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World Journal of Pharmaceutical and life sciences

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1 ESTABLISHING THE NOSOCOMIAL BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ISOLATED FROM ITEMS AND WORK SURFACES, AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS IN THE POST-OPERATIVE WARD AT AMRIYA GENERAL HOSPITAL/ ANBAR HEALTH , *Dr. Saadi Shakir Mahmood and Mustafa Sayel Mayyah
Nosocomial infection is a major problem in the health-care delivery system especially in developing countries due to the limited resources. The roles played by medical care equipment and work surfaces in the transmission of such organisms have inevitably contributed to the elevated mortality, morbidity and antibiotic resistances. This study aimed to establish the nosocomial bacterial contaminants often found on hospital fomites, cover items and work surfaces, and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns predisposing patients to infection in the post-operative ward at Amriya general hospital. A total (150) samples were collected during the study from Amriya general hospital. Swab samples were collected from various work surfaces and fomites which consisted of beds, sink taps, infusion stands, switches, work tables and scissors. Cultures were done and the susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results showed that 67 (44.7%) of the collected swab specimens represented the overall bacterial contamination of the sampled articles. Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for the highest bacterial contaminants constituting of 71.6% (48/67) and 11.9% (8/67) respectively. Patient beds were found to have the highest bacterial contamination levels constituting 20.9% (14/67). Vancomycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics with 100%, 73.7% and 73.7% sensitivity patterns among the isolates respectively. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 52.1% (25/48) with 8% (2/25) classified as a possible extensively drug resistant (XDR) whereas Gram negative isolates had 31.6% (6/19) MDR strains out of which 50% (3/6) were classified as possible pan-drug resistant (PDR). It can be concluded that the high prevalence of bacterial contaminants in the hospital work environment is an indicator of poor or ineffective decontamination. The study findings focused on the necessity to formulate drug usage policies and re-examine effectiveness of decontamination and sterilization practices within Amriya general hospital. We also recommend installation of a sound Microbiology unit at the hospital to perform susceptibility testing to check the empirical use of antibiotics as a way of reducing the rampant elevation in drug resistance.
2 ANALYSIS OF DRUGS CONTAINING ENZYMES IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN , Dr. (PhD) Tillaeva U. M.*, Professor Tillaeva G. U., Nazarkulov M., Gaibnazarova D. B., Rakhmanova Z. A.
The given work presents relevant aspects of the marketing research of drugs containing enzymes on the pharmaceutical market of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The results that they got indicate the possibility of further marketing research of the nomenclature of drugs for assessment of the prosperity of prodiction and introducing new domestic drugs containing enzymes.
3 ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS MISUSE, FACTORS TO THINK ABOUT IN THE IRAQI POPULATION , Dr. May Abdul Salam* and Dr. Rasha Saeed
Background: Combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is a commonly used method among Iraqi women. Inconsistency of using this method contributes to various factors. Side effects remain the main factor behind it. Methods & aim: A chart review and Health survey was done on a sample of (150) women who used OCP at least once in their lives. The survey was done at a primary care clinic in Baghdad, and was retrospectively analyzed to determine the factors that lead to OCP noncompliance. Aim of the study, to prove that OCP side effect is a factor of the OCP miss use. Results: OCP side effect is a risk factor for the miss use and discontinuation of this method. Mood changes, especially Anxiety and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) were more frequent among the other side effect. Conclusion: Side effects of OCP are the main risk factor behind the miss use of the medication.
4 KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND AWARENESS ON BRUXISM AND PROSTHODONTIC MANAGEMENT AMONG UNDERGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS , Dr. Prabhu*, P. R. Koteshwari and G. Manoj Kumar
Objective: To asses and evaluate the Knowledge attitude and awareness on Bruxism and its Prosthodontic Management among undergraduate dental Students. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study using a modified version of self-administered questionnaire was formulated and the questionnaire was pretested for validation The distribution was personally done through the web designed program among the final year undergraduates and residential interns. A total of 100 validated entries were collected. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2007 and analysed in SPSS V20. Associations between categorical variables were determined using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: Majority of students reported the correct answers. While statistically significant differences were noted between the knowledge of interns and final year students about questions related to General information about Bruxism and Effects of bruxism on prosthetic management and its treatment. Mean score of awareness among interns was higher than among final years (19.14±3.25 vs. 17.44±3.10) (p=0.003), thus it showed good awareness on bruxism and its management. Conclusion: It can be concluded that most of the student’s awareness was high. Interns had higher awareness than final year.
5 THE EFFECT OF AMINO ACIDS IN REDUCING TREMOR DURING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY FOR WOMEN AGED 20-50 Y/O AT IRAN , Asghar Karbord*, Hamid Kayalha, Mohammadqasem Roushanfekr, Taibeh Mahmoudi, Mohammadmasoud Mahmudi
Introduction: Post-anesthetic shivering is reduced by preventing the occurrence of hypothermia during anesthesia. It is so difficult to maintain normothermia during general anesthesia. Amino acids produce heat by stimulating energy consumption during general anesthesia. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of amino acids to prevent Shivering after anesthesia. Methods and materials: In this clinical trial, 80 female patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups each comprising 40 patients. After premedication, similar method of general anesthesia was performed to all patients. Patients in group A received amino acid 10% (2 ml/kg/h) immediately after anesthesia induction, and continued until the end of surgery (max 1gr/kg). Patients in control group received saline normal with similar manner. After awake extubation, all patients transferred to recovery room immediately. Oral temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were recorded during surgery. Post-anesthesia shivering was recorded by a nurse not aware from the research method. We used ANOVA, Chi-square and Tukey test to analyze the data. Results: Shivering rate in amino acid group, in minutes 10, 20 and 30 after anesthesia was less than control group (P value<0.05). Also, increasing systolic blood pressure and heart rate in amino acid group was less than control group in minutes 10, 20 and 30 after anesthesia (P value<0.05). Mean body temperature in minutes 20 and 30 after anesthesia was higher in amino acid group. Post-anesthetic shivering in amino acid group was less than control group (Pvalue˂0.05). Conclusion: Amino acid infusion 10% (2ml/kg/h), immediately after anesthesia induction until end of surgery (maximum 1gr/kg), is effective to reduce the frequency and severity of post-anesthetic shivering in women undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Also, it reduces increasing systolic blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature and shivering.
6 USING STEM CELLS TO TREAT DIABETES: CONCEPTS AND ETHICS. , Dr. Lamis Mohamed Nader*, Rahaf Alsadi, Hafiz Tahir and Dr. Muhammad Shahid Nazir
The current paper utilizes academic literature in order to better understand the viability of using stem cells to cure diabetes. Not only does the current author attempt to present an objective point-of-view of the subject matter, but also present the ethical questions that such research can bring about as well as the possible future outcomes of utilizing such a method for treating a disease with such a long history as diabetes. The current study was conducted using a qualitative methodology, with a focus on academic literature obtained from various scholarly sources. This was done in order to not only save time, but also provide a broader view of the subject matter at hand, whilst analyzing previous studies regarding it. In conclusion, it was found that the use of stem cells, especially ones obtained from no embryonic sources, to cure diabetes mellitus has a prominent place for future studies and use. While the method itself has not been perfected as of yet, future research regarding the treatment may yield tremendous results, which may change the light that healthcare is viewed in. The current author recommends that future research utilize a quantitative and thematic approach to research so as to analyze how certain populations are affected by this treatment method.
7 IN VITRO ASSESSMENT OF GARLIC EXTRACT AND PURIFIED ALLICIN AGAINST LIVER (HEPG2) AND COLORECTAL (HCT-116) CANCER CELL LINES , Amany Mohamed Khalil, Soheir Saad Abd El Salam*, Tamer M.M.Abuamara Mervat G. Hassan, Aly Fahmy Mohamed, Dr Maha Anwer and Hala Abd El Aziz
Cancer is one of the major public burden worldwide. It is a multicellular disease that can arise from all cell type. In the recent decades, the number of cancer related showed a clear elevation, in turn creating huge health and economic problems. Garlic has been used as folk medicine approach for over 4000 years, and was the most widely researched medicinal plant. The present study showed that garlic extract and Allicin can induce inflammatory responses, inducing apoptosis. Liver and colorectal cancer cell lines were tested for the anti-cancer activity of test materials regarding the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic gene, Bax and P53, also anti-apoptosis gene, Bcl-2 down regulation. Toxicity of garlic extract and Allicin to HCT-116 was cell type and concentration dependent and the IC50 value recorded was 4.16μg/ml for Allicin and 16.6μg/ml for garlic extract. While it was 48 μg and 2.49μg/ml for HEPG-2 using garlic and Allicin it was respectively. Regarding the anticancer potential it was noted that pro and anti-apoptotic genes showed a remarked up and down regulation respectively compared to the genetic profile of untreated cell control. On the genetic level anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic gen Bax and p53 were tested to prove the postulation that the garlic extract and Allicin can be used in dealing with cancer cells. In the meantime cellular DNA distribution showed cell arrest during the G2/ M phase of cell division.
8 ACUTE FATTY LIVER IN PREGNANCY , Soe Lwin*, Myat San Yi1, Haris Suharjono and Tin Moe Nwe
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and life threatening condition of the pregnancy. It affects during last trimester of pregnancy and occasionally occurs in postpartum period. It is presented with malaise, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain followed by jaundice. Laboratory tests usually derange liver and renal functions with coagulopathy. The incidence of AFLP is approximately 1 in 15,000 pregnancies. We reported the case of a 34-year- old patient, with multiple pregnancy at 35 weeks of gestation presented with dizziness, headache and dyspepsia aggravated by lying down and noted jaundice during operation. She had postpartum haemorrhage after the operation due to coagulopathy and her laboratory investigations findings favoured to diagnosis as AFLP and treated with supportive management at intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore obstetrician must be aware of one of this hepatic problem in pregnant women at late trimester.
9 EFFECT OF PH AND NUTRITIONAL FACTORS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH AND CAROTENOIDS PIGMENTS PRODUCTION BY LOCAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES VIA VARYING ONE PARAMETER AT-A-TIME APPROACH , *Nor Aqeela M. N., Hairul Shahril M., Dr. Ismatul Nurul Asyikin I., Dr. Maryam M. R., Dr. Salina M. R. and Dr. Hanina M. N.
The local bacterial isolates, LO1 and LY1 were cultured in different pH media (pH 6, 7 and 8) and supplemented with 1% (w/w) of different nutritional factors, includes carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch), nitrogen sources (urea, casein, gelatine) and of inorganic salts (calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate). It was found that the maximum orange pigment production was observed for LO1 local bacterial isolate cultivated in each modified LB media with pH 8, sucrose, gelatin and sodium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. Meanwhile, LY1 local bacterial isolate favoured to synthesis yellow pigment after being cultured separately in modified LB media with pH 8, glucose, casein and sodium dihydrogen phosphate.
10 ACCURACY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF ADNEXAL MASSES IN CORRELATION TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION AFTER SURGICAL INTERFERENCE , Dr. Hany M. Abd El-Aal*, Ehab H. Mohamed and Mohamed F. S. Saed
Pelvic mass lesions are commonly encountered in gynecological practice among women of all ages. The evaluation of adnexal masses includes a thorough history, clinical examination, imaging studies like ultrasonography, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging and tumor markers. Ultrasound examination is the standard diagnostic test for evaluation of a pelvic mass. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) along with colour doppler gives better results for assessing ovarian morphology and vascularity. Our study evaluated the capacity of ultrasound criteria in women having adnexal masses, before surgical intervention, correlated with histopathological examination. All patients in this study was subjected to complete history taking, general examination, abdominal examination, pelvic and bimanual examinations and pelvic ultrasound scanning. Patients underwent surgical intervention. All specimens were removed and sent for histopathological examination assay. Age of our studied patients ranged from 18 to 60 years with mean 40.05 years. The present study revealed significant difference between tumor types and both patients’ parity and menstrual history. Also, there is statistically significant difference between type of tumor among the studied patients and ultrasongraphic features. Solid consistency of adnexial mass predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 74.2%, specificity 90.6%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 88.7%, and accuracy 85.5%. Presence of papillary projection of adnexal mass predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 91.9%, specificity 56.5%, positive predictive value 48.7%, negative predictive value 94% and accuracy 67.5%. Positive findings on ultrasound predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 91%, specificity 97.8%, positive predictive value 95%, negative predictive value 96.4% and accuracy 96%. Conclusion: Transvaginal ultrasonography is the recommended imaging modality for suspected or incidentally identified pelvic mass.
11 OPTIMIZATION OF PH IN THE LABELING OF APIGENIN WITH TECHNETIUM-99M RADIONUCLIDE AS A POTENTIAL RADICAL SCAVENGING AGENT , Danni Ramdhani*, Maula Eka Sriyani, Marisa Dwi Ariani, Eva Maria Widyasari
Objective. The aim of this research is to determine the pH optimization in the Technetium-99m labeling process with apigenin as a natural flavonoid compound. The antioxidant activity of apigenin can be used to detect the presence of excess free radicals in the body. The compound formed is expected to be a radiotracer compound for cancer diagnosis. Methods. The parameter used for optimization is the pH value. Determination of the optimum pH value can be evaluated from the radiochemical purity value of the 99mTc-Apigenin compound formed. Results. The results of pH optimization on the synthesis of 99mTc-Apigenin compound obtained the optimum pH value is 6 with a radiochemical purity value of 61.35%±4.56%. Conclusion. The best pH value for 99mTc-Apigenin synthesis was 6, with the least amount of impurities 99mTcO4 and TcO2 of 33.77% ± 7.73% and 4.88% ± 3.21%.
12 THE INTERACTION OF MECILLINAM AND FOSFOMYCIN INTO MULTI DRUG RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM URINE PATIENTS , Faisal Mohammed Basher Al-Sarraj*, Ahmed Mahmoud Al-Hejin, Asif A. Jiman- Fatani
Urinary Tract Infection is one of the most common diseases that is very difficult to cure because of the presence of multi-Drug resistant pathogens. The cure is usually to prescribed antibiotics, however, there is a gap in terms of the type of antibiotic that was being prescribed, the amount of the dosage and the duration of the antibiotic treatment, which caused the development of multidrug resistant pathogens. The scope of this study is to look for an alternative method of curing the infection specifically caused by the Escherichia Coli bacteria. Two antimicrobials considered in this study namely, Fosfomycin and Mecillinam. There are six methods that were used in this study namely; Urothelial cell line culture, Bacterial Culture, Determination of Mecillinam and Fosfomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), association assay, invasion assay and survival assay. The sample that used to perform the experiments were taken from the urine of patients that has shown symptoms of urinary tract infection. From these methods, it was observed that there were two antimicrobials were effective in disrupting the E. Coli Bacteria and the MIC for the pathogen to be susceptible is very minimal.
13 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW CHALCONE COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM QUINOLINE. , Hiba H. Ibraheem* and Sarah Abdulhamza Hameed
Three chalcones (4'-amino-4-methoxy chalcone, 4'-amino-3,4-dimethoxy chalcone and 4'-amino-3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone) has been synthesized by reaction of ketone (compound (3)) with appropriate aromatic aldehydes ( 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde ,4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) in presence of Potassium hydroxide to obtain chalcone derivatives (4a-c). The new synthesized compounds have been characterized using Melting point, TLC, FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H-NMR.
14 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION, VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION STATUS OF WALDIBA NATURAL FOREST, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA , Kiros Abay* and Kahsu Gebretsion
A study was conducted in Waldiba natural forest, to investigate the floristic composition, vegetation structure and regeneration status, since there was lack of information in the forest. A total of 60 quadrats, measuring, 10 m x 10 m for trees and 5m*5m nested plots for saplings and seedlings at an interval of 300 m, were laid along three established transects at 500 m apart. Density, frequency, basal area, importance value index, Shannon diversity and evenness were computed. A total of 73 species, representing 32 families were recorded. Fabaceae was the do-minant family followed by Combretaceae and Euphorbiaceae. The density was 1906.6 individuals/ha, of which, 35.7% was contributed by only three species. Dichrostachys cinearea, Combretum fragrans and Combretum hereroense hereroense were the most frequent species. The total basal area of the species was 5.52 m2 ha-1, which is lower compared to many other forests in Ethiopia. Dichrostachys cinearea (38%), Combretum fragrans (29%) and Combretum hereroense (26%) were the species with higher importance value index. The Shannon diversity and evenness were 3.17 and 0.74 respectively, indicating high diversity. The density of seedlings was higher than saplings and mature trees and the DBH and height distribution showed an inverted J shape, indicating active regeneration, with lack of taller and bigger trees, which may be as a result of anthropogenic factors. Hence, immediate conservation action must be taken and a research on soil seed bank and carbon storage potential of the forest is recommended.
15 SANDHIGATA VATA CONCEPTS AND MANAGEMENT – A REVIEW ARTICLE , A. S. Sindhura* and Abdul Khader
In the Ayurvedic classics, the aeitiopathogenesis and symptomatology of Sandhigata vata is mentioned in consise form. In vriddhavasta, dhatu undergo kshaya, thus leading to vataprakopa and making individual prone to many diseases like sandhigata vata. Having the symptoms like pain, swelling, crepitus and restricted joint movements, sandhigata vata follows the pathogenesis of dhatukshaya, margavarana and kevala vataja. Classics have mentioned the treatment for Sandhigata vata in specific, i.e, snehana, upanaha, bandhana, agnikarma, unmardana. Considering Sandhigata vata as asthi-sandhigata vikara, Asthi majjagata vata and asthyashrita vyadhi chikitsa can be employed. Rasayana therapy may prove to be effective in managing the degenerative joint disorder like sandhigata vata because it slows down the process of destruction (ageing) in the body and helps in rejuvenation of dhatu.
16 MAGNETIC MICROSPHERE-A NOVEL APPROACH IN TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Dr. Radhika Parasuram Rajam*, Keerthana Giriraj, Monashilpa Palanivel and Poovitha Selvaraj
Recently a number of novel drug delivery systems have emerged with various routes of administration, minimize the drug degradation, to prevent side effects, desired drug concentration and to achieve controlled and targeted Drug delivery. Magnetic microspheres hold great promise in reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery. The magnetic properties of these particles add a new dimension upon application on an external magnetic field. Magnetic microspheres are supra molecular particles that are small enough to circulate through capillaries without producing embolic occlusion (<4micrometer). Magnetically targeted drug delivery by particulate carriers is an efficient method of delivering drugs to localized sites such as tumors. High concentration of chemotherapeutic or radiological agents can be achieved near the target site, without any toxic effects to normal surrounding tissues. These are various methods used to prepare magnetic microspheres along with different evaluation parameters. The review entails the current application of magnetic microspheres, as well as future prospects and problems to be overcome for the efficient and beneficial use of the magnetic microspheres.
17 MICROENCAPSULATION AND RECENT TRENDS IN DRUG DELIVERY: AN OVERVIEW , Anu A. L.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Juno S., Subodh S. Satheesh, Aneesh Kumar A. L. and Pooja Nair K. R.
Novel drug delivery systems have several advantages over conventional multi dose therapy. Much research effort in developing novel drug delivery system has been focused on controlled release and sustained release dosage forms. Now considerable efforts are being made to deliver the drug in such a manner so as to get optimum benefits. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to the target site in a sustained controlled release fashion. One such approach is using microspheres as carriers for drugs. Microencapsulation is a process where by small discrete solid particles or small liquid droplets are surrounded and enclosed by an intact shell. Microencapsulation is used to modify and delayed drug release form pharmaceutical dosage forms. A well designed controlled drug delivery system can overcome some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a particular drug. It is the reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified, and to maintain the desired concentration at the site of interest without untoward effects. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumor. The intent of the paper is to highlight the potential of microencapsulation technique as a vital technique in novel drug delivery.
18 FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY: AN OVERVIEW , Juno S.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Anu A. L., Subodh S. Satheesh and Pooja Nair K. R.
Oral controlled release delivery systems are programmed to deliver the drug in predictable time frame that will increase the efficacy and minimize the adverse effects and increase the bioavailability of drugs. It is most widely utilized route of administration among all the routes that have been explored for systemic delivery of drugs via pharmaceutical products of different dosage form. Recent technological and scientific research has been devoted to the development of rate controlled drug delivery systems to overcome physiological adversities such as short gastric residence times and unpredictable gastric emptying times. Differences in gastric physiology such as gastric pH and motility exhibit both intra and inter subject variability demonstrating significant impact on gastric residence time and drug delivery behavior. This triggered an increased interest towards formulation of novel delivery systems which retained in the stomach for prolonged and predictable period of time. Several approaches such as floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), swelling and expanding systems, bioadhesive systems, modified shape systems, high density systems or other delayed gastric emptying devices have been discovered till now. FDDS are of particular interest for drugs that are locally active and have narrow absorption window in stomach or upper small intestine, unstable in the intestinal or colonic environment, and exhibit low solubility at high pH values. This review article is in pursuit of giving detailed information on the pharmaceutical basis of their design, classification, advantages, in vitro and in vivo evaluation parameters, and the future potential of FDDS.
19 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF AMRUTADHYA GUGGULU IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA (MEDODUSHTI) , Dr. Palvi Dubey and Dr. Twinkle Gupta*
Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, fatty liver, obesity and others. Life style alternations leading to increased calories intake and reduction in physical activities leads to higher incidence in medovaha strotodushti, (micro channel disturbances). Signs and symptoms of medodushti explained in ayurvedic texts shows striking resemblance with dislipidemia to access the efficacy of Amrutadhya Guggulu, present study was carried out on 30 clinically diagnosed and investigated individuals of dislipidemia. Patients were administered Amrutadhya Guggulu in dose of 3gm/day with luke warm water in three divided doses. In this context ayurveda provides cost effective therapy for dislipidemia without any side effects. The study have shown significant results in important objective as well as subjective parameters.
20 ROLE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANISATION IN HEALTH CARE , Dr. Swaminathan S.*, Elanthendral R. and Mohana Pillai
This review article provides a condensed research finding during the last two decades on the role of R&D in health care organizations. It is important that organizations work out strategies relevant for marketing to enhance their own R&D activities. Implementation of R&D systems is directly related with productivity, if it reflects dual embodiment of efficiency. The bodies of literature have been almost unanimous of the needs of QA for R&D. Despite the needs, QA in R&D have been rarely discussed due to the difficulties of defining, measuring, and managing R&D quality. QI forms an important part of their competitive strategy. QMS have been successfully designed and implemented for manufacturing and service functions. Embedding dedicated research positions within healthcare settings is a potential strategy to build allied health research capacity. Stronger research culture appears to be associated with benefits to patients, staff and the organization. Research investment in the health workforce could increase research productivity of the health workforce. In addition, investment in clinical research could lead to positive health outcomes. It is important to provide support for initiatives directed at the health workforce to increase a research culture in health services. Explorations are required for research networks and schemes to promote the engagement of clinicians and managers in research. Detailed observational research focusing on research engagement within organizations would build up an understanding of mechanisms. It is well recognized that research can play an integral role in the delivery of safe, effective, efficient, patient-centered, accessible and timely health care. Research in allied health can assist in minimizing overuse, underuse and misuse of precious health care services. The gap between implementers and researchers of QI had hampered the degree and speed of change needed to reduce avoidable suffering and harm in health care. The implementation of quality elements in research and development is a hot issue. There are still problems and misunderstandings on how to apply QA in research and development.
21 CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES- A REVIEW , Rupali Jaiswal*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Navneet Kumar Verma, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav
Medicinal plants were the potent source of various novel pharmaceutical products that shows ect causing potent pharmacological effect on the human beings. Instead of using the side effects causing chemical drugs, the ancient medicine could be explored to identify the novel drug formulations that are more effective with lesser side effects and also cheaper cost. Though, many of the traditional drugs were used without understanding the basic mechanism, their effect could be proved further with the help of the present technology and tools. The active compound that is responsible for the pharmacological effect could be found very easily and also commercialized as a drug product itself with proper approval from the respective organizations. Catharanthus roseus is one of the 21000 important medicinal plants found. It is used for the cure of a number of diseases such as diabetes, sore mouth, mouth ulcers, and leukemia. It produces about 130 alkaloids such as reserpine, vinceine, raubasin and ajmalcine. Anti-leukemic activity is shown by vinblastine and vincristine. Different parts of this plant produce different amounts of alkaloids, out of which root bark produces the maximum i.e. nearly 1.79%. There are a number of reports supporting its anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus albusi, Bacillus megatarium, Shigella, Pseudomonas, etc. Its anti-oxidant and anti-mutagenic effects have also been reported. Further studies need to be done to explore its anti-tumour effects.
22 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF PHALATRIKADI KWATHA IN THE MANAGEMENTOF MADHUMEHA W.S.R. TO DIABETES MELLITUS , Dr. Monika Gupta*
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally. It emerged as a public health problem in India. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder due to either insulin deficiency or due to peripheral tissue resistance to the action of insulin. In Ayurveda, this condition can be explained as Madhumeha. It is one of the types of Prameha where the patient passes honey like sweet urine (Raised level of sugar in urine & Hyperglycaemia). The main causative factor is said to be sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of sweet, non-vegetarian, dairy product, jaggery (cane sugar preparations) and heavy & excess meals. In the present study we planned to get effective and safe treatment for “Madhumeha” with the help of clinical principles of Ayurveda. In the present study, 30 patients having Madhumeha were selected from O.P.D. & I.P.D. of Jammu Institute of Ayurveda & Research College and Hospital, Jammu. These patients were subjected to the following therapeutic Yoga namely Phalatrikadi Kwatha. Then assessment of therapy on signs and symptoms was done by adopting suitable scoring methods and repeating laboratory investigations and critically analyzed. The results thus obtained finally were subjected for statistical analysis for the therapy. The end results thus obtained were interpreted and graded as complete remission, marked improvement, moderate improvement and mild improvement and presented in details.
23 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF KRISHNADI CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TAMAKA SHWASA , Dr. Monika Gupta*
Tamaka shwasa vis-a-vis Bronchial Asthma is one of the most distressing disease and is quite common in all the socio-economic strata in all the age groups and almost all over the world. The ancient sages knew the entity of this disease from very beginning and treatment for the same has been explained in detail in scriptures of Ayurveda. With the background of the same, in this Prospective Clinical study in 30 patients suffering with Tamaka shwasa was administered with Krishnadi Churna for the duration of 60 days at the dose of 3 gms in divided doses with Ushna Jala as Anupana. Results were assessed by using paired t-test for subjective and objective parameters. Study revealed that there was complete remission of Teevra vega Shwasa and Ghurgurukatwam which is pratyatma niyata lakshana (cardinal clinical feature) of Tamaka shwasa. Statistically all subjective and objective parameters had showed highly significance results.
24 DENTAL ANXIETY AMONG PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AND THEIR PARENTS , Dr. A. Vinita Mary*, Dr. R. Kesavan, Dr. Priya G., Dr. Priyanka P. and Dr. Ramya R.
Background: Anxiety is an emotion used to describe fear over something. While undergoing a dental treatment anxiety is usually experienced by most of the patients towards pain. Materials and Methods: A Questionnaire based study was conducted to evaluate dental anxiety among patients anticipating various dental treatments. Two hundred paediatric patients who were scheduled for dental treatment along with their parents participated in the study. Patients were anticipating one of the following dental procedures: scaling, filling, root canal therapy, extraction. Patients were selected randomly from the out patients of Pedodontics Department. The questionnaire contained 28 questions which were divided to four sections, and the questionnaire was completed by the patients and their parents while waiting for their treatment. The data collection was done by convenience sampling. The statistical calculations were done based on the faces index using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software version 21.0. Result: A total of 200 pediatric patients and their parents participated in the study. The results of the study revealed multiple manifestations and impacts of dental anxiety, including immediate physical reactions, psychological responses and uncooperativeness in dental treatment. Scores were highest for “restoration” being 88 (44.0%), “extraction” being 81 (40.5%) followed by “conscious sedation” being 79 (39.5%) and “injections” being 70 (35.0%). Testimonials from children, and their parents suggested diverse origins of dental anxiety, namely personal experience (e.g., irregular dental visits and influence of parents), dental settings (e.g., dental chair and sounds), and dental procedures (e.g., injections, pain, discomfort). Conclusion: The results of the study suggested that dental anxiety in children has multifaceted manifestations, impacts, and origins. Also, anxiety was closely associated with a symptomatic, irregular attendance pattern, a history of extraction and having a dentally anxious parent. Dental anxiety could be better prevented and intercepted through coordinated efforts of dentists, dental auxiliaries, pediatric patients, and their parents.
25 CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF AMALAKI RASAYAN AND MUKTA PISHTI IN PITTA SHAMAN , Dr. Neha Pagyal* and Dr. Twinkle Gupta
Amlapitta is a disease prevalant all over the world. The increasing prevalence rate is a constant challenge to the research workers. The disease Amlapitta is a common functional disease of Annavaha strotas. Materialistic life style provokes people to run behind a busy, stressful life with least concern towards proper food habit. The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of Amalaki Rasayan and Mukta pishti in Amlapitta. In present study, total 30 patients were taken, divided in 3 equal groups. In group A:- 10 patients were treated with oral administration of Amalaki Rasayan, in group B:- 10 patients were treated with oral administration of Mukta pishti and in group C:- 10 patients were treated with oral administration of both Amalaki Rasayan and Mukta pishti. The dose of Amalaki Rasayan is 2gm BD with Madhu and dose of Mukta pishti is 125mg BD with water. After conducting clinical trial on 30 patients, observation and results were obtained, which shows the more efficacy of Amalaki Rasayan and Mukta pishti when used both by the patient.
26 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF MOTHERS REGARDING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT VANIVILAS HOSPITAL, BANGALORE, WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOP AN INFORMATION GUIDE SHEET”. , *Sarojamma and Raddi S. A.
“The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.” -Aristotle An important index used to estimate the Nation’s health is the health status of children in the country. Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizens and leaders. The resources spent on the care of upkeep and health of young is investment for the future.
27 SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN AND GLIMIPRIDE IN PURE AND TABLET FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD , Prapulla Putta*
A rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the validated of Metformin and Glimepride, in its pure form as well as in tablet dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on a Hypersil C18 (4.6 x 150 mm, 5μm) column using a mixture of Acetonitrile: TEA Buffer pH 4.2 (75:25) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, the detection was carried out at 259 nm. The retention time of the Metformin and Glimepride was 2.344, 3.282 ±0.02 min respectively. The method produce linear responses in the concentration range of 100-500mg/ml of Metformin and 0.4-2 mg/ml of Glimepride. The method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0% RSD. The method is useful in the quality control of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
28 TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF SINGLE DRUG THERAPY OVER POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME. , Dr. Anu Koul*, Dr. Tanuja Manoj Nesari, Dr. Kiran Jadhav
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 20-25% of women of reproductive age and up to 30% in some high-risk groups. PCOS leads to irregularity in the menstrual cycle and the appearance of superfluous male hormones (androgens/testosterones). Menstrual cycles might be regular prior but subsequently turn out irregular, or the incipience of menses may be delayed. Women may experience infertility by meagreness of ovulation in the menstruation cycle resulting out for difficulty in conceiving. Ayurvedic single drug therapy has been emerging in addition to established medical and surgical medication for PCOS. PCOS is a disorder involving Pitta, Kapha, Medas, Ambhuvahasrotas & Artava Dhatu The causes of PCOS as per Ayurveda can be taken as eating excessive sweet and kaphagenic foods, mandagni because of this is kapha getting aggravated in PCOS, we find kapha disorder. In present case study, we have studied safety and effectiveness of exclusive single drug therapy with use of reserve wellness wrapping technique in PCOS patients. Study eventuate reveal that majority of hormonal level significantly changed post-medication compared to pre-medication. Study results shown that there was statistically significant improvement in Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Prolactin, AMH, Fasting Insulin, SGPT, post medication from the preoperative values (P<0.05). LH/FSH Ratio at pre-medicationwas2.82:1, which was reduced to 1.01:1 at post medication (p<0.001). No adverse event was reported during conduct of present study.
29 EFFICACY OF GUDUCHI AND MADHU IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES , *Dr. Sangamesh Swami Hiremath and Dr. Guheshwar B. Patil
Besides the miraculous achievement of modern medical science, humanity is passing through a repulsion of disease and drug phobia, among the several healths Problems, Diabetes mellitus is a colossal disease considered as one of the arch enemy of the mankind. Diabetes and its complications pose a major threat to future public Health resources throughout the world. In Ayurveda, Madhumeha is nearest clinical entity for Diabetes Mellitus. We find reference about Guduchi with Madhu for treatment of all types of Prameha.2 So the study was carried out. Diagnoses were made according to Signs and symptoms of Madhumeha as mentioned in classical texts. The patients with symptoms were subjected for further analyses of blood and urine sugar. It was a clinical study with single group. Each patient was given dose of 12grams in each with Madhu as anupana. Overall results marked response was observed 10% cases, while moderate response in 50% cases, mild response was seen in 40% of cases. Guduchi as a single drug with anupan can effectively help in control of Madhumeha diabetes,
30 ACCURACY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN DIAGNOSIS OF ADNEXAL MASSES IN CORRELATION TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION AFTER SURGICAL INTERFERENCE , Dr. Hany M. Abd El-Aal*, Ehab H. Mohamed and Mohamed F. S. Saed
Pelvic mass lesions are commonly encountered in gynecological practice among women of all ages. The evaluation of adnexal masses includes a thorough history, clinical examination, imaging studies like ultrasonography, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging and tumor markers. Ultrasound examination is the standard diagnostic test for evaluation of a pelvic mass. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) along with colour doppler gives better results for assessing ovarian morphology and vascularity. Our study evaluated the capacity of ultrasound criteria in women having adnexal masses, before surgical intervention, correlated with histopathological examination. All patients in this study was subjected to complete history taking, general examination, abdominal examination, pelvic and bimanual examinations and pelvic ultrasound scanning. Patients underwent surgical intervention. All specimens were removed and sent for histopathological examination assay. Age of our studied patients ranged from 18 to 60 years with mean 40.05 years. The present study revealed significant difference between tumor types and both patients’ parity and menstrual history. Also, there is statistically significant difference between type of tumor among the studied patients and ultrasongraphic features. Solid consistency of adnexial mass predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 74.2%, specificity 90.6%, positive predictive value 78%, negative predictive value 88.7%, and accuracy 85.5%. Presence of papillary projection of adnexal mass predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 91.9%, specificity 56.5%, positive predictive value 48.7%, negative predictive value 94% and accuracy 67.5%. Positive findings on ultrasound predict its malignant nature with sensitivity 91%, specificity 97.8%, positive predictive value 95%, negative predictive value 96.4% and accuracy 96%. Conclusion: Transvaginal ultrasonography is the recommended imaging modality for suspected or incidentally identified pelvic mass.
31 PREVENTIVE ASPECT OF SKIN INFECTIONS , *Dr. Krishna Namdeo Kadam and Dr. Viraj Vilas Jadhav
You can prevent many skin problems by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, practicing daily skin care, protecting your skin from the sun, and checking your skin for signs of cancer or other problems. Wear sunscreen when you are outdoors. Do regular skin self-exams, and if you see a nything that's suspicious, ask your dermatologist to check it out. You also may want to use a moisturizer that contains antioxidants to help protect your skin. A nutritious diet and regular exercise also play key roles in keeping your skin healthy.
32 QUALITY BY DESIGN: ITS APPLICATIONS , *T. Anusha, Shyamala and J. V. C. Sharma
Quality design (QBD) is a modern and systematic approach for product development and quality of pharmaceuticals. Quality by design is a concept first outlined by well known quality expert Joseph M. Juran. QBD is best key to build a quality in all pharmaceutical products, it is important to identify desire product performance report.QBD has it perspective to contribute the drug design, development, and manufacture of high quality drug product. Now-a –days the concept of Qbd can be extended to analytical techniques. In this analytical concept it is essential to define desire product performance profile, analytical target profile [ATP], identify critical quality attributes throughout designing and development process. The review aimed to identify implementation of QBD in analytical procedure validation. The outcomes of organized analytical process development and validation understand of critical quality attributes, risk assessment and outlining design space, and control strategy. The Quality by design is based on the ICH guidelines Q8 for pharmaceutical for development, Q9 Quality risk management, Q10 for pharmaceutical quality systems.
33 A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN A DIABETIC PATIENT AFTER USING VARAM - REFLEXO STUMP FOOTWEAR AS A NATURAL THERAPY- A CLINICAL STUDY. , *Dr. M. Vijay Anand MDS, Dr. Sai Charan K. V BDS, Dr. Sameeruddin Ahamed G. BDS, Dr. Naveen Raj BDS
Diabetes is a metabolic endocrinal disorder with long term complications and also causes problems in circulation of blood, ulcer formation in foot etc., insulin is the important hormone that is concerned with regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and blood sugar level. It is also concerned with metabolism of proteins and fats. there are many methods known to improve insulin secretion and to prevent diabetics. One among them which is gaining popularity now a days is reflexology.[2,8] Foot reflexology has been proven to be effective against diabetes in recent days. Diabetes is caused by variation in insulin production and blood glucose levels.[3,4] This study aims to determine whether the diabetic individual achieve a reduction in blood glucose level in one hour interval time after using VARAM Reflexo-Stump Footwear.
34 A SINGLE CASE STUDY ON THE MANAGEMENT OF AMLAPITTA WITH MOKSHAYAN , Dr. Jivesh Kumar Mehta* and Dr. Shaheen F. Pinjari
Now a days amlapitta is commonly found as a disease & also as a symptom of various diseases. There are various causative factors like mental stress, late night work, day sleep, improper food habits, oily-spicy food habits, excessive use of pesticides etc. In contemporary science use of PPI & h2 blockers gives a temporaray management to the disease. This disease has been described in various classical texts like yog ratnakar, kashyap Samhita & bhaishajya ratnavalai. So the need for management of amlapitta led to the trial of Mokshayan.
35 ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF BOSWELLIA SERRATA ROXB. EX. COLEBR.EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENS. , Dr. Aarti R. Deshpande*
In the context of the growing problem of multidrug resistant strains of microorganisms, discovery and introduction of novel alternative antimicrobial compounds is a major challenge. Medicinal plants that have been traditionally used for the treatment of diseases with microbial etiology, could offer potent antimicrobial drugs. Considering the medicinal importance of Boswellia serrata an attempt was made in present study to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of this plant against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The sequential extracts of leaves and bark of this plant were separately prepared in petroleum ether, acetone, 90% methanol and water. Antibacterial activity of these extracts were tested against standard cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium using well plate method. Significant antimicrobial activity was exhibited by acetone and methanol extracts. The relative minimum inhibitory concentrations of these extracts were determined for four bacteria and were found to be in the range of 3.12 mg/ml to 12.5 mg/ml for different bacteria. Antifungal activities of the organic extracts were tested against Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformas. Appreciable antifungal activity was recorded for B. serrata leaves extract.
36 SYNTHESIS OF SOME COUMARIN-ETHYLIDENEAMINO-2-THIOXOIMIDAZOLIN-4-ONE DERIVATIVES , Ali Mahdi* and Yasameen K. Al-Majedy
The synthesis of some coumarin derivatives was aimed at creating a new molecular frame work. Seven of coumarin derivatives have been synthesized by reacting of 3-acetyl-2H-chromen-2-one with thiosemicarbazide followed by cyclization with ethyl chloroacetate then reacted with acetic anhydride, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde and diethylamine to yield other compounds All these compounds were characterized by physical and spectral data.
37 MICROCYSTIN BIOACCUMULATION IN CULTURES IRRIGATED WITH EUTROPHIZED WATERS IN BRAZILIAN SEMIARID , Janiele França Nery*, Gleydson Kleyton Moura Nery and Salomão De Sousa Medeiros
The present investigation was aimed to investigate the bioaccumulation of microcystin and cylindrospermopsin in Capsicum annuum (bell pepper) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) irrigated with waters from a eutrophic reservoir and persistent cyanobacterial blooms. Samples of bell pepper and coriander were collected in ten areas distributed along Epitacio Pessoa reservoir. To bell pepper, samples (leaves and fruits) were collected in plants in three developmental stages (sprout, green fruit and ripe fruit). To coriander plants, leaves and stems are collected in different time of development, 30 days old and 60 days old. Cyanotoxins were determined by immunoassay ELISA kits. Phytoplankton samples were beneath the water surface next the irrigated areas. Cyanobacteria is dominant in phytoplankton community. Microcystin and cylindrospermopsin were detected in water reservoir. Only microcystin were detected in plants. For bell pepper, the highest concentrations of microcystin occurred in the leaves, however, no differences were observed between leaves, fruits and maturation time. Significant differences were observed between time of development to microcystin concentrations in leaves and steam of coriander. Microcystin can uptake by bell pepper and coriander cultures irrigated with contaminated water and the bioaccumulation varied as a function of exposure time and species dependent. This is a potential risk to consumers, since microcystin can biomagnified in the trophic chain.
38 A GUIDE THROUGH THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF RESEARCH IN THE SCIENCES , *Ousman Bajinka, Pa Modou Drammeh and Lucette Simbilyabo
Research, predominantly in the field of sciences, is an essential part of the disciple. Needless to say, students should have tolerable mastery in research methods and skills needed to excel in courses required for the concentration. Accurate academic research requires a good deal in terms of rigor, reflection, and justification. Have you ever mused over this question: what does it take for a piece of writing to count as an academic knowledge; what assumptions can you afford to make? Students are habitually challenged with the task of how to write a good academic paper. Understanding a broad range of methods and methodological traditions is undoubtedly a prerequisite for research. This review aims to expedite the development of a broad understanding of research. Both students and researchers will be introduced to the techniques, processes, research design and choices, research ethics, literature review, methodologies, utility and limits of case study research among others. Scholars will also be introduced to the divergence that exists between various research paradigms and methodological traditions. It is expected that students will broaden their understanding on research methods and practices. Students will surely be guided through the wholeness of research. This work covers both qualitative and quantitative methods in science and offers an assessment of the main methodological debates within the discipline. It further provides the necessary tools for effectively designing and researching rigorous research and policy papers. Concurrently, some imperative commonalities exist in the ways and manners in which scholars rationalize evidence to make a robust and intelligible argument.
39 EVALUATION FOR THE FIRST TIME OF THE ACUTE DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF RUTA CHALEPENSIS L AQUEOUS EXTRACT AERIAL PART FROM MOROCCO IN WISTAR RATS , Bellahmar Meryem*, Ouahbi Abdelilah, Benaddi Fatimazahra and Boutahricht Mohammed
Medicinal plants have proven their important activity among time history in different diseases treatment and helping the production of novel drugs. Ruta chalepensis L. (family: Rutaceae), commonly named Awermi and Fijel in Morocco. It is used, in the traditional medicine for the treatment of various disorders, as analgesic and antipyretic and for the treatment of rheumatism and mental disorders. Also it has emmenagogue, abortificient, antihelmintic and spasmolytic effects as well as its potency as anti-inflammatory, antihelminthic, antifungal, antifertility, anticonvulsant and sedative. In children, infused Ruta chalepensis L leave extract has been used for treatment of convulsion and other nervous disorders. In Africa, the aqueous decoction of the leaves is used for the treatment of fever. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute diuretic potential and effect on urinary electrolytes of the aqueous extract aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L at a dose of 3.5g/kg, 4.5g/kg and 10g/kg in normal wistar male and female rats. The aqueous extract was administered intraperitoneally and the diuresis was followed in the first hour, second hour, fourth hour and 24 h. The administration of the aqueous Ruta chalepensis L extract produced a significant increment on diuresis from the first hour to the 24 hour. Furosemide at a dose of 20 mg/kg, adminestred intraperitoneally had a similar effect when compared to Ruta Chalepensis L administration suggesting a similar mechanism of action. The mechanism of action of furosemide is by inducing a loss of water through the inhibition of NaCl reabsorption. The results suggest that this receptor-mediated mechanism may account for the diuretic effect of Ruta chalepensis L as well. We concluded that aqueous extract aerial parts of Ruta Chalepensis L administered, particularly, at the dose of 10 g/kg induce significant effect on urinary output of water and electrolytes in normal wistar rats.
40 IN VITRO SELECTION Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Bl. PLANTLETS RESULT OF INDUCED RESISTANCE WITH FUSARIC ACID , Endang Nurcahyani*, Sumardi, Hardoko Insan Qudus, Sri Wahyuningsih, Sholekhah and Asma Palupi
Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Bl. is an original orchid from Indonesia and one of Indonesia's national flowers, known as "Puspa Pesona", is included in the list of endangered species. P. amabilis is also one of the most popular orchid plants for various groups of people because of the beauty of the shape and color of flowers, but the production of P. amabilis in Indonesia is still far behind compared to other countries such as Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore and Australia. Fusarium wilt is caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) which until now has not been able to be overcome effectively. The use of P. amabilis plantlets that are resistant to Fusarium wilt is expected to be an important alternative for disease control. The purpose of this reserach was to study and determine the concentration of Fusaric Acid (FA) in the selection of P. amabilis plantlets that were tolerant of Fusarium wilt. This study used P. amabilis plantlets with 5 levels of FA concentration, namely 0 ppm, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, and 40 ppm. The results showed that the concentration of FA tolerant for optimum growth was 40 ppm. The results of in vitro selection with subcultured FA on multiplication medium resulted in a number of live P. amabilis plantlets is 100% (10 -30 ppm), which were insensitive to FA, whereas at 40 ppm a number of live P. amabilis plantlets is 60%.
41 THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ARISTOLOCHIA LONGA L, « MOROCCO » PREPARED BY THE TRADITIONAL METHOD , Fatima Zahra Benaddi*, Abdelilah Ouahbi, Meryem Bellahmar and Said Chakir
Medicinal plants are one of the main resources of therapeutic agents. Among Moroccan medicinal plants, Aristolochia longa, it is a species commonly used in Moroccan traditional medicine. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of aristolochia longa in albinos mice. Acute toxicity test was performed to determine lethal 50, lethal dose 100 and minimum lethal dose. The administration of the aqueous extract induced the appearance of several symptoms of toxicity like Weakness, convulsion, diarrhé, hypoactivity. Our results show that the highest dose killing all animals or lethal dose 100 is 12 g / kg, maximum tolerated dose is 5 g / kg and the lethal dose 50 is 7.6 ±1.33 g/kg. Our study suggest non toxicity of the aristolochia longa aqueous extact.
42 DETERMINATION OF METALS FROM DRINKING WATER OF DALBANDIN, DISTRICT CHAGHI BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN , Abeera Kanwal, Nizam Baloch*, Mohammad Faheem, Mukhtar Ahmed Baloch, Tamoor Khan, Murad Bibi, Ali irshad, Afifa -Ul-Huda, Mehreen Raza and Muhammad Kamran Khan
Water is very vital factor for all biological processes taking place in our environment. Without water life is unpredictable. Water is a universal solvent. Balochistan is the biggest territory of Pakistan. Following study was completed to decide the convergence of metals in surface and ground water of Chaghi (Dalbandin) district of Balochistan. Seven (7) water samples were collected for this purpose. Physicochemical parameters (PH, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, and salinity) were examined. Assurance of metals for example Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb) and Antimony (Sb) were completed utilizing Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer. From the following study it was analyzed that all water samples has pH, TDS, and Salinity values within the range of World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental protection agency (EPA) range that is from 6.5 to 8.5, <1000mg/L, 500 mg/L respectively. The electrical conductivity of all water samples is higher than the WHO and EPA limits that is1000 μS/cm. It was also analyzed that water samples of K K Rahim bore, Sagesha, Sia jungle contain Fe in a range (0.2277, 0.2687, 0.2687) that is less than the WHO and EPA limit. The water sample collected from Laghap, Bypass Marble Factory, School bore Bypass, Bypass contain Fe higher than the recommended value of WHO and EPA limit that is 0.3. Concentrations of Pb, Sb and Co were higher than the standards set by WHO and EPA. All water samples contain Mn in a range of WHO and EPA limit that is 0.5 and <0.5.
43 DETERMINATION OF METALS IN GROUND WATER FROM DIFFERENT AREAS OF DISTRICT MASTUNG, BALOCHISTAN , Afifa -Ul-Huda, Nizam Baloch*, Mohammad Faheem, Mukhtar Baloch, Tamoor Khan, Murad Bibi, Mehreen Raza, Ali irshad, Abeera Kanwal and Muhammad Kamran Khan
This study was conducted to detect metals especially heavy metals like Cobalt, Antimony, Lead, Iron and Manganese in water samples obtained from ground water in district Mastung, Balochistan Pakistan, between 66°11'34"- 67°25'59" East Longitudes and 29°20'13"- 30°15'8" North Latitudes. Analysis of 07 water sample was done through Atomic absorption spectroscopy to look at different physicochemical parameters, for example EC, TDS, pH, and saltiness the values of TDS and saltiness were within the range of EPA and WHO limits pH of Spezant (metha) Mastung was more than EPA and WHO limits while the conductivity of Spezant (metha) Mastung and Spezant (karva) Mastung was higher than WHO limits. The study shows that the values of Co, Fe, Sb and Pb were higher than WHO and EPA limits while the values of Mn were within the range of WHO and EPA limits.
44 DETERMINATION OF METALS IN THE WATER OF TOBA KAKARI DISTRICT PISHIN , Muhammad Ghalib, Nizam Baloch*, Mohammad Faheem, Afifa -Ul-Huda, Mukhtar Baloch, Tamoor Khan, Murad Bibi, Mehreen Raza, Ali irshad, Abeera Kanwal, Muhammad Kamran Khan
Toba kakari is mountainous region consist of large and small number of residential and cultivated locations. It is situated in district Pishin of Baluchistan Province. The sources of water in this region is karez and bore holes, therefore, the water of the said region was analyzed to determine the existence of metals. Thus, the parameters like, pH scale, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were analyzed. Atomic absorption spectrometer was used for detection of metals in water. The sample was collected from seven different part of region for assessment of pH, TDS, EC, which were found in normal range, except pH of Goalie, Khalilah, and Killa haji khan which had higher values, while the concentration of metals were found greater than the range suggested by international agencies, but within tolerable limits.
45 UBIQUITY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BOGORO – BAUCHI STATE , Ogundeko T.O*, Bassi A.P, Bakam C.K, Ramyil M.S.C, Toma B, Ogbole E.A, Nadabo C, Omezi O.S.I, Aje D.Y, Geoffrey P.A
Aim: The present study aimed to determine the prevailing factors associated with substance abuse among the adolescent population in Bogoro. Background: Pseudo-history is a dangerous lightly - taken tool to sustaining intergenerational communal clashes. Adolescence comes with search for self increased pressures and decision making. Methods: 480 pupils across all classes and within the age range 11- 19 years from 4 Day Secondary Schools in Bogoro town in Bogoro LGA, Nigeria were sampled. These were administered with structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical analysis was used. Results: 115 (34.23%) still engage in substance abuse while 221(65.77) claimed to have stopped. 70% (336) of the sampled population have tasted abused substance before. The most abused substance amongst the secondary school pupils in Bogoro Burukutu 36% (120), Gin/ Spirit 22% (74) and Kolanut 20% (69) respectively. Age distribution of adolescents in terms of when engage in substance abuse was first tasted was highest in age 11-15 (40%) for followed by 16 and above (27%). Various campaign measures on substance abuse gave insight to the source of awareness. Radio (29%), Religious institutions (28%), Television and school programs each constituted 14% and least through friends (5%) after family (10%). Social and psychological influences linked with perceived feeling after taking substance of abuse - High, strong, bold, and happy were 44%, 18%, 34% respectively. Conclusions: The most abused substance amongst the adolescents of Bogoro is Burukutu. A multifaceted intergenerational communal clashes (Ethnoreligious, socio-political, poverty, government neglect), kind of major crop (Guinea corn) and pseudo perception of effect(s) derived from taking substance of abuse. Campaigns against same via school programmes, religious institutions, the media, and the family were tools found to bring about decline to the scourge in Bogoro. Modification of the various campaign strategies and correct historical account regarding land ownership is recommended.
46 EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE IN PATIENTS ON CHRONIC HAEMODIALYSIS WITH ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION , Muhammad Shahbaz Ali*, Safdar Shah, Zeshan Ali, Muhammad Ayub, Wajid Ali, Imran Ansari
Introduction: Medical Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection for a satisfactory sexual performance. Objective: The objective of this study was to find the efficacy and frequency of side effects of sildenafil citrate in patients on chronic hemodialysis with erectile dysfunction (E.D). Methods: This study was involved 165 patients of renal failure on hemodialysis for at least six months presenting with erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) tablet were converted into powder form and filled it in capsules. All patients received a sealed box containing the capsules. one capsule containing sildenafil citrate (50 mg) was given to all patients twice a week and advised them to take these capsules one hour before the intercourse and continue this treatment for two weeks. Results: Erectile dysfunction improved in 145 (87.9%) patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of efficacy across age (p=0.496), duration of renal failure (p=0.901) and baseline IIEF (p=0.543) groups. Headache was the most frequent side effect and was reported by 27 (16.4%) patients followed by flushing (n=21, 12.7%), blurring of vision (n=9, 5.5%) and dyspepsia (n=7, 4.2%). Conclusion: The efficacy of sildenafil citrate was found to be 87.9% in patients of renal failure on hemodialysis presenting with erectile dysfunction. This efficacy was unaffected by patients’ age, duration of renal failure and baseline IIEF score.
47 A REVIEW ON PLATELET RICH PLASMA , Pooja Nair K. R.*, Subash Chandran M. P., Prasobh G. R., Juno S., Subodh S. Satheesh and Anu A. L.
The utility of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has spanned various fields of dermatology from chronic ulcer management to trichology and aesthetics, due to its role in wound healing. Though PRP is being used over a long time, there is still confusion over proper terminology to define, classify and describe the different variations of platelet concentrates. There is also a wide variation in the reported protocols for standardization and preparation of PRP, in addition to lack of accurate characterization of the tested products in most articles on the topic. Additionally, the high cost of commercially available PRP kits, precludes its use over a larger population. In this article, we review the principles and preparation methods of PRP based on available literature and place our perspective in standardizing a safe, simple protocol that can be followed to obtain an optimal consistent platelet yield.
48 CURCUMIN EFFECTS AND APPLICATION IN ORAL MEDICINE , *Dr. Mutum Sangeeta Devi, MDS and Dr. Manju J., MDS
curcumin is a plant isolated polyphenol (Curcuma longa) L. (Zingiberaceae) compound found in South Asia. It has active constituent which account for 0.3-5.4% of raw turmeric. Curcumine is been widely used in Ayurvedac medicine for centuries. It has anti imflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antifibrotic, antifungal, antiplatetes, antidiabetic, antimicrobial anticarcinogenic, antiviral therapeutic properties. In several studies it shows that there is improvement in oral medicine application like apthous ulcer gingivitis, precancerous lesion and condition like oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia. etc.
49 AETIOPATHOGENESIS & PREVENTION OF HYPERTENSION THROUGH AYURVEDA -A CONCEPTUAL STUDY , *Anamika Khatana and ** Rakesh Khatana
Introduction: Hypertension is a common disease in present era. Every fifth person is found hypertensive. Most adults develop it in later half of their life More than 50% of the deaths and disabilities from heart disease and stroke together kill more than 12 million people each year. It has been predicted that by the year 2020 there will be a 75% increase in the global cardiovascular disease burden occurring. Hypertension is dreadful disease which is multifactorial in its origin with a chronic aetio-pathogenesis when thought adapting the principle of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala theory the pathology seems to be centered on Shonita Dhatu and Tridosha So it fall in the Madhyam Rogamarga (intermediate route) & hence it is Yapya disease (difficult to cure). Aim and Objectives: To find out the factors involved in hypertension as per Ayurvedic perspective and to explain hypertension in terms of Ayurveda. This research paper is a sincere effort to understand hypertension in terms of Ayurveda, which will be beneficial for treatment as well as preventive purpose. Material and Methods: To study signs and symptoms resembling hypertension with Ayurvedic perspective, classical books on Ayurveda, modern literature, available research updates and scientific information available on internet etc. were searched and analyzed. Discussion & Conclusion: The hypertension showed that the disease can be well managed by following Pathya- Apathyaas mentioned in Ayurveda (avoidance of the etiological factor).Considering detailed conceptual part we can definitely say that Ayurveda describes appropriate lifestyle and diet management called as Aahar and Vihar for maintaining homeo-stasis and thereby preventing hypertension.
50 BIOGENIC AND DRUG CAPPED AuNps. AND THEIR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION , Dr. Bharat A. Makwana*, Jagruti P. Vala, Pooja R. Popat, Pooja S. Thakur and Viral A. Patel
Development of green nano technology is generating interest of researchers toward eco friendly, safe, non-toxic, eco-friendly route of synthesis which can be used for the manufacture at a large scale. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Pd nanoparticles with the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa. In the present study, we report the bio synthesis of aqueous stable gold and palladium nanoparticles by using petal extract of Hibiscus rosa as both reducing and capping agents.I have also synthesiszed Gold nanoparticle with the use of isonazide drug as redusing agents and PEG (poly Ethylene Glycol) as capping agents. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Vis, particle size analyzer (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We discuss here a quick, simple, economic, and eco friendly method through a completely green route for the selective detection. Furthermore this nanoparticles have applied in biological system like, gold nano particles for selective sensing of amino acid (L- dopa) potential antimicrobial agent and AuNps. nanoparticles applied for the catalyst study.
