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Journal of Environmental Nanotechnology

ISSN(p):2279-0748 | ISSN(e):2319-5541
Journal Papers (32) Details
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1 Synthesis and Characterization of Monodisperse Fe-Co-Ni Colloidal Nanoparticles by Polyol Method , A. Jafar Ahamed 1*, P. Vijaya Kumar 2.
The monodisperse Fe-Co-Ni trimetalic powder has been synthesized by polyol method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive Xray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).The morphological features as studied using SEM revealed that the nanoparticles were agglomerated, crispy with porous.
2 Efficient Degradation of Dyes in Water by a Novel Inorganic Cation Exchanger Cerium(IV) arsenomolybdate , S. Siji 1*, M.A. Dhanitha 2, C. Janardanan 3.
An advanced inorganic cation exchange material of the class of tetravalent metal acid salt, cerium(IV) arsenomolybdate has been synthesized by co-precipitation method. The chemical composition was determined from EDS and other physio-chemical analyses carried out are TGA, FTIR and X-ray diffraction studies. Its ion exchange capacity was found to be 2.19 meqg-1.The distribution coefficient(Kd) has been determined for transition metal ions ( Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ ), heavy metal ions( Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Bi3+) and alkaline earth metals( Mg2+ and Ca2+ ) using cerium(IV) arsenomolybdate. Distribution studies showed that the selectivity of the exchanger towards various metal ions was in the order Pb2+ > Co2+> Cu2+> Mn2+> Bi3+> Cd2+> Mg2+> Zn2+> Ni2+> Ca2+> Hg2+. The analytical importance of the material has been established by studying degradation of various dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, congo red and crystal violet) in water using UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The remarkable change in intensity of absorption of aqueous solution of these dyes, before and after the treatment with the exchanger showed clearly that these dyes are significantly degradable by cerium(IV) arsenomolybdate. The efficiency of the exchanger towards the removal of methylene blue, methyl orange, congo red and crystal violet from aqueous solution indicates its promising use in waste water treatment for the removal of these dyes.
3 Film- Pore diffusion Modeling for Sorption of Azo Dye on to One and Three Dimensional Nano Structured Carbon Nano Materials from Jatropha Curcas , K. Sakthivel 1, I. Arockiaraj 2, C. Kannan 3, S. Karthikeyan 4*.
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and Nano porous activated carbon materials were prepared from Jatropha curcas oil and Jatropha curcas stem waste respectively (JCAC and MWNTS). Both carbon materials were utilized as a potential sorbents for toxic textile dye Acid Orange 7 (acid dye) removal. The effects of major variables governing the efficiency of the process such as, temperature, initial dye concentration and pH were investigated. The kinetic measurements helped in determining the specific rate constant confirming the applicability of pseudo second order rate expression. Plausible mechanism of ongoing adsorption process involved was obtained by carrying out kinetic measurements. To compare adsorption of dye on to both adsorbents is particle diffusion or film diffusion, the treatment given by Boyd and Reichenberg was employed. The influence of different factors on the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 on both adsorbents is explained in terms of electrostatic interaction by considering the dye species and the surface characteristics of the adsorbents.
4 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium ferrite nanoparticles by Co-precipitation method , J. Balavijayalakshmi 1*, Greeshma 2.
Magnesium ferrite nanoparticles are successfully prepared by co-precipitation method. Magnesium chloride [MgCl2. 6H2O], anhydrous Ferric chloride [FeCl3] and sodium hydroxide are used as raw materials. Magnesium ferrite samples sintered at 130 °C and 600 °C are subjected to X-ray diffraction to calculate the average nano-crystalline size using Debye – Scherrer formula. The FT-IR spectra of the sample are recorded to ensure the presence of the metallic compounds. The morphological analysis of the sample is done using Scanning electron microscope (SEM).
