1 Bacterial Response as Determinant of Oxidative Stress by Heavy Metals and Antibiotic, Artee Mishra, Kaushala Prasad Mishra
The present study deals with Bacterial response as determinant of heavy metals stress and antibiotics by isolation, identification and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria which was isolated from sewage effluent collected in three different places of Ganga river in Allahabad, The two isolates were selected based on high concentration of heavy metal and antibiotic resistances. Morphological and biochemical analysis revealed that, the isolates were identified as Escherichia coli (Isolate-1), Pseudomonas (Isolate-2). The identify isolates were resistant to Cadmium (Cd), Tin (Sn), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg), Arsenium (As) and Lead (Pb). The minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Sewage effluent isolates against Pb, Cd, As, Sn, Cr, and Hg was determined in broth isolates showed high resistance to heavy metals with Minimum Inhibitor Concentration (MIC) for heavy metals ranging at 10ppm to 150ppm. Both resistant isolates showed tolerances to heavy metals. Isolates showed antibiotic resistances of which were 50% resistant to E. coli and 10% resistant to Pseudomonas. Heavy metal tolerance test showed maximum microbial tolerance to chromium and minimum tolerance to mercury in mixed broth sample. The identified heavy metal resistant bacteria could be useful for the bioremediation of heavy metal contamination.
2 Encapsulation Method to Protect Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Rumen Biohydrogenation In Vitro, Gawad RMA, Strabel M, Abo El-Nor SA, Kattab HM, Cie?lak A, Kolif SM, Elnashar M
Enrichment of ruminants’ products with polyunsaturated fatty acids is one of the possibilities to introduce these fatty acids into the human diet. However, the rumen biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids limits their quantity and thus bioavailability in the rumen as well as in animal products. The alginate/carrageenan calcium beads of linseed oil were evaluated in vitro to verify the ability of these products to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids from biohydrogenation by ruminal microbes. Encapsulation efficiency was evaluated by measuring the quantity of oil protected by alginate/carrageenan calcium beads as well as changes on linseed oil fatty acids content before and after encapsulation. Experiment was evaluated in vitro using batch culture system. The treatments were: control (Control) without supplements, experimental I (Linseed oil) (control + 4% of linseed oil), experimental II (Beads 1) control + 4% of linseed beads containing 15% oil, experimental III (Beads 2) control + 4% of linseed beads containing 20% oil. Linseed oil and both linseed oil beads were supplemented to substrates at 4% of dietary dry matter. The substrate was composed of a mixture of meadow hay and barley meal in the ratio of 60:40 and incubated for 48h. All samples were analyzed for fatty acids content. The results were 87% and 86% for alginate/carragenan beads loaded with 15vol% linseed oil and alginate/carragenan beads loaded with 20vol% oil, respectively. The encapsulation process didn’t have a significant effect on PUFA fraction (P
3 Immunological Aspect of Colostrum As A Preventative Medication, Powar Priyatama V
Nutraceutical products are used to endow with health and medical benefits for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Colostrum is a natural product which is rich in macro- and micronutrients, and because of this, it is measured as a best natural food supplement. Colostrum is the first milk secreted at the time of parturition, is also the sole source of passive immunization because the colostrums is an excellent source of immunoglobulins and highly biological value proteins ,Growth Factor, lipids, carbohydrates, antioxidants, vitamins ,minerals and viable cells. A viable cell like neutrophils, macrophages secretes cytokines and antimicrobial proteins and peptides, such as lactoferrin, defensins, and cathelicidins. In view of so many health factor through Colostrum, the use of Colostrum has been extended to so many health problems like treatment of autoimmune disorders, gastrointestinal conditions, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug–induced gut injury, H pylori infection, immune deficiency related diarrhea for all age group. This review explores the recent knowledge on the advantageous effect of immune factors containing Colostrum in the above conditions as well as the results of research aimed at realizing untouched significance in milk.
4 A Review on Progeria, Deepu S D, Ajin Sam, Vishnu R Nair, Tony Kuriakose, Jiju V, Santhosh M Mathews
Progeria (Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS, progeria syndrome) is an extremely rare genetic disorder wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age. Classical Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome is usually caused by a sporadic mutation taking place during the early stages of embryo development. It is almost never passed on from affected parent to child, as affected children rarely live long enough to have children themselves. There have been only two cases in which a healthy person was known to carry the LMNA mutation that causes progeria. These carriers were identified because they passed it on to their children. Progeria may be a de novo dominant trait. It develops during cell division in a newly conceived zygote or in the gametes of one of the parents. It is caused by mutations in the LMNA (lamin A protein) gene on chromosome 1; the mutated form of lamin A is commonly known as progerin.