51 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF VALSARTAN AND CILNIDIPINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC , *Amreen, G. Kumaraswamy and R. Lalitha
The proposed Research work is simple, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Valsartan and Cilnidipine. The current RP-HPLC method utilizes stationary phase and consists of symmetry C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm in particle size) with a mobile phase comprising of Methanol : Pottassium di hydrogen Phosphate buffer (80:20%v/v) pH 3.5 adjusted by Orthophopharic acid at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min, column temperature of 25 °C and UV detection at 260 nm. The retention time of Valsartan and Cilnidipine were 2.05 and 5.13 min respectively. The linearity was found to be in the range of 10–60 g/mL and 5– 30 μg/mL for Cilnidipine and Valsartan respectively. The % recovery was found to be 99.76 ± 0.426 for Cilnidipine and 98.93 ± 0.1020 for Valsartan. The proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied for the determination of drugs in tablet.
52 AN ASSESSMENT OF IN –VITRO ANTI-OXIDANT POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS , Prathiba H. D.* and Anupama Sindhghatta Kariyappa
The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of five plant species selected on the basis of their reported ethno botanical uses. The alkaloid and flavonoid fraction of plant extracts was analyses against L-ascorobic acid by DDPH assay. The potential of L- ascorobic acid to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical become almost stable after 70 or 80%. The fractions showed dose dependent free radical scavenging property. The alkaloids and flavonoids fraction of Abutilon indicum, leaf extract were found to 75.99% (ethanol), 79.16% (methanol), 75.04% (aqueous) and 77.02 %, 81.07%, 47.54%, respectively. The Adathoda visca leaf extracts were found to be 75.17%, 81.07%,71.32% and 79.16%, 85.10%, 44.32%, Datura stromonium 73.21%, 82.86%, 70.27% and 70.43%,75.46%, 41.17% respective Lantana camara fraction showed 70.22%, 80.92%, 70.50% and 68.47% 80.90%,37.72% activities and Tridax procumbens 72.07%,79.34%,68.80% and 62.27% 62.67%, 33.02%. On comparative basis flavonoids leaf extracts of Adathoda visca and Datura stromonium fractions exhibit amazing antioxidant properties that support their traditional use as natural antioxidant.
53 A REVIEW ON METRONOMIC CHEMOTHERAPY , S. D. Labhade* and J. S. Jagtap
The introduction of the ―Maximum Tolerable Dose‖ (MTD) in normal treatment protocols (and its concurrent over toxicity) made vital the burden of rest periods between cycles of treatment—a training that includes re-development of tumor cells, yet in addition development of chose clones impervious to the treatment. So as to avoid the problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called ―metronomic chemotherapy‖ has been proposed. It refers to the chronic, equally spaced administration of (generally) low doses of various chemotherapeutic drugs without extended rest periods. The curiosity of this treatment methodology lies not just in its anti- tumor efficacy with exceptionally low adverse effect, yet additionally in a cell target switch. With plenty of experimental work, beginning with the pioneering work in the Folkman and Kerbel labs, Metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) has built its foundations. Browder and colleagues demonstrated that standard chemotherapeutic drugs such as cyclophosphamide can also be used as anti-angiogenic agents. The administration of cyclophosphamide in doses lower than the MTD, at shorter intervals and without extended rest periods, showed results better than those obtained with the MTD schedule in the treatment of two cyclophosphamide-resistant tumours, Lewis lung carcinoma and the murine mammary carcinoma cell line EMT-6.
54 A REVIEW ON ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS , Prof. Sharma Shubham* and Diwan Deeksha
There are currently few antifungals in use which show efficacy against fungal diseases. These antifungals mostly target specific components of fungal plasma membrane or its biosynthetic pathways. However, more recent class of antifungals in use is echinocandins which target the fungal cell wall components. The availability of mostly fungistatic antifungals in clinical use, often led to the development of tolerance to these very drugs by the pathogenic fungal species. Thus, the development of clinical multidrug resistance (MDR) leads to higher tolerance to drugs and its emergence is helped by multiple mechanisms. MDR is indeed a multifactorial phenomenon wherein a resistant organism possesses several mechanisms which contribute to display reduced susceptibility to not only single drug in use but also show collateral resistance to several drugs. Considering the limited availability of antifungals in use and the emergence of MDR in fungal infections, there is a continuous need for the development of novel broad spectrum antifungal drugs with better efficacy. Here, we briefly present an overview of the current understanding of the antifungal drugs in use, their mechanism of action and the emerging possible novel antifungal drugs with great promise.
55 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STRUCTURED EDUCATION PROGRAM ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF MOTHERS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES REGARDING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE IN SELECTED HOSPITALS, BANGALORE , *Sarojamma and Raddi S. A.
Too often we underestimate the power of a touch, a smile, a kind word, a listening ear, an honest compliments, or the smallest act of caring, all of which have the potential to turn a life around. Leo f. Buscaglia quotes
56 CRACKING HOMO SAPIEN SKIN PIGMENTARY ORDER, AETIOLOGY OF SKIN DEPIGMENTARY DISORDER AND ITS ATTENDANT SKIN CANCER OR CANCER AND THEIR REHABILITATION WITH NAPHTHOQUINONE THERAPY , Dr. S. S. Sawhney*
Introduction: The black Homo sapien prototype at tropics, relevant to earthly conditions, had been evolved under the sapient biostrategy of natural selection, but with a code. The skin depigmentary disorder among non- European black Asian, African and Australian at tropics, and the assumption of light- toned integumental coat by white European at beyond tropics are the evolutionary defiances. The aim of this study is to unravel and crack the mechanisms thereof, and rehabilitate the skin depigmentary disorder among the Homo sapiens. Methods and material: Fourteen Asian Indian consented and volunteered for this study. Complete Body Scan Analysis was conducted on nine volunteers. Four HES patients were treated topically or orally or both with vitamin K1 or naphthoquinone precursors to vitamin K2 (Plumbago Zeylanica L.), followed by exposure of relentless sun high intensity UVB. A normal female volunteer was put on the dose of 10g of Walnut Karnels of Juglons regia L. for a year in addition to her staple diet, followed by exposure of relentless sun high intensity UVB. Results: The interplay of the epidermal vitamin K threshold and the relentless sun high intensity UVB has been identified as the mainstay of the skin pigmentary order as defined in black Homo sapien prototype at tropics. The vitamin K deficiency in Homo sapiens has been identified as the skin depigmentary disorder precipitant, whereas the relenting sun low intensity UVB precipitates light – toned integumental coat among the Homo sapiens at beyond tropics. These evolutionary defiances among Homo sapiens result in the maximization of their vulnerability to skin cancer or cancer. The vitamin K based Naphthoquinone Therapy offers new options for the treatment, prevention and pre- emption of skin depigmentray disorder or cancer. Conclusion: The vitamin K has been identified as the pro skin pigmentary order, anti-skin depigmentary disorder and anti-cancer vitamer. The supplementation of staple diet with plant -based highly photosensitive and UVB- harvesting 1, 4-naphthoquinone derivatives: root powder of Plumbago zeylanica L and fruits of Juglona regia L, is strongly recommended to keep skin depigmentary disorder and cancer at bay.
57 A CASE REPORT OF SIRAJA GRANTHI TREATED WITH ATASI UPANAHA , *Dr. Akhil M. U., Dr. Anjali Bharadwaj and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
Sirajagranthi is mentioned as one of the granthi rogas[1] described in various Ayurvedic classics which denotes a pathological condition characterized by a dilatation and engorged of veins, which are non- pulsating and painless. The treatment principle in Ayurveda includes abhyanga, sahacharadi taila pana, basti, upanaha and procedures such as jalaukavacharana and siravyadha which also serves the aim of the treatment. Upanaha is one among the classical treatment mentioned in Astangahrudaya for Sirajagranthi.[2] In the present study an attempt is made to treat Siraja granthi using Atasi upanaha Sweda.
58 PRELIMINARY DIAGNOSTIC AIDS USED IN ORAL CANCER , *Dr. Mutum Sangeeta Devi, M.D.S, Dr. Manju J, M.D.S, Dr. Rahul Rajpurohit, M.D.S
Oral cancer is a fatal disease and a major health issue in developing countries, which is the leading cause of death. Better understanding of the disease process at the molecular level has changed the way oral cancer approaches early diagnosis of the lesion rather than late stages to minimize morbidity and mortality. As a result, preliminary diagnostic aids have been suggested to improve our ability to distinguish between benign anomalies and dysplastic / malignant changes, and to identify areas of dysplasia / early oralcancer that are not visible to the naked eye. These include the use of vital staining, cytology, chemiluminescence, velscope etc.
59 PREVALENCE OF UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERRORS AMONG THE INTERNALLY DISPLACED SCHOOL CHILDREN IN IRAQ , Abdullah M. Mulhim*
Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of uncorrected Refractive errors among the internally displaced school children in Iraq. Methods: School-based cross-sectional study in the academic year of 2016-2017. School children were selected from 8primary schools for the internally displaced Children in Kurdistan region, Iraq. All children underwent full ophthalmic examination, uncorrected visions were tested and cycloplegic refractions were done for children with visual impairment. Refractive errors in this study were determined by the results Of the cycloplegic refraction. Results: From 592 selected children, 94.7%had participated in our study, and 553 were eligible (age ranged from 6 to 12 years).The prevalence of refractive errors was 34.5%; 32.2% of them were uncorrected. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia And astigmatism were 3.8%, 13.9% and 14.9%, respectively. Conclusion: This study has found a high prevalence of uncorrected refractive Errors among the internally displaced children in Iraq. This result represents an important health issue among those children, requiring major actions to tackle and Resolve it.
60 A REVIEW STUDY OF KARVIRA , Dr. Madan Mohan Sharma, *Dr. Lokesh Singh Bhati and Dr. Ujwala hivale
Karvira know as Indian oleander, It is most potentially cardiac poison. Karvira have been used in Ayurveda Science. In Indian medicine Karvira is comes under Sthavaravisha and Upavishas. It is more in tropical regions. It is an evergreen shrub seen in the gardens with white, pink and yellow coloured flowers. All parts of the plant are toxic and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides. Karvira is one Visha but having rich therapeutic values. The Karvira is botanically known as Nerium odorum having in white or red flowers variation. Another plant Thevetia nerifolia is later considered pita. In this article the all information related to Karvira has been compiled.
61 CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING SURGERY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (SENEGAL): PRELIMINARY STUDY , Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye*, Dr. Joseph Salvador Mingou, Maguette Ba, Christelle Akagha Kondé, Fatou Aw, Simon Antoine Sarr, Malick Bodiian, Aliou Alassane Ngaidé, Alassane Mbaye, Adama Kane, Maboury Diao and Abdoul Kane
Despite the evolution of percutaneous coronary interventions techniques, some coronary lesions still fall under revascularization surgery, in particular coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Accessibility to CABG remains difficult in developing countries, due to a deficit in suitable technical platform and low income of the populations. Through this series, we wanted to note the clinical profile of the patients who underwent CABG, as well as the different indications of coronary revascularization, and the surgical techniques used in these black subjects from Senegal. The study was retrospective, descriptive, carried out between October 2014 and March 2017 at the Clinique du Cap-Dakar, making it possible to identify 17 patients, mostly men (sex ration: 5.6). Hypertension was the most common risk factor (13 patients), and six of them were diabetic. Thirteen patients presented a three-vessel disease on coronary angiography. The average SYNTAX score was 34.9, while the calculated average EuroSCORE was 3.4. The majority of performed CABG were arterial (66.66%). Three patients had triple bypass surgery, the rest had a double bypass surgery. Only one patient had undergone the breast Y technique. No incidents or accidents were reported during the procedures. The intraoperative mortality was zero. Postoperatively, atrial fibrillation has been reported in one woman. Stroke and myocardial infarction were not recorded on return from the surgery. This series also shows that CABG is feasible in Dakar, and allows the revascularization of patients with complex coronary lesions. This technique must be extended to the public sector, but also to the sub-region in order to better manage these coronary diseases which are constantly growing in Africa.
62 FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AS A SUPPORTIVE THERAPY FOR DIABETES- A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS USING VARAM REFLEXO-STUMP FOOTWEAR , *Dr. Prof. M. Vijay Anand MDS D. Acu, *Dr. G. Sameeruddin Ahamed BDS D. Acu, *Dr. J. Roshini BDS D. Acu, *Dr. N. Naveen Raj BDS D. Acu.
Background: Reflexology, an ancient practice over the years well-known as a key therapeutic element involves applying pressure at specific points for treating many ailments in the human system. Most of these reflex points are found in the hands and feet. Foot reflexology in recent days has proven to be effective against endocrine and metabolic diseases specifically in controlling blood sugar levels. Aim: To reduce blood glucose levels using Varam-reflexology stump footwear as a supportive therapy. Objective: To evaluate the random blood glucose level using reflexology stump footwear in different time intervals. Material and Methods: The present observational comparative study was conducted onrandomly selected 9 (Nine) diabetic patients. Random blood sugar levels were noted at the time of visit examined by categorizing them into three groups A, B, C by usage of footwear at different intervals of 15, 30 and 60mins respectively. After the waiting period of 30, 60 and 90mins correspondingly final random blood sugar levels were recorded. Chi-square test, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test analyzes were applied to the data, considering a significance level of 1% (P value <0.01). Results: Random blood glucose level recorded initially revealed mean value of 229.33mg/dl with S.D of 76.478 mg/dl and S.E of 25.49. After therapy the mean random blood glucose level was observed to be 185.77g/dl with S.D of 77.56 mg/dl and S.E of 25.85 in relation to different time intervals. Statistical difference was observed with f-ratio value of 24.93842 and p-value is < .00001(p < .01*) when comparative analysis was performed between the three groups. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test showed mean difference of 123.33 with significance at p<0.01. Conclusion: Based on the results of this comparative study, either as supportive therapy to conventional treatment or as first-line therapy, foot reflexology by using Varam-reflexology stump footwear can contribute in improving the scores of blood sugar level among diabetic individuals.
63 EFFECT OF VITAMIN D AND MELATONIN SUPPLEMENTATION AS ADJUVANT IN TREATMENT OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE , *Dr. Zahrah Mohammed Ali Abbood Issa, Booran Mamdooh Saeed Nazhat and Rand A. Abduljabbar Al-Wattar
In newborn babies and neonates, neonatal jaundice is a common problem which is treated by different methods to avoid the development of complication especially bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. This prospective clinical trial was done during the period from July 2016 to January 2018 in Al-Karama hospital in Baghdad/Iraq on 120 neonates suffering from neonatal jaundice. The studied neonates were divided into 3 groups: Group (1) who were treated by vitamin D and phototherapy, group (2) who were treated by melatonin and phototherapy and group (3) who were treated by phototherapy alone. Results showed that serum bilirubin was significantly declined in neonates of group (1) who were treated by vitamin D and phototherapy, compared with neonates of group (2) and (3) who were treated with combined melatonin with phototherapy and phototherapy respectively with p-value equal 0.002 and 0.001 respectively. There was a significant decrease in serum bilirubin levels in neonate of group (2) who were treated with melatonin and phototherapy when compared with group (3) who was treated by phototherapy alone with p-value equal 0.002. It can be concluded that Vitamin D and melatonin could be used as adjuvant treatments in neonatal jaundice in combination with phototherapy with superiority of vitamin D over melatonin.
64 MICROBIAL AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF BISCUITS PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF WHEAT, ORANGE PEEL, PLANTAIN PEEL AND PINEAPPLE PEEL FLOURS , I. C. Oladipo*, A. O. Oladipo and E. O. Oguntoye
This study utilized composite flour from Orange peel, Pineapple peel, Plantain peel and Wheat for the production of biscuit with the bid to increase the protein quality, lipid and crude fibre content of biscuit and promote the utilization of composite flour. Different blends of composite flour and wheat with appropriate quantity of other ingredients were mixed to produce biscuits. The flour and biscuits produced were subjected to microbial, sensory and nutritional evaluations. The total viable counts of the samples ranged from 1.5 x 107 CFU/g to 3.6x107 CFU/g. Isolated organism from the biscuit samples were characterized and identified to be Aeromonas hyrophylia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium. The nutritional evaluation of the biscuit samples showed that the different blends of wheat and composite flour biscuit had the highest content of protein, crude lipid, crude fibre and carbohydrate when compared to 100% wheat biscuit. Wheat flour could be fortified with composite flour (at different ratio) to produce acceptable biscuits with improved nutritional composition at reduced cost.
65 GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS (UMBELIFERAE) ESSENTIAL OIL , Abdel Karim M.*, Osman A., Amira A. E. Satti and Al-Hafez M.
Information of the constituents of medicinal plant is of great importance since medicinal plants are endowed with diverse phytochemicals with potential medicinal applications. This study was aimed to investigate the chemical constituents of the medicinally important Anethum graveolens volatile oil, and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity. 30 components were detected by GC-MS analysis. Major constituents are: D-carvone (37.80%); D-limonene (18.13%) and apiol (16.16%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated via disc diffusion method against five standard human pathogens (Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis; Gram negative: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonasa aeruginosa and the fungi Candida albicans). The oil showed significant activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasa aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. It also showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
66 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUDANESE VANGUERIA MADAGASCARINSIS (RUBIACEAE) OIL , Abdel Karim M.*, Amna D., Amira A. E. Satti and Al-Hafez M.
This study was designed to investigate the constituents of Vangueria madagascarinsis seed oil and to assess its antimicrobial activity. GC-MS analysis of Vangueria madagascariensis oil was performed. Nineteen constituents were detected. Main constituents are: 9,12-octadecadienoic acid-z,z- methyl ester (53.68%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (15.43%), 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester(12.89%) and methyl stearate(10.23%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed against five standard human pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasa aeruginosa and the fungal species Candida albicans. Vangueria madagascarinsis oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and moderate activity against Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans. The oil also exhibited weak activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, it was inactive against Bacillus subtilis.
67 PERIMORTEM BEDSIDE HYSTERECTOMY: A SURVIVED PATIENT AND HER BABY AFTER FOUR CARDIAC ARRESTS. DOES EPINEPHRINE MAKE A CHANGE IN AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM MANAGEMENT? , Amir M. Shabana and Akram H. Guirgis*
(Reviewer #1 abstract related, revised and replied comment no 3) In the labour room, our patient suddenly collapsed followed by immediate cardiac arrest during her labour course. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation done immediately including perimortum bedside CS followed by hysterectomy. Having an adult patient in labour made high suspicion about amniotic fluid embolism as a first possibility especially when we got the first severely deranged coagulation profile done within ~15 minutes of patient collapse. During her critical care journey, she had 3 successive cardiac arrests, a bedside perimortem CS and hysterectomy, 3 successive laparotomies in the following days. A fourth cardiac arrest happened 2 hours following cessation of epinephrine infusion. Epinephrine infusion was reinstituted after regaining spontaneous rhythm and weaned gradually afterwards. Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare obstetric catastrophe which represents about 15 % of all maternal deaths, incidence is about 7 per 100.000 births. Till now there is no definitive diagnostic tool hence, its diagnosis depends mainly on exclusion. An immunogenic theory describes the pathophysiology of AFE as an anaphylactic reaction, hence the name of “anaphylactoid syndrome of pregnancy”. We suggest that properly timed aggressive resuscitation comprising perimortum bedside CS, then hysterectomy, plus the use epinephrine played a very important role in the successful outcome of our patient and her baby.
68 SURVIVAL OUTCOME COMPARISON BETWEEN EARLY AND LATE OXYGEN THERAPY AMONG PRETERM NEONATES SUFFERING FROM RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME IN IBN AL-BALADI HOSPITAL / BAGHDAD- IRAQ , Dr. Talib Hasan Darhash Al-Tamimi*, Dr. Kaddum Kudair Abbas AL-Taie and Dr. Jenan Ghadban Dawood
Prematurity and RDS largely contribute to early neonatal morbidity and mortality. With adequate antenatal steroid and early CPAP, early oxygen therapy improves survival outcome. The current study aimed to compare survival outcome of oxygen therapy with respect to timing of its administration (i.e. early within two hours of life and late after 2 hours), different birth weight and different gestational age. This prospective interventional study included newborns with 24-28 weeks prematurity or 28-34 weeks (GA) with clinical RDS and birth weight (BW)>650gms. All subjects were preferably provided early oxygen therapy (within 2 hours after birth). Oxygen was delivered and only those who required further respiratory support were ventilated. Records on birth weight, gestational age, and timing of therapy (early/late), duration of ventilation, sepsis, complications, and survival/death outcome were collected and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of 80 neonates (39 males, 41 female), 36 received early oxygen therapy and 44 obtained it late. Although high mortality was observed with both early (32.8%) and late therapy (67.2%), there was significantly higher survival with early therapy (p=0.02). Though no statistical differences of outcome were observed with different GA and BW in study groups; however irrespective of timing of therapy, higher mortality occurred in lower BW/GA subgroups with least survival among extremely preterm <27wks (p=0.005) and ELBW<1000gm (p=0.001). No difference was seen for need of intubation/ventilation in early and late groups (p=0.831). It can be concluded that early oxygen administration improved survival with minimal complications in RDS except for extremely premature/LBW babies.
69 ENSURING NORMAL IRON LEVELS IN BREAST MILK OF PREGNANT WOMEN BY PERSONALIZED IRON SUPPLEMENTATION TREATMENT , *Dr. Abeer Hashim Abdul-Majeed, Dr. Bushra Abd Al-Hassin Hochem, Dr. Kawther Yahia Saeed
Since the characteristics of all body fluids depends on patient’s health status, it is possible that disadvantaged and socially vulnerable mothers may have lower amounts of iron in their breast milk, and that their babies receive lower content of the mineral for their normal growth and development. Assuring a preventive treatment of the mother might solve this problem. This study aimed to demonstrate breast milk iron content from disadvantaged mothers and the effect of personalized iron supplementation program. In the current cross-sectional study, breast milk samples were obtained for ferritin analysis. Health services usually provide free folic acid and iron treatment however, treatment compliance is low. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: “A: Controls” who had free iron tablets available from the health centre; and “B: Intervention” group where patients accepted to be periodically contacted at home by a health team for personalized iron dispensation. In our study, 200 patients were included. Prophylaxis and treatment compliance were 100% and 96% for B group, while for the control was 61% and 37% (p=0.005). Higher breast milk iron levels were detected in the Intervention’s mothers compared with control patients (p<0.05). It can be concluded that personalized iron prophylaxis and treatment increased breast milk iron levels. Public health policy must ensure iron dispensation for each under-served mother in order to reduce children problems associated to iron deficiency during the first year of their life.
70 USING NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS AND ITS RISKS IN CHILDREN WITH CHICKEN POX: THE MEASUREMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS , *Dr. Saeed Hassan Rajab and Dr. Siham Issa Muslim
Chicken pox is a common childhood infection. Children initially present with fever followed by a vesicular rash after 2 to 3 days. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) like Nurofen or Ibuprofen are commonly available over the counter antipyretic medications and are used initially in the management of fever by parents. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and understanding of parents about using NSAIDs during chicken pox infection and its related health risks. The study aimed to conduct a qualitative cross-sectional survey by undertaking semi-structured interviews with open-ended questionnaire with 50 randomly selected parents whose children were diagnosed with chicken pox infection over a 6 month period, within the primary health care setting. The main objective was to find out if parents were aware of the associated risks of NSAIDs use. A short literature review was conducted to gain further evidence about the use of NSAIDs medication in children diagnosed with chicken pox infection detailing the associated health risks and complications. Out of the total 50 parents interviewed, none were aware of NSAID associated risks during a chicken pox illness. 8(40%) of parents used both paracetamol as well as ibuprofen as the initial antipyretic medication, whilst 12 (60%) of parents used paracetamol alone. From the current study, it can be concluded that there was a clear lack of understanding of the parents about the choice of antipyretic medication in the management of fever in chicken pox infection. None of the parents were aware of the associated risks of skin infection and necrotising fasciitis with NSAID use. Hence, there is need to develop parental educational programs to improve their understanding in the management of fever during chicken pox illness.
71 ROLE OF LEPA (LOCAL APPLICATION) IN KUSHTHA (SKIN DISEASE) W.S.R. TO DADRU: A CLINICAL STUDY , Dr. Jeeta Ram Saini, Dr. Sisir Kumar Mandal and Dr. Ujwala S. Hivale
All dermatologic disorders are coming under the term Kuṣṭha as per Āyurvedika texts. In broad sense Kuṣṭha is the one, which causes vitiation as well as discoloration of the skin. Ācārya Suśruta has mentioned the treatment as lepana, which is a type of Śodhana, because external applications form is the best way to treat Kuṣṭha. Application of lepa enters in to Romakūpa and further gets absorbed through Svedavahi Srotasa and Sirāmukha leading to desired effects. This method of rubbing increases the skin temperature which might be hastening the pilosebaceous uptake and skin permeation of the drug in topical formulation. Dadru, one of the Kṣudra Kuṣṭha makes its powerful grip on modern man and have harmful effect. Dadru can be correlated with modern disease dermatophytes. This condition comes under superficial fungal infection of the skin. Dadru is Rasagata manifestation of Kuṣṭha. Ācārya Suśruta mentioned śodhana lepa as first choice of modality for Tvakagata Kuṣṭha. Lepana karma has been considered as an ideal therapeutic measure for this disease. Modern science also justifies the role of topical therapy in superficial fungal infections of the skin. External application of drugs in skin disease is an important as internal medicine. It helps in providing better and quicker relief in the symptoms. The medicine in the form of a paste used for external application are called as Lepa. Here Eḍagajādi Lepa a combination of five drugs i.e. Cakramarda, Kuṣṭha, Saindhava, Sarṣapa, Vāyaviṅaga and Sauvira is selected for research purpose.
72 A REVIEW ON DIURETICS , *Prof. Sharma Shubham
Diuretic drugs continue to attract the interest of renal physiologists not only for their intrinsic tubular effects but equally importantly for the insight that such studies provide into normal and abnormal mechanisms of renal function. Diuretics are the drugs which cause a net loss of sodium and water in urine. Diuretics are among the most widely prescribed drugs. Application of diuretics in the management of hypertension has outstripped their use in edema. Availability of diuretics has also had a major impact on the understanding of renal physiology.
73 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF CANCER , Dr. Twinkle Gupta, Dr. Poonam Gupta, Samiksha Sharma*
Cancer which is marked by the uncontrolled multiplication of cells, has largely remained incurable due to its ability to spread rapidly and having a lot of complexities. The spread of disease is very rapid so remedial measures are to be taken at the earliest. In modern science treatment is aimed at killing the affected cells but it runs with the risk of affecting the neighbouring normal cells. Ayurvedic management helps to improve the quality of life of cancer patients and work as a supportive therapy even in critical patients. The rejuvenation and panchkarma therapies add life to such patients.
74 CONCEPTUAL STUDY ON DOOSHIVISHA – THE VICIOUS CYCLE IN HUMAN BODY , *Dr. Amrit Malik, Dr. Gouri V. Kulkarni and Dr. Chinky Goyal
The advantage of modern hi-tech life has some hidden disadvantages as well. Everyday we consume thousand of toxins and poisons from food, drink and environment. These get saturated in our body and this undigested food, toxins and other impurities then slowly released into body showing symptoms of chronic poisoning as Dooshivisha. Their sources can be categorized as everyday toxins, household toxins and toxins at our workplace. They show dreadful symptoms like skin ailments, diseases like Chronic rhinitis, Arthritis, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Low energy level, very little vitality. Ayurveda has the answer in a very organized manner. With change in our lifestyle, Regular Sharir Shodhana and daily detoxification of our body with treatment modalities will surely help us to reduce the threat of Dooshivisha to our body as well as our manas.
75 A SYSTEMIC REVIEW ON ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS REPORTED IN A PERIOD FROM 2014 TO 2018 IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF INDIA , Sravanthi Appikonda*, Lavanya Eli, Dhanush Bellapu and Padmalatha Kantamneni
One of the main causes for the morbidity and the mortality in the world is Adverse Drug Reaction(s) [ADR]. Thalidomide tragedy is the best example for ADR after which international attention to patient safety was gradually increased. There was global occurrence of 10% of ADRs where 2% were reported in India. Major contributors for morbidity, mortality and hospitalization of patients and increasing economic burden of patients are ADRs. CDSCO and Pharmacovigilance play a key role in the identification of ADRS. This study was carried out by collecting different ADRs collected and reported by health care professionals at different places of India. Underreporting was the main problem in reporting an ADR which can be overcome by following spontaneous reporting system. Most vulnerable organs for ADRs are Gastrointestinal tract along with skin & appendages. Antimicrobials are the class of drugs which majorly causes ADRs. Adults and middle aged are common group of people affected due to ADRs. Causality, severity and preventability were calculated using different scales like WHO-UMC causality assessment scale, Naranjo causality assessment scale, Hartwig’s severity assessment scale and Schumock and Thornton Preventability assessment scale.
76 PERCIPIENCE OF BIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND ITS RISK OF LUNG CANCER , Akhila Yerubandi*, Sivakshari Makkapati, Sreenu Thalla, Padmalatha Kantamneni
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is defined as the chronic lung disease which is progressive and irreversible obstruction of airway along with the episodes of acute exacerbations. It is a combination of Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis. Lung cancer has become most leading cause of death in last few years. Squamous cell carcinoma is the COPD related type of cancer, which is most common type of lung cancer. COPD is the major health hazard affecting around 251 million people globally. Biological mechanisms include chronic inflammation, Oxidative stress and DNA damage and repair. Genetic mechanisms include genetic overlap, somatic mutations, DNA methylation, MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation and epigenetics. Formation of lung tumor is due to induction of various interleukins and cyclooxygenase -2. Oxidative stress has major role in lung cancer development. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) damages DNA and single strand breaks and sites are increased in COPD and the lung cancer. Somatic mutations may affect both lung cancer and COPD. Hyper methylation of both promoter and tumor suppressor genes occur in lung cancer. miRNA regulates about more than 60% of protein coding genes. DNA methylations and post-translational modifications of histones are observed in these changes. Biological mechanisms identified so far offers a target for development of particular therapeutic strategies that further improve the health of the patients.
77 A REVIEW ON ROLE OF PHARMACIST ON ECONOMIC BURDEN OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS , Chaithra Vemparala*, Tabitha Sharon, Sreenu Thalla and Padmalatha Kantamneni
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) defined as harmful or unpleasant reaction resulting from intervention due to the use of medicinal product which may produce hazard from future administration. The incidence of ADRs was being increased from 3.7% to 30%. The studies report that ADRs account for 5% of hospital admissions and seen in 10-20% of hospitalized patients. Incidence of serious ADRs was 6.7% and fatal ADRs were 0.32% respectively. ADRs account for 4.2-30% of hospital admissions in United States and Canada, 2.5-10.6% in Europe and 5.7-18.8% in Australia. The pharmacist must assist in monitoring the safe and effective use of medication and reduce the occurrence of ADRs. As the pharmacists have vast knowledge of therapeutics and pharmacology of medications they can detect and monitor the ADRs and other medication related problems. Pharmacists should work together with other health care professionals to increase reporting of ADRs in hospital and community settings.
78 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS AND IMMUNOMODULATION IN AYURVEDA WITH HELP OF RASAYANA AS IMMUNOMODULATOR , Vd. Sandeep K. Patel* and Vd. Sunil B. Patil
Immunology, today is one of the fastest growing topics in Medicine and Biology. Its significance has grown more, because of the growing significance of immune strength and resistance against different diseases. It is found that spicy-food, fermented food, bakery products, alcohol consumption is increasing and on the other hand hard work becoming sedentary, but mentally stressful. Unhealthy competition and unnatural high aims increasing tension in life. This has resulted the emergence of a wide range of immunological diseases. It is interesting to observe that, the ancient Ayurvedic texts show a clear description of the foundations of immunology thousands of years Ago. Ayurveda describes the ojas which is the essence of all the seven dhatus of the body and is responsible for the immune strength of an individual, classically known as Oja-Bala and Vyadhikshamatva which refers to natural and acquired immunity. There are clear descriptions available in Samhita’s about the three broad categories of immune disorders, namely Oja-vyapat, Oja-visramsa, and Oja-kshaya. The texts describe Rasayana Tantra which is one of the eight branches of Ashtanga Ayurveda. The present review article critically examines the available literatures to evaluate the ancient concepts of early Ayurvedic Immunology in the light of recent developments.
79 DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF PRAMEHA W.S.R.T. DIABETES MELLITUS , Vd. Shivangi J. Mishra*, Vd. Balaji S. Sawant and Vd. Janhavi Alwe
Ayurveda emphasizes strongly on preventive and promotive aspect of Health rather than curative. Centuries ago, Ayurveda laid the concept for healthy living like Dinacharya (Daily regimen for healthy living), Ritucharya (Seasonal regimen), Sadavritta (Moral conducts) and Achara Rasayana (Social conducts) and also established guidelines for healthy dietary and healthy lifestyle, but in the current era hardly any individual follow it. As a result, there is tremendous rise in the lifestyle disorders like Obesity, diabetes, CKD, Hypertension, etc.[1] Type-II Diabetes, major non-communicable disease is the 7th leading cause of death and is a major cause of Heart disease, stroke, Kidney disease, Lower limb disease, blindness, etc. Prevalence of Diabetes in 2011 censes, 5.3% of Indian population >65yrs of age.[2] Aim- To bring into limelight the Ayurvedic dietary for the prevention of Type-II Diabetes.
80 LARVICIDAL EFFECT OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS AND AZADIRACHTA INDICA PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS , R. Selva Seematti* and V. Prabakaran
Aedes aegypti is a vector for transmitting several tropical fevers which include dengue virus and the virus spread to other disease including mosquito salivary gland. Whereas Culex quinquefasciatus found in eutropic water of artificial containers and in open pond, diectuss train of sewage. It is important to develop the non-toxic and inexpensive method to conclude the mosquito larvae using medicinal important plant extract such as Azadirachta indica and Tridax procumbens. The larvae were categorized based on their prey size such as 4th instar larvae of both species. Tridaax procumbens revealed larval growth incubation were as Azadirachta india extracts as bio-pesticides and as natural insecticides proved to be an efficient and inexpensive and non-toxic method for control of mosquito. The percentage of prey killed of culex quinquefasciatus at 5% concentration revealed 82% at 10mg/ml and At different concentration of the Azadirachta indica leaf observed for the period of 24 hours exposed to the prey density of 25 showed an increased percentage of prey killed of 90%. The larvae mortality rate at 10 mg/ml of leaf extract found exhibit at maximum activity against Aedes agypti. The results demonstrate and excellent activity which contributes to rare opportunity of natural control. Similary, Tridaax procumbens showed increased the higher larval (culex quinquefasciatus) mortality was found to 62% at the concentration of 10mg/ml and Aedes agypti percentage of prey killed was found to be 74% at the concentration of 10mg/ml.
81 IMMOBILIZATION OF XYLANASE IN PVA-ALGINATE MATRIX AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION , Anil R. Shet, Sanjana More, L. R. Patil, Sharanappa A.*, V. S. Hombalimath and Gururaj Tennalli
A cheap and non-toxic synthetic polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been used for enzyme immobilization. In this study immobilization of xylanase in PVA–alginate beads were developed and treated with sodium sulfate which prevented agglomeration and produced beads of high gel strength and conferred enzyme protection from inactivation by boric acid. Further immobilized Xylanase was characterized with respect to pH, temperature, incubation time and substrate concentration and compared with free Xylanase. The immobilized Xylanase activity was found to be lower than the free Xylanase activity. The activity was found to be highest at pH of 6, temperature of 55oC, incubation time of 40 min and substrate concentration of 1.1mg/ml.
82 OXIDATIVE STRESS FOLLOWING INTOXICATION OF COPPER SULPHATE AND POTASSIUM DICHROMATE IN ALBINO RATS , Pushpendra Tiwari, Prabhu Narain Saxena and Brijender Bhushan*
Trace heavy metals are integral components of body cells and responsible for various metabolic reactions. In addition, they are also a part of broad variety of consumer products. Any alteration in their level with in the body of an organism can prove fatal. It is thus very important to use and release them within appropriate limits. Present study deals with the toxicity assessment in terms of oxidative damage, of two broadly used trace heavy metals, copper and chromium. Albino rats have been selected as experimental animals in this study. Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), lipid peroxidase (LPO), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and metallothioneins have been selected as parameters to assess the oxidative damage. ATPase has been found to decrease biochemically within the liver and serum of intoxicated rats, where as other selected parameters showed an increasing pattern. This may be a consequence of the oxidative stress caused by these two trace heavy metals respectively. These biochemically analyzed numerical values were positively correlated together.
83 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF YOGARAJ GUGGULU AND SIMHNAD GUGGULU IN THE MANAGEMENT OF AMAVATA , Dr. Sheetal Gupta MD Swasthvrit*
Ayurveda is one of the most ancient systems of life, health and cure. Ayurveda is a highly evolved and codified system of life and health science based on its own unique and original concept and fundamental principles. In the present era due to change in life style, diet habits leads to many health problems. One such problem is Amavata. The Therapeutic protocol in the present study includes 30 patient which was divided into 2 groups. In the study both male and female patients with irrespective of age, presenting with different clinical signs and symptoms of Amavata was taken and treated with trial drug Yograj Guggulu and Simhnad Guggulu 3 gm BD with luke warm water for a period of 21 days and condition was recorded every 10 days.
84 ASSESSMENT OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES , Mohammad Rehana Begum*
Aim: The study aims at assessing fixed dose combinations in cardiovascular diseases. Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Fixed dose combinations (FDC) are the drugs with more than one drug in fixed ratio with valid therapeutic principles. Methodology: A number of effective therapies reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad for 8 months from November 2017 to June 2018. During this period a total of 150 prescriptions were collected and analysed. Results: The study is comprised of 57% males and 43% females with more than 50% of patients being obese. 2110 FDCs are prescribed and all of them were Branded products. The total No. of FDCs prescribed were 69.95% and 30.04% were of Repeated FDCs Drugs. The number of combinations were 56.66% of FDCs were Two drugs combination, 42% of FDCs were Three drugs combination, 1.34% of FDCs were More than three drugs. The margin of error of repetitive drugs is in between 0.53%-1.70%. 23% of cases were the highest comorbid percentage assessed for Hypertensive patients. 24% of cases are having a social background of consuming both alcohol and smokers. The highest number of FDCs prescribed were Antihyperlipidemic and Antiplatelet
85 EFFECT OF TRIYUSHNADI ANJANA VARTI IN MANAGEMENT OF PISHTAK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PINGUECULA , Vd. Pallavi N. Joshi* and Vd. A. P. Vaijwade
Pishtak is one of the Shuklagata Netraroga described by Ayurveda Acharyas in texts like Sushruta Samhita, Ashtang Hridaya etc. Pishtak can be compared to Pinguecula. Clinical feature of Pishtak is that it appears like a raised and circular dot on white coat of eye and complaining of dry eyes, itching, burning feeling or scratchy or Foreign Body sensation. The disease is more common in outdoor workers and people living in hot climates. In modern science there is no specific treatment. Only lubricating drops are given which gives temporary relief but recurrence occurs frequently. According to Ayurveda Pishtak is aushadhisadhyavyadhi. Acharya Sushruta described many Anjana Kalpas in Uttartantra for various eye diseases. Triyushnadi Anjana Varti described in Shleshmabhisyanda Pratishedham Adhyay Uttartantra of Sushrut Samhita. According to some Acharyas the treatment of Pishtak has been followed as the treatment of kaphaja Abhisyanda. The formulation of Triyushnadi Anjana contains drugs Triphala, Trikatu, Haridra, Vidanga. The drugs used in Triyushnadi Anjana are mostly Katu Rasatmaka and Katu Rasatmaka drugs play important role in Lekhana karma. So this Triyushnadi Anjana Varti acts as Lekhana Anjana on Pishtak. It expels the doshas from eye to make eye clean, light, free from discharge.
86 EFFICACY OF PRATIMARSHA NASYA IN PREVENTION OF AKALA PALITYA W.S.R TO PREMATURE GREYING OF HAIR , *Sagar Sharma and Guheshwar B. Patil
Aim- Hair has a tendency to lose its natural color with advancing age. It is therefore natural for the hair to turn grey with age. But premature greying is a morbid condition and it makes even the young looks older. This causes a great deal of concern to the affected persons. akala palitya is a burning problem as large number. According to W H O, in India, its incidence is high in the age group of 20-30 years. Acharya vagbhata while mentioning the treatment of palitya told nasya as the first line of treatment and many acharyas have mentioned pratimarsha nasya with anu taila is one of the best ways for prevention and treatment of akala palitya. thus this drug was considered for the study. Methods, A total of 30 patients were selected from O,P,D of S,J,G,A,M ,College after fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the 30 patients were included in a single group and were advised pratimarsha nasya karma with anu taila twice a day for 90 days. Follow up was taken during treatment, Assessment of results was done by considering the base line data of subjective and objective parameters. Results: in this study, all 30 patients had satisfactory response to the treatment. However no more increase in greying of hair was observed during the treatment period by which we can draw conclusion that anu taila pratimarsha nasya prevents greying of hair
87 A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF VAMANA DHAUTI AND AMALAKI CHURNA IN AMLAPITTA , *Anil Kumar Patel and Guheshwar B. Patil
Background: The period of 21st century is regarded as the era of fast technology and tough competition. The man of this era is becoming prey to series of life style disorder which are much more bothering than the infective diseases. The altered life style activities like fried food, night shifts, mental stress, addictions etc. are the major risk factors for Amlapitta. Amlapitta, also known as Hyperacidity is generally a result of incorrect and irregular eating habits and it is one of the common ailments seen in many people. Methodology of intervention: 30 Patients excluding dropouts were selected and were divided in to 2 groups by random sampling method. Patients were assessed by using Subjective parameters and severity of clinical conditions before, after treatment and follow up. study duration was total 60 days, Treatment duration was 30 days, Follow up period-30 days (once in a forth night) for Group-A: Vamana Dhauti was advised twice in a week for 30 days. Group-B: Vamana Dhauti was advised twice in a week and Amalaki Churna, with the dose of 4gm TID with water before food. Interpretation: Amalaki is Having Sheeta Guna, Sheeta Veerya, Madhura Vipaka, Tridosha Shamaka. So Amalaki Churna may be beneficial in clinical conditions of Amlapitta. Choice for the clinical condition that are related with the gastrointestinal tract. Among Shatkriyas, Vamana Dhauti is the best possible wash to the digestive system from stomach to the mouth. It helps to maintain the homeostasis of the stomach through its cleansing effect. In Group ‘B’ after one month of treatment, 9 Patients showed mild response (60%), 6 Patient showed moderate relief (40%), and No Patients showed improvement, marked or complete relief. Hence by considering overall result, in the present study the effect of Amalaki Churna with Vamana Dhauti was more beneficial.
88 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTI-MICROBIAL AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM BASILICUM , Asha Monica A.* and Senthilkumar S. R.
Ocimum basilicum Linn (Lamiaceae) is familiar as a plant having healing properties and has received consent to be used for variety of ailments in many countries The aqueous soxhlet extract which is ordinarily utilized in folkloric drug, while methanol and hexane soxhlet concentrates were exposed to phytochemical screening, the phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract revealed that steroids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, oils, terpenoids are present. The phytochemical investigation of other two fractions contains glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, oils and terpenoids. In addition, hexane extract contains reducing sugar and tannin. O. basilicum were found to possess antioxidant and In vitro antibiotic activity against E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus sps, Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans at high doses, in conclusion, this study has shown that O. basilicum contain primary and secondary metabolites that can be pharmacologically useful as well as posses some antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.
89 IRIMEDADI TAILA AS A MEDICINE TO TREAT PLAQUE INDUCED GINGVITIS. , Dr. Sheetal Gupta* and Dr. Neha Pagyal
Ayurvedic drugs have been used since ancient times to treat diseases including periodontal diseases. Oral rinses made from Ayurvedic medicines are used in periodontal therapy to control bleeding and reduce inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of herbal preparation (Irimedadi Taila) on reduction of plaque induced gingivitis, a total of 100 volunteers with clinical signs of mild to moderate gingivitis were selected. The patients were instructed to use 2-3 drops of Irimedadi Taila and gently massage the gums twice daily for 21 days. Results showed that gingival bleeding index. Irimediadi Taila is effective in treatment of plaque induced gingivitis and can be effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy.
90 ASSESSING INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHORUS BUILD UP ON THE AVAILABILITY OF ZN NUTRIENT IN SOILS AND ITS FORTIFICATION ON PADDY CROP (ORYZA SATIVA, VAR.MTU-1010) AS DIRECT AND RESIDUAL EFFECT , Shankaraiah Mekala*, Chandini Patnaik Mantri, Surendra Babu Pasupuleti and RamPrasad Mullapudi
The continuous and indiscriminate use of P-fertilizers resulted in accumulation of High P-soils throught the state of Andhra Pradesh was estimated to 42 per cent. This affects the availability of zinc to rice crop. Zinc and Phosphorous interaction was to be antagonistic. In view of the increased P-accumulated soils, the information generating on availability of cationic micronutrients in soils and their nutrition is essential to maintain the balanced fertilization to increase the productivity of the crop. Grain yield of paddy in the direct crop ranged from 4.75 to 6.17 q /ha, where as only in foliar spray it was 5.15 q /ha with a mean of 5.54 q /ha, There was significant increase in yields by Zn application over control. There was no significant difference in yields between control (4.75 q /ha), 25 kg ZS/ha (5.24 q /ha) and soil application of 50 kg 25 ZS / ha (5.89 q /ha) and 75 kg ZS / ha (6.05 q /ha). Foliar sprays with 3 rates doses have significant increase over the control. The percent response was varied from 8.67 to 29.89; the highest was at Soil Application of 75-kg ZS/ha + 3-Foliar Sprays treatment. In residual Rabi rice, the yield was ranged from 4.43 to 5.65 q /ha and there was significant increase in the yields from 20 kg ZS /ha to 70 kg ZS /ha along with 3 foliar spray. Straw yields ranged from 5-11 to 6.96 and 4.84 to 6.71 q /ha and response was varied from 10.37 to 36.01 and 7.85 to 38.64 percent. The effect of Zn on residual crop was significant increase in the yields from 20 kg ZS /ha to 70 kg ZS /ha along with 3 foliar spray. The phosphorus content in the grain samples of direct crop ranged from 0.30 to 0.45 per cent. The highest P content was in 75 kg ZS/ha with 3 foliar sprays as well in residue crop( 0.25 to 0.42 per cent). Zinc content in the index leaves increased with increasing in zinc levels from 25 kg ZS to 50 kg ZS as basal and along with foliar sprays in conjunction with soil application both in direct and residual crops over the control i.e. from 14.21 to 22.17 in direct and 14.42 to 17.92 per cent in residual crop where as in foliar sprays, it was increased greatly i.e. from 19.9 to 22.17 in direct and 14.86 to 15.84 per cent in residual crop. The extent of fortification was observed in soil application of 50 kg ZS/ha along with 3-foliar sprays of zinc (56.02) in direct crop.
91 PLANT MEDIATED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEONOTIS NEPETIFOLIA L. AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTY , Dr. Wadavkar D. S.*, Gadhave S. R., Palave S. A. and Chavan S. J.
Nanotechnology has now started to develop a new route for changing of our day to day life. The new eco-friendly ―green‖ methods of synthesis are being discovered for increasing demands commercial nanoparticles. Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles offers single step, easy extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by change in colour from pale green to reddish brown. Further, a peak between 400 nm to 440 nm was obtained on UV-Vis spectrometer which confirmed the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. XRD have been used to investigate the morphology of prepared AgNPs. The peaks in XRD pattern are associated with that of face-centered-cubic (FCC) form of metallic silver. FTIR was performed to identify the functional groups of carboxylic acid, carbonyl, hydrocarbon, alkane, hydroxyl, unhydride, ester, ketone, alkenes nitro, alcohol, phenol, ether and monosubstituted benzene molecule which form a layer covering AgNPs and stabilize the AgNPs in medium. The antibacterial activity against different bacteria likes Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella abony, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and control were reported.
92 STANDARDIZATION OF THE DURVADI LEPA , Dr. Ravindra B. Atram*, Dr. Smita S. Kolte, Dr. Shrawan N. Kamble, Dr. Jayshree N. Kolhe and Dr. Yogesh L. Manani
Durvadi Lepa which contains Durva, Chakramarda, Tulasi, Haritaki and Saindhav lavana has described in Chakradatta in the management of Kushtha. In this formulation mostly drugs have Kushtaghna and Chakramarda is also mentioned as a ringworm plant having Dadrughna (antifungal) action. Here to Treat Dadru (Ringworm) local application of Durvadi Lepa is selected. The present work was carried out to standardize the finished product Durvadi Lepa to conform its identity, quality and purity. The pharmacognostical work of Mixture of Durvadi Lepa reveals that presence of fragments of border pitted vessels annular and spiral vessels; fibres, simple and compound starch grains, Prismatic crystals, Silica deposits, A normocytic stomata, seriated unicellular trichomes, Rosette crystals of calcium oxalate, epidermal cells with stomata, parenchyma cell with starch grain, fibres, xylem & phloem, oil globules, Mesocarp cells, Simple pitted vessels and Scalariform vessels had observed microscopically from Mixture of Durvadi Lepa. Organoleptic features of Durvadi Lepa made out of the crude drugs were within the standard range as mentioned in the classic. Foreign matter was NIL, Loss on drying (110˚c) was 5.45%w/w, Total Ash Value was 32.22 % w/w, Acid insoluble Ash value was 3.88%w/w, and Methanol soluble extraction was 8.35 % w/w and water soluble extraction was 45.51% w/w.
93 TOOTH SUPPORTED OVERDENTURE – A CASE REPORT , Dr. Shannon Fernandes*, Dr. Pranav V. Mody, Dr. Brijesh Shetty, Dr. Manoj Kumar A. D.
The preservation of supporting teeth for overdenture abutments provides an acceptable and a very efficient pros-thetic treatment. However, preservation of tooth requires that proper diagnosis and treatment planning be ensured for a long-term denture performance. The implants or modified natural teeth provides additional support, stability; and retention of the overdenture than the edentulous ridges alone can provide. This is particularly of great ad-vantage in the mandibular arch, where edentulous ridges may resorb at a rate four times greater than that of the maxillary arch. Retaining natural teeth as abutments for overdentures can considerably reduce the progress of re-sidual ridge resorption. The stress concentration is also shared between the denture bearing areas and the abutment teeth present.
94 THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF KHADIRA (ACACIA CATECHU) IN EKAKUSTHA (PSORIASIS) , *Dr. Tania Magotra and Dr. Twinkle Gupta
Khadira [Acacia catechu] is considered as the best remedy for the treatment of skin disorders in Ayurveda system of medicine. The gummy extract of Acacia catechu is applied to the patient of Ekakustha (psoriasis) orally since ancient time. The present study aimed to clinically evaluate the therapeutic effect of khadira in Ekakustha (Psoriasis). 40 Patients suffering from Psoriatic skin disorders were selected strictly based on inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. A dry powder of black catechu 3 gms twice daily was administered to the selected patients. PASI (Psoriasis Area Severity Index) was applied in before and after treatment to assess the treatment effect. The measurement was done based on three major clinical criteria, i.e., erythema, induration, and desquamation. Obtained effects in terms of numerical measurement of PASI were evaluated statistically. Results showed highly significant (P<0.001) effect of Khadira in Ekakustha vis-à-vis Psoriasis.
95 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF MEDOHAR GUGGULU IN THE MANAGEMENT OF STHAULYA (OBESITY) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HYPERLIPIDEMIA , Dr. Jasvinder Kour* and Dr. Sheetal Gupta
Ayurveda is most ancient of medical science. In Ayurveda, sthaulya has been described since very early days in various Samhitas, Songraha Granthas etc. Sthaulya (obesity) is one such life style disease. As a disease entity it is multi-factoral metabolic disorders, is very near to Medoroga / Sthaulya of Ayurveda. Medohara Guggulu is an antiobesity herbal medicine and harmonizes the body for proper digestion of the food and helps in controlling the weight.
96 EFFECT OF RICE HUSK ASH AND NPK PHONSKA FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MUNG BEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS) , Saur Ernawati Manik, Yenni Asbur*, Yayuk Purwaningrum, Rahmi Dwi Handayani Rambe, Orleans Ginting, Murni Sari Rahayu, Syamsafitri, Arif Anwar, Indra Gunawan, Mindalisma, Mahyuddin, Dedi Kusbiantoro, Khairunnisyah, Dian Hendrawan, Surya Dharma, Miranti, Mahyu Danil, M. Nuh, and Wan Bahroni Jiwar Barus
Increased yield of mung beans can be done in various ways, including by providing organic and inorganic fertilizers, namely the provision of rice husk ash combined with NPK fertilizer. The study was conducted in the experimental garden of the Faculty of Agriculture of UISU, Johor Building, Medan, North Sumatra with a height of ± 25 m above sea level with flat topography. This study aims to determine the effect of giving rice husk ash and NPK Phonska fertilizer on the growth and yield of mung beans. This research used a factorial randomized block desig with three replications with variables of plant height, number of branches, pods number, flowering age, and root dry weight. The results showed that the application of rice husk ash and NPK Phonska fertilizer independently was able to increase the growth of green beans with a dose of 75 g/polybag and NPK Phonska fertilizer 40 g/polybag. While rice husk ash and NPK Phonska fertilizer combination has not been able to increase growth and yield of mung beans. Based on the regression equation, the optimum dose of rice husk ash and NPK Phonska fertilizer to increase plant height and number of branches of mung beans are 69.33 g/polybag, 39.67 g/polybag, 38.75 g/polybag, and 32.00 g/polybag, respectively.
97 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIA FROM EDIBLE VEGETABLES SOLD IN NNEWI MARKETS, ANAMBRA STATE , Nwachukwu Anthonia Chinwe*, Ekejindu Ifeoma M., Ochiabuto Ogochukwu M. Barbara, Okwelogu Izunna Somadina and Okpara Vivian Chinenye
 Vegetables are dietary source of nutrient, vitamins and fiber for human growth and development cultivated with irrigation water and sewages which can cause contamination. A cross sectional study on molecular characterization of bacteria from edible vegetables and tubers sold in Nnewi markets in Anambra State was conducted. A total of 360 vegetable samples obtained from 8 kinds of vegetables from two markets (Nkwo-edo and Orie- agbor) were used. Bacterial contamination was accessed by serial dilution- pour plate method, identified and significant count done. Some bacteria were further identified molecularly with Proteinase K enzymatic method, sequenced according to NCBI blast nucleotide sequence, and blasted with program selection optimized for highly similar sequences (Megablast). Phylogenetic tree was constructed using Neighborjoining method in the Geneious package (version 9.0.5). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21.Results revealed that out of 360 vegetables sampled, 17 (9.2%) were contaminated with bacteria which include Escherichia coli 4(4.1%), Pseudomonas species 5(1.4%), Enterococcus gallinarum 4 (1.1%), Proteus species and Klebsiella pneumonia 3(0.8%), Enterobacter species 2 (0.5%), Alcaligenes feacalis, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Sporosarcina contaminans, and Ochrobacterum anthropi 1(0.3%). Highest occurrence of bacteria in vegetables from Orie-agbor market and Nkwo-edo markets were Proteus sp. 1(6.6%) and Pseudomonas sp. 3(1.6%), while most contaminated vegetable were Daucus carota (carrot) 3 (13.6%) and Latuca sativa (Lettuce) 4 (17.4%). Phylogenic analysis of bacteria based on nucleotide sequence of part of the 16srRNA showed numbers of occurrences of repetitive groups with T1_907-R(C02.8.abI , T2_907-R(D02.11.abI;T3_907-R(E02.14.abI;T4_907-R(F02.1`7.abI, T6_907-R(G02.20.abI, T7_907-R(H08.23. abI, T8_907-R(H02.23.abI ,T9_907-R(A09.03.abI, and T10_907-R(AO3.abI isolates having similar sequence with some stored isolates in the gene bank with several accession numbers.Contaminated vegetables from Nnewi markets contain pathogenic bacteria isolates which can serve as possible source of gastroenteritis. It is necessary that preventive awareness should be created in the area.
98 ANTIFUNGAL ASPECTS OF BURKHOLDERIA SP.VIMP04 (JQ867373) INHIBITING SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF SUGARCANE , Dr. Shrikumar Vijaykumar Mahamuni*
The objective of the present study was to investigate antifungal features of Burkholderia sp.VIMP04 (JQ867373) by dual culture and agar well diffusion methods against Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causative agent of pineapple disease of sugarcane. Culture filtrate and ethyl acetate extract obtained from culture supernatant of Burkholderia sp.VIMP04 (JQ867373) showed prominent antifungal activity. HPLC analysis confirmed that bacterium produced different organic acids including acetic, oxalic and formic acids. Acetic acid was predominantly produced by the bacterium. The GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract revealed that antifungal fraction contained 09 principal compounds including tetratetracontane, 10-Heneicosene, eicosene 7-hexyl, cyclohexane (6-cyclopentyl-3-(3- cyclopentylpropyl) hexyl, heptadecane 9-hexyl and other fatty acid-, alcoholic- and phtalic acid derivatives. Hence the culture under study can be used as biocontrol agent.
