1 Sunflower Oil: Efficient Oil Source for Human Consumption, Sheeba Khan, Saumya Choudhary, Anamika Pandey, Mohd Kamran Khan, George Thomas
Oil crops are well distinguished for supplying protein and energy in human diet (Mehran et al. 2011). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is a significant crop possessing 15-21% protein and 50% oil content (Ayeen 1996). It holds second position in the world in edible oil manufacturing following soyabean oil (Nandha et al. 2014) and grouped among preeminent plant oils for human diet due to its nutritional worth (Skoric et al. 2008). Its seeds provide considerable amount of vitamins, minerals and tocopherols (Skoric 2009) and found to be rich in minerals like magnesium, iron, copper, calcium, zinc, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, selenium and manganese (Nandha et al. 2014). Regular sunflower oil contains 69% linoleic acid, 20% oleic acid and 11% saturated fatty acids, but a number of strategies have been adopted to present advance range of sunflower oils with elevated oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid and low saturated acid.
2 Phthalate Plasticizers and Safety of Toys - Problems and Perspectives, Anton Kolev Tachev, Valentina Lubomirova Christova-Bagdassarian
A number of reports published worldwide create awareness on the harms of global usage of phthalates in various products. The concern towards potential exposure of consumers to phthalates through many sources and different routes of administration is increasing day by day. Evidences of phthalates in toys and phthalate metabolites in the urine of children are becoming common. Children under 3 years are more sensitive as compared to general population towards this problem due to their additional intake of plasticizers by chewing toys. Phthalates are found to cause allergy, asthma and affecting kidney, liver and endocrine system, especially at a young age. As phthalates bear the property to soften the hard plastic material, soft toys possess their higher content in comparison to hard toys. Their usage is restricted in EU, United States and Canada and several other countries mainly in toys suspected to be kept in mouth. Phthalates basically included in the banned for toys category are DEHP, DBP, BBP, DNOP, DIDP and DINP. Usage of less than 0.1% phthalates has been allowed for plastic toys and directives are given to producers to label the age of children who may use the toys and specify its hazards. Parents are suggested to control these labels before buying the phthalate plasticizers based products.
3 Determination of Aerobic Bacterial Composition of Dental Plaque Biofilms and Their Role in Oral health, Ibrahim Ali Altayyar, Alsadig Mohammed Abdalla, Mohammed Abd Alrzak Alfellani, Omran Othman Abdullah
Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on teeth and it is the etiologic agent in dental caries and periodontal diseases. A better understanding of bacterial communities found in biofilms provides opportunities for new methods to control biofilm formation. Therefore, control of the dental plaque biofilm is a major objective of dental professionals and critical to the maintenance of optimal oral health. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from dental plaque biofilm on the external surface of the teeth and gums and to determine their role in the etiology of gingivitis and dental caries. Fifty nine samples of dental plaque from gingiva and teeth were collected randomly from patients attending Sebha dental clinic, Libya, males and females of different age groups. All samples were cultured on different media, conventional methods used for isolation and identification. Results revealed that 52 samples (88%) were positive for culture, and they were polymicrobial. Bacteria isolated were 110 species, 93 (84.5%) were gram positive composed of Streptococcus species 43 (39%), Lactobacillus 27 (24.5%), Staphylococcus 23 (21%) and 17 were gram negative (15.5%), they were E.coli 7 (6.4%), Enterobacter 6 (5.5%), Proteus 4 (3.6%). Isolates from males were 66 (60%) and females were 44 (40%), 61 (55.5%) of the isolates were from children (5-15) years old (44% were Streptococcus species and 25% were lactobacilli, Staphylococcus 18%) and 49 (44.5%) were from the age group (16-68) years old (28% were Streptococci and 21% were Lactobacilli). Most of the isolated bacteria (58%) was from patients who do not clean their teeth by daily brushing with toothpaste.
4 Antioxidant Profile Determination of off-Seasonal Guava, Allahabad Safeda (Psidium guajava L.) Fruits, Saumya Choudhary, Anamika Pandey, Mohd Kamran Khan, George Thomas
Antioxidants received from plant sources are found to be one of the best remedies for a number of human diseases. Guava with high amount of dietary fiber is recommended as natural and secured source of antioxidants. In this study, antioxidant capacity in guava fruits is determined by the assessment of total phenol content and DPPH scavenging activity. Results obtained emphasize on the usage guava fruits to eradicate destructive free radicals from the human body. Daily intake of guava fruits can help fighting noxious diseases like cancer and arthritis.