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The International Asian Research Journal (TIARJ)

Journal Papers (11) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EDITORIAL TREATMENT OF DAWN AND THE NEWS REGARDING LAL MASJID OPERATION, 1 Muhammad Hassam, 2 Zafar Ali, 3 Ashraf Iqbal and 4 M. Riaz Raza
Lal Masjid operation was one of the hot issues of Musharraf regime. Media disseminate the information to the people in many ways. No doubt the media has strong social and cultural impact on any society. Pakistani media portrayed Lal Masjid operation with different angles and with different point of views. Lal Masjid issue was attracting the full attraction of the media at the time when issue of national importance such as the independence of the judiciary and the decision on the fate of the chief justice media gave full time coverage to the Lal Masjid issue before the world. Media is considered fourth pillar of society and a free market of ideas. It guides, moulds and forms public opinion. People come to know about different issues after analyzing media opinion about it. This study has equipped for the method of content analysis of elite English newspapers of Pakistani press. Keywords: Agenda setting. Media Framing, Pakistani media, Content analysis
2 Entertainment and Mass Media: An Analysis of Western and Islamic Concept of Recreation , Muhammad Riaz Raza
Entertainment and recreational activities are the basic necessities of human beings. Due to hectic life of modern technological world everybody needs amusements and entertainment to refresh the body and mind. In all the societies of the world events of amusement are arranged for the sake of recreation of the peoples. For this purpose, people arrange songs, dances, meeting of poets, plays, festivals, fairs, Stage shows, dramas and music shows according to their culture and customs. Today Film, TV and radio and social media have expanded the concept of recreation. The Western media has tried to utilized sports, music, singing, drinking, gambling, co-meetings, nakedness of women and obscenity as a weapon for making their programs interesting. Entertainment content of the mass media provides enjoyment and may nourish powers of aesthetic appreciation, so games, music, fashion, show business and even from decoration of houses to cooking is considered as recreation of human being. Muslim entertainment media is to somehow different from western entertainment and recreational media. This paper is meant to explore some distinguishing factors and ways of Islamic and Western styles of recreation and entertainment and the role of Muslim media in Muslim societies. Keywords: Entertainment, Recreation, Islamic Concept, Western Concept, digital media, Vulgarity.
3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PORTRAYAL OF PAKISTANI AND INDIAN CRICKETERS ON ELECTRONIC MEDIA, Zafar Ali
Cricket is the second-most widely played game in the world after football, and it is popular in the most populous nations of South Asia. The media hugely cover this event especially when Pakistan and India are playing against each other. The comparison of players and special broadcasts are made regarding this game. Similarly at large level, Media is the platform which depicts the image of our country and people at large level. In cricket matches enthusiasm is created through media and our team is appreciated and considered among best. Positive self image is presented on television and news programs are based on it. A negative self image which can distort our image is less presented or is abolished. The Study was conducted to check the comparative portrayal of Indian and Pakistani cricketers on Indian media as well as on Pakistani media. Like the positive and negative portrayal of Indian cricketers on Indian media, positive and negative portrayal of Pakistani cricketers on Pakistani media, positive and negative portrayal of Indian cricketers on Pakistani media and positive and negative portrayal of Pakistani cricketers on Indian media. After determine this, a comparative portrayal is presented. It has been seen that every media while comparing their own side with the rival country's side, always portray themselves more positively while attribute negative properties to the opponent. Keywords: Pak-India relations. Electronic Media. Media Framing. Social identity. Content Analysis
4 SOCIAL MEDIA IMPLICATION ON POLITICS OF PAKISTAN; MEASURING THE IMPACT OF FACEBOOK, Zafar Ali
The core purpose of this study was to investigate practice of social media consumption among the political parties and personalities in Pakistan. Data is collected from online use of Facebook officials IDs of different political parties and personalities at a same time. There were two categories measured using Facebook likes and talking about this options of Facebook users. The data is analyzed on the bases of online provided figures of Facebook about selected political parties and celebrities. These figures present popularity of political icon and parties in Facebook user as well in masses. These findings emphasize on significance of Facebook usage for political purpose. The results concluded that president Parvez Mushraf has more fans than President Asif Ali Zardari. It has also concluded that Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf has ranked on top among other political parties on Facebook.