99 ANTIFUNGAL ASPECTS OF BURKHOLDERIA SP.VIMP04 (JQ867373) INHIBITING SOIL-BORNE FUNGAL PATHOGEN OF SUGARCANE , Dr. Shrikumar Vijaykumar Mahamuni*
The objective of the present study was to investigate antifungal features of Burkholderia sp.VIMP04 (JQ867373) by dual culture and agar well diffusion methods against Ceratocystis paradoxa, the causative agent of pineapple disease of sugarcane. Culture filtrate and ethyl acetate extract obtained from culture supernatant of Burkholderia sp.VIMP04 (JQ867373) showed prominent antifungal activity. HPLC analysis confirmed that bacterium produced different organic acids including acetic, oxalic and formic acids. Acetic acid was predominantly produced by the bacterium. The GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extract revealed that antifungal fraction contained 09 principal compounds including tetratetracontane, 10-Heneicosene, eicosene 7-hexyl, cyclohexane (6-cyclopentyl-3-(3- cyclopentylpropyl) hexyl, heptadecane 9-hexyl and other fatty acid-, alcoholic- and phtalic acid derivatives. Hence the culture under study can be used as biocontrol agent.
100 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATERNAL ZINC INTAKE, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AND STUNTING IN 6 MONTH OLD INFANTS , *Dr. Saad Tawfeeq Najm and Dr. Ahmed Oraibi Salman
Stunting is a form of malnutrition that has an impact on decreased learning achievement, motor, mental and intellectual development. Exclusive breastfeeding is a perfect nutrition for the First 1,000 days of life for normal growth. Maternal nutritional status also plays an important role for the success of breastfeeding whose indicators are measured by the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the nutritional status of children. Adequacy of zinc is an important micronutrient during the child's growth period to prevent growth failure. The current study aimed to analyze the relationship between maternal zinc intake, nutritional status, exclusive breastfeeding and stunting in 6 month old infants. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fallujah Teaching Hospital on 90 infants aged 6 months and their mothers. Zinc intake data was obtained by the 24 hours recall. Body mass index was used to obtain data on maternal nutritional status. The stunting data measured by microtoise, and the other information were collected in a questionnaire form. Exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.53; p=0.192) and maternal zinc intake (OR=0.83; p=0.913) directly decreased the risk of stunting in infants. Maternal BMI indirectly affected the risk of stunting in infants through exclusive breastfeeding (OR=3.28; p=0.006). It can be concluded that exclusive breastfeeding and maternal zinc intake directly decrease the risk of stunting in infants. Maternal BMI (Body Mass Index) indirectly affects the risk of stunting in infants through exclusive breastfeeding.
101 STUDY THE LEVELS OF NITRIC OXIDE, MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AMONG TERM NEONATES WITH SEPSIS , *Dr. Ahlam Mohammed Jawad Ibrahim, Dr. Sahar Awad Hassan and Shatha Jaafer Naser
Neonatal sepsis with its high mortality rate still remains a diagnostic and treatment challenge for neonatal health care providers. Sepsis represents an oxidative stress condition when occurs in neonates due to rapid changes in tissue oxygen concentrations with immature antioxidant mechanisms. Our study aimed to study serum levels of oxidants and antioxidants levels among term neonates with sepsis. This case-control study included 30 full term newborns with sepsis in addition to 30 healthy newborns as controls, recruited from NICU of the pediatric department at Al-Alawiya pediatric hospital. Full history, thorough clinical examination, complete blood count (CBC), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood culture were performed to all included patients. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAO) were assayed to all included neonates using colorimetric methods. The overall results showed statistically significant higher serum levels of MDA and NO with lower TAO levels among septic neonates when compared with the controls (P value<0.01). Additionally, all the previously measured biochemical oxidative stress markers didn't show significant differences between early and late onset septic groups. It can be concluded from this study that there is a strong evidence of involvement of oxidative stress in neonatal sepsis, mainly NO, MDA and TAO, and could be helpful in its diagnosis. Also, targeting of therapeutic strategies towards the pro-oxidant pathways may be beneficial in neonatal sepsis.
102 CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUDANESE IPOMOEA SINENSIS (CONVOLVULACEAE) OIL , Abdel Karim M.*, Shaza T., Um-Alhasan T. and Al-Hafez M.
Ipomoea is a large and diverse genus in the family Convolvulaceae with more than 600 species mainly distributed through tropical and subtropical regions. Ipomoea species have a long history of traditional uses. Some of these species are nutritionally important In this study the oil from Ipomoea sinensis was studied by GC-MS and the antimicrobial activity was evaluated. The GC-MS analysis showed twenty constituents. Major constituents are : 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester(32.29%), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (25.27%), methyl stereate(14.64%) and 9- octadecenoic acid methyl ester(7.32%),. In the cup plate agar diffusion assay, The studied oil showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.
103 DETECTION OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE USING 2D- REGIONAL (SEGMENTAL) LONGITUDINAL STRAIN (RLS) COMPARED WITH CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY IN PATIENT WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME , Dr. Ghazi Farhan Haji, *Imad Mahmood Hussein, Dr. Wajih Qasim Taha
Speckle-tracking echocardiography is a new noninvasive ultrasound imaging technique that allows for evaluation of global and regional myocardial function. Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of regional (segmental) longitudinal strain by 2D - STE for pick up culprit vessels in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) by detecting ischemic segments of the corresponding territories and its severity compared with coronary angiography as a gold standard, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This cross sectional study was performed in Baghdad teaching hospital / Iraq during the period from March 2017 to March 2018 on (50) patients with (ACS) who underwent 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) for left ventricular regional longitudinal strain (RLS) immediately before invasive coronary angiography. Results showed that the mean age of patients was 57.2 (+ 7.9) years, regional longitudinal strain-speckle tracking showed that 38 patients had coronary artery disease (CAD) and 12 patients had no CAD, versus coronary angiography which showed that 29 patients had CAD, while 21 patient had no CAD or non significant lesions. The validity of RLS according to coronary angiography showed 100% sensitivity, 57.1% specificity, 76.3% positive predictive value (PPV), 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and 82% accuracy. It can be concluded from the current study that (RLS) Speckle-tracking echocardiography technique has high sensitivity but with relatively low specificity in diagnosis of coronary artery disease in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
104 COMBINATION CONCENTRATION OF LIME LEAVES EXTRACT AND GALANGAL RHIZOME ON MORTALITY OF AEDES AEGYPTI LARVAE , Dr. Pius Weraman* and Yohanes Mau Abanit
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a contagious disease and often appears to be Extraordinary Event as it spreads very fast and can cause death. Efforts to prevent DHF can be done by breakingup the life cycle of chemical vectors by utilizing lime leaves (citrus aurantifolia) and galangal rhizomes (Alpina galanga) which have the potential as natural larvicides because they contain chemical compounds consisting of limonoids, flavonoids and phenols. The City of Kupang is a yearlyendemic area of dengue where the cases of the disease has increased in the last three years. This study is aimed at determining the effectiveness of the combination of the concentration of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome on the mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae. This type of research is a pure experiment using a Completely Randomized Design as the research design. There were three treatments of concentration used, namely 0% concentration, LC50 combination of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome, LC90 combination of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome with a number of repetitions three times. The results of the study, the combination of LC50 of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome was able to cut off the life cycle of 19 larvae (76%), while the combination of LC90 of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome was able to completely cut off the larval life cycle of 25 larvae (100%). The result of the One-Way Anova Test analysis on the treatment of a combination of LC50 and LC90extracts of lime leaves and galangal rhizomes to Aedes Aegypti larvae mortality during 24 hours obtained sig (p) = 0.00 (p <0.05) showed that the combination of LC50 extract lime leaves and galangal rhizome and LC90combination of lime leaf extract and galangal rhizome have the effect of treatment on the number of larvae deaths of Aedes aegypti instar III and IV. The Least Significant Difference Test (LSD) analysis of the three treatment concentrations of Aedes aegypti larvae mortality showed a difference in treatment because a sig (p) = 0.00 (p <0.05) was obtained.
105 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF FUSARIUM SPP. ASSOCIATE WITH POTATO TUBER DRY ROT DISEASE: GROWTH RATE AND PATHOGENICITY IN RELATION TO ELICITATION OF PHYTOALEXINS IN INOCULATED TISSUES. , Maha H. Mohamed and *Dr. Mostafa H. Mostafa
Potato tubers collected from different stores in Cairo Governorate and stored at laboratory conditions showed the occurrence of dry rot symptoms on high proportion of them accompanied by appearance of whit mycelia mats characterized Fusarium spp. Such fungi were isolated, purified and identified according to their morphological characters and identified as F. solani (5 isolates), F. semitectum (4 isolates), F. equisiti (5 isolates), F. oxysporum (5 isolates) and one unknown species. Pathogenecity test of such isolates on potato tuber slices Balmivore cv. indicated the presence of different degrees of virulence between isolates either belong to the same species or not. In general F. solani isolates showed the higher degree of verulance. Correlation coefficient between fungal growth and disease severity reached – 0.0624 indicating the absence of any relation between both phenomena. The ability of such isolates as phytoalexin elicitors was studied. Some isolates especially related to F. solani appeared more active than the others which belong to another Fusarium spp. Correlation coefficient between disease index and number of phytoalexin bands reached -0.15. However, it was noticed that Fusarium solani isolates which showed high disease index elicit the higher account bands of phytoalexins which mean that these compounds have relation with disease incidence.
106 THE USE OF DCR SILICON STENTS TO CORRECT PTOSIS WITH POOR LEVATOR ACTION DURING FRONTALIS SLING SURGERY , *Dr. Muthanna Abdul Khudhur, Nada Mohammed Fahad and Ghadah Hashim Hasan
When levator function is poor or absent, frontalis sling is one of the preferred methods of treatment of ptosis. Various materials have been used for frontalis slings with varying results. The current retrospective study was performed in Al-Karama teaching hospital-Baghdad / Iraq during the period from 2014 to 2018, and aimed to find an effective, easily available and lasting frontalis sling material with minimal complications. DCR Silicone stents were used for brow suspension in cases of ptosis with poor levator action (less than 5 mm) in the form of a single rhomboid like in FOX method with slight modification. Retrospectively all the records of these patients were retrieved and the surgical results studied and analyzed. Mean follow up period was 2.6 years. Good long term functional results (assessed in terms of eyelid height, skin crease depth, eyelid contour and patient satisfaction) and achieved in 33 eyelids [90%]. Under correction was noticed in 3 eyelids [8%]. Re-surgery was done for these patients and all of them improved well. Lagophthalmos and mild corneal exposure were noticed in 6 eyelids which improved after the use of artificial tear eye drops and ointments. It can be concluded from this study that Silicone DCR stents tube is good alternative to AFL as a frontalis sling material as its functional results (90%) almost match that of AFL. In addition it has lesser complications compared to many other synthetic sling materials available. Compared to AFL, it has the advantage of avoiding second incision in the leg and can be done under local anesthesia.
107 MANAGEMENT OF INFERTILITY THROUGH VIRECHANA FOLLOWED BY GO-GHRITA: A CLINICAL STUDY. , Dr. Sheetal Gupta* and Dr. Rahul Sharma
Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contraception couple to achieve spontaneous pregnancy in 1 year. Shodhana procedures are indicated in the case of Vitiation of Shukra. Go-Ghrita (cow Ghee) is a rejuvenator and aphrodisiac. Maximum preparations for the disease of Shukra and reproductive system are prepared in Go-Ghrita and reported to be useful in the management of infertility.
108 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE CASES AND DEATHS OF ANTHRAX IN CATTLE, SHEEP AND GOATS FROM 1997 TO 2016 IN THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA , Dr. Mamadou Dian Diallo*, Youssouf Sidimé, Lansana Soumah and Mamadou Cellou Baldé
The objective of this research is to make a comparative study between the cases of anthrax and the death of cattle, sheep and goats from 1997 to 2016 in the Republic of Guinea. The results obtained show the permanent frequency of sick and dead cattle in the areas visited with a significant difference between (a) and (c); (b) and (d); (ab) and (cd); (bc) and (de) but there is no significant difference between (a) and (ab); (b) and (bc); (c) and (cd); (d) and (de). Also, the number of sick cattle is not proportional to the number of dead cattle. Which means that among the sick there were treated and healed. In sheep, the disease cases between 2002 and 2006 are higher than in other years, this is due to the low immunization coverage and the poor application of sanitation measures and the improper management of corpses and other waste in affected areas. The number of deaths relative to the number of cases of disease in goats in the period 2002-2006 has increased remarkably. The lack of awareness of the symptoms of the disease by farmers and the lack of means to treat their animals must be at the root of this situation. Morbidity and mortality rates vary according to the years of observation, the highest peak was observed during the interval 1997 - 2001 while the lowest was recorded in 2012 - 2016. This indicates constantly improving vaccination coverage and strengthening the vigilance of agents of the Animal Disease Network in Guinea in endemic areas.
109 EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF SURVIVAL RATE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED INDIGENOUS TREE SPECIES UNDER DIFFERENT POLYTHENE TUBE SIZE , Sibhatleab Hintsa and Gebrekidan Abrha*
In arid and semi-arid areas land rehabilitation was potentially affecting from poor survival rate due to moisture stress and short rainfall duration. The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare survival rate and growth performance of selected indigenous tree species (Ziziphus spina-christi, Fadherbia albida, Tamarinadus indica and Acacia amara) at different pot size (8 cm, 10 cm, 12cm and 16 cm diameter size of polythen tube). The produced seedlings were transplanted to abergelle agricultural research station which found at gereb-giba. The sapling monitored for one year through recording their survival rate and height at every three month. The difference in polythen tube size doesn’t show significant different for all saplings. However, without considering the polythen tube size Tamarinadus indica and Acacia amara indicates better survival rate in the site. The plant height also doesn’t show significant difference for the diameter size across all transplanted species. This result suggests there could be a holistic study from seed collection to post plantation management activities.
110 METHODS TO PREPARE SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BCS CLASSIFIED DRUGSON THE UTILIZATION OF VARIOUS CARRIERS: AN UPDATED REVIEW , Dr. CH. Suryakumari*, S. Sureshbabu, S. K. Asha Begham, G. Durgarao, K. Venketeswerarao
In preparation of formulation, the solubility factor remains a key concern. Now a day, many drugs especially in BCS class II and IV are observed to have less solubility. Among all solubility enhancing techniques practiced in pharmaceutical field, solid dispersions have proved to be most suitable for improving the bioavailability of these chemical entities. During the preparation of solid dispersion, carriers play a vital role in enhancing the dissolution of hydrophobic drugs. This article however reviews various methods and carriers used for the preparation of solid dispersion, with main emphasis on which carriers and methods have been widely used by researchers over the decades, till now.
111 DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING HYPOTHYROIDISM AMONG WOMEN IN, A.C.S MEDICAL COLLEGE AND HOSPITAL, CHENNAI , Mrs. I. Roselin Anitha Margreat*, Mrs. Prof. M. Parameswari and Mrs. Dr. Hema V. H.
Worldwide, prevalence of spontaneous hypothyroidism is between 1 and 2%, and it is 10 times more common in women than in men. (Vanderpump 2014). In India, Population-based study done in Cochin on 971 adult subjects revealed that the prevalence was higher in women (11.4%), when compared with men, in whom the prevalence was 6.2%. (Unnikrishnan 2011). In Tamilnadu, A total of 1292 subjects were screened of whom 161 subjects (12.5%) had abnormal TSH. (Velayutham 2015) .Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Hypothyroidism among women.Find the Co-relation between Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Hypothyroidism among women.Find the association between the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Hypothyroidism among women with their demographic variables.A Descriptive study was conducted over a period of 3-10-2018 to 29-10-2018 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hypothyroidism among Women from A.C.S medical college and hospital, By using purposive Sampling technique total 50 samples, 2 to 3 samples visited the OPD every day . The data was collected using interview techniques with a questionnaire to assess Knowledge, Five point likert scale to assess the level of attitude, check list to assess the level of practice. At the end of the data collection information booklet was given to the study participants, the data gathered were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics and interpretation were made on the basis of the objectives of the study. With regard to Level of Knowledge 17(34%) had Inadequate Knowledge, 30(60%) had Moderately Adequate Knowledge, 3(6.0%) had Adequate Knowledge. Level of Attitude 1(2.0%) had Not Concerned, 13(26.0%) had Quite Concerned, 36(72.0%) had Extremely Concerned. Level of Practice 17(34.0%) had Inadequate, 24(48.0%) had Moderately Adequate, 9(18.0%) had Adequate. The study concluded that majority 30% of women had moderately adequate knowledge, 36% of women had extremely concerned of attitude,24% of women had moderately adequate level of practice. The results can help the women with hypothyroidism understand various aspects of hypothyroidism management and follow up .It is the responsibility of the nurses to create understanding on the disease to reduce the complication related to hypothyroidism
112 REVIEW ON LIQUISOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE , Tanzeel Majeed*, Mohd. Iqbal Bhat, Ganesh N. S. and Vineeth Chandy
Dissolution of a drug and its release from the dosage form has basic impact on bioavailability. The active amount of the drug present at the target site depends upon solubility. The major challenge that the pharmaceutical industry is facing is the Solubility of the drug with the development of new pharmaceutical products.[1] There solubility can be enhanced by various approaches which includes micronization, Nanonisation, use of salt forms, use of surfactant, solid dispersion, and supercritical fluid recrystallization etc. Liquisolid technique is a latest and promising approach towards such novel drug delivery system, that the solubility of the insoluble drug moiety is enhanced by the using non-volatile solvents and hence improves the dissolution and bioavailability.[2] The experiment involves dissolving the insoluble drug into a non-volatile solvent and the mixture of a drug loaded solutions with appropriate carrier and coating materials are added to convert it into acceptably flowing and compressible powders.[3] The pharmaceutical medications such as solutions or suspensions which are water insoluble drugs in a suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be easily converted into powder form with acceptable flow properties and compression behaviour using suitable powder excipients.[4] The use of non-volatile solvent leads to improved wettability, improved solubility and ensures molecular dispersion of drug in the formulation. By using non-volatile solvents the release of the drugs can be modified by this technique, also solubility and dissolution rate can be improved, sustained drug delivery systems can be developed for the water soluble drugs.[5]
113 A REVIEW ON ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND SPECTRUM OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN CANCER PATIENTS , S. K. Jareena*, S. K. Hafeezunnisa, Sreenu Thalla and Padmalatha Kantamneni
In cancer patients, there is psychological distress most of the time underdiagnosed. Infertility rates are as high as 90% in men during there reproductive years. Common psychological and emotional responses to cancer develop with its diagnosis, its prognostic uncertainty and fears about death and dying. Indian patients put karma/fate and sheer helplessness on its first diagnosis and its major sources of continuing emotional distress are fear of incurability, disfigurement, recurrence of disease and sense of helplessness over its treatment, pain. Non-utilization of the community-based cervical cancer screening program was due to the absence of symptoms, apprehensions about the screening test, pre-occupation with family problems, practical difficulties and lack of approval from the spouse. Depression and anxiety were common in people who do not have kids. Maybe kids not having itself is a factor for depression or anxiety but having kids also give a sense of social support to the patient and unmarried are with high anxiety levels.
114 A BRIEF REVIEW ON DEMENTIA -INFLUENCE OF HYPERTENSION ON IT , *Shailaja Kali, Idpuganti Sudheer Babu, Hemanth Kumar Muttevi, Manasa Pydi
Dementia is world’s fifth leading cause of mortality. It is an term for several diseases affecting memory, other cognitive abilities and behavior. There are mainly three types of dementia are seen commonly allover the world, there are Vascular dementia, Alzheimer disease and Mixed dementia. Vascular dementia cover 40% in the whole dementia, Alzheimer's disease occupy nearly 60% of dementia but Mixed dementia is more prevalent it is due to other types of dementia are less prevalent. dementia is influenced by several factors like hypertension,age, obesity etc… but main risk factor is hypertension and it is also differ based on age as mid life hypertension seen in people of middle age 40-65years and late life hypertension see in people of 75years or above. In this article we come over about dementia, types of dementia with etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of each type and influence of hypertension on dementia with recent evidences through studies on it along with world wide and India wide future projections on incidence of dementia up to 2050 and recent age standardization death rates worldwide.
115 CHURG–STRAUSS SYNDROME: A REVIEW , *Prof. Savitha Mol G. M., Silvia Navis A. and Prasobh G. R.
Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare diffusive granulomatous necrotizing small vessel vasculitis characterized by the presence of asthma, sinusitis, and hypereosinophilia. The cause of this allergic angiitis and granulomatosis is unknown. Other common manifestations are pulmonary infiltrates, skin, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular involvement. No data have been reported regarding the role of immune complexes or cell mediated mechanisms in this disease, although autoimmunity is evident with the presence hypergammaglobulinemia, increased levels of IgE and Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (positive in 40%). Th2 response is of special importance in the up regulation of different interleukins such as IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5. Th1 and Th17 responses are also of significance. Activated eosinophils have a prolonged survival and probably cause tissue damage by releasing eosinophil granule proteins, while their tissue recruitment can be regulated by chemokines such as eotaxin-3 and CCL17. The aim of this review is to find out the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to Churg- Strauss Syndrome.
116 A REVIEW ON CORONA VIRUS (COVID-19) , Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale*, Quazi Bilal Ansar, Shubham Sanap , Suraj Thakhre, Shreya Wadatkar, Rohit Bairagi, Prof. Suraj Sagrule and Prof. Dr. K. R. Biyani
Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped viruses with nonsegmented, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA genomes. Apart from infecting a variety of economically important vertebrates (such as pigs and chickens), six coronaviruses have been known to infect human hosts and cause respiratory diseases. Among them, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses that have resulted in regional and global outbreaks Coronaviruses possess a distinctive morphology, the name being derived from the outer fringe, or ―corona‖ of embedded envelope protein. Members of the family Coronaviridae cause a broad spectrum of animal and human diseases. Uniquely, replication of the RNA genome proceeds through the generation of a nested set of viral mRNA molecules. Human coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes respiratory diseases with mild to severe outcomes. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic, highly pathogenic HCoVs: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Replication of HCoV is regulated by a diversity of host factors and induces drastic alterations in cellular structure and physiology. In this review all (as we possible) information about Corona viruses are given.
117 ARKA KALPANA - A DEVELOPING SCIENCE , Gite Shweta*, Kurkute B. R., Suryawanshi Renuka and Tapre Sachin
Bhaishajya kalpana is the branch of Ayurveda which primarily deals with the different kinds of dosage form and their therapeutic utility. Among the large number of formulations specified by Acharya, the panchvidha kasaya kalpanas have great importance as they form the primary or basic dosage forms from which other secondary dosage forms are prepared. Arka kalpana is a very unique formulation in ayurvedic pharamaceutics for its method of preparation and efficacy. According to Ravana’s Arka Prakasha, the Panchvidha kalpanas include Kalka, Choorna, Rasa, Taila and Arka. Arka kalpana is given specific importance and it opines that it has more potency in comparison to the other kalpanas. It is most potent due to dosharahithatva and its specific gunas. Arka kalpana is now days famous kalpana among the ayurvedic procedures. It is introduced in Ayurvedic pharmacy in later paet of samhita period, which is very specific in its mode of preparation and therapeutic effect. So there arises a need to know the simplified procedures and methodologies involved in the preparation of this formulation which can be easily understandable and applicable both in industrial level as well as testing scientific laboratories.
118 EVALUATE THE BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND DETERMINE THE KNOWLEDGE AND HEALTH BELIEF AMONG WOMEN FOLLOWING OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION PROGRAMME AT SELECTED COMMUNITY AREA, CHENNAI , Mrs. G. Jelin Elizabeth*, Mrs. Prof. Parameswari and Mrs. Dr. Hema V. H.
Introduction: The skeletal system is the support structure of our body. Bones do a brilliant job to sustain our life which necessitates the importance of maintaining bone health. A healthy skeletal system with strong bones is essential to overall health and quality of life. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the bone mineral density among women above 35 years and the effectiveness of Osteoporosis Prevention programme on the Knowledge and Health Belief regarding Osteoporosis among women, to find out correlation between Knowledge, Health Belief regarding Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density among women and association of the Knowledge, Health Belief regarding Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density among women with the selected demographic variables. Methods: Quasi experimental, post-test only design was adopted, samples were selected from Nazerthpet area and Meppur, ponnamalle, Chennai by using the purposive sampling technique, 30 sample were in study group, 30 sample were in control group. Osteoporosis Knowledge Questionnaire and Health Belief scale was used to assess the Knowledge and Health Belief regarding osteoporosis. For the study group investigator given education on prevention of osteoporosis foe 30 min weekly two times for 4 days. for control group the investigator did not give education. Post assessment was conducted on 14 days of the intervention. Result: BMD score revealed that 25(83.3%) had normal BMD and 5(16.7%) had osteopenia among women in the experimental group. During Post assessment, in study group experimental group, maximum 17(56.67%) were in the age group of 35 – 45 years, almost all were married, living in rural area. The overall posttest level of knowledge on osteoporosis among women revealed that, high level score of 17(56.67%) had adequate knowledge in the experimental group and 29(96.67%) had inadequate knowledge in the control group. The overall posttest level of Health Belief among women revealed that, 29(96.67%) had high level of Health Belief in the experimental group and 19(63.33%) had moderate level of Health Belief in the control group. The posttest mean score of knowledge in the experimental group was 21.77±4.53 and the posttest mean score in the control group was 4.50±3.71 test value of ‘t’ knowledge (t = 16.147) was found to be statistically highly significant at p<0.001. Conclusion: The study concludes that education on osteoporosis prevention Programme helps to improve the knowledge and modify their heath belief thereby adapting preventive behavior to reduce the occurrence of Osteoporosis.
119 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION EDUCATION COMMUNICATION ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING HYPOGLYCEMIA AMONG PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS IN A SELECTED COMMUNITY AREA , Mahalakshmi L.* and Dr. Hema V. H.
A quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness of information education communication on knowledge regarding hypoglycemia among patients with diabetes mellitus The 60 study samples selected by non probability sampling technique. The data collected with the help of demographic data, clinical variables and self structured questionnaire regarding hypoglycemia. The study results shows that after the IEC the level of knowledge improved as 80% had moderately adequate level of knowledge, 16.67% had inadequate level of knowledge and 3.33% had adequate knowledge in experimental group. The effectiveness of IEC is proved effective at p<0.05 level. The study conclude that the Nurses are health care providers actively involved in prevention and early detection of diabetes and its complications by conducting various education methods.
120 A STUDY ON DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS DUE TO POLYPHARMACY IN TERITARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN INDIA , Lakshmi Meghana Potluri*, Mohana Mudhitha Vadlapatla, Jyothirmayee Kongara, Dhanush Bellapu, Padmalatha Kantamneni
The study was conducted to monitor the clinically significant complexity occur due to the use of multiple drug therapy which may further lead to drug drug interactions (DDI’S). Drug interaction generally refers to a modification of the expected drug response in the patient as a result of exposure of the patient to another drug or substance. DDIs became the commonest problem globally the overall DDIs which had occurred has been reported and recorded. The clinical outcomes may increase the risk of drug toxicity or increase adverse drug report (ADR). DDIs are divided into three groups depending on the underlying mechanism of interaction: pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic interactions. Polypharmacy is considered as one of the major risk factors in precipitation of DDIs. Patient population at high risk include the elderly and patients with co-morbidities as they are usually prescribed with more number of drugs. Critical evaluation of such prescriptions by pharmacist could result in identification and reduction of such problems.
121 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY: KNOWLEDGE ON SEXUAL ABUSE AND ITS PREVENTIVE MEASURES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS , Vinutha G., *Arathi T. V. and Hemanth C. K.
Sexual abuse or child molestation is one of the crimes which needs public attention. The number of sexual abuse cases among children has been increasingly reporting every year. Child sexual abuse will have adverse effect on both physical and mental health which hinders growth and development of child. It is not acceptable by the society thus; every member of the society should take initiation and be responsible in preventing sexual abuse. the purpose of the study is to assess the effectiveness of planned or structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding sexual abuse among adolescent girls aged between 13-15. An experimental study was conducted among 100 girls (experimental-50 & control-50) studying in Sri Bhakthanatha Swamy High School, BG Nagara. Samples were selected through systemic random sampling. STP was given only for experimental group. The knowledge score of the experimental group during the pre-test was 41.6%, whereas it increased to 86.13% during the post-test as an effectiveness of STP (t== 26.72, p<0.05 significant). Ongoing teaching and health education can further improve the knowledge of adolescent girls.
122 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF OXCARBAZEPINE USING DIFFERENT POLYMERS , Sadiya Firdouse*
The aim of present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the sustained release tablets of Oxcarbazepine. These matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method using natural polymers like Aloes Powder,Gum copal, Gum dammar. In vitro drug release studies were performed by USP dissolution apparatus type II using 0.1N HCL buffer and 6.8 Phosphate buffer for 12hrs. Among all the 12 formulations Formulation F9 showed maximum drug release 99.53% for 12hrs study. It was observed from the kinetic studies that all the formulation followed Peppas-Release kinetics.
123 MANAGEMENT OF PATHOGENIC FUNGI, THROUGH BIOPESTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME COMMON WEEDS OF NASHIK, MAHARASHTRA , Dr. Kirankumar R. Khandare*
The present investigation has been undertaken to manage two fungal crop pathogens i.e Alternaria alternate and Fusarium oxysporum., through common weeds (Cocculus hirsutus L., Aristolochia bractiata, Achyranthus aspara L., Celosia argentea and Hemidesmus indicus.), which gave very better results as antifungal activity. Tridax procumbes L., Ageritum conyzoids, found more effective to manage pathogens at 25% concentrations of leaf extracts as a biopesticides.
124 AMELIORATIVE ROLE OF MIXED HYDRO-METHANOL SOLVENT EXTRACT (60:40) OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES ON CHROMIUM-INDUCED MEMBRANE DAMAGE AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN COMPLEXES IN LIVER AND LUNGS , Durga Pada Dolai, Soumita Dey, Amit Nandi, Somenath Roy and Sankar Kumar Dey*
 Mitochondria are the crossroads of several crucial cellular activities; they produce considerable quantities of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, which can damage important macromolecules. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), a Cr (VI) compound, is the most toxic form of chromium and has been demonstrated to induce toxicity associated with oxidative stress in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to elucidate the ameliorative effects of mixed hydro-methanol solvent extract at the ratio of 60:40 of Andrographis paniculata Nees on chromium-induced membrane damage and electron transport chain (ETC) in liver and lungs mitochondria. In this investigation, a group of male Wistar rats (80-100 g) were induced by intraperitonial injection of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), K2Cr2O7 (0.8 mg / 100 g body weight / day), K2Cr2O7 plus mixed hydro-methanol solvent extract in the ratio of 60:40 at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight daily at an interval of six hours after injection of K2Cr2O7 for a period of 28 days. Significantly decreased the Mito ETC Complex-I, II and III of Cr (VI) treated rats in liver and lungs mitochondria. On the other hand, increased the membrane cholesterol level but decreased the membrane phospholipid, membrane total ATPase and membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity in response to Cr (VI) toxicity in liver and lungs. The results of the present study suggest that the administration of mixed hydro-methanol solvent extract in the ratio of 60:40 significantly supplement the chromium-induced such alterations in rat’s liver and lungs.
125 MANAGEMENT OF PRIMARY OPTIC ATROPHY W.S.R TO VATAJ TIMIR – A CASE STUDY , Vd. Puja Sharadchandra Pandit* and Dr. Nisar Ali Khan
Optic nerve shrinkage from any process that produce degeneration of axons in anterior visual (Retino-geniculate) pathway i.e. from retinal ganglion cells to lateral geniculate body, manifesting with disturbance in visual function. Primary optic atrophy refers to the simple degeneration of the nerve fibers without any inflammatory conditions within the eye. Primary Optic Atrophy can be co-related with the Vataj Timir in Ayurveda. Optic atrophy treatments in Ayurveda are aimed at preserving vision, slowing down or reserving the degeneration in the retina and optic nerve and treating the cause[1] The line of treatment of Primary Optic Atrophy (Vataj Timir) involves Netratarpan, Nasya, Basti (Majjabasti), Mrudu Virechana, Abhayantarh Snehapan, with systemic Dashamularishta, Ashwagandhasiddha dugdha, Saptamrit Loha.[2] These are curative measures for Vata dosha, which nourish nervous tissues and improve axoplasmic transport.
126 AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA (DOSHANDHA)-A CASE STUDY , Dr. Shital Rajkumar Meshram* and Dr. A. P. Vaijwade
Retinitis Pigmentosa is (RP) an inherited, degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment due to the progressive degeneration of rod photoreceptor cells in retina. This form of retinal dystrophy manifests initial symptoms independent of age; thus, RP diagnosis occurs anywhere from early infancy to the adulthood. This primary pigmentary retinal dystrophy is a hereditary disorder predominantly affecting the rods more than the cones. The main classical triads of retinitis pigmentosa are arteriolar attenuation, Retinal bone spicule pigmentation and waxy disc pallor. The main treatment of retinitis pigmentosa is using Low vision aids and Genetic counselling. As such a complete cure for retinitis pigmentosa is not present. So a treatment protocol has to be adopted that helps in at least the symptomatic relief. In Ayurveda, the signs and symptoms of this can be compared with the Lakshanas of Doshandha which is one among the Drishtigata Roga. It is considered as a diseased condition in which sunset will obliterate the Drishti Mandala and makes the person blind at night time. During morning hours the rising sunrays will disperse the accumulated Doshas from Drishti to clear vision. This disease resembles Kaphajatimira in its pathogenesis, but the night blindness is the special feature. Since the disease is purely Kaphaja, a treatment attempt is planned in Kaphahara and Bruhana line. The present paper discusses a case of Retinitis Pigmentosa and its Ayurvedic Treatment.
127 ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM DISTEMONENTHUS BENTHAMIANUS BAILL (FABACEAE) SHEETS ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF DIABETIC RATES. , Adélaide Ryta Mande Doue, Cassime Tiemoko*, Justine Tiekpa Wawa, Alain Dit Philippe Bidie and Noël Guédé Zihiri
This work deals with the effect of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of stem bark of Distemonenthus benthamianus, family Fabaceae, on the evolution of some biochemical parameters in Wistar rats made diabetic with alloxane. Natural substances and compounds have shown great potential in the treatment of human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and infectious diseases. The stem bark of Distemonenthus benthamianus was harvested, dried, crushed and subjected to aqueous and hydroethanolic (70/30) extraction. After chemical screening the various extracts of Distemonenthus benthamianus at different doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) and amarel were administered by daily gavage for twenty-eight (28) days to forty (40) rats of albino wistar strains made diabetic with alloxane at a dose of 120 mg/kg; these rats were divided into eight batches of five rats each. At the end of treatment the animals were sacrificed and blood glucose, insulin, renal, lipid and cardiac parameters were determined. The phytochemical test of the different extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) of Distemonenthus benthamianus revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides (sterols and triterpenes), polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones. The results of the pharmacological study obtained show an improvement of the various biochemical parameters of rats treated with the hydroethanolic extract of Distemonenthus benthamianus at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Distemonenthus benthamianus could delay the onset of degenerative complications of diabetes.
128 EFFECTS OF LIQUID MANURE FROM "Lantana camara", COMFREY "Symphytum officinale", AND FARM, ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CARROT "Dacus carotta" Var. Nantes IN THE REGION OF VATOVAVY FITOVINANY IN MADAGASCAR , *Randriamampianina Noelison, Ravoniarison Nivohanintsoa E., Rakotoarimanana Vonjison
This study aims to improve the productivity of carrot "Dacus carota" in “Vatovavy Fitovinany” region, in the southeastern part of Madagascar. Liquid manure from: "Lantana camara", comfrey "Symphytum officinale", farm, Lantana mixed with comfrey and Lantana mixed with farm, were used as fertilizer. They were watered at the foot of each carrot plant, at a rate of 0.5 liters repeated 3 times a week, on an experimental surface of 5 random blocks, each of which consists of 6 elementary plots of 3 m x 2.60 m. Mixed liquid manure from Lantana, comfrey and farm was more favorable for the growth in length of the leaves on the average of 48 cm. The highest average leaf weights were obtained with liquid manure from Lantana, comfrey and farm unmixed at the respective weight of 212 g, 211 g, 246 g compared to 46 g for the control. The different types of manure have significant effects on the average root weight. The carrot roots obtained after fertilization with comfrey manure have the highest average weight of 311 g compared to the control which is 48 g. Carrot root yield is almost six times higher when the crop was treated with these different manures. The best yield of 14.34 t / ha was obtained in plots fertilized with comfrey liquid manure, while for non-treated control plants, the yield was only 2.22t / ha.
129 VEGETATION COVER AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MEKARSARI BIODIVERSITY PARK , Dr. Merisa Nur Azmi*, Siti Badriyah Rushayati and Hendra Gunawan
Mekarsari Biodiversity Park (MBP) is a form of green open space owned by Aqua Golden Mississippi Inc. which the function is to improve environmental performance in the context of protecting biodiversity. Changes in the use of vegetation land into built-up land in MBP and surrounding areas is happened because of increased housing needs and industrial activities. Land cover analysis is used to determine the area of tree vegetation per block in MBP. The value of air comfort was analyzed using the Temperature Humidity Index equation, then a simple linear regression analysis to determine the relationship of the THI value with the temperature and humidity values. Qualitative descriptive analysis is done to determine the perceptions of respondents that consist of factory employees and the public of temperature and humidity of the air at the observation site outside the MBP with a range of distances that are close, medium, and far from MBP. The study results obtained regression equation THI = - 5.43 + 0.982 T + 0.0598 RH, which means an increase in air temperature (T) by 1 ° C will increase THI by 0.982. Increasing humidity (RH) by 1% will increase THI by 0.0598. Decreased air comfort when getting further away from the MBP is also seen based on measurements of temperature and humidity in the field and THI calculations. The more away from MBP, the THI value increases and falls into the uncomfortable category.
130 MANAGEMENT OF DUSHTAPRATISHYAYA W.S.R. TO CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS WITH CHATURJAT CHURNA PRADHAMAN NASYA AND VYOSHADI VATI - A SINGLE CASE STUDY , Vd. Gayatri Hemraj Bokade* and Vd. A. B. Deshmukh
Dushtapratishyaya or Chronic Rhinosinusitis is very common complaints in clinical practice seen in urban places. This drags patient to doctor because of severe headache, purulent nasal discharge, nasal obstruction, foul smell through nose, heaviness and altered olfaction. Nasal congestion, prurulent discharch, altered secretion and blockage are chief events in Dushtapratishyaya. Elimination of mucous, reliving of obstruction, cleansing the channel is the line of treatment. The present case study is about female patient having Dushtapratishyaya. Acharya Yogratnakar has advised a Chaturjat Pradhaman Nasya in treatment of Pratishyaya.[1] In other words Shodhan with tikshna, ushna, kaphahara dravyas having ugra gandha are to be selected. So Chaturjat Pradhaman Nasya and Vyoshadi vati orally as a shaman chikitsa were given to the patient which results in improvement.
131 A CLINICAL STUDY ON ADHIMANTHA AND IT'S MANAGEMENT WITH NAYANAMRITA LAUHA AND TRIPHALADI VARTI , Dr. Rutuja Sawant, Dr. Suresh Wagh*
Adhimantha is a disease which has been mentioned by Sushruta as an intense feeling of the eye, wherein eye seems to be being extracted out and churned up alongwith the involvement of the half of the head in association with specific features of the particular Dosha involved. Glaucoma is a disease which is characterized by raised intra-ocular pressure, optic disc cupping and visual field defect. The clinical study was done on 79 patients of Kaphaja Adhimantha in 4 different groups. Group A was treated with Triphaladi Varti. Group B was treated with Nayanamrita Lauha. Group C was combined group wherein both Nayanamrita Lauha and Triphaladi Varti were given. Group D was treated with placebo eye drop (Saurastra Netra Bindu). After the enrolment of the patients for this study, signs and symptoms such as dimness of vision, heaviness in head, coloured haloes, optic disc changes, IOP and visual field changes were studied before, during and after the treatment. The study indicates that combined group showed better results as compared to other groups.
132 “ROLE OF DEEPANIYA MAHAKASHAYA IN AGNIMANDYA AS AN AYURVEDIC APPETIZER” , Dr. Archana Singh* and Dr. Ashutosh Dwivedi
In the present scenario the faulty life style, food habits, food quality, sleep habits, increased level of stress etc. leads to Tridosh Prakopa & Vitiated Jatharagni (digestive fire) results in Agnimandya & Ajirna. Vitiated Jatharagni means improper digestion is marked as the reason of formation of Aama which later on initiates different types of pathogenesis. So it is important to keep the Jatharagni in balanced state for health and to avoid the diseases caused by Aama. As the digestion starts from the oral cavity there is a very important role of appetite stimulators in the process of digestion of food. Acharya Charaka has described Deepaniya Mahakashaya as appetizer. This review article is an attempt made to explain and compare the Deepan action, properties & mode of action of 10 drugs mentioned in Deepaneeya Mahakashaya according to Ayurveda & modern medical science.
133 HAIL-FALL PARAMETERS RELATED TO CROP INSURANCE COMPENSATIONS IN NORTHERN GREECE , Dr. Evangelos Tsagalidis*, Kyriakos G. Tsitouridis and Aikaterini Mylothropoulou
The Greek National Hail Suppression Program (GNHSP) is a cloud-seeding program applied with aerial means (airplane) by the Hellenic Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA), as an action to mitigate the losses from damages caused by hail in agricultural cultivation. To evaluate the program, a network of hailpads is used to measure a range of parameters of hail-fall in the national administrative region of Central Macedonia of northern Greece. A statistical analysis of the hail-fall data and associated crop insurance data reveals a linear relationship between the natural logarithm of the total kinetic energy per square meter of the hailstones and the natural logarithm of the ratio of the corresponding compensation paid for damage caused by the hail-fall to the total insured value of the crop production. This indicates that the kinetic energy of hailstones can be used as a performance index for the GNHSP in accordance with the requirements of the international standard ISO 9001:2015.
134 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE 30 MG , Dr. Jameel Abbas*, Dr. Shaikh Mohd. Naeem, Dr. Malik Tauheed Ahmad, Dr. Sayed Isar Ahmad, Dr. Masarat Begum and Dr. Shaikh Muzaffar Ahmad
The concept of Mouth Dissolve Drug Dilivery System emerged with an objective to improve patient’s compliance. These dosage forms rapidly disintegrate or dissolve to release a drug as soon as they come in contact with saliva in oral carvity, thus obviating the need for water during administration, an attribute that makes them highly attractive for pediatric and geriatric patients. Difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules (Oral solid dosage form) in common among all age groups especially on elderly and dysphasic patients. Elderly patients may find the administration of the conventional oral dosage forms difficult as they regularly require medicines to maintain healthy life. Children may also have difficulty in ingesting because of their under developed muscular nervous system. The problem of swallowing tablets is also evident in travelling patients who may not have ready access to water. Aforementioned problems can be resolved by means of Mouth Dissolving Tablets. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva within few seconds, and are true fast- dissolving tablets .Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity and are more appropriately termed as fast disintegrating tablets, as they may take about to disintegrate completely. The most common preferred route is oral rout of administration. Today oro-dispersible tablet from novel drug delivery system gain importance from patient. Which is administer to the patient to control the attack of angina or hypertension, but for immediate control, Oro-dispersible tablet is oral solid dosage form in which the tablet gets dispersed in oral cavity in absence of water. Various manufacture are formulated this formulation by various method. The most importance thing in this formulation are masking of taste of drugs. Generally oro-dispersible tablet are prepared by direct compression method. Dry granulation, wet granulation, Spry drying is the various methods for preparation of oro-dispersible tablet. Oro-dispersible tablet generally contains filler, glidant, anti-adherent super disintegrate, sweetener and resins. Evaluation parameter includes hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test. Wetting time, Disintegration time, and Dissolution test is directly proportional to the hydrophobic ingredient added for lubrication, anti-adherent, Glidant action. These hydrophobic ingredient are Magnesium Stearate. To oppose the action of magnesium stearate, hydrophilic additives are incorporated viz Sodium lauryl sulphate, Cross carmillose sodium, sodium starch glycol ate are added.
135 A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF COVID-19 DIAGNOSIS , Maher Negar Priya, S. M. Al Muied Pranto, Md. Simul Bhuiya, Jannatul Mawa Rimi and Mahbubul Morshed*
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. Up to March 29, 2020, about 5,66,000 cases have been confirmed in which 25,000 people died all over the world. Internationally, it spread in 199 countries of 5 continents. Though there is no treatment with vaccine, but some promising drugs are using in different places. Delay of diagnosis may cause the disease progression rate higher. To minimize the death toll, it is important to diagnose the patient as early as possible with multiple analyses. CT scan, antibody detection and biochemical parameter analysis can be possible way to diagnose COVID-19 early.
136 DEPENDENCE OF PRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES OF COWS OF SIMMENTAL BREED ON BODY TYPES , Murodulla Eshonqulovich Ashirov and Farkhod Rakhmatilloevich Sattorov*
The studies have shown that the level of milk productivity, the character during the lactation, the yield of dairy products per 100 kg of live weight and the payment rate for feed by dairy products of Simmental cows are interconnected with body types. For dairy cattle, milk yield for lactation is 672,5 and 958,5 kg, respectively, for milk with 4% it is 507,4 and 735,4 kg higher, milk yield for every 100 kg of live weight is 164,9 and 228, 7 kg more than the peers of the dairy-beef and beef-dairy types. The highest monthly milk yield of dairy cows was noted in the third while for dairy-beef and beef-dairy type cows in the second month of lactation. This indicates that in dairy cattle, lactation proceeded more evenly than in peers of other types. The obtained data reveals the high efficiency of the use of dairy cows for the production of milk.
137 EVALUATION AND FORMULATION OF RIFAMPICIN TABLET , *Supriyadi and Widodo Priyanto
Rifampicin is a broad spectrum of an antibiotic and commonly used as a fire line therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and is a first-line form of treatment for tuberculosis. Rifampicin tablets were made with the active ingredient of rifampicin, filler and disintegrant mixture of starch and lactose. The tablets exhibited good physical quality and dissolution. The physical properties and dissolution profile analysis of rifampicin tablets were done using DDSolver, WinSAAM, and Monolix software. Rifampicin tablet formula was made using the wet granulation method. The evaluation of the physical properties of rifampicin tablets was done by testing several parameters including hardness, friability, disintegration time, and dissolution. Dissolution profile results were analyzed using DDSolver software to determine the kinetics of drug release, WinSAAM to investigate the compartment model of conventional rifampicin tablets, and Monolix to determine the dissolution profile and rifampicin compartment model easily and practically using population-based approaches. The results showed that rifampicin tablets from the formula had a mixture of starch and lactose disintegrant was exhibit a have good physical quality and dissolution profile and meet the requirements of the Indonesian Pharmacopoeia thus, it has better efficacy.
138 EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS SEED EXTRACT OF Ricinodendron heudelotii ON THE BLOOD ELECTROLYTE AND HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS OF MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS , *Odinga T., Gabriel-Brisibe C. and Moore-Igwe, B. W.
Plants have widely being used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes, also for maintenance of a healthy biochemical system, the food intake a necessary factor. This study evaluates the effect of the intake of aqueous seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii on the blood electrolyte and hematological status of male wistar albino rats. Twenty five experimental rats were randomly grouped into five of five rats each; the control group fed with normal rat feed and water without the extract while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were in addition to normal feed and water ad libitum administered 400, 600, 800 and 1000mg/kg body weight respectively, 24 hourly for a period of 21 days. Blood samples were collected for the blood electrolyte assay; sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca++) and bicarbonate (HC03-) and hematological parameter; white blood cell (WBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Red blood cell (RBC), Packed cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Neutrophils and lymphocytes. The results obtained revealed that administration of aqueous seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii did not have significant effect p≤0.05 on the sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate concentrations, however, a significant difference p≤0.05 was observed for the calcium level. The aqueous seed extract caused a concentration dependent and statistical significant increase at p≤0.05 in RBC and WBC concentrations. A concentration dependent increase in Hb, PCV, MCH was observed, although not statistically significant. The increase in the WBC, RBC, Hb, MCHC, PCV observed suggests that the aqueous seed extract of Ricinodendron heudelotii has the potency to stimulate the production of leucocytes and red blood cells and thereby serve as an immune booster during infections and prevent anemia hence maintain the hematological balance of the body.
139 WORK INSPIRED BY CORONA VIRUS , Dr. Nikola Trifunovic*
Introduction: All in Earth magnetic field (EMF) gets magnetic properties (MP). Diamagnetic can become paramagnetic. Aim: Prove that living world is made of electric beings. Point to generator of electric potential in body. Point to enormous pathological power of anomalous magnetic fields (AMF). Present how does old organism function and how a young one, related to immune system and old age. Methodology: Published scientific works in international journals are methodological leaders of this brief information. Mentioned are physiological functions on people in medicine. Results: Physiology unclear things are cleared, cells division, breathing etc. Also presented is pathology causing enormous mortality and sicknesses. Cause are AMF. Viruses entrance into a host cell is explained. Conclusion: People are magnetic and electromagnetic beings. All chemicals are electric impulses products. Life has appeared according to a megnetic code enabled by EMF and the end of all the living beings will be when EMF disappears, as it had happened on Mars. Biologic-medical science should take into consideration physical fields in order to continue life on the planet Earth.
140 VALIDATION OF THE METHOD OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF BENZKETOZONE IN A PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE INGREDIENT , U. M. Tillaeva*, D. B. Kasimova, G. U. Tillaeva, D. T. Gaibnazarova and U. B. Yakhyaev
In the Republic of Uzbekistan, special attention is paid to the development of the pharmaceutical industry and the provision of domestic products to the population. In this regard, the expansion of the range of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drugs, using domestic resources, is a priority in the development of science and technology in the direction of modernization of production and technology in order to introduce domestic developments of medicines and medical products.
141 STUDYING OF THE INTERACTION OF SUPPOSITORY BASES WITH MEDICINAL SUBSTANCES OF COMBINED ACTION IN SUPPOSITORIES. , *Tillaeva U. M., Rakhmanova Z. A., Tillaeva G.U., Abduganiev Sh. Kh. and Yahyaev U. B.
Of the currently existing dosage forms (DF) in medical practice, rectal DF are of significant interest, among which the most common suppositories.[1] The creation of suppositories of combined action is an urgent problem of the pharmaceutical industry of the Republic.
142 TREATMENT OF COLOVESICAL FISTULA DUE TO DIVERTICULAR DISEASE WITHOUT INTRAOPERATIVE BLADDER REPAIR OR POSTOPERATIVE CYSTOGRAPHY , *Dr. Allawi Muhi Jasim, Dr. Mohammed Abdullah Mohammed and Dr. Thaker Thiab Hmood
The treatment of colovesical fistula (CVF) due to diverticular disease is complex procedure and imposes significant risk to the patient. Specifically, management of the bladder defect after fistula takedown is inconstant. In this quality improvement study, we focus on the safety of early (< 7 days) urethral catheter removal without intraoperative or postoperative bladder imaging. This retrospective study was carried out at Falluja Teaching Hospital/Iraq during the period from 2005 and 2019 on 15 patients who were operated for CVF due to diverticular disease and underwent fistula takedown. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics, operative technique and findings and postoperative outcomes. Bladder defects were only formally repaired if urothelium was visualized intraoperatively. Mean postoperative urethral catheterization was 5.7 days and bladder imaging was not performed intraoperatively or postoperatively. There were no urinary-related complications or mortalities, and mean follow-up was 200 ± 34.5 days. It can be concluded from this study that early removal of Foley catheter (< 7 days) after sigmoid resection for diverticular colovesical fistula is safe in select cases. Routine intraoperative primary bladder repair and postoperative bladder imaging is not required when the defect is small or when no gross hole with direct vision of the urothelium is found.
143 EVALUATION OF STEPWISE UTERINE SPARING METHOD IN MANAGING PLACENTA ACCRETA SURGICALLY , *Dr. Arabiya Abdulghafoor Ahmed
This prospective and observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology of Al-Falluja Teaching Hospital in Iraq. The study included (100) primigravida female patients in the third trimester (after 32 weeks gestation) with pregnancy induced hypertension. Serum uric acid assay was done then the patients were classified into three groups according to uric acid level; Group I (low hyperuricemia) uric acid below 25th percentile (5.8 mg/dl). Follow up of maternal outcome as (eclampsia, HELLP, acute renal failure and accidental hemorrhage) and fetal outcomes (stillbirth, prematurity, IUGR and IUFD). Other obstetric complications that can affect pregnancy. Other medical diseases and severe pre-eclampsia that need urgent termination were excluded. This study aimed to determine the relationship between hyperuricemia and perinatal results in pregnancy induced hypertension. Results showed a significant increase in serum uric acid, urea and creatinine in the high group compared to the middle and low ones. Bad fetal outcome and pregnancy complications were directly proportionate to the serum uric acid levels. It can be concluded from the current study that these data reinforce the general agreement about the utility of hyperuricemia in the prognosis of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancy induced hypertension. Serum uric acid level measurements are a useful and inexpensive marker for predicting adverse perinatal outcomes.
144 DETERMINATION THE ROLE OF HYPERURICEMIA IN PERINATAL CONSEQUENCES OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION , *Dr. Fidaa Najim Abdullah and Dr. Bushra Farhan Awadh
This prospective and observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology of Al-Falluja Teaching Hospital in Iraq. The study included (100) primigravida female patients in the third trimester (after 32 weeks gestation) with pregnancy induced hypertension. Serum uric acid assay was done then the patients were classified into three groups according to uric acid level; Group I (low hyperuricemia) uric acid below 25th percentile (5.8 mg/dl). Follow up of maternal outcome as (eclampsia, HELLP, acute renal failure and accidental hemorrhage) and fetal outcomes (stillbirth, prematurity, IUGR and IUFD). Other obstetric complications that can affect pregnancy. Other medical diseases and severe pre-eclampsia that need urgent termination were excluded. This study aimed to determine the relationship between hyperuricemia and perinatal results in pregnancy induced hypertension. Results showed a significant increase in serum uric acid, urea and creatinine in the high group compared to the middle and low ones. Bad fetal outcome and pregnancy complications were directly proportionate to the serum uric acid levels. It can be concluded from the current study that these data reinforce the general agreement about the utility of hyperuricemia in the prognosis of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancy induced hypertension. Serum uric acid level measurements are a useful and inexpensive marker for predicting adverse perinatal outcomes.
145 STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING INCISIONAL HERNIA IN HADITHA GENERAL HOSPITAL FOR SURGERY DURING THE PERIOD FROM 2005 TO 2018 , *Dr. Mohammed Saeed Hasan and Dr. Jameel Abdul Jabbar Salman
Incisional hernia is a frequent complication of abdominal surgery. Its incidence varies between 2 and 15% of patients, and some authors indicate that it can reach 23% when it is related to an infection of the surgical wound. This retrospective descriptive observational study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients operated by incisional hernia in the Haditha General Hospital for surgery / Iraq during the period from 2005 to 2018. The total 200 patients with preoperative diagnosis of incisional hernia were operated between January 2005 and December 2018. incisional hernia, operated between January 2005 and December 2018. Demographic parameters, toxic habits, personal pathological history, previous surgeries, location of the anterior incision, surgical technique, use and location of prosthesis, antibiotic therapy and postoperative complications were analyzed. Results showed that 85% of the patients were female, 40.6% were between 50 and 61 years of age, 58.3% had toxic habits, 66.0% of the hernias had infra umbilical location, and the highest incidence corresponded to hysterectomies and cesarean sections. The Stoppa technique was the most applied in hernioplasty and the Mayo technique in herniorrhaphy. It can be concluded from our study that obesity and diabetes were the most frequent diseases. The majority of the patients were smokers. The infra umbilical surgical incisions for abdominal hysterectomies were the most frequent location of the incisional hernias. Infection of the surgical wound was the complication found most frequently. Postoperative recurrence occurred in 3.7% of patients.
146 MULTIDRUG-RESISTANCE ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII PNEUMONIA IN A MEDICAL STABLE DIALYSIS PATIENT, DAR-ES-SALAAM TANZANIA: A CASE REPORT , Sima Rugarabamu*, Fatuma Maliki, Iddy Shaban, Sebastian Komba, Humphrey Kimonge, Eliya Emmanuel, Gloria Golani, Victoria Ndomba and Loyce Kaunga
Background: Bloodstream infection caused by multidrug –resistance Acinobacter baumanii (MDRAB) has become a major clinical concern. Patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly those with end-stage renal disease who require dialysis and/or kidney transplantation, have some of the highest rates of colonization and infection with antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance limits treatment options and increases the risk of infection-related morbidity and mortality. The requirement to use alternative antibiotics is concern regarding the emergence of isolate resistance in Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) patients. This highlights the dire need for new treatment options as well as consistent implementation and improvement of basic infection prevention practices. Clinicians involved in the care of patients with renal disease must be familiar with the local epidemiology of antibiotic resistance, remain vigilant for the emergence of novel resistance patterns and adhere strictly to practices proven to prevent transmission of antibiotic resistance microbes and other pathogens. Case Presentation: This report multidrug –resistance Acinobacter baumanii (MDRAB) isolated from blood sample of a 74-year-old female who is permanently catheterized undergoing dialysis treatment at hospital in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. Conclusions: We have isolated a multidrug resistance A. baumannii in a medical stable dialysis patient diagnosed with pneumonia. Health care associated infections of MDR A.baumanii are critical problem in these patients; therefore, urgent focused intervention to contain the spread of MDR nosocomial infection is needed. Treatment of dialysis patient should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
147 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VIDEO ASSISTED TEACHING ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE REGARDING BENING PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA AMONG DRIVERS WORKING AT SELECTED EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN CHENNAI , John Bosco J.* and Dr. Hema V. H.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, in simple terms refers to the increased in prostate gland size. It involves hyperplasia of prostatic stromal cells and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the per urethral region of the prostate. Aim of the Study: A study to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on knowledge and attitude regarding Benign Prostate Hyperplasia among drivers at selected Educational Institution. Methodology: A quazi experimental study was adopted with 60 samples using convenient sampling technique at selected Educational Institution, self-structured questionnaires was used to assess the knowledge and likert scale was used to assess the attitude towards Benign Prostate Hyperplasia. Major findings: In the post test after the video assisted teaching 58(96.67%) had adequate knowledge and only 2(3.33) had fairly adequate knowledge regarding Benign Prostate Hyperplasia among drivers. Pre-test, 49(81.67) had fair attitude and 11(18.33%) had poor attitude whereas in the post test after the video assisted teaching 45(75%) had good attitude and 15(25%) had fair attitude regarding Benign Prostate Hyperplasia among Drivers. Conclusion: The study results revealed that driver’s post-test level of knowledge and attitude had been improved after the video assisted teaching compared to the pre-test level of knowledge and attitude. And this also clearly states that increase in the drivers’ knowledge about benign prostate hyperplasia increases the attitude levels.
