Societies are severely divided by ethnicity, race, religion, language, or any other form of ascriptive affiliation, ethnic divisions that make democracy difficult, because they tend to produce ethnic parties and ethnic voting. Two commonly proposed methods of amelioration are called consociational and centripetal. Three problems derive from these proposals: The first concerns the adoptability of either of the two principal prescriptions. Under what conditions can either be adopted? The second relates to a possibility inherent in centripetal regimes: the potential degradation of the electoral arrangements that sustain the interethnic coalition. The third, derives from a common consequence of the adoption of a consociational regime: Where robust guarantees, including minority vetoes, are adopted, immobilism is a strong possibility, and it may be very difficult to overcome the stasis that immobilism can produce. By examining these three problems, we can uncover some of the frailties inherent in both of the common prescriptions.
Social capital helps in developing relationships among people in a community or from one community to the other. The concept of social capital focuses on social relationships or individual relationship which is an important tool in building a united and progressive society. It goes without saying that in a multi-ethnic and multilingual society, social capital is necessary to help foster unity and harmony among various ethnic groups. However, such socialization and sharing of knowledge can be obstructed in multi-ethnic societies by social barriers in the form of negative preconceptions towards other ethnic groups. Stereotyping is the result of distancing due to prejudice, which is usually the result of ignorance of the values and culture of other groups. The similarities of the cultural and social values among the Malays, Chinese and Indians for instance, the use of address terms, non-verbal signs and discourse norms in interaction as politeness strategies within their ethnic groups or across the major ethnic groups foster better and harmonious relationships. Similarly, in the Philippines different ethnic groups from the various regions of the country are able to share the same culture and values when interacting with one another.
It is believed that through a journey of being a good researcher, it is beneficial to appreciate two different values drawing form two opposite paradigms, which in turn familiarizing oneself with two distinct conceptual frameworks thereby strengthening individual’s research capacity. In this paper, a novice qualitative researcher shares four lessons learned from the process of conducting his first qualitative study. The lessons are: (1) Do your homework on the literature; (2) Carefully read regulations of Institutional Review Board; (3) Any confusion, ask the experts first; (4) If possible, try to use qualitative data analysis software; and (5) Reflect and challenge your assumptions all the time.
This paper describes a classroom research with two groups of high school students to clarify the effect of knowing the main of a text (here, the name of a story) on answering multiple-choice questions which look for details. The two groups read the same story with an appropriate level of difficulty which was suitable for their level of English proficiency. The only difference between their stories was that one of them had the name of the story above it and the other did not have. Each group then took a reading comprehension test and their mean scores were compared. The findings suggest that the group of students who read the story with the name of it above did not excel the group who read the same story without its name when answering to questions looking for minute aspects of the story. This lack of excellence shows that knowing the main idea of a text does not play an important role in answering reading comprehension questions which look for details of a text. The results suggest more research in this realm and also the need for instruction on answering reading comprehension texts.
5 ISLAM DAN KEKERASAN: PENGALAMAN UNTUK ACEH(Tinjauan Aspek Sosio-Historis dan Sosio-Antropologis , Kamaruzzaman Bustamam Ahmad
This paper aims to discuss some things about the people of Aceh, which is associated with violence (violence). The study of violence in Aceh is already a lot to do, especially with the experience of joining the Republic of Indonesia Aceh. This study attempted to examine the meaning of violence and its relationship to faith or Din al-Islam. After that, it will be seen in the form of violence in Aceh society. Is the violence in Aceh due to religious factors or due to other things like ideology? Or, violence in Aceh is one result of the application of social science theories which assume that religion should not be involved in the lives of everyday people. In addition, this study also investigated the claims of the wanted link between Islam and violence, both conceptually and from the aspect of socio-historical and socio-anthropological. One of the concepts that need to be considered are the glue of the Acehnese are Muslims. Adhesive system Acehnese cosmology is customary. Adhesives Acehnese ideology is Islam. At this level the concept of the Acehnese identity needs to be prioritized. To get out of the chaos of memory on a reformulation of violence needs to be done to the concept of identity-distinctive Acehnese, based on cosmological system Acehnese essentials.