5 Pesticidal Properties on the Leaf Extracts of Strychnos-Nux-Vomica Plant, Mity Thambi, Tom Cherian
Strychnos-nux-vomica which belongs to the family loganiacea is a medium-sized tree. Other names of Strychnos-nux-vomica are Kanjiram, Kuchla, Kupilu. In India, the quality/toxicity of traditional medical crude and processed Strychnos seeds can be controlled by examining the toxic alkaloids using established HPLC methods and/or HPLC-UV methods. Strychnos nux-vomica is also used in homeopathy. Strychnos has not been proven effective for the treatment of any illness. Since the seeds contain strychnine poison, conventional doctors do not recommend it as a medicine. In the present study reveals that, plant extracts of Strychnos-nux-vomica leaves in ethyl acetate solvent is highly toxic against adults of Sitophilus oryzae. Higher doses and exposure time are required to achieve 100% mortality for the adults of Sitophilus oryzae. The ethyl acetate extract of Strychnos-nux-vomica could be used as a potential grain protectant against Sitophilus oryzae. The use of botanical materials as insecticides will benefit our agricultural sector. They are not only of low cost, but have no environmental impact in term of insecticidal hazard. Therefore, the findings of the current experiments strongly support the use and exploration of botanicals in pest management practices.
6 Esculetin Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Kasumi-1 cells through Caspase 3 Activation, Sharad Sawney, Prateek Arora, Chris Steffi, Vemika Chandra, Mashook Ali, Kamal K Aggarwal, Daman Saluja
Objective: AML alone accounts for 20% cases of acute leukemia in children and 80% cases in adults. Among many genetic alterations, the most frequently reported translocation is between chromosomes 8 and 21, t(8; 21) or AML1-ETO. In the past decade, the anti–proliferative effect of various natural compounds including esculetin (a coumarin), has been reported in several leukemic cell lines. We have recently shown that esculetin reduces the half-life of AML1-ETO chimeric mRNA as well as mutated c-Kit transcripts in human monocytic leukemia kasumi-1 cell line harbouring the t(8;21) translocation. In the present study we established the antiproliferating activity of esculetin on kasumi-1 cell line. Methods: In this study, cytotoxicity of the esculetin on kausmi-1 cells was investigated. The ability of esculetin to induce cell cycle arrest, alter mitochondrial potential, activate Caspase cascade and to express apoptotic markers was investigated through western blotting analysis and flow cytometry methods. Results and conclusion: The half maximal inhibitory concentration of esculetin in kasumi-1 cells was found to be 100 ?M. Ecsuletin arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase in kasumi-1 cells. A significant increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytosolic release of cytochrome C was observed in ecsuletin treated kasumi-1 cells. This was accompanied with activation of Caspase 3 and Caspase 8 and enhanced cleavage of phospholipase C (PLC)?-1. Annexin V apoptotic assay further corrobrated our results that esculetin mediated cytoxicity which is accompanied by cleavage of Caspase 3 is due to apoptosis in kausmi-1 cells.
7 Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil in the management of Anthracnose of Banana Fruits, Rinki Singh, Pramila Tripathi
Essential oils of 24 angiospermic taxa were screened for their antifungal activity against fruit rotting fungus Colletotrichum musae causing anthracnose of banana. The essential oil of three plants viz. C. zeylanicum, A. indica and Mentha arvensis showed 100 % activity against the test pathogen. The essential oil of C. zeylanicum oil was selected for further investigation. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. zeylanicum oil was found to be 100ppm. The nature of toxicity of oil was fingistatic at its MIC but turned cidal at hypertoxic concentration of 200ppm.The fungitoxicity of the oil was thermostabal up to 80?C.The shelf life of oil was found to be 24 months. The C. zeylanicum oil was found to exhibit a broad fungitoxic spectrum by inhibiting the mycelia growth of 10 common fruit rotting fungi at its MIC. During in vivo trial the C. zeylanicum oil treated banana fruits showed enhancement of storage life up to 4 days. Therefore, the essential oil of C. zeylanicum could be recommended as potential botanical fungicide.
8 Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Assay (HPLC) Method for quantitative analysis of Prulifloxacin in Bulk Drug, Purnima Hamrapurkar, Priti Patil, Mitesh Phale, Ashish Sharma
A novel stability-indicating reversed-phase (RP) HPLC method has been developed and validated for quantitative analysis of prulifloxacin in the bulk drug. Use of a 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5-?m particle size, C18 column with 50:50 (v/v) formic acid in water (pH 3.5)–acetonitrile as isocratic mobile phase enabled separation of the drug from its degradation products. The flow rate and detection wavelength were 1 mL min?1 and 277 nm respectively. The method was validated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision, selectivity, ruggedness and system suitability. The linearity of the method was excellent over the range 0.030–10.000 ?g mL?1. The mean values of slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient were 85169, 9332 and 0.9992 respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.010 and 0.030 ?g mL?1, respectively. RSD in intra-day and inter-day precision studies was < 2 %. Recovery of prulifloxacin from bulk drug ranged from 100.08 and 102.00 %. Prulifloxacin was subjected to stress conditions (hydrolysis (acid, base), oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation) and the stressed samples were analysed by use of the method. Maximum degradation was observed in acid and base hydrolysis and oxidation. The drug was also susceptible to degradation under photolytic and thermal conditions. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak thus proving the stability indicating nature of the method.