148 EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON HUMAN WELLBEING: A SCIENTIFIC STUDY , *Dr. Sheetal Gupta and Dr. Jasvinder Kour
Pranayama is considered as an essential component of Yoga which is said to influence the physiological systems. Advantageous effects of yogic breathing on the neurocognitive, psychophysiological, respiratory, biochemical and metabolic functions in healthy individual were elicited. Over all, yogic breathing could be considered safe, when practiced under guidance of a trained teacher.
149 HERBAL DRUG INTERACTION: AN OVERVIEW , *Ranjeet Kumar Bhargav and Rehana Parveen
People use herbal treatments along with prescription and nonprescription medications. Although considered natural, many of these herbal therapies can interact with other medications, causing either potentially harmful side effects and / or reduced activity of medicines. Currently, there is very little information published on herb-drug interactions whilst the use of herbs is progressively growing across the world. The increasing use of herbal medicinal products in the community where people are also receiving prescription medicines suggests that adverse herb–drug interactions may be of significant public health consequence. The aim of this literature.[1] review is to provide critical insight and commentary into the issues that need to be considered in applying evidence based principles to assess clinically important herb-drug interactions. Herb-drug interactions are a stark reality today. Hence, proper reporting of cases, careful vigilance, evidence-based appraisal and constantly updated reviews of such herb-drug interactions are very important to promote systematic research.
150 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON NOVEL DRUGS USED IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE , *Professor Dr. Osman Ahmed and Madiha Jabeen
Parkinson’s disease is the most common Neuro-degenerative disorder. Several new medications are discovered, most of which are variations of previously existing products, such new dosage forms of already-approved products, or cost-saving generic formulations have been proposed. These new products contribute to the public health, safety of the people, greater access to medication, more consumer choice, and a competitive marketplace that enhances affordability and quality and care. However, these new approvals that we refer to as novel drugs are among the more truly innovative products that often help in advance clinical care to another level. This article includes study of existing drugs and novel drugs in the Parkinson’s disease treatment and also describes their medicinal chemistry i.e understanding its structure, synthesis, structural activity relationships, mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, adverse effects etc. These drugs are competent in various areas to satiate, make them suitable for its therapeutic use and for drug formulations and discoveries
151 CAPTIVE EYE DETECTIVE HITS THE INNEREYE OF COVID19 TO WIN THE SCREENING BY THERMOGRAM , Kushal Nandi*, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
All objects emit infrared energy, known as a heat signature. An infrared camera (also known as a thermal imager) detects and measures the infrared energy of objects. The camera converts that infrared data into an electronic image that shows the apparent surface temperature of the object being measured. An infrared camera contains an optical system that focuses infrared energy onto a special detector chip (sensor array) that contains thousands of detector pixels arranged in a grid. Each pixel in the sensor array reacts to the infrared energy focused on it and produces an electronic signal. The camera processor takes the signal from each pixel and applies a mathematical calculation to it to create a color map of the apparent temperature of the object. Each temperature value is assigned a different color. The resulting matrix of colors is sent to memory and to the camera’s display as a temperature picture (thermal image) of that object. The thermal screening by infra red imaging is being implemented among the public by maintaining social distancing between individual to individual so that contagious contamination of COVID19 can be minimised. The infected persons are being kept in isolation followed by quarantine period to overcome the viral attack in mass population.
152 LITERARY REVIEW ON DEVDARVADYARISHTA W.S.R TO ITS ANTI-DIABETIC POTENTIAL , *Dr. Chinky Goyal, Dr. Khemchand Sharma and Dr. Namrata Joshi
Asava–Arishta has found extensive therapeutic uses from pediatrics to geriatrics, but questions regarding application of them in Diabetic patients still need to be addressed. Devdarvadyarishta is a traditional unexplored formulation with indication in Prameha roga. In the present study, literature regarding Devdarvadyarishta is sorted out from various classics to check for any aberration between different readings and is expounded with all possible details. Individual drugs of the chosen formulation from Bhaishja Ratnavali is expanded with respect to their synonyms, botanical details including Latin name, family, botanical description and parts used, Rasa Panchaka and chemical constituents and their anti-diabetic references as cited in various Nighantus and modern research articles. Nearly all the contents of Devdarvadyarishta including honey are found to possess anti-diabetic property both in Ayurveda and Bio medical Science which advocated its usefulness in Diabetic patients to some extent, however, detailed experimental trials should be carried out to validate the same.
153 CLINICAL STUDIES OF PERIODONTAL DISEASES ON HAEMATO-BIOCHEMICAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENTAL TARTAR , Khatariya M. D., Talekar S. H.*, Ahlawat AR, Dodia V.D. and Kalaria V.A.
The present work was conducted on 20 dogs suffering from periodontal diseases presented to Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during study period. The present clinical work was carried out to study, haematological and biochemical parameters in relation to periodontal disease, diagnosis of periodontal diseases, and to study oral micro flora, suitable antibiotics therapy and mineral composition of dental tarter. This present study was carried out on 20 dogs in which major complaints from dog owners revealed halitosis, Sticky salivation, anorexia, pawing at mouth and facial swelling in the present study. History further revealed that pet owners ignore any home care and professional dental cleaning for keeping teeth of dogs healthy. A detailed survey regarding food habits of dogs revealed maintained on pure vegetarian diet and both vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet. Majority of dogs were provided homemade food mainly consist of soft food, either pure vegetarian or mixed, also offered commercial available food (vegetarian) in the market in addition to homemade food. Among 20 dogs, oral examination revealed that varying degree of dental plaque, dental calculus, gingival recession, gingival hyperplasia, tooth fracture, persistent deciduous tooth and pulpitis. According to haemato-biochemical analysis on the day of treatment all parameters were recorded within normal range. Whereas there was no significant difference between values of various haematological and biochemical parameters on 0 day of treatment and 10th day post treatment. For purpose of dental scaling premedication with atropine sulphate, diazepam and ketamine hydrochloride were used for anesthesia. During treatment sterile swabs were used for sample collection from mineralized dental plaque of 20 dogs. The result of bacteriological culture revealed the presence of different types of bacterial colonies; viz. Streptococcus spp. (40 %), Staphylococcus spp. (30 %), Escherichia spp. (20 %) were found to be higher growth on culture media. Levofloxacin had the highest in-vitro susceptibility (85 %), followed by Amoxicillin (65 %), Gentamicin (60 %), Ceftriaxone (55 %), Cefotaxime (55 %), Oxytetracycline (50 %) and Chloramphenicol (45 %) Based on this susceptibility test, Levofloxacin was found to be the best antimicrobial drug of choice for periodontal diseases. Dental tarter samples (n=20) were used for chemical analysis. The analyzed dental tarter were composed of Calcium (Ca) 80.07 %, Phosphorus (P) 14.51 %, Magnesium (Mg) 2.83 %, Potassium (K) 1.22 %, Sulphur (S) 0.89 %, Iron (Fe) 0.61 %, Nickel (Ni) 0.44 %, and Zinc (Zn) 0.20 %.
154 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE 60 MG , Dr. Jameel Abbas*, Dr. Shaikh Mohd. Naeem, Dr. Malik Tauheed Ahmad, Dr. Sayed Isar Ahmad, Dr. Masarat Begum and Dr. Shaikh Muzaffar Ahmad
The concept of Mouth Dissolve Drug Dilivery System emerged with an objective to improve patient’s compliance. These dosage forms rapidly disintegrate or dissolve to release a drug as soon as they come in contact with saliva in oral carvity, thus obviating the need for water during administration, an attribute that makes them highly attractive for pediatric and geriatric patients. Difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets and capsules (Oral solid dosage form) in common among all age groups especially on elderly and dysphasic patients. Elderly patients may find the administration of the conventional oral dosage forms difficult as they regularly require medicines to maintain healthy life. Children may also have difficulty in ingesting because of their under developed muscular nervous system. The problem of swallowing tablets is also evident in travelling patients who may not have ready access to water. Aforementioned problems can be resolved by means of Mouth Dissolving Tablets. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva within few seconds, and are true fast- dissolving tablets .Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity and are more appropriately termed as fast disintegrating tablets, as they may take about to disintegrate completely. The most common preferred route is oral rout of administration. Today oro-dispersible tablet from novel drug delivery system gain importance from patient. Which is administer to the patient to control the attack of angina or hypertension, but for immediate control, Oro-dispersible tablet is oral solid dosage form in which the tablet gets dispersed in oral cavity in absence of water. Various manufacture are formulated this formulation by various method. The most importance thing in this formulation are masking of taste of drugs. Generally oro-dispersible tablet are prepared by direct compression method. Dry granulation, wet granulation, Spry drying is the various methods for preparation of oro-dispersible tablet. Oro-dispersible tablet generally contains filler, glidant, anti-adherent super disintegrate, sweetener and resins. Evaluation parameter includes hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test, and dissolution test. Wetting time, Disintegration time, and Dissolution test is directly proportional to the hydrophobic ingredient added for lubrication, anti-adherent, Glidant action. These hydrophobic ingredient are Magnesium Stearate. To oppose the action of magnesium stearate, hydrophilic additives are incorporated viz Sodium lauryl sulphate, Cross carmillose sodium, sodium starch glycol ate are added.
155 AMPHIBIAN FAUNA (FAMILY: MICROHYLIDAE AND RHACOPHORIDAE) ASSORTMENT AND ALLOCATION IN SOUTH INDIA , Dr. S. V. Subba Reddy, K. Ruhinaz, Dr. M. Muniya Naik, Dr. A. Jayasankar, P. Sandhya, V. Uday Kiran, *Dr. R. Sivasankar
South Indian region has vast number of flora and fauna, and also many endemic and endangered species. Amphibians are represented by high species richness and endemism in south india, Though there are few studies that have looked at the ecological aspects of the amphibians in the Western Ghats, inventories of amphibians are available for many parts of the Ghats. Though the amphibians are considered as biological indicators for their susceptibility to even very small changes in the surrounding environment and their habitats typically spread across the interface between terrestrial and aquatic habitats. They are the only vertebrate group with dual life stages and perform vital ecological functions. However, amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats is facing major threats due to deforestation, human dominated land-scapes and rapid urbanization resulting in land use changes, loss and modification of habitat. The present survey revealed that the family Microhylidae consists of 61 genera and 279 species in the worldwide, of which 15 species belonging to 5 genera occur in India. One species found in the present survey. Mean while the family Rhacophoridae includes 10 genera and 186 species in the world, of which 6 genera and 52 species occur in India. Now two species are found.
156 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF ZINNIA ELEGANS AND PLECTRANTHUS RUGOSUS LEAVES AGAINST ROT CAUSING FUNGI , Jahangir Abdullah Koka*, Abdul Hamid Wani and Mohd Yaqub Bhat
The ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Zinnia elegans L. and Plectranthus rugosus Wall ex Benth were evaluated for their antifungal activities on rot causing fungi, viz. Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Mucor plumbeus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium chrysogenum, Trichothecium roseum and Rhizoctonia solani isolated from rotten tomatoes and brinjal using the agar well diffusion method. All the concentration of plant extracts showed antimycotic activity against tested pathogenic fungi. Antimycotic activity increased with the increased concentrations of plant extracts. However, higher concentrations proved more effective than lower concentrations. It was revealed from the present study that the ethanolic extract of Zinnia elegans showed maximum antimycotic activity against Trichothecium roseum and least activity against Alternaria alternata. However, the aqueous extract of Zinnia elegans showed maximum antifungal activity against Trichothecium roseum and least activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria alternata. It was further revealed from the present study that the ethanolic extract of Plectranthus rugosus showed maximum antimycotic activity against Aspergillus niger and least activity against Mucor plumbeus. Whereas the aqueous extract of Plectranthus rugosus showed maximum antimycotic activity against Aspergillus niger and least activity against Penicillium expansum.
157 PLANT MEDIATED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY USING DRIED STEM POWDER OF MUNTINGIA CALABURA L. MEDICINAL PLANT , Palave S. A.*, Wadavkar D. S. and Gawade B. B.
Muntingia calabura L. a monotypic genus of family Muntingiaceae is used as medicinal herb, by native people for various medicinal purposes. It is commonly known as Kanakshikha in local language. The synthesis of nanoparticles was confirmed by change in colour from pale green to reddish brown further, a peak between 220-330 nm. was obtained on UV-Vis spectrometer which confirmed the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. XRD have been used to investigate the morphology of prepared AgNPs. The peaks in XRD pattern are associated with that of face-centered-cubic (FCC) form of metallic silver. FTIR was performed to identify the functional groups of peaks situated at 2277.20 cm-1 (C=N bond), 1629.92-1 (C=N bond), 1426.42cm-1 (S=O bond), 1315.51cm-1 (S=O), 1249.93cm-1 (N-O), 1157.34cm-1 (NO2), 1098.51cm-1 (C-O), 1052.21cm-1 (C-O), 1018.46cm-1 (C-N), 959.63cm-1(C-H). Which form a layer covering AgNPs and stabilize the AgNPs in medium.
158 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BRYUM CORONATUM SCHWAGER , *Wadavkar D. S., Mulay A. V., Palave S. A. and Chavan S. J.
The present investigation was focused on the preliminary phytochemical and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectral analysis of Bryum coronatum Schwager. The organic solvent extracts (ethanol) from the aerial part of Bryum coronatum were tested for the availability of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids and glycosides. Flavonoids and steroids detected from moss species have commercial interest in pharmaceuticals companies for the manufacturing of the new drugs for treatment of various diseases. The FT-IR spectrum showed the presence of alcohols, nitrite group, carbonyl groups, phenolic esters, ethers, aromatic compounds, alkyl halides and alkene. In GC-MS analysis twenty different compounds were detected. The results confirm the fact that this moss posses’ important bioactive constituents useful for our health so further scientific investigation is needed.
159 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF PUMPKIN SEED EXTRACT FOR PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT ABILITY, CYTO-TOXICITY AND COLLAGEN SYNTHESIS , Akashraj R. Agrahari, Pranjali P. Dhawal and Dr. Tanuja V. Tirodkar*
Pumpkin seed extracts are greatly studied and have gained importance due to its nutritional benefits. The present study aims to explore other properties beneficial to mankind. The crude extract of pumpkin seed was obtained by cold extraction method. This crude extract was further analyzed for anti-oxidant activity using 2,2-Diphenyl picryl hydrazyl method (DPPH method) . The Phytochemicals present in the seed extract were found by the preliminary methods. Cyto-toxicity analysis on 3T3/NIH Cell line was carried using MTT assay. The Collagen synthesis activity of the crude extract was also tested on 3T3 cell line. After testing all the parameters of the Pumpkin seed crude extract, it was found that it had DPPH radical scavenging ability. The extract when tested for toxic effects showed that even at concentration 1 mg/mlit had proliferative ability as compared to cell with media and without extract. The extract also boosted the Collagen synthesis by 3.91 pg/ml as compared to media control. The properties exhibited by Pumpkin seed crude extract could be recommended in Pharmacological and Cosmetological applications with proper clinical trials.
160 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BRAIN GYM EXERCISES ON SELF ESTEEM AND LEVEL OF CONCENTRATION AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED SCHOOL, CHENNAI , Bhuvaneshwari* and Liji
Introduction: Brain gym brings movement back into learning. It uses activities and exercises to reduce stress so that the body and mind can work more efficiently in any learning, study, performance or daily life situations. It is a tool which can be integrated into any teaching situation with any age group. It is simple and fun for student and adults alike. A practical, movement based course with the focus being on integrating it into a tool kit of strategies to keep individuals focused and attentive for learning. This brain gym exercises can lead onto further study in the specific use of brain gym movements and educational kinesiology. Objectives of the Study: 1. To assess and compare the pre and post test self esteem and level of concentration among high school students at selected school. 2. To assess the effectiveness of training programme on the self esteem and level of concentration among high school students at selected school. 3. To correlate the self esteem and level of concentration among high school students at selected school.4. To associate the self esteem and the level of concentration with their selected demographic variables with the mean differed level among high school students at selected school. Materials and Methods: A pre experimental, one group pre test-post test design was selected with the sample size of 60 high school students by using purposive sampling method with inclusive criteria. The conceptual frame work of Stufflebeam and colleagues was applied. The study was conducted in MASI Metric Higher secondary School. Modified Rosenberg self esteem scale and modified concentration assessment scale was used to assess pretest and post test self esteem and level of concentration. Brain gym exercises done for 15 days duration in 30 minutes. Results: In pre test self esteem score , all sample 60(100%) had moderately adequate self esteem and none of them had adequate self esteem, where as in the post test after administration of brain gym exercises 43(71.67%) had adequate level of self esteem and 17(28.33%) had moderately adequate level of self esteem regarding modified Rosenbrug self esteem scale. In pre test 2(3.33%) had inadequate level of concentration and 58(96.67%) had moderately adequate level of concentration. In post test after administration of brain gym exercises on concentration, 40 (66.67%) had adequate level of concentration and 20 (33.33%) had moderately adequate level of concentration towards modified concentration assessment scale. Brain gym exercises found to be effective on the level of self esteem (t=9.178,p=0.001) and level of concentration (t=8.597.p=0.001). Self esteem and concentration found to have a positive correlation (r=0.511) Conclusion: The study pointed out that student‟s self esteem and concentration can be influenced by brain gym exercises. It will help the learners to have improvement in their academic as well as over all development. The outcome of the study will also provide an awareness to the nursing field.
161 INVESTIGATION OF HELMINTHOSPORIUM SPORE CONCENTRATION AT UDGIR , Dr. Lohare Sunita Dhundiraj*
Aerobiology is the study of air borne microorganisms like fungal spores, insect part, pollen grains, protozoan cyst and other biological parts. By considering the importance of vegetables for human beings, the investigation deals with the airspora over Onion field at Udgir. Similarly investigation have been undertaken to concentrate more attention on disease incidence by air borne fungal pathogens in Onion (vegetable-perticularly onion, Tomato, Brinjal) field and divicing disease forecasting system. The present investigation deals with the study of microscopic air spora over the Onion (Allium cepa L.) (Vegetable) field at Udgir. This study was conducted for rabbi season from 1st November 2017 to 25th January 2018 using continuous Tilak air sampler. In the air sampling 56 airborne components trapped among these 01 belongs to Phycomycetes, 12 belongs to Ascomycetes, 03 belongs to Basidiomycetes, 34 to Deuteromycetes and 06 to other types. The highest percentage contribution of the spore belongs to Deuteromycetes group was 71.76%, Ascomycetes 16.36%, other types 7.85%, Basidiomycetes 3.32% and Phycomycetes 0.71%. In this study Cladosporium was most dominant type among the fungal spores contributed 21.89% to the total air spora and Helminthosporium contributed 4.42% to the total airspora and ranked third from Deuteromycetes group. The airspora studies over Onion fields have contributed to understand the general components of airspora in this region. It also revealed that the occurrence of spores in air correlate with weather condition. The present study will be useful in divicing for disease forecasting system of Onion crop which would help for protecting the crops from infection and disease.
162 ENHANCEMENT OF COFFEE PRODUCTION BY USING ADVANCED FORMULATION OF ZINC SOLUBILISING THIOBACILLUS sp. IN PULNEY HILLS , Yuvarani S.*, Soundararajan S., Thiribhuvanadharshini P., Premalatha R., Nithya R. and Vijayaraghavan R.
Zinc is one of the eight significant micronutrients needed for the healthy growth replication of crop plants. Zinc is a micro nutrient essential for all living organism with a key role in growth, development and defence. Micronutrients role in plant defence are predominantly documented for Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn. There zinc seems to be a major player in both plant and animal immune system. Deficiency of Zinc is world wide spread problem in agricultural fields. Competition for zinc affects the outcome of the host – attacker interaction in both plant and animal system. Hence, we provide a clear framework of the Zinc solubilisation by Thiobacillus isolates as an immense important in Zinc nutrition to plant majorly in field having alkaline and Rhizosphere soil. The four bacterial colonies with different colony morphology were selected from different plates for Gram’s staining and biochemical tests (Citrate, MR-VP, Oxidase, Catalase,) and further Plant growth promoting activity (PGPA) (zinc solubilisation). Zinc solubilisation medium contain 0.1% of zinc oxide was used and based on the solubilisation isolates are selected for zinc solubilisation efficiency for multiple plant growth promoting traits. These plant growth promoting traits can be exploited as a potential bio fertilizers.
163 MULTIPURPOSE HERBAL POWDER SHAMPOO , Ankita Ankule, Snehal D. Wani*, Prachi M. Murkute and Ashwini S. Pundkar
Aim of the present research work was to formulate multipurpose herbal shampoo powder and comparison with marketed powder shampoo contains many natural ingredients with an emphasis on safety and efficacy, which will avoid the risk posed by chemical ingredients. It clears dirt, dandruff, promote hair growth. strengthens. and darken the hair. morever, it also act as a conditioning agent and performs all these actions without affecting or damaging hair. The hearb amala, bhringaraj, hibiscus, shkakai, and ginger have been selected to formulate the herbal shampoo powder on the basis of the traditional system and scientific justification with modern use The major objective of the present study was to formulate an herbal shampoo powder by means of eliminating harmful synthetic ingredients and substitute them with natural ingredients. It is very difficult to get all the properties in one substance. Thats why we makes this product unique is that we have made a quality powder shampoo with different properties. Such as anti dandruff, antibacterial, hair growth promoter, conditioner, give smoothen hairs, reduce hair fallor dead skin, etc. The main couse of dandruff is usually a fungus called "Pityrosporum ovale" (P.ovale) which is a naturally occurring yeast - like organism found most on the scalp and other part of the human skin. The fungus is found most on skin areas with plenty of sebaceous glands : on the scalp where large no of sebaceous glands can be found hence chances of dandruff in haire is more as compare to other body part. The reason of hair problem are tension, scalp infection, harmone disturbances, lowers vitamin, food, minerals, and large chemical shampoos are used. To overcome all this problems it was the main aim of our project, so we prepared multipurpose powder herbal shampoo for hair treatment.
164 PREVALANCE OF ORAL HEALTH STATUS, MALOCCULUSION AMONG SCHOOL GOING INDIVIDUALS IN CHENNAI: AN EPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDY , *Dr. Vidhyadharan J. BDS and Dr. Evangeline Dorothy BDS
Background: Health is a universal human need for all cultural groups. General health cannot be attained or maintained without oral health. The mouth is regarded as the mirror of the body leave space and the gateway to good health. Aim: The level of oral health status and sweet intake of school students is scarce and worthy of investigation, and this study aimed at assessing the same among school going students in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: A structured questionnaire (English versions) considering all objectives of the study was used in data collection. Data were collected on the basis of Age, gender, oral health status including malocclusion and intake of sweet food substances. Data were collected through face-to-face interview of the students, and by oral examination. Results: About 14.11% of students had Angle class 1 malocclusion about 61.96% had Angle class 2 sub-division 1 13.10% had Angle class 2 sub-division 2 and about 4.79% had angle class 3 is about 2.27%. On evaluating the characteristic data of DMFT it was observed 68.88% of student’s presented had no decay and 29.87% of student’s had decayed teeth. Conclusion: The authors conclude that oral hygiene awareness education and motivation are needed to improve oral health status among school going students.
165 ASSESSMENT OF HIGH YIELDING MULBERRY VARIETIES AT NURSERY LEVEL UNDER THE TROPICAL AGRO CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF ANANTAPUR, ANDHRA PRADESH , Dr. P. Sudhakar*, S. Gandhi Doss, B. Vijaya Naidu and Pankaj Tewary
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) a perennial plant in nature cultivated for its foliage to feed silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) as seasonal crop. Mulberry plants popularly propagated through vegetatively. Therefore, proficient method of propagation not only saves farmers economy but also plays pivotal role on the future of sericulture. Keeping the above aspects four high yielding mulberry varieties viz. Victory1 (V1), Genotype4 (G4), AGB8 and Berhampore (BER) varieties were planted during June-July, 2019 at Regional Sericultural Research Station, Central Silk Board, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. Each variety was planted @ 2500 cuttings and maintained properly for their survival. Considering V1 mulberry variety as a benchmark high yielding mulberry recommended for the South Indian geo-climatic conditions, the other varieties performance at nursery level was studied. Sprouting of G4 saplings was recorded 11.11% more compared to V1 (89.10%) followed by AGB8 (8.31%), however BER resulted in 22.78% less than the V1 variety. The survival behavior of G4 showed 32.83% more compared to V1 (73.40%) followed by AGB8 (22.89%) whereas 26.02% less survival was noticed in BER under Ananthapur conditions of Andhra Pradesh. Sapling height was recorded 27.78% high in BER followed by G4 (14.49%) and AGB8 (2.94%) compared to V1 (183.6cm/plant). The sapling biomass and shoot weight was recorded higher percent in AGB8 (60.0 & 91.2%) followed by G4 (49.0 & 73.7%), whereas the same were recorded least in BER (30.0 & 35.1%) compared to V1 variety (100.0 & 57.0 g/sapling). In case of root weight of the saplings it was recorded 23.26% more in BER variety followed by AGB8 (18.60%) and G4 (16.28%) compared to V1 variety (43.0g/sapling). Number of leaves per sapling was recorded 7.56% more in G4 followed by BER (4.20%) whereas the same was less on AGB8 (-6.72%) compared to V1 variety (23.8 leaves/sapling). Leaf area was significantly higher in BER (106.49%) followed by AGB8 (62.47%) and G4 (15.42%) over V1 saplings (201.7cm2). Moisture content of leaves was noticed comparatively low in the decreasing order of G4 (-0.66%), AGB8 (-3.03%) and BER (-4.49%) compared with V1 where it was recorded higher moisture content (75.80%) among all the varieties. All the high yielding mulberry varieties viz. V1, G4, AGB8 & BER have shown morphologically significant growth variations during their establishment period of 45, 60 and 90 days after plantation.
166 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL FILM OF IVABRADINE HYDROCHLORIDE FOR ANGINA PECTORIS , Raut D. B.*, Chaudhari R. G.*, Burade K. B., Gavhane Y. N.
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride using mucoadhesive polymer HPMC E5 LV for angina pectoris. During study polyvinylpyrrolidone considered as a thickening agent, film former. PEG 4000 and PEG 6000 use as a plasticizer as well as solubilizing agent. Tween 80 use as a permeation inhancer. A total number of six formulations were prepared by a solvent casting method. The prepared mucoadhesive film were evaluated for drug content, in-vitro dissolution, Ex Vivo Permeation folding endurance, mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, and drug-polymer interaction study. From the present study, it found that formulation F3 and F5 show in vitro drug release 94.08% ± 0.15, 98.51% ± .612 respectively within 3hr. Ex vivo drug permeation found to be 65.87% and 71.48% within 4 Hr. by using goat oral mucosa. There was no any physical and chemical interaction between drug and polymer based on physical and FTIR data interpretation.
167 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RASASHASTRA-HERBO-MINERAL PREPARATIONS INDIAN PHARMACEUTICS , Dr. Sadanand Sakri* and Dr. Jayashree D. Kotabagi
Core principles are basic ideas that have been routinely evaluated in a number of forms that are important for the comprehension of applied research. Every research has its own basic values. Rasashastra, a division of Ayurveda, is called an Indian herbo-mineral preparation pharmaceutical business. The concepts connected with the creation and growth of Rashastra are not explicitly stated and are dispersed in numerous ancient classical documents. The effort has also been made to examine these basic concepts in a systematic and informative way.In the present research, therefore, an effort has been made to carry out a systematic analysis of the core concepts of Rashastra and to explain their distinguishing features. Lohavada and Dehavada; 18 mercury refining processes, Rasashastra jargon, tools, crucibles, blowers and pits for the incineration of metals / minerals, purification, incineration, Amritikarana, incineration and levitation experiments are the eight fundamental concepts of Rasashastra.A full comprehension of these principles with a view to both Ayurvedic and contemporary science is the secret to study and growth in Rashastra.
168 MALNUTRITION & OVERCOME PRACTICE , *Dr. Tanvi Singh
Several different nutrition disorders may develop, depending on which nutrients are lacking or consumed in excess. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), malnutrition is the gravest single threat to global public health.[1]
169 COMPARATIVE ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF A LOCALLY PRODUCED DISINFECTANT AND SOME COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DISINFECTANTS AGAINST SOME CLINICAL ISOLATES , Oleghe P. O.*, Agholor K., Lucy F. O., Racheal S. and Oboh J. E.
The main goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of five routinely used disinfectants and a locally produced one against some selected clinical isolates. The disinfectants used in this study were Roberts® antiseptic disinfectant, Tetmosol® Protect Plus antiseptic disinfectant, Izal® liquid germicide disinfectant, Ivy’s antiseptic®, Dettol® antiseptic disinfectant and a locally produced antiseptic. The test organisms used in this study were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and Candida albicans. Agar well diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial activity of the various antiseptic/disinfectant at different concentrations (100%, 50% and 25%) as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The results obtained from this study showed that the test organisms vary in their responses to each of the disinfectant, although all five pathogens were sensitive to Izal® and Roberts® antiseptic at different concentrations. On the other hand, Izal® and Tetmosol® Protect Plus gave the highest inhibition zone diameter (IZD) readings of 41mm and 33mm respectively against Klebsiella pneumoniae at 100% concentration while Ivy’s antiseptic® had no antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli in all the different concentrations used. The locally produced disinfectant gave the highest inhibition zone diameter (IZD) readings for Candida albicans making it very suitable to be used as an antifungal agent. This study has revealed that the antimicrobial effects of antiseptics and disinfectants are dependent on their different concentrations and nature of microorganism. Therefore, emphasis should be made on the need for strict adherence to standard disinfection policy for proper use of disinfectants and antiseptics.
170 PREVENTIVE THERAPIES USING SODIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS FOR CONGENITAL LONG QT SYNDROME , Dr. Toshimasa Nakada*
Preventive therapy for pediatric patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) without severe cardiac symptoms has not been established. The objective of this study was to clarify the outcomes of pediatric patients with LQTS who were diagnosed without severe cardiac symptoms and who received preventive therapy using sodium channel blockers (SB). This retrospective study included data from seven patients with LQTS who received preventive therapy using SB. The outcomes of those patients and changes of corrected QT intervals (QTc) before and after treatment were studied. Three patients received mexiletine alone, and four patients received combination therapy with propranolol and SB. The median follow-up period from the initial treatment to the last follow-up was one year and one month (range: 6 months to 15 years and 6 months). No cardiac events developed after treatment. The QTc values after therapy were significantly shorter than those before: median QTc 454 (range: 396–475) vs. 485 (range: 470–527) ms, P < 0.05.
171 THE SPREAD AND DAMAGE OF POWDERY MILDEW DISEASE OF MULBERRY , Bakhodir Ismoilovich Normatov* and Mirakbar Abzalovich Zuparov
The spread, development and damage of mildew disease of mulberry have been studied in “Agropilla” LLCs specialized in mulberry growing in the districts and farms of Surkhandarya region, and the information has been revealed in this article about the impact of mildew disease on leaf yield and nutrition. In order to carry out the effective controlling measures against this disease, the study of disease spread, development and biological attributes of the pathogen, and on the base of this to develop disease control measures, have been revealed herein. Also it has been determined that the significant loss in the weight of mulberry leaves due to powdery mildew may affect negatively the production of silk raw material.
172 CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUDANESE FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL. (APIACEAE.) OIL , Abdel Karim M.*, Magid A. and M. Alla
In developing countries, ethnomedicine is still playing a vital role in primary health care and intensive pharmacological reports on the impact of bioactive phytochemicals on human physiology potentiated the applications of medicinal plants. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is a perennial herb in the family Apiaceae. The plant is widely used as a flavouring agent in foods. Fennel seeds are hypotensive and diuretic. In this study, the oil from Foeniculum vulgare seeds has been analyzed by GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis showed 58 components. Major constituents are : 9- octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester(35.59%):9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, methyl ester (29.36%),and hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (8.02%). The antmicrobial activity of the essential oil has been assessed. At a concentration of 100mg/ml, the oil showed significant anticandidal activity. It also exhibited good activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Escherichia coli. However it failed to give inhibitory effect against Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
173 ISOLATION OF A FLAVONOL FROM STEM BARK OF SUDANESE ACACIA TORTILIS (FORSK.)HAYNE AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT , Abdel Karim M.*, Mohamed Y. and El-Hafez M.
This study was set to investigate the flavonoids of Acacia tortilis which is a key species in indigenous medicine. This plant which showed many pharmacological properties is used traditionally against many diseases. A flavonol was isolated from Acacia tortilis stem bark via chromatographic techniques and its structure was partially characterized on the basis of its spectral data(UV,1HNMR and IR). The ethanol extract exhibited good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.
174 STUDY OF PRECIPITATING FACTORS OF DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AMONG TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS CHILDREN , *Dr. Ahmed Fawzi Ibrahim Luhaibi, Dr. Muthana Dahham Mohammed and Dr. Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Mahmood
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common complication among children with diabetes mellitus (DM), and the risk of DKA in established type 1 diabetes mellitus is 1–10% per patient per year. This study aimed to determine the frequency of the precipitating factors of DKA admissions to emergency room in Amiriya general hospital – Al-Anbar/Iraq. This case-control study was conducted from January to December 2019 on 40 children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (19 males and 21 females; between 1 and 15 years of age) and 42 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, as a control group (21 males and 21 females; between 1 and 15 years) who were admitted to Amiriya general hospital, Al-Anbar - Iraq. Data regarding history, full physical examination, and laboratory investigations (presence of glucose and/or ketones in urine, serum potassium (m.Eq/l), blood bicarbonate (mmol/L), venous pH, blood glucose (mg/dl), and the treatment given were recorded. The frequency of DKA was not significantly higher in girls than in boys 21(52.5%) vs. 19 (47.5%) (P > 0.05). In 22(55%) of cases, it was the first time they were discovered to be diabetic, and 10 (55.5%) of known diabetic patients had history of previous attacks of DKA and previous attacks of hypoglycemia were encountered in 15 (83.3%) of cases. The most common precipitating causes of DKA was infection, which occurred in 18 (45%) of the episodes, no identifiable cause for the episode was encountered in 10 (25%) of cases, missing the usual dose of insulin, and stress were identified in 6 (15%) for each, while increased food intake was documented as a precipitating factors in 2 (5%) of cases. Infection, missing the usual dose of insulin, stressful conditions and increased food intake were the main precipitating factors for DKA. Newly discovered DM presenting for the first time as DKA involved a significant proportion of the cases of DKA. It can be concluded that the main precipitating factors for the episodes were infections, missing the usual dose of insulin, infections, stressful conditions and increased food intake especially sweets. Newly discovered DM presenting for the first time as DKA were a significant proportion of the cases of DKA.
175 ASSOCIATION OF DIFFERENT DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS PATIENTS ATTENDING THE DIFFERENT HOSPITALS OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN , Dr. Aadil Ameer Ali*, Noman-Haq, Sana Naqi, Rabbia Naseer, Muhammad Rafique, Muhammad Ismail, Muhammad Umair, Shahnila Shaikh, Kainat Chang and Muhammad Saood
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent and common among all degenerative joint disorders and affecting huge number of individuals. Older females and low income people are more likely to develop knee OA. A cross sectional survey was conducted in different hospitals of Quetta, Pakistan from July to September 2019. A self-constructed proforma was used among all 392 already diagnosed patients to collect the data and Spss version 23 was used to analyze the data. In demographic Characterstics the age, gender and household income were significantly associated with knee OA (p<0.05). The study concluded that the people who were older, belongs to female gender and with low house hold income were found physically restrictive due to the knee OA. Older females and people with low income should be prioritized for the treatment of knee OA in order to reduce the restrictiveness from their activities of daily life and to enhance their physical functional capacity.
176 REVIEW ON FRAMEWORK IN PATIENT SAFETY , Sanskriti Ashok Aghao* and Rohit Sushil Bairagi
Medication error are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both error in the act of writing (prescription/ dispencing/administration errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are source of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription error and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focus on the education and training of prescribers and the use of online aids. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescription, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful.
177 A REVIEW ON EMULGEL: THE TOPICAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Bhawana Prasad*, Yogita Tyagi and N. G. Raghavendra Rao
The purpose of this work was to optimize the emulgel formulation. When the gel and emulsion are used in the combined form, they are referred to as emulgel. And the use of gels has emerged both in cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations, as compared to the other semisolid preparations. The use of emulgel can be extended in analgesics (aches and pains caused by colds, headaches, muscle aches, backaches, arthritis and other conditions & injuries) and antifungal drugs. The presence of a gelling agent in the water phase converts a classical emulsion into an emulgel. So emulgel can be used as better topical drug delivery systems over present systems. Emulgel is an interesting topical drug delivery system as it has a dual release control system, i.e., gel and emulsion. The review gives knowledge about emulgel including its properties, advantages, and formulation considerations.
178 CORONA VIRUS - A REVIEW OF COVID-19 , *Richa Arora and Neha Rastogi
An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel Coronavirus (SARS- COV2), previously known as 2019 – nCOV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection, has spread throughout china and received worldwide attention. On 30th January 2020, WHO officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concerns. The emergency of SARS -CoV2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-COV) in 2002 and (MERS-COV) in 2012 marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic into human population in Twenty first century. As of 1st March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed case globally and 79,968 confirmed cases in china with 2,977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Increasingly evidence showed sustained human to human transmission along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, dry cough, fatigue and respiratory infection. The elderly and the small children under 10 years and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcome, which may be associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). In this review we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics of Covid-19 and discuss the current treatment and scientific advancement to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
179 A REVIEW ON PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF COVID -19 , Shubham Kailas Shete,* and Sayali Pravin Jadhav
Human being facing number of challenges in their life. One more addition in that the current situation of corona virus and spreads all over the world. In this article we explained how this virus spreads, its symptoms and about different countries affected with it like U.S., Japan, etc. We discussed targeted population of high risk to low risk with levels and how people goes through mental and psychic disturbances. We gave the information about possible vulnerable group, risk factors and psychological symptoms. We touched to stress and anxiety amongst male and female with the help of chart, also to grief and bereavement. This article mentions about population who need to be psychologically communicated and how impact can force people to be fearful. It includes how to come out of this situation particularly message for general people, isolated peoples, adults, children and mainly healthcare professionals/workers who are equal to God now. We briefly discussed an idea about different impacts with tips.
180 A REVIEW ON TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG , K. M. Pragati Negi*, Yogita Tyagi and Dr. N. G. Raghavendra Rao
Hypertension is one of the largest death causing disease today. since, it is a chronic disease it requires long term treatment. As the antihypertensive drugs have certain disadvantages like more frequent administration, extensive first pass metabolism and variable bioequailability which make it an ideal candidate for Transdermal drug delivery system. The aim of this article is to review antihypertensive transdermal patches in perspective of enhancing the bioavailability and improving patient compliance. TDDS are topically administerded medicament. These transdermal patches are pharmaceutical preparation of varying sized containing one or mpre API and delivers the drug to systemic circulation.
181 IMPACT OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTIONS ON CORONA VIRUS INFECTION – REVIEW ARTICLE , Dr. K. Jeyaprakash*, Dr. S. Velavan, Dr. S. Ganesan and Dr. P. Arjun
Protection of host against environmental agents such as pathogenic micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) and chemicals, has been controlled by immune system, thereby preserving the integrity of the body. Adequate nutritional status should be maintained with appropriate intakes of calories, vitamins, minerals to preserve organism defense mechanisms and water that should be continuously provided by a healthy diet. The emergence of new infectious diseases with new pathogenic properties constitutes a serious health issue worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) represents one of the most recent emerging infectious diseases, caused by a novel coronavirus member called (SARS-CoV-2), identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019, and recognized as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The nutritional status of each COVID-19-infected patient should be assessed prior undertaking treatments. Nutritional support should be the basis of management of any infected individual. Therefore, preventive measures remain the first priority and strategy to develop throughout proper hygiene, healthy diet and staying home.
182 HEALTH HAZARDS OF MODERN LIVING - A PERSPECTIVE STUDY , Dr. Yashoda Tammineni*
We are living in an era where modernization became the most important part of life. On the other hand, Modern life style becomes more and more an important factor influencing health state of most developed countries. Modern day living is a multifaceted compendium of evolving technology. In contrary, changing societies and rapid technological development have produced an ever-increasing variety of products, gadgets, agents and circumstances whose consequences are partly unknown, difficult to predict and capable of posing irreversible risks to human health. Despite the benefits offered by technology, it has a major drawback – its negative impact on our health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to bring a change in the lifestyle of people. Emphasis should be on health rather than comfort. People should be made aware about the health risks that are posed by the comfort and the lifestyle they prefer.
183 CURRENT SCENARIO ON COVID-19: A REVIEW , Selvaraj Selvamurugan*
A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the frst patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan.The objective of this review article was to have a preliminary opinion and current scenario about the disease, the ways of treatment, and prevention in this early stage of COVID-19 outbreak.
184 COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON HERBAL PHOTOPROTECTIVE PLANTS USED IN SUNSCREEN , Jyotsna A. Saonere (Suryawanshi)*, Dr. M. A. Channawar and Dr. Sharda L. Deore
Sunlight emits visible light, UV radiation,prolong exposure to UV radiation causes immune suppression, early skin ageing, melanoma, erythema, skin pigmentation, skin cancer, sun burn, damaged to the skin, precancerous skin growth, formation of fine and coarse wrinkles, and photosensitivity reaction. Sunscreen are used to protect the skin from harmful effect of sunlight, sunscreen agent act by any one mechanism as to absorb, scatter or reflect sunlight. synthetic sunscreen produces various sensitizing reactions like photoirritation,contact dermatitis,blockage of pores,acne, systemic and local toxicity and allergic reaction because of that they have limited use. Flavonoids are polyphenolic constituents of plants which are mostly antioxidant and have the ability to scavange free radicals and produces protective effect from harmful UV radiation.This review discus in detail photoprotective potential of flavonoids, about more than 150 papers are selected for comprehensive review of photoprotective flavonoids from reputed journals.
185 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF FLUCONAZOLE LOADED ANTIDANDRUFF HAIR GEL , N. G. Raghavendra Rao, Yogita Tyagi and Manisha Uniyal*
Dandruff is a common clinical condition caused by increased growth of fungi and bacteria, it is a flaking of dead skin and over activity of the oil glands, known as seborrhea. Dandruff is a shedding of dead skin cell from the scalp and is suffered by almost 50% of the population and couses significant discomfort. Fluconazole is a imidazole derivative. It is used for the treatment of local and systemic fungal infection. Increased growth of fungi and bacteria on the scalp couse dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis which results in abnormal proliferation, scaling and flaking of scalp epidermis. Dandruff is commonly treated using shampoos or lotions cantaining imidazole, selenium sulphide, salicylic acid and zinc pyrithion. Shampoos or lotions do not use the long duration on the scalp and these cannot prevent reoccurrence. Hair gel last long on the scalp. In persent study was degined to formulate and evaluate different formulae of antidandruff gel containing fluconazole for treatment of dandruff. The fluconazole antidandruff hair gel was formulated by using different polymars with different concentration as carbopol 940, polyethyleneglycol, methyl peraben, glycerine, triethanolamine, polyvinyl pyrrolidone.
186 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND DRUG THERAPY , Diksha*, Anshul Chawla, Parminder Kaur and Rajwant kaur
Alzheimer‟s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which there is a progressive loss in the structure and function of neurons. In a neuron, myelin sheath is highly affected in this disease. AD mainly affects the older people and is the fourth largest cause of death. In AD, because of overactivity of APP secretase, activation of β- and γ-pathways initiate that causes the overproduction of toxic amyloid species i.e. Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaques. The function of MAPs is to interact with tubulin and assemble them into microtubules to form a microtubule network. Dementia a chronic loss of cognition usually affecting memory and Alzheimer causes 50% to 80% of dementia causes. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of AD are still not known. Currently available drug therapies primarily consist of cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and some neuroprotective agents. Various target specific drugs from natural, organic and inorganic origins are studied which with the help of animal models can be evaluated to show a potential in the treatment of AD. All these available drugs show only symptomatic relief but not treating the cause of this disease.
187 ACHYRANTHES ASPERA A MIRACULOUS PLANT , E. Jajili*, M. Manoj Kumar, M. Sharon Rani and N. Geethika
Achyranthes Aspera Linn is commonly seen in our surroundings but it has been used as a folk medicine over countries by Indian tribals it can be used to treat diseases, disorders, and also used as an insecticide. It can be even used as a antidote for scorpion bite. Its discussion is also seen in ayurvedic literatures like charaka samhita, sushruta samhita, vagbhata samhita under the name apamarga. Unbelievably, we found that there are more than 40 medicinal uses in this plant which are presented in this article.
188 NOVEL APPROACHES FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS , Roobal Chaudhary* and Gagandeep Kaur
Solubility is one of the most critical criteria for achieving optimal concentration of the drug in systemic circulation to exert therapeutic effect. Solubility can be defined as the solute dissolving phenomenon to give a homogenous system. An effective formulation depends on how effectively drug is made available at the place of action. Drugs having high aqueous solubility get absorbed through GIT membrane and reaches in systemic circulation easily. Poor aqueous solubility is the main problem facing the development of new API formulations and generic production. The solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs must therefore be increased, because these drugs are weak in absorption and less bioavailable. This review is intended to with discuss thoroughly different techniques employed to enhance the aqueous solubility along appropriate examples of drugs whose solubility is enhanced by these techniques. There are number of solubility enhancement techniques include micronization, nanonization, super critical fluid method, spray freezing into liquids, hydrotropy method, solid dispersion, salt formation, co-solvency, addition of solubilizing agents, complexation and pH adjustment etc. Selection of the method for enhancing the solubility depends on the drug properties, the site of absorption and the features of the appropriate dosage type. The purpose of this review article is to describe BCS classification system, various solubility enhancement techniques of poorly soluble drugs with increased bioavailability for successful absorption and also tried to focus on the factors affecting process of solubilization.
189 BRIEF REVIEW OF LAUHA MARANA W.S.R. TO PHYSIO CHEMICAL CHANGES , *Dr. Mamta Ramgopal Biyani*, Dr. Nalini Ramesh Hedaoo, Dr. Ujwala Ashokrao Jadhao
Introduction -Marana is the procedure which purified and detoxified material and converted into easy assimilation, absorbable and adaptable form. Loha bhasma is mineral based Ayurvedic medicine. It contains elemental iron microfine particle prepared through the process of calcination under high temperature. Marana brings many physio chemical changes like reduction in particle size to gain biological benefit. Aims and Objectives- To do detailed study on Lauha Marana,To Evaluate chemical changes during Marana procedure in lauha bhasma Discussion - Lauha should not be taken less than 5 Pala and more than 13 Pala for processing. Kant lauha and Tikshna lauha is considered as best raw material for lauha bhasma preparation. Lauha marana or incineration process mostly follow Trividha paka method that are Bhanupaka, Sthalipaka and Putapaka. Triphala contains ascorbic acid which increases the bioavailability of Iron by converting Fe3+ to Fe2+. Repetition in heating and cooling just like in samanya and vishesh shodhana causes disruption in compression tension equilibrium and leads to increased brittleness, reduction in hardness, and finally reduction in the particle size. During Bhanupaka the ultraviolet radiation present in the sunlight reduces the oxidation state of Fe in the presence of Vitamin C present in the Triphala decoction thereby improving the bioavailability. Conclusion- Lauha bhasma is a mixture of ferrous oxide, Ferrous Sulphide, Ferric Oxide and other trace element.
190 A REVIEW–EVALUATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HERBAL NANOEMULSION , Shital Shivaji Chavan and Purushottam Sahadev Lahane*
The herbal medicines have been popularized throughout the globe since ancient time. Several plants based therapeutic moiety have been produced through new approaches. Many herbal bioactive have several health benefits but have limited therapeutic potential due to short biological half-life and moderate bioavailability profile. To improve such therapeutic issues nanocarriers were introduced such as phytosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, herbal transdermal patches, nanoemulsion. They have the ability to maximize the efficacy of herbal bioactives by improving their solubility, absorption profile, lowering dose and side effects. Nanoemulsion is a mixing of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug that can spontaneously form oil-in-water micro/nanoemulsion when mixed with water under continuous stirring. The solubility and bioavailability of nanoemulsion is achieved by its lipophilic nature and size reduction. The nanoemulsions can vehicle the herbal bioactive to the particular target site and offer sustained release of drug. The present review describes the importance of nanoemulsions for delivery of herbal drug.
191 THE NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) CAUSATIVE AGENT FOR HUMAN RESPIRATORY DISEASES , Pratik V. Malvade*, Rutik V. Malvade, Shubham P. Varpe and Prathamesh B. Kadu
The newly founded human coronavirus has named as Covid-19. The full form of Covid-19 is “Co-Corona, vi- virus and d- disease”. The Covid-19 is also named as 2019-nCoV because of it was firstly identified at the end of 2019. The coronavirus are the group of various types of viruses i.e. some have positive-sense, single stranded RNA and they are covered within the envelope made up of protein. Still now days seven human coronaviruses are identified are Nl 63, 229E, OC43, HKU1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and latest Covid-19 also known as SARS-CoV-2. From above all, the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV causes the highest outbreak but the outbreak of Covid-19 is much more than the other any virus. The coronavirus is easily transmitted from person-to-person and hence the World Health Organization called it the pandemic disease. The coronavirus firstly affects the lings of human causing Pneumonia. The major symptoms are cough, sore throat, breathlessness and complete body pain. This virus affects the leukocyte count and platelet count also. This virus affect many organ and organ systems of human body such as kidney, lungs, spleen, etc. and urinary system, Respiratory system. The diagnosis is done by the bacterial and fungal culture and also by the Real Time-PCR technique. The some symptomatic drug treatment are given such as Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), Clotrimazole, Econazole, Amprenavir (Agenerase), Arbidol, etc. In future some vaccines are may available which are Leronlimab (PRO-140), mRNA vaccine, INO-4800, Remdesivir, etc. Avoid the meeting to infected person, avoid going to infected area, these are the some measures to control the viral infection. In this review article we included the all information about coronaviruses and Covid-19.
192 AN OVERVIEW OF SHWETA PRADARA IN AYURVEDA W.S.R TO ITS TREATMENT PRINCIPLES , *Dr. Sapna Kaushish, Dr. Amrit Malik, Dr. Chinky Goyal and Dr. Sudhir Malik
Shweta Pradara is one of the most common and burning problem faced by the women all around the globe. No woman is an exception to this illness. Many of the gynaecological disorders present Shweta pradara as the major complaint which if neglected may lead to ascending infections harming the general health and disturbing the women psychologically. Shweta pradara can be a symptom of many diseases as well as an independent entity. The white discharge with foul smell makes it embracing to get into the social gatherings and even engaging in to her personal affairs. The white discharge may start as a simple problem and end in severity up to infertility if not treated at right time. There are many treatments prescribed for this problem but not free from side effects and reoccurrence. Hence selection of an appropriate treatment without disturbing the other system is very much essential. The present study has been designed to substantiate the Nidana and Samprapti, Samprapti Vighantana of Shweta Pradara, so that an alternative better form of therapy can be made available in those suffering from Shweta Pradara. Taking into account, the complications of untreated Shweta Pradara like infertility etc. It is therefore imperative that this condition be actively treated and the quality of life be restored.
193 ROLE OF JALAUKAVACHARANA IN RAKTAMOKSHANA , *Dr. S. V. Shailaja BAMS MD (Shalya Tantra) and Dr. Jambavathi S.
Rakta is considered as the moola (root) and support for the body. It is the main cause for sustainance of life.[1] Rakta is considered as fourth dosha by Acharya Sushruta.[2] It can get vitiated by the other doshas resulting in various disorders. So raktamokshana is considered as the best method to remove dushita rakta. Jalaukavacharana is one of the most comfortable and non-invasive therapy to remove the dushita rakta where in many of the skin disorders, and other rakta pradohaja vikaras can be treated successfully.
194 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OCULAR IN-SITU GEL OF ANTIVIRAL AGENT: ACYCLOVIR , Mitali Kuril*, Revathi A. Gupta and Monika Mann
The key objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate in-situ gelling system based on sol-to-gel transition for ophthalmic delivery of an antiviral agent acyclovir, to overcome the problems of poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by conventional formulations. Acyclovir is an antiviral agent preferentially used in the treatment of infections caused by herpes simplex virus and highly useful to treat herpes simplex keratitis. The significant problem in the ocular drug delivery is the achievement of optimal drug concentration at the site of action. Development of therapeutic agents which need a repeated long-term administration is a carter for the sustained release drug delivery systems, to result in less frequent dosing and less invasive techniques. Therefore, in- situ gel a novel drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the anatomical barriers and ocular bioavailability constrains. Gellan gum natural polymer was used as the gelling agent and also acted as a viscosity enhancing agent. The prepared formulations were evaluated for pH, viscosity, clarity, drug content, gelling capacity, invitro drug release. The developed in-situ gel provided sustained drug release over a 6 hours period of time. The optimized formulation was found to be nonirritating with no ocular damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Hence the developed formulation can be used as an in-situ gelling vehicle by virtue of its increased corneal residence time and prolonged drug release could be considered a viable alternative to achieving enhanced bioavailability and helped in the reduction in the frequency of instillation there by resulting in better patient compliance.
195 ESTIMATION OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA FOR ANTI-DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY , Dr. Juluri Krishna Dutta Tejaswi*
The anti-depressant activity of Ethanolic root extract of Annona Squamosa (EREAS) belongs to the family Annonaceae by oral administration at dose according to the body weight in a sequential manner in healthy albino rats was done by using Imipramine as standard drug. Forced swim test (FST) and Tail suspension tests (TST) was done on plant extract given in three doses (100, 200 and 300mg/kg) by dose dependent manner. 300mg/kg plant extract showed decreased immobility time near as to that of the standard drug. The decrease in immobility period in both the models was observed starting from 200 mg/kg. But the increase in dose from 200 to 300 mg/kg produces further reduction in immobility period.
196 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF LABLAB PURPUREU , Dr. Sourabh Jain*, Jitendra Singh Yadav and Dr. Karunakar Shukla
For the current study medicinal plant Lablab purpureus was selected. The introduction of antibiotics transformed the way by which infectious sickness were treated. Rapidly, widespread infections became effortlessly curable and outbursts of infectious ailment were eagerly controlled. Though, the announcement of triumph over bacterial pathogens was early. Antimicrobial resistance rapidly emerged to decrease the clinical value of every novel antibiotic that was developed. Alleviation of antimicrobial resistance is therefore essential, and necessitates that veterinarians and further health proficient’s appreciate antibiotic sensitivity and resistance at the organism, population, molecular and cellular levels. The effort is intended for the antimicrobial action for (bacterial and fungal species) and separation and categorization by spectral analysis. Followed by antioxidant and wound healing evaluation of the extracts and spectral analysis for isolation and characterization of active compounds. The research presented in this thesis focused on antimicrobial, antioxidant and wound healing action of such resource, as plants are recognized to be fairly resistant to most microbes are traditionally used for ailments like wounds, burns etc. Therefore, specific focus was given on antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and wound healing activity.
197 COMPARING THE RIPASA SCORE WITH THE ALVARADO SCORE IN DIAGNOSING ACUTE APPENDICITIS IN PATIENTS ATTENDING AL-SHAHID AL-SADR GENERAL HOSPITAL , *Dr. Khidhir Abbas Aliwii Al-Shmailawi, Dr. Kadhim Hadi Badr Al Salloomee and Dr. Sahib Baqer Abdulhusein Mudhafar
Appendicitis is one of the most frequently experienced abdominal surgery. The acute appendicitis diagnosis is primarily in the form of symptoms and signs. Symptoms of acute appendicitis at an early stage of presentation overlap with other conditions that make the diagnosis a challenging task. The Alvarado score and RIPASA score allow for risk stratification of abdominal pain patients, which links the likelihood of appendicitis to recommendations for discharge, observation and surgery. This study aimed to compare between the Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in patients attending the Al-Shahid Al-Sadr general hospital in Baghdad/Iraq. The descriptive prospective study was carried on (50) patients of both sexes with an apparent clinical picture of acute appendicitis aged (19-59) years. Pregnant women were excluded from the study. Results showed that the sample mean age was 23±14 years. The Alvarado scoring system’s sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 67% respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of RIPASA scoring system was 95% and 67% respectively. It can be concluded from our study that the RIPASA score is currently a better diagnostic scoring system than the Alvarado score with higher sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction, negative prediction and diagnostic correctness.