5 Impact of the Utilization of Nano Silver particles in Textile Materials , I. Jayalakshmi 1*, V. Yamuna 2.
The natural fibre products are found to be much more environment friendly. They would also offer economical benefits to a number of developing countries, where vegetable fibres are grown and cultivated in large quantity. The use of nanotechnology in textiles aims to improve the material’s functionalities or give it new characteristics (“Smart Clothes”). Nano particles can be released by mechanical load, abrasion and other external influences. This study mainly focuses on the application of Nano Silver to Tencel and its blended textile yarns, converting them to materials, dyeing with selected Natural Dyes and subjecting to Bio enzyme wash. The impact of this study would create a demand for comfortable, clean and hygienic textile goods which would cal for an urgent need for production of antimicrobial textile goods. With the advent of new technologies such as nano silver and new fibres, the growing needs of consumers in terms of health and hygiene can be fulfilled without compromising issues related to safety, human health and the environment.
6 Effect of Current Densities on Structural and Optical Properties of Brush Plated CuInSe2 (CIS)Thin films , N.P. Subiramaniyam 1, P. Thirunavukkarasu 2*.
CuInSe 2 (CIS)-based thin film compounds are considered one of the most efficient absorber materials for solar cell applications, now reaching conversion efficiencies as high as almost 20% for laboratory-sized devices. To make CIS-based thin films solar cells even more attractive and competitive, an alternative low cost process has to be developed for the manufacture of the high quality CIS absorber layers. In this work, CIS films were deposited by the brush plating technique for the first time. AR grade Copper sulphate (0.03M), Indium sulphate (0.05 M) and 0.005 M Selenium oxide was rsed for the deposition of films. The deposition current density was varied in the range of 10 – 100 mA cm-2. XRD analysis of the as-deposited films verified the existence of the main Bragg peaks for CIS in a chalco-pyrite crystal structure. The chemical composition of the films identiûed using XPS found to be copper rich. Tauc’s plot indicated a direct band gap of 0.99 eV. Surface morphology of the films indicated an increase of grain size and RMS value of surface roughness from 0.32 to 1.3 nm with depositon current density. Raman spectra of the films exhibited an intense peak at around 175 cm 1. This peak can be assigned to the A 1 mode of CIS. Photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) studies indicated an open circuit voltage of 0.49V and short circuit current density of 13 mA cm-2 for the films deposited at 100 mA cm-2. The photo output increased with deposition current density.
7 Silver and Zinc Doped Chalcogenide (CdS) films by Chemical Bath Deposition Process , R. Ganesh 1*, V. Senthil kumar 2, K. Panneerselvam 3, M. Raja 4.
Doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at 70 ± 5oC. Silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) are the dopent materials. This paper presents the analysis of optical, structural and surface properties of the CdS thin films by UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer, Xray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) respectively. Optical spectra of CdS Thin films exhibit high transmittance in the visible region and high absorbance near Ultra-Violet (UV) range. XRD studies showed all the doped CdS thin films exhibits amorphous in nature. Possible alications of the doped CdS thin films are also discussed.
8 Nanoagriculture Bringing to Fruition from Ideation , M. Balaji Prasad
Over the past ten thousand years, farmers have routinely using their knowledge to improve food production. Recent decades have seen a bleak with food shortage looming all over the globe, especially in the developing and under-developing regions due to population explosion. Factors such as shrinking landscape, lack of arable soil, pest epidemics, extensive use of pesticides & fertilizers and nature's fury (global warming, precipitation, flood, storm, untimely raining, tsunami, etc.,) aid to the decline of the crop's yield. India's already large population is expected to become world's largest in the next fifteen years, resulting an increase in the demand for food, with a need to be met through higher agriculture productivity. At present, yield per hectares is far below the global average. Rejuvenating agricultural productivity through technology-led intervention is gaining urgency and is to be made central to the economic growth endeavor of the country. The nano technology is the latest forerunner to introduce evolution in various fields of livelihood encompassing agriculture, food processing, medicine and comforting goods. Nano agriculture has changed the way the food is produced, processed, packaged and consumed. It has revolutionized the agri-sector with new tools and techniques to enhance crops to absorb key nutrients, fight diseases, targeted treatment, for early disease detection and withstand ecological stress. This article reflects an overview of potential applications of nano technology being researched and commercialized in the agri-sector. It also explores the top-to-bottom strategy for the infusion of the scientific and technical know-how of nano technology to evolve sound production pattern in-line with the demand pattern to strengthen the socio economic fabric of the country.