5 ROLE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA IN CHANGING VALUE SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN , 1 Zafar Ali, 2 Mirza Jan and 3 Syed Qamar Bukhari
There are various medium of communication like electronic media, print media, internet and mobile communications. Present study focuses on electronic media and its impact on society-changing value system in Pakistan. It also tries to explore different roles and objective of electronic media in changing the society. The study measures diverse aspect of media which influence the society. Pakistan is an Islamic democratic country where media has faced numeral restriction in past eras. From last decade electronic media has got freedom in Pakistan and a large number of electronic channels are established in Pakistan. At the present time media has a powerful affect on individuals lives. Especially electronic media reshape the masses lifestyle and promote a global culture. Keywords: Electronic Media, Media Influence, Value System, Cultural Change, Media Impact.
6 OMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EDITORIAL TREATMENT BY URDU PRESS OF PAKISTAN REGARDING ELECTIONS 2008 , 1 Ashraf Iqbal, 2 Zafar Ali, 3 Syeda Fatima, 4 Shahzia Naseem
This research makes a comparative analysis of editorial coverage of elections 2008 in Pakistan. With reference to Benazir Bhuttos assassination. The study presents content analysis of 202 editorials from Daily Express, Daily Jang and Daily Nawa-E-Waqat during six months time nperiod, from 18, October, 2007 to 18, April, 2008.The study establishes that in first two months of coverage before Benazir Bhuttos assassination, all the newspapers had a diverse opinion about favorite political party in 2008 election campaign. In the second phase, after Benazir Bhuttos assassination, all the newspapers had changed their opinion and favored Pakistan Peoples Party. In third phase coverage remain same as second phase. Agenda Setting Theory and frame model provide a theoretical framework for the study, Agenda Setting Theory provides a ground for comparison of era wise coverage. Results indicate that media agenda influence greatly public agenda. The study shows that elections 2008 results were very similar to newspapers party wise coverage. All those parties won more seats in parliament which were covered as favorite party in newspapers Keywords: Agenda setting. Media Coverage of Politics, Pakistani media, Content analysis
7 TEST OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TANNINS EXTRACT FROM GUAVA LEAVES TO PATHOGENS MICROBIAL , 1 Meigy Nelce Mailoa, 2 Meta Mahendradatta and 3 Natsir Djide
This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of tannin extracts from guava leaves against pathogens microbial. The method used for qualitative analysis with the tannins are formed by the intensity of the color is blackish green FeCl3 compounds. In the quantitative analysis of tannins used variations of organic solvent (ethanol with a concentration of 30 % , 50 % , 70 % ). Levels of tannins in the sample solution were calculated with Tannates Acid Equivalent (EAT). Test of antimicrobial activity using diffusion agar method. The results showed levels of tannins in leaves of guava with ethanol 30 %, the which is 2.351 mg /g , ethanol 50 % is 1.728 mg g , ethanol 70 % is 1.835 mg / g . The best solvent to extract the highest levels of tannins with ethanol 30 % by value of tannin levels 2.351mg /g. Tannin inhibitory activity on five different pathogens microbial. This is because the composition of the cell wall of the microbe fifth different. The results showed that the extracts rich in tannins can inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albican . Keywords: Tannin, Guava leaves, Pathogens microbial
8 MEDIA OBSCENITY AND SOCIAL DISORDER , Muhammad Riaz Raza
Media is the wonderful invention of this age that has commanded the recognition as an agent of socialization. Media has been accused of distorting established cultural values and norms at the same when it has been decreed the sole agent of mass awareness and a useful tool of acquiring knowledge in todays technology ridden world, One, when talking about media, to quote Shakespeare is left only with the answer: nothing is either good or bad, thinking make it so. This qualitative research analysis has its major focus the anti-social behavior of media. The researchers have analyzed the social disorder in the west and have generalized it on their own society on the basis of common grounds. Keywords: Media, socialization, media obscenity, technology, social disorder, East, West.
