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World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology

ISSN(p): | ISSN(e):2454-695X
Journal Papers (222) Details
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Indexed Journal

1 OVER-VIEW OF WHISTLER AND VLF ACTIVITY IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR , *Dr. Rajou Kumar Pandita Ph.D and Prof. Farooq Ahmed Sofi
In this paper, an up to date review of VLF emissions and whistler research in Jammu and Kashmir has been presented. Some new results of existence of Whistlers and VLF emissions, periodic emissions, hiss type of emissions and chorus emissions at our low latitude ground station, Jammu have been presented. Using an improved system, a unique type of Whistlers in addition to usual type of VLF emissions have been recorded for the first time at our ground station, Jammu from the year 1997-2001 during day and night time. From the dispersion analysis of the whistlers recorded at Jammu, it is found that all the Whistlers have extremely small dispersion (ESD) in the range of 5-10 s1/2, which clearly supports non-ducted propagation of day-time whistlers at low latitudes, completely in contrast with the earlier findings of ducted propagation of day-time whistlers in the presence of equatorial anomaly.
2 ELECTROCHEMICALLY DEPOSITED OF CdTe-USING TWO ELECTRODE SYSTEM FOR SOLAR CELL APPLICATION , G. E. A. Muftah*, Mabrouk Hassan and I. M. Dharmadasa
The aim of this work was to make low cost thin film solar cells by electro deposition, using cadmium telluride (CdTe) in presence of the chlorine treatment of CdTe. CdTe films were electrochemically deposited from aqueous solutions using both two. Different preparative parameters such as growth voltage and heat treatment conditions were optimised by measuring the I-V characteristic of glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au devices. The device efficiency was high at a growth voltage of 1570 mV. The optimum annealing conditions were 350ºC for 20 minutes in air. It is established that treating CdTe with chlorine has a beneficial effect on the solar cell device. For comparison, untreated and treated CdTe were characterised by various techniques. XRD analysis showed a cubic structure, with a significant increase in intensity from the (111) reflection in present of chlorine treatment. Optical absorption shows a band gap energy of 1.50 eV with a good absorbance slope. A considerable change in the morphology between untreated and treated CdTe was observed by SEM. I-V measurements of completed chlorine treated glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au devices showed a significant improvement in efficiency. The best efficiency obtained was 8.7%.
3 CHS COLD FORM STEEL MEMBERS STRENGTHENED WITH BIDIRECTIONAL FRP SHEET , Eng. Faisal Alharbi* and Dr. Alaa Almosawe
The main purpose of this research paper experimental analysis is conducted with the aim of establishing the static load of the lateral loads on the structures in line with the fiber-reinforced polymer or FRP to strengthen the CHS of the steel members. The norm encompasses the evaluation of the transverse static load which the structures are likely to face in the situations when they are subjected to the loading at the decisive mid-spans. There are gathering of the information from the various literature reviews as well as the appraisal of the journals in line with the static load and the effects which the fiber-reinforced polymer or FRP to strengthen the CHS of the steel members have on the structures in the long run. There were 4 Groups of CHS which wrapped via CFRP under libation condition. It has been achieved the main objective of the research to Strengthen CHS member via CFER. The evaluation also incorporates the utilization of the 13 medium-scale specimens which Ares used in the investigation of the FRP on the Circular hollow structures. However, the experiment includes the application of both the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer and the carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer which were applied in the process as the strengthening materials. There was remarkable static load in line with the resistance capacity and this was recorded by the externally and bonded CFRP sheet. It vividly indicated the reduction in the lateral displacement with a tune of at least 10.5% as compared to the bare specimen (Grouo#2). Furthermore, the group# 2 which rise up strength until 17.74%. On other the hand, it is possible for us to compare Group#1 with Group#2 which achieved 42.22% for Group#1. Finally, this paper simulated multi cases of CHS as lathing and sand plaster surface. The most resulting indication that there is many of benefit to using CFRP to a stronger member of the structure. This reported result of much time which has been spender in Lab at Swinburne University during 12 Weeks. This period study Considered very short to exams many of CHS and CFRP with different layers but I will complete tests in Ph.D. in future near.
4 EFFECTS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION TREATMENT METHOD ON DEGRADATION OF BOD, COD AND TPH IN PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTEWATER , Nkechi Grace Ezeogu* and Felix Aibuedefe Aisien
A study was done to remove toxic substances from refinery wastewater using phytoremediation method. The effectiveness of Eichinochloa pyramidalis for phytoremediation of refinery wastewater was investigated for an operational period of three months. The design consideration is a batch unit fed with 100 L of refinery wastewater which was properly stirred to attain a uniform solution. The batch unit used was an open drum. Eichonochloa pyramidalis was uprooted from the soil and their roots were washed with tap water and then, with distilled water before they were transferred into the drum containing the wastewater sample. The plant was allowed to grow in the sample and was monitored for a period of 3 months. Analysis was carried out weekly to investigate the effectiveness of Eichinochloa pyramidalis on the degradation of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in the wastewater sample. The BOD, COD and TPH had their highest removal rates on the 12th week. Their values were 87.68%, 95.1% and 98.7% respectively. The phytoremediation treatment method is easy to implement and maintain, does not require the use of expensive equipment or highly specialized personnel and is environmentally friendly. It can therefore, be applied in removing contaminants from wastewater.
5 STUDY OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE LEVELS OF SOME NUTRIENTS AND OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN SETARIA PALLIDE-FUSCA (schumach) STAPT AND HUBBARD IN KISANGANI, DRC , Lokinda Litalema Faustin*, Osando Lomongo Jolie, Litindi Lokinda Rigobert and Bitaboto Geninga Stanis
The question of the feeding of domestic animals, like that of all mankind, remains so crucial that any solution, however partial, to the resolution of this phenomenon is worth encouraging. The magnitude of this issue is such that the animal and human populations of underdeveloped countries in general and those of Kisangani in particular feel affected, especially by unprecedented food competition imposed by the chief in the region. This competition can find a real solution in the improvement of the routes intended to bring food to the animals which in turn will produce more meat and milk, an essential source of animal protein and source of additional income for the breeders.
6 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NOISE GENERATOR , Pahalson C. A. D.* and Dung Bature
The objective of this paper was to give an insight into the design and implementation of noise generator as well as to generate noise that can serve a useful purpose in the statistical data. Eliminating or minimizing the effect of noise in electronic circuits or communication systems is the problem of all designers. The generation of noise and the study of its characteristics overcome the problem of designers in electrical engineering.
7 THE THEORY OF VARIATION IN STUDY SYSTEMS , Dr. Ing. Szel Alexandru*
In many models, including the theory of relativity, evolution is described only in terms of a few important variables. In multivariable systems, variations of all variables can contribute to evolution. In the present paper we present a model that starts from the total variation of all the explicit variables, expressing the main parameters of evolution.
8 ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT SECURITY ATTACKS IN MANET ON PROTOCOL STACK , *Dr. K. Divya and Dr. B. Srinivasan
A MANET is an infrastructure-less type network, which consists of number of mobile nodes with wireless network interfaces In order to make communication among nodes, the nodes dynamically establish paths among one another. The nature and structure of such networks makes it attractive to various types of attackers. In this paper we discuss various types of attacks on various layers under protocol stack. Different types of attacker attempts different approaches to decrease the network performance, throughput. In this paper the principal focus is on routing and security issues associated with mobile ad hoc networks which are required in order to provide secure communication. On the basis of the nature of attack interaction, the attacks against MANET may be classified into active and passive attacks. Attackers against a network can be classified into two groups: insider and outsider. Whereas an outsider attacker is not a legitimate user of the network, an insider attacker is an authorized node and a part of the routing mechanism on MANETs.
9 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 96: INSCRIPTION OF TOMB CEILING DURING THE NEW KINGDOM , Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan*
The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the inscription of the ceilings in the tombs of the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties of the New Kingdom. The study presents wonderful pattern design used in ceiling decoration of both no-Royal and Royal state officials. The decoration patterns are investigated through extracting the main elements in each pattern. Foreground and background colors are identified in all the pattern designs.
10 EFFECT OF COVID-19 ON THE JUSTICE DELIVERY SYSTEM: NOW & FUTURE , *Shivangi Sinha and Aakriti Gupta
“Unpredictable”, this can be the most unsurpassed word which can be used for the current situation and the scenario. We could have never imagined of such situation which will bring everything at halt from a person’s job to the world Economy, everything is been affected at large. The WHO in its report declared this as the pandemic, which has affected every sector at large, and so the judicial system is not an exception to such a situation. The quantity of pending cases here in India is a known fact, and now the present scenario has put this sector into dilemma with respect to its own laws and legislations. When it comes to the Judiciary we actually have lot of things to converse about, like what will happen to the remote hearings, how will the grievances be addressed further? Although taking the present scenario into consideration the Court have come up with various notifications, regarding the functioning of the court, but the important thing which need to be taken into account is once again the proper implementation which not only includes the court’s proceedings but also have additional regulations with it. This article is basically going to focus on all theses aspects, which will eventually include both the pre and post Covid situation of Indian Judiciary system.
11 PREDICTION OF HEART DISEASES USING REPTREE AND ADTREE DATA MINING TECHNIQUES , *Er. Ranbir Singh and Dr. Harmeet Singh
There are several techniques that are used in data mining, each one having advantages but also disadvantages. To find out which one is most appropriate for our case, when we want to use our databases in a decision-make process we need to have information about our data business and data mining techniques. Alternatively we can try them all and find out which one is the best in our case. The dataset used in this research is based on heart disease obtained different hospitals. This report is based on the findings the reasons to infect from heart disease. As we look at Data Mining tools, we see that there are different algorithms used for creating a decision making (or predictive analysis) system. There are algorithms for creating decision trees such as REPTree and ADTree algorithms for determining performance.
12 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF WHEEL HUB FOR WEIGHT OPTIMIZATION BY USING VERIOUS MATERIAL , *Pravinkumar Tayade, Dr. P. A. Makasare and S. I. Bharadiya
In this study, various methods are used with reference to available data from existing papers and reviewers comment for optimization of wheel hub with the help of different materials. This study helps the designers for selection of perfect material for wheel hub with proper weight reduction with best structural design. This weight optimization of wheel hub is done using FEA methodology. Model for the hub is prepared with actual dimensions and this model is checked with FEA analysis using different material. The best suit material is founded out for wheel hub with lighter in weight and minimum cost all the optimization process is conducted by use of modeling software Catia version 5 R19 and FEA tool Ansys workbench 16. In this wheel hub weight optimization process we can analysis the key areas of researches as wheel hub shape optimization, static load analysis on wheel and fatigue load analysis using FEA. Finally we will get the lighter weighted wheel hub with same strength for sustain the same loading in operating vehicle conditions.
13 THE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBULENT DISSIPATION RATE IN NOZZLE FLOWMETER , Feng Wang*, Sen-Da Qi, Jiang-Bo Tong, Zi-Yan Hu, Yao-Qian Wang, Cheng-Xi Chai, Shi-Shi Jiang, Bo-Jie Xu
In this paper, the internal turbulent dissipation rate of nozzle flowmeter under different working conditions is studied, and its distribution characteristics are found. The physical model is used to model, and the motion law is obtained by using the knowledge of fluid mechanics and Navier Stokes equation.In this study, eight kinds of steady flow values were used for the experiment, the experimental results show that the turbulent dissipation rate of the nozzle flowmeter is positively correlated with the flow rate. The results of this paper can be used for more accurate analysis of nozzle flowmeter, and can also be used to provide theoretical basis for the optimization of nozzle flowmeter equipment.