9 Estimation of magnetospheric plasma parameters from whistlers observed at Low Latitudes , M. Altaf 1*, Ram Vyas 2.
Whistler observations during nighttimes made at low latitude Indian ground stations Jammu (geomag.lat.,29o 26/ N; L = 1.17), Nainital (geomag.lat.,19o 1/ N; L = 1.16) and Varanasi (geomag.lat.,14o 55/ N; L = 1.11) are used to deduce electron temperatures and electric field in the vicinity of the magnetospheric equator. The accurate curve fitting and parameter estimation technique are used to compute nose frequency and equatorial electron densities from the dispersion measurements of short whistlers recorded at Jammu, Nainital and Varanasi. In this paper our aim is to estimate the Magnetospheric electron temperatures and electric field from the dispersion analysis of short whistlers observed at low latitudes by using the different methods, the results obtained are in good agreement with the results reported by other workers.
10 Effect of Filler Parameter on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Dioxide Reinforced Epoxy Composites , Subita Bhagat
Titanium dioxide reinforced epoxy composites are developed by simple mechanical stirring and compression molding technique respectively. Investigation on mechanical and morphological characteristics of titanium dioxide reinforced epoxy composite is presented. The effect of titanium dioxide taken as different weight fractions and their interactive influences on the mechanical and morphological characteristics of these composites has been studied. X-Ray diffraction observation indicates that the composite changes its state from amorphous to crystalline behavior with increasing the filler loading. The study revealed that titanium dioxide particle addition in epoxy composite has dramatic effect on mechanical properties i.e. tensile, flexural, impact. The composite exhibit improved mechanical property with the increase of filler loading as the property of the composite mainly depends on dispersion condition of filler particles.
11 Production and Application of Amylase Enzyme for Bio-desizing , S. Karpagam Chinnammal 1*, K.V. ArunKumar 2.
In this study an attempt has been made to study the effect of enzyme on desizing of cotton. Cotton fabric was subjected to desizing using enzyme commercially available. An attempt has also been made, to synthesize amylase enzyme from microbe and evaluate their suitability for desizing of cotton fabrics as against the commercial enzyme. The performance of enzyme treated fabric has been compared with that of the acid desized sample. The desized samples were subjected to various tests like residual starch, iodine test, absorbency, shrinkage, breaking strength and fabric weight. The effluent after the process was analysed for pH, BOD, COD, TDS and TSS.
12 Determination of Optical Birefringence of S-Benzylisothiouronium Complex Crystals using Channelled Spectrum Method , P. Hemalatha 1*, S. Kumaresan 2, V. Veeravazhuthi 3.
The channeled spectrum method was used for measuring the birefringence of an anisotropic material. Crystals of uniform thickness were placed between crossed polarizers and illuminated with a tungsten source. The resulting pattern was analyzed to deduce the birefringence and its dispersion across the visible spectrum. Cauchy’s two parameter formula was applied to fit the experimental data. The Cauchy’s coefficients A and B were obtained by solving the linear equations using MATLAB. The value of birefringence was also calculated.
13 The Effect of Activating Agents on the Activated Carbon Prepared from Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Wood Apple) Shell , S. Karthikeyan 1*, P. Sivakumar 2.
ctivated carbon samples are characterized by their high adsorption capacities. Although the highly active surface properties of the activated carbon are after attributed to the chemical functional groups, surface morphology plays a significant role in determining the surface availability. Micropores, mesopores and macropores distribution in activated carbon samples are closing related to their preparation methods. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of activation methods on the characterization of activated carbon produced from Feronia limonia shell. The resulting samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption measurements at 77 K to obtain surface area and pore size distributions. The morphology of the resulting sample was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the electronic structure was investigated by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy techniques. Results obtained indicate that the activated carbon prepared using Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (wood apple) shell by ZnCl2 carbonization process followed by activation at 800° C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded activated carbon with the highest surface area and more developed micro, meso and macroporosity.
14 Mechanical, Electrical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of PP,PP-g-Mah and Mica Silicate Nanoclay Nanocomposite , Gautam Kumar Sah 1*, S. Vijayakanth 2, Ashok Kumar Gupta 3.