198 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF ANACID TABLET (POLYHERBAL FORMULATION) WITH ITS ANTI OXIDANT AND ULCER PROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES IN PYLORUS LEGATED INDUCED PEPTIC ULCER , Nilesh Patel, Dr. Janmejay Patel, Achal Patel, Dr. Ankitkumar M. Paneliya*
Introduction: Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely only on tradition or millenarian beliefs; descriptive and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered to attainment of reliable data regarding toxicity and efficacy of substance. Aim: To evaluate Anacid Tablet (AT) (polyherbal formulation) for its acute oral toxicity with antioxidant and ulcer protective activities in Peptic ulcer. Method: The certification of IAEC (SKPCPER/IAEC/2016-02/01) as per the CPCSEA was obtained for present study. The acute oral toxicity was done according to OECD guideline AOT-425 to know single dose (2000 mg/kg) toxicity of test drug on swiss albino mice. The effect of AT on peptic ulcer was assessed in Pylorus ligation induced ulcer model in Albino Wister Rats. Various gastric parameters (gastric volume, pH, free & total acidity, ulcer index) and oxidative stress marker level (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase, malondialdehyde-MDA) were assessed to know the effect of test drug in comparison with other controlled groups. Results: There were no any physical - behavioral changes and mortality were observed in any animal during period of 14 days. The obtained result of test drug treated group in comparison to various control and standard drug treated group shows significant increase in pH and decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index. Significant effect was observed on antioxidant marker level in test drug treated group as compare to other groups.Conclusion: The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of Anacid Tablet is 2000 mg/kg as it did not produce any toxic effect at that dose. The Anacid Tablet has significant ulcer protective and antioxidant properties.
199 A STUDY ON SCREENING OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DERMATOLOGY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Dr. R. Navakanth Raju* and Dr. K. Narotham Reddy
Introduction: Adverse drug reaction is a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended and which occurs at doses normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for modification of physiological function. Objectives: To screen and evaluate the incidence of adverse drug reactions in the dermatology department and to identify common class of drugs responsible for ADRs and categorize the adverse drug reactions by using WHO causality assessment scale. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in Inpatient and outpatient department of dermatology in RIMS Government general hospital, Kadapa. The present study was conducted for a period of 6 months from November-2016 to April 2017. All the recruited subjects (N=500) in the both in-patient and out-patient Department of Dermatology were screened. Results: During the study period a total of 500 patients were screened in the department of dermatology for adverse drug reactions (ADR). Out of which 17 patients encountered for ADR. Out of 17 ADRs, 6 ADRs encountered during treatment in the department of dermatology, 5 ADRs were ADR related admitted admission into department of dermatology, 6 ADRs were identified during refer from other department. The incidence of the study was 3.5%. Causality assessment of ADRs by NARANJO scale was found to be Definite-0%, Probable-35.30%, Possible-64.70% and Doubtful-0%. In our study out of 17 patients, in 8 patients suspected drug was discontinued, in 7 patients the drug has been not changed, dose reduction was done in the 2 patients. Conclusion: From the results it was concluded that steroids and anti-retrovirals are most common implicated drugs responsible for adverse drug reactions and most effected organ system is skin and a wide clinical spectrum of ADRs ranging from mild maculopapular rash to serious stevens johnson syndrome was observed. Educating the patients and health care professionals on adverse drug reactions prevention can reduce the chances of occurrence of ADRs in hospitals.
200 EXCITEMENT AROUND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE FOR TREATING COVID 19 , Vaishnavi Gopal Tupkar*
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), Also called as COVID-19, has caused a pendemic which has swiftly involved the entire world and raised great public health concerns. And Hydroxychloroquine has been widely administered to patients with covid- 19. The malaria drug hydroxychloroquine helped to speed the recovery of small number of patients who were mildly ill from covid19. Due to this its going to send a ripple of excitement out through the treating community. The drug that has received the most attention is Hydroxychloroquine. and its working against covid- 19 can create more excitement around everywere.
201 EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL IMPACT ON AWARENESS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG THE ADULTS AT SILAVATTAM VILLAGE, KANCHEEPURAM DISTSRICT , K. Suganthi*
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. On 24th March 1882, Robert Koch announced the discovery of the causative bacillus of tuberculosis to the Berlin Physiological Society. The World‟s tuberculosis day is celebrated on March 24. This day marks one of the most significant landmarks in the history of medicine.
202 INTEGRATIVE APPROACH FOR DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY , Dr. Sheetal Gupta* and Dr. Rahul Sharma
Diabetic foot is usually caused by a combination of three factors - Ischaemia, peripheral neuropathy and immunosuppression caused by excess of sugar in the tissues which predisposes to infection. Diabetic foot management in the contemporary science include drainage of Pus, debridement of dead tissues with local amputation of necrotic digits and antibiotics. Similarly, in Ayurveda Shasthi Upakramas [60 interventions] have been mentioned to treat different types of wound based on their presenting symptoms. In the present case, patient was managed with both Ayurveda and Allopathy conveniently along with other techniques which latest biomedical engineering can provide.
203 SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF MALARIA ENDEMICITY BASED ON RISK FACTOR MODELS OF VECTOR BEHAVIOR, VECTOR TREATMENT, AND SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM WITH THE POTENTIAL OF MALARIA EVENTS IN MANGGARAI DISTRICT IN 2019 , Yohanes Yan Kemismar*, Pius Weraman and Imelda Manurung
Background: Malaria cases in NTT province continue to decline but until now it is still an endemic area and accounts for around 21% of Malaria cases in Indonesia (NTT Health Office, 2017). In endemic areas, Malaria affects the burden on the health sector both in hospitals and health centers, Malaria also causes economic losses including losses from the tourism sector due to the threat of this disease to tourists. Malaria can also reduce labor productivity and increase the absenteeism of school students where 8% of student absences are due to Malaria (Unicef Kupang, 2016). In the last 5 years, API (Annual Parasite Incidence) in Manggarai district decreased, in 2014 it was 0.22, in 2015 it was 0.16, in 2016 it was 0.19, in 2017 it was 0.09 and in 2018 it was 0.09. And the main requirement for a Malaria-free area is the Annual Parasite Incident (API), or annual parasitic incidents, under one per 1,000 population and there is no case of Malaria in the local population for three consecutive years (NTT Provincial Health Office, 2018). Objective: to analyze spatially, individual characteristics, behavior of Anopheles sp. Mosquitoes, breeding places for Anopheles sp. Mosquitoes, surveillance systems that are related to the potential incidence of malaria in Manggarai district. Method: This research is quantitative research with analytic observation approach, and case-control design. Case-control is a study conducted by comparing two groups, namely the case group and the control group (Notoatmodjo, 2010). Case-control studies are carried out by identifying case groups and control groups, then retrospectively investigating risk factors that might explain whether cases and controls may be exposed to exposure or not. in this study, data on the potential for Malaria events were identified at this time and then associated with risk factors namely the behavior of vectors (Anopheles sp), vector breeding places (Anopheles sp. mosquitoes), individual characteristics, and surveillance systems. Results: bivariate analysis, the variables that had influence were age, sex, occupation, population mobility, presence, type, distance, presence, type, paddy field distance, existence, type, buffalo puddle distance, existence, type, distance like fish, existence, type, gutter distance, existence, type,the distance of buffalo footprints, presence, type, the distance of puddles with p-value <0.25, Anopheles sp. the final model of two variables simultaneously influencing the potential for Malaria events in Manggarai Regency is> 35 years of age having an opportunity of 0.378 times and population mobility, 8,750 times. Conclusion: there is a relationship between vector behavior, vector breeding place, population mobility and age of population> 35 years to the potential for malaria in Manggarai district.
204 CORONARY ARTERY STENT: HISTORY, TYPES, MANUFACTURING PROCESS , Vikas Hatekar*, Rahul Kharad and Aashish Ahire
Coronary artery disease is the greatest cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is caused by the deposition of plaque. Current pharmacological anti-atherosclerotic modalities that are still unsuccessful in controlling the disease and improvements in clinical interventions are urgently needed. Blocked atherosclerotic arteries are treated with an expandable metal stent in hospitals. Various types of stents are available on the market to treat clogged cardiac arteries and reduce the risk of heart attack. Herein, the current stent technology and their manufacturing processes are reviewed.
205 CORONAVIRUS 2 (COVID-19): EPIDEMIC DISEASE - A REVIEW , Prof. M. H. Fulekar*, Radhey Shyam Kaushal, Jyoti Fulekar and Gangawane A. K.
Coronavirus-2 belongs to coronaviridae family; the first known severe illness caused by corona virus emerges (2003) as SARS in China followed by second outbreak of severe illness began (2012) as MERS in Saudi Arabia. Further, in December 2019 corona virus outbreak was initiated from the animal such as bat, frogs, snakes, birds, marmots and rabbits and transfer to human being from human seafood market in Wuhan city of China and spread to whole world. The National Health Commission China (Jan 12th, 2020) released coronavirus as epidemic with sign and symptomsfever, dry cough, running nose, sore throat etc. Now coronavirus-2 epidemic disease spread from China to USA and throughout the world. Coronavirus-2 epidemic infected number of peoples, few are recovered and many peoples are died. The data available online in respect to Indian scenario has been highlighted. World Health Organization recommended drugs: Remdesivir, Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir and Ritonavir. However, there is no specific drug or vaccines available for coronavirus-2 disease. The leading research Institutes/Universities working on the invention of coronavirus-2 drug throughout the world. In view of the severity of the coronavirus-2 epidemic to pandemic the present paper has highlighted the origin of coronavirus-2 disease, transmission, entry to the human body, mechanism of human coronavirus-2, epidemiology and pathology. WHO report on coronavirus-2 in brief, their potential therapeutic measures including Indian Ayurvedic – prevention measures as well as precautionary measures suggested by scientist are reviewed as a reference material for further studies.
206 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF DJELLI ZEBU OF NIGER USING MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS , Zakari Idde Yahaya*, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan Dayo, Mani Maman, Maurice Konkombo, Souleymane Sylla, Moumouni ISSA and Hamani Marichatou
The present study was carried out to evaluate the genetic diversity in of the Djelli zebu of Niger sampled in three departments (Kollo, Say, Tera) of the Tillaberi region and in the peri-urban area of Niamey. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were used to genotype 114 animals. The results showed a high variability in the subpopulations studies. The number of alleles ranged from 5 (BM1824 and HAUT27) to 12 alleles (MM12) and while the allelic richness calculated using the rarefaction correction varied from 0.427 (SPS115) to 0.802 (HEL9). The highest genetic diversity was observed in the department of Kollo and the lowest in the subpopulation of Niamey. The highest genetic distance values were observed between the Say and Niamey subpopulations while the lowest were between Kollo and Tera. The Bayesian clustering method showed that the most consistent gain in information was obtained with K = 2 and from K = 3 to K = 6, some individuals displayed less than 1% of their genome in other clusters.
207 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION EDUCATION COMMUNICATION PACKAGE ON LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS’’AT SRM GENERAL HOSPITAL, KATTANKULATHUR , *P. Malarvizhi and Selvakani Pandian Msc (N)
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. Objective: The aim of the study is to improve the level of knowledge on complications of diabetes mellitus among diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: A quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness of information education communication package on knowledge regarding complications of diabetes mellitus among patients with diabetes mellitus The 60 study samples selected by non-probability sampling technique. After getting the written consent samples was allocated into two groups. Experimental group(30 patients) were provided with pre-test, IEC Package and posttest, the control group (30patients) were provided with the pretest and posttest without any intervention. The data collected with the help of demographic data and self-structured questionnaire regarding complications of diabetes mellitus. Result: The study result showed that posttest knowledge score of control group shows 54.877%, the experimental group shows that 81.33%. Experimental group those who received IEC package on complications of Diabetes mellitus ‘p’ value 0.0001 is more significant than control group ‘p’ value 0.003. Result shows experimental group who received IEC package have more knowledge than control group. The study concludes that diabetic clients have a remarkable increased in knowledge regarding complications of Diabetes mellitus after implementation of Information Education Communication package. As members of the health team, nurses play a vital role in improving knowledge of patient regarding complications of diabetes mellitus.
208 OUTBREAK OF CORONA VIRUS , Shreya Kumar, Kumaresh Kundu and Saptarshi Panigrahi*
This year 2020 have started with enormous fear and pessimism, mainland whole universe is suffering from a new respiratory virus, quite infamously known as Corona virus. Corona virus (COVID-19) is an enveloped RNA virus that is many times found in humans and wildlife creatures. A total six species of the virus, have been identified that infect humans. They are known to infect the neurological, respiratory, enteric and hepatic system. Few decennary have seen endemic out breaks in the form of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. Due to few, strain called SARS -CoV-2 virus. Most recent initially outbreak abandoned as pneumonia of rummy etiology in a fascicle of patients in Wuhan, China. Highly contagious disease is known as SARS-CoV-2 and has be gotten in a swift pandemic of COVID -19. SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to human and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to human. Its droplets do help in the transmission of the disease. Aged people and cardiac patients have more chances of getting infected by this severe respiratory disease. Hand wash is the best desisting from this respiratory virus. Primary and secondary health care provides a means to flourish awareness during this current pandemic. The clinical information for the fecund, legislation, repulsion and monitor of patients universally are most up-to-date. Avoid crowds with humid atmosphere, so try your best to remain away from any public gatherings and use mask to isolate yourself from others, preventing the spread of virus through each other's sputum. Take sufficient water to keep yourself hydrated and maintain good immune, also prefer taking some immunity boosters, keep away from stress, and sleep well. . Avoid medication without prescription and have more of proteinaceous food.
209 TRANSUNGUAL: THE NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Pratik V. Malvade*, Sayli R. Chavan, Dhanashri B. Bhagat, Komal R. Ghorpade
The tranungual drug delivery system or nail drug delivery system is very effective on nail disorders. The transungual drug delivery is directly interact with infected part of nail and it cure infected part very rapidly as compared to oral route drugs or other any route of administration of drugs. And this drug delivery system is with minimum adverse effects on body. But after too many good things the some difficulties are also present in this system i.e. the permeability of nail is quite low which affects permeability of drug across the nail. Hence in this review article we discussed about anatomy of nail, some disorders of nail and penetration enhancing methods. The drug delivery through nail plate are used in nail plate e.g. onychomycosis, green nail syndrome, paronychia and leukonychia. The nail disorders are mainly cause due to fungal or any microbial infection. The some formulations which are generally prescribed are Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Itraconazole, and Fluconazole. The some factors also affects the penetration power of nail are molecular size of drug, concentration of nail and vehicle used in formulation. In this review article we collect the information about nail anatomy, disorders of nail, drug penetration enhancing methods and treatment on the nail disorders.
210 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF VATARI GUGGULU, MAHARASNADI KWATHA AND NARAYAN TAILA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OSTEOARTHRITIS KNEE , *Dr. Sheetal Gupta and Dr. Rahul Sharma
In present era, pharmacological, biochemical and surgical interventions are not successful remedy for osteoarthritis (OA). Ayurveda and complementary medicine have medication for OA. Objectives: The main aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of therapeutic combination of vatari guggulu along with Maharasnadi kwatha and Narayan taila with gentle massage for 15 min daily up to 12 weeks on affected knee joint pain assessed on Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Materials and methods: It was an open label, multicenter, prospective, clinical study conducted on 142 patients of OA Knee, Vatari guggulu 500 mg thrice in a day along with Maharasnadi Kwatha 20 ml with equal amount of water twice daily and Narayan taila 20 ml twice in a day for external application with gentle massage for 15 min up to 12 weeks were used to all the study participants. Results: VAS, WOMAC score and clinical symptoms were reduced significantly from baseline to end of the treatment. Conclusions: The study provides good evidence in support of the efficacy and safety of the Vatari guggulu along with Maharasnadi Kwatha and Narayan taila in the management of Osteoarthritis knee.
211 A REVIEW ON RISK OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE [COVID19] IN PREGANCY , Malshikare Swapnali Sanjay, Shinde Jitendra V.* and Kshatriya Pravin Jamnadas
Introduction: The happening of the new corona virus china in 2019 and afterward in varied countries round the world has raised consideration regarding the like hood of vertical transmission of the virus from mother to craniates. The present study aimed to review printed literature regard . METHOD: We have a tendency to reviewed the danger of transmission of COVID-19 to the craniates of infected mother by victimization information of printed articles on web site. Conclusion: Currently, supported restricted information, there is no proof for intrauterine transmission of COVI- 19 from infected pregnant ladies to their fetuses. Mother could also be at accrued risk for a lot of severe metabolic process complications.
212 OCULAR MANIFESTATION IN HEAD INJURY , Kali Shankar Das and *Dr. Athokpam Poireiton
Aim: To evaluate the pattern and clinical profile of ocular injury in patients hospitalized and managed for head injury at a tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern India. Material and methods: This is a prospective cross sectional study, carried out in 190 patients tertiary teaching hospital. This study is done with the patients who are admitted at NRS Medical College and Hospital for head injury over a period of six months. Results: Male are more comparing to female. Road traffic accidents with two-wheeler is most common for head injury. Most frequent soft tissue injury is periorbital ecchymosis (95 patients). Most frequent neuro-ophthalmic manifestation is abducent nerve palsy. Orbital fracture with ruptured globe is also recorded. Conclusion: The most common cause of head injury is road traffic accident. The most common oculovisual complications following head injury are damages to the globe, adenexae and ocular cranial nerve palsies. All patients with head injury should also undergo eye check-up along with head injury treatment.
213 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF DOSHAJ PANDU VYADHI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLOOD INDICES , Dr. Ratnaraj Charu Patil* and Dr. Sachin Ashok Naik
Panduvyadhi is a prominent disease of Rasavahasrotas. It has five types viz. Vataja,Pittaja,kaphaja, sannipatika and Mrudabakshanjanya Pandu. Out of these first four are called as Doshaj Pandu.1 The Differential diagnosis of Pandu depends upon the symptoms i.e. on the subjective assessment. But if clinical diagnosis of Doshaj Pandu is confirmed with the help of proved parameters as blood indices, it would be helpful to decide line of treatment. Hence we require objective criteria to differentiate types of Pandu vyadhi.
214 ISOLATION AND DETERMINATION OF VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID) IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF ROSES CULTIVATED IN QUETTA , Mashaal Sharif, Nizam Baloch*, Muhammad Asghar, Mohammad Faheem, Tamoor Khan, Murad Bibi, Muhammad Kamran Khan
Isolation and determination of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in different varieties of roses (rose hip fruit) cultivated in the District Quetta, Balochistan is described for the first time in this document. Research and different studies show that the rose hip contain vitamin C as an active ingredient 500-1000%. Six samples of roses that belongs to family “Rosaceae” was first selected and then used for the determination of ascorbic acid. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) content in different varieties of roses (Rose hip fruit) was prepared and then has been determined by using spectrophotometric and titrimetric method. The kinetic reaction between methylene blue (MB+) and vitamin C was studied in the spectrophotometric method with the carried measurement at maximum absorption λmax. 665nm. It was founded that the vitamin C content in six different varieties were 2556, 7323, 9011, 2167, 5045 and 5234 mg/100 g of dry weight sample, whereas the titrimetric method shows the following results as 2405, 7406, 9261, 2007, 5104 and 5020 mg/ 100 g of dry weight of the six samples respectively. Obtained results shown that the investigated roses are good source of vitamin C.
215 FORMATION OF FARM USEFUL INDEXES OF GENERATION FOR AN INCREASE OF BREEDING INDEX OF GENOTYPE OF BLACK MOTLEY BULLS OF HOLSTEIN BREED , Dosmukhamedova Mukhayyo Khusnitdinovna*, Shakirov Kakhramon Juraboevich, Mamurov Golib and Ruziev Oybek
The article depicts genotype evaluation and selection of black motley bull-improvers of Holstein breed imported from Germany to “Uznaslchilik” state enterprise. According to obtained and analyzed main parameters of bull-improvers, a total merit index of bull genotype (RZG) and official index for production (RZM), conformation traits (RZE), somatic cell score (RZS), fertility (RZN) and farm use (RZR) indexes were estimated and analyzed. These indexes were estimated and selected individually per bull. Estimation and selection procedures on imported bull-improvers are being implemented together with republic breeding farms on breeding herds. These imported productive bulls are obtained from individual ordered selection and pairing of the parental ancestors estimated by generation quality.
216 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF WILD AND SEMI WILD EDIBLE TREE SPECIES IN CENTRAL ZONE OF TIGRAI, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA , Redae Nigusse and Awash Tesfay
Even though the wild and semi-wild edible tree/shrub species play an important role in ecological balance and livelihood improvement, they are not being managed well. The objective of this study was to investigate the composition, diversity, and population structure of wild and semi-wild edible tree/shrub species in lowland agro-ecology of Mereb-leke district across different land use types (farmland, exclosure, riverine and homestead). A total of 38 sample plots, i.e. 6 plots from farmland, 8 from the riverside, 8 from exclosure, and 16 plots from homestead were used proportional to their size. Transects lines were laid out systematically parallel to each other in each of the land-use types to record the species composition, diversity, population structure. Along the transect lines, 50 m X 50 m quadrats with 100 m distance between the plots were systematically laid down and the distance between consecutive transect lines was 100 m. One way ANOVA was employed to analyze the difference in the diversity indices between the land use types. A total of 8 wild and semi-wild edible tree/shrub representing 7 families were documented. The diversity indices were not significantly varied (P=0.24) between farmland (0.3±0.14), exclosure (0.29±0.12), riverine (0.26±0.13), and homestead land use types (0.28±0.07) in the lowland. However, the abundance of wild and semi-wild edible tree/shrub species in homestead (42±9.6) was showed significantly higher (P=0.001) than the riverine (9.3±2.3), farmland (19±11.7), and exclosure (8.5±1.1). Except in homestead land use types, the population structure of wild and semi-wild species in farmland, exclosure, and riverine were unhealthy regeneration potential. The Homestead agroforestry system should be improved for the better regeneration potential of wild and semi-wild edible tree/shrub species in the Mereb leke district.
217 FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF WOODY SPECIES IN PARKLAND AGROFORESTRY PRACTICE IN TIGRAI, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA , Redae Nigusse* and Yeabyo Welearegay
Multipurpose tree species grown in scattered form over a crop field (parkland agroforestry practice) supports to smallholder farmers’ livelihoods and play a critical role in biodiversity conservation. However, there is still gap of knowledge on the biological legacies of farm land trees in terms of biodiversity conservation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the floristic composition and diversity of parkland agroforestry in lower (1700-1900 m a.s.l.) and upper (1901-2333 m a.s.l.) midland of Tahtay Maichew district. A total of 20 plots with 100 m X 100 m quadrat were used to collect vegetation data along two parallel transect lines per each midland category. Independent sample t-test was employed to analysis the diversity indices. The result show that, except Simpson’s index, the Shannon, Richness and evenness indices were not significantly varied between the lower and upper midland categories. A total of 21 woody species composition under 11 families in the lower and 21 woody species belongs to 17 families in the upper midland category were documented. The overall DBH and height class distribution of each midland category ratifies irregular inverted J-shape population pattern. Promoting farmer managed natural regeneration through appropriate system such as zero grazing system is highly required.
218 THE EFFECT OF YEAST CULTURE (SACCHAROMYCES SPP.) SUPPLEMENTATION IN DIETS ON FEED EFFICIENCY AND YOLK CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN LOHMANN BROWN LAYING HENS , *Anak Agung Putu Putra Wibawa and I. Gusti Nyoman Gde Bidura
This study was planned to examine the effect of inclussion of yeast culture (YC) in the ration as a probiotic on feed efficiency and yolk cholesterol levels in Lohmann Brown laying hens. This study used as many as two hundred and forty Lohmann Brown laying hens up to 70 weeks old in a completely randomized design with 4 kinds of treatments, namely: the diets (CP: 17% and ME: 2750 kcal/kg) were fortified with levels of probiotik YC at 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.30% to prepare diets Y0, Y1, Y2, and Y3, respectively. The results showed that supplementation from 0.20 to 0.30% of yeast culture in the ration, was significant (P<0.05) can increase total egg weight, egg production, feed efficiency, egg shell thickness and egg yolk color. Supplementation of yeast culture in the ration apparently had no significant effect (P>0.05) on feed consumption and final body weight. Dietary inclusion of 0.20-0.30% YC significantly (P<0.05) reduced the levels of yolk cholesterol in the hens of all treated groups when compared to those of control group. It was concluded that supplementation from 0.20 to 0.30% Yeast culture in the ration could increase egg production, feed efficiency, eggshell thickness and egg yolk color of Lohmann Brown hens, and reduce yolk cholesterol content.
219 ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF WILD EDIBLE TREES AND SHRUBS OF CENTRAL TIGRAI, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA , Awash Tesfay*
Wild edible trees and shrubs play an important contribution to food and traditional medicine. Many valuable wild edible plants are familiar to certain areas or to certain communities but are unknown to others. So, this research is done with the objective to study the type of valuable wild edible trees and shrubs in the study area. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 173 respondents. In addition, focus group discussion was also held with 40 key informants. Ethnobotanical data were collected in the presence of local administrators. A total of 22 wild edible trees and shrubs belonging to 14 families were recorded. Moraceae families were the dominant families in the area. The majority (63.6%) of Wild edible trees were found in natural forests followed by riparian forests (27.3%). All of the wild edible tree species (100%) recorded in this study were eaten their raw fruit part. of the total wild edible trees and shrubs recorded, 18.2% were used for medicinal purposes, and 32% were used for construction. Even though the income contribution of the wild edible trees is not comparable to the income of annual crops, an important contribution can be obtained from the wild edible trees especially in the dry season. Overgrazing and agricultural expansions are critical factors for threatening wild and semi-wild plants. High conservational demand of the most endangered wild edible tree species like Syzigium guineense, Tamarindus indica, Ximenia americana, Ficus vasta, Ficus sycomorus, Mimusops kummel, and Diospyros mespliformis is important.
220 EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF VENTRAL INCISIONAL HERNIA PATIENTS UNDERGOING LAPAROTOMY , *Dr. Qasim Mohammed Faraj, Dr. Mohammed Hassen Ubaid and Dr. Basim Abdulhussein Talib
Incisional hernia is the second most common type of hernia after inguinal hernia. It is a complication of abdominal surgery, reported in up to 11% of patients generally and in up to 20% of those who developed post-operative wound infection. The list of predictive factors associated with development of incisional hernia is obesity, diabetes mellitus, steroid, smoking, old age, malnutrition, COPD and type of incision. This hospital based cross sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and clinical presentation of incisional hernia to reduce its occurrence by developing a preventive strategy to patients undergoing laparotomy. It was carried out from February 2018 to October 2019 in surgery department of Al-shahid Al-Sadr General hospital-Baghdad / Iraq on 80 patients diagnosed with incisional hernia. Results in the present study showed that the mean age of study subjects was 51.25±10.54 years. Around two-third 67.5% were females. 46.3% of perforation and 32.4% of LSCS cases later developed to incisional hernia. Risk factors profile showed that 6.2% were alcoholic, 28.7% smokers, 48.7% overweight and 4.7% were obese, 23.7% were hypertensive, 51.2% diabetic, and 12.4% had constipation. 26.3% had prolonged cough, 37.5% had surgical site infection and 42.6% had anemia. Clinical presentation of study subjects showed that 60% had swelling, 34% had swelling and pain and 6% had obstruction. It can be concluded that incisional hernia is more common in female than males and in cases above the age of 45 years. It is more common in patients who underwent the previous surgery on an emergency basis especially in perforation and obstruction and LSCS cases. Risk factors associated with incisional hernia are smoker, alcoholic, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, constipation, prolong cough and anemia.
221 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HYPERURICEMIA AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES AMONG PREGNANT HYPERTENSIVE WOMEN , *Dr. Mehasin Kamal Saleh Zuwayd and Dr. Faeza Kamal Salih
This study aimed to determine the relationship between hyperuricemia and perinatal outcome in pregnancy induced hypertension. This prospective and observational study was carried out in Al-Falluja Teaching Hospital for Gynecology and Pediatrics – Falluja-Anbar /Iraq. The study included (75) primigravida female patients in the third trimester (after 32 weeks gestation) with pregnancy induced hypertension. Serum uric acid assay was done then the patients were classified into three groups according to uric acid levels; Group I (low hyperuricemia) uric acid below 25th percentile (<3.7 mg/dl ), group II (middle hyperuricemia) uric acid from 25th to 75th percentile (3.8 to 5.7 mg/dl ) and group III (high hyperuricemia) uric acid above 75th percentile (>5.8 mg/dl). The maternal outcome was followed up as (eclampsia, HELLP, acute renal failure and accidental hemorrhage) and fetal out- comes (stillbirth, prematurity, IUGR and IUFD). The results showed statistically significant increase of serum uric acid, urea and creatinine in high group compared to middle and low ones. Bad fetal outcome and pregnancy complications were directly proportional to the serum uric acid levels. It can be concluded for our study that hyperuricemia may be used in the prognosis of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancy induced hypertension, and that serum uric acid levels is a useful and inexpensive marker for predicting adverse perinatal outcomes.
222 FORMULATION OF MICROBIAL GROWTH USING MILLET AND SWEET POTATO , Ashefo D. P.*, Zakka A. W. and Oboh J. E.
Culture media supply the nutrients required for the growth and maintenance of microorganism in the laboratory. This study aims to investigate the possibility of using locally available materials (sweet potato and millet) as basal media and as a substitute for commercially available media formulation of microbial growth. Four different media were formulated, namely, Millet agar (MA), Sweet Potato agar (SPA), Millet glucose agar (MGA) and sweet potato dextrose agar (SPGA). The test organisms chosen were bacterial genera Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungal genera Aspergillus spp and Rhizopus sp. The suitability of the formulated media was estimated by culturing the isolated species through the pour plating method. The results reveal that the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is higher in the nutrient agar followed by the formulated millet agar and least growth was seen on the sweet potato agar. The higher growth level in millet compared to sweet potato could be as a result of higher protein and fat content in the millet as bacteria proliferate more on high protein foods. The fungal isolates Aspergillus sp. and Rhizopus sp is higher in the potato dextrose agar followed by sweet potato glucose agar and the least growth was seen on the millet agar. The higher level of fungal growth on the sweet potato glucose agar is due to the higher carbohydrate content in the sweet potato when compared to the millet. These alternative formulations should be used more often in the laboratory for growth and study of microorganisms. More studies should be done on the shelf life of these alternative formulations.
223 EVALUATION OF MEAN PARASITE DENSITY IN THICK BLOOD FILMS OF MALARIA POSITIVE PATIENTS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS , Esimai Bessie Nonyelum, Ogbu I. S. I. and Njoku O. O.
A parasitologic evaluation of blood samples of 2000 symptomatic malaria patients (1000 males and 1000 females) was conducted in some health facilities of Enugu metropolis. The parasite density for the study showed 192/μl for 80 positive cases and 520/μl for 1,140 malaria positive samples. This shows the impact of malaria pasrasite in the blood of the patients which is disaterous which was disastrous in the lives of the populace. More control measures and health education should be advocated to enlighten people on the control measure against malaria infection to improve the lives of many as malaria is highly endemic in this part of the world.
224 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES AT PHYSICALLY TREATED GULLY SIDE OF TANQUA ABERGELE WATERSHEDS , Meresa Weleslasie* and Guesh Assefa
Gully erosion is the worst form of erosion affecting to the society and environment, primarily caused by surface runoff and dramatically accelerated due to human induced factors. Biological Soil and Water Conservation (BSWC) grasses have a great contribution in protecting soil erosion and gully rehabilitation. The study was initiated with the aim of evaluating the performance and growth rate of selected biological soil and water conservation grasses towards gully rehabilitation and soil loss reduction. The study was conducted at Agbe (Maytsahli sub - watershed) in Tanqua Abergelle districts, which is located in central zone of Tigray regional state. The study area was selected purposively based on the prevalence of soil erosion problem and gully occurrence. Five treatments with three replications were applied using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with a plot size of 4 m * 6 m. Field observation, interview and measurements were used to collect the data. Height of growth rate, dimension of gully section and volume of soil loss data were analyzed using Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) and Microsoft-excel softwares. The obtained result of grass height was evaluated four times per year with in three (3) months interval. The analysis result showed that, Giant reed grass had the highest (2.31 m) growth performance followed by elephant grass (1.46 m) as compared with vetiver (0.81 m) and sisal (0.53 m) grases, due to their physiological behavior of each grasses. Due to implementation of BSWC grasses, the depth of the gully was reduced from 1.75 m to 1.51 m and the width of the gully remains constant. The volume of soil loss from the gully section was also reduced from 559 ton/ha/yr to 468 ton/ha/yr. Therefore, the BSWC grasses showed a promising contribution in reducing soil loss from the gully. Therefore, farmers, experts and stakeholders should have to expand and disseminate those technologies to all watersheds in order to stabilize gully and reduce soil loss.
225 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON INFLUENZA VIRUS , Rohit Kumar*, Diksha
Influenza Viruses, negative strand RNA viruses, belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family cause both seasonal and periodic respiratory infections. According to the World Health organization, Influenza virus is the major public health concern that is emerging as the pandemic diseases. It causes significant number of morbidly and mortality cases in human and birds by inducing the acute inflammation in respiratory epithelium. Influenza virus is highly contagious disease that cause symptoms ranges from fever, bodyache, fatigue and running nose. After a typical course duration of 5 to 10 days, influenza virus can also attack the lungs, brain and heart. Pregnant women, people with weak immune system, chronic respiratory diseases, infants and elder people are at the major risk of suffering from the influenza virus disease. Antiviral drugs treatment, vaccination, hospitalization are treatment and preventive strategies that can be used for the treatment of patients suffering with the influenza infection. In this article, we review the various aspects of diseases such as epidemiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms and treatment strategies.
226 IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON BRAZIL , Chandra Mohan, Shreya Gupta, Meenakshi Verma and Vinod Kumar*
Virus is one the most interesting creature of nature; some are beneficial and showed a symbiotic relationship with the host, although others are used to treat genetic diseases or serve as vaccines. From the past viral infection, SARS and MERS significantly influenced the humanity in the year 2002 and 2012 respectively. Now a day’s a new viral infection COVID 19 caused by novel corona virus, SARS-CoV-2 greatly influenced the humanity globally and till now around 3.12 M cases of infection with 217 K deaths were reported worldwide as on 27 April 2020. However, we are well equipped and having updated Medical and technical facilities, but unfortunately we are on foot against COVID 19. In this review, we discussed the current condition and the impact of Covid-19 on Brazil.
227 LIFE STYLE MODIFICATION AND AYURVEDA CONSIDERATIONS TOWARDS THE MANAGEMENT OF MEDOROGA (OBESITY) , *Vd. Sneha Padmakar Kondar, Dr. Jibi T. Varghese, Dr. Digambar G. Dipankar, Vd. Rachita Dattatraya Janrao and Vd. Jaypalsing Prakashsing Pawar
The deposition of excess fat in body leads many pathological events and such conditions termed as obesity which can be correlated with Medoroga as per Ayurveda. The imbalance of – Vata, Pitta, and Kapha Doshas mainly initiate consequences of other diseases in obese person therefore obesity is considered as etiological causes of other diseases including diabetes and infertility, etc. The instances of obesity increases day by day due to the stressful living regimen and many more peoples around the word getting affected by disorders related to the obesity. Considering such factor present article explores Ayurveda view on obesity and its management through life style pattern and medicine.
228 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE PATIENT’S PERCEPTION OF THE QUALITY OF NURSING CARE AMONG IN- PATIENTS IN SRM MCH, KATTANKULATHUR , Jeya V. Vincent*
Statement of the Problem A study to assess the patient’s Perception of the quality of nursing care among in-patients in SRM MCH, Kattankulathur.
229 DENTAL PLAQUE- THE ENIGMA OF THE ORAL CAVITY , Dr. Grishmi Niswade*
Microbial biofilms are common in nature. Any fluid environment where bacteria are subjected to stress or flow, can create an environment susceptible for biofilm growth. Biofilms are found throughout the body and in the environment and can be found lining the dental unit waterlines, catheters and prosthetic heart valves. Bacteria exist in the oral cavity in the form of biofilm on tooth surfaces which is a polymicrobial community or consortium of interacting microbial species. It is difficult to grow the microorganisms in artificial culture in the laboratory due to the complex nature of microbial diversity causing periodontal disease. However, due to newer techniques of imaging it has now been possible to understand the biology of dental plaque and knowledge of microbial ecology. Oral biofilms play a major role in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease and have broad implications for quality of life, systemic health and economic costs.
230 A REVIEW OF PANDU VYADHI IN LIGHT OF NUTRITIONAL DEFECIENCIES IN INDIA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PHYTIC ACID , *Dr. Sachin Ashok Naik
In Ayurveda we study Pandu Vyadhi with its nidanpanchak in detail. We have studied the disease which correlates todays Iron deficiency anaemia. There are total five types of Pandu Vyadhi out of which four are doshaj and fifth is caused by a habit of eating soil (Mrudbhakshan janya). Interestingly we find this type in gujarat in today‟s India. In India vegetarian diet is extensively followed. Interestingly in people with anaemia which is prevalent in India especially in women, diet need to be understood in addition with Ayurvedic study. The reason for it is phytic acid is present in vegetarian diet which binds with minerals and prevents bioavailability of the minerals hence a causative factor of anaemia. Here our main aim is to study Pandu and phytic acid and understand the impact on anaemic people and simple solution for the same. We know that phytic acid binds with minerals present in the diet and hamper the mineral uptake by humans who already are anaemic. Hence in spite of having mineral rich diet those patients remain anaemic. Hence medicines help only for course of the medication. Afterwards they may lack the minerals due to this reason as the same diet is continued.
231 COVID 19- HUMAN CORONA VIRUSE , Ritu Kainth* and Harsimran singh
Human corona viruses (HCoVs) are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory outcomes. In the past 12- 14 years, the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) have thrust HCoVs into spotlight of the research community due to their high pathogen city in humans. Corona viruses possess a distinctive morphology, the name being derived from the outer fringe, or ―Corona‖ of embedded envelope protein. Members of the family corona viridae cause a broad spectrum of animal and human diseases. Uniquely, replication of the RNA genome proceeds through the generation of a nested set of viral mRNA molecules. The study of HCoV-host interaction has contributed extensively to our understanding of HCoV pathogenesis. In present time, the pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents an unprecedented challenge to identify effective drugs for prevention and treatment. No proven effective therapies for this virus currently exist. The rapidly expanding knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a significant number of potential drug targets. The most promising therapy is remdesivir. Remdesivir has potent in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2, but it is not US Food and Drug Administration approved and currently is being tested in ongoing randomized trials.
232 A REVIEW ON POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME AND USE OF METFORMIN IN POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME , Ch. O. V. Nagateja*, V. Priyanka and E. Jajili
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive-endocrine disorder in women, characterised by anovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism, with clinical manifestations of irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, and acne. Insulin resistance (IR) is believed by many to be pivotal in the pathogenesis of PCOS and that treatment strategies should revolve around reducing the IR and hyperinsulinaemia. Increased insulin levels contribute to excess androgen production and decreases hepatic SHBG synthesis results in increased circulating testosterone levels. The current therapy aims to improve insulin-resistance, which reduces compensatory hyperinsulinemia and then improve metabolic and ovulatory features in patients with PCOS. Metformin, a biguanide, is an antihyperglycemic agent decreases hepatic glucose production, decreases intestinal absorption of glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. Velazquez and colleagues reported in an observational study that most of the metabolic abnormalities of PCOS can be reversed by Metformin, with the additional benefits such as allowing regular menstrual cycles, reversal of infertility, and spontaneous pregnancy.
233 TABLET: A COMPLETE REVIEW , Dhritiman Bhargab*, Pankaj Chasta, Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul (Principal), Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma (HOD)
Tablet is a unit solid dosage form prepared either by compression or by molding with or without suitable diluents. Tablets are classified into two types: compressed and molded tablets. Tablets contains some excipients with the active pharmaceutical ingredients such as diluents to increase the bulk of the tablet. Tablets can be manufactured by three methods: dry granulation, wet granulation and direct compression. Direct compression is most effective and shortest way to produce tablets. To evaluate quality of the tablets certain test such as friability, hardness test can be done before it is transported or marketed.
234 “BRAHMI (BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.)” TINY PLANT WITH TREMENDOUS PROPERTIES – A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW , Krunal A. Doshi*, Madhavi H. Patel and Pavan A. Virpariya
Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn.) belongs to family Scrophulariaceae described in classical Ayurvedic texts as well as in modern texts for various types of treatments to cure diseased conditions. It has various synonyms in Ayurvedic scriptures dealing its properties. So, in the present review article, an attempt has been made to compile critically its information related to therapeutic uses of Brahmi from samgraha granthas, nighantus and other published texts of Ayurveda. It is observed that panchanga of Brahmi is used as an ingredient in 88 formulations, which are effective in disease conditions like unmada (insanity), apasmara (epilepsy), jwara (fever), pandu (anemia), amlapitta (acidity), kustha (skin disease) etc. Different parts of Brahmi are used in many dosage forms; such as swarasa (juice), kwatha (decoction), lepa (paste), varti (suppository), avleha (semi-solid preparations) and many more.
235 THERAPEUTIC UTILITY OF KSHARA IN SHALYA TANTRA , Dr. S. V. Shailaja* and Dr. Madhuri G. Hegde
Kshara is considered as one of the important medication in Shalya tantra. Kshara is one of the anushastra which can be applicable in most of the vyaadhis where shastra karma can be avoided. Kshara is considered superior to shastra as it has the capacity to perform actions similar to shastra. Patient who are unfit for surgery or who are not willing to undergo surgical procedure kshara can be used to get the desired effect of shastra karma. Kshara is a medicinal preparation which involves combination of various drugs by which the action of kshara is initiated. Kshara has innumerable actions when used judiciously in various conditions good results are noted.
236 MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS OF SELECTED ADIANTUM SPECIES USING RBCL SEQUENCING STUDIES , A. Antony Selvi, S. Christopher Patrick Kiladi and T. Leon Stephan Raj*
Plants are used as a source of medicine in Traditional Medicinal Systems in India from time immemorial. The demand in medicinal plants leads to the adulteration in pharmaceutical industries. This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four species of Adiantum, A. latifolium, A. incisum, A. hispidulum and A.caudatum using rbcL sequencing studies. The rbcL sequencing of the selected plants analysed with BLAST for similar sequence studies and the alignment was done with T-Coffee software. BLAST results indicated that the number of similar sequences present in the Genbank repository. The phylogenetic tree represented the degree of similarity andvariation with other species and other accessions of same species. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Adiantum species. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The result of the study was useful for the authentication ofselected adiantaceae members. The phylogenetic tree showed their relationship with other adiantaceae members.
237 EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF TOBACCO CONSUMPTION AMONG ADOLESCENT BOYS RESIDEING AT LAKSHMIPURA VILLAGE, BANGALORE , Vijayalakshmi*, Jesindha Beyatricks and Christeena Saji
The prevalence of tobacco consumption in other forms such as snuff, chewing tobacco, burnt tobacco powder, and paste was 19.3% and 9.9% in rural and urban males, respectively, 9.3 and 4.3% in rural and urban females respectively. Very few studies have been conducted in rural area but not in Belgaum urban area .Hence this community based study on patterns of tobacco consumption among adolescent boys may help to develop strategies to prevent tobacco consumption during the younger days of life. The data was collected using predesigned questionnaire for the age group of 10-18 years for about 400 adolescent boys. The main observations of the study were 33.12% of the adolescents were addicted with one or other type of tobacco chewing, majority of addicted adolescent were in the age group of 17-19years.
238 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CONSTITUENTS OF TRIPHALA , Dr. Shobha Shrivastava*
Triphala, a well known ayurvedic formulation, is used against number of ailments since ancient times. It consists of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica in equal proportions. Triphala as a whole and its three individual constituents show specific antimicrobial activity against certain bacteria and fungi.Triphala is being extensively researched for its various therapeutic effects including its anti-caries, anti-oxidant,anti-colagenase, and anti-microbial activities. Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Triphala and its constituents was studies against three human pathogenic Gram negative bacteria namely P.aeruginosa, E.coli and k.pneumoniae and two human pathogenic Gram positive bacteria B.subtilis and S. aureus by cup-plate method. Triphala was found strongly bactericidal against P.aeruginosa with 1.8 cm of inhibitory zone. This was on account of T.chebula, which showed highest inhibitory zone against the same pathogen, followed by E.coli and other two Gram positive bacteria. T.bellerica however, showed maximum inhibitory activity against B.subtilis by showing 2.2 cm of inhibitory zone. It was confirmed that antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria was due to T. chebula and E.officinali, while antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria was on account of T.bellerica. Antifungal activity of Triphala and its constituents was studied against two pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Triphala was found almost equally effective against A.niger and C.albicans. Aqueous extract of E.officinalis showed potent antifungal activity against A.niger with an inhibitory of 3.4 cms.
239 DYSLIPIDEMIA (MEDOROGA) AND ROLE OF LIFESTYLE MODIFICATION , Vd. Sneha Padmakar Kondar*, Dr. Jibi T. Varghese, Dr. Anupama Bathe and Vd. Sneha Nambiar
The incidence lifestyle diseases like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and obesity associated with cardiovascular disease is high on the rise. Dyslipidemia is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs) or both or low high density lipoprotein level (HDL) that contributes to development of atherosclerosis. The epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVDs) is the most prevalent cause of death and disability in both developed and developing counties. In India there has been an alarming increase in prevalence of CVD over the past two decades so much that accounts for 24% of all deaths among adult age 25-69 years. The world health organization estimates that dyslipidemia is associated with more than half of global cases of ischemic heart disease and more than 4 million deaths per year. Ayurveda is recognized as foremost life science. It describe way to prevent as a whole meaning and intervention targeted towards complete physical, psychological and spiritual well being disorder. So here an attempt has been done to understand the dyslipidemia in Ayurvedic perspective.
240 EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY AND IN VITRO ANTI-ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ANTHRAQUINONES AND DERIVATIVES FROM PENTAS LANCEOLATA (FORSSK.) DEFLERS LEAVES , Dr. Pragati Kumar*, Ashish Kumar Sharma and Prabodh Shukla
Background: Anthelmintics are drugs that are used to treat infections with parasitic worms. This includes both flat worms, e.g., flukes and tapeworms and round worms, i.e., nematodes. These having great importance for human tropical medicine and for veterinary medicine. Objective: The objective of the present research work had been done to evaluate the toxicity and In vitro Anti-Anthelmintic potential of anthraquinones and derivatives isolated from Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers leaves. Materials and Methods: For the study of toxicity, the OECD guidelines were used. Experimental animals (Swiss albino mice), Six mice in each, were grouped into six groups; five experimental groups and one negative control. In studying the acute toxicity, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg isolated compounds was given via i.p. route of drug administration. For acute toxicity, a single dose was given, and gross behavioural changes were recorded. For anthelmintic test Swiss albino mice, male and females weighted in medium of 25-30gm and naturally infected for Syphucia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera were selected and test compounds was dissolved in normal saline water and given orally to individual groups of mice. The eggs of parasites (Both species were determined separately) were count out on the first, second, third and fifth day. On the seventh day, one mouse from each group was sacrificed and the intestine was observed to on the subject of the presence of parasites. Results: The acute toxicity study resulted that all four selected test Compounds are comparatively safe when administered through i.p. rout to mice. Any kinds of toxic symptoms as well as mortality did not represent by the Compounds up to the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight. For Anti-Anthelmintic activity, all four isolated Test compounds and Piprazine citrate as standard drug was studied on the laboratory animals and the study concluded that, the groups of animals administered isolated Test compounds but not in control group showed a significant decreased in no. of eggs/gram of faeces excreted after 1st day of treatment. Results showed significant differences (P-value<0.001) in the number of eggs excreted by the S. Obvelata and A. Tetraptera and in mice, administering the test compounds and control group. Conclusion: From the studies, it was proved that Anthraquinones and derivatives isolated from leaves of Pentas lanceolata are an effective Anti-anthelmintic drug with the dose of 250 mg/kg.
241 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES REGARDING HEPATITIS A & E AWARENESS AMONG BIOLOGICAL AND NON- BIOLOGICAL STUDENTS , Azka Rizvi, Naveed Ahmed, Ayesha Naeem, Zeshan Ali, Waqas Saleem, Muhammad Ilyas and Altaf Ahmed*
Aims and objectives: To determine and assess the level of awareness and knowledge among biological and non-biological respondents regarding HAV/HEV. Methods: Respondents filled a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The variables accessed were their knowledge of disease regarding etiology, mode of transmission, and prevention & control measures. It was observed that there was significant difference in the knowledge among students from biological sciences and non-biological sciences students. Results: Data showed that, 92% of respondents from biological sciences (BS) group and 58% of non-biological sciences (NBS) had knowledge about HAV/HEV. Furthermore, 68% of respondents from BS group and 17% of respondents from NBS group had knowledge about the mode of transmission and spread of HAV and HEV infection. Conclusion: Awareness campaigns should be conducted to make people aware of the ways HAV/HEV spreads, its mode of transmission, severity of infection and preventive measures to minimize its spread as well as chances to acquire HAV/HEV infections. It is important to understand the need to educate people, especially from lower socio-economic status as they might not know about these infections and how it spreads.
242 EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL (IN-VITRO) ACTIVITY OF ARICLEANSE CREAM , *Dr. S. Nipanikar, Dr. S. Agnihotri, Dr. S. Panicker and N. Shelke
Ari Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. has developed Aricleanse Cream for treatment of Acne vulgaris, Hyperpigmentation and various skin diseases. The current study was conducted to evaluate anti-microbial potential of Aricleanse Cream in comparison with various formulations (F1-F8), Clindamycin and Doxycycline against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. It was observed that F-1 to F-8 does not show anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The zone of inhibition of Aricleanse cream was 18 mm against Staphylococcus aureus which is less as compared to Clindamycin (26 mm) and Doxycycline (30 mm). Also, the zone of inhibition of Aricleanse cream was 12 mm against Staphylococcus epidermidis which is less as compared to Clindamycin (26 mm) and Doxycycline (30 mm). Formulations F1, F-2 and Aricleanse cream showed activity against Propionobacterium acnes. Standard drugs Clindamycin and doxycycline failed to show antimicrobial activity against P. acnes. It can be concluded that Aricleanse cream possesses antibacterial activity.
243 ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS (CADMIUM CHLORIDE (CDCL2) AND MERCURIC CHLORIDE (HGCL2) ON FRESH WATER BIVALVE LAMELLIDENS MARGINALIS FROM PRAVARASANGAM OF GODAVARI RIVER, MS. INDIA , Sopan Ainar and *Anil Kurhe
The Bio-filter potential of the freshwater bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis was examined in experiments, collected from Pravara-Sangam of Godavari River. Bivalves are known for their low susceptibility to heavy metal toxicity. Since toxicity is based on the effect and toxicant produces at a target site in the body of organism. Establishment of relationship between the concentration of substance at target site of animal and the subsequent toxic effect which may can provide tools for predicting toxicity. Cadmium and Mercury are the major contaminants found in the river. The behaviour of single toxicant could not be fully understood without the knowing the fact of physical and biochemical properties of the substance that can change. To understand this, the acute toxicity of Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on L. marginalis was determined. LC50 of CdCl2 and HgCl2 at 96 hr were noticed at 12 and 6 ppm respectively. More protein depletion observed in the digestive gland than gills and foot. The present research work served as an experimental tool and bio-indicators for the first line evaluation of environmental pollution.
244 FORMULATION AND EVALUTION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL FILMS OF MOSAPRIDE CITRATE , *Likhith H. S., Suresh V. Kulkarani*, K. Manjunath, Pawan C., Arjun K. L.
Gastro-prokinetic medications are pharmacological agents that are used to treat Gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal film of Mosapride citrate. Mosapride buccal films were prepared by using different polymers like HPMC K100, HEC, HPC and Glycerol as plasticizer and saccharin as a sweetening agent and vanillin as a flavoring agent. Buccal films were prepared using solvent casting technique. The major problem with Mosapride was it belongs to class Ⅱ in BCS classification and have low solubility in biological fluids. In order to enhance the solubility of mosapride solid dispersion of mosapride were prepared by melting technique at different drug carrier (PEG 4000) weight ratios and evaluated. No interaction was found between the drug and the polymers by the FTIR studies. The buccal films were evaluated for Folding endurance, weight variation, Drug content, Thickness, permeation study and in-vitro drug release study Dissolution profile as studied in USP dissolution apparatus type 1 using pH 6.8simulated saliva. The influence of variable like polymer type, concentration, of Mosapride citrate release profile was studied. The formulation was optimized on the basis of various evaluation parameters like drug content and In-vitro drug release. Formulation F3 successfully sustained the release of drug within 7 hours. stability studies were as per ICH guide lines and result indicated that the selected formulation was stable.
245 AWARENESS ON CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN VISITING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN RAYALASEEMA - A SURVEY , R. Nagaraju*, V. S. Bhuvaneswari, A. Aparna and Priyanka K. S.
Cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy in women worldwide. It remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in women from developing countries like India. The main objective of this survey was to determine the extent of awareness in women about the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods of cervical cancer. In this regard, a questionnaire was prepared and given to the patients to answer. The data obtained was analysed by using the student t-test and chi-square tests. The study site for this survey was, Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS), Tirupati, for over a period of 6 months. Our study concluded that the first and foremost reason for the prevalence of cervical cancer in Andhra Pradesh was the lack of awareness of cervical cancer and its screening techniques. However, the findings also suggest that, even if women are aware of cervical cancer, and have a positive attitude towards screening, they are likely to face socio-economic and socio-cultural barriers which can prevent them from getting cervical cancer screening.
246 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BAUHINIA PURPUREA L. ETAHNOLIC EXTRACT , Rohit M. Jamdar*, Kirti K. Jadhav, Megha S. Jadhav, Monika R. Jadhav, Mayur N. Ghotkar, Kaustubh U. Mane, Ganesh B. Vambhurkar and Shreenivas K. Mohite
Aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial activity and perform its phytochemical analysis and screening of the leaves of Bauhinia purpurea L .in the given study. Ethanolic extract of leaves of Bauhinia purpurea L. was tested against standard bacterial species - Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Trycophyton rubrum. In vitro antimicrobial test was performed by agar well diffusion method on Nutrient agar media and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and relative percentage of inhibition (%) test was performed by Modified agar well diffusion method. Ethanol extract showed significantly inhibitory effect compared to marketed antibiotic formulation of Amikacin and marketed antifungal formulation of Fluconazol on tested organism and fungal species. Ethanol extract shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity as it inhibited Gram positive bacteria (S.aureus and B.subtilis) and fungal species (A.niger, T.rubrum). With respect to phytochemical analysis and screening by using spectroscopic technique we easily evaluate Ethanolic extract characters.
247 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF OCULAR INSERTS OF FLURBIPROFEN FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY , Upadhyay Nikita*, Prajapati Sonu, Chaturvedi Sonam and Pathan Khan Javed
The Aim and Objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the ocular Inserts of flurbiprofen using different polymers Such as HPMC, Eudragit L100 at various concentrations and combinations using dibutylphthalate as plasticizer. Different formulations were prepared and evaluated for thickness, moisture uptake, weight, Drug content, surface pH.IR spectral analysis showed that there is no interaction of Drug with polymer which indicates the intactness of drug in the formulation. Keywords: flurbiprofen, Hydroxypropymethylcellulose, ocular inserts, Eudragit L100, Dibutylphthalate.
248 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AFATINIB USING CHIRAL HPLC , C. Purushotham Reddya, K. Ramakrishnab* and K.M.V. Narayana Raoa*
A sensitive and robust chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV method was developed and validated for the quantification of R-isomer in afatinib as per ICH Q2 guideline. In this method, both R and Sisomers were well-separated on CHIRALPAK-IE column (250 X 4.6 mm X 5μ) in an isocratic elution mode with the mobile phase comprising of methanol: methyl tertiary butyl ether: diethyl amine (80:20:0.1; v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/ min. The column oven temperature was maintained at 20ºC and both afatinib and its enantiomer were monitored at 254 nm by UV detector. The validated method was found to be precise, accurate and linear from the range of LOQ level to 150% with respect to sample concentration and the correlation co-efficient was found to be 0.998. Limit of detection and limit of quantifications were found to be 0.00005 and 0.00015 mg/mL, respectively. The validated method was found to be very sensitive and the recoveries were found to be well within the range from 95.65% to 100.73% for R-isomer. Further, the solution stability was also established and the solutions were found to be stable upto 48hrs.
249 IN VIVO NOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN , *Prajapati Sonu, Upadhyay Nikita, Chaturvedi Sonam and Pathan Javed
The present study aims to determine antinociceptive activity of ethanol extracts from fruit of carica papaya linn. Tail flick & acetic acid method was used for screening of nociceptive activity against different concentrations of fruit extracts. Ethanol extracts of fruit showed potent anti-nociceptive activity. Ethanolic fruit extracts showed considerable inhibition zone.