6 HUKUM ISLAM DAN TRANSFORMASI SOSIAL MASYARAKAT JAHILIYYAH (Studi Historis Tentang Karakter Egaliter Hukum Islam), Sulhani Hermawan
Islamic law is holy commands of God that governs all aspects of the life of every Muslim, and includes legal materials is purely spiritual and religious materials. Islam came to the middle of Jahiliyyah society by bringing Shari'ah (legal sistem) is perfect so as to set a fair and egalitarian relations between human individuals in the community. Clearly, the Qur'an rejects the use of the law of Jahiliyyah which assessed full consideration lust and partiality towards certain groups in power in the society. Furthermore asserted that Islamic law is the only law that should be held down by humans because it comes from Allah and brings the principles of sosial justice and equality. Islamic law stands on the principles that should be maintained in absolute and universal. Those principles are the definitive teachings and the benchmark of understanding and acceptance of Islamic law as a whole. If then there are the rules of the Islamic law that seems incompatible with the egalitarian principles and other principles, then the rule must be read within the context of the surrounding social reality and pay attention to its function as a legal counter to the rules of law applicable non-egalitarian during Jahiliyyah.
Hadits has been born since fourteen centuries ago, the same age as the birth of Islam conveyed by the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Over time, the hadits is now available in a variety of books, in fiqh, tafsir, sirah, morals, article on Islamic studies, even various electronic media. Therefore it could be prophetic narrations it will experience a shift in the text or oversight in the quote. Consequently misuse or forgery wide open function. Posts wants to reveal how someone who was about to conduct a search of a hadits that the origin can be ascertained the validity of the hadits, is it true of the words of the Prophet Muhammad SAW or not, whether he is qualified valid or weak, whether he is there in the book of hadits collection or not. Necessary to determine their authenticity and tracking system that measure can be taken by the reviewer. This article aims to give a simple direction in order to ward off some of the assumptions that lead to the negative charges of the hadits, that hadits it is completely free of accusations-accusations that lead to disputes and misunderstandings.
This article tries to exploration the role of college in values to transforms of Islamic in life of Indonesia pluralistic society. Immeasurable of problems that happened in this nation make proper to get attention of college as independent institute and far from importance of momentary politics. This article also try to give way out how ought to the problem of and difference of diversity have to be accepted as by something there is. For example problem of diversity of culture, social and religion which recently exactly religion values reduce this is humanist and is godlike. Therefore, College has to be optimal of role as realization of responsibility it’s social to nation and society. Social Harmonies represent the infrastructure society to make that is pluralism more having a meaning for the sake of present day and future. There is a thing which is gristle in relationship of pluralities society besides problem of socio-cultural, political and economic. Among others is society relationship and religions in context have theology.
9 RE-DESIGN KURIKULUM EKONOMI SYARIAH PERGURUAN TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM: (Sebuah Upaya Melahirkan Sumber Daya Manusia Profesional), Nilam Sari
The development of Islamic banking quantitatively, not supported by the availability of adequate human resources. Problems that occur at this time is the lack of reliable human resources in the field of Islamic economics, is a constraint that makes slowing economic development of Islam in Indonesia. Human intellectual capital plays an important role in driving the performance and competitiveness. Innovation in the financial industry in general and Islamic finance in particular requires the availability of expertise (expertise) and expertise (skills). Not only are the operational aspects, professionals also needed to support research and development in order to strengthen the capacity to innovate. Islamic University has a very important role in determining the future of Islamic Economics. If you see the future of Islamic economics, human resources required are those who not only understand the Islamic economic philosophy but also positive-normative-empirical. Two mastery must still be supported by the development of good character. The campus is not just a process of transfer of knowledge but also the transfer of character. Of course, this requires cooperation to establish all elements of the organizers of the college. Among the steps that can be done by universities in Indonesia in the development of Islamic economics, universities can standardize the curriculum of Islamic economics throughout Indonesia and curriculum development.
The nature of a family is not only as a gathering place for the husband, wife and children. More than that, family has significant function and role in determining the fate of a nation. Allah affirms that large losses on the judgment day are when we lose our beloved family. Allah said in Surah Asy Syuura verse 45 which meant: And you will see them brought to hell in a state of submission as (felt) worthless, they saw with sluggish view. And those who believe say: “Indeed, those losers are those who lose themselves and (lose) their family on the judgment day. Remember, actually the unjust people are in eternal doom. Family improvement in all respects should be a top priority before we prioritize other. The quality of true family is not just obtaining good test scores or material, but how parents can transfer value, character and good trait to their children, so that they could live in a better society, and can dedicate themselves to The Creator. The reciprocation of a society and the state depends heavily on good or not the education in family. Preparing qualified family members synonymous with preparing for a successful future. And responsibilities of the establishment of quality are on the shoulders of the parents.