Polymer nanocomposites exhibit superior mechanical properties, electrical properties, thermal and morphological properties. Polypropylene/PP-g-MAH/Mica silicate nanoclay Nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding using Twin Screw Extruder. The tensile strength and modulus strength, Flexural strength and flexural modulus of PP/ PP-g-MAH/Nanoclay were highly increased with the loading of clay. The thermal properties were characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). PP-g-MAH provides better interfacial interactions between the two incompatible constituents, i.e. PP and nanoclay facilitates the exfoliation and dispersion of clay in PP matrix. FTIR analysis shows the effects of functional groups in the nanoclay with respect to potential interactions with the constituents. SEM Shows the microstructure of bulk specimen and phase arrangement of polymer nanocomposites of different constituent also studied.
15 Kinetics for Removal of Reactive Blue 2 from Aqueous Solution on the Nanoporous Carbon Materials Prepared from Balsamodendron caudatum Wood Waste, B. Sivakumar 1, P. Shanthi 2, C. Kannan 3*.
Balsamodendron caudatum wood waste was employed for the removal of Reactive Blue 2 from aqueous solution under different experimental conditions was investigated. Characterization of activated carbon prepared using Balsamodendron caudatum wood waste by two different processes (BAC1 and BAC2) was employed. The influences of initial Reactive Blue 2 concentration (20, 40 and 60 mg/L), and temperatures (30°, 45° and 60°C) have been reported. A comparison of kinetic models applied to adsorption of Reactive Blue 2 (CI No 61211) on the each adsorbent was evaluated for pseudo first–order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models respectively. Results show that the pseudo first order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.
16 Effect of Temperature and Flow Rate of Carbon Sources of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Natural Precursor by Spray Pyrolysis , S. Mageswari 1, A. Jafar Ahamed 2, S. Karthikeyan 3*.
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were synthesized by Chemical vapor Deposition on Fe:Mo catalyst supported on silica by using Cymbopogen flexuous oil and N2 as a carrier gas. The reaction conditions are important factors that influence the yield and quality of carbon nanotubes. Different types of carbon nanostructures were obtained from spray pyrolysis of Cymbopogen flexuous oil at different temperature ranges from 550°C to750°C with flow rate at 20 ml per hour of carbon source. The optimum condition for synthesis of CNTs on Fe:Mo catalyst supported on silica has been reported at the temperature of 650°C and the flow rate of 20 ml per hour.
17 Hazards and Threats in Environment of Transboundary Areas , Lyubomir Vladimirov
The paper introduces system-oriented definitions of transboundary environmental dangers and threats of economic activities in border areas. The morphology of trans-border hazardous phenomena generated by economic activities in border areas are developed first, and the dangerous effects on objects in the environment of neighboring countries, then and possible harmful impacts on its territory. To illustrate the models lexicological-graphical models were applied. Each of the constituent components of dangers is decomposed in order to derive the basic elements. They are assessed quantitatively by descriptors such as the probabilities of their occurrence. A system structure, allowing understanding in details the content and the dangers and the threats they causes is introduced.
18 Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing Process Parameters for Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes , V.S. Angulakshmi 1, N. Sivakumar 2, S. Karthikeyan 3*.
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the synthesis parameters for Carbon nanotubes. Such optimization was undertaken to ensure a high efficiency over the experimental ranges employed and to evaluate the interactive effects of the temperature, catalyst amount, and volume of carbon for synthesis of Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) from methylated ester of Helianthus annuus oil on silica supported Fe/Mo catalyst by spray pyrolysis method. A total of 17 experimental runs were carried out employing the detailed conditions designed by response surface methodology based on the Box- Behnken design. The experimental confirmation tests showed a correlation between the predicted and experimental responses. The optimal point obtained was located in the valid region and the optimum adsorption parameters were predicted as a temperature of 668 0 C, a precursor volume of 21ml and catalyst weight of 0.78 g. Under these conditions, a highest yield of 75% was achieved from spray pyrolysis method.