14 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR HEAT TREATMENT CHAMBER TO GET UNIFORM TEMPRATURE WITH MINIMUM TIME , Shaileshkumar A. Chauhan*
The process of inducing evaporation of the moisture contained in wood; a type of hydrothermal treatment of wood is known as wood seasoning. The main purpose of the seasoning is to reduce the moisture content in the wood to a level appropriate to the use of the articles made from the wood. This prevents changes in the dimensions and shape of the articles, eliminates wood rot, increases the strength of the wood, reduces the weight of the articles, strengthens glued joints, and improves the quality of finishing. Wood is seasoned in various forms: lumber, peeled or planed veneers, crushed wood particles, and semi-finished articles. The simplest method of seasoning lumber is open-air seasoning, in which the lumber is stacked in the open air or under canopies for a period of two or three weeks to several months. The principal industrial method, kiln drying, uses kilns fed with hot air, a mixture of air and fuel gases, or superheated steam. Kilns with steam are the most commonly used type. Continuously operating kilns are used primarily for large-scale seasoning of umber prior to shipping; moisture content is reduced to 18–22 percent. Batch kilns are used to season wood to a moisture content of 7–10 percent.[1] On the basis of the research we made seasoning kiln we are using the heat exchanger to generate proper heat and the same generated heat will be blow inside the well-insulated canopies with high velocity and the our plant CFM will be sufficient to maintain the desire temperature for good result and it reduce the seasoning time as well. Safety precautions also has been taken by using different sensor for maintain even temperature for seasoning purpose. In our experiment we have done the experiment to remove moisture by uniform temperature. Experiment done in 20 Lx18 Wx10 H size insulated chamber and got good result of uniform temperature with minimum  time.
15 FUTURE WIRELESS NETWORKS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY: A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY , Pahalson C. A. D.* and Davou Gyang
This paper brings forward some of the new and emerging wireless communication technologies. It also discusses some of the new wireless technologies that can be expected to materialize in the future due to the demand from the end users, and hence the advances in the research of new technology. Emerging 5G technologies, various infrastructure improvements and new innovations were discussed.
16 INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY AND INFORMATION DISSEMINATION AN ANALYSIS STUDY OF E-PRINTS AT INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, BENGALURU, INDIA , Nagarjuna Pitty*
The research article defines objectives of institutional repositories and it elaborates statistical inferences of the objectives at e-Prints@IISc. This Paper explains in terms of Collection institutional Repository at e-Prints objectives such as Type of Documents, Unidentified, Refereed and Non Refereed documents, Divisions contribution, and decade wise or age of the resources.
17 AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA - A WAY FORWARD. A CASE STUDY; ENUGU/ANAMBRA STATES AUTOMOBILE PLANTS , *V. M. Dagala and E. Ayekeson
Vibrant automobile manufacturing industries have played significant roles in the industrial growth of many countries. Nigeria however, is yet to develop a viable automobile manufacturing industry comparable to that of the developed countries. Therefore, to this end, a combination of research instrument - questionnaire and observations were employed in collecting data targeting the automobile assembly/manufacturing companies that are present in the country through Pie chart and tables. The study determined that no enough qualified automobile engineers resulting to the production of low quality parts and components. The sector is characterized by the use of conventional machine tools, rudimentary wielding and forming processes to produce low profile parts likewise in small quantities. Computer Numeric Control Machine (CRCM) tools are virtually none in existent in the sector. About 48% of the workers in the industries are mechanic with less involvement of drawing aid applications such as Computer Aided Design (CAD). The welding standards employed in the industries are not as comparable to that of the international standards for joining of components. Due to lack of experts and finances in the industries contributed to the inefficiency of the Automobile productions.
18 STUDY OF OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SPRAY PYROLYTICALLY DEPOSITED CdZnSe2xTe2(1-x) THIN FILMS FOR X=0.75 , S. A. Gaikwad*
Spray pyrolysis is a simple, inexpensive and economical method to produce a thin film on large substrate area. Thin films of CdZnSe2xTe2(1-x) for composition parameter ,x.=0.75 at a substrate temperature of 3000Care prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. From the optical transmission and reflection spectra, absorption coefficient (α) was calculated and was of the order of 104 cm-1..Band gap energy were determined from absorbance measurement in visible range as 2.47 eV using Tauc theory. It shows that the main transition at the fundamental absorption edge is a direct allowed transition. The refractive index(n) and extinction coefficient(k) both decreases as wavelength increases which shows that the optical constants are most suitable for many scientific studies and technological applications such as heat mirrors, transparent electrodes and solar cells. The activation energy increases at higher temperature may be due to attributed to the increase of band gap. Hence the grain size of the films increases. This effect reduces the grain boundry effect. The XRD pattern shows number of peaks indicating that the films are poly crystalline in nature. The analysis of spectrum indicated that the ternary films are having throughout cubic structure. The value of lattice parameter „ a‟ is 6.1451 A°.
19 CONSERVATION OF ORANGES BY UV IRRADIATION , Vanesa Campero*, Soledad Medina, Claudia Sandoval, Maria J. Barrionuevo, Ana C. Gomez Marigliano
In Argentina, around 900,000 tn of oranges are produced. There are commercial crops throughout the Litoral, from the north of the province of Buenos Aires to Misiones, as well as in the Northwest, from Catamarca to Jujuy. This fruit is very popular among the inhabitants and consumed in Argentina, because it is economical. On the other hand, in recent years there has been an increasing demand for fresh and healthy products, which means that the food industry seeks non-thermal conservation technologies as alternatives to thermal treatments. The application of UV light on liquid or solid products is used in different sectors of the food industry, due to the harmful effect it causes on the DNA of many microorganisms. The objective of this work is to determine the variation of the some characteristics of oranges subjected to ultraviolet radiation and to know the temporal evolution of the fruit to evaluate the conservation method. The oranges were divided into 3 batches, one Witness (without radiation), anothers was treated with the applications of pulses of UV radiation. The parameters analyzed were vitamin C, soluble solids, acidity, color and UV-V spectrum. From the results obtained it is concluded that the treatments of the fruits with application of wavelength of 254 and 365 nm, decrease the concentration of acidity, maintain the level of vitamin C for a longer time and preserve the soluble solids in the juice. For this reason it is considered that irradiation of oranges is a useful method for the conservation of fruits maintaining the nutritional characteristics over time. 
20 EVALUATION OF HEIGHT ACCURACY FOR DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS (DEMS) FROM HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO SATELLITE IMAGERY: (WV-3) , *Ismat M. Elhassan
Topographic variation description through Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is quite commonly used for several applications especially in the field of Geographic Information Analysis (GIA). Many procedures are now used to prepare data for DEMs construction. These include classical ground surveying methods: levelling plus triangulation or traversing, total station and stereo images from air photos captured by aerial cameras. All these techniques would give very high accurate DEM, but they are very much time consuming and labor intensive. Recent techniques of space imagery techniques for capturing stereo images is the satellite borne WV-3. Although such remote sensing methods save a lot of time and expenditure the limitation is the accuracy. This paper addresses the elevation accuracy of DEM derived from WV-3 compared to that derived by total station observations. The test was carried for an area within King Saud University campus where imagery was available. Result show that DEM composed from WV-3 imagery is quite close in accuracy to that obtained from total station observations, and can thus be used for several applications including production of 1:5000 scale topographic maps, saving both money and time.
21 ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF DUST AND NOISE POLLUTION IN MINES AND QUARRIES: A REVIEW , Oyedele E. O.*, Okeke O. C. and Israel H. O.
As much as we do acknowledge the economic benefits of mining activities, there is the need also to recognize the environmental hazards that come with it in order to find ways of dealing with them. Mining is essentially a destructive development activity where ecology suffers at the altar of economy. The health cost of mining operations sometimes outweighs the benefits gained. Dust pollution in terms of particulate matters is increasing tremendously mainly due to rise in open cast projects, transportation, coal stockyard overburden dumps as well as mineral mine fires and other domestic activities. Mine dust can result in a serious nuisance and loss of amenity for populations living in the vicinity of a mine. Health hazards of mines’/quarries’ dust include asbestosis lung cancer, kidney damage, black lung cancer, bronchial cancer, gastro-irritation, cough, conjunctivitis, CNS deterioration, silicosis. Noise has been recognized as a health hazard with potent implications on occupational safety. The physiological and psychological effects of noise on humans are often subtle and insidious, appearing so gradually that it becomes difficult to associate cause with effect. This paper focuses on the adverse effects of dust and noise in mines and quarries and provides the control measures for protecting the workers against it.
22 EHA-NDIAGU CLAY DEPOSITS: PHYSIC-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR INDUSTRIAL REFRACTORY APPLICATIONS. , I. C. C. Iloabachie*, I. D. Adiele, C. N. Onyia and B. O. Okpe
This research work evaluated the characterization of Eha-Ndiagu clay in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria for its industrial potentials. The chemical analysis was performed at National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency (NSRMEA), Kaduna, using a Perkin Elmer Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) while the physical properties were investigated following American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) stipulated standards. The physical properties determined were apparent porosity, bulk density, linear shrinkage, apparent density, modulus of rupture, plasticity index, Atterberg Limit and water absorption capacity. The result of the chemical composition analysis showed that the, the clay contains mainly Silica Oxide (SiO2) 56.71%, Aluminum Oxide (Al2O3) 21.05% and Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 5.31% with other oxides such as MgO (1.50%), K2O (1.92%) and TiO2 (1.03%) in appreciable amounts. The physical analysis showed a variation in the linear shrinkage (3.35 to 7.88%), total shrinkage (5.06 to 9.46%), apparent porosity (41.02 to 32.57%), bulk density (1.52 to 1.76 g/cm3), water absorption (15.22 to 8.9%) and modulus of rupture (12.86 to 24.78kgF/cm2) with increase in firing temperature from 900oC to 1200oC. The Atterberg Limit result showed that the clay has high plasticity. The overall analysis of the results showed that Eha-Ndiagu clay deposit is siliceous in nature and of the alumino-silicate refractories that may be classified as kaolinitic fireclay. This result therefore, showed that Eha-Ndiagu clay has good industrial potentials and can be useful in the manufacture of ceramics, high melting clays, refractory, bricks, tiles and in the paper and paint industries but with the incorporation of additives that will help to obtain the desired properties.
23 AN APPRAISAL OF NATURE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF SOLID WASTES GENERATED IN A TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA , I. O. Akinjogbin*, M. K. C. Sridar, A. O. Coker
Municipal solid Waste (MSW) generation has increased in Nigerian tertiary institutions due to increase in students’ admission rate and daily activities of the institutions. Managing the institutional wastes like any other municipal solid wastes had created a lot of environmental challenges. Some common waste management methods like sanitary landfill, incineration and open burning cause additional harm to the environment including greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. The MSW generated in Federal Polytechnic, Ede were assessed. A thorough one session monitoring of the waste characteristics and management practices of the various sectors of the institution were carried. Through these assessments, the quantity and quality of wastes generated and deposited at the dump site of the institution and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions resulting from the generated wastes in the institution were determined. The major shortcomings observed in respect of source generation, storage and management practices of the Institutions MSW were poor storage facilities in the commercial areas, non-segregation of different waste constituents in all areas and uncontrolled dumping and burning at the designated institution’s dump site daily, 747.5 kg of MSW is being generated. The current non-conventional management practices were responsible for emission of about 25,746.70kg/t of CO2 emissions into the environments.