Every region has its own educational system that influence by culture and educational system developed by the state (national education system). Both of them are influence students attitude. Hopefully cultural factors in education can form civilized students and national education system form good civil. Apart from that, sometime both of them cannot work together. Aceh’s history proved that this problem still exist in educational system. It can be seen trough the apparance of educational institutions that bring their own main features. This writing attempted to analyze educational system in Aceh that adopted by dayah/pesantren (local terms for traditional Islamic boarding school), Islamic school, and state school.The analyzes are including: educational ideology, educational interaction, student’s arrangements, internalization the spirit of nationalism, and social interaction. The result prove that dayah/pesantren (local terms for traditional Islamic boarding school), Islamic school, and state school, has their own system that different each other. In resume, the differences produce different type of students (attitude).
In reality, the objectives, methods, 'and materials of teaching and learning Arabic have not improved the Arabic students' achievements. One of the causes is the unqualified teachers', they do not have enough knowledge of applied linguistic theories, the principles, approches, and methods of language learning, and material improvement. While, teachers' have important roles in Arabic learning process. The success of Arabic learning results from, among other things, the teachers' abilities that inclued "al Janib al Lughawy, al Janib al Tsaqafy, al Janib al Mihny". Therefore, improving the Arabic teachers quality is one of the alternatives to enhance the quality standard of Arabic learning.
13 The Role of Cross-Cultural Communication Competence: Effective Transformational Leadership Across Cultures, Elena Lvina
New theoretical frameworks are needed to better understand effective transformational leadership in different cultural contexts. In this article we illustrate the relationship between transformational leadership and the cross-cultural communication competence frame. We show how national culture orientations and cross-cultural communication competence affect the full range leadership framework and transformational leadership dimensions. Attributes of effective leadership and the choice of communication strategies vary for different cultural contexts; however, the charismatic or value-based leadership dimension contributes the most to universally perceived effective leadership styles. We draw attention to the importance of transformational leadership research utilizing the cross-cultural communication competence construct.
14 Early Feminist Consciousness and Idea Among Muslim Women in 1920s Indonesia, Farid Muttaqin
Colonial encounters were pivotal in the development of feminist consciousness and the women’s liberation movement among women and men in colonized countries like Indonesia. However, the influences of the colonial encounter on the foundation of feminist consciousness were not developed by passive recipients of colonial ideas. The initial idea of Islamic education for Muslim girls showed the crucial influence and contribution of Islam and Muslim women to early feminist ideas in Indonesia. Islamic education for Muslim girls was intended to answer the specific problem of women’s lack of empowerment within family and social life. The idea of education for women’s empowerment transformed into part of the nationalist movement against colonialism when in the end it led to the foundation of Muslim women’s organizations that brought Islam as a critical tool. Foundation of Muslim women’s organizations was a critical internal effort against patriarchal values and structures in the Islamic context. I argue that these feminist agendas, such as Islamic education for girls and Muslim women’s organizations, were integral to the Islamic reform movement.
15 Religion, Human Rights and the Challenges of Freedom, Rhoda Asikia Ige Nee Karibi
All over the world, Religion holds a primal place. Every man is said to believe in a ‘god’. Ordinarily there should be no feud in matter of religion, because religion is a personal decision. However, in recent times religion has become an issue and many crimes are committed on the basis of faith. In the 21st century with the promotion of human rights, this ought not to be so. We must note that religion has always been a thorny issue, not with the Christian crusades and the Islamic Jihads. We believe times have changed and each individual should be able to practice his faith without necessarily the follow his fellow. With this at the back of our mind we seek to examine religion, human rights and the challenge of freedom by offering some proposals towards religious harmony in the 21st century.