250 REVIEW OF MARANA WITH SPECIAL REFFERENCE TO YASHADA BHASMA , Dr. Mamta Biyani*, Dr. Ujwala A. Jadhao and Dr. Rajesh K. Ingole
Rasashastra is a part of Indian traditional system called Ayurveda. It deals with pharmacology and pharmaceutics of Ayurveda. It involves processing and therapeutic uses of metals and minerals. There are different methods of preparation of herbomineral drugs. The process of converting inorganic metal into the organic one which can be easily bioassemble with human body with the help of different trituration and heating procedure is called as Maran or Bhasmikaran. Yashada (Zinc) is one of the widely using rasa bhasma. Yashad bhasma is an effective medicine for treatment of Twacha vikar, Netra vikar, night blindness, Shwasa, Prameha etc. There are different procedures of Yashad bhasma nirman mentioned in ancient texts. So it is important to be reviewed which one is better for the preparation of gold standard Yashada bhasma as per textual references as well as modern standardization parameters. This work is the small effort for reviewing different texual methods of the preparation of Yashada Bhasma.
251 EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET OF RAIPUR, CHHATTISGARH , Dr. Amit Dubey*, Wasim Raja and Bhavana Hirwani
The rate at which bacteria are resistant to the commercial antibiotics meant for their prevention and cure is of great concern. In view of this, many research groups are now engaged in medicinal plant research because natural products of higher plants may give a new source of antimicrobial agent. The antibacterial activity of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) Leaves extract belonging to the family Moringaceae, was determined using agar well diffusion method against some selected bacteria. Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) (Becton Dicknson M. D USA), media was prepared according to the manufacturer's instruction. The present Study is the continuation of a program aimed at investigation of antimicrobial properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extract. The antibacterial activity was evaluated according to the disk diffusion method by using Gram positive; B. subtilis, S. aureus and Enterococcus and Gram negative; E. coli, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, bacteria. Concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/ml prepared from the dry leaves powder were used for antibacterial analysis using agar well diffusion methods. The methanol extracts of the plant leaves show an inhibitory effect on the growth of the tested bacteria. This Study shows that methenolic leaves extracts of Moringa oleifera Linn inhibit the growth of microorganism’s dose dependently. Phytochemical analyses of the leaf in solvents of varying polarity with methanol extract were also carried out. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, tannins, steroid, alkaloid, saponins etc., in the extracts. The research showed that the higher reducing power of the methanolic extract could be due to the better solubility of the antioxidant components in water whereas the predominant antibacterial activity in organic solvent extracts, indicates that the active components responsible for the bactericidal activity are more soluble in organic solvents. These studies provide an evidence to support traditional medicinal uses of the plant.
252 LITERARY REVIEW ON DASHMOOLIBALA MASHA KWATH W.S.R TO AVABAHUKA (FROZEN SHOULDER) , Dr. Pankaj Nigam*, Dr. Sanjeev M. Khuje and Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta
The Dashmoolibala masha kwath has being described by chakrapanidatta in the treatment of Avabahuka through Nasaya. The ingredients of Dashmoolibala masha kwath are Bilva, Agnimantha, Shyonaka, Patala, Gambhari, Shalaparni, Prishniparni, Gokshura, Kantakari, Brihati, Bala, Masha. Avabahuka is the one of Vatavyadhi mentioned in ayurvedic text. Avabahuka is the disease where the Vata located at the base of the shoulder constrict the Siras and there by losing the movements of the shoulder joint. The symptoms of Avabahuka can be co- related to the symptoms of Adhesive capsulitis or better known as frozen shoulder. Dashmoolibala Masha Kasaya made by Dashmoola, Bala, and Masha. It is used as a Nasya in Avabahuka patients. Avabahuka is a disease of Vatavyadhi where Vata‟s Ruksha and Sheeta guna aggravates so in this condition Snigdha and Brahana guna of dravya will be benifecial. Dashmoolibala Masha Kashaya is having mostly Brahana and Vatahara dravyas, So it will be helpful in Avabahuka disease. In Frozen shoulder nerves are also affected. Masha and Bala is best drugs for neurological condition so Dashmooli bala Masha kashaya is effective on Frozen shoulder. Dashmoolibala Masha Kasaya Nasya is very effective in Avabahuka, Nose is the gate way of Head. If we introduce Dashmooli kashaya in Nostril by Nasya therapy, it will reach head region which will nourish the nerve and it will cure the disease. Dashmooladibala masha kashaya Pana (Oral administration) is also effective in Avabahuka disease as well as other Vataj Disorder.
253 A TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW ON UPAVISHA ‘KALIHARI’ (GLORIOSA SUPERBA) , Dr. Parmeshwar Pralhad Raut and Dr. Rakesh Ashok Bhongade
Kalihari (Gloriosa Superba) is included in Sthavar upavisha by Rasatarangini and Kanda Visha by Sushruta. It is described in Guduchyadi Varga in Bhavprakash Nighantu. This elegant climbing plant is common in Bengal and in low jungle throughout India, belongs to family Liliaceae. It is a climber with very attractive or glorious flower hence the name as such. The entire plant is poisonous; especially the tubers (Kanda) are extremely poisonous. The toxic properties of the plant are essentially due to highly active alkaloid Colchicines. The poisoning is mostly accidental. Kalihari also having therapeutic use The tuber possess abortificient stimulant and anthelmintic properties it is used to treat leprosy. Hence in this article various toxicological aspect of Kalihari along with these therapeutic usases, fatal dose, fatal period and medicolegal importance is described.
254 A REVIEW ON GLOBAL PANDEMIC COVID-19 , Biplob Dey* and Piyali Dey
SARS-CoV2 is a new virus responsible for an outbreak of respiratory illness known as COVID-19, which has spread to several countries around the world. It is single stranded positive sense RNA a capsid enveloped with a nucleoprotein comprised of matrix protein. Before developing in humans, it is first developed in animals. The virus transmitted when a person comes in contact with an animal that carries the infection and this likely occurred in the open food market in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. China quickly informed to the World Health Organisation (WHO) about the outbreak and shared the sequence information with the International Community after discovering the causative agent. There are six types of coronavirus which is known to infect human. Among those, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARs-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronavirus that have resulted in Regional and Global Pandemic.
255 REVIEW ON HERBAL USED FOR RESPIRATORY AILMENTS THAT MAY BE USEFUL IN COVID 19 , Nikhil S. Bhujbal*, Rohit Jadhav, Shraddha Kamthe, Dashrath Gunde and Rajesh J Oswal
As Corona virus Covid 19 reason intense, mild upper respiratory contamination (common cold). Corona virus are round or pleomorphic wrapped particles containing single-abandoned (positive-sense) RNA related with a nucleoprotein inside a capsid involved network protein. The envelope bears club-formed glycoprotein projections. Corona virus (and toroviruses) are grouped together based on the crown or corona like appearance of the envelope glycoproteins, and on trademark highlights of science and replication. The vast majority of the home grown like tulsi, ginger, turmeric, cumin, adhatoda vasica and numerous different herbs can be use to decrease the side effects of corona virus. Transmission is generally through airborne beads to the nasal mucosa. Infection recreates locally in cells of the ciliated epithelium, causing cell harm and aggravation. Colds brought about by corona virus can't be recognized clinically from different colds in any one person. Research center finding might be made based on immune response titers in matched sera. The infection is hard to seclude. Nucleic corrosive hybridization tests (counting PCR) are presently being presented. Treatment of regular colds is indicative; no antibodies or explicit medications are accessible. Cleanliness measures and herbals use can diminish the pace of transmission.
256 AN UPDATE AND LITERATURE REVIEW: BENZIMIDAZOLES AS ANTI TUBERCULAR AGENTS , Thatikayala Mahender*, Purnachander Kaleru and Varaprasad Adepu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a transmissible infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It is transmit through the cough, sneeze and respiratory fluids of infectious person to another person through air. Overall 33% of peoples are suffering from the TB, 8.8 million peoples are reporting in every year, 52,000 deaths reporting in a week as well as nearly 7000 deaths are reporting in day. There are many drugs available treat tuberculosis however Mycobacterium Tuberculosis showing showing resistance against them. Hence there is a urgent requirement to development of new anti tubercula agents with significant pharmacological activity against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The review papers explains the literature review of benzimidazoles as antitubercular agents, it helpful to researchers to develop most active anti tubercular agents.
257 GENERIC MEDICINES:- HISTORY, APPROVAL PROCESS, ECONOMIC AND CURRENT CHALLENGE , Vaishnavi S. Shriwastav*, Mansi S. Gupta and Kshitija H. Ingle
The cost of pharmaceuticals, as a percentage of total healthcare spending, has been rising worldwide. This has resulted in strained national budgets and a high proportion of people without access to essential medications. Though India has become a global hub of generic drug manufacturing, the expected benefits of cheaper drugs are not translating into savings for ordinary people. This is in part due to the rise of branded generics, which are marketed at a price point close to the innovator brands. Considerable emphasis is presently being placed on usage of generic medicines by governments focussed on the potential economic benefits associated with their use. Unbranded generic medicines are not finding their way into prescriptions due to issues of confidence and perception, though they are proven to be much cheaper and comparable in efficacy to branded medicines. The drug inventory of unbranded generic manufacturers fares reasonably when reviewed using the World Health Organization- Health Action International (WHO-HAI) tool for analysing drug availability. Also, unbranded generic medicines are much cheaper when compared to the most selling brands and they can bring down the treatment costs in primary care and family practice.
258 A SHORT REVIEW ON: COVID -19 , K. B. Bhojane* and Dr. P. L. Gorde
In 21st century the sudden outbreak of novel corona virus (covid-19) in Wuhan, china rapidly grows. Corona virus is crown like structure which enveloped by SS-RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts including Avian, wild, domestic, mammalian species &Human. Spreading of corona viruses person to person by direct close contact and indirect contact. Dignostic test of covid-19 is rRT-PCR and Serological test. There is no specific treatment is not available till date. Some antiviral drugs and chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine are use for the treatment.
259 FISSION YEAST SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES POMBE AS A FOREIGN-GENE EXPRESSION SYSTEM , Nipunjot Kaur Soni-Bains*
The expression and the production of proteins of interest are important for both basic research, and practical applications. Hence, the demand for foreign-gene expression systems is increasing rapidly. Many kinds of foreigngene expression systems have been developed, some using Escherichia coli as a host, and others using Bacillus, Streptomyces, Aspergillus, yeast, insect cells, plant cells and mammalian cells. A number of these systems are used for industrial applications such as the production of pharmaceuticals and enzymes. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is discussed here as host model for high-level protein production and functional analysis of eukaryotic proteins as it shares many molecular, genetic and biochemical features with higher eukaryotes. The review summarizes the use of S. pombe as foreign-gene expression system.
260 ANTICIPATED MODE OF ACTION NETRA TARPANA , Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta*, Dr. Swati Garg and Dr. Trupti Gupta
The eyes are said to be most important than all other Indriyas. They are considered as the reflectors of the mind. Eyes are the most precisely developed portions of the brain seen outside the skull. CharakSamhita had mentioned few details as for as eye is concerned. The prevalence of myopia of adults aged over 30 years was 17% in Central India 1 and 19.4% in Indians with diabetes aged over 40 years2.Sushruta the Father of ancient Indian surgery has recommended ‘Kriyakalpa’ for the management of Timira and other netrarog along with other forms of treatment. The term Kriyakalpa refers to the treatment, which can be applied for almost all types of eye diseases; and it comprises of Tarpana, Putapaka, Anjana, Aschyotanaand Seka.Netratarpan is the best modality of myopia and other eye disease. Administration of Tarpanain the Eye, Drug absorbthrough various layers of the eye and drugs spread in to the deeper tissues through RupavahaSiras. Ghritais having Rasayana, Balya&Chakshushyaproperties. By the Activationof Alochaka Pittait induces of hakshuvaisheshika& BuddhivaisheshikaAlochaka Pitt. ChakshuvaisheshikaAlochaka Pitta Increased power of DrishtiNadi. BuddhivaisheshikaAlochaka PittActivate of Visual center in Brain (Optic nerve). So Tarpan improve Visual status. Administration of Tarpanain the Eye, Fat soluble ingredients of Drugs absorbed through Cornea Transportation of drugs through Cornea and reach to deeper tissues Lipids (Phaspholipids - Glycerides) Amino acids and proteins, Vit A, D, E, K & Carotene increase Lubrication between lens fibers & increase Muscular power of ciliary muscles. Lipids functions as a lubricating substance between cornea & lens fibres and fat soluble fatty acids Act as an antioxidants. It Helps in anaerobic oxidation which prevent the cornea and Lens from oxidative injuries. So Tarpan is best treatment modality for Eyes Disease. It maintains the health of eye &cures the eye diseases.
261 THE POLLEN VIABILITY OF THE ORIGINAL SPECIESAND INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS OF COTTON , Mutalova Mamura Karimjanovna*
This article contains a cytological analysis of pollen grains in the Magnibracteolata Tod section and their hybrids, as well as plants F1, C1 - C4 The high viability of hybrids pollen makes it possible to use them in hybridization in solving theoretical and practical problems of breeding, for example, the transfer of the characteristics of wild species to cultivated varieties.
262 THE INFLUENCE OF PLANT GROWTH STIMULATORS ON TOMATO PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF TASHKENT REGION , Sagdiev Mirkosim Tokhirovich*, Amanova Mavluda Mustafakulovna and Omonlikov Alisher Urazalievich
A scientific research work was conducted during 2018-2019 in the educational-experimental farm of the Tashkent State Agrarian University to study the effectiveness of plant growth stimulators on the productivity of tomatoes in the conditions of Tashkent region. The aim of the research was to study the physiological characteristics of tomato hybrids during the use of various plant growth promoters using the drip irrigation method. The task of the research was to study the effect of plant growth stimulators on tomato yields. Carrying out a comparative analysis of the obtained data about the yield, it can be concluded that the growth stimulators effect positively on the development and productivity of tomatoes. Over the 2 years (2018-2019), “Uzbekistan-178” hybrid was found to be the highest yielding, on average 76,6 t/ha. The highest productivity in the experiment (159,9 t/ha) was noted in “Vostok-36” hybrid using the preparation T-86. “Vostok-36” hybrid turned out to be the most productive as well -142,8 t/ha, respectively. In general, both stimulators are highly effective and can be recommended for practical use.
263 MOLECULAR DOCKING ANALYSIS OF APIGENIN AS A NATURAL ANTICANCER COMPUND , Danni Ramdhani* and Resmi Mustarichie
Objective: Investigation of the anticancer mechanism of apigenin bioflavonoid compounds was carried out through docking experiments with 3 different molecular targets; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor R2 (VEGFR2), Procaspase 7, Protein Kinase B were known to be involved in the physiology of cancer. The interaction of apigenin was compared with the interaction of each original crystallized ligand at the active location of this receptor. This comparison was based on the parameters of their docking results, as well as, the type of interaction that occured with various amino acids on the active side of the bonding pocket. Materials and Methods: Molecular docking studies began by downloading the receptor file as a target on the Protein Data Bank (PDB), and the ligand structure was obtained from pubchem and zinc. docking. The preparation of receptors and ligands was done with discovery studio software, pyrx, MgTool, followed by docking and visualization processes using AutoDock Vina and Discovery Studio Visualizer. Results: The binding activity value as a docking score was obtained -7.6 kcal/mol for interaction with the procaspase 7 receptor, protein kinase B receptor B -9.1 kcal/mol, and VEGFR2 -7.3 kcal/mol. Conclusions: Molecular docking studies showed that the flavonoid apigenin compound had the strongest affinity and potential as an anticancer through the inhibition mechanism of protein kinase B receptors.
264 HUMAN HEALTH RISK (HHR) OF NITRATES IN THE GROUNDWATER OF ABUWAJNAH VILLAGE, TAL AFAR DISTRICT. IRAQ , Abdalaziz Y. T. Al-Saffawi* and Mohammad H. Awad
The study was carried on Abu Wajnah village of Tal Afar district, which depends mainly on groundwater as a source of drinking water to know the health safety of this water on the health of consumers, especially the risks resulting from the presence of nitrate ions in the water , considering that the local people are engaged in agriculture and ranching, fourteen wells were identified for collecting water samples and the concentration of nitrate ions was determined with a Human Health Hazards (HHR) of nitrates calculated according to international standard methods. Fortunately, the results of the study registered that there is no risk to nitrates in drinking water for the health of consumers because the values of hazard quotient of nitrate (HInitrate or HQ for different age groups) ranged between (0.0228 to 0.1125) and thus it is within the limits allowed globally (less than 1), they attributed this decrease in values to the decrease in the values of chronic daily intake (CDI) of studied water, which fluctuated between (0.0142 to 0.1800). They attributed this decrease in values to the low concentration of nitrate ions, which was reflected in the values of chronic daily intake (CDI) of studied water which fluctuated between (0.362 to 3.20) ppm.
265 THE RIGHT FUNCTION OF COVID-19 , Byong-Hyon Han* Ph.D.
< The right function of COVID-19> In the twenty-first century, COVID-19(hereinafter referred to as 'Corona') is what makes humanity pay a severe price to taste desperately the world humans have never experienced before. Nonetheless, the net function of this Corona can be seen in two ways.
266 THE EFFECTS OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL DISORDERS ON SOCIO-PROFESSIONAL INTEGRATION , *Messaoudi Abdelkrim
The process of professional and social integration of the mentally ill remains a topical issue, which refers to a diversity of practices currently in full development, aiming to promote, support and accompany the return to society of people who have presented disorders psychiatric. Vocational reintegration is often seen as an essential component of rehabilitation. It is in work that the human and economic dimensions of mental health and mental illness manifest themselves most clearly. Psychosocial interventions based on rehabilitation programs or work in psychotherapy, on information and education of those around them, can then help a lot in the socio-professional integration of patients.
267 DANGEROUSNESS IN PSYCHIATRY , MESSAOUDI Abdelkrim*, SI AHMED Hakim, DAOUDI Smail
The term dangerousness includes three inductions, the penal response implied by the recognition of the danger, the search for a cause in an attempt to eradicate it, and the recognition of the consequences to render justice to the victim. Addressing psychiatric danger cannot be done without the look of history, the development of this concept replayed repeatedly for two centuries, and without the reference to law. But the clinical approach remains essential. He must put into perspective repeated situations of violence in order to better understand them and take into account the opinions of patients and those around them.
268 STUDY ON SAMPLE COLLECTION OF COVID-19 , *Prof. Dr. M. Alamgir Chowdhury, Dr. Arpan D. K. Shil, Dr. Farid Hossain Chowdhury, Prof. Md. Ekhlasur Rahman, Dr. Md. Atiqur Rahman, Prof. Dr. Ehteshamul Hoque and Dr. Rubayat Sheik Giasuddin
Covid-19 is a new virus disease caused by novel corona virus. First human infection was found in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It becomes pandemic globally, having a very special management protocol as it is highly infectious. Currently real-time PCR based technique is used as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for diagnosis of the disease. We collected samples from nasopharynx and oropharynx from 220 people with personal protection guidelines by WHO. The study result revealed that RT-PCR positivity is significantly associated with swab taken from nasopharynx than from oropharynx (p<.001).
269 BIPOLAR DISORDER AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE , Messaoudi Abdelkrim*
The body of evidence shows that bipolar subjects are much more at risk of substance dependence than abuse. The risk of having a mania or hypomania in people addicted to alcohol is multiplied by 5 compared to the risk of having a mania or hypomania without co-occurrence of alcohol dependence. In all epidemiological works; The diagnoses of alcohol abuse and dependence are higher in people with bipolar disorder than in the general population. However, the reasons for this striking association between these two disorders remain poorly understood. Common risk factors could increase vulnerability to both bipolar disorder and addiction behaviors.
270 ANXIOLYTIC PROPERTY OF HYDRO-ALCOHOL EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA AND ITS EFFECT ON BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITIES OF RAT , Bakou Niangoran François*, B. A. Abdoulaye, Guiro Hamidou and Atayi E.
Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Moringa oleifera in rat. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm and open field test, were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Moringa oleifera. The extract of Moringa oleifera (5, 10, and 25mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that extract of Moringa oleifera (10 and 25 mg/kg, i.p) significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 10 and 25 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by rat. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect.
271 DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD OF PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF COTTON SEEDS WITH OZONE , Parpiev Mukhammadjon Parpievich, Kamardin Aleksey Ivanovich, Simonov Aleksandr Alekseevich and Odinaev Mirzamad Isaevich*
The article presents the results of studies on the effect of ozone treatment on the sowing qualities of cotton seeds. The dependences of germination and germination energy on ozone treatment regimes are investigated. It has been shown that with optimal exposure to ozone with a concentration of about 5 mg / l and a time of 40-50 minutes (dose of about 25 g/ton), germination is observed to increase to 20%. Microbial contamination of seeds is reduced tenfold. A comparative analysis suggests the appropriateness of using pre-sowing ozone treatment instead of chemicals.
272 THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF AGERATUM CONYZOÏDES LINNEE OINTMENT ON BURN AND DIABETIC WOUNDS INDUCED IN WISTAR RATS. , Okémy Andissa N.*, Kouloungous Bafila C.B.D., Mouankie J.B., Moussoungou A.S.U., Miguel L. M., Abgonon A. and Abena A.A.
Aim: The purpose of this work was to qualitatively analyze the ointment of the aqueous extract of the leaves of the Ageratum conyzoides L. and to evaluate the effects of this ointment on the burn wounds and the wounds of induced diabetics in the wistar rat. Methods Conventional experimental methods were used. Results : The obtained cream of Ageratum conyzoides is brown in colour, slightly bitter, with a ph=5.6 and not irritating to the skin. This ointment used at doses of 4 and 8 g/kg significantly reduces deep wounds and burns of 2nd Degreaser after 8 days with a complete healing on the 18th day compared to controls with gaping wounds. Ageratum conyzoides allows the wound reepithelialisation with an average duration of about 8 days. Conclusion : This confirms its use in primary health care among African populations in particular.
273 ROLE OF AYURVEDA IN PREVENTION OF AGEING , Dr. Twinkle Gupta and Dr. Monika Kaith*
When it comes to staying healthy, most people have the same motivation: living as long and fulfilling a life as possible. Ayurveda shows the path to lead such a healthy and long life. In Ayurveda there is a mention of different Rasayana (Rejuvenating) therapies and other means which are useful to increase the longevity and to have a healthy life. Anti-ageing addresses how to prevent, slow or reverse the affects of ageing and help people live longer, healthier and happier lives. Anti- ageing factors that work mostly included nutrition, physical fitness, skin care, hormone supplements, vitamins, and alternative medicines and holistic- approaches. “Panchakarma therapy” on regular basis eliminates impurity from the body as a prevention measure to remain free from diseases and get longer life.
274 INSULIN THERAPY AND IT’S NEW APPROACHES , Tejaswini S. Kawanpure and Dr. Mitali M. Bodhankar*
Diabetes mellitus is a serious pathologic condition which is responsible for major healthcare problems worldwide Insulin replacement therapy has been used in the clinical Management of diabetes mellitus for more than 84 years. Insulin has remained indispensable in dispensable in management of diabetes mellitus since its discovery in 1921. Comparatively, a large percentage of world population is affected by diabetes mellitus, out of which approximately 5-10% with type 1 diabetes while the remaining 90% with type 2. The present mode of insulin administration is by the subcutaneous route through which insulin introduced into the body in a non-physiological manner having many challenges. Hence novel approaches for insulin delivery are being explored. Challenges that have adverse effect on oral route of insulin administration mainly includes rapid enzymatic degradation in the stomach, inactivation and digestion by proteolytic enzymes in the intestinal lumen and poor permeability across intestinal epithelium because of its high molecular weight and its lipophilicity. Approaches such as liposomes, micro emulsions, nano cubicle, insulin chewing gum and so forth have been prepared to ensure the oral delivery of insulin. Attempts have been made to achieve oral insulin delivery using various systems. Scientists have been able to protect the insulin delivery systems from acidic environment of the stomach and target it to the intestine. Limitations to the delivery of insulin have not resulted in fruitful results to date.
275 RARE PRESENTATION OF HCC?? , Dr. Abhinav Aggarwal*
Background: Backache is a common presenting complaint among patients coming to the orthopedic out patient department (OPD). A lot of times these do not warrant imaging investigation based on clinical examination. Case presentation: We present a case in which patient presented with low backache and imaging helped diagnose a nasty cause for the same. Conclusion: Imaging should be performed in all cases where pain is classified as severe in nature on physical examination.
276 CURRENT EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF COVID-19 , Md. Aqib Ali Faraz, Sowjanya Mendem* and K. Sri Bharath
Novel Corona virus was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China, and was then classified as Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (Sars-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elderly patients with comorbitdities were primarily at risk due to the virus, but it is also known to affect the younger populations. The rapid spread of virus across the globe demonstrated human to human transmission of the virus through droplets or direct contact. This spread was also made possible by asymptomatic carriers of the virus. As of January 30, 2020 7,734 cases were reported in China and the virus had spread to 19 other countries, including-Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Japan, Singapore, Republic of Korea, UAE, United States, the Philippines, Canada, India, Australia, Germany, Finland and France. According to the Indian Council of Medical Research, Hospitals admitting suspected cases of COVID19 should collect nasal and throat swab samples in one VTM tube and transport them to the nearest testing laboratory in cold chain. Current coronavirus diagnostic tests include reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The inhibition of cellular function and molecular pathways involved in the immune activation by Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine (CQ) enable their use in the treatment of Covid-19. Remdesivir is a recently FDA-approved drug for the treatment of Covid-19. It acts as a nucleoside analog with significant antiviral activity. As of July 2, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 1,03,57,662 confirmed cases world wide and 05,08,055 deaths have been confirmed.
277 POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) – A REVIEW , Ritu Kainth*, Gurneet Kaur and Baljeet Kaur
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition which is related to an endocrine reproductive disorder of females. It affects females of 18–44 ages. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have abnormalities in the metabolism of androgens and estrogen and in the control of androgen production. PCOS can result from abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. The clinical presentation of polycystic ovary syndrome is widely variable, with complaints encompassing oligomenorrhea, infertility, obesity, hirsutism, endometrial cancer, and diabetes. The persistent hormonal disbalance leads to the complexities such as numerous cysts, an irregular menstrual cycle that ultimately leads to infertility among females. Many candidate genes have been identified to be one of the causes of PCOS. Different studies have been carried out to find the genetic correlation of PCOS. It is essential to carry out such studies that identify the clear cause of PCOS and its genetic association and hormonal disbalance. Androgen excess has been implicated as a distinct risk factor, with several studies showing circulating androgen burden to correlate closely with surrogate markers of metabolic risk, independent of body mass index (BMI). PCOS is also a common and treatable cause of infertility. This review has highlighted different genes and their correlation with PCOS that leads to hormonal disbalance. Yet not in-depth but an attempt to study the genetic predisposition of PCOS.
278 CAPSULES: TYPES, MANUFACTURING, FORMULATION, QUALITY CONTROL TESTS AND, PACKAGING AND STORAGE - A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW , *Aliyu R. S., Lawal A. M., Chasta P. and Sharma G. K.
Capsules are solid preparations in which drug substance(s) and/or excipients are enclosed in either a soft or hard soluble shell. The sell is normally made from gelatin or other suitable polymeric material and results in a simple, tasteless, odourless, elegant, easy-to-swallow dosage form without the need for a secondary coating step. Depending on the composition of the capsule shell, capsules may be classified as either hard or soft capsule, with soft capsules possessing a flexible, plasticized gelatin film while the hard capsule is composed of two pieces in the form of cylinders closed at one end; the shorter piece, called the „cap‟ and the longer piece, called the „body‟. Capsules may be filled with a range of formulation types including dry powders, semisolids, nonaqueous liquids, and other dosage forms such as beads, mini-tablets, and even mini capsules most of which are intended for oral administration. There are also specialty applications such as capsules that can be loaded into dry-powdered inhalers, add reagents as part of a diagnostic kit, and occasionally soft-shell capsules intended for rectal or vaginal insertion as suppositories. Also, In the recent advancements, non-gelatin capsules have been discovered, which do not contain gelatin as it‟s shell-forming agent. Under this category of capsules are the HPMC, PVA and starch capsules. This review captures various categories of capsule types, formulation and filling of capsules, locking and sealing of capsules, and, quality control tests. The various packaging and storage method were also highlighted.
279 HERBAL APPROACH TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE , Samarjit Kalita*, Shashi Daksh, Gaurav Kumar Sharma (HoD) and Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul (Principal)
Herbal medications are commonly used for clinical purposes, including the treatment of cardiovascular conditions. Compared with conventional medications, herbal medications do not require clinical studies before their marketing or formal approval from regulatory agencies, and for this reason their efficacy and safety are rarely proven. In this review, we summarize available evidence on herbal medications mostly used in cardiovascular medicine. We show that the use of these medications for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is often not supported by scientific evidence. Despite most of these herbs showing an effect on biological mechanisms related to the cardiovascular system, data on their clinical effects are lacking. Potentially relevant side effects, including increased risk of drug interactions, are described. Physicians should always assess the use of herbal medications with patients and discuss the possible benefits and side effects with them.
280 PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY: A COMPLETE REVIEW , Mr Ribarohlang Suchiang, Mrs Sarita Sharma (Supervisor), Mr Gaurav Kumar Sharma (H.O.D.) and Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul (Principal)
Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale and use. Packaging is system or mean by which the product will reach from production center to the consumer in a safe and sound condition & with minimum over loss. So many issues regarding the pharmaceutical product like stability, sell, patient compliance, etc are related with the packaging and in regard to this review is done on the various advancements in the packaging techniques and selection of packaging material, machinery & labeling. The present article reviews the various packaging materials, types of packaging in pharmaceutical industry.
281 CAPSULE: COMPLETE REVIEW , *Beauty Creasian S. Marak, Sarita Sharma, Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul (Principal), Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma (HOD)
Capsules are Solid Dosage form in which the drug substance is enclosed in a water soluble shell along with it‟s suitable excipients. A shell is made of a hard or a soft soluble container or an envelope which usually consist of a gelatin as a main ingredient. Capsules are available both as hard capsule and soft capsule in different shapes and sizes in the markets.
282 DENGUE FEVER: A COMPLETE REVIEW , Shiv Kumar Mandal*, Shashi Daksh, Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma (HOD) and Dr. Kaushal K. Chandraul (Dean)
Dengue fever is the most common arthropod-borne self-limiting viral disease with clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic infection to life threatening shock. It is called as dengue shock syndrome. Hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia are the distinctive features of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Supportive fluid replacement therapy and vigilant monitoring for the successful management of the condition. Vector control measures are the most important preventive methods. As the outbreaks of Dengue fever increasing in India, one state after other getting affected, it is very essential to know more about this disease and prevalence, any change in the viral strain, severity of the disease pattern, early detection of the virus and early management of the disease resulting in good recovery . Population growth, rapid urbanization, increase in international travel from endemic areas and global warming are playing a major role in disease spread. Measures should be taken to control the aforementioned causes to prevent disease spread and reduce epidemic flare up.
283 HPLC CHROMATOGRAPHY , *Salim Bala Muhammad and Atul Tiwari
Chromatography is an analytical technique for the separation of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travels at different speed, causing them to separate. High Performance Liquid Chromatography is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material. Each component in the sample interacts slightly differently with the adsorbent material, causing different flow rates for the different component and leading to the separation of the component as they flow out the column.
284 CORONAVIRUS DISEASE: HOW CAN AFRICAN PHARMACISTS RESPONDS TO FUTURE OUTBREAKS? , Lukman Lawal* and Meenakshi K. Chauhan
Coronavirus disease popularly known as COVID-19 is an pandemic disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus. The first report was confirmed on December 2020 in Wuhan, China. The initial confirmed case in Africa was found in Egypt, and the first confirmed case in sub-Saharan Africa was found in Nigeria. The lack of awareness by the healthcare professionals combined with the least responses from international community are major factors for the spreading of the disease. In the conditions of this outbreak, there is a lack to direct attention the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists, mostly in the African healthcare surrounding. In addition, the essential of diagnostic kits for the detection of the infection as well as pharmacists’ consciousness of the present curative regimen are suggested. The health professionals have notified the disastrous virus could cause in Africa, where most hospitals are in need of equipment and well trained staffs. Corona virus has since spread to 52 African countries, but despite a steady rise in the number of confirmed cases, the continent continues to lag behind the global curve for infections and deaths. The continent has imperfect equipments to manage a crucial health disaster and is fight to test enough to detects virus occurrence. While the lockdowns are being noticed all over the universe and the national level pharmacy professionals are working as frontline part, this editorial draw attention to the role of pharmacists in the management of Corona virus 2019 pandemic.
285 CURRENT SCENARIO OF HIV/AIDS, TREATMENT OPTIONS, AND MAJOR CHALLENGES WITH COMPLIANCE TO ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY , *Jackson Kom, Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Ankita Sharma, Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul
The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the inability of modern medicine to find a cure for it has placed HIV as one of the most dreaded pathogens of the 21st century. With millions of people infected with HIV, it was once thought to result in ―medical apocalypse‖. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is now possible to control HIV. Adherence to ART helps to keep the viral load under control and prolong the time of progression to AIDS, resulting in near normal life expectancy. Even with the introduction of ART, a substantial number of patients fail to adhere due to a variety of reasons, including adverse side effects, drug abuse, mental disorders, socioeconomic status, literacy, and social stigma. With the availability of so many options for HIV treatment at each stage of the disease progression, physicians can switch between the treatment regimens to avoid and/or minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Close monitoring, major social reforms, and adequate counselling should also be implemented to circumvent other challenges.
286 A REVIEW ON CITRUS MAXIMA , Sourav Kumar* and Mansi Butola
Plants have been utilized as conventional medication for a few a large number of years. Home grown medication is as yet a pillar of around 70-80% of the total populace as they are effectively accessible hotspot for human services purposes in country and ancestral zones. India being the biggest maker of therapeutic plants it is effectively known as "Greenhouse of the world". The plant Citrus maxima (J. Burm.) Merr. is a generally disseminated indigenous plants found in Indian subcontinent. Which is been broadly utilized. The current investigation was planned to audit the ethanobotanical properties, pharmacognostic, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Citrus maxima. The different pieces of this plant are generally utilized by various ancestral networks. The leaves of plant are utilized in Epilepsy, chorea, Convulsive hack and furthermore in the treatment of discharge infection. Oil from new leaves gangs hostile to dermatophytic movement and Fungicidal action. Blossom are Used as calming in anxious friendship. Organic products goes about as cardiotonic and are utilized in Leprosy, Asthma, Cough, hiccough, mental variation, Epilepsy. Skin are Anti-asthmatic, narcotic in anxious love, Brain tonic and Useful in regurgitating, grumbling of mid-region, loose bowels, Headache and eye inconveniences. Root and Bark: Antimicrobial action. Following different cases for fix of various ailments, endeavors have been made by analysts to check the adequacy of the plant through logical organic screening. An investigation of writing uncovers some outstanding pharmacological exercises of the plant.
287 OVERVIEW ON CORONAVIRUS DISEASE 2019(COVID-19): IT’S PROGNOSTIC FACTORS; PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT AND CURRENT TREATMENT , R. Priyanka*, M. Vishwanath Swamy and V. Ajith Kumar
COVID-19 pandemic is threatening all over the world with the emergence and it‟s rapid spread. This virus begun as an outbreak in Wuhan, china in December 2019. As of 13th July 2020, there have been 13 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally with 5.7 lakhs deaths. Symptoms include mild to severe which worsens the patient condition that may leads to death. Some prognostic factors like diabetes, hypertension, age, sex, weather conditions and smoking are influencing the rapid rate of spread and progression of COVID-19. Diagnosis is done through molecular tests on respiratory samples. Currently there is no vaccine and approved medication, only investigational treatments are suggested like azithromycine, hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, ribavarin, interferon, corticosteroids, umifevir, inhibitor vitamin-C and vitamin-D. World health organisation (WHO) declares that the preventive and supportive measures are the only strategy to reduce and control this pandemic. The WHO has issued specific psychosocial considerations for abating the growing stigma of COVID-19.
288 DESIGN AND STANDARDIZATION OF TRANSDERMAL PATCHES USING OPIATE ANALGESIC DRUG , D. Amulya*, Dr. P.V. Murali Krishna, Kolavali Yalla Reddy, J. Praveen Kumar and Sai Koteswar Sarma
The aim of the current study was to design a transdermal patch of opiate analgesic drug. It is a painkiller belonging to the class of opioids that act on the central nervous system. It can be defined as the passage of a medicament from the outside of the skin through its various layers into the bloodstream. Transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl were designed by solvent mercury casting method using different polymers i.e. HPMC, PVA, mixture of HPMC  PVA. The prepared formulations were standardized for drug content uniformity, in vitro diffusion study, thickness, tensile strength, moisture content, folding endurances etc. Amongst all formulations, formulation F3 had more desirable characteristic & shows longer duration of time. The Transdermal patch formulated from F1, F2 and F3 showed satisfactory physicochemical properties. The ratios of hydrophilic polymers F1, F2 and F3 formulations good moisture content property, good tensile strength, folding endurances and in-vitro drug release. So, it can be concluded that transdermal patches of F1, F2 and F3 could be a good carrier in transdermal delivery of Tramadol HCl. FTIR studies showed there were no incompatibilities between drug and other excipients.
289 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL BURN GEL CONTAINING COMBINATION OF ALOE BARBADENSIS MILL AND LAVANDULA OIL , *Chaturvedi Sonam, Upadhyay Nikita and Prajapati Sonu
The main aim of our research was to develop an herbal burn gel formulation and evaluation consisting of combination of aloe barbadensis mill, lavender oil, honey and turmeric for treatment of burn. The developed herbal burn gel consisting of combination of all herbal ingredients was found to safe a d effective for treatment of skin burn.
290 ANTIDIABETIC EFFECT OF CHANDRAPRABHA VATI – A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION , *Dr. Sheetal Gupta, [BAMS MD SWASTHVRITA] and Dr. Rahul Sharma [Bams]
Background: Chandraprabha vati is a classical Ayurvedic formulation, markedly used for mitigation of prameha, which corelates in many ways with obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate effect of Chandraprabha vati in experimentally induced hyperglycemia and lipid profile alterations. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic effect of Chandraprabha vati was studied in fiftyfive Wistar rat. Graded doses of Chandraprabha vati (50,100 and 200mg/kg, orally) were administered orally for 7 days to normal and alloxan-hyperglycemic rats (65 mg/kg, intravenously), and to glucose loaded normal rats for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed on different time intervals along with plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Metformin (500 mg/kg orally) was used as standard drug. Results: Chandraprabha vati did not cause any significant reduction in plasma glucose levels of normal rats (p > 0.05) but normalized the impaired glucose tolerance at 60 and 120 min (p<0.05-p<0.001) in OGTT when compared to vehicle control. In alloxan-hyperglycemic rats, administration of chandraprabhavati vati (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced plasma glucose at 3 h, 12 h, 3rd day and 7th day (p<0.01-p<0.001) along with reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides levels (p<0.01-p<0.001) when compared to diabetic control group. The effects were comparable with metformin. Conclusions: Chandraprabha vati exhibited anti-hyperglycemic effect and attenuated alterations in lipid profile. The results support the use of chandraprabha vati for correction of Prameha in clinical practice.
291 LEVEL OF ANXIETY AMONG STUDENT NURSES BEFORE CARING FOR THE PATIENT WITH MENTAL ILLNESS IN SELECTED COLLEGES , Kalavalli* and Malarvizhi
Anxiety can be conceptualized as a normal and adaptive response to threat that prepares the organism for flight or fight. An anxiety level differ from individual to individual according to the age group. Anxiety becomes abnormal when it is excessive or its timing is inappropriate with regard to the threat. Empathy is one of the fundamental concepts in nursing, and it is an ability that can be learned. Various education models have been tested for improving empathic skills. Research has focused on using oral presentations, videos, modeling, practiced negotiation based on experiences, and psychodrama methods, such as role playing, as ways to improve empathy in participants 5. Statement of the present study was to assess the level of Anxiety among student nurses before caring for the patient with mental illness in selected colleges. The Objectives are to assess the level of anxiety among students nursing before caring for patients with mental illness and to associate the level of anxiety with the selected demographic variables. Descriptive study design was adopted for this study. Setting of the study was College of nursing and 20 samples were selected by using convenient non-probability sampling technique. Nursing students were gathered in the class after obtaining permission. Uniformly questionnaires were given along with detailed explanation by the investigators and the data were collected. Data was analysed in terms of objective of study by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Findings of the study shows that Majority of students nurses had 12(60%) moderate anxiety level and there was no significant association between the level of anxiety and demographic variables. Student nurse’s experiences anxiety producing situations in the clinical settings which will result in feeling of incompetent, lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients especially patients with mental illness in clinical experience. Study concluded that nursing students need preparation training and counselling to handle patients with mental illness.
292 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF RIVAROXABAN SUSTAIN RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS , P. Sreenivasa Prasanna, K. Thejomoorthy, A. Naganjaneyulu and Bhukya Vagya*
The main aim of proposed work was to develop Rivaroxaban matrix tablets, sustained release dosage form. Sustained release formulation is the drug delivery system that is designed to achieve a prolonged therapeutic effect by continuously releasing medication over an extended period of time after administration of single dose. The sustained release tablets were prepared by direct compression method using Hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC K4M,K15M), and Guar gum in varying ratios. Tablets blends were evaluated for loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compressibility index and angle of repose, shows satisfactory results. The compressed tablets were then evaluated for various physical tests like diameter, thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, and drug content. The granules exhibited satisfactory rheological demeanor. The results of all these tests were found to be satisfactory. The in vitro dissolution study was carried out for 12 hours using paddle method in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) as dissolution media. Among all the formulations, F6 formulation shows maximum drug release at the end of 12hrs and it follows first order with non fickian diffusion.
293 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF EPLERENONE PULSINCAP DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Karukonda Kanchana*, Ch. Saibabu, K. Thejomoorthy and P. Sreenivasa Prasanna
The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate an Oral, site specific, Pulsatile drug delivery system containing Eplerenone as a model drug, which can be time dependent manner, to modulate the drug level in synchrony. It is used for treat high blood pressure based on chronopharmaceutical considerations. The basic design consists of an insoluble hard gelatin capsule body, filled with powder blend and sealed with a hydrogel plug. The powder blend containing Eplerenone, Crospovidone, Lycoat, MCC and talc was prepared and evaluated for flow properties and FTIR studies. From the obtained results, F6 powder blend formulation was selected for further fabrication of pulsatile capsules. Hydrogel plug was formulated in a combination of hydrophobic polymer like ethyl cellulose with hydrophilic polymers like HPMC K200M in 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 ratios to maintain a suitable lag period and it was found that the drug release was controlled by the proportion of polymers used. The prepared formulations was evaluated for drug content, weight variation and Invitro release studies. FTIR studies confirmed that there was no interaction between drug and polymers and Invitro release studies of pulsatile device revealed that increasing ethylcellulose polymer content resulted in delayed release of Eplerenone from the pulsincap after a predetermined lag time of 6hrs. Based on invitro studies performed, F9 was found to be optimized formulation.
294 DETERMINATION OF AGE, SEX AND STATURE FROM DERMATOGLYPHICS STUDY , Dr. Rajesh Dehankar*, Dr. Ujjwala Bhakare and V. M. Paikrao
Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epidermal ridges on palms and soles. It is one of the recent and advancing of medical science. If there is any abnormality in the genetic make-up of parents it is inherited to the children and is reflected in dermatoglyphic pattern. This study is undertaken to find out correlation between dermatoglyphics and age, sex and stature. Identification of ages, sex and stature plays a vital role in forensic and medicolegal investigations. Various dermatoglypic palmar patterns of various males and females of different age and stature are studied. The present study is carried with an aim to study the dermatoglyphic trait in males and females of different age and stature. The sexual and digital differences in dermatoglyphic patterns of individuals are also seen. The present study is carried out in the department of anatomy, NKP SIMS, Nagpur. It consists of 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) whose palmar prints are collected from department of skin and venereal diseases. Prints are taken on maplitho paper by using printing ink and studied with magnifying lens. Various parameters of dermatoglyphics like finger tip patterns, total and absolute finger ridge count, a-b ridge, atd angle and simian crease count are analyzed by using Statistical calculations. After complete analysis it is concluded form the study that there is definitely a statistically significant difference in the dermatoglyphic patterns of individuals of different sex, age and stature. There is no regional difference but differences are found in the male and female subjects.
295 ISOLATION OF LACTOBACILLUS FROM NON-DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ASSESSMENT OF THEIR PROBIOTIC PROPERTIES , Harsha Karunakaran*, Ramachandran A. M., Saranya S. and Manju M.
The main objective of the study was to isolate Lactobacillus sp. from fruit wastes such as banana peel and grape wastes, it‟s characterisation by physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics and assessment of probiotic potential of isolated Lactobacillus sp. to confirm its usefulness as a probiotic. The use of fruit wastes as a source of probiotics is a light to waste management as well as cheap and an alternative of traditional source. For a good probiotic it should tolerate the low pH of the gut and should tolerate bile salt and phenol each up to 0.3% concentration. All the isolates showed above 85% tolerance of 0.3% bile, while phenol tolerance is about 69-82% is seen among the isolates. It also shows that all the isolates exhibits good tolerance to low pH (above 85%). As the antibiotic resistant strains can be co-administered with antibiotics for treatment of diseases the isolates are being tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The main property of probiotic, that is antagonistic activity against pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella was being tested. The experimental results showed that the banana and grape wastes contains Lactobacilli which can tolerate inhibitory substances and were able to survive both in acidic and alkaline conditions. They exhibited antibacterial activity against some indicator pathogens. Based on these characteristics the isolates may have potential for probiotic application.
296 MENTAL STRESS IN HYPERTENSION: AN AYURVED APPROACH , *Dr. Varsha Sadashiv Khot and Dr. Jayashree Tongaonkar
Hypertension is important health problem in today’s era. Due to increasing stress in day to day life, people are more prone to psychosomatic diseases, essential hypertension is one of them.There is a close connection between our body and our mind. According to ayurved hypertension is nothing but a ‘Vata pradhan tridoshaja vyadhi’, be greatly influenced by morbid state of Mana. It may therefore be considered as sharir and manas roga (ubhayashrita vyadhi). Stress can be correlate with chinta mentioned in ayurved. Stress affects various entities in the body lke tridoshas, dhatu, updhatu, mala, oja, srotas, prakruti, saratva and mana. By understanding hetu, lakshan, samprapti of chinta, chikitsa of stress related hypertension can be possible. Ashwasan chikitsa, shaman aoushadhi, rasayan, shirodhara, yog, sadvrutta palan are contributions of ayurved can apply in this regards, which is effective in prevention and management of stress related hypertension.
297 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY AND ANTI TUSSIVE EFFECT OF KOFASIL SYRUP (POLY HERBAL FORMULATION) ON SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL , Nilesh Patel, Dr. Janmejay Patel, Achal Patel and Prof. Dr. Upendra U. Zala*
Introduction- The herbal drugs mentioned in classics for treatment of airway infections are better than modern drugs like anti-tussive, expectorants, mucolytics etc., as they have no any side effect. Aim: To evaluate acute oral toxicity on swiss albino mice and anti tussive effect in So2 induced cough model of kofasil Syrup (Anti-tussive poly-herbal formulation). Method: The present study was conducted according to OECD guideline AOT-425 to know single dose toxicity of Kofasil Syrup on swiss albino mice. IAEC No. for the study is SKPCPER/IAEC/2016-02/02. Each mouse was treated with a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract in sequence at 48 h intervals. Body weight of all animals was recorded once in a week. The anti tussive effect was evaluated in SO2 induced cough model in mice by method as describe by Miyagoshi et al., 1986 with modified and simplified. Results: Body weight of all animals did not reveal any significant change as compared to vehicle control group. Mortality was not observed in any animal of a group. Kofasil Syrup showed significant decrease in cough bouts in compression to standard treated (Codeine Sulphate) group. Conclusion: The study shows that Kofasil Syrup (Anti -tussive poly-herbal formulation) did not produce any toxic effect at dose of 2000 mg/kg. So No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of Kofasil Syrup is 2000 mg/kg. The significant decrease in cough bouts proves potential anti tussive activity of Kofasil Syrup.
298 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE MICROCAPSULES OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE , R. Sunitha*, M. Lakshmi Surekha, R. Padma and M. Murali Krishna
The present research work was aimed at development and optimization of metaprolol tartrate mucoadhesive microcapsules to avoid first pass metabolism and to improve the therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. Metoprolol tartrate microcapsules with a coat consisting of alginate and mucoadhesive polymers such as sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, poly vinyl alcohol, carbopol 934, and HPMC were prepared by an ionotropic gelation technique. The microcapsules were prepared and found to be discrete, free flowing, spherical to near spherical and without aggregation. The microencapsulation efficiency was found to be in between 72.03 to 89.02%. The percent yield, drug entrapment and drug content in all formulations were good. The average particle size was found to be in the range of 817 to 920μm. A percentage of moisture loss was calculated for all the prepared metaprolol tartrate microcapsules and was found to be within limit. The shape and surface characteristics were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which depicted the spherical nature and nearly smooth surfaces of the microcapsules. In vitro release studies in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer indicated non- Fickian or anomalous type of transport for the release of metaprolol tartrate from the microcapsules. Among all formulations metoprolol microcapsules containing sodium alginate and carbopol 934 showed higher encapsulation efficiencies, good flow property and maximum prolongation of drug release and goo mucoadhesion properties.
299 STUDIES ON PRODUCTION OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES (CELLULASES) BY SOIL BORNE FUNGI CAUSING STEM ROT AND WILT IN GROUNDNUT , Deshmukh R. S.*
An attempt has been made to observe production of cellulases enzyme by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot of Groundnut and Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend emend Sny. & Hans causing wilt of Groundnut. From the results obtained it is evident that both the fungi produced cellulases in both substrate medium and GN medium in both the test varieties (TAG-24 & SB-XI). In case of Sclerotium rolfsii maximum cellulases production was observed in substrate medium in variety TAG-24 as well as in SB-XI. It was noticed that cellulases production was more in Groundnut variety TAG-24 than SB-XI in substrate medium while in GN medium in both the varieties cellulases production was similar. In case of Fusarium oxysporum maximum cellulases production was observed in substrate medium in variety TAG-24 as well as in SB-XI. It was noticed that cellulases production was more in Groundnut variety TAG-24 than SB-XI in substrate medium while in GN medium in both the varieties cellulases production was similar.
300 PHYCOFLORA OF RIVER ECOSYSTEM , Sakhare S. S. and Darade M. S.*
The present research constitutes the study of fresh water ecosystems Katepurna and Uma river. The rivers were screened for its algal biodiversity. The survey for different algal members were carried out with collecting water samples from both the rivers in the month of January and February 2020. In the samples, dominance and frequency of members of Chlorophyceae were recorded maximum. The minimum number of members of algal groups such as Phaeophyceae and Bacillariophyceae are recorded. The population of some generas viz, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Navicula and Cosmarium were found abundently in both the rivers.
301 AN IN VITRO STUDY OF IPOMEA CARNEA AND PIPER BETEL LEAF EXTRACT MIXTURE ON ANTIDIABETIC AND BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN NEUTRALIZATION , Saranya S.*, Ramachandran A. M., Manju M. and Harsha Karunakaran
The main objective of this study was to analyse the rate of glucose transport across cell membrane in yeast cell system in the presence of the ethanolic extract of Ipomoea carneaand Piper betel leaves and to neutralize the bacterial endotoxin which causes wounds to the diabetic patient. Ipomoea carnea and Piper betel leaves has anti diabetic property and collected from kurumbapalayam. The ethanolic extract of leaves was prepared to analyse the phytochemical and antidiabetic activity done with the yeast cell system method. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E.coli was separated using chloroform-methanol solvents. The LPS was treated with the leaf extract and monitored the neutralization of the E.coli toxin by SDS - PAGE method. The amount of glucose uptake was high in mixture of both leaf extract. The leaf extract of both Ipomoea carnea and Piper betel mixture was neutralized the LPS of E.coli. From this study we can reduce the adverse effect of allopathic medications and also acquire a permanentrecovery.
302 ENDEMIC PLANTS OF PENINSULAR INDIA IN THE SACRED GROVES OF KOLLAM DISTRICT, KERALA, INDIA , S. Shailajakumari, E. S. Santhosh Kumar*, A. K. Sreekala and B. Parthipan
Peninsular Indian endemic plants found in the sacred groves of Kollam district of Kerala are enumerated here. A total of 72 taxa are enumerated with their correct name, popular synonyms, brief taxonomic diagnosis, area of occurrence, phenology, distribution and local name if any.
303 JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND LIFE SCIENCE PAPER 2 (2020) BIOCHEMICAL INDICES AND HYPOGLYCERMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF COMBRETUM HISPIDUM.LAW ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , O. V. Ikpeazu*, K. K. Igwe and I. E. Otuokere
Antidiabetic activity of Combretum hispidum, was checked. Twenty-five rats were used for the research were grouped into five of five rats each. Groups 1 was the untreated diabetic group, 2, 3 and 4 were the treatment groups which received 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the C. hispidum, leaf extract. Group 5 was the positive control and was administered known antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. Diabetes was induced in the rats with alloxan monohydrate. C. hispidum, extract was administered to rats for 14 days orally by intubation, thereafter were sacrificed and blood collected from heart for analysis. Effect of C. hispidum, extract was checked on blood glucose level and Biochemical indices. All results in treatment groups were compared with the untreated diabetic group at statistical confidence of p<0.05. Result shows that C. hispidum, leaf extract reduced blood glucose level in the test groups as dose of extract increased. C. hispidum, leaves demonstrated hypoglycermic effect. Biochemical indices indicated liver, kidney and cardiac protective effect.
304 EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER AND HYPOGLYCERMIC POTENTIAL OF COMBRETUM HISPIDUM.LAW ROOT EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS , O. V. Ikpeazu*, K. K. Igwe and I. E. Otuokere
Antidiabetic activity of Combretum hispidum, was checked. Twenty-five rats were used for the research and were grouped into five of five rats each. Groups 1 was the untreated diabetic group while groups 2, 3 and 4 were the treatment which received 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the C. hispidum extract respectively. Group 5 was the positive control and was administered known antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. Diabetes was induced in the rats with alloxan monohydrate. C. hispidum, extract was administered to rats for 14 days orally by intubation, thereafter were sacrificed and blood collected from heart for analysis. Effect of C. hispidum, extract was checked on blood glucose level for possible hypoglycermic potential and biochemical parameters. All results in treatment groups were compared with the untreated diabetic group at statistical confidence of p<0.05.This significant effect was recorded at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7 of the treatment. Result shows that C. hispidum extract reduced blood glucose level in the test groups as dose of extract increased. C. hispidum, demonstrated hypoglycermic effect. Biochemical indices indicated safety of liver, kidney cardiac cells.
305 HYPOGLYCERMIA AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY: ROOT AND LEAF COMBINATION OF COMBRETUM HISPIDUM. LAW EXTRACT ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN RATS , O. V. Ikpeazu*, K. K. Igwe and I. E. Otuokere
Antidiabetic activity of Combretum hispidum and Biochemical indices was checked. Twenty-five rats were used for the research were grouped into five of five rats each. Groups 1 was the untreated diabetic group, 2, 3 and 4 were the treated groups which received equal doses of root and leaf extract at 100 +100, 200+200 and 400+400 mg/kg body weight of the C. hispidum, extracts. Group 5 was the positive control and was administered known antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. Diabetes was induced in the rats with alloxan monohydrate. C. hispidum, extract was administered to rats for 14 days orally by intubation, thereafter were sacrificed and blood collected from heart for analysis. Effect of C. hispidum, extract was checked on blood glucose level and serum biochemistry. All results in treatment groups were compared with the untreated diabetic group at statistical confidence of p<0.05. Result shows that C. hispidum, extract reduced blood glucose level in the test groups as dose of extract increased. C. hispidum, demonstrated hypoglycermic effect. Biochemical indices shows safety of liver, kidney and heart cells.
306 STUDY OF ADMISSIONS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS - CLINICAL SPECTRUM AND OUTCOMES , Dr. Prajakta Pradhan*
India has the dubious distinction of being the „Diabetic Capital‟ of the world. WHO states that the prevalence of Diabetes is expected to rise to 79,441,000 by 2030 in India. A prospective hospital-based study was conducted in the Casualty department of Kaushalya Medical Foundation Trust Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Thane district. The study was carried out in 231 diabetic patients out of which140 patients were males and 91 were females. The Diabetic patients presented with a wide spectrum of complaints. Fever was the commonest symptom, followed by dyspnea. The other common presentations were unconsciousness, foot ulcer, chest pain, loose motions, fever, urinary complaints, hemiparesis, altered sensorium, abdominal swelling, fall, pain in lower limbs, haematemesis and melaena. Highest percent of deaths in the study occurred in patients presenting with dyspnoea and fever. The study was undertaken to understand and spread awareness about the causes necessitating diabetic patients to get admitted to the hospital and to study the clinical profile, find an association between presentation and final outcome of such patients. This study would be useful to calculate the burden on health care system and accordingly to plan the appropriate management strategy.