24 A REVIEW ON SOFTWARE DEFECT PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES , *Rakesh Kumar and Dr. Dharmendra Chourishi
The common software problems appear in a wide variety of applications and environments. Some software related problems arises in software project development i.e. software related problems are known as software defect in which Software bug is a major problem arises in the coding implementation. Software defect prediction has been one of the key areas of exploration in the domain of software quality. The ability of a model to learn from data that does not come from the same project or organization will help organizations that do not have sufficient training data or are going to start work on new projects. The findings of this research are useful not only to the software engineering domain, but also to the empirical studies, which mainly focus on symmetry as they provide steps-by-steps solutions for questions raised in the article. A typical software development process has several stages; each with its own significance and dependency on the other. Each stage is often complex and generates a wide variety of data. Using data mining techniques, Hidden patterns can be uncovered from this data, which measure the impact of each stage on the other and gather useful information to improve the software development process. The insights gained from the extracted knowledge patterns can help software engineers to predict, plan and comprehend the various intricacies of the project, allowing them to optimize future software development activities. As every stage in the development process entails a certain outcome or goal, it becomes crucial to select the best data mining techniques to achieve these goals efficiently.
25 LICENSING AND ECONOMICS OF SOFTWARE REUSE , Navninderjit Singh*
Cracking some Adobe products is as simple as replacing a .dll file in the respective app’s folder. These software range from hundreds of dollars in price to thousands of dollars in price. Thus, making sure users have a legitimate copy and are not using pirated software is of utmost importance to many distributed software companies. There is a lot of information concerning this topic on the Internet, since it is related to piracy, most of the technical information is kept behind closed doors. This is where much of our research will have to take place. We plan to solve this problem by inspecting the dll (dynamic link library) files that regulate the product’s license. After analyzing the files, we will try and find a way to see if a product’s legitimacy can be verified by testing scenarios such as if the dll has been modified in any way.
26 GREEN LIBRARY: AN OVERVIEW , Dr. Saranjit Kaur*
Green library means following a green library movement under which librarian, staff, libraries, cities, towns, college, universities are devoting to greening libraries and minimizing environment impact. Green library is also known as sustainable library is designed to keep in mind to reduce the negative impact on the natural environment and taking advantage of increasing indoor environmental quality. The study of this paper is done through collecting information from websites and some renowned journals. This paper highlights challenges for green library.
27 COMPARISON OF THE SPEED AMONG DIGITAL, OPTICAL AND HYBRID IMAGE PROCESSORS FOR REAL TIME APPLICATIONS , Dr. J. Veerappan* and Dr. R. Ganesan
Selection of a conventional Digital Image Processor (DIP) / Optical Image Processor (OIP) / Hybrid Image Processor (HIP) depends upon its processing speed. The processing speed is a major constraint to increase the input frame rate which affects the output quality of the real time processing. In this paper, the processing time and maximum input frame rate for real time operation of DIP, OIP and HIP are found out and compared. It is inferred that both OIP and HIP are highly applicable for real time processing whereas DIP is applicable only after reducing their input frame rate.
28 INVESTIGATION OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF VEGETABLE OIL BLENDS , Olawale Kazeem Babalola*, Bello Gambo Bichi and Basheer Garba Fagge
Lubricants are commonly used to reduce friction and wear from the sliding and metal contact surfaces, so as to allow the smooth movement of parts in each other, the calls for green ecology and legislations to protect environment and replace the mineral oil with bio-lubricant oils necessitated for this study. It is essential to find out alternative oil for the replacement of mineral oil based lubricants and vegetable oil already meets the requirements. Vegetable oils based bio- lubricants are non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable and have a good lubricating performance than mineral oil based lubricant. The present study evaluates the tribological properties of Castor (C) and Neem (N) oil and their blends and this was compared to the conventional mineral oil. The friction and wear characteristics of the formulated oils were investigated by using four ball tribo tester according to ASTM D4172 method. 60N+40C showed higher viscosity and viscosity index compared to other formulated lubricants and it is better for boundary lubrication. Physico-chemical analysis showed that 100N oil exhibited high saponification value of (194.69MgKOH/g) which confirms its good quality for lubricant production, as compared to 100C oil of 179.23MgKOH/g. In thermal stability analysis, it was found that 60N+40C remains thermally stable than other formulated oils and 60N+40C showed a lower amount of coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter compared to other formulated oils and conventional mineral oil. Therefore the 60N+40C formulated oil from Castor and Neem oil has the potential of replacing the conventional mineral oil for industrial applications.
29 SIMULATION OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL PRODUCTION FROM USED ETHYLENE OXIDE IN STERILIZATION OF SYRINGES , Dr. Abdullahi Osman Ali, Adil A. Mohammed* Mohammed H. M. Abuuznien
The production of ethylene glycol from used ethylene oxide was simulated by Aspen HYSYS® V9.0 based on actual data got from Ava-med for syringes in Khartoum. The effect of temperature and EO-water ratio on the EG mass flow was studied. Results showed that the amount of EG produced is 38.7 kg/h. As the temperature increased the mass flow of EG oscillated. The best temperature that gave the best amount of EG was 190oC. As the EO-water ratio is increased the EG mass flow is increased and the DEG byproduct is decreased. The ratio of EO-water in the Case Under Study (CUS) was 1:108 while the ratio that the literature recommended was 1:20, and it is found that the results were slightly improved in the CUS.
30 ASSESSMENT OF SKILLS ACQUISITION OF METALWORK TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS OF NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION (TECHNICAL)   , Abubakar Ibrahim Muhammad* and Adamu Yusuf Sawaba  
The study designed to determine the level of technical skills attained Metalwork Technology students of Nigeria Certificate in Education (Technical) and factors that affect the level of technical skills. A total of 38 Metalwork students and 16 lecturers/instructors served as the respondents for the research. In order to determine the reliability of the instrument a test re-test was employed while to compute the reliability coefficient instrument used to determine that moment the reliability coefficient used in calculating Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was employed. The reliability was 0.73 while the hypothesis was significant at .05 level. The study found that metalwork technology students demonstrated low level of technical skills. The study recommended that Computer Numerical Control and modernize tools and equipment, should be available to teach students in the colleges.
31 A REVIEW ON TEXT DATA MINING OF CARE LIFE LOG USING KEY GRAPH , *Devanshi Nayak and Dr. Avinash Sharma
Data Mining is a method that requires analyzing and exploring large blocks of data to glean meaningful trends and patterns. In today’s period, every person on earth relies on allopathic treatments and medicines. Data mining techniques can be applied to medical databases that have a vast scope of opportunity for textual as well as visual data. Care Life Log is used to integrate and analyze the level of care required. There are five levels of care, with Level 1 vocabulary including recreation, toilet, morning, afternoon, etc. The level of care gradually increases from Level 1 to Level 5, which has vocabulary that includes tube, danger, treatment, removal, and discovery. The higher the level, the worse the health condition and therefore the greater care required. These levels allow for a clear analysis of a patient’s condition. This analysis has led to an improvement in Quality of Life as well as a decrease in mismatches between the level of care required for patients and the level of care given by care takers. The qualitative analysis result of in-patient nursing records used a text data mining technique to achieve the initial goal: a visual record of such information. The analysis discovered vocabularies relating to proper treatment methods and concisely summarized their extracts from in-patient nursing records. Important vocabularies that characterize each nursing record were also revealed. The results of this research will contribute to nursing work evaluation and education. This research used a text data mining technique to extract useful information from nursing records within Electronic Medical Records.
32 USE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES TO BENEFIT FROM AGRICULTURE AND DAIRY WASTE TO PRODUCE DAIRY PRODUCTS FOR PEOPLE WITH SPECIAL NUTRITIONAL NEEDS , Prof. Nadia A. Abou-Zeid*
The composition, proteolysis, sensory characteristics of low-fat Domaiti cheeses (70% fat reduction) made from buffaloes milk and containing our laboratory made fat replacers (fat replacer from whey or fat replacer from wheat bran) were examined throughout aging for 60 days. The low-fat variant without fat replacers (L) and the full-fat cheese (F) were also studied. All the control low-fat products showed reduced yield, whereas the moisture and protein content significantly increased; however, the cheeses containing fat replacers had higher moisture and yield values than the L product. The extent of proteolysis and lipolysis in the low-fat cheeses made with the fat replacers significantly increased compared to the F cheese. The sensory testing showed an improvement in body and appearance in the low-fat cheeses containing fat replacers, the product was rated as a harder cheese than its full-fat counterpart, but cheeses containing fat replacers wheat bran did not have clearly evident odor intensity. Overall, the full-fat and simplesse cheeses had more flavor and odor intensity scores than all low-fat variants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in the serum significantly (P≤ 0.05) decreased by fat replacement Calculated atherogenic index significantly decreased (P≤ 0.05) by fat replacement.
33 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF ICE CREAM FORTIFIED WITH CICHORIUM PUMILUM, JACQ CRUDE EXTRACT , Dr. Nadia A. Abou-zeid*
The genus Cichorium has a rich history of use in folklore and is widely eaten by the farmers. It is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. It was discovered that the root of Cichorium contained up to 40% inulin, which has a negligible impact on blood sugar and thus is suitable for diabetics, the crude extract prepared from cichorium had satisfactory proteolytic activities which offers a practical way to reduce its antigenic protein fractions.
34 ECO INNOVATION; COMPUTER SIMULATION IN CASSAVA GRATING MACHINE , Rufus Ogbuka Chime*
Closer attention has been paid recently to innovations in mechanical engineering as a way to motivate industrial owners and policy makers to work towards more radical and systemic improvements in environmental performance and. eco innovation. The positive contribution that industry can make to sustainable development and a competitive economy hinges on a radical change from old and moribund method of production to modern invocation using computer tools like simulations mechanisms. Computer simulations have become a useful tool for the design and modeling of many industrial systems in field of physics (computational physics), astrophysics, climatology, chemistry, biology and manufacturing, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, healthcare and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model. Computer simulation is used to explore and gain new and wider insights into the modern technology and to evaluate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solution. Improvement of nutritional values of processed products also requires special attention from policymakers and researchers. The application of computer simulation model in designing and construction of industrial tools, processing plants, etc. has become very essential because of its flexibility and its economical usefulness in achieving a better result in given environment and time. Cassava is frequently denigrated because its roots are low in protein. However, protein may be supplemented from other sources, particularly legumes; for example, fortification of cassava flour or garri with protein-rich soy flour can be achieved. Such fortified products will be nutritionally advantageous, and thus economical and acceptable to consumers. Cassava is a major source of carbohydrates in human diet. It is widely cultivated and serves as a major source of income in countries like Brazil, India and most West African countries including Nigeria. The tubers of cassava cannot be stored longer after harvest before decaying. Due to this short storage period of the tubers, cassava tubers are further processed into other forms to enhance its storage and to serve other purposes. In Nigeria, the major uses of cassava tubers are to process it into garri for consumption and commercial purposes. The rate of garri consumption in Nigeria and West Africa, in general, increases due to its low cost and availability to the poor, and can be measured in small cups. The growing demand for this root crop by the majority of population and the strenuous processing method actually instigated the interest of industrial engineers and business sector to device means to get cassava processed in a very short time at low cost and environmentally friends to. And this has become an issue of great concern not only to the end users but also to those that cultivate cassava in a commercial quantity. Processing of cassava tubers into garri after harvesting involves different stages starting with the peeling, washing, grating into cassava pulp, dehydrating the pulp, sieving the cake and finally frying. One of these processes which is the grating led to the development of various types of cassava grating machines. A faster means of achieving this objective, economically, environmentally friendly and in a specific time frame is what this design project is set to achieve using the eco-innovations through computer simulation.