19 Synthesis of One Dimentional Carbon Nano Fibers from Tire Pyrolysis Oil , C. Sathiskumar 1, S. Karthikeyan 2*.
Tire pyrolysis oil derived from waste tire material has been used to synthesis carbon nanofiber on quartz substrate in Ar atmosphere by spray pyrolysis method. The structure and nature of carbon nano fiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy. The diameters of the synthesized carbon nanofiber are 260 ± 40 nm.
20 Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Thespesia populnea (Malvaceae) Flower , .P. Sharavana Kumaar 1*, J. Vanitha 2, K. Venkateshwaran 3, Srikanth Reddy 4, K.T. Simon 5, Jopsy 6, D. Karthikeyan 7, 8.
Preliminary phytochemical screening of Thespesia populnea demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and triterpenes. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Thespesia populnea was Checked at a lowest concentration by cup and plate method. Zones of inhibition produced by methanolic extract in a dose of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml against some selected strains was measured and compared with those of standard antibiotic levofloxacin (10 µg/ml).
21 Inorganic Chemistry: Journey to Powerful resource , A.P. Shekhar
INTRODUCTION Historically Inorganic chemistry is the oldest branch of chemistry and its origin can be traced to the knowledge acquired, presumably through accidental discoveries, by people in the very ancient civilizations as in Egypt, India and Mesopotamia (in India ca. 2500 B.C) (Roy P.C. 1956). In subsequent period the alchemists in China, in Egypt (ca 1200 – 1500 A.D) and later in Europe (ca1200- 1500 A.D) despite their queer views and objective made discoveries that contributed to the advancement of this branch of Chemistry. Extraction of zinc from the minerals calamine was first achieved in India by the alchemist Nagarjuna (9th century A.D.). Birth of modern inorganic chemistry is rightly attributed to the French chemistry A.L.Lavoisier s systematic studies on the phenomenon of combustion that established (1772 A.D.) the role of oxygen in a combustion process leading to demolition of classical phlogiston theory of Becher and of Stahl (17 th century).
22 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Opuntia Dillenii (Cactaceae) Fruit Extract , A.P. Saravana Kumaar 1*, J. Vanitha 2, K. Venkateshwaran 3, K. Srikanth Reddy 4, D. Karthikeyan 5.
The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant micro organisms. Methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii (OD) was tested for its antibacterial (plate hole method) activity against fourteen different bacterial strains. From the results, it is deduced 100 % of methanolic extract were active in concentration of 1000 ?g/ml, 93 % active in concentration of 500 ?g/ml, 87.5 % active in concentration of 250 ?g/ml, 50 % active in concentration of 125 ?g/ml and no activity in lowest test concentration of 62.5?g/ml. Antifungal activity against six different fungal organisms were studied and the results were indicated that the 1000 ?g/ml & 500 ?g/ ml showed good activity in all fungus (100%). The methanolic extracts in concentration of 250 ?g/ml (83%) and 125 ?g/ ml (33 %) showed moderate activity in all tested microorganisms. Oxy tetracycline and Amphotericin B with concentration of 1000 ?g/ml were used as a standard drug for antibacterial and antifungal studies respectively.
23 Optimization of Marine bacteria Enterococcus sp. Biomass Growth by using Response Surface Methodology, S. Rajeshkumar 1, G. Gnana Jobitha 2, C. Malarkodi 3, C. Kannan 4*, G. Annadurai 5.
Enterococcus sp. is one of the most important causes of substantial infections worldwide. It is a fastidious micro organism with fine nutritional and environmental requirements to cultivate, a characteristic that prevents the development of useful animal models to study the biology of the micro organism. This study was designed to determine optimal conditions for culture and growth of Enterococcus sp. The bacteria Enterococcus sp. was selected from isolates of marine water. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a bacterial biomass growth. The five variables involved in the study of growth conditions were Yeast extract, beef extract, NaCl concentration, pH and Temperature. This is an estimate of the fraction of overall variation in the data accounted by the model, and thus the model is capable of explaining 99.96% of the variation in response
24 Preparation and characterization of fruit-mediated silver nanoparticles using pomegranate extract and assessment of its antimicrobial activities, G. Gnana Jobitha 1, S. Rajeshkumar 2, G. Annadurai 3*, C. Kannan 4.
