cancer, diabetes, cardiovaskuler at the same time the reason it contains high saturated fat, it is a risk factor for disease progress. Saturated fats accelarate the cardiyovasculer disease by increasing the cholesterol levels. Therefore palm oils effects on health are controversial. In last years, palm oils common use in food industry increase the interest to palm oil and various studies have been done about palm oil. In this study, palm oil, palm oil’s ceontent, productin process, situation in World and Turkey. It’s aimed to present palm oil’s effects on health by compilng the studies about palm oil.
22 Learning Foreign Language, Enthusiasm and Resolution in Tourism Education: Selçuk University Bey?ehir Case, Erkan Akgöz, Yüksel Gürsoy
Learning any foreign language is not accomplished only for being successful in social life or meet different culture. Foreign language is also learnt to build a career and for intellectual development therewithal. In addition to this, it is necessary to offer the best service to the tourists who travel along different regions with different purposes and for cultural interaction. Thus this study is conducted to determine foreign language learning, enthusiasm, attitude and resolution of students who are educated in tourism related departments of higher education institutions. The survey questions which are prepared in terms of the research are asked to the students who receive tourism education in Selcuk University Beysehir Ali Akkanat Campus and the hypothesis found are tested. It is concluded that four of seven hypothesis which are tested through SPSS package software are found acceptable, the other three are rejected.
23 The Examination of the Factors that Affect Brand Loyalty of Tourists in Hotel Election in terms of Behavioral and Attitudinal Loyalty, Ahmet Tayfun, Özgür Yayla
The purpose of this study affecting the hotel customers of factors brand loyalty is to examine the behavioral and attitudinal loyalty size. Within this purpose, a survey research was conducted on the guests staying in the five star hotels of Ankara, Turkey. The research was carried out in two stages, namely the pilot study and the main study. As a result of four factors influencing brand loyalty (physical competence / trust, service quality, brand image and price) has been found to explain 67% of the size of behavioral loyalty and has been found to explain 55% of the size of attitudinal loyalty dimension. Also, when the price increases, a decrease in individuals occurs attitudinal and behavioral loyalty.
24 The Culturel Interaction Journey of Latin American Cuisine, Fügen Durlu Özkaya, Batuhan Sar?can
The importance of conquests, migrations and, in the progressive process, chefs’ getting acquainted with other cultures is great in the first examples of international interactions regarding cuisine culture. In this study, significant factors affecting the current cuisine preferences in Latin American countries were determined as agriculture and cuisine habits of the region during Pre-Columbian era, conquest movements starting with Columbus, African origin slave trade and mass migrations from Europe and the determining role of climate and geographical conditions on these factors were also exemplified by specifying characteristic cuisine features of today’s Latin American countries.
25 Cittaslow: A Model Proposal for Çaml?hem?in, Ahmet Tayfun, Elif Acuner
The cities of the 21st century have to face many problems such as noise, uncontrolled development, poverty, and illegal activities, as well as numberless other problems. In many cities, these problems lead to consequences due to the excessive consumption of the region’s sources such as local values, natural resources, and the regional culture and history, by both the people who live in that region and those who visit it. This situation, however, was the cause of starting to enquire the current liveability situation in our cities. These problems faced by the cities caused alternative concepts to be launched, for establishing a better city living. One of the alternative concepts aiming at increasing the quality of life in the cities, and to establish more sustainable systems of living is the Cittaslow Movement.
26 Cittaslow: An Assessment From the Perspective of Sustainable Development, ?smail ?ahin, Salih Ziya Kutlu
Sustainability of renewable resources in the ecosystem to transfer to future generations of mankind negative impact on the ecosystem carrying capacity of the system to be kept at a level that is defined as stepping on. Development policies practiced for centuries throughout the world has led to problems that are difficult to be corrected. Sustainable development, economic development and reconciliation of environmental protection with the provision arises. Last 30 years, emerging sustainable development approach purports to solve these problems. The purpose of local development ; regional dynamics of local communities by mobilizing physical, economic, social, cultural and political areas in accordance with the principles of sustainable development is to ensure the development. Cittaslow Cities Association, with the protection of natural values and local development approach is advocated. These two concepts as interrelated present a different perspective have contributed to the development approach . In the light of this definition to ensure the sustainability of cities of different approaches have been developed. In this context, studies, sustainable development, slow motion, and Cittaslow is information about SlowFood.