307 DOCUMENTATION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT ETHNOBOTANICAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME CULTIVATED AND WILD CLIMBERS AND LIANAS IN BHORANJ TEHSIL OF HAMIRPUR DISTRICT (H.P) , *Nitesh Kumar, Monika Thakur, Surendra Kumar Godara, Rajeev Bhoria and Arun Kumar
Hamirpur district is the smallest district of Himachal Pradesh due to area wise and this district falls under Shivalik hills. This district is full of forests with floristic plant diversity. Due to modernization, there is advancement in technology, means and facilities which are helpful to raise the standard of life of people in this district but still the peoples have good faith in traditional knowledge regarding to ethnobotanical uses of plants for various purposes especially for medicinal purposes. This paper emphasizes traditional knowledge about use of some ethnobotanically important cultivated and wild Climbers and Lianas as plant resources of Bhoranj region of district Hamirpur. This traditional knowledge is degraded day by day. So this is the need of hour to conserve the traditional knowledge about the medicinal aspect and other ethnobotanical purposes of plants resources of study area for the benefit of future generation through documenting that traditional knowledge. This step is also a necessary step for the conservation of those plant species among the flora of study area that are in danger of extinction.
308 EVALUATION OF BIOCHEMICAL INDICES AND HYPOGLYCERMIC EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Ikpeazu O.V.*, Igwe K.K. and Otuokere I.E.
Antidiabetic activity of Azadirachta indica, was checked. Twenty-five rats were used for the research and were grouped into five of five rats each. Groups 1 was the untreated diabetic group while groups 2, 3 and 4 were the treatment which received 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the A. indica extract respectively. Group 5 was the positive control and was administered known antidiabetic drug Glibenclamide. Diabetes was induced in the rats with alloxan monohydrate. A. indica, extract was administered to rats for 14 days orally by intubation, thereafter were sacrificed and blood collected from heart for analysis. Effect of A. indica, extract was checked on blood glucose level for possible hypoglycermic potential and Biochemical parameters. All results in treatment groups were compared with the untreated diabetic group at statistical confidence of p<0.05. Hypoglycermic effect was recorded at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7 of the treatment. Result shows that A. indica extract reduced blood glucose level in the test groups as dose of extract increased. A. indica, demonstrated hypoglycermic effect. Biochemical indices indicated liver, kidney and cardiac protective effect.
309 A CASE REPORT ON LINEZOLID INDUCED HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS , *Aiswarya A. A., Jismy Jose, Linsa Linet V. and Adlina Das
A 15 year old female patient was infected with abscess on right axilla. It required a surgical management. She was post operationally treated with IV antibiotics (Cefoperazone + Sulbactam) but the wound doesn’t heal. So she was prescribed with linezolid. Linezolid is the first member of the synthetic antimicrobial agent ‘Oxazolidinone’ approved for treatment of complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections. In this case soon after administration of first dose of drug prescribed itching, rashes, shortness of breath, angioedema and unconsciousness was observed as a result of hypersensitivity reactions. This condition was managed with Inj. Hydrocortisone and Inj. Avil and suitable supportive measures. Doctors must be careful for the unusual side-effects of this drugs and should take suitable measures to manage it.
310 CHALLENGES FACED BY NEW ENTREPRENEURS , Bharat R. Varpe and Shubham P. Varpe*
An entrepreneur is one who plays significant role in the economic development of a country. Basically an entrepreneur can be regarded as a person who has the initiative, skill and motivation to set up a business or an enterprise of his own and who always looks for high achievement. He is a catalyst of social change and works for the common good. He looks for opportunities, identifies them and seizes them mainly for economic gains. An entrepreneur is a person who is able to express and execute the urge, skill; motivation and innovative ability to establish a business or industry of his own either alone or in collaboration with his friends. His motive is to earn profit through the production or distribution of socially beneficial goods or services. He is enriched with the inborn qualities of adventurism, willingness to face risks, innovative urge and creativity and is eager to make dynamic changes in the production process, introduce innovations and to find out new uses for raw materials. But now there is so many challenges faced by new entrepreneurs i.e., lack of patience in solving problems, lack of sustained motivation, Inability to dream and use subconscious etc. In addition to this the other challenges includes; developing vision and ideas, raising capital, assembling a team, finding the right location, finding the right employees, finding good customers, overcoming competition, unforeseen challenges and expenses, keeping up with industrial changes and trends and exiting the business.
311 A REVIEW ON “CURRENT SITUATION OF HIV / AIDS, TREATMENT CHOICES, AND MAJOR CHALLENGES WITH COMPLIANCE TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT” , Mahbubur Rahman*, Sarita Sharma, Gaurav Kumar Sharma and Dr. Kaushal K. Chandrul
The disclosure of the Human immunodeficiency infection (HIV) because the causative body of procured of immunodeficiency disorder (Helps) and therefore the failure of present day pharmaceutical to get a remedy for it’s put HIV together of the foremost feared pathogens of 21st century. HIV predominance is expanding round the world since individuals on antiretroviral treatment live longer, in spite of the very fact that unused contaminations diminished from 3•3 million in 2002, to 2•3 million in 2012. Worldwide AIDS-related passing’s topped at 2•3 million in 2005, and diminished to 1•6 million by 2012. An assessed 9•7 million individuals in low-income and middle-income nations had begun antiretroviral treatment by 2012. Unused bits of data into the components of inactive contamination and therefore the significance of supplies of contamination might within the end of the day cause a remedy.A part of safe enactment within the pathogenesis of non-AIDS clinical occasions (major causes of dismalness and mortality in individuals on antiretroviral treatment) is receiving increased acknowledgment. Breakthroughs within the avoidance of HIV imperative to open wellbeing incorporate male therapeutic circumcision, antiretrovirals to avoid mother-to-child transmission, antiretroviral treatment in individuals with HIV to anticipate transmission, and anti-retroviral for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Inquire about into other avoidance mediations, eminently immunizations and vaginal microbicides, is beforehand.
312 CLINICAL APPROACH TO GUDA VIDRADHI AS ABHYANTARA VIDRADHI WSR TO PERIANAL ABSCESSES , Dr. Bharat Kumar M.*, Dr. Vishwanath Sharma and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
The disease Guda vidradhi is a common condition that disturbs and troubles a person and not let him do his normal routine work. The pain in this condition is uncontrollable and severe due to inflammation and collection of pus. Acharya Charaka and Sushruta, both have opined their observation in this condition. Acharya Charaka opines that, this is the condition where there will be acute suppuration leading to Vidradhi (abscesses)[1] and Acharya Sushruta opines that the vitiated doshas in Guda vitiates Twak, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda and Asthi leading to Vidradhi.[2] The clinical features of Guda vidradhi can be well correlated to Perianal Abscesses. The procedures like Bhedana and Visravana karma gives good result in the management of guda vidradhi.
313 A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ON SELF ADMINISTRATION OF INSULIN AMONG DIABETIC PATIENTS AT MARAIMALAI NAGAR, KATTANKULATHUR, KANCHEEPURAM DISTRIC , Angelin Dhanalakshmi* and Kalavalli
Diabetes is a disorder characterized by impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats due to inadequate activity of insulin. Type II diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance a relative deficiency or both. It usually develops in adulthood. A Descriptive Study To Assess The Knowledge On Self Administration Of Insulin Among Diabetic Patients Who Were On Insulin Therapy Patients At Maraimalai Nagar, Kattankulathur, Kancheepuram District”. The objective of the study were to assess the level of knowledge on self-administration of insulin injection among diabetic patient who were on insulin therapy and to associate the selected demographic variables with knowledge on self- administration of insulin injection among diabetic patient who were on insulin therapy. Descriptive research design was used for this study. Non probability convenient sampling method was adapted to select the 100samples for this study. The study findings revealed that among 100 samples, 11(11%) had moderate knowledge, 89(89%) had inadequate knowledge and none of them had adequate knowledge. And also there is no statistical association between the level of knowledge and selected demographic variables. Study conclude that Diabetes patients who have under self-administration of insulin therapy majority of them are having inadequate knowledge of self-administration of insulin .This study recommended that repeat awareness programme and demonstration on the self- administration of Insulin therapy at community setting.
314 MATRIX ASSISTED CO CRYSTALLIZATION OF ACETAZOLAMIDE FOR ENHANCING AQUEOUS AND LIPIDIC SOLUBILITY , Dhanashree Vithal Halbe*
Pharmaceutical Science nowadays is an emerging field to serve mankind and consists of challenges to produce efficient and optimized medicines. The concept of enhancing a drug’s efficacy depends upon many factors such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics of the drug, which again depend upon physicochemical properties of that drug. The therapeutic knowhow of the drug is not enough to prove the reliability of the drug. Many parameters are taken into consideration to formulate market ready drug. Solubility, Permeability are among them who play an important role in Bioavailability of the drug. New approach available for the enhancement of drug solubility is through the application of the co-crystals, it is also referred as molecular complexes. A novel method for the simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals, matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC), is presented considering Acetazolamide, a BCS Class IV drug with utmost difficulty in formulation and has greater solubility issues. This article focuses on the study of cocrystallization of Acetazolamide using suitable coformer and a matrix for stability commonly referred as MAC product which will be prepared by the ball milling of the three components. The main aim is to produce scalable, amenable method of production of cocrystals and enhancing solubility.
315 VISION PHOTOCHEMISTRY , Shuchishrava Sharma*
Vision is no doubt the most important of all our senses. 40% of all the sensory information about the world comes to us through our eyes. But how do we see is one of the old scientific questions. The eye is the most extraordinary sensory organ. The wavelength response is 400-800 nm but its degree of sensitivity is such that the eye can clearly detect an object in light so dim to correspond to a light input over the retina of only about 1000 quanta per second. Retina contains a series of light sensitive cells known as Rods and Cones or Photoreceptor cells which respond to light and convert it into electrical impulses that create image. In this review, we discuss about the chemistry behind vision.
316 A SHORT REVIEW ON HERBAL REMEDIES IN TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY , *Nahimana Lagrange, Sarita Sharma, Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma and Dr. Kaushal Kishore Chandrul
Herbs have a job in the avoidance and treatment of seizure in epilepsy. The phytochemical investigation of these herbs has contributed in revelation of new antiepileptic drugs (AED). In the dislike years, individuals lean toward more utilization of common plants item for seizure in epilepsy. Convulsion is where the patient experiences intermittent seizure which is the consequence of anomalous electrical movement in the mind. Nature has given us plant to be utilized on characteristic solutions for epilepsy with less reaction and inconsequential medication connections. They have some advantage, for example, vitality and memory improvement. This has roused the investigates towards herbal remedy solution for anticonvulsant action. In this article we audit about the chronicles, significance and plant types of natural medications in treatment of epilepsy.
317 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SLUDGE FROM THE CITY OF CONAKRY , Daloba Soumah*, Aboubacar Oumar Bangoura, Ansoumane Sakouvogui and Alhassane Diami Diallo
In many cities in sub-Saharan Africa such as Conakry, large quantities of sewage sludge are generally discharged into the environment without proper treatment. This practice has considerable negative impacts on the environment and further accentuates the deterioration of the health conditions of the populations. The present research concerns the comparative study of certain physicochemical characteristics (T°, pH, MES, COD and N-NH4) of the sludge from the five (5) communes of the city of Conakry. The temperatures are: Matam (32.6°C), Matoto (30.4°C), Ratoma (30.1°C), Kaloum (28.7° C) and Dixinn (28.6°C). The average temperature of these samples is 30.08 ° C. The pH are: Matoto (6.93), Ratoma (6.80) Matam (6.3), Dixinn (6.11) and Kaloum (6.05). The average pH is 6.44. The MES values of the fluid sludge’s of the municipalities of Matam, Ratoma, Matoto, Dixinn and Kaloum are respectively 5500 mg/l, 3340 mg/l, 3252 mg/l, 2240 mg/l, 2180 mg/l and what corresponds to an average (3293 mg / l) of MES. The CODs are: Kaloum (32.15 mg/l), Dixinn (1840 mg/l), Matam (857mg/l), Matoto (969 mg/l) and Ratoma (967 mg/l). The N-NH4+ concentrations are: Kaloum (32.15 mg/l), Dixinn (33.11 mg/l), Matam (33.86 mg/l) and Matoto (67.72 mg/l), with an average of (41.71 mg/l). These results show that the sludge from the five (5) municipalities of the city of Conakry has relatively the same physicochemical characteristics and requires an adequate treatment (anaerobic digestion or planted beds) before their discharge in the raw state or their use in agriculture.
318 BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR DIAGNOSIS AND TRACKING OF PATHOLOGIES: DIABETES , Abba P. Obouayeba*, Bognan A. A. J. Ackah, Yapi G. Yayé, Teke P. V. D. Adiko, Tanoh H. Kouakou, Allico J. Djaman and Jean D. N. Guessan
Using biological analyzes is essential for establishing diagnoses. In order to better understand and interpret these biological analyzes for the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes, and especially to compensate for the lack of information on these analyzes and more particularly on diabetes, a study was conducted at the CHR in Daloa in the service of diabetology. This study met our objective which is to show the importance of biological analyzes in the diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. After conducting an extensive literature search, an investigation was conducted in diabetic patients. It involved 114 patients interviewed and 1,000 patients registered in the records and registers of the diabetology service. Data processing was carried out using Excel and Word software. The methods used are the statistical and comparative method. The analysis of the various results made it possible to diagnose diabetes using biological analyzes such as the capillary blood glucose test, the urine test and the glycated hemoglobin. They also allowed us to identify people with diabetes and the type of diabetes. The majority are adults over the age of 40 with type 2 diabetes and a low level of education. They had an unhealthy eating habit and were not physically active which led to overweight and obesity. Although the majority of people have improved their eating habits, it is very difficult for them to participate in physical activity. The analysis of the different results has made it possible to show that for the follow-up, the treatment recommended by the doctor is either medication, dietetics and physical exercise.
319 INCIDENCE OF HEREDITARY OF OPTICAL ABNORMALITY IN PATIENTS WITH DOWN’S SYNDROME , Huddar MD.* and Paikrao V. M.
Background: Down’s syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of 46, with an extra copy of chromosome number 21. This extra genetic material disrupts the normal developmental processes leading to medical and physical abnormalities in cases of Down’s syndrome. Children with Down’s syndrome are characterised by mental retardation but they also have high frequency of various congenital optical anomalies. Aim and Objective: This study was done with an aim to estimate the incidence of hereditary of optical abnormality in the patients with Down’s syndrome. Method: The 1147 cases of optical abnormality as cataract from age group of 0 to 14 years were studied for the occurrence of Down’s syndrome during the period of 2012 to 2018. The standard Karyotyping method was used to confirm Down’s syndrome. The normal children of equivalent age group were taken as control. The Type of cataract was also recorded. The collected data was compared with estimated statistics of Down’s syndrome of Nagpur region. Result: From the 1147 diagnosed cases of optical abnormality 27 cases (13 males and 14 females) were confirm with the Down’s syndrome (2.35%), which corresponds to the estimated 3.31% frequency of Down’s syndrome among the children of Nagpur region. The Down’s syndrome frequency (2.35) which is significantly very high in compared with the age matched control patient’s frequency of 0.1% (1 in 1000). The five patients had bilateral cataract observed soon after birth, and three of these underwent cataract surgery within the first year of life. Conclusion: Early optical abnormality was prevalent in the children with Down’s syndrome, whereas the prevalence of cataract was significantly low when compared to controls of same age groups. The frequency of early cataract among children with Down’s syndrome is found to be 2.35% which corresponds to the estimated frequency of Down’s syndrome i.e 3.31%. The bilateral cataract may appear with the birth.
320 AMELIORATING EFFECT OF CURCUMA LONGA ON FENVALERATE INDUCED TOXICITY IN BIMODAL OXYGEN UPTAKE OF A FRESHWATER AIR BREATHING FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS , Pratibha Kumari and Dilip Kumar Paul*
The present paper deals with the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of a medicinal plant Curcuma longa (turmeric) on a pyrethroid pesticide fenvalerate induced toxicity in bimodal oxygen uptake of a freshwater air-breathing fish Clarias batrachus (Linn) popularly known as mangur. The fishes after proper acclimatization and giving adequate food, fishes were intoxicated with fenvalerate at the doses of 1/3rd, 1/6th, 1/9th and 1/10th of LC50 (i.e. 0.247 ppm) for 96 hours. Control group of fishes showed oxygen consumption level to 68.823± 1.947 ml/kg/hr if surface was allowed while it was more i.e. 71.083±5.144 ml/kg/hr when surface was prevented. Decreasing trend of oxygen uptake in the fishes was found in both the cases after intoxication of the fenvalerate. The trend was due to the stress conditions of fishes correlated with low values of RBC and hemoglobin level as a result of pesticide inhalation. Curcumin, the main constituent of Curcuma longa was found to ameliorate the effect of pesticide on oxygen uptake rate of the fishes making almost its normal level of oxygen uptake rate of the control fishes.
321 A CLINICAL TRIAL TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF TICAGRELOR IN BANGLADESHI PATIENTS UNDERGOING PRIMARY PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION (PCI) [GLORIOUS 2 TRIAL] , *Dr. S. M. Mamun Iqbal, Dr. Syed Muhammad Baqui Billah, Dr. Kasekh Akhtar Jahan, Saifur Rahman, Dr. Nahid Sultana and Dr. Mohammed Zahidul Alam
Background: In several clinical trials, Ticagrelor was superior to Clopidogrel in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of Ticagrelor in Bangladeshi patients undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Methods: Applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were allocated to Ticagrelor group [Tablet Ticagrelor 180 mg loading followed by 90 mg twice daily maintenance dose for 12 months] or to Clopidogrel group [Tablet Clopidogrel 600mg loading followed by 75mg daily maintenance dose for 12 months]. After PCI, the patients were followed up for 12 months .The primary endpoint of efficacy (death, myocardial infarction [MI] and stroke), and safety (bleeding, and dyspnea) were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Results: 111 patients with ST- Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) were recruited and 61 patients were assigned to Ticagrelor group and 51 patients to Clopidogrel group. The primary endpoint occurred in fewer patients in Ticagrelor group than in Clopidogrel group (9.8% in Clopidogrel and 5% in Ticagrelor group; p= 0.18). There was significant increase in the incidence of side effects in Ticagrelor group ( minor bleeding occurred in no patient in Clopidogrel and 1.7% of patients in Ticagrelor group , and dyspnea occurred in 2.0% of patients in the Clopidogrel group and 13.3% of patients in Ticagrelor group; p= 0.04). Conclusion: Ticagrelor numerically reduced the risk of death in patients undergoing primary PCI, but the incidence of minor bleeding and dyspnea were significantly more with Ticagrelor compared to Clopidogrel in Bangladeshi patients.
322 A REVIEW OF COVID-19 (CORONAVIRUS DISEASE -2019) DIAGNOSIS, CLINICAL FEATURES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT , Kale Trushart Pradeep*, Prof. Ashwin Kuchekar and Prof. Sameer Shafi
In December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan, hubei province. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-Cov-2), which causes the disease termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), emerged in china in early December 2019. The outbreak was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the world health organization on January 30,2020. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic and highly pathogenic coronaviruses that have resulted in regional and global outbreaks Coronaviruses possess a distinctive morphology, the name being derived from the outer fringe, or ―corona of embedded envelope protein. Members of the family Coronaviridae cause a broad spectrum of animal and human diseases. The novel coronaviruse was provisionally named 2019-nCov, now SARS-Cov-2 according to the coronaviruse study group of international committee on taxonomy of viruses. SARS-Cov2 belongs to the coronaviridae, family betacoronavirus genus, subgenus sarbecovirus. Hence, its discovery the virus has spread globally, causing thousands of deaths. The past decades have seen endemic outbreaks in the form of middle east respiratory coronaviruse(MERS-Cov) and severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronaviruse( SARS-Cov). He the disease is being cured through general treatment, by using antiviral drug, oxygen therapy, and by the human system. This review will introduce a general overview of coronaviruse and describe the transmission, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, symptoms of COVID -19.
323 LITERARY REVIEW OF STHOULYA IN AYURVEDA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OBESITY , *Dr. Kiran
Sthaulya is discouraged by the society for as well as medical reason. Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder in affluent societies. The incidence of Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, angina pectoris, and myocardial infection is higher among obese individuals. Commonly obesity is due to excessive eating and lack of adequate exercise. Acharya Charaka quoted a Sthaulya under the eight varieties of impediments which designated as Nindita Purusha. Ati-sthaulya comprises one of them. Acharya Charaka also list this problem under Santarpanajanita vyadhi. He listed eight defects underlying-Sthaulya purusha, Ayuhrasa, Javopradha, Alpa-vyavayita, Daurbalya, Daurgandhya, Swedabadha, Ati-trishna, Ati-Kshudha. Dalhana seems to be more explicit while commenting on a medo Roga specified that Agni which is involved in pathogenesis of the disease viz. Dhatvagnimandya. The main causes have been described in modern literature viz.1) Dietetic, 2) Genetic, 3) Hormonal. Sthaulya is a typical involving the Medovriddhi with which this study deals with typical obesity, not with the reasonal adiposity,which is a reflection of endocrine imbalance. The term Medasvi is auggestive of nutritional status of the individuals indicating a well nourished disposition rather than disease. Obesity is one of the common disorders in the Luxurious and industrialised society.
324 POLICY DIRECTION IN CONTROLLING RICE FIELD CONVERSION IN BALI PROVINCE WITH INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURAL MODELING APPROACH , Ni Luh Prima Kemala Dewi*, Made Antara, Dwi Putra Darmawan, and Widhianthini
Rice field conversion is one of the major constraints in implementing sustainable agriculture in the Province of Bali. This paper aims to formulate policy direction in controlling rice field conversion in the province. This aim is achieved by using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) analysis method on 14 constraints of policy formulation. The ISM result suggests five main constraints that are prioritized to be solved immediately, namely (a) types and definition of incentives for farmers, (b) consistency in implementing Spatial and Regional Plan Regulation (RTRW), (c) productivity disparity, (d) population growth, and (e) water conflict between irrigation system (subak) and PDAM. Policy alternatives include ease in regulation for agricultural input procurement, agricultural output subsidy, price stability intervention, agricultural machinery and equipment assistance, favoring local products, development of agricultural technology, enforcement of Land for Sustainable Agriculture and Food (LP2B), RTRW, and water conflict laws and regulations. This study recommends several policy implications, namely, (1) involvement of subak and customary villages in formulating RTRW regulation; (2) revitalization of subak regulation; (3) development of incentive and disincentive mechanism; (4) management of existing rice fields; (5) implementation of LEISA concept; (6) assessment of interisland horticulture supply need; (7) formulation LP2B law at regency level; (8) formation of civil servant investigator institution at regional level to improve law enforcement for rice field conversion prevention.
325 THE SHELF LIFE OF ARTEMETHER+ LUMEFANTRINE TABLETS AT THE DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS OF SUDAN , Dr. Abdrhman Mahmoud Gamil*
Distribution and storage conditions are the critical factors in prediction of a pharmaceutical product shelf-life. Artemether and Lumfantrine combination tablets is one of the most important pharmaceutical product in Sudan as it is used in the treatment of the endemic disease, Malaria. To evaluate the distribution and storage conditions and their impacts on the shelf life of this product, samples with dataloggers were analyzed initially then transported and stored at five selective cities for 12 months while logging temperature and humidity every 90 minutes. samples were returned back to the centre and subjected to chemical analysis at intervals I month, 6 months and 12 months. The Reference Thermal Exposure is nearly 8000 hours. The active contents of the tablets were obtained at each time interval using gradient HPLC and then the LSRLs were plotted and the results were computed according to the ICH guidelines using Woolf’s Equation for inverse prediction to obtain X at a given Y. Lumefantrine was found to be stable and its shelf life can be extended to 3 years, but the other part of the tablets, the Artemether component, is the determinant component for the shelf-life. Artemether was found that, it may lose 2 – 6 months from its labelled shelf life because it had been subjected to thermal exposure above 25 for 51 - 61% of the total exposure period. The product retains its physical and microbiological characters indicating GMP compliance.
326 CLINICAL TRIAL: COMPLETE REVIEW , *Slevia G Momin, Dr. Kaushal K Chandrul, Gaurav Kumar Sharma
A Clinical trial involves the testing of a new medicine (or other therapy) to evaluate whether it is effective and safe. Clinical trials of drugs can be divided into those assessing the treatment of a disease (e.g. asthma) or those assessing treatments to prevent the occurrence of significant healthcare events in the future (e.g. stroke). Clinical trials provide the qualitative information about the benefits, adverse effects and possible uses of new drugs that allows prescribers and patients to make rational decisions in relation to drug therapy.
327 SUPPLEMENTATION AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF ABERGELLE GOATS IN TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA , *Meseret Redae, Tikabo Gebremariam and Teferi Aregawi
The feeding trial was conducted at Abergelle Agricultural Research Center breed evaluation and distribution site which is located in central zone of Tigray, North Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum supplementation option that can promote better animal performance and carcass parameters. Twelve yearling uncastrated male growing Abergelle goats were purchased from the local market. The average initial weight of the purchased goats was 14.2 ± 1.09 kg. Randomized complete block design was employed and goats randomly assigned to any of the three feeding options (dietary treatments). The three experimental rations were composed of different industrial by-products made as treatment one (43% wheat bran + 35% cotton seed cake + 20% molasses), treatment two (43% wheat bran + 35% noug seed cake + 20% maize grain) and treatment three (33% wheat bran + 45% dried brewery grain + 20% molasses). The supplementary feeds were formulated according to the growth requirements of the experimental animals considering their body weight. The experiment was conducted for 90 days of feeding and 14 days of adaptation trials. Grass hay and clean water was offered adlibitum to each animal. At the end of the trial, the goats were slaughtered and soon measured data on carcass parameters following appropriate procedures. The collected data were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with least significance difference mean separation. Most of the carcass parameters didn’t significantly (p > 0.05) respond to the different treatment diets. But, slaughter weight was significantly affected by the supplementation feeds with higher for goat group in treatment diet two. Hence, animal producers are advised to use supplementation option treatment two also based on the local availability of the feeds.
328 THE RATIO OF SUGAR AND CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE (CMC) TO THE QUALITY OF SLICED JAM OF DRAGON FRUIT , Susan Novrini, Yenni Asbur*, Yayuk Purwaningrum, Murni Sari Rahayu, Rahmi Dwi Handayani Rambe, Nurhayati, Syamsafitri, Arif Anwar, Indra Gunawan, Mindalisma, Mahyuddin, Dedi Kusbiantoro, Surya Dharma, Dian Hendrawan, Khairunnisyah, M. Nuh, Mahyu Danil, Miranti and Wan Bahroni Jiwar Barus
One type of fruit that useful for humans is a dragon fruit. Dragon fruit easily damaged if not stored properly and one alternative that can be done by processing it into various processed products such as dragon fruit syrup, dragon fruit jam and others. Dragon fruit is a kind of fruit that tastes sweet also slightly sour and the meat is quite chewy so it is suitable if made jam. Dragons fruit jams are often found in the form of jelly and sheet-shaped. This study aims to determine the effect of the ratio of sugar and CMC to the quality of sliced jam of dragon fruit. This research was conducted at the laboratory agricultural product technology Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara. The study used a complete randomized design factorial two replications with amount of sugar and the number of CMC (as treatments. The results showed that to produce good quality of sliced jam can be made with a ratio of 70% sugar and 2% CMC.
329 ASSESSMENT OF ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT OF LEAVES FROM PAULLINIA PINNATA ON MICE , Bakou Niangoran François*, B. A. Abdoulaye, Guiro Hamidou and Atayi E.
Objective: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of hydro alcoholic extract of leaves from Paullinia pinnata in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5/group): control group (distilled water), standard group where Amitriptyline (20mg/kg b.w., IP) was used as standard drug and three test groups where three doses of the hydro alcohol extract of PP (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was used for two weeks treatment. To assess the antidepressant-like effect of PP forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and measurement of locomotor activity test (OFT) have been done in mice. Results: The results showed that a strong and dose-dependent antidepressant effects in different mice models. The main findings of the ML significantly reduced the duration of immobility times in the forced swimming test (p < 0.001). Likewise, the extract significantly decreased the immobility time in the tail suspension test (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present work suggest that a hydro alcoholic extract of Paullinia pinnata leaves may possess an antidepressant effect.
330 STUDY ON NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, SCOLIOSIS, AND KYPHOSIS , Dr. Hajir Majid*, Muhammad Nazir and Lamis Nader
The current study was conducted in order to develop a better understanding of neurofibromatosis, scoliosis, and kyphosis as well as the treatments used for them and the similarities amongst them. The current study utilizes a qualitative framework for its methodology. The following paper uses a review of literature in order to better understand neurofibromatosis, scoliosis, and kyphosis so as to better understand which treatment is more sufficient than the other and the similarities or dissimilarities between these three disorders. The findings of the current study are presented in the conclusion section with a discussion on the results, followed by recommendations for future researchers. The qualitative framework was highly helpful and reliable in terms of the current research due to the nature of the study as well as the need for reliable academic research. All academic sources were gathered via a selection criterion that is mentioned in the methodology section.
331 SARIVA SHANKHANABHI CHURNA: A TOPICAL DUSTING POWDER FOR DIAPER DERMATITIS , Dr. Satish Piraji Jadhav and Dr. Nareshkumar Keshav Babar*
Advanced technology and related facilities available for the skin care of infants have got their own advantages and disadvantages in the community health. Diaper dermatitis is one such condition which creates significant parental stress and discomfort in suffering child. Inspite of various emolients, barrier creams usage, incidence rate seems to be unaltered. Sariva Shankhanabhi dusting powder, named as per the ingredients in it, aims at symptomatic reduction intern decreasing the irritability in a child. Form of medication, easy administration, cost effectiveness and safety are of high concern while planning treatment. Hence the fine dusting powder was prepared using modern pharmaceutical equipments.
332 RESPULES , *Sumaiya Fatima, Dr. Osman Ahmed and Dr. Anas Rasheed
Respules may be defined as a type of sterile suspension for administering through inhalation. These are prepared in nebulizing suspensions forms, administered from jet nebulizers at adequate flow rates, via face masks or mouthpieces. They are also referred as Respirator Suspension Formulation for respiratory diseases, used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It contains active ingredients delivered via a single inhaler. Most drugs are sterile suspension for inhalation via jet nebulizer and contains micronized active ingredient, and the inactive ingredients. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation to prevent asthma attacks.
333 POLYMORPHISM , Sumaiya Fatima*, Dr. Osman Ahmed and Dr. Anas Rasheed
It had been known since the middle of the 18th century that many substances could be obtained in more than one crystal form, and so the properties of these solids were studied to the fullest extent possible with the characterization tools (e.g., crystal morphology and melting phenomena) available at that time. Eventually the work of Von Laue and Bragg on the diffraction of X-rays by crystalline solids led to the development of technology that could be used to directly study the structures of such materials and to provide the structural justification for the phenomenon that became known as polymorphism.[1]
334 MODERN IMPROVEMENTS OF NANOSCIENCE IN TRANSPORTATION OF DRUGS, BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING AND FOOD PROCESSING , S. Bagyalakshmi* and M. Priya
Nanotechnology refers to the interplays of cellular and molecular components and created material typically, clusters of atoms, molecules, and molecular parts into implausibly little particles between one and a hundred nm. Nanometer-sized particles present different structural, optical, and electronic properties. Nanoparticles had an enormous application in delivery systems of various production domains. In recent years, nanotechnology has increased credit to defeat the effects of genes and drug delivery. It is necessary to identify the reactions of nanomaterials on various administration and environmental factors to perform the economic and efficient way drug delivery. Nanotechnology conjointly plays a significant role in “Nanomedicines”. Nanotechnology has supported the possibility of fabricating nanophase magnetic particles with functions suitable for targeting and treating varied bone diseases. There are also several benefits of nanotechnology in the field of food production and processing industry. This article evaluates the modern developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery, bone tissue engineering, and the food processing industry. Nanomedicine, the significant field in new world delivery systems are that the micromillimeter sized particles ideally starting from one to a hundred metric straight unit containing encapsulated, dispersed, adsorbed, or conjugated medication and imaging agents.
335 AZARAQI (STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA L.): A NOVEL DRUG OF UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF NERVE AND PHLEGMATIC DISEASES , Mohd. Afsahul Kalam*, Aieman Yaqoob, Bazilah Majeed and Ansar Ahmad
Azaraqi is well known drug of Unani System of Medicine, obtained from the dried, ripe seed of Strychnos nuxvomica L. belonging to the family Loganiaceae. It is a small tree 12 meters tall widely distributed in India and also occurring in Ceylon, Syria, and Northern Australia. Azaraqi is well known for its anti-phlegmatic effect, nerve tonic and stimulant properties which makes it an important drug in treatment of insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy, paralysis, hemiplegia, arthritis, nocturnal incontinence of urine, emphysema, impotence, etc. These actions are attributed to hot temperament and bioactive compounds like strychnine and brucine present in its seeds. The seeds are used in various forms either alone or in compound formulations like powder, pills, ma‘jun etc. Many pharmacological studies have been done on Azaraqi which include antidiabetic, anticonvulsant and analgesic properties. The chemical extracts of nuxvomica are interesting pharmacologically and is a valuable tool in physiological and neuroanatomic research. It is highly toxic, therefore used after detoxification.
336 EVALUATION AND VALIDATION OF A UPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF AMOXYCLAV IN ORAL DOSAGE FORM , Dr. Osman Ahmed*, Sumaiya Fatima and Dr. Anas Rasheed
A specific, precise, accurate ultra pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) method is developed for estimation of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in market dosage form. The method employed, with Xterra RP-8 (150mm x 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 μm) in a gradient mode, with mobile phase of KH2PO4: Methanol (80:20). The flow rate was 0.5 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 248 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) etc. in accordance with ICH guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed that there was good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 250-750 μg/ml amoxicillin and 62.5-187.5 μg/ml for potassium clavulanate respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for were found to be 0.0029 (μg/ml) and 0.0091 (μg/ml) for amoxicillin and 0.0052 (μg/ml) and 0.0160 (μg/ml) for potassium clavulanate respectively. The developed & validated RP‐UPLC methods employed here proved to be specific, fast, precise and accurate for the simultaneous estimation and stability indicating assays as well as related substance quantifications of AMOXYCLAV in combine dosage form.
337 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON PLANT PASSIFLORA , Arjun Saini* and Bhupendra Kumar
Nature has been a wellspring of remedial administrators for an enormous number of year and a vital number of present day calm have been isolated from customary sources, numerous reliant on their use in ordinary medicine. Plants from the family Passiflora have been used in standard drug by various social orders. Flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, phenolic blends and eccentric constituents have been represented as the major phyto- constituents of the Passiflora spe-cies. This overview delineates the morphology, standard and tales uses, phyto- constituents and pharmacological reports of the prominent kinds of the sort Passiflora. Diverse virgin areas of investigation on the kinds of this sort have been highlighted to examine, detach and recognize the therapeutically huge phyto-constituents which could be utilized to help various diseases impacting the mankind. The objective of the current examination was to concentrate all Passiflora species. The sythesis of each specie presented particularities; this legitimizes the essentialness of studies concentrating on the phenolic bit of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were recognized in all concentrates, and are found as the central constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia.
338 DEMOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION ATTENDING AYUSH WELLNESS CLINIC (AWC) AT PRESIDENT’S ESTATE, RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN, INDIA: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY , Venkateswar Rao B., Tushita Thakur* and Izhar-Ul Hasan
The development of an effective health care system of a country is a fundamental part of advancement, indispensable to the country's financial development. The Government, giving impetus to enrich the vast centuries-old heritage of medical sciences in India, have outlined a National Policy on Indian Systems of Medicine & Homeopathy and establishment of Indian systems of medicine speciality centers. Keeping in view the emphasis laid by the Government to this holistic method of healing and therapy, taking this vision forward, the Rashtrapati Bhavan with the help of Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, established the first AYUSH Wellness Clinic (AWC) of the country at President’s Estate in July 2015. AYUSH Wellness Clinic has been inaugurated by the Hon’ble President on 25 July, 2015 at Schedule B, President’s Estate, to promote the Indian traditional system of medicine and also to make it available at the door step of the residents of the President’s Estate. The AYUSH Wellness Clinic (AWC) is a unique project where all the Indian systems of medicine and Homoeopathy have come together under one roof. It is designed to bring out the best of all the systems of medicine in preventive and curative health care and provide a holistic health service to residents of the President Estate. This paper presents an update on the success and the work done at AWC from its inception in July 2015 to June 2020. A total of 144194 patients were consulted and nearly 79309 received various therapies during this time period. AYUSH awareness workshops are being conducted for every year. New initiatives in the year 2015 include establishment of herbal garden at the AWC premises, designated touch screen interactive kiosk and starting Skill-development and Internship Program for the residents. New initiatives in the year 2016 include Village out-reach program and participation in the Festival of Innovation at Rashtrapati Bhavan. As new initiative in the year 2017, new therapies were added to the existing services in Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy and Unani wings respectively. The therapists and support staffs working at AWC were trained in First-AID and CPR. Numerous research papers were published in peer reviewed indexed journals.
339 CLASSICAL AND CONTEMPORARY CAUSES OF JANU SANDHIGATA VATA , Shereen Sreenivas*, Muralidhara, Sindhura A. S.
The treatment of any disease is initiated by knowing the relevant present and past history. This gives us insight into the causes and symptoms concerned. Though there are innumerable causes specific to the person/age /gender/habitat and the like in Ayurveda, a generalized idea about all the factors involved is necessary for the ideal diagnosis and treatment. The topic in context is Janu Sandhigata Vata wherein a clinical study was carried out with 40 patients. Janu Sandhigata Vata is one among the Gatavata mentioned under the context of Vatavyadhi in the Samhittas. It can occur due to Dhatukshaya or Avarana. It is correlated to Osteoarthritis (OA) due to the similarities in manifestation. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a very common chronic disease that affects all joint tissues, causing progressive irreversible damage and finally, the failure of the joint. The various Nidana or causes ruled in favour for the formation of the disease are being considered for the study in this article.
340 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON HIV AND AIDS , Revati Wable*
HIV virus was first identified in humans in 1959 which was transferred from chimpanzees to human during hunting. The virus is transmitted to other organisms when they come in contact with various fluids of infected person. There are 2 subtypes of virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2 from which the HIV-1 is more common. Infection progresses in 3 stages and worsens the symptoms and results in reduced life span of patient. No absolute cure is available for the disease but Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) improves living condition and increases life expectancy of patient.
341 CONCEPT OF VYADHIKSHAMATWA (IMMUNITY) AND FACTORS INFLUENCING IMMUNITY IN VIEW OF AYURVEDA - A REVIEW , Dr. Pradnya Ravindra Deshpande and Dr. Shilpa Kantilal Ingle*
Today’s era dealing with burden of diseases related to immunology. Immunodeficiency, hypersentivity and autoimmunity are the patho-physiologies tend to various communicable and non-communicable diseases. Immunological aspect plays an important role in prevention as well as cure of disease. Physical status and psychology of an individual reflect immunity to greater extent. Life style in present era including modified dietetic and behavioral regimen also give rise to neuro-endocrinal diseases which are complex to treat and may complicate in fatal conditions. So better to improve immunity and health. In Ayurveda, immunity is considered as Bala (strength) of an individual which is dependent on so many factors. Aacharyas quoted that, Bala (strength) and health is excellence of Dosha (3 bodily elemental humours), Dhatu (tissues), Mala (waste), Oja and Agni (fire). It is also said as Vyadhikshamatwa. In this review article, an emphasis is given on the establishment of inter-relationship between Bala, Vyadhikshamatwa, Kapha, Oja along with their role as immunological factors and influencing elements.
342 UNANI DRUG ‘MULSARI’ (FLOWER PART OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN) - PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE AND A REVIEW OF ITS MEDICINAL USES. , Renjini Haridas, Rampratap Meena*, Zaheer Ahmed N. and Murugeswaran R.
The flower of Mimusops elengi Linn is important Unani single drug used in Unani formulation for various ailments and its Unani name is Mulsari. Pharmacognostocal profile of Mulsari was carried out on the basis of color, size and microscopy. Flowers are rich source of calcium oxalate crystals and phyto-contituents. Pharmacological review also carried out in this study. From critical analysis of review of literatures, the pharmacological studies of Mulsari revealed that this single drug have excellent medicinal value and potential due to the presence of phyto-contituents.
343 A THERAPEUTIC APPROACH OF NARAYANA TAILA & DASHAMULA KWATHA IN VATASHTHEELA & MUTRAKRICHCHHRA , Dr. Shalini Patel*, Prof. Dr. Sunil Kumar Joshi, Dr. Savita Sonkar and Dr. Prashant Srivastav
Human beings, in this fast-moving world is so busy that he/she is unable to take care of its own health and thus suffering from so many diseases due to improper care of their daily routine of life. There is a condition in which due to vitiation of the Apana Vayu, an elevated, mobile & glandular swelling is produces in between the rectum and urinary bladder or urethra known as Vatashtheela. In this condition obstruction of the passage of urine and faces occurs which produces the symptoms like Sanga (obstruction) etc. whereas, Mutrakrichchhra is said to be a Vata Pradhana Tridoshaja Vyadhi and “difficulty in micturition” is its characteristic feature. Current medical research provides multifold care modalities with their own drawbacks. So the society is looking for alternate system of medicine for a better life. There prevails a strong need to help the patients avoid surgery (in BPH) and antibiotics resistance (in UTI) and achieve health by a simple and minimally invasive measure. But the treatment should not disturb their reproductive and other metabolic functions. In Ayurveda, Vata is the root cause of all Mutraghata varieties (including Vatashtheela) and also Mutrakrichchhra being manifested. Therefore, two drugs- Narayana Taila & Dashamula Kwatha were elected for Basti (per rectum) in Vatashtheela (BPH) and Mutrakrichchhra (UTI).
344 SYNTHESIS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES , Mrinmay Das*, Jyotirmoy Deb, K. Sravanthi, K. Manasa, K. Keerthana
The benzimidazole nucleus has a significant importance in medicinal chemistry and many benzimidazole containing compounds exhibit important biological activities. In the present study, synthesis, spectral studies and biological evaluation of three benzimidazole derivatives were investigated. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass spectroscopy and CHN elemental analyzer and the synthesized compounds were screened for anthelmintic activity by using Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Albendazole 25mg/ml had taken as a standard drug for the experiment. 25, 50 and 100mg/ml concentrations of the three synthesized compounds (1a – 1c) had taken as tests sample.
345 SELF MEDICATION AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF CHENNAI, INDIA – A CROSS- SECTIONAL STUDY , V. Poongodi*, Saraswathi Gopal and Anitha R.
Introduction: Self-medication is defined as use of medicines by the individuals on their own without professional advice to treat self-diagnosed conditions. It is prevalent not only among general population but also among doctors including dentists. Aim: To assess the pattern of self-medication practice among students of a dental college of chennai city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate dental students through convenience sampling. A questionnaire consisting of 20 questions related to various aspects of self-medication practice was handed to the students. Results: Among 234 students and total of 40.9% of respondents indulged in self‐medication. Both male and female dental students equally had a habit of taking medicines on their own. The most common drugs used for self‐medication were antipyretics (46.56%), followed by analgesics (40.08%), and cough syrups (18.02%). Cold (19.43%) was the major indication for self‐medication, followed by (18.02%) a cough, and (16.19%) was a fever. Most common reason not to see a doctor was that there is no need to see a doctor because of a simple disease (31.58%) followed by the need for a quick relief (20.45%).The predominant guiding sources of information for students was media (magazines and internet) (38.06%) and books (39.88%). Conclusion: Majority of the dental students self-medicate themselves. Measures should be adopted to reduce such type of practice by guiding the students about the pros and cons of using medicines without prescription.
346 HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF DIABETES AND DIABETIC NEUROPATHY , Zaffar Hussain* and Mohd Afsahul Kalam
Diabetes mellitus and its complications relating to nerves has not been mentioned in ancient times except by Ibn Sina (980-1037AD), also known as Avicenna, an Arab philosopher, who proposed possible familiarity with diabetic disorders in his famous book „Canon of medicine‟ in which he mentioned two specific complications of diabetes mellitus namely gangrene and collapse of sexual function. It was not till the 18th century that Western physicians started studying and examining diabetes mellitus and its related complications. Ultimately, the works of the 19th century (de Calvi, Pavy) clearly recognized the relationship between diabetes mellitus and diabetic neuropathies. The important discovery of insulin in 1921 by Frederick G Banting, Charles Best and John Macleod crank up a wide interest and more systematic approach to research of diabetic complications, leading to S. Fagerberger‟s conclusion that numerous of them share the fundamental micro vascular pathology.
347 ROLE OF DHATURA PATRA SWARASA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INDRALUPTA (ALOPECIA AREATA) , *Dr. Swapna Swayamprava, Dr. Subrat Kumar Ojha and Dr. Niranjan S.
Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA) is silent but distressing problem which may occur to a healthy person also. In Ayurvedic approach, this condition has close resemblance with „Indralupta’. For treating this devastating condition, Dhatura patra lepa has been mentioned as one among the formulations in Ashtanga Hridaya. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Dhatura Patra Swaras lepa in the management of Indralupta. Methods: 22 out of 25 subjects suffering from Indralupta who attended the O.P.D. of K.A.T.S. Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Ankushpur, Odisha, completed the treatment protocol. These subjects were administered with Dhatura Patra Swaras Lepa over the scalp (quantity sufficient) applied once a day for a period of 30 days. These results were analyzed statistically. Results: The trial drug was found to be effective and showed significant results in reducing the symptoms of Indralupta. Conclusion: As per the data obtained we can conclude that the trial drug was found to be effective in the condition of Indralupta.
348 RECOVERY OF MOLYBDENUM (MO) METAL FROM SPENT CATALYSTS BY BIOLEACHING , *Dr. Ramprakash Prajapati
Spent catalysts are generated in large quantities as solid waste on a yearly basis from different industries (fertilizer, petroleum and others chemical industries). Due to their hazardous nature, environmental regulations for discarded spent catalysts are very strict. Consequently, from ecological and economical view point, metals recovery from spent catalysts is very important. Molybdenum (Mo) is one of the elements present in spent catalysts at high concentrations. The rapidly growing demands for Mo and its products create a need to develop novel recovery processes from secondary resources, i.e. spent catalysts, as there is a projected shortage of the primary resources for this element. This paper mainly focused on Molybdenum (Mo) recovery from spent catalysts using bioleaching .The rapid industrialization generates a variety of spent catalysts from different industries. These spent catalyst wastes mostly contain Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mo, Co and Fe like metals in it. Hence these waste (spent catalyst) materials which are causing serious environmental problems, can act as potential source for metals. In this sense these spent catalyst wastes can act as a artificial ores. The use of a bioleaching process to recover metals from such spent catalyst materials before disposal is a logical but challenging application. Bioleaching is a relatively new concept in which various microorganism (bacteria and fungi) are employed to recover metal values from spent catalyst wastes. Bioleaching is a process based on the ability of microorganism to transform solid compound into soluble and extractable elements, which can be recovered. It represents a “clean technology” given its associated lower cost and energy requirements when compared with non-biological processes.
349 SPIKED FORCE DEGRADATION ASSAY METHOD EVALUATION FOR ESTIMATION OF AMOXYCLAV IN ORAL DOSAGE FORM , Dr. Osman Ahmed*, Sumaiya Fatima and Dr. Anas Rasheed
A specific, precise, accurate ultra pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) method is developed for estimation of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in market dosage form. The method employed, with Xterra RP-8 (150mm x 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 μm) in a gradient mode, with mobile phase of KH2PO4: Methanol (80:20). The flow rate was 0.5 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 248 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) etc. in accordance with ICH guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed that there was good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 250-750 μg/ml amoxicillin and 62.5-187.5 μg/ml for potassium clavulanate respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for were found to be 0.0029 (μg/ml) and 0.0091 (μg/ml) for amoxicillin and 0.0052 (μg/ml) and 0.0160 (μg/ml) for potassium clavulanate respectively. No chromatographic interference from excipients and degradants were found. The proposed method was successfully used for estimation of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in market dosage form.
350 ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AVACADO, ALLSPICE, TEJPATTA AND DALCHINI AGAINST DIFFERENT BACTERIAL STRAINS , Manveer Singh, Md. Sadique Hussain, Devesh Tewari, Bimlesh Kumar, Shazia Mansoor and Narayanan Ganesh*
Microbial activity causes serious damage to living organisms. In this study, ethanolic extracts were prepared from leaves of Persea americana Mill. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr., Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T. Nees & Eberm. and Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. The ethanolic extracts prepared from these plants exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity when evaluated against gram-positive bacteria Streptococci spp. and Staphylococci aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method and growth inhibition assay.
351 WASTE MATERIALS BY VERMICOMPOSTING USING THE EARTHWORM EUDRILUS EUGENAE , *R. S. Tambe and P. D. Pulate
The present research was conducted with the purpose of explore the Vermicomposting process, which involves different stages such as import of a compost earthworm (Eudrilus eugenae) and production of Vermicomposting using different waste material such as decomposing waste material maize straw and cow manure. The Vermicompost produced can be of significant value to the end users like farmers for replacement of chemical fertilizers and procure better price for the organic produce using such composting material locally available at much lower cost. Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides were promoted in the past few decades. The study also confirmed that the Vermicomposting can produce high-quality bio-fertilizers which are better compared to other commercial fertilizers in the market. Appropriate roofing materials should be used in establishing the bed’s roofings to prevent excessive rain in penetrating the culture beds that can possibly kill the Vermi worms.
352 STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF BIOSORPTION OF BASIC BLUE 9 BY DEAD FUNGAL BIOMASS ISOLATED FROM ONION , Prachi D. Patole, Vinita K. Nehete and *Dr. Sukhada Akole
The textile industry consumes a substantial amount of water in its manufacturing processes used mainly in the dyeing and finishing operations of the textile plants. The wastewater from textile plants is classified as the most polluting of all industrial sector caused by discharged of untreated effluent into water bodies. In the present investigation dead fungal biomasses from onion isolate is evaluated as a potential biosorbent in the removal of basic blue 9 dye. The choice of onion isolate as a biosorbent for further work was based on its high growth rate as well as high rates of biosorption. Basic Blue 9 dye was chosen as a dye of interest considering its wide use in Indian textile industry and lack of any credible work on them. Experimental design based on sequential statistical approach consisting of Plackett–Burman Design (PBD) for screening critical factors followed by Central Composite Design (CCD) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used for removal of basic blue 9 dye. The use of well-established statistical techniques, to build models, plots, to study the interactions between the variables and to select the optimum conditions of variables and minimizing the errors. Equilibrium and kinetic modeling of biosorption shows that the adsorption follows Langmuir isotherm. Kinetic studies were done using pseudo first order kinetics and pseudo second order kinetics. FTIR analyses indicated that the principal groups involved in sorption were CH and OH. Optimization of biosorption by RSM could achieve 94.16 % of dye removal.
353 EFFECT OF VARIOUS TREATMENTS ON SEED GERMINATION IN M.EMARGINATA , Shweta Mathur* and Asha Goswami
Study aims various treatments on seeds of M.emarginata. Seeds treated with Hot water showed maximum imbibition (80%) but their germination was nearly inhibited (zero%) which might be due to membrane damage or death of embryo. Effect of GA3 (100 to 200 ppm), considered to be the replacement of chilling treatment, resulted in increase of germination percentage. Germination percentage showed increase from 100 ppm Gibbrellic Acid (GA3) and Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) treated seeds to 150 ppm GA3 and BAP treated seeds. Maximum germination percentage (75.7% with GA3 and 70.7% with BAP) was observed in seeds treated with 150 ppm GA3 and BAP and imbibed for 96 hours. Higher concentration of GA3 and BAP (200 ppm) could not accelerate it further and infact decreased the rate of germination (46.6% and 41% respectively) with 96 hours imbibition. H2SO4 (40%) treatment could not prove to be highly successful (maximum 52.2% germination) and H2SO4 (80%) completely declined germination percentage (12.3% at 96 hours imbibition) due to blackening of seed coat. 40% and 80% HNO3 showed poor response(12.2% and 7.1% respectively) in comparison to H2 SO4 and normal water. Various effects like prosoaking, scarification, acid treatment, chilling, hot water treatment, growth regulators treatment are well known to induce germination in dormant seeds. ABA (Abscissic Acid) has been shown to be involved in regulating seed dormancy and GA3 (Gibberellic Acid) known to counteract the inhibitory effect of ABA .Growth hormones are the best activators to increase the rate of germination in M emarginata.
354 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC PUMP TABLET OF NIFEDIPINE FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY , R. Kumaravelrajan*, L. Abungsana Singh, Priyanka Mitra and V. Suba
The objective of the present study is to develop, optimise and evaluate of Buccal Osmotic Pump Tablet (BOPT) of Nifedipine. Nifedipine was choosen as drug candidate to carry out the objective of the study. The DSC thermograms were clearly proved that there was no specific interaction between the drug and polymer used in the formulation. Lactose and lactose-dextrose combined was used as osmogent. Different drug: osmogent ratios are used to investigate the study. The release of drug from the osmotic pump is dependent on Osmotic pressure inside the system. The percentage of pore former concentration was directly proportional to the drug release. 30% pore forming agent concentration, drug release rate is only at the end of 8 hr however, release rate was increased as increased the % of pore former concentration, 40% showed 74.8% and 50% (F3) showed 83.2%. The formulations with 4% coating thickness showed greater amount of release rate when compared with other formulations with 7% and 10% coating thickness. Thickness of the membrane is inversely proportional to the drug release. The optimised batch (F9) showed good ex vivo permeation of the drug, around 80% of the drug permeated at the end of 6th hour, muco adhesive strength and wash off test results showed good adhesive property on buccal membrane. SEM study showed the porosity of the membrane in situ condition of the Nifedipine BOPT, before contact to aqueous environment there was no pores on the membrane but after contact pores were formed was observed.
355 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON LIPASE ENZYME PRODUCTION BY SEED BORNE FUNGI OF GROUNDNUT , Deshmukh R. S.*
During present investigation total eleven seed borne fungi were isolated from five different varieties of groundnut by moist blotter plate and agar plate method of which six dominant seed borne fungi were screened to study effect of physical factors such as incubation period, pH and temperature on lipase production. From the results it is evident that lipase activity of seed borne fungi was optimum at 9th day of incubation period in most of the test fungi. Rhizopus nigricans showed maximum lipase production while Sclerotium rolfsii produced least lipase. Maximum lipase production was observed in Rhizopus nigricans and Fusarium oxysporum in Groundnut variety TAG-24 while in SB-XI maximum lipase production was observed in Rhizopus nigricans and Macrophomina phaseolina at pH 6.5. It was also observed that as pH increased, the lipase production decreased. Similarly, it was noticed that all fungal isolates produced more lipase at 30°C temperature.
356 STUDY ON THE DOMESTIC SEWAGE AND ITS ANALYSIS , *Dr. Anil M. Khole
The city Parbhani is characterized by the fact of majority of households’ outlets contains dispose of household sewage, lending to contamination of ground and surface water and a disturbance to the environment. The objective of this study is to protect the water and soil sources from the risk of pollution, reduce pollution, maintain health and domestic sewage water treatment. In this study, analyzed household sewage water from 2 locations for to find out its physical and chemical parameters. The parameters such as pH, DO, DCO2, TDS, Hardness, calcium, magnesium, BOD, COD, Phosphate. The changing characteristics of sewage water, due to discharge of contaminants, are responsible for many changes that are taking place today in the sewage water treatment. This discharge of sewage water to environment caused adverse condition, and this led to the development of intensive methods of sewage treatment.
357 ORGANIC CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY BY EFFECTIVE DISPOSAL FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY , Ragini A. Amarnani*, Pradnya Gondane and Dr. Abhay M. Ittadwar
Chemicals are an Important source for manufacturing different products. It is an important contributor to the GDP and employment. A chemical waste is any material left off after manufacturing of any product in laboratories or industries and if not disposed properly may cause harm to the human health and environment . Some toxins such as arsenic, lead, mercury remains in environment for many years and accumulates. Humans and animals absorb these harmfull chemicals into the body after they eat fish or other prey . The different types of chemical waste includes acid and bases , volatile chemicals and heavy metals . The characteristics of these waste are ignitable , corrosive and can cause toxic infections . Therefore these waste need to treated effectively before disposal into sewage . Treatment of these waste includes salt formation, neutralization of acid and base , collection in different containers , recycling and evaporation. So by this method the chemicals can be reused and can save the environment by proper disposal. If we use harmless chemicals, there is no need for additional treatment for disposal and can lower the cost. The below study depicts the types and different treatments of organic chemical waste in detail.
358 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE DEGRADING BACTERIA , Pranali Patil and Minal Trivedi*
In India pesticides play an important role in agricultural. Their importance in crop yield improvement is a well known fact but at the same time their toxic nature is a threat to the environment. Due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment, there is an immediate need to eliminate them from contaminated sites by biodegradation. In this study, an enrichment culture technique was used to isolate bacterial strains from farm soil, garden soil and nursery soil for degrading high concentrations of chlorpyrifos pesticide. Five bacteria (G1, F2, F3, F4, F5) isolated and both qualitative and quantitative screening was done for isolated bacteria. Also the optimum temperature, pH and NaCl concentration was determined for them. Isolated bacteria were identified by their gram nature, biochemical characterization and according to Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus aureus (G1), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F2), Microccous luteus (F3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (F5) and F4 could not be identified. Then, their antibiotic sensitivity test by disc diffusion method was studied. By miniprep method of plasmid DNA isolation it was found out that four isolates (F2, F3, F4, F5) showed presence of plasmid DNA and then plasmid curing was done using ethidium bromide as curing agent. After curing all bacteria were able to grow on nutrient agar plate supplemented with chlorpyrifos pesticide, it showed that pesticide degrading responsible gene present on bacterial chromosome. Thus, these pesticide degrading bacterial species can be used for bioremediation of contaminated soils.