35 3D MODELLING APPROACH FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES BUILT BY SUCCESSIVE CORBELLING BASED ON BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) CONCEPTS. , Pettang Joyce Ursula*, Takam Fondop Eric, Manjia Marcelline, Lezin Seba, Prof. Foudjet Amos
Long span prestressed concrete bridges built by successive corbels are complex structures that require a collaborative platform such as the BIM to implement. Their modelling requires the use of various and complex software, very few of which are modular because they are based on fixed and approximate assumptions. Designing an interactive, efficient, iterative, iterative, accessible and adaptable digital model for all construction phases is the essence of this work. This model is of particular interest to construction companies because it provides the opportunity for real-time optimization. This article proposes a 3D modeling established via CASTEM software based on the theory of thin shells following Batoz's improved theory. This choice was validated by applying this method to the 2nd bridge over the Wouri. It is a key tool of the BIM platform that allows iterative optimization of the structure before, during and after construction.
36 GROWTH AND YIELD PENNISETUM PURPUREUM CV Mott IN VARIOUS LEVEL OF DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER (OLF) APPLICATIONS IN TIMOR LESTE , Correia Brigida Antonia, I. W. Suarna, I. B. G. Partama, N. N. Suryani* and B. B. Koten
A study has been carried out with the aim to evaluate the growth and yield of Pennisetum purpureum CV Mott given OLF. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 2 factors and 4 replications: factor A (OLF dose): P2 (1 liter of OLF: 2 liters of water), P4 (1 liter of OLF: 4 liters of water), P6 (1 liter of OLF: 6 liters of water) and P8 (1 liter of OLF: 8 liters of water), and factor B which is the frequency application of OLF consisting of W2 (OLF given 2 days), W4 (OLF given 4 days) and W6 (OLF given 6 days once). The results showed that height increase and highest number of tillers of 10.22 cm week-1 and 10.54 week-1 tiller were obtained at the dose of P2, with frequency of W2 gave. The best frequency application of OLF was obtained at twice daily (W2) OLF of 956.25 and 139.81 g pot-1 respectively for fresh weight and dry weight of forage results. The highest protein content and forage fiber were 9.18% and 24.87%, respectively, obtained by gave a dose of P2, while the frequency of OLF giving every two days gave the highest crude fiber content of 24, 05%. It can be concluded that: growth, forage yield, and forage nutrient content of Pennisetum purpureum CV Mott is influenced by the dosage and frequency application of OLF, and the best OLF dose for Pennisetum plants CV Mott purpureum is P2 with the frequency of giving W2.
37 STUDY ON TEXT DATA MINING FOR CARE LIFE LOG USING KEY GRAPH , Devanshi Nayak* and Prof. S. R. Yadav
Text data mining is a process of extracting interesting and nontrivial patterns from huge amount of text documents. There exist different techniques and tools to mine the text and discover valuable information for future prediction and decision making process. The selection of right and appropriate text mining technique helps to enhance the speed and decreases the time and effort required to extract valuable information. Care Life Log is used to integrate and analyze the level of care required. There are five levels of care, with Level 1 vocabulary including recreation, toilet, morning, afternoon, etc. The level of care gradually increases from Level 1 to Level 5, which has vocabulary that includes tube, danger, treatment, removal, and discovery. The higher the level, the worse the health condition and therefore the greater care required. These levels allow for a clear analysis of a patient’s condition. This analysis has led to an improvement in Quality of Life as well as a decrease in mismatches between the level of care required for patients and the level of care given by care takers. Rapid progress in digital data acquisition techniques have led to huge volume of data. More than 80 percent of today’s data is composed of unstructured or semi-structured data. The discovery of appropriate patterns and trends to analyze the text documents from massive volume of data is a big issue. A text data mining technique identified the relations between feature vocabularies seen in past in-patient records accumulated on the University of Miyazaki Hospital’s Electronic Medical Record, and extractions were made. The qualitative analysis result of in-patient nursing records used a text data mining technique to achieve the initial goal: a visual record of such information. The analysis discovered vocabularies relating to proper treatment methods and concisely summarized their extracts from in-patient nursing records. Important vocabularies that characterize each nursing record were also revealed. The results of this research will contribute to nursing work evaluation and education.
38 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF EDTT AND CONJUNCTIVE RULE ALGORITHM IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENTS , Kuldip Kaur* and Er. Harwinder Kaur
AI is the information revelation process by investigating the huge volumes of information from different viewpoints and abridging it into helpful data. Because of the significance of removing information/data from the enormous information vaults, AI has become a fundamental segment in different fields of human life. One of the special advantages - not yet completely acknowledged - of the developing distributed computing pattern is additionally one of the most disputable parts of the present on-request benefits. The usage of AI systems through Cloud figuring will enable the clients to recover significant data from for all intents and purposes coordinated information distribution center that decreases the expenses of framework and capacity.
39 STUDY ON SOFTWARE DEFECT PREDICTION USING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES , *Rakesh Kumar, Dr. Dharmendra Chourishi, Prof. Anurag Srivastava
Software defect prediction has been one of the key areas of exploration in the domain of software quality. Software bug is a major problem arises in the coding implementation .There are no satisfied result found by project development team. The software bug problems mentationed in problem report and software engineer does not easily detect this software defect but by the help of data mining classification software engineers can easily classify software bug. The challenges encountered are difficulty in separating correct theories from the incorrect ones when the purpose of evaluation is in practice and difficulties in the identification of quality literature from quality lacking literature. Using data mining techniques, one can uncover hidden patterns from this data, measure the impact of each stage on the other and gather useful information to improve the software development process. The insights gained from the extracted knowledge patterns can help software engineers to predict, plan and comprehend the various intricacies of the project, allowing them to optimize future software development activities. It has been also discussed that how data mining improves the software development process in terms of time, cost, resources, reliability and maintainability.
40 TRANSFERRING HEAT THERMAL PULSE THROUGH POLYMER MATERIALS , Klaudia Wiśniewska and Carles M. Rubio*  
The aim of this work was to determine the influence of temperature on thermal properties of polymer materials, as well as investigate the heat flux transfer in semicrystalline and amorphous polymers. The method is based on American standard ASTM D5334:2008 using a dual needle sensor; which was adapted to these materials. The thermal conductivity was determined due to its accuracy and reliability in the used technique. The polymers studied were polyamide-6, polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride. The obtained results indicated that thermal conductivity of investigated polymer increased when the temperature increased. Major factor which influence on heat transfer is the crystallinity of the sample. Semicrystalline polymers had higher value of thermal conductivity than the amorphous polymers, the reason was more efficient vibration of phonon in semicrystalline lattice. Other important factors which affected the thermal properties of polymers were dimension and orientation of sample.
41 EMPOWERMENT OF COMMUNITY AS AN APPROACH OF RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN EAST NUSA TENGGARA , *Dr. Andi Hidayat Rizal and Dr. Andi Kumalawati
The geographical condition of East Nusa Tenggara Province which consists of islands is one of the obstacles in infrastructure development. As a solution for several development implementations in rural areas, especially village road infrastructure, village irrigation channels and water supply installations, the government has implemented a community empowerment policy program as an effort to expedite and involve the community in various matters relating to development in the region. This study uses a qualitative approach with primary data sources derived from resource persons, also using secondary data as supporting sources from documents and reports and studies that have been done before. In this study as a resource person is a stakeholder who is directly involved in the implementation of rural infrastructure project activities. Community empowerment in the development process is a quality development program with an empowerment and community participation approach through the followings: (i) quality development; (ii) in favour with the poor, (iii) autonomous and decentralized; (iv) participative; (v) autoactivity; (vi) compositeness. It was concluded that methods for the approach of community empowering in the construction of rural infrastructure development are: participatory approach, humanity approach and conceptual approach.
42 STUDY ON DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION USING COPULA APPROACH IN DATA MINING , Sumaiya Maryam* and Sriram Yadav
Copula Approach in Data Mining is Sampling-based dimensionality reduction technique eliminating linearly redundant combined dimensions, providing a convenient way to generate correlated multivariate random variables, maintaining the integrity of the original information, reducing the dimension of data space without losing important information. The recent trends in collecting huge and diverse datasets have created a great challenge in data analysis. One of the characteristics of these gigantic datasets is that they often have significant amounts of redundancies. The use of very large multi-dimensional data will result in more noise, redundant data, and the possibility of unconnected data entities. To efficiently manipulate data represented in a high-dimensional space and to address the impact of redundant dimensions on the final results, a new technique for the dimensionality reduction using Copulas and the LU-decomposition (Forward Substitution) method has been proposed. The proposed method is compared favorably with existing approaches on real-world datasets: Diabetes, Waveform, two versions of Human Activity Recognition based on Smartphone, and Thyroid Datasets taken from machine learning repository in terms of dimensionality reduction and efficiency of the method, which are performed on statistical and classification measures.
43 STUDY ON FEATURE SELECTION AND FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES IN DATA MINING , *Wasim Akram and Prof. S. R. Yadav
Dimensionality reduction in data mining focuses on representing data with minimum number of dimensions such that its properties are not lost and hence reducing the underlying complexity in processing the data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the prominent dimensionality reduction techniques widely used in network traffic analysis. In this paper, efficiency of PCA and SPCA has been emphasized for intrusion detection and its Reduction Ratio (RR) has been determined, ideal number of Principal Components needed for intrusion detection and the impact of noisy data on PCA. Feature selection and Feature Extraction are one of the methods used to reduce the dimensionality. Till now these methods were using separately so the resultant feature contains original or transformed data. An efficient algorithm for Feature Selection and Extraction using Feature Subset Technique (FSEFST) in High Dimensional Data has been proposed in order to select and extract the efficient features by using feature subset method where it will have both original and transformed data. The results prove that the suggested method is better as compared with the existing algorithm.
44 ENERGY RATIO ANALYSIS OF THE 5.1MW NGONG WIND FARM, KENYA , John Keru Mwangi*, Kinyua R. and Kamau J. N.
Wind power does not take place under idealized conditions therefore actual energy production regularly deviates from the turbine manufacturer’s power curve. The origin for a lower or higher than predicted energy production for a wind farm in operation can be identified only by performance verification. This research has studied performance of the 5.1MW Ngong wind farm in Kenya in relation to the wind energy available. Parameters of analysis were wind characteristics, energy production and system availability. Wind speed and direction data for twelve months was acquired and using Weibull statistics the diurnal and monthly variability were obtained. The mean annual wind speeds on the wind farm ranged between 7.861 m/s and 9.254 m/s, the Weibull shape parameter values ranged between 2.169 and 2.323, while the Weibull scale parameter values ranged between 8.69 m/s and 10.427 m/s. Wind Rose analysis showed that the wind direction was fairly consistent between 900 and 1350. The wind annual energy contents available for conversion ranged from 3317 kWh/m2/yr to 5351kWh/m2/yr and overall energy ratio of the wind farm was obtained as 28.09 % against the total energy in the wind. The energy ratio analysis distinguished malfunctioning turbines, improved performance after repair and variance in roughness height due to vegetation cover. The study established that, the wind farm performance could be increased by improving availability of systems and management of vegetation cover on areas adjacent to the wind farm.