Today the “Green” nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study investigated the synthesis of silver nanoparticle using pomegranate fruit extract as reducing agent to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The formation of nanosized silver was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peak at around 460 nm in UV–vis spectra. The morphology and crystalline nature, were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDAX) X-ray diffraction (XRD), and conform the active functional groups present in the synthesized silver molecule by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, their antibacterial activity has been tested against Bacillussubtilis, (Gram positive) and Klebsiella planticolae (Gram-negative). The approach of plant-mediated synthesis appearsto be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis.
25 Synthesis of Nitrogen Doped Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and its Photocatalytic Performance for the Degradation of Indigo Carmine Dye , A. Selvaraj 1, R. Parimiladevi 2, K.B. Rajesh 3*.
Nitrogen (N) doped TiO2 were synthesized by thermal decomposition of the mixture of TiO2 and urea at 500 C. Optical and structural properties of N doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–visible diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. XRD showed that anatase phase was converted into rutile phase while increasing the content of urea. FTIR studies revealed that number of hydroxyl group on TiO2 surface decreases with increasing the concentration of nitrogen. SEM studies were carried out for the morphological features and size of TiO2 par ticles. DRS data showed a red shift in absorption edge and band gap become narrower while increasing the concentration of nitrogen. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photodegradation of indigo carmine dye under UV light irradiation.
26 Removal of Methylene Blue Using Prepared Nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Photocatalyst , K. Balachandran 1*, Rajeshwari Sivaraj 2, R. Venckatesh 3, 4, 5.
The technological and economic importance of photocatalysis has increased considerably over the past decade. Improvements and performance have been strongly correlated to advances in nanotechnology. The introduction of nano particulate photocatalysts has tremendously enhanced the catalytic efficiency of specific materials. Photocatalysis based on nano catalysts is a very promising method for the treatment of contaminated water. Nano sized anatase TiO2 particle was prepared by time consuming cost effective sol-gel method, the synthesized particles was examined and their characteristics were investigated. The average grain size of the nano particle is nearly 20nm. The UVVisible spectrum shows the absorbance of 356 nm which shows the band gap 3.7 eV. Photocatalytic activity of nano particle was evaluated by photo degradation of Methylene blue.
27 Preparation of FeCl3 Catalytic Films Using Dip Dry Method for the Growth of Carbon Nanotubes , Mohan Lal 1*, Bharat Bhushan Sharma 2, Poornendu Chaturvedi 3, PikaJha 4, Jaswant Singh Rawat 5, C. Partap Kumar 6, 7.
Catalytic films of FeCl3 were coated on Si using simple and highly scalable technique of dip drying of silicon in aqueous FeCl3 solution. The catalyst coated samples were pretreated at 850oC to reduce the deposited FeCl3 into iron nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on initial concentration of FeCl3 in aqueous solution. The catalytic activity of nanoparticles was ascertained by growthof carbon nanotubes using Chemical Vapour Deposition. The C2H2was used as the carbon precursed along with the carrier gas of H2 and NH3 .Characterization of the grown CNT revealed the direct relationship between the catalytic concentration and the diameter of carbon nanotubes.
28 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and its Antimicrobial Activity, Sandesh Jaybhaye
Silver Nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are being used to reduce as antimicrobials. These particles can be incorporated in materials and cloth exposes them sterile. Aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate particularly stable Ag NPs in water. Apart from being are environmentally friendly process, use of Saraca asoca leaves extract might add synergistic antibacterial effect of Saraca asoca leaves to the biosynthesized nanoparticles. In this paper the biosynthetic production of Ag NPs by aqueous extract of Saraca asoca leaves and its bactericidal effect against E. coli were studied. Ag NPs were synthesized by 3h heating of Saraca asoca leaves extract (10% w/v) and 2 mM AgNO3 solution in 1:3 mixing ratio at room temperature. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy. The effect of temperature, concentration of Saraca asoca extract and AgNO3 solution on the size of silver nanoparticle has been studied. The antibacterial property of the nanoparticles against E. coli was also investigated.