16 Religion, Church, Intimate Citizenship and Gender Equality (An Analysis of Differences in Gender Equality Policies in European Catholic Countries), Mieke Verloo
During the past decades, processes of (post)modernization have raised the importance of quality-of-life issues and related policies, resulting in a higher salience of intimate citizenship issues on the political agenda. The Catholic Church as an institution especially has been articulating strong positions on issues considered to be about personal and family morality, actively opposing liberalization of abortion or even contraception, assisted reproduction for non-married couples, and the extension of marriage rights to homosexual people. This paper will investigate to what extent the framing of a number of intimate citizenship issues (reproductive rights, abortion, same-sex marriage and divorce) by the Catholic Church resonates with the framing of these issues in Catholic countries that are members or candidate to the European Union, and whether the presence or absence of resonance is linked to the degree of religiosity of the population, the support for Catholic religious values or to the institutional strength of the Catholic Church. The analysis will show to what extent we find ‘Catholic’ frames in the various countries and how that is connected to the level of religiosity, the support for Catholic religious values or the institutional strength of the Catholic Church.
17 Epistemologi Islam dan Reformasi Wawasan Pendidikan, Kamrani Buseri
Islamic education including socio-humanistic category that can be developed from its epistemology. Education reforms are absolutely necessary because there has been a weakness of good educational philosophy, theory and operations, with the main focus is the reform of insight. This paper examines the epistemological aspects of Islam as a basic step on education reform governance scheme Islamic thought as Theo anthropocentric, appreciate sensory empirical truth, logic, ethics, and transcendental. Application of this epistemology appropriately be able to overcome the problems of education weaknesses. Results of research paper put forward some Islamic education reform paradigm involves understanding the Islamic system; True intentions as a basic motivation; aware of the position of truth, goodness and beauty; embedded core value of the Divine as well as the characteristics of Islamic education; live up to the family as the initial source of truth; develop the total and holistic personality; and the implementation of the Divine in education management.
18 An Applied Model of Teaching Materials to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill, Tarmizi Rajab
An Applied Model of Teaching Materials to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill showed the best results of the experimental study done to the students of the English Study Program of Teacher Training and Educational Science Faculty Serambi Mekkah University Banda Aceh. The subject was specifically applied to the students of the mentioned institution, in terms of finding out its impact to the teaching-learning process of students’ speaking skill referred to the principles of language teaching. The main target of this study is to produce the teaching materials in the form of textbook; therefore, it is done in three years. The first year was focused on preparing the research instrument. The second year will be concerned with all kinds of revising the instrument. While the last year will get various kinds of data to revise the teaching materials to become simple, practical, and applicable handbook labelled of Book-ISBN branded for the speaking class.
19 Direction of Moral Education Teacher to Enrich Character Education, Mohd Zailani Mohd Yusoff & Aswati Hamzah
This paper discusses moral education which should begin by focussing on what exactly is meant by the term “moral human being” in Character Education. This is because whatever approach is used has to be based on the exact and clear understanding of the moral human being himself. A moral human being should posses the components categorised as concept, that is, the rules and principles which are deemed necessary to be used in actions and feelings or emotions which support the belief that a concept or action should be carried out. Apart from that, a moral human being should have the moral knowledge of the surroundings, know how to interact and act according to the decisions made. Character education will enable one to be a moral human being who should know the good, desire the good and do good.
20 Art and Entertainment in Islam, Misri A. Muchsin
The implementation of Islamic law, art, and entertainment has gained a various highlight. However, art in Islam have shown its glorious identities and progress. Islam, through its preaching of the main source, Al-Quran, really values the art. Allah has encouraged the people to observe the universe, which is created beautifully and harmoniously. In Aceh, the Council of Indonesian Ulama (MUI) of Aceh Province formed a team or a special committee consisting of 21 experts to arrange a treatise, especially those relating to the art of music, dance and singing. As the result, they had resulted a book published by MUI of Aceh province with the title How Islam Honors Art. The book has examined the art about types and sources in Islam broadly and completely. Consequently, the work of the expert team had led to the placement of the dynamics of art and entertainment in Aceh historical episodes and had brought some influences in the later period.