45 EFFECT OF LAND USE ON MICROBIAL BIOMASS, CARBON AND NITROGEN FROM FALLOW ON SANDY-CLAY OF SAVANNA, CONGO , Goma-Tchimbakala Joseph*, Lebonguy Augustin Aimé and Dzoulou Zama Lorianne
The study was carried out at the Agricongo center situated at seventeen kilometers from Brazzaville. The aim of the present study was to assessment the effects of land use on chemical and microbiological characteristics of soil. Seven sites were chosen in the study area : S1 grass fallow with legume grown; S2 grass fallow; S3 fallow with cowpea residues incorporated into soil; S4 soybean cultivation; S5 grass fallow (7-year-old); S6 coffee plantation; S7 Orchard, in which composite soil samples were taken at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth for determination of pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and microbial biomass. The results showed that pH was different between the depth and between the sites. highest total organic carbon content was recorded in site 1 (16.7%) and site S2 (12.4%) of 0-10 and 10-20 cm respectively. While lowest content was recorded in site 6 in 0-10 cm depth and in Site 7 in 10-20 cm depth. In 0-10 cm depth, total nitrogen was higher in S1 and lower total nitrogen was in S7. Total nitrogen recorded in 10-20 cm was higher in S6 and lower in S7. Microbial biomass carbon of 0-10 cm was higher in S1 with 309.5 μg / g soil and lower in S7 with 147.3 μg/g soil. In 10-20 cm depth, microbial biomass carbon was 271,93 μg/g soil in S7 and 109.3 μg/g soil in S3 and S4. Microbial biomass nitrogen was ranged between 6.48 and 69.12 μg /g soil and between 9.36 to 55.6 μg /g soil respectively in0-10 and 10-20cm depth. The results obtained in the present study showed that land use had high impact on the characteristics of soil mainly on pH, organic matter and microbial biomass.
46 APPLICATION OF INERT GAS CONDENSATION , PhD. Indrit Vozga* and Academician Jorgaq Kaçani
Over the last few decades, the production of nano-size powders has been achieved using various techniques. While there are techniques such as flame pyrolysis and chemical vapor deposition, inert gas condensation is one of the simplest processes and is still being used to produce nanopowders. The inert gas condensation technique has been known to produce various ceramic and metal nanopowders such as iron oxides, gold, manganese. The process is also able to produced magnetic fluids comprised of iron and cobalt-based nanoparticles.
47 TECHNICAL REVIEW ON MPPT TECHNIQUES ON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS , Omorogiuwa Eseosa, Itelima Kingsley
Technical researches on solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems including its technological development and advancement have displayed tremendous growth in the last few years, making them commercially achievable but not really affordable currently. It is because of this challenge of non-affordability that has led to the development of maximum power point tracking of solar energy for its maximum efficiency and effective utilization. This work is on review of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques for PV systems including its design, characteristics, principles of operations, construction, planning of PV arrays and the necessity of such systems. Various techniques reviewed in this study include offline, hybrid, three points, temperature based, Artificial intelligence (AI) control as well as the fuzzy logic control techniques. The offline techniques include open circuit voltage, short circuit current and look-up table. Perturbed and Observed method (P&O) as well as the incremental conductance controlled method is among the hybrid technique reviewed. Also considered is this significance of Irradiance and fill factor to MPPT technology.
48 INFLUENCE OF EIGENVECTOR ON SELECTED FACIAL BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION STRATEGIES , Olajide Blessing Olajide*, Jooda Janet Olubunmi, Adeosun Olajide Olusegun, Odeniyi Olufemi Ayodeji
Face identification strategies are becoming more popular among biometric-based strategies as it measures an individual‟s natural data to authenticate and identify individuals by analyzing their physical characteristics. For face identification system to be efficient and robust to serve it purpose of security, there is need to use the best strategy out of the many strategies that have been proposed in literatures for face identification. Amidst the most popularly used face identification strategies, Principal Component Analysis PCA, Binary Principal Component Analysis BPCA, and Principal Component Analysis – Artificial Neural Network PCA-ANN were selected for performance evaluation. The research was experimented by varying the eigenvector of the training images for each strategy to compare the performance using Recognition Rate RR and Total Recognition Time TR as performance metrics. Results showed that PCA – ANN strategy gave the best recognition rate of 94% with a trade-off in recognition time. Also, the recognition rates of PCA and B-PCA increased with decreasing number of eigenvectors but PCA-ANN recognition rate was negligible. Hence PCA-ANN outperforms the other face identification strategies.
49 REVIEW ON MODERN TRENDS ON SMART REMOTE MODELS FOR MONITORING PV SYSTEM , Eseosa Omorogiuwa*, P. I. Obi**
Monitoring systems is one of the key issues in solving solar energy challenges as a large percent of its energy tracked for utilization is lost. Such systems will ensure that quality and certainty in terms of available power from this clean and almost zero maintenance free source of renewable energy is guaranteed to a large extent. This paper thus reviewed published articles on smart monitoring systems for photovoltaic (PV) cells. Part of what is monitored using Electronic Control Unit (ECU) include PV panel voltage and current, voltage levels of each batteries, cumulative electricity generated by the PV system, AC power of the system, DC power indicating load shedding either in the PV modules or within it. Previous monitoring schemes used for PV systems were also reviewed as well as the current remote monitoring system which focused majorly on Internet of Things (IoT). PV financing was also investigated as it will make it possible for the PV financiers to monitor their investment in real time and have records of PV systems operation on the web if need be. Areas of applications of monocrystalline and poly crystalline panels were also considered.
50 EFFECT OF CURING METHODS ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF GREEN CONCRETE CYLINDERS MADE WITH DEMOLISHING WASTE AS COARSE AGGREGATES , Bashir Ahmed Memon, Mahboob Oad*, Abdul Hafeez Buller, Ali Raza
Proper curing is one of the properties which ensures proper strength and durability of the concrete. This research article presents laboratory investigations on the effect of different curing methods on tensile strength of green concrete cylinders cast with 50% dosage of recycled aggregates from demolishing waste. Total of 30 cylinders were cast in six batches using normal mix concrete and 0.45 water to cement ratio. One batch of cylinders was cast with all-conventional aggregates to compare the results of proposed concrete. Other five batches were cured using standard water curing with potable water, open air, gunny bags, steam and waste water. All the specimens were cured for 28 days. After curing weight and tensile strength were determined following the ASTM standards. The comparison of the results reveals that curing of recycled aggregate concrete by gunny bags gives better results in terms of weight and tensile strength. Using curing by gunny bags the samples observed about 10% reduction in weight and 0.3% increase in average tensile strength.
51 ANALYSIS OF SUBSEA FLOWLINE SIZING FOR SLUG MITIGATION , Ugochukwu H. Ilonze and Tobinson A. Briggs*
Slug flow has proven to be a menace in the production of Oil and Gas; from cyclic loading of pipelines, which could cause fatigue, to water overflow in the separator. This work established the presence of slugging in a typical Field A and created a prototype that could mitigate it. In work, the diameter of the existing subsea flowline was varied from 0.3715m to 0.05m and observed using OLGA 2016 software after which the optimal configuration was obtained. The obtained prototype created a constriction towards the riser-base, making the flowline to have a varied internal diameter. Liquid hold up, Pressure, Oil volume factor and Water volume factor were simulated and plotted against time, and these plots showed the slug was mitigated with the application of the prototype. The Sensitivity analysis on the mass flow rate with simulation ran from 20kg/s to 40kg/s after which it was confirmed that the mass flow rate does not affect the prototype. A parametric study was also run on the pipeline span to observe its effects on slug mitigation. The pipeline span was increased from 100m to 400m after which the 300m liquid hold up against simulated time plot showed slug flow for only 250 seconds and then stabilised, which made its selection possible. This prototype if applied to a subsea flowline close to the riser base, would mitigate slug flow and its accompanying problems.
52 DETERMINATION OF THE BINDING CHARACTERISTICS OF DICOUMAROL TO BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN BY UV /VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD , Okoro O. A.*, Onwumere F. C., Enebeaku C. K. and Akalezi C. O.
8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-Sulfonic acid (ANS) was used as a probe to study the binding characteristics of Dicoumarol to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). The absorbance of ANS-BSA complex was decreased by the binding of Dicoumarol. This suggests that there is competition between Dicoumarol and ANS for the binding sites in the BSA. It means that ANS and Dicoumarol shared some of the binding sites on BSA. From the scatchard plot for the binding of Dicoumarol to BSA it is seen that Dicoumarol has three high affinity binding sites with association constants Kl=14.5245 x 106, 10.6281x106,11.6811x106 respectively, and three secondary binding sites with association constants Kl =14.0084 x 106 15.8816 x 106 and 19.2058x106 respectively and numerous low affinity binding sites.
53 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY ON HYDRATE TRANSPORTABILITY FOR CONDENSATE PRODUCTION FLOW LINES , Nsofor A. Paul, Tobinson A. Briggs* and Adewale Dosunmu
Recent quest for oil and gas towards exceptionally remote ultra-deepwater areas requiring long tiebacks to link subsea wells with existing platforms renders the popular hydrate preventive method economically non-reasonable for long distances involved. This work investigated the likelihood of transporting hydrate slurry in condensate production flow line without using any heat or hydrate inhibition program. PIPESIM® was employed to simulate the transportability of hydrate slurry for flow line sizes of 0.241, 0.292, 0.343m and flow rates of 820, 1640, 2460 and 3280 sm3/day over a distance of 10 km. Simulations results support higher rates and bigger duct diameter for hydrate-plugging avoidance. Flowrate at 3280sm3/day for both low and high Watercut was more favourable having less outlet pressure drop hence taking out any requirement for secondary recovery techniques at the later field life. PIPESIM® predicted hydrate-temperature of above 12oC was contrasted with some hydrate-temperature prediction models including the Hammerschmidt model, Towler and Mokhatab model, and Katz model. Considering the deviations in the simulated hydrate-temperature with the existing models, the Towler and Mokhatab model were prescribed here as the most suitable alternative to PIPESIM® simulation.
54 STUDIES OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND ITS IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT OF KANCHUGARAKOPPLU WATERSHED KRISHNARAJANAGARA TALUKU, MYSORE DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, SOUTH INDIA. , Chandrashekar J. S.*, Kantharaju T., Nagaraju D. and Bhanuprakash H. M.
The quality of water is a little concern for mankind since it is directly linked to human health. The present work is carried out with an objective to assess and map the spatial variability in the groundwater quality parameters in Kanchugarakoppalu Watershed. Total 12 respective groundwater samples from different bore wells has been collected and analyzed for major cations and anions with concentration for the water quality. Groundwater in the region is found alkaline with presence of bicarbonate in nature and very hard.
55 COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING: A BOON OR A BANE , Mr. Pushan Ghose*
Technology in the form of gadgets and applications has penetrated every sphere of our lives. People of different ages use technology for every task, from the mundane to the profound. There is a gadget for this, there is an app for that. We commonly hear these words in everyday conversation. It is no surprise then that the field of education has come under the same onslaught. Everyone from students, parents, teachers, schools, private organisations, governments seems to have a say in how technology will transform education. Schools assess their own progress based on technology integration. Parents assess the quality of schools based on technology integration. Students think that more technology means the school is advanced. The Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programme is an endeavour to make the content of textbooks easier, interactive and more stimulating. The main task of the programme is to develop interactive education software, based on the national curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is a boon or a bane when educating students.