359 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED POROSITY OSMOTIC PUMP TABLET OF NIFEDIPINE FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY , R. Kumaravelrajan*, L. Abungsana Singh, Priyanka Mitra and V. Suba
The objective of the present study is to develop, optimise and evaluate of Buccal Osmotic Pump Tablet (BOPT) of Nifedipine. Nifedipine was choosen as drug candidate to carry out the objective of the study. The DSC thermograms were clearly proved that there was no specific interaction between the drug and polymer used in the formulation. Lactose and lactose-dextrose combined was used as osmogent. Different drug: osmogent ratios are used to investigate the study. The release of drug from the osmotic pump is dependent on Osmotic pressure inside the system. The percentage of pore former concentration was directly proportional to the drug release. 30% pore forming agent concentration, drug release rate is only at the end of 8 hr however, release rate was increased as increased the % of pore former concentration, 40% showed 74.8% and 50% (F3) showed 83.2%. The formulations with 4% coating thickness showed greater amount of release rate when compared with other formulations with 7% and 10% coating thickness. Thickness of the membrane is inversely proportional to the drug release. The optimised batch (F9) showed good ex vivo permeation of the drug, around 80% of the drug permeated at the end of 6th hour, muco adhesive strength and wash off test results showed good adhesive property on buccal membrane. SEM study showed the porosity of the membrane in situ condition of the Nifedipine BOPT, before contact to aqueous environment there was no pores on the membrane but after contact pores were formed was observed.
360 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL ANTIDANDRUFF SHAMPOO , *Shubhangi R. Tangde and Dr. S. S. Saboo
Herbal antidandruff shampoo is widely used now a days because of its good antidandruff activity and less harmful effect as compared to synthetic one. There are large no of plants which are reported to have beneficial effect on hair and commonly used in shampoo. In the present study herbal cream shampoo was prepared by using natural ingredients such as fenugreek powder , eucalyptus powder hibiscus, neem , lemon juice. along with other ingredients like glycerin, sodium lauryl ether sulphate , propyl glycol and coconut oil. The formed herbal shampoo thick, cream in color ,good foaming ability and fluidity. the ph of herbal shampoo was found 5.82 which is acidic in nature. Solid content was found to be 0.01gm of weight of total content , foam stability was found 1 min . dirt dispersion study shows result as light. All these characters demonstrates that the herbal shampoo is high quality for usable in daily life.
361 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE HEPATO AND UTERO PROTECTIVE ROLE OF ALOE VERA AND VITAMIN E IN ETHANOL FED OVARIECTOMIZED RATS , Maitrayee Banerjee, Rafi Ahammed Reja, Purba Ganguly and Nirmal Pradhan*
Vitamin E and Aloe vera have been attributed with a plethora of health promoting actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic and utero protective role of Aloe vera and vitamin E in ethanol fed bilateral ovariectomized rats. Experiments were carried out in different groups – a. Sham operated control (SOC), b. Control (c) + E (Ethanol), c. Ovariectomized (O), d. O+E, e. O + E + Vit-E, and f. O + E + A (Aloe Vera). In this study of consicutive 30 days, significant hepatic damage was observed in bilateral ovariectomized rats treated with ethanol (0.5ml, 15% v/v /100g b.wt. /day) as reflected in their altered serum AST(SGOT), ALT(SGPT) and ALKP activity. Also, uterine regression was confirmed in these group of rats by significant lowered uterine protein content and decreased activity of uterine AST, ALT, and ALKP activity. Vitamin E supplementation (10mg in 0.5ml olive oil /100g b. wt. /day), apart from it’s unique influence in preventing hepatic damage, also could prevent ethanol induced uterine regression in ethanol fed bilateral ovariectomized rats. Comparatively Aloe Vera supplementation (30mg in 0.5ml distilled water /100g b. wt. /day) also prevents hepatic damage lesser than vitamin E but could prevent ethanol induced uterine regression in ethanol fed bilateral ovariectomized rats quite greater than Vitamin E.
362 COSMECEUTICALS FOR HAIR AND NAILS SHORT REVIEW , *Ishimwe Tabita, Pankaj Chasta, Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Dr. Kaushal Kishore Chandrul
The principal focal point of this review article is to show the cosmeceuticals of hair and nails, it shows how the cosmeceuticals perform in the hair cycle where there are supposed to perform in the improvement of hair appearance by promoting growth and influencing hair color, volume, and conditioning. Even if there are natural growth factors of hair that performs in the hair cycle such as insulin like growth factor and Hormones such as androgens, estrogen and thyroxine which also influence the hair growth. Cosmeceuticals do there apart by speeding up the wellbeing of the hair fast. The article shows also the important of cosmeceuticals on nails as there are to hair, nail cosmeceuticals perform in the protection of nails from getting damaged by environmental factors such as water, soap, and detergents. That’s why there are difference nail cosmeceuticals such as cuticle and nail care products, cuticle removers and nail hardeners.
363 ADOPTION OF AYURVEDA IN OSTEOARTHRITIS: NEED OF THE HOUR , *Dr. Shrawan Kumar Sahu, Dr. Rahul D. Ghuse and Dr. Ashok Kumar Sinha
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disorder involving movable joints characterized by joint pain, swelling and stiffness that lead to activity limitations, participation restrictions, sleep interruption, fatigue and depressed or anxious mood, and ultimately loss of independence and compromised quality of life. The global impact of OA constitutes a major challenge for health systems in the twenty-first century. OA, with a 75% increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) has ranked as the third most rapidly rising condition associated with disability. OA is also associated with increased comorbidity like cardiovascular disease, heart failure or ischemic heart disease. One more alarming feature of this disease entity is that it is associated with increased mortality, both directly as well as indirectly. Although numerous therapeutic agents are available in conventional medicine, they are not only associated with a risk of morbidity and mortality due to adverse effects of the interventions, but also incapable of reducing progression from early to end-stage OA. Hence, to effectively address the rising burden of OA, there is an urgent need for the exploration of treatment/management strategy that might intervene in the pathophysiology and progression of OA. This article advocates the adoption of Ayurvedic management, which can serve these purposes since it is, in addition of being effective, friendly, safe and cheap, capable of preventing disease progression, minimizing disability, improving the quality of life and also setting right the causative factors which lead to formation of OA.
364 TWO EXTREMES OF THE MORTALITY RATE IN THE INDIAN STATES DUE TO COVID-19 , Dr. Kannamani Ramasamy*
COVID-19 is creating a severe impact across the globe. Most of the countries are affected by COVID-19 and India is in 3rd place in terms of total confirmed cases. Other than Lakshadweep, all other states and union territories are affected in India. Though most of the states have confirmed cases, the rate of death is not the same in all states or regions. Some of the states are highly affected with massive death rate, and few are affected less with a lower death rate. In this paper, we discuss various facts and COVID-19 situation of the highly affected states and the states that are affected less. Critically, we analyse the states based on the rate of death to the confirmed cases and rate of death to the total population of the states. Also, we attempted to analyse and to understand the cause for high and low death rates in various states.
365 A REPORT: URBANTAPHOZOUS MELANOPOGON (EMBALLONUSIDAE) MANILA, PHILIPPINES , Alma E. Nacua*, Ma Cristina Macer, Frances Marie Almeida Bato, Jake Wilson B. Binaday, Nativita da Silva Pereira Alves and Custer C. Deocaris
In Metro Manila, it is very uncommon to observe bats due to they are being hunted for food or their own source of food in Metro Manila is rare or scarce. However, few numbers of the black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogonwhich is already in the IUCN Red list was observed flying in the University of the East, Manila Garden. The aim of the study is to determine why an IUCN red listed bat is present in an urban and busy area of the University of the East Manila, Philippines. As shown on the results of this paper, 4 different insects were subjected as part of the food diet for a 10-day period observation to determine the food intake of black bearded tomb bat, and it was Diptera that prevails as their selective food which is very common in Metro Manila due to high presence of anthropogenic wastes.
366 MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS , Rupali Rajiv Kumar*
The point of this work is to decide microbiological nature of ice cream parlor items. In candy parlor items microbiological boundaries: complete check of microorganisms, coliforms microbes, mesophilic aerobes microscopic organisms and tiny filamentous growths were watched. The dessert shop items were assessed: Kremeš and Venček cake. For microbiological tests 20 examples of dessert shop items were utilized. The quantities of complete check of microorganisms ran from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the quantity of mesophilic aerobes microbes went from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms microscopic organisms in candy store items ran from 0 to 2.06 CFU.g-1 and the quantity of minute growths ran from 1.13 to 1.96 CFU.g1. The examples of cake prom private creation indicated better microbiological quality as tests from advertise creation.
367 DEVELOPMENT OF TALISADI KHANDA (GRANULES) FROM TALISADI CHURNA AND ITS ANALYTICAL STUDY , Dr. Sadanand G. Sakri*, Dr. M. B. Rudrapuri, Dr. Jayashree. D. Kotabagi and Dr. Vinay Mohan
The research work entitled, development of Talisadi Khanda (granules) from Talisadi churna and its analytic study is a new dosage form of churna. In a sophisticated urban society, purchase manufactured drugs is preferred to the time consuming preparations as a result demand for finished product lead to new phenomenon which is manufacturing ayurvedic drugs currently more importance is giving for the availability, palatability, smallest dose, easy administration increased bio availability and mainly self-life of the formulations.In this view as per the need of time there is a need to modify the Talisadi churna into granular form. In the present study Talisadi churna was prepared in accordance with description of sharangadhara samhita. After that Talisadi granules were prepared. Talisadi granules were investigated for loss on drying, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extract, alcohol soluble extract, PH, fat content, reducing sugar, water soluble ash, Particle size, TLC, HPTLC and organoleptic charactestics was used to determine the purity of the modified form of Talisadi khanda (Granules). Analysis of the data obtained from the analytical study indicated the parameters will be usefull for standardisation of Talosadi khanda (Granules).
368 RESPONSE OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) PRODUCTION TO POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Wiro K. O.*
The experiment on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to poultry manure application in Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted between May and July, 2019 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop and Soil Science, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (IAUE), Ndele campus, Rivers State, Nigeria with latitude 4058N and longitude 6048N which is found in the humid rainforest of Nigeria. The quantity of poultry manure used in the experiment were 0,5 and 10 tons per hectare. The experiment was replicated three times and laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The growth characteristics measured in the field were vine length (cm), number of leaves, leaf area (cm2) while yield parameters measured included number of flowers, fruit length(cm), fruit number, fruit diameter. The growth and yield parameters significantly increased in the production of cucumber with the application of higher rate of poultry manure. The application of 10 tons of poultry manure resulted in the highest growth and yield parameters in the experiment. The vine length was 156.93cm, number of leaves was 86.26 and leaf area was 30.53 (growth parameter). Application of 5tons gave rise to 108.86cm, 66.66 and 23.60 for vine length, no. of leaves and leaf area respectively. The poorest performance was recorded in 0 tons application which was the control where the vine length, no of leaves and leaf area were 84.46cm, 62.40 and 15.062 respectively. In yield parameters measured, application of 10 tons of poultry manure also gave significantly higher values followed by the application of 5 tones while application of 0 tons gave the poorest values in the experiment. With this research study, it was recommended to apply 10tons of poultry manure for reasonable production of cucumber in Rivers State. Again, further research that will involve other organic manure rather than poultry manure should be conducted to ascertain their productivity potential on cucumber production.
369 QUALIFICATION FOR BIOWAIVER AND BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY ON SEVEN BRANDS OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS EXISTING IN SUDAN MEDICINE MARKET , Dr. Abdrhman Mahmoud Gamil* and Dr. Yuvaraj D. Mandavkar
Metformin HCl is the drug of choice for obese diabetic patients. It can be used alone with diet control or in combination with other antidiabetic remedies. It is one of the two antidiabetic medicines listed in the WHO list of essential medicines. Being classified in class 3 in the biopharmaceutical classification system, it is highly soluble with low permeability. Many Metformin brands exist in the Sudan Medicine market, some of them are locally manufactured and others are imported including the originator brand, Glucophage, of Merck Serono – France. To evaluate these brands in respect to the similarity with the originator and qualification for biowaiver study, seven brands were subjected to dissolution testing to study their dissolution profile using apparatus type 2 in a simulating intestinal medium using spectrophotometric method at 233 nm. One imported and two locally manufactured brands were found to show adequate similarity of the dissolution profile with the originator but they were disqualified for biowaiver study for class 3 of the BCS as they failed to exhibit 85% dissolution in 15 mins. The other two locally manufactured brands were dissimilar to the originator but they showed more than 85% dissolution in 15 mins which qualifies them for biowaiver study for class 3. One imported brand being dissimilar and disqualified for biowaiver study. It is recommended that DRA should set regulations for interchangeability and international harmonized specification for similarity, qualification for biowaiver study and the pharmacopeia specifications will be valuable.
370 CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERN. COSS. (BRASSICACEAE) MARKETED IN SUDAN , Abdel Karim M.*, Abdalgader A. and Faiza I.
Brassica juncea is a herb in the family (Brassicaceae). For centuries, Brassica juncea has been used as a natural remedy. Seeds are traditionally used against rheumatism, vomiting and jaundice. Seeds, mixed with moringa olefera, is a remedy for spleen and liver diseases. In this study Brassica juncea seed oil was analyzed by GC-MS which revealed 15 constituents. Major components of the oil are: 13-docosenic acid methyl ester(43.61%); 9 12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester(17.50%); 9 12 15-octadectrienoic acid methyl ester(12.49%);9-hexadecenoic acid methyl ester(8.11%) and cis-13-eicosenoic acid methyl ester(7.83%). The oil was assessed for antimicrobial activity against five standard human pathogens.It exhibited partial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. However, it failed to exhibit activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the yeast Candida albicans.
371 ISOLATION OF AN ISOFLAVONE FROM SUDANESE ACACIA NUBICA STEM BARK AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOL EXTRACT , Abdel Karim M.*, Mohamed Y., Faiza I. and Alhafez M.
A flavonoid - compound (I)- was isolated from the ethanol extract of Acacia nubica stem bark by thin layer chromatography and its structure was partially characterized on the basis of its spectral data (UV, NMR). The ethanol extract of Acacia nubica was screened for antimicrobial activity against five standard human pathogens : Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and the fungal species Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against test organisms.
372 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PIMPINELLA ANISUM (UMBELLIFEREAE) GROWN IN JORDON , Abdel Karim M.*, Magid E. and M. Alla
Pimpinella anisum L. (Anise) is a herb in the family Umbelliferae. The plant is a key species in Sudanese system of medicine. Anise seeds are used as analgesic, carminative, disinfectant, and diuretic in traditional medicine. In this study Pimpinella anisum seed oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The analysis revealed 34 components dominated by: 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester(44.82%); apiol(15.33%);9,12-octadecadienc acid methyl ester (11.22%); hexadecanoic acid methyl ester(6.57%) and cis-10-nonadecenoic acid methyl ester (5.22%). The oil was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five standard pathogenic microbes. It exhibited significant anticandidal potency and moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli:
373 RECENT UPDATE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORAL COMPLICATIONS FOLLOWING CHEMOTHERAPY IN ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA , *Dr. Md. Golam Hafiz, Professor Dr. Chowdhury Yakub Jamal and Professor Dr. Afiqul Islam
Mucositis is an unavoidable oral complication during chemotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It decreases pH of saliva thereby increases oral infections. Chlorhexidine mouth wash, fluoride toothpaste prevents these complications. Zinc helps in mucous membrane stabilization; regulate taste perception having cofactor alkaline phosphatase within taste bud membrane. Dry mouth, decrease salivation is prevented by sibs of water, chewing gum, and cholinergic drugs. Leukemic children should rinse their mouth with baking soda for cleaning and lubrication. Benzydamine hydrochloride mouth wash prevents dental caries, xerostomia, and mucositis. Ice chips decreases poor entry of drugs to oral mucosa, vasoconstriction, poor blood flow, reduces severity of mucositis. Growth factors stimulate epithelial cell proliferation, decrease mucositis. Sucralfate checks oral infections and pain. Oral exercises are helpful to prevent trismus in leukemic children. Low dose laser therapy may be a choice to prevents secondary infections. Amifostine, Topical Vitamin E, Topical Beta-carotene, Prostaglandin E Lozenge, Glutamine, Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor provides a temporary physical barrier or lubricating agents.
374 HEREDITY OF FIBER YIELD IN THE F1-F3 HYBRIDS CREATED INVOLVING INTROGRESSIVE COTTON RIDGES , Matyokubov Sukhrobbek Kopalovich*, Namazov Shadman Ergashovich, Sodikov Hayot Rakhmonovich, Yuldasheva Rano Abdurashidovna, Niyatov Bakhodir Ikhtiyorovich and Tukhliev Muslimbek Rustambek o’g’li
The article highlights the obtained results on the heredity of fiber yield in F1-F3 hybrids developed by cross-breeding of the Sultan variety included in the State Register of Agricultural Crops with new introgressive cotton ridges created by various complex hybridization methods.
375 THE USE OF MOSQUITO NET FOR THE PROTECTION FROM TOMATO MOTH (TUTA ABSOLUTA) , Mirkhalil Urazbekovich Kholdorov*, Saidmurat Sultanovich Alimukhamedov, Munisa Abdumajitovna Akhmedova
This article presents the results of experiments conducted to determine the effectiveness of various mosquito nets against tomato moth (Tuta absoluta) in order to produce ecologically pure products in the open field. For tomato moth, the favourite crop is tomato in open fields and greenhouses. It has been studied that if controlling measures are not implemented in time, 100% of the yield is lost by the damage of tomato moth. This pest infects plants from the germination period to the end of the growth period, infesting the leaves, stems, flowers and fruit of the plant at all stages of development, and causes the withering of damaged plants.
376 REVIEW OF (50) GOITER CASES ADMITED TO MY SURGICAL WARDS FROM OCTOBR 2010 TO JULY 2018 , *Dr. Kadhum Falhi Zyarh ALmajedi
Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland, many survys of thyroid enlargement have been vague in difining enlargement. This study was carried out with the objective Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland in Al-Sadir city in Baghdad. This study was carried out in 2010–2018 on a sample of 50 Cases- consecutive patients presented with thyroid swelling with or without other constitutional symptoms like dyspnea, dysphagia, pain over the gland, palpitation, nervousness, and excessive sweating were considered for this study. Shows that the peak age incidence of thyroiditis is between (10-30) years, diffuse goiter is between (10-40) years, benign tumor is between (20-40) years, multinodular goiter and discrete nodule are between (20-50) years), and malignant tumors had two age incidences, the first is between (30-50) years, and the second is between (60-70) years.
377 PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG , *Shuchishrava Sharma and *Saloni Sharma
Photochemical smog is a type of smog produced when ultraviolet light from the sun reacts with nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. It is visible as a brown haze, and is most prominent during the morning and afternoon, especially in densely populated, warm cities. In this review,we shall be discussing it in detail, it’s health hazards and abatement strategies.
378 A HISTORICAL REVIEW ON LITERATURE OF MARMA SCIENCE , Dr. Katarmal Durga Harishbhai* and Dr. P. Hemantha Kumar
Marma science is as old as acquaintance of Ayurveda. Marma Science is an art of treating certain vital points for rechanneling the Prana. There are several changes in the body’s biochemistry and can unfold radical, chemical change in one’s makeup after manipulating the Marma points. Stimulation of these inner pharmacy pathways indicates the body to produce assured neuro-chemicals that rectifies the body and mind. Vedic literature has few scattered references, which indicate the existence of this science since origin of human civilization. In this article, a humble effort is made to compile the historical details of Marma science which can be used to re -explore the new domain of Ayurveda.
379 A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING METHYL PARATHION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES , Shaista Firdous* and S. H. Rizwan
Methyl Parathion is an organophosphorous pesticide and is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a class I toxicant. It is sprayed on crops to kill insects. Methyl parathion partitions mainly to air and soil in the environment, with lesser amounts in plants and animals. In human body, the liver breaks some of the methyl parathion down to a more harmful chemical, methyl paraoxon. Methyl parathion and methyl paraoxon bind to enzyme acetylcholinesterase in nerves and interferes with the normal functioning of nerves and brain. This review paper presents an overview of some chromatographic methods reported for the analysis of methyl parathion in environmental samples. The review has also explored the analysis of MeP by optical, fluorescent biosensors whose practicability was tested in real environmental samples and extended Raman Spectroscopy approaches for pesticide analysis.
380 EXTRACTION OF FOREIGN BODIES (SHALYA APANAYANEEYA) – A REVIEW ARTICLE , *Dr. Vishnu Raj M. and Dr. Shailaja S. V.
Shalya is a main threat that disturb the comfort (sukha) of a person that eventually leads to various diseases or death. Pranashtashalya comprises of two words pranashta and shalya. Pranashtashalya in the sense denotes non procurable foreign particles lost in body. Acharya Susrutha mentioned about extraction of prnashta shalya in twenty seventh chapter of Susrutha Samhita sootra stana which is considered as one of the pillar stones of shalya tantra. Acharya Susruta managed to trace out, remove or manage the foreign particles lost in the body from signs and symptoms exhibited by the subject and also using the diagnostic techniques designed by him. Some of the techniques that were used those days are now also practiced.
381 SURFACE-ENHANCED RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY: A REVIEW , Shaista Firdous* and S. H. Rizwan
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is an offshoot of Raman Spectroscopy offering improved characteristics like compound specific Raman fingerprint for the identification of substances, rendering information on chemical and physical characteristics. Further the technique is non-destructive, highly sensitive and has expanded scope in research fields of analytical, bioanalytical, biophysical and life sciences. This review presents the basics of SERS theory, the prevalent Raman principles, and the mechanisms of SERS enhancement. In any SERS application, SERS substrate plays a pivotal role. A brief description of different SERS substrates, their fabrication method has been presented. Lastly, the related enhanced techniques like Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS), Shell-isolated NP-enhanced Raman scattering (SHINERS), etc., have been mentioned.
382 REVIEW ON RATIONAL AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN ELDERLY , Mohammed Safi Ur-Rahman, Syed Muneb Ahmed, Govinda Nayak, Juzer Sabuwala and S. P. Srinivas Nayak*
Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. It is defined as persistently elevated arterial blood pressure(BP). Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths in India. Both SBP and DBP increase with age. In elderly persons there are specific underlying mechanisms of HTN, including mechanical hemodynamic changes, arterial stiffness, neurohormonal and autonomic dysregulation, and the aging kidney. The goals and strategies for treating hypertension in the elderly population are different from, and more challenging than, in younger patients. Lifestyle modification is effective in this population, but it is difficult to maintain There is often a debate about which antihypertensive drug class should be used first in elderly patients with hypertension. Combination of low dose diuretic (chlorthalidone) and a beta blocker(Atenolol) appears to be suitable first line therapy in vast majority of elderly hypertensive patients, even CCB‘s(Amlodipine) can be substituted for Atenolol. Complex and multiple drug regimes should be avoided in elderly patients as they may be confusing.
383  A REVIEW ON MICROENCAPSULATIONA , Prof. Sharma Shubham*, Sharma Geetika and Jaiswal Silky  
Microencapsulation is a process by which very tiny droplets or particles of liquid, solid or gas are enclosed or coated with a continuous film of polymeric material. It includes Bio encapsulation which is more restricted to the entrapment of a biologically active substance generally to improve its performance and to enhance its shelf life. This technique has been employed in a diverse range of fields from chemicals and pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and printing. For this reason, widespread interest has developed in microencapsulation technology. The most significant feature of microcapsules is their microscopic size that allows for a huge surface area. The large surface area is available for sites of adsorption and desorption, chemical reactions, light scattering, etc. This review paper highlights the major reasons behind microencapsulation, important techniques of microencapsulation and application of microencapsulated products in different areas of science and technology.  
384 CONTEMPORARY AND TRADITIONAL PERSPECTIVES OF METABOLIC SYNDROME (METS)- A CRITICAL REVIEW , Vd. Bharat D. Zinjurke*, Dr. Kirti Bhati and Dr. Amit Nampalliwar
Metabolic syndrome is an emerging global health problem in the 21st century and now it is becoming a pandemic disease. Nearby 20 – 25% worlds’ adult population is suffering from MetS and the reasons for that are sedentary lifestyle, changing dietary habits, lack of physical activity, and stress. Mets are a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, stroke, and fatty liver disease. It is also a major risk factor for various viral infections disease like COVID 19 and secodary bacterial infection through hampering immunity. Mets proliferate the economic burden on an individual as well as the national health system. Present management modules only treat symptoms or the complication of MetS but do not treat the individual’s body and mind as a whole. Up till now utmost recommendations focus on diet and exercise and do not consider stress-reducing strategies. Contemporary and traditional management composed can improve this condition. This paper critically reviews the contemporary and traditional perspectives of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and recommends the adoption of holistic treatment, a good lifestyle with an appropriately balanced diet along with Yoga, Pranayam, Meditation and a stress-free living which can prove to be effective management for Metabolic syndrome (MetS).
385 IMPORTANCE OF EMERGENCY MEDICINES: A REVIEW , Azharruddin Mohammed* and Akthar Sulthana Mohammad
The review of this article is mainly focussed on the importance and classifications of emergency medicines. One of the hardest decisions a medical profession has to make is the choice of specialty. Many studies have explored what influences the choice of emergency medicine (EM) as a specialty. In this review article, we elaborate on the most important medication called emergency medicines. Additionally, we tackle some of the challenges that emergency professionals face. For example, having to follow a different method of the health professionals, as well as the patients’ quality and expectations. This review also addresses some of the concerns regarding the specialty, and choice of medication. Finally, we provide the readers interested in EM with some resources that can provide them with further guidance to decide whether EM is the right choice for them.
386 BIOSENSORS: AN EMERGING ANALYTICAL TOOL FOR THE EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER BIOMARKERS TO REDUCE THE MORTALITY RATE , Pankajkumar Yadav*, Rohit Kumar, Nishant Patidar, Sakshi Singh, Sayyad Abdulhakim Abdullah and Manish Mourya
Cancer is the serious health problem characterized by the uncontrolled multiplication of cells. It is the second leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Effective and accurate early diagnosis is current need of hour to reduce the severity and mortality rate of cancer. In the past few years, biosensors have gained significant attraction in the detection of the emerging cancer biomarkers. These are the analytical devices that has vast potential to detect the biomolecules like protein, DNA, RNA and converting them into detectable electrical signal. Biosensor technology can be designed to provide reliable and accurate detection of cancer biomarkers, imaging study of cancer cells, and to detect the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents at various target sites. However, a major challenge in the development of biosensors is that cancer is highly complex set of diseases. In this review, we highlighted the challenges in the early detection of cancer, emerging use of biosensors as a diagnostic tool, and some future applications of biosensor technology.
387 A REVIEW ON VARIOUS METHODS TO ENHANCE THE SOLUBILITY AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF DRUGS , K. Sireesha* and Amulya C. H.
Solubility is one of the important parameters to achieve the requiredconcentration of drug in systemic circulation for getting the pharmacological actions. The poor solubility and low dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs causes’ insufficient bioavailability in gastrointestinal fluids. Many pharmaceutical techniques have been developed to increase the solubility of drugs thereby enhancing their bioavailability. Each technique has own advantages and disadvantages. Knowledge of factors influencingsolubility and dissolution of drugs helps in developing new methods to enhance bioavailability of drugs.
388 REVIEW ON RADIO ACTIVE ISOTOPES AND ITS APPLICATIONS , D. Varshith*, B. Madhavakrishna, A. Padma, Dr. B. Venkateswara Reddy
The field of nuclear medicine uses radiation to provide diagnostic information about the functioning of humans or information on how to treat them. Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year and the demand for radioisotopes for medical use is increasing rapidly. Isotopes which have atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers. Isotopes are available in naturally and stable. Some of A few naturally occurring isotopes and all of the man-made isotopes are unstable. Unstable isotopes can become stable by releasing different types of particles. This process is called radioactive decay and the elements which undergo this process are called radioisotopes/radionuclides. Stable and radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) are utilized in a variety of medical and industrial applications ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic products to screening devices used to detect explosives and drugs. Isotopes are used to irradiate food and medical supplies to reduce bacterial levels and minimize spoilage. The present review describes that production of radio isotopes, applications of isotopes and therapeutic achievements of radioactive isotopes.
389 IMPACT OF COVID- 19 ON GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT , *Dr. Ramprakash Prajapati and Rashmi Singhai
The COVID-19 pandemic is considered as the most crucial global calamity of the century and the greatest challenge that the humankind faced since the 2nd World War. In December 2019, a new infectious respiratory disease emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and was named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). No specific medicine or vaccine is available yet to control the disease; hence, social distancing via lockdown is widely adopted as the only preventive measure. Social distancing is observed at different level of strictness in different counties but it almost made the world to stands still. Although scientific articles on this largest social move are scanty, it resulted in benefiting the deteriorated environment to revive back. Many environmental indices such as lowering NO2, SO2, NH3 and CO2 emissions and reduction in particulate matters(PM) in air as a result of less human activities have led to clean air and pollution free water (level of DO, BOD, COD and heavy metals etc.) in many countries. Undoubtedly, the world was experiencing pollution in several countries due to mainly human activities including urbanization, industrialization, fossil fuel exhaustion etc. Under such situation a special (natural) a protective measure was awaited to fix environmental issues. Probably, the lockdown is one of the natural effects expected by nature via introduction of COVID-19. It is because, introduction of COVID-19 to nature was an outcome of mutation from two of its pre-existing forms, although, debate on it is still continuing. Global spread of COVID-19 in a quite short time has brought a dramatic decrease in industrial activities, road traffic and tourism. Restricted human interaction with nature during this crisis time has appeared as a blessing for nature and environment. Reports from all over the world are indicating that after the outbreak of COVID-19, environmental conditions including air quality and water quality in rivers are improving and wildlife is blooming. India has always been a hub of pollution with huge population, heavy traffics and polluting industries leading to high air quality index (AQI) values in all major cities. But after declaration of lockdown due to COVID-19, quality of air has started to improve and all other environmental parameters such as water quality in rivers have started giving a positive sign towards restoring. This paper describes improvement of air, water, noise and wild life quality on environment during pre and post lockdown of this pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 on global environment and sustainable development.
390 “EFFECTIVENESS OF VIDEO ASSISTED TEACHING ON KNOWLEDGE REGARDING BIRTH PREPAREDNESS AND COMPLICATION READINESS AMONG PRIMIGRAVIDAE ATTENDING ANTENATAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT IN SELECTED MATERNITY HOSPITALS AT BENGALURU”. , Kavitha L. A.* and Dr. Pushpaveni N. P.
Every pregnancy is a joyful moment for all mothers who dream of a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby However, every pregnant woman faces the risk of sudden, unpredictable complications that could end in death or injury to herself or to her infant. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPACR) is a strategy that encourages pregnant women, their families, and communities to effectively plan for births and deal with emergencies. A study was conducted to know the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on knowledge regarding BPCR. Method: Pre-experimental design, with Non probability convenient sampling method was used. Information was collected from 50 primigravidae BPCR using the structured interview schedule. Pre-test was conducted, VAT was implemented and post-test was conducted after 7 days of pre-test to find the effectiveness of VAT on knowledge regarding BPCR Result: Overall mean % of pre-test knowledge regarding BPCR is 38.5% .Classification of respondents on pre-test in which majority 80%(< 50% score) of respondents had inadequate knowledge, 10% (50-75% score) of respondents had moderately adequate, 0% (> 75% score) of respondents had adequate knowledge. Overall mean % of post-test knowledge regarding birth preparedness and complication readiness is 89.35%. Classification of respondent by post-test shows majority of 100% (>75%) of respondents were having adequate knowledge, 0% (< 50% and 50-75%) of respondents were having inadequate and moderately adequate knowledge.Hence the research hypothesis H1 which was stated that there will be a significant improvement in the level of knowledge among primigravidae regarding BPCR after VAT than before VAT at 0.05 level of significance was accepted. Interpretation And Conclusion: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on knowledge regarding BPCR among primigravidae.Thus the study result revealed significant association between post-test and knowledge of primigravidae regarding BPCR
391 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BILASTINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY UPLC , Shaista Firdous* and S. H. Rizwan
This paper describes a new validated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of Bilastine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The objective of the study is to develop a rapid, precise, accurate, robust UPLC method for the determination of Bilastine with acceptable retention time. The mobile phase consists of pH 3.5 Sodium Phosphate 10mM Buffer : Methanol : Acetonitrile (60 : 30 : 10 v/v/v) acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, with a PDA detector at 248 nm. Separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C8 column (1.7 μm; 50 mm × 2.1 mm ID) maintained at 30 °C temperature in a column oven. The method was linear between 50μg/mL – 150μg/mL concentration range. The limit of detection was 0.368μg/mL and the limit of quantification was 1.117μg/mL. The developed UPLC method achieved good precision and accuracy; suitable to be used for routine analysis of Bilastine.
392 ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS AND FERMENTED FOOD ON INTESTINAL PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL SPECIES , *Neha Dubey and Shobha Shrivastava
The probiotic microorganisms especially Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are reported to produce many metabolites including organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl and bacteriocins; that could be utilized in vast number of applications. Besides the use of probiotic organism in variety of industrial food and feed fermentations, they possess strong antagonistic properties towards other related microorganisms, including food spoilage organisms and pathogens. Since microbial metabolites derived from probiotics have shown the inhibitory activity against the many pathogens including E.coli, S. aureus, S. typhi, S. dysenteriae, B. anthracis etc. In present investigation also different types of fermentating food stuffs and dairy products were used to isolate probiotic Lactobacilli with antimicrobial potential which probably may secret antimicrobial proteinaceus substances which are collectively called as bacteriocins. The pure culture of indigenously isolated Lactobacilli were inoculated in sterile MRS broth and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The Lactobacillus isolates were cultured in the volume of 5 ml in test tube which were subjected to centrifugation at 10,000 RPM in a high speed centrifuge for 15 minutes at ambient temperature after the period of incubation when growth of microbes were observed in the form of turbidity. The procedure followed was with reference to the procedures suggested. Well diffusion method was adapted to check the antimicrobial potential of indigenously isolated Lactobacilli from different fermenting food and dairy products Out of the 14 indigenously isolated Lactobacillus spp. the isolates which were observed to impart inhibitory effect at a concentration of 20 μl of fermentation extract in each well of media plates are LB-2, LB-5, LB-6, LB-7, LB-11, LB-12, LB-13 and LB-14 towards test microbial species used in present work.
393 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTI-UROLITHIATIC POTENTIAL OF MERREMIA TRIDENTATA (L.) HALLIER F. BY CALCIUM OXALATE DISSOLUTION ASSAY , Jisa Ann Sabu, *Dr. Brijithlal N. D., Dr. Prakash G. Williams
Urolithiasis commonly known as stone formation is one of the most painful urological disorder. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro anti-urolithiatic activity of Merremia tridentata by calcium oxalate dissolution assay. The distilled water extract, ethanol extract, ethyl acetate extract, chloroform extract, lime juice extract and tender coconut water extract were taken for the evaluation. All the six extracts shown their effectiveness in the dissolution of calcium oxalate crystals. The ethyl acetate extract was more effective when compared to other extracts with a high rate of dissolution. The study revealed that Merremia tridentata possess potent anti-urolthiatic activity.
394 ASSESSING THE NON WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS (NWFP): A CHALLENGE FOR ACHIEVING ECOSYSTEM, SPECIES CONSERVATION AND IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS. THE CASE OF UMRAWABA LOCALITY (NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN) , *Amani Abdelrahim Kobbail, Elkheir Mugadam Salih and Abdelwadoud Abdallah Elkhalifa
The aim of this study was to assess the Non Wood Forest Products(NWFP) and their contribution to the rural communities livelihood and to end up with specific management strategies to conserve NWFP producing species in the study area. The study carried out at Umrawaba locality which is located in the Northern East part of the Northern Kordofan State between latitudes (120-140) north and longitudes (300-320) east. A combination of methods was adopted for data collection these included: Reconnaissance survey, structured and semi- structured interviews, group discussion and observation. Respondents were selected through simple random selection. The household was the basic unit of data collection, sixty households were sampled out. Four villages were selected on the basis of availability of NWFP producing species. The data was processed and analyzed using statistical package of social science (SPSS). The study provides a list of NWFP producing species in the study area and documenting the local knowledge regarding the uses and management of the forest resources in the area. The results revealed that the non timber forest products have a clear role in the contribution of rural people income and represents secondary source after farming and livestock. The study revealed that there are various constraints, which negatively affect the distribution and abundance of the non-wood forest products producing species. The study recommended due attention to the way the NWFP exploitation and commercialization and also recommended community participation in the conservation and management with clear indication of sense of ownership.
395 SCIENTIFIC VALIDATION OF LEAD IN ‘LEAD CONTAINING PLANTS’ IN SIDDHA BY ICP-MS METHOD , *Anitha John, Sakkeena A., Manju K. C., Selvarajan S., Neethu Kannan B., Gayathri Devi V. and Kanagarajan A.
Siddha system is one of the oldest medicinal systems of India. In Siddha medicine the use of metals and minerals are more predominant in comparison to other Indian traditional medicinal systems. A major portion of the Siddha medicines uses herbs and green leaved medicines. Ancient Siddha literature specifies medicinal plants containing various metal constituents. In the Classical Text of Siddha system of medicine Gunapadam Thathu Jeeva Vaguppu, a verse narrates 11 plants as ‘Lead containing’. These plants are Seethai, Muthirukanchevi, Vellaisaarvelai, Pathukai, Vaeliparuthi, Musthaiyum, Surai, Seenthil, Vizhuthi, Sirupeelai and Vellarugu. This paper deals with the scientific validation of this verse by estimating Lead in the different anatomical parts of the mentioned plants using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The anatomical parts were selected as per the usage of the plants mentioned in the Classical texts of Siddha system of medicine. Three accessions of the plant materials were studied and the results of the analysis were compared and found that all the plant materials studied contain Lead in detectable range. The Lead level of every accession of each plant material varied from one another. The Lead content was varied from 0.36 ppm to 6.65 ppm in all the three accessions of plants studied. As per the guidelines of WHO and FDA, the permissible limit for Lead is <10 ppm. In this study Lead content was observed within the aforesaid permissible limit and thereby proving the level of safety for the consumption. By this study, the ancient claim of the presence of Lead in these medicinal plants is proved scientifically.
396 PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF CHROMIUM - VI ON SOME HAEMOCHEMI-CAL PARAMETERS IN A MAMMALIAN MODEL , Indrani Chakraborty, Rafi Ahammed Reja, Sougata Karmakar and Dr. Nirmal Pradhan*  
The existence of Chromium(Cr) was discovered by Vauquelin in 1797 and its physical and chemical properties have sequentially been determined afterwards. Most of the studies on health effects involve exposure to chromium 0, IIІ, IV and chromium-VI compounds. Cr-VI in the environment is almost always related to anthropogenic activi-ty. The most common form of Cr-VI is readily solubilised from most soil and transported through water that con-tacts the soils and used for industrial and commercial productions which have become more prevalent environmen-tal contaminants. Accidental or intentional ingestion of extremely high doses of Cr-VI compounds has resulted in severe respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematological, hepatic, renal and neurological effects in man as a part of the sequelae leading to death or in patients who survived because of medical treatment. But no reports are available on chronic oral exposure of Cr-VI at equivalant to human RDA doses on hematological parameters in rats as the mammalian model. In the present study, Cr-VI has been administered orally through gavage to adult male albino rats at the doses of 1mg, 1.5mg and 2mg /100gm body weight/day, accordingly to Gr. 1, 2 and 3 for consicu-tive 33 days with water ad libitum. The results showed no significant changes in body weight gain, Haemoglobin level, blood glucose level, serum protein, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and SGPT activity. Only the mild increased activity was found in SGOT in group-3. So, it can be surmised that, Cr-VI has no such potent toxic ef-fects in this treated doses and duration on male rats as the mammalian system.
397 A RANDOMIZED OPEN CLINICAL TRAIL ON THE EFFECT OF YAVADI CHURNA WITH DAVANAGERE MIX AND DAVANAGERE MIX IN TREATMENT OF KARSHYA (UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN) , Dr. Doulabi Choudhari*, Dr. Rashmi V. Shettar, Dr. Suryanarayana M. and Dr. Radhika Injamuri
Protein energy malnourishment is widely recognized as a major health problem which is responsible for high rates of mortality and morbidity in developing countries including India. In a majority of children, mild to moderate malnutrition (grade 1 and grade 2) remains undetected due to lack of awareness on the part of all concerned. The condition needs a special attention in initial stages to avoid grave ailments of grade 3 and grade 4 malnutition. Hence the present study “A randomized open clinical trail on the effect of yavadichurna with davanagere mix and davanagere mix in treatment of karshya (under weight children)” Methods: Detailed case proforma was prepared and observations were recorded and graded. 60 children suffering from grade 2 malnutrition were selected from OPD, IPD and swarnaprashana camps conducted in S.J.G.A.M.C and hospital in the Department of Kaumarabhritya. (Group A) received Yavadichurna with Davanagere mixture and Control group (group B) received Davanagere Mixture alone for a period of 1 month. Detailed case proforma was prepared and observations were recorded and graded. Results: Results obtained after the clinical trial was analyzed statistically and all the observations were subjected to creative discussions. The final results showed that after 1 month of administration of the treatment, trial group showed significant result in comparison to the control group in the parameters like appetite, weakness, weight, height, mid arm circumference. The effect of treatment was stable in trial group. Interpretation and Conclusion: The present study showed that Yavadichurna is more effective in correcting grade 2 malnutrition than the alone health mix. The present study has revealed the scope for conducting more researches in the topic of protein energy malnourishment and also in the drug Yavadichurna.
398 IMPROVED ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CLOTRIMAZOLE EMULGEL AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS , Sandeep Gupta, Priyanka Chaturvedi, Abhishek Banke, Surendra Kumar Jain and Durga Pandey*
Aim and objective of the study is to prepare and evaluate emulgels of Clotrimazole. Formulations were prepared by using Carbomer, Liquid Paraffin, Span 20 Tween 80, Propylene Glycol and Water. Developed formulations of Clotrimazole were evaluated for the physiochemical properties such as Spreadability 14.89 gcm/sec, Viscosity 3985 cP, pH 7.02, for optimized formulation, texture was found smooth and white cream. Melting point of emulgel was 147-149 C. Mean particle size of nanoemulsion was found 101.1 nm and SEM shows 200 nm droplet size, Cumulative percentage drug release was 98.98 in 6 hours from optimized formulation. Antifungal activity of emulgel against Candida albicans was more than marketed gel of same drug.
399 BASTI THERAPY IN VATASHTHEELA (BPH): A CASE REPORT , Dr. Shalini Patel*, Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Kumar Joshi, Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta
Various Mutrarogas along with their management have been described in Ayurvedic classics, and of these Mutraghata is an important anomaly in which Vibandha or Avarodha (obstruction in the flow of urine) is a major feature. Among all 13 types of Mutraghata, Vatashtheela, Vatakundalikaa, Vatabasti and Mootrajathara resembles with obstructive uropathy. Among them, Vatashtheela has very close similarity with BPH based on symptomatology. Vatashtheela is the very common condition seen in elderly men. The specific approach which is used in the management of BPH depends on many factors such as age, prostate weight, size, severity of the symptoms, etc. In Ayurveda, so many drugs in different forms, dosage and combinations are given for the management of Vatashtheela (a type of Mutraghata). After referring many Ayurvedic texts, mainly two drugs Narayana Taila & Dashamula Kwatha were selected for the treatment of disease Vatashtheela. These two drugs were used in combination in the form of Basti (per rectum) in view of a long-term effect. In this research article, a patient of Vatashtheela was treated with the guidelines which described in Ayurveda. A satisfactory positive result was obtained without any adverse effect.
400 POTENTIAL ROLES OF AQUEOUS AND ORGANIC EXTRACTS OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA AS AN ANTI-BACTERIAL AND ANTI-OXIDANT AGENT , Mansoor Shazia* and Mustafa Huma
Ziziphus jujuba is an economically important tropical fruit tree, which is grown all over the dry parts of the Indian sub-continent. The aim of the study was to examine anti-microbial and anti-oxidant property in leaf extract of Z. jujuba extract (aqueous, cyclohexane, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol). The methanollic extract showed considerable anti-microbial activity against S. aureus and the zone of inhibition was found to be 18 mm and 15 mm at the concentration of 40 mg/ml concentration of plant extract by well and disc diffusion method respectively. The anti-oxidant activity by different methods were screened and the strongest activity were shown by methanol extract and gave IC50 value of 134.6 ± 0 μg/ml by DPPH method. The IC50 value of 26.07 ± 2.75 μg/ml and 43.2 ± 1.55 μg/ml were obtained in methanollic extract by Alkaline DMSO and Nitric oxide scavenging assay respectively. Whereas, hydroxyl radicals were strongly scavenged by benzene extract and gave IC50 value of 18.3 ± 11.51 μg/ml.
401 PEYADI SAMSARJANA KRAMA: A REVIEW , Dr. Rajendra Garg*, Dr. Gopesh Mangal, Dr. Gunjan Garg and Dr. Jatinder Verma
Panchkarma represents five therapeutic procedures of Samshodhana (Internal purification of the body). Samshodhana and Samshamana are the two types of treatment in Ayurveda advised for the patient with vitiated Dosha, Dhatu, Jatharagni or Mala. Samshodhana is advisable to treat a patient for permanent cure by the evacuation of accumulated morbid Dosha from the body through the nearest possible route. But after Samshodhana Karma Jatharagni get disturbed and weakened; therefore, regular normal diet is not advisable. After the administration of Vamana Karma or Virechana Karma, a special diet regimen is to be followed called as Samsarjana Krama which means a proper sequential diet regimen of Peya, Vilepi, Kritakrita Yusha and Kritakrita Mamsarasa. Sequential diet regimen advised in Samsarjana Krama, increases the strength of weakened Jatharagni and body after Samshodhana Karma. Diet prescribed from Laghu (easy to digest) Aahara to Guru (heavy to digest) Aahara provides sequential nourishment to the body and adaptability to every system of the body.
402 ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (AD) INDUCED TOXICITY ON BRAIN TISSUE TOTAL ATPASE, Mg2+AND Ca2+ATPASES IN WISTAR STRAIN MALE ALBINO RAT WITH CONCERNING OF RED GRAPE SEED EXTRACT (RGSE) , S. Allabakash, V. Uday Kiran, Dr. K. Peera and *Prof. K. Yellamma
D-Galactose toxicity can upset brain chemistry leading to depression, nervousness, and destabilized immunity. In people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the increasing devastation of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. The chief principle of the present study was to estimate the ameliorative effect of Red Grape Seed Extract (RGSE) on the brain of 24 male albino rats after introduction to D-Galactose toxicity. In the present study Age matched rats were be divided into 4 groups of six in each group and treated as follows: Group-I. Control (CN) rats received 0.9% saline(1ml/kg body weight).Group-II. Rats treated with intraperitoneally (IP) administered with D-Gal (120 mg/kg body weight) up to end of the experiment. Group-III. Rats injected with saline for first six weeks and from 7th week onwards treated with Red Grape Seed Extract (RGSE) ethanol extract (100mg/kg body weight) orally for 60 days. Group-IV. Rats injected with D-Galactose intraperitoneally (120 mg/kg body weight) for six weeks, and then followed by simultaneous oral administration of Red Grape Seed ethanol extract (100mg/kg body weight) for another 60 days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Mean while isolated the Brain tissue and calculated the activity levels of Total ATPase, Mg2+ and Ca2+, while the treatment with RGSE affected the alterations in these parameters. AD induced experimental rats treated with Red Grape Seed Extract (RGSE) recorded a phenomenal elevation in Total ATPases, Mg2+ and Ca2+, ATP ases. Meanwhile the combination treatment (RGSE+D-Gal) reveals that significant elevation of Total ATPases, Mg2+ and Ca2+, ATPases was seen in experimental groups. Evidently, this review reveals that RGSE play a key role to enhance all energy metabolisms in AD induced rats and increase the neurotransmitters in brain system.
403 EFFICACY OF MISWAK AND CARDAMOM EXTRACT ON DIFFERENT CANDIDAL SPECIES: AN IN VITRO STUDY , *Dr. Reddy Lavanya, Dr. Mamatha Boringi, Dr. Nallan CSK Chaitanya, Dr. C. Tirumala Ravali, Dr. Lingam Amara Swapna, Dr. Madupu Padma Reddy
Introduction: Oral health is an integral part of overall health. Poor oral health may often lead to opportunistic infections. Among them most common is candidiasis. Antifungal activities of different plant extracts were shown to be effective against candida. This study was done with an objective, to estimate antifungal efficacy of miswak and cardamom extracts on different candidal species by comparing the growth inhibition zone with both the extracts. Materials and method: Commercially available Test organisms, of candidal species, were used for the study to which plant extracts were applied. After incubation, the zones of growth inhibition were measured in mm on agar plates with a loop technique. Results: Inhibitory effects of Miswak & Cardamom extracts against different species of candida were examined. Cardamom extract showed greater inhibitory values ranging from 20mm to 10mm as a zone of inhibition when compared with miswak which ranged from 14 to 10mm as zone of inhibition in all species other than candida albicans. Conclusion: This in vitro study showed, that homemade products such as miswak and cardamom had greater antimicrobial activity. Future studies should focus on the preparation of ointments along with clinical application in the treatment of oral candidiasis.
404 INHIBITION OF 𝛼-GLUCOSIDASE BY NOVEL SERIES OF PIPERIDINYL COUMARIN DERIVATIVES FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: IN SILICO DESIGN AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES , Anjali V. P., Babu G. and Shiny George*
In the present study we report the inhibitory effect of piperidinyl coumarin derivatives on the activity of 𝛼-glucosidase through insilico studies. Inhibiting the action of such enzyme can significantly reduce post-prandial glucose levels in Type 2 diabetes. Molecular docking was carried out on 𝛼-glucosidase using AutoDock Vina in order to understand the molecular interaction of ligands with the active site of the enzyme. The derivatives (2A1-4C7) were analyzed for in silico ADMET properties and toxicity to establish oral drug like behavior and showed satisfactory results. The interactions of analogues showed that they could use as antidiabetic agent with suitable drug-like properties as compared to other active drugs for diabetes and therefore could be recommended for further studies, hopefully could discover a new specific leads in antidiabetic category as α-glucosidase inhibitor.
405 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF ARAGVADHADI SUTRA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA , Dr. Pushpa Chhangani*
Anal fistula is a common problem that causes substantial morbidity in persons who are otherwise healthy. It is one in which a patient experiences pain, discharge and un-comfortness etc. Owing to the numerous surgical complications while treating the disease, the Ksharsutra therapy came as a breakthrough and Aragvadhadi sutra was accepted as the standardized one. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Aragvadhadi sutra in the management of Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano). A total of 40 patients were included in this study on inclusion criteria and divided into two equal groups. Trial group treated with Aragvadhadi sutra and control group treated with Standard Ksharsutra. Assessment was made on pain and objective (Nadi Chedan Kala) parameters. Observations were made before the treatment and on every 7th day of the therapy until complete cutting of the track. This study reveals that in group A the patients had Grade II, III and IV severity of pain and in group B the pain grade was observed as Grade I, II and III. In Group A (Standard Ksharsutra) the Nadi Chedan Kala was 0.91 cm/week and in Group B (Aragvadhadi sutra) the Nadi Chedan Kala was 0.84 cm/week. The study showed that the trial drug Aragvadhadi sutra was as good as the standard Ksharsutra in the treatment of Bhagandara.
406 URBAN ROOF TOP GARDENING USING LUFFA CYLINDRICA (CUCURBITACEAE) AT UDM ERMITA, MANILA, PHILIPPINES , Alma E. Nacua*, Custer C. Deocaris and Nenita O. Santos
This research is an output of Science Technology and Society (STS) subject, which is a General Education subject taken during the first year level of the College and Arts and Sciences students. Under this course subject, there was a topic called environmental awareness, where students were taught to plant on an open space like the roof top of Universidad de Manila to make it greener and at the same time to grow vegetable for food. Students come from underprivileged family. Most of the students are from the depressed areas of Tondo, Manila. The community is populated with residence who are receiving below standardized salary. The subject guided them to be aware of their surroundings, and on how it can be useful to them. Thus, they were taught to hone and develop their skill to grow, harvest and prepare vegetables for their families. Student were encouraged to use the vacant lots or even small spaces at the vicinity of their community that can be converted into a green space. At the end of this experiment students learned to improve their nutritional health and develop their environmental appreciation. The purpose of the study was to test the possibility Luffa cylindrica (Patola) in a recyclable Styrofoam with the garden soil will be possible. The experimental design method was used. The controlled variable was Luffa cylindrica seed grown on the same type of container with loam soil from June to 0ctober 2019. Conclusion: The possibility of growing the Luffa cylindrica (L) generated 28 % possible with the 60 cm average length of the fruit using loam soil.
407 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER IN INDIA AND INDIAN COMMUNITY IN USA , Dr. Karan J. Yagnik*
Awareness about neurological disorder and quality of life has increased in developing country like India. By analyzing data and reanalysing previous data, we could shed more light on current neurological disorder. India has shown significant improvement in economic indicator like GDP, reserve of foreign exchange etc. According to UN report India falls at the near bottom of the countries (is Ranked 135 among total 187 countries. Healthcare quality (% satisfied) 48% below even to Bangladesh, Shrilanka and Nepal.
408 AN OUTLOOK OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CONTEXT OF TAMAKA SHVASA IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Arun Kumar Gupt*, Dr. Trupti Gupta and Dr. Satej T. Banne
Tamaka Shvasa is mentioned as one of the variety among five types of Shvasa. But out of these, Kshudra Shvasa present as symptom in most of the diseases & it does not require any medication whereas Maha Shvasa, Urdhva Shvasa & Chinna Shvasa were present in the terminal stages of various diseases. At present, asthma is reported in 1.2 – 6.3 % adults in most countries.[3] About 300 million people worldwide suffering from asthma and the number has risen by around 50 % in the last decade.[4] There are only a few studies from India on epidemiology of asthma. Overall burden of asthma in India is estimated to be more than 15 million patients.[4] Five percent of children under 11 years have asthma in India.[5] Tamaka Shwasa is a kind of Shwasa Roga distressing the Pranavaha Srotas, which is ominously distressing and a fatal disorder of the present-day-life. Tamaka Shwasa has been defined in various Ayurvedic classics and seems to be identical to bronchial asthma. On comparative enquiry of the data, it appears that Shodhana Chikitsa is more effective than Shamana Chikitsa in Tamaka Shwasa. On the basis of the findings it can be concluded that Virechana Karma, a purification therapy is the potential procedure for the treatment of Tamaka Shwasa. three types of treatment has been prescribed by Charaka: Antahparimarjana, BahiParimarjana & ShastraPranidhana. Antahparimarjana: Drugs are used internally to pacify vitiated doshas. In the Tamaka Shvasa following modalities have applied (I) Shodhana (ii) Shamana. Bahiparimarjana are Snehana - especially with Salavantail &Swedana - Snigdha Sweda, Upanaha, Nadi Sweda. Shastra Pranidhana Chikitsa is not applied in case of Tamakashvasa. As per opinion of Charaka disease is nothing but the Dhatuvaishamya and prime goal of management is to achieve Dhatusaamya. According to Kaarya Kaarana Siddhanta Dhatuvaishamya is due to Nidana, Indulgence of various Nidana leads to Dhatuvaishamya.
409 CRITICAL APPRAISAL ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF TAMAKSHVASA , Dr. Trupti Gupta*, Dr. Arun Kumar Gupta and Dr. Satej T. Banne
TamakaShvasa is mentioned as one of the variety among five types of Shvasa. But out of these, KshudraShvasa present as symptom in most of the diseases & it does not require any medication whereas MahaShvasa, UrdhvaShvasa & ChinnaShvasa were present in the terminal stages of various diseases. TamakaShvasa is a 'Swantartra' Vyadhi & having its own etiology, pathology & Management. At present, asthma is reported in 1.2 – 6.3 % adults in most countries.[1] About 300 million people worldwide suffering from asthma and the number has risen by around 50 % in the last decade.[2] TamakaShwasa is kaphavatatmaka and pitta sthanasamudbhavavyadhi of pranavahasrotas. Though tridosha are intricate in this disease but mostly vata and kapha are involved. Vyanjakahetu show a main role in incentive of hidden dosha of the body. The review stated that nidana revealed in Ayurveda for TamakaShwasa are relevant to current era in the pathogenesis of disease. Hence nidanaparivarjana helps in conservation of health eminence of patients of TamakaShwasa. The patients were sternly advised to follow the restraints regarding food, food habits, and life style. To the magnitude possible, they were instructed to avoid the credible causative factors of the disease and roots of Agnimandya. Pathyasevana and Apathyavarjana have chief role in prevention and managing of Tamakashwasa.