21 Internalisasi Budaya Sekolah Islami di Aceh, Saminan
Educational practices, including religious education in Aceh so far, still oriented to the chase and collect scientific information as much as possible, but not the fundamental aspects of education. Which is how the next generation is able to live a full life and life to lean towards the values of the Divine. Aceh province with special education, customs and culture and have the Qanun on Islamic education should immediately formulate or searching the threads of how real the concept of cultured Islamic school in accordance with the nature and purpose of Islamic education. In the context of this study, core values that will be the focus of study in the development of Islamic school culture is the internalization of Islamic values derived from the Quran and Sunnah and the core values that became a national education goals and strategic vision of education in the province.
22 Pengaruh Rekrutmen Dan Seleksi Terhadap Kinerja Kepala Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Negeri (MIN) Sekota Bandar Lampung, Siti Patimah
Education institutions play a strategic role as an institution that serves to prepare qualified human resources to face the challenges of change of the association world, in particular the progress of a society that is triggered by the development of science, technology and art. Educational institutions run by the old paradigm that is focused on the quantity, needs to be changed and directed to the vision and mission to participate actively and proactively prepare for a product or service quality education. The problems that often arise in the process is the low quality of human resources in education management. If the scope of schooling is still low quality of teachers and principals. The school principal is one component that was instrumental has a very strategic position. The decline in the quality of education schools in Indonesia caused by the low level of professionalism of the principal as education manager at the field level. Low level of professionalism in them due to the still weak in the appointment of principals. This study focused on the recruitment and selection of the Head of State Elementary School in Bandar Lampung.
23 Religion in Global Politics: Explaining Deprivatization, Jeff Haynes
Examples of religion’s recent political impact abound in states at varying levels of economic and political development. The paper examines the relationship between religion and politics over the last quarter century in a variety of countries; in effect, a global survey. What was new and became ‘news’ in the 1980s was the widespread and simultaneous refusal of the so-called ‘world religions’ - Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism - to restrict them selves to the private sphere. Religious organizations of various kinds seem openly to be rejecting the secular ideals dominating most national policies, appearing as champions of alternative, confessional options. In keeping faith with what they interpret as divine decree, increasingly they refuse to render to nonreligious power either material or moral tribute. They are also refusing to restrict themselves to the pastoral care of individual souls, instead raising questions about, inter alia, the interconnections of private and public morality and the claims of states and markets to be exempt from extrinsic normative considerations.
24 UK Policy Community Viewing Ethnic Diversity Policy: From Stronger To Weaker Multi-Culturalism?, Peter Taylor-Gooby
Multiculturalism as the dominant approach to managing diversity in the UK has been called into question by politicians, community leaders and academics in recent years. This paper reports interviews about multiculturalism, social cohesion and future policy directions with leading figures in the debate, including Home Affairs Select Committee members, authors of major reports, experts, researchers and academics. The attitudes expressed when discussing overall policy directions do not fit the traditional left-centre-right dimension of British politics but, in most cases, indicate unease at assumed segregate effects of current policy. However, when specific issues (sharia law, faith schooling, dress/ diet codes, political representation) are considered the viewpoints of most interviewees are more pragmatic. Relatively few advocate strong policies to impose British values or move decisively away from a general multiculturalism stance. The transition most widely supported would be from stronger to weaker multiculturalism rather than from multiculturalism to a different approach to diversity.
25 Implementing Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) In Changing Students’ Behavior: Research Done at Islamic Universities in Aceh, Salami
The students of Islamic Universities have learned many Islamic books and knowledge. They should behave honestly in the examination because Islam teaches them to be honest. However, it is found that there are students, especially from Islamic Teaching Department, who cheat in the exam. Their knowledge about religion does not affect their attitude and behavior. So, the researcher wants to implement some of NLP techniques and models during the final exam to see if cheating activities done by the students reduced. Before they start doing the exam, the researcher built the rapport with them, and then said something by using certain words that affect their subconscious mind or called hypnotic language patterns. If this massage becomes the program in their mind, it will change their behavior in exam. After implementing some of NLP techniques or models, it shows that the frequency of cheating can be reduced drastically.