29 Biosynthesis of Elixir of Life (Gold Nanoparticles) from Plants , Pankaj Kumar Singh 1*, Subir Kundu 2.
Biosynthesis of gold nano particles (GNPs) is considered to be a novel, effective and eco-friendly method. Biosynthesis of GNPs from Benincasa hispida, Justicia gendarussa & Ocimum basilicum. Biosynthesis of stable and nearly spherical GNPs using the extract of Benincasa hispida seeds as reducing and capping agents. The particle size could be easily tuned by the reaction conditions including quantity of extract, temperature and pH. GNP shaving different sizes in the range from10-30nm could be obtained by controlling the synthesis parameters. Justicia gendarussa leaf extract mediated synthesis of GNPs by the reduction of gold ions. Three different phytochemical fractions were prepared from methanolic leaf extract by liquid-liquid extraction method using immiscible solvents. The size of the GNPs ranged from 20-42nm and 62-88nm with spherical, triangle, truncated triangle and hexagonal shapes. Ocimum basilicum (Thai Tulsi) leaf extract worked as a potential substrate for bioreduction of HAuCl4 into GNPs within 10 minutes of reaction time. It was also observed that GNPs synthesized were crystalline and uniformly spherical in shape with size range 5–40 nm which were stable even after 3 months of reaction. The gold nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS).
30 Structural, Optical and Photoconductive Properties of Brush Plated Copper Gallium Selenide Films , N.P. Subiramaniyam 1, P. Thirunavukkarasu 2, K.R. Murali 3*.
Copper Gallium selenide films were deposited for the first time by the brush electrodeposition technique. The films were deposited at different bath temperatures in the range of 30 - 80°C at a constant current density of 3.0 mA cm- 2. The films exhibited single phase Copper Gallium selenide. Optical band gap of the film deposited at 80°C was1.68 eV. Room temperature resistivity of the films were in the range of 0.1 - 14.0 ohm cm. Photoconductivity measurements were made at room temperature. Photocurrent Capacitance voltage measurements indicated the films to exhibit p -type behaviour. The flat band potential (Vfb) was 0.60V (SCE) and a carrier density in the range of 2.5 x 1017 cm-3 was obtained. A single Photoluminescence peak was observed at 1.64 eV.
31 Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes for Bio-applications and Toxicity Evaluations , P. Khalid 1, M.A. Hussain 2, P.D. Rekha 3, V.B. Suman 4, A.B. Arun 5*.
Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) were procured from Nanoshel, USA. Covalent functionalization was accomplished with three types of oxidants: (1) 70% Nitric acid under reflux (2) Sulfuric acid and Nitric acid (v/ v = 3/1) under sonication (3) 20% Sulfuric acid and Nitric acid (v/v = 3/1) by heating. The non covalent functionalization was accomplished via di-imide activated amidation using N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N2 -ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).The covalent functionlized carbon nanotubes in combination with Non Covalent functionalized Carbon Nanotubes were readily dispersed in water, DMF and cell culture media to investigate their toxicity. Characterization of functionalized and dispersed Nanotubes were carried out by using FTIR, FESEM,and UV-vis spectroscopy.
32 Photoinduced electron-transfer from imidazole derivative to nano-semiconductors a New approach , N. Srinivasan
Bioactive imidazole derivative absorbs in the UV region at 305 nm. The interaction of imidazole derivative with nanoparticulate WO3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CuO, ZrO2 and Al2O3 has been studied by UV-visible absorption, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopies. The imidazole derivative adsorbs strongly on the surfaces of nanosemiconductor, the apparent binding constants for the association between nanomaterials and imidazole derivative have been determined from the fluorescence quenching. In the case of nanocrystalline insulator, fluorescence quenching through electron transfer from the excited state of the imidazole derivative to alumina is not possible. However, a possible mechanism for the quenching of fluorescence by the insulator is energy transfer, that is, energy transferred from the organic molecule to the alumina lattice. Based on Forster’s non-radiation energy transfer theory, the distance between the imidazole derivative and nanoparticles (r0 ~2.00 nm) as well as the critical energy transfer distance (R0 ~1.70 nm)has been calculated. The interaction between the imidazole derivative and nanosurfaces occurs through static quenching mechanism. The free energy change for electron transfer process has been calculated by applying RehmWeller equation.