9 Minority Rights as Human Rights: Hegemonic Media Representation of Minority Groups in Pakistan , 1 Shumaila Ahmed, 2 Ali Hassan & 3 Rana Shahzad
Minority Rights have been considered important in every nation and in every age. The Present research is conducted to study the situation of media representation of minorities and their rights in Pakistan and content analysis of news reports of GEO News Channel of Pakistan during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2013. The objective of this descriptive and analytical study is to explore the positive / negative role of popular media in the protection or violation of Minority Rights in Pakistan. The technique of systematic sampling is used. By Using SPSS the descriptive method was used to represent the findings of the research the relationship among the data collected was also explored through statistical methods. The hypothesis about these phenomenon and linkages among them were tested through chisquare test. The findings of the study reveal that the most popular news network of Pakistan portrays the minority rights issues in a biased way and usually give a very little space to the issues of minorities in their daily news broadcast. A detailed discussion about the findings, demographic variable, acceptance and rejection of hypothesis was made in the relevant portion of the study after concluding it. Keywords: Minority Rights, Human Rights, Media, Violation, Protection.
10 TEACHERS AND STUDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF DOUBLE SESSION SCHOOLING ON ORDINARY LEVEL STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN GEOGRAPHY , 1 Garikai Singadi, 2 Pedzisai Goronga, 3 Lameck Gatahwi and 4 Lizzie Mutangirwa
The aim of the study was find out O level teachers and students perceptions of double session schooling system in the teaching and learning of geography The study was carried out in the qualitative paradigm in which a case study was used as the research design. One Form three class with forty students doing geography and ten geography teachers participated in the study. Interview and focus group were used as data collecting tools. Data were analysed qualitatively with some verbatim statements being recorded thus bringing out the participants perceptions about dou ble session schooling in relation to teaching and learning geography. The study found out that double session schooling system had several challenges. Findings reveal that teaching and learning time is reduced thus impacting negatively on teacher student interaction. The study also found out that there was rapid deterioration of furniture, books and other resources over and above other challenges which include limited resources, heavy teacher workload and fatigue. The study recommends government to do away with double session schooling by building more secondary schools. The study also recommends that school authorities should make efforts to acquire computers, provide internet connectivity to allow students to get unlimited information. Keywords: Double Session, Hot Seating, Perceptions, Double Shift, Fatigue.
11 PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS OF AGROFORESTRY AS PERCEIVED BY FARMERS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN , 1 Gulfam Hasan, 2 Dr. Ijaz Ashraf, 3 Dr. Khalid Mehmood Ch., 4 Aqeela Sagheer, 5 Muhammad Qavi Irshad
Pakistan is included in those countries which have very low forest cover. Forests contribute 2.11% of total land area in Pakistan. Privately or communal ownership, state ownership are the ways in which forests are established. In 2009, the contribution of forests remained 205 thousand cubic meters for firewood and 83 thousand cubic meters for timber. Agroforestry is the growing of trees and shrubs on farm and pasture lands. Agroforestry emerged in late 1970s as an improved and modern land use system. The present study was conducted in Tehsil(Sub-District level) Noor Pur, District Khushab. Out of 10 union councils (2 urban and 8 rural) of TehsilNoor Pur,five rural union councils (each U.C consists of 6-8 villages) were selected through simple random sampling. From each selected union council, two villages were randomly targeted to select the sample respondents. From each selected village, 12 respondents (who practice agroforestry on their farms) were selected as sample for the study, thereby making a total sample of 120 respondents. The data wereobtained through a well-structured interview schedule. The collected data were analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for deriving conclusions and formulating recommendations. The results showed that majority of the respondents grewEucalyptus camaldulensis(Local name:Sufeda) on their farmlands to get economic benefits and wanted to increase number of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (sufeda) trees on their farms. On the basis of conclusions it was suggested that the Government should provide incentives and proper training to the farmers practicing agroforestry. Keywords: Agroforestry, Prospects, Constraints, Economic, Benefits.