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American Research Journal of History and Culture

Journal Papers (4) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Niyoga,(Levirate) and Sexual Politics in Ancient India; Reflection on the Indian Epic Mahabharata, Dr. Ravi Khangai
Indian epic, the Mahabharata is like a reservoir of information about the Indian society. The epic have acquired written form during the period 800B.C. to 200 A.D.1 However before acquiring written form, it was handed down from generation to generation in oral form and had gone through log process of interpolation and extrapolation. During this long process it had acquired eternal relevance and more so for the Indian society, which is considerably rooted in the past. The epic narrates number of episodes where a male child is produced by a woman from a man other than her husband. Apart from the Mahabharata, Manu Smriti also refers to this kind of practice, which was called N?yoga?.This paper will make analysis of some of the episodes of N?yoga narrated in the Mahabharata. The N?yoga? episodes in the Mahabharata were not a simple union of a man and women for procreation (as it was supposed to be), but involves emotions and politics. After all human life is too complicated to be compartmentalized in water tight compartments
2 Internal Factors on Resource Control Saga in the Nigera Delta and Their Impact, Adeoti, Ezekiel Oladele , Imuoh Austen
The quest for resource control by states in the Niger Delta region is one of the contentious issues in Nigeria. The clamour for resource control followed the inability of the government to address the adverse social and economic conditions under which the people of the Delta region have been forced to live since the discovery of oil at Oloibiri in 1956. The exploration and production of oil and their concomitant negative effects have continued to affect the people?s agricultural and fishing activities. Pollution and gas flaring have continued to wreak havoc on the people?s means of livelihood while the love for money as well as the desire to live above poverty line in the Niger Delta have forced many into all kinds of obnoxious practices such as illegal oil bunkering cum illegal oil refining, militancy, distruption of the activities of oil companies operating in the area; kidnapping of oil workers with demands for ransom and vandalization of petroleum facilities to cause spillage of which communities would demand compensation. This study examines the quest for resource control by people in the Niger Delta region, and the negative impact of this development on both Niger Delta people in particular and Nigerian state in general. Finally, the work concludes by suggesting the possible ways for peace to reign in the troubled region. The work adopts the descriptive and analytical method of historical discourse as the framework of analysis
3 Running Head: Context-Specific Recall of Self-Cognitions: Language as a Prime for Positive Relational Self-Statements, Gregg D. Bromgard , David Trafimow , Christopher D. Linn
Three types of self-cognitions are hypothesized: (a) private self-cognitions; (b) collective selfcognitions, and (c) relational self-cognitions. Trafimow, Triandis, and Goto (1997) showed that language affects the activation the private and collective self. However, they did not investigate how language affects their valences. There is reason to believe that language should have differential effects on the valences of private, collective, and relational self-cognitions. Because private and collective self-cognitions tend to be abstract, they are generally good or bad regardless of context. In contrast, relational self-cognitions are more specific and have valences that are more strongly linked to specific contexts. Consequently, their valences are more amenable to being influenced by a language manipulation. We found evidence of this in the present experiment
4 Adverse Possession in Context of Native Americans , Clifford Fisher,Thomas Fisher
This paper discusses the issue of Native American tribes claiming ownership of certain tracts of land, citing their historical ownership of those areas, even though individuals, businesses, and government have claimed ownership to the land. This paper will discuss the doctrine of adverse possession and will demonstrate that many lands occupied by individuals, businesses and government, actually belong to Native American tribes. The doctrine of adverse possession does not apply to the taking of government land, and since Native American tribes are sovereign governments, and thus, lands taken from Native Americans tribes, without treaties, or the sale by deed, are therefore lands still owned by the Native American tribes. After the Native Americans were pushed west of the Mississippi river by treaties with the United States, history suggests that the federal and state governments continued to appropriate their lands through warfare and coercion. As such, a situation has arisen in which arguably the lands that Native American tribes once owned by grants under treaties, may still belong to the tribes; and the residents and business entities on those lands cannot justify their claims of ownership under the law of adverse possession. There have been several lawsuits over the ownership of the areas claimed by Native American tribes resulting in considerable debate over the injustices done to the Native American tribes in past. Despite the efforts of the federal government to compensate for their wrong doings, there has been no clear consensus on what is to be done with the once Native American owned lands. Most of the governments measures to pay damages to the tribes have been in the form of monetary compensations in lieu of lands, or allowance of the Native American tribes to charge rental fees for usage of their land. Several businesses and states have contended that the laws awarding reparations to tribes are stringent and lopsided, thereby harming businesses and giving rise to issues such as maintenance of law and order and loss of tax revenues3.