26 The Potential of Pesantren in Sustainable Rural Development (Case Study: Pesantren Buntet in Rural Mertapada Kulon, Subdistrict Astana Japura, Regency Cirebon, Province West Java), Feti Fatimatuzzahroh, Oekan S. Abdoellah, and Sunardi
The number of pesantren that scattered in rural areas makes it as one of the potential of informal institutions in sustainable rural development. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of pesantren Buntet in sustainable rural development. The method used in this study was a qualitative method that carried out through unstructured interviews and observations that aim to describe the potential of the pesantren in supporting sustainable rural development. The results of the data analysis are interpreted using the theory of Pretty and Ward that used to analyze the potential of pesantren.Through this research was determined that Pesantren Buntet had a potential in terms of sustainable development activities which include social, economic, and environmental activity. Moreover, in term of institutional aspect Pesantren Buntet at the stage awareness interdependence. However, Pesantren Buntet not entirely on stage Awareness interdependence. Because in indicators of technological development, Pesantren Buntet is still at the stage 1 is reactive dependence, where the use of technology in these pesantren is still at the stage of eco-efficiency and harm reduction.
27 Change and Development in the Acehnese Dayah Salafi(A Case Study), Huwaida
This is part of research result from a Ph.D thesis which is submitted to Flinders University South Australia. This is a study about the Acehnese dayah salafi and its recent change and development, both in general and in the light of messages from the government about the need for standardisation and regulation of the studies of these Islamic educational institutions. Through a qualitative case study of a purposively selected dayah salafi in Aceh province, Indonesia, this research tried to find how standardising or regulating might affect dayah salafi and their teaching activity. The result is perhaps a kind of snapshot of the current moving situation. To get a variety of views for this research, data were collected, using semi-structured interviews, from various dayah salafi people, from a government departmental officer and from a senior Islamic educational researcher. The research also used other sources of data such as general observation and documents related to this study.
28 The Effectiveness of Agreement Hudaybiya (Study of Conflict Resolution Method), Mahlil Ismail
This study aims to answer the problem of Hudaybiya conflict occurred in six moved when Prophet Muhammad and Moslems umrah to Mecca. The conflict arises because of concerns the Quraysh against the Moslems will take revenge on the expulsion of the Prophet to migrate to Madina. The conflict resolution begins Budeil Quraysh sent to the Prophet in Hudaybiya to develop measures of peace. The method used prophet is interactive dialogue. The method is very effective in resolving the conflict once the right solution and the right. Diplomacy built Prophet as an effective approach to demonstrate in peace Hudaybiya. Mutual agreement between the Prophets with Suheil is the two sides agreed to a ceasefire for 10 years. Diplomacy built Prophet proven success Hudaybiya agreement. Effectiveness Hudaybiya agreement described increased number of Moslems, Islam weakened the strength of the enemy, and terrain propaganda expanded, and maintained the dignity of women. The success of the negotiations and diplomacy cannot be separated from the attitude wise, polite, patient, gentle, and the genius of the character's personality majesty that provide energy and great intelligence in his preaching activity.
29 The Effect of Model Problem Based Learning (PBL) (Case Study at Class VIII MTsN Meureudu), Safrina and Saminan
This study aims to determine the effect of the application of PBL models of science process skills (PPP) and the understanding of the concept of chemical substances in food at eighth grade students MTsN Meureudu. This study is a descriptive study using the research design one group pretest and posttest design. Samples were 19 eighth grade students MTsN Meureudu school year 2013/2014. Data collected by pretest and posttest to determine the effect of the application of PBL models and observation sheets to determine the feasibility of learning. The results showed that affects the application of PBL model of PPP and understanding the concept of chemical substances in food MTsN Meureudu eighth grade students. The influence can be seen from the results of hypothesis testing, the value is significantly smaller than ? (0.05). In addition, the ability of a class VIII student representation MTsN Meureudu after application of PBL models on chemical substances in food material for the better. The ability of the student representation on enactive is 74%, 63% iconic, and symbolic 68%.
30 Democracy and Gender Equality, Caroline Beer
This article examines the relationship between democracy and gender equality. In particular, it contrasts the impact of long-term stocks of democracy with the contemporary level of democracy and the participation of women in democracy. It contends that democracy should be thought of as a historical phenomenon with consequences that develop over many years and decades and that women’s participation should be included as an important component of democracy. The main argument is that long-term democracy together with women’s suffrage should provide new opportunities for women to promote their interests through mobilization and elections. A cross-national time-series statistical analysis finds that countries with greater stocks of democracy and longer experience of women’s suffrage have a higher proportion of the population that is female, a greater ratio of female life expectancy to male life expectancy, lower fertility rates, and higher rates of female labor force participation.