56 GEOELECTRICAL INVESTIGATION FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION: A CASE STUDY FROM RAMANAGARA TALUK, KARNATAKA, INDIA , A. V. Ganesha* and S. Suresh
The role of Electrical Resistivity Method for groundwater exploration is vital, which provides lot of information on hidden subsurface hydro-geological conditions accurately. This non-invasive method designed for estimation of dynamic and static ground water reserves as well as to infer depth and thickness of various subsurface layers. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were conducted in selected zones of Ramanagar taluk, Karnataka using the Schlumberger array configuration for identifying subsurface lithology favourable for occurrence of groundwater. VES data were collected and interpreted using conventional curve matching and computer iteration method. The geoelectric sections revealed top soil, weathered rock, fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock. The value for topsoil ranges from 20Ωm to 250Ωm with thickness varies from 0.3m to 2.0m. The second layer is weathered rock and resistivity ranges from 50Ωm to 100Ωm and thickness of 1.0 m to 10.0m. The third favourable layer is fractured basement which ranges in value from 100Ωm to 150Ωm with thickness ranges from 3m to 23m. The fresh or bedrock basement has a resistivity of 1000Ωm to infinity. The saturated zone of the weathered and fractured basement at depth will favour groundwater exploration and development in this area, while the thin layer of soil profile with gentle slope would serve as the protective layer and recharge area in the study area.
57 DIAGNOSIS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AND FRP RETROFITTED COLUMNS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS , Dr. Chandrakant B. Pol*
Biography: Dr. Chandrakant B Pol is an Assistant Professor at Walchand College of Engineering Sangli Maharashtra. He received his DCRE from ICRE Gargoti, and BE Civil from Government College of Engineering Karad; ME Structures from VJTI Mumbai; ME Aerospace From IISc Bangalore and PhD in SHM from IIT Bombay, He is a member of many international committees Currently He is an In-charge of Shri Ramkumar Rathi Structural Health Monitoring Research Center at Applied mechanics department Walchand college of Engineering Sangli. His research interests include Structural health monitoring of Civil & Aerospace Structures, Stability and Reliability analysis of structures, Nano-Materials, Nano-concrete.
58 THE POTENTIAL OF ASYSTASIA GANGETICA AS A SUPERIOR OF LOCAL FORAGE IN BALI PROVINCE , I.W. Suarna, N.N. Suryani* and I.K. Mangku Budiasa
Local forage plants are still a mainstay for farmers to increase livestock productivity. Among the various types of local forage plants. Asystasia gangetica is one type of local forage plants whose potential is not yet known. The study was conducted with the aim to determine the potential of A. gangetica as a forage-yield. A completely randomized design with 5 levels of urea fertilizer treatment and 4 replications was carried out at the Sesetan research station in Denpasar. The results showed that plant growth as indicated by variables of plant length, number of branches, number of leaves, and leaf area per plant in the application of urea fertilizer 50 kg ha-1 showed the highest response, however, the lowest for the number of flowers. Aplication of various levels of urea fertilizer does not affect the yield of A. gangetica although there is a tendency to use urea 50 kg ha-1 gives 11.93% more results than without urea and 7.59% more than the use of 200 kg ha-1 urea. Observing the characteristic of plant growth. growth. and forage yield it can be concluded that A. gangetica has a high potential to be developed as a superior feed plant.
59 ANALYSIS OF AWGN, FLAT FADING AND FREQUENCY SELECTIVE CHANNELS USING DAPSK MODULATION TECHNIQUE , Anupam Nema* and Dheeraj Nagar
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a modulation technique that is widely used in many wireless communication systems. Now-a-days the requirements of wireless communication are to have high voice quality, high data rates, multimedia features, lightweight communication devices etc. But the wireless communication channel suffers from much impairment. One of them is fading which is due to the effect of multiple propagation paths, and the rapid movement of mobile communication devices. In a typical wireless communication environment, multiple propagation paths often exist from a transmitter to a receiver due to scattering by different objects. So, this is necessary to reduce the problem of fading. In traditional OFDM based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) high side lobes are created. Hence, OFDM based on discrete wavelet transform is used in this work. DWT is more flexible in terms of data rate and has much lower side lobes than traditional OFDM. In this work, the performance of OFDM based on DWT is compared with that of traditional OFDM based on FFT and OFDM based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) through the use of differential amplitude phase shift keying (DAPSK) as modulation scheme. These systems are simulated over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), flat fading, and frequency-selective channels through MATLAB software. Simulation results reveal that the performance of the proposed system is better than that of the other two systems over all types of channels.
60 A REVIEW “PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NETWORK USING DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES” , *Anupam Nema and Dheeraj Nagar
Mobile and wireless networks have recently seen a remarkable development at the global level. This applies to previous and current generations, which have seen the development of telecommunications networks mainly in GSM, 2G, UMTS and 3G networks. Evolutions are continuing everywhere of specialized networks such as sensors, smart tags, and telecom networks. They now see contend solutions which coming from various horizons: classic telecom world with HSDPA, world of wireless networks with WiMAX even in the world of satellite and terrestrial broadcasting (DVB-T, DVB-H, DVB-S). The fourth-generation (4G) wireless network is truly a turning point in the proliferation and disparity of existing solutions. The main parameters of the 4G network that have made this network the best and the most expensive are its very high bandwidth used, the much lower latency than in the 3G network, a high bandwidth, a flexible frequency band, and a interoperability with other networks so this parameter gives the choice to the user for their use within the 4G. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of 4G networks and its different Quality of Service. A simulation demonstrating the performance of 4th generation cellular networks is presented. Good simulation and good results were obtained using the Net Sim simulator.
61 EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF COOLING WATER SYSTEM IN 20 MW JABANA II THERMAL POWER PLANT IN RWANDA , Uwimana Marcelline* and Musabe Clement
Cooling water system is the one of the system which is used to maintain the temperature of the engines producing electricity, at JABANA, cooling water system is divided into two circuits: HT (High Temperature)-circuit and LT (LOW Temperature)- circuit which cool different parts of the engine. The aim of this research was to calculate the efficiency of cooling water used to cool the engines which produce electricity at JABANA and then to evaluate the efficiency by using the data recorded from radiator. Through this study, different ways in which cooling water system is circulating, and working, how it can be treated, its advantages and its disadvantages were launched. During this research more information about cooling water system at JABANA were obtained, and then it was found that the efficiency is at good level and efficiency will not cause the damages on the engines, temperatures also are almost equal, this means that the engines are working well. The method used in this research was to collect data recorded, read books relating to our project in order to get more information and make a research on the different websites where we got the information we did not find through books. All those methods helped us to use the data recorded from radiator and to analyze them. As conclusion, after analyzing data obtained, we found that the efficiency is good, even water for cooling is good, this show us a well working of the engines and cooling water system. We recommend all operators, technicians and engineers into the plant to avoid that the efficiency become low by keeping up their temperatures and doing maintenance at time.
62 DESIGN OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM FOR DUGURIYEL VILLAGE USING SOLARPRO , Nuhu Mohammed*, Ademola Bello Adisa, Habou Dandakouta and Aje Tokan
The quest for diversification of power generation source in Nigeria is becoming necessary, going by the lingering power shortage experienced. Many rural communities in the country are situated far from grid electricity and are characterised by low population densities (about 165.4 people per sq.km) and disperse settlement, making the construction of electrification infrastructure very challenging, expensive and time-consuming. Although, the country has in abundance renewable and non-renewable energy sources capable of providing the needed power for her growth and development if justly harnessed, yet, the country faces huge power deficit due to gas shortage, vandalism activities and poor infrastructure, which necessitate the study of a better approach for sustainability and energy security. The Government has an expansion strategy of electricity generation from renewable energy with solar photovoltaic to contribute 75 MW by 2020. In this research, an off-grid solar photovoltaic farm was designed for Duguriyel village Bauchi using solarPro. Estimated load demand of the village was found to be 1702.84 kWhr/day and that of solar radiation was 5.2 kW/m2/yr. Result of solar photovoltaic farm shows that solar facility capacity of 444 kW has to be installed over 2396.2 m2 to generate an average of 1788.89 kWhr/day of power.
63 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF SMALL VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES , Dong-Yang Wu*, Jian-Fan, Xiu-Qin Chen, Jian-Yang Song and Jiang-Bo Tong
Vertical axis wind turbine is widely used in wind power generation because of its simple structure, high reliability and automatic windward. In order to study the influence of shaft material, blade material and wind speed on the wind wheel of a small vertical axis wind turbine, this paper makes a finite element analysis of the wind wheel of small vertical axis wind turbine through the orthogonal experimental method. The results show that the maximum displacement always appears in the upper part of the wind turbine blade, and the maximum stress always appears in the bottom surface of the wind wheel main shaft; when the wind speed is small, the displacement and stress of shaft material and blade material change little. Then based on the ANSYS Workbench software, the modal analysis of the wind wheel shows that the natural frequency of the wind wheel is 6.05 Hz, so the frequency added by the wind wheel should avoid 6.05 Hz to prevent resonance.
64 BIT ERROR RATE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW , Srishti Nema* and Dheeraj Nagar
Now-a-days the requirements of wireless communication are to have high voice quality, high data rates, multimedia features, lightweight communication devices etc. But the wireless communication channel suffers from much impairment. One of them is fading which is due to the effect of multiple propagation paths, and the rapid movement of mobile communication devices. This paper analyses the various digital modulation techniques used in the present Wireless communications which has become the need of today. Here we see the various digital bandpass modulation schemes like the phase shift keying, frequency shift keying, amplitude shift keying and the M- ary signalling used most widely in wireless communications these days. Digital modulation contributes to the growth of mobile communications by increasing the quality, speed and capacity of the wireless network. In the communication, the idea of modulation is a primary factor for the reason that without a scheme of appropriate modulation, it would be not possible to attain a planned flow. The offered bandwidth, allowable power and the level of inherent noise of the system are the constraints which must be taken into account in the development of communication systems. Because of the error free capacity in the digital modulation, it is chosen over the techniques of analogue modulation. The WiMax uses combinations of distinct modulation schemes such as BPSK, QPSK, 4-QAM and 16-QAM and it is a capable technology which provides video, data and high speed voice services. In this literature the review of documentation on the various digital modulation techniques that are typically used for wireless communication is presented.
65 ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EHANDIAGU AND UKPOR CLAY BLENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION , I.C.C Iloabachie*, A. S. Chukwuma, C. N. Onyia and Chime A. C.
Analytical evaluation of the thermal properties of Ehandiagu and Ukpor Clay blends for industrial application was undertaken in this work. The clay samples were collected by manual method of mining, with the help of a digger and a shovel. The collected raw clay samples were dried in air and crushed to a particle size of 0.325mm using a locally fabricated pulverizing machine and soaked in a plastic container containing about 20 liters of water. The filtrate was sun dried for three days followed by ovum drying at 1000C for three hours. Chemical analysis was carried out at National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency (NSRMEA), Kaduna, with the aid of a Mini Pal 4 version (PW 4030) compact energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The clay samples were blended in the ratios of 80:20, 40:60, 60:40 and 20:80 designated as EU1, EU2, EU3 and EU4 respectively. E and U represent Ehandiagu and Ukpor in that order. Apparent porosity, bulk density and modulus of rupture of the clay samples were determined at 900oC, 1000oC, 1100oC and 1200oC in an electric kiln. The results showed that EU1 clay blend (80:20) had highest modulus of rupture of 23.58 at 1200oC and also maintained the highest values of apparent porosity at all service temperature. Also, the apparent porosity of EU1 at the studied service temperatures was between 20-30% which is within the standard range required for the production of fireclay and siliceous fireclays. Therefore, this clay blend can be used for the production of fireclay and siliceous fireclays.
66 ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBILITIES OF X-RAY FLUORESCENT METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF HYDRAULIC FLUID OF MINING MACHINES , A. Muzaffarov, J. Toshov and N. Abduazizov*
The objective of the study is to assess the capabilities of the spectral analysis of motor oils of mining and metallurgical production machines for an existing industry (NMMC). Methodology. For the analysis of hydraulic fluids, samples were taken from machines of various sections of mining and metallurgical industries and their quality was determined in laboratory conditions by the X-ray fluorescence method on an EDX-7000 instrument (SHMADZU, Japan). To conduct a semi-quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of the hydraulic fluid of mining and metallurgical production machines on the EDX-7000 instrument (SHMADZU, Japan), an improved version of the spectral analysis method has been developed. A specific sample of the soil (sand) of the area was taken as a matrix composition and an analysis was carried out in laboratory conditions. Results. Based on the studies and developed methods for measuring the spectral analysis of the hydraulic fluid of mining and metallurgical industries, the possibilities of using the X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis method for determining – concentration are determined. A new method for preparing the test sample was developed. The results of analyzes of chemical elements and their concentration in the matrix mass obtained by x-ray fluorescence method. Scientific novelty. A new method of preparation of the test sample was developed, which includes sampling 100 grams of soil, calcining in a laboratory oven of the CNOL-24/200 brand at a temperature of 80 ° C for 1 hour, grinding to the class of 0.074 microns, adding 100 grams of used oils to it, mixing until a uniformly distributed mass is obtained and fed to a spectral analysis. Practical significance. Based on the studies and the developed methods for measuring the spectral analysis of the hydraulic fluid of mining and metallurgical industries, the possibilities of using the X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis method to determine the concentration of SiO2, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Sr, V, Ca, K, Cr, Zn, Cu, Zr, etc. Main goals. Classification of hydraulic fluid, the main determined values in the composition of the hydraulic fluid, methods of sampling hydraulic fluid samples, detailing the possibility of spectral analysis methods to determine a specific value, the classification of hydraulic fluid analysis methods suitable for each object.
67 OPTIMIZING BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF A GASOLINE ENGINE BY VARYING THE VALVE EVENTS , Arthur Felipe Rolim Dos Reis, Marcus Costa de Araújo, José Claudino De Lira Júnior, Jorge Henríquez, José Carlos Charamba Dutra*
The Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) represents the efficiency of fuel and is related to the overall efficiency of an ICE. This study evaluates strategies for varying the events in the intake and exhaust valves to improve the BSFC of a gasoline engine. An optimization study was carried out to obtain the lift curves that allow the minimum fuel consumption for operating conditions at partial loads, which are representative of driving a vehicle in an urban cycle. A one-dimensional model of the Etorq Evo 1.6L turbo engine was taken as a basis and converted to an aspirated engine model. The Brent optimization method, which is available in the standard optimizer of the software and intended for optimizations with only one independent variable, was used in conjunction with the Univariate search method, thereby allowing more than one variable to be incorporated into the optimization process. Thereafter, an analysis was made of the phenomena that led to reducing the BSFC and also the implications for torque, volumetric efficiency and pollutant emissions. The results obtained a maximum reduction of 22.5% for the BSFC for a engine operating with 2 bar of Brake Mean Effective Pressure and at a speed of 1500 RPM.
68 STUDY OF ELECTRIC AND PHOTO-ELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF COTTON FIBERS OF THE GRADE C-6524 ALLOYED BY KMnO4 , A. T. Mamadalimov*, N. K. Khakimova, M. A. Shermatova, M. Sh. Isaev, Sh. M. Norbekov, D. R. Aminov, Sh. P. Karimov, S. U. Umarova and R. U. Khakimova
For the first time diffusion KMnO4 in cotton fibers (CF) grades C-6524 is carried out and is revealed their semiconductor properties. Laws of temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and energy activation of deep level formed at entering KMnO4 in CF grades C-6524 are defined. Kinetics of photoconductivity are studied and the long-term relaxation of photoconductivity after illumination by light with hν = 5,0 eV is found out.
69 CHALLENGES OF PIPELINE VANDALISM AND OIL INDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA , A.O. Ibeje*
From available statistics, a total of 9,107 oil spill incidences occurred between 1976 and 2005 resulting in about 3,121,909.8 barrels of oil spilled into the environment. Sabotage is currently the leading cause of oil spillage in Nigeria. Oil pipeline vandalization occurs through acts of sabotage. Sabotage here relates to various acts that interrupt the production and distribution of petroleum products Nigeria hasdeveloped a National Oil Spill Contingency Plan (NOSCP), which was revised in 2003 and reviewed in 2006. This include joint surveillance of pipeline Rights-of-way involving the host communities, stricter penalties for pipeline vandalism, aggressive public enlightenment on the negative impacts of pipeline vandalism on the environment as well as making supply of refined petroleum products affordable and readily available thereby making oil pipeline theft unattractive. As a third world country, this is one of the strategies put in place by the Nigerian Government for sustaining development and human capacity building in the oil industry.
70 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING IN OPTIMIZATION OF FORECASTED RESERVOIR INFLOW , A.O. Ibeje*
In the study, simulation model is developed for the prediction of daily inflow into Dadin-Kowa Reservoir (River Gongola) in Northern Nigeria. In the study, the 1991-2001 records of observed and forecasted daily rainfall amounts are used as predictors and the reservoir daily inflow as predicted targets for Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks (MLP-ANNs). With a learning rate of 0.01 and momentum coefficient of 0.85, the MLP-ANN model is developed using 1 input node, 7 hidden nodes, 1000 training epoches and 24 adjustable parameters. Error measures such as the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), the Mean Squared Relative Error (MSRE) and the Coefficient of Determination (R2) are employed to evaluate the performance of the developed model for data calibration (1991-1998), verification (1991-2001) and validation (2010-2011). The result revealed: MAE={0.7156, 0.6717, 1.046} x 10-5; MSRE = {1.4984, 1.5087, 1.1478 }x 10-7; and R = {0.9957,0.9958,0.9688}. Furthermore, dynamic model is developed based on observed and simulated daily reservoir inflow to obtain optimal allocation policy to irrigation, industrial and domestic user sectors for each month of the year. The research reveals that only the months with prolonged dry spells have optimal returns to the user sectors while the months with records of rainfall could not produce optimized returns in the model. Therefore, the application of the results will lead to saving N175, 298,126 annually in the dam provision of water to the region.
71 DUAL TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY (DTMF) ENABLED AUTOMATIC ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM , Okeke R. O.* and Okoroigwe U. N.  
Traditionally, most doors are controlled by manually unlocking, opening and closing them. With time, this method seems to be very strenuous, especially for garage doors as one have to alight from their vehicle to manually operate the door each time; for both opening and closing. As the world gets more technologically advanced, we find new technologies that help us carry out simple tasks more easily. This report details a new method of opening and closing garage doors with the use of a DTMF cell phone remotely, which is more convenient than traditional methods. In this proposed system, operation of the garage door was done by using a mobile phone. The keypad of a mobile phone was used to signal a DTMF decoder interfaced to a micro-controller system which in turn is connected to the mechanism that opens or closes the garage door, provided the correct pass-code was entered. This is based on the concept of Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF). The buttons on the keypad of the mobile phone generates a unique frequency when pressed. These frequencies were decoded by the DTMF decoder at the receiving end which is fed to the ATMEGA328 micro-processor. When this decoded values match with the values stored in the micro-controller, the micro-controller initiates a mechanism to open the door through a motor driver connected to the garage door. This method of operating garage doors has proven to be more convenient, making the task easier.
72 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES , Dr. C. I. Obinwa*
This course presents a clearer view on the understanding of Electromagnetic Fields and waves, for the development of field-related appliances, such as GSM, etc. For proper understanding, it is to be noted that most of the laws and their derived mathematical expressions (equations) are highly interwoven and inter-related that their easy understanding pose some problems. To solve these problems, clearer knowledge of vectors is necessary as Electromagnetic Fields and Waves are examples of Vector Fields. Laws and their appropriate equations and their inter-relations are explained. Some examples are; , is equivalent to F= iLB, Faraday’s law of , is also Blv. That, extension of Ampere’s law, is, the Maxwell equation which is + i) and Ampere’s law is I.
73 PHYSICAL DEMARCATION OF INFRASTRUCTURES AND MAKING DETAILED PHYSICAL PLANNING OF KABEZA SITE , Jean Pierre HABIYAREMYE*, Dr. MANIRAKIZA Richard
Physical infrastructure is the basic physical structures required for an economy to function and survive. Rwanda, like other developing countries, its plans focus on the contribution to the solutions of the problems arising due to lack of well-planned local urban upgrading. The infrastructures that allow the access to the services of the population within the country must be maintained, constructed for better achievement of different goals at different levels from the Central Government up to the Sector level. This paper therefore examined the demarcation of the infrastructures and the detailed physical planning as a key component of urban development initiatives. The physical planning sets the boundaries with the purpose of having access to affordable infrastructure services for consumption purposes serves to improve household welfare and affordable housing and promoting a sustainable development for the benefit of the individual, for society and for future generation. The project was conducted in Kabeza Site, Eastern Province, Bugesera District, Ntarama Sector, Kanzenze Cell and Kabeza Village in Republic of Rwanda. The study involved a detailed topographic survey of existing features on Kabeza site. An interview of stakeholders was conducted during the community meeting. Different software were used to analyze and re-plotting the physical planning. Findings show that the rapid rate of urbanization has led to a rise in informal settlements facing with the problems including lack of sufficient and adequate basic infrastructures. The paper therefore canvassed for immediate evolvement of physical plan that emphasis on keeping commitment to place, establishing the quality recreation areas and diversifying housing options. It was revealed that there is a need to establish a well planned roads, create a more vibrate village centre, light the whole village, establish a water system in the whole village, maintain and upgrade the greening village infrastructures, build community from assessment of the existing land use land cover, make and re-plot the new parcels within the site and to design details physical layout plan of that region. The study recommends the project implementers and partners, particularly the local government units overseeing the project site, to pay attention to the growing income disparity and the exclusion of the poorest from development process. Government should identify measures to minimize the interventions that impact negatively the life of well-being of the poor and women and also to minimize negative impacts on the environment.
74 A NEW TOOL TO MONITOR NETWORK WITH LAMP ARCHITECTURE , Rabia Khan*, Rashid Husain and Rajesh Kumar Tyagi
Network Monitoring Tool enables you to log and monitor data owing in and out of your network. The program runs as a local service. It helps the administrator to check for congestion in the network and the root cause for it. The explained tool has been designed for ISO-OSI model 4th layer called as transport layer i.e. Specifically for two important protocol TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and third layer protocol is ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). It traces timestamp, source IP, destination IP, source port, destination port and packet length. To keep the track record of all the communication and all the data transfer taking place, we analyzed these tools and showed the results in this paper. This technique is very effective for analyzing network traffic.
75 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SPRINKLING WATER FROM THE FIELDS OF THE SAGBAYA MARKET GARDENING GROUP IN THE FARANAH URBAN COMMUNE , Diallo Mamadou Aliou*, Barry Mamadou Alpha, Tonguino Sâa Poindo, Diallo Diariou, Sakouvogui Ansoumane
The general objective of this research is to characterize the irrigation water used by the SAGBAYA market gardening group in Faranah. For this we determined the physical parameters (temperature, turbidity, conductivity and mineralization) and chemical parameters (pH, chlorides, nitrates, iron and manganese) of irrigation water and then analyzed and interpreted the results. The research work that took place in the period from October 10, 2014 to June 20, 2015 was conducted in the field (in situ) and at the Water and Hygiene - Hydrotechnics - Civil Engineering Laboratory - UGAN Conakry. The physical and chemical parameters of the irrigation water were determined by measurements and by colorimetric, potentiometric and volumetric methods. After analysis, the results obtained showed that the irrigation water is characterized on average by: a temperature of 24.9oC; a pH of 4.98, a turbidity of 117.89 NTU, a conductivity of 215.94 micro-siemens/cm, a mineralization of 101.5 mg/l. The chemical analyzes showed an average presence of: 20.79 mg/l of chlorides, 49.94 mg/l of nitrates, 0.15 mg/l of iron and 0.68 mg/l of manganese. These results showed that the water used for watering is favorable for watering vegetable crops.
76 FORMATIONS OF VERSIONS OF SOME DYNAMIC INEQUALITIES , Muhammad Kamran*, Mirza Naveed Jahangeer Baig and Muhammad Imran Shahid
The study of dynamic equation on measure chain (time scale) goes back to its founder S. Hilger (1988) (Hilger 1988) and is a new area of still fairly theoretical exploration in mathematics. Motivating the subject is the ration that dynamic equation on measure chains can build bridge between continuous and discrete mathematics. It has been created in order to unify the study of differential and difference equations. We also present various properties / several example and application. The study of dynamic inequalities has received a lot of attention in the literature and has become a major field in pure and applied mathematics. In this article we mainly focused on Randons’s Inequality, GronWall’s Inequality, AM-GM Inequality, Lyapunov’s Inequality, Antiderivative and integral and Nesbitts inequality via time scale respectively.
77 PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE FOR OPTIMISATION OF 330KV POWER SYSTEM FOR TWO VARIABLES , Dr. C. I. Obinwa*
The work handles a method of optimisation of 330KV power system load flow per excellence. This method is called, PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE and it is used in solving optimal load flow problems. As load-sheddings, power outages and system losses have been cause for worries, especially among the developing nations such as Nigeria, hence a need for a more functional load flow solution technique, which, this work addresses. Optimisation is achieving maximum of required and minimum of un-required and it is obtained mathematically by differentiating the objective function with respect to the control variable(s) and equating the resulting expression(s) to zero. This work developed a mathematical model that solves load flow problems by engaging non-negative PRIMAL variables, “S” and “z” into the inequality constraint of the load flow problems in other to transform it to equality constraint(s). Another non-negative DUAL variables “” and “v” are incorporated together with Lagrangian multiplier “λ” to solve optimisation. While solving optimization, Barrier Parameter “” which ensures feasible point(s) exist(s) within the feasible region (INTERIOR POINT). Damping factor or step length parameter “α”, in conjunction with Safety factor “” (which improves convergence and keeps the non-negative variables strictly positive) are employed to achieve result. The key-words which are capitalized joined to give this work its name, the PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT. The initial feasible point(s) is/are tested for convergence and where it/they fail(s), iteration starts. Variables are updated by using the computed step size and the step length parameter “α”, which thereafter, undergo another convergence test. This technique usually converges after first iteration. Primarily, this technique excels the existing methods as; it solves load flow problems with equality and inequality constraints simultaneously, it often converges after first iteration as against six or more iterations of the existing methods for one variable objective, for two variables, the iteration number is very few compared to existing method. Its solution provides higher power generations from available capacity and minimum system loss as example, Geregu Power Station on Bus 12 where, result shows 89.3% generation as against 60% of existing methods. Generation loss is 1.8% as against 80.3% of existing methods and availability loss of 12.5% as against 88.2% of existing. Therefore this method ensures very high system stability.
78 15OPTIMISATION OF 330KV NIGERIA ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE BY PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE , Dr. C. I. Obinwa*
The paper developed a technique that made much impact recently in optimization of 330 kV and other Extra High Voltage Networks as it solves load flows which are non-linear with both equality and inequality constraints at the same time thereby saving time and also the system from encountering problems due to delays in fault clearings. The existing solves one constraint after the other and has more than 6 iterations before converging, while the developed method has few iterations and often converge after first iteration. The developed technique guarantees higher system power generation and consequently, larger loading with high system stability. With these advantages over the other methods the technique stands the best for optimisation. This technique is realised by applying the non-negative Primal Variables ,“S” and “z” into the problem formulation to transform the Inequality constraint part to Equality constraints and subsequently apply another non-negative Dual Variables, “” and “v” together with Lagrange multiplier “λ” to solve optimisation. Optimisation is solved by incorporating, Barrier Parameter “” which ensures feasible point(s) exist(s) within the feasible region (INTERIOR POINT), Damping Factor or Step length parameter “α”, Step Size ΔY, in conjunction with Safety Factor “” (which improves convergence and keeps the non-negative variables strictly positive) are used for updating variables (Y1=Y0+αΔY0). If initialised variables fail convergence test, iteration starts with the updated variables. The problem formulation is done economically through minimisation of cost of power generation; min C(PG)= α+βPG+γPG2, g(x)=0, stands for conventional power flow equation and other equality constraints, which is represented as; PGPDloss=0 and h £ h(x) £ ĥ, stands for operating limits on the system, which is represented as PGmin £ PG) £PGmax. The numerical algorithms of the method runs; Step Zero (Initialisation), Step One (Compute Newton Direction ΔY), Step Two (Update Variables), Step Three (Test for Convergence). Studies with results and analysis of improved perforformance by using PD-IP technique on the 330KV Bus Power Stations using Shiroro HydroPower Station of Nigeria of Bus number 1 as example and from table shows that percentage improvement to the existing methods is 22% on power generation, 15% on powere demand and 64% on power loss. Therefore, this method ensures and guarantees1 high system stability. Finally PD-IP technique proved to stands most desired and so should be introduced to Institutions and Utility Companies.
79 OPTIMISATION OF 330KV NIGERIA ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM BY PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE: IMPROVED PERFORMANCE ON SELECTED POWER STATIONS. , Dr. C. I. Obinwa*
The paper developed an optimization technique that is applied in 330 kV and other Extra High Voltage Networks. The Technique solves load flows which are non-linear with both equality and inequality constraints at the same time thereby saving time and saving the system from encountering problems due to delays in faults clearing. The existing solves one constraints after the other and has more than six (6) iterations before converging, while the developed method has few iterations and often converges after first iteration. The developed technique guarantees higher system power generation and consequently, larger loading with high system stability. With these advantages over the other methods the technique is realised by applying the non-negative Primal Variables ,“S” and “z” into the problem formulation to transform the Inequality constraint part to Equality constraints and subsequently apply another non-negative Dual Variables, “” and “v” together with Lagrange multiplier “λ” to solve optimisation. Optimisation is solved by incorporating, Barrier Parameter “” which ensures feasible point(s) exist(s) within the feasible region (INTERIOR POINT), Damping Factor or Step length parameter “α”, Step Size ΔY, in conjunction with Safety Factor “” (which improves convergence and keeps the non-negative variables strictly positive) are used for updating variables (Y1=Y0+αΔY0). If initialised variables fail convergence test, iteration starts with the updated variables. The problem formulation is done economically through minimisation of cost of power generation; min C(PG)= α+βPG+γPG2, g(x)=0, stands for conventional power flow equation and other equality constraints, which is represented as; PGPDloss=0 and h £ h(x) £ ĥ, stands for operating limits on the system, which is represented as PGmin £ PG) £PGmax. The numerical algorithms of the method runs; Step Zero (Initialisation), Step One (Compute Newton Direction ΔY), Step Two (Update Variables), Step Three (Test for Convergence). Studies with results and analysis of improved performance by using PD-IP technique on the 330KV Bus of seven selected Power Stations namely; Shiroro, Afam, Geregu, Delta, Kainji and Jebba Power Stations of Nigeria where table 4 shows that percentage improvement to the existing methods. Therefore, this method ensures and guarantees high system stability.
80 THE EXTENSION METHOD FOR SOLVING BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS OF THE THEORY OF OSCILLATIONS OF BODIES WITH HETEROGENEITY , Grigoriy Zrazhevsky and Vera Zrazhevska*
The article considers the problem of determining the shifts of natural frequencies and changes of mode shape functions for low-frequency longitudinal vibration of an one-dimensional elastic rod containing local stepwise heterogeneities (defects). It is assumed that defects have small linear dimensions in comparison with the rod length and are characterized by a changes in Young's modulus. A new method to obtain the exact solution of the problem (method of solution extension), is proposed in the article. This method is like to the partial domain method and is based on the analytical extension of the solution from the uniform area to the non-uniform area by placing a point singularity on the non-uniform area. This method allows to obtain a solution of the problem for a rod with many defects with different parameters. The solution of the problem is constructed in the form of analytical series expansion according to the characteristic length of the heterogeneity which is considered small with respect to the wavelength. An infinite recursive system of boundary value problems with point discontinuities is obtained. The system allows to obtain a solution of the problem with a given accuracy.
81 RECTANGULAR EXTENSION OF ELEMENTS OF ABSTRACT TOPOLOGICAL SPACES , Padmaja G.* and Gulhane A.
The approach of an object is based on quantifying a precise functional frame for the multidimensional scaling spaces as a special case consisting of discriminate analytical signals makes main idea to subordinate the Gelfand Shilov techniques satisfying the user's requirements of open & close management and visual query in theoretical practical technical forward models a novel scheme study to be taken into consideration during the planning under the same conditions generalize the Laplace Meijer transform having generalizations time to time a combination of two totally different defined two families having different kernels in the case of different dimensional generalized simple objective function sense about with an apparently new appropriate domains for harmonic analysis due to wide spread applicability to solve the PDE involving distributional condition designed by introducing convenient explanations for more general point of view to achieve and enjoy a slightly faster decay in domain even in polynomial case using various classification accuracies obtained using different metrics through the kernel K the quotient of positive polynomials a number of testing function spaces along with their duals follows from the property of strong continuity at origin implies subordination process described as an extensions of the transforms where the linear and bounded map is actually well defined in particular the case at any point.
82 BER AND SNR ENHANCEMENT ANALYSIS OF BPSK MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH AWGN CHANNEL , Srishti Nema* and Dheeraj Nagar
Now-a-days the requirements the increase in the number of wireless devices and the requirement for higher data rates places an increasing demand on bandwidth. The advance generation of wireless communication systems faces the demand for increased higher mobility data rates, larger carrier frequencies, and more link reliability. Wireless channels are characterized by diversity, fading, multipath, limited bandwidth, and frequency and time variant, time invariant selectivity which make system design a challenges. This necessitates the need for communication systems with increased throughput and capacity. The requirements of wireless communication are to have high voice quality, high data rates, high voice quality multimedia features, lightweight communication devices etc. But the wireless communication channel suffers from much impairment. One of them is fading which is due to the effect of multiple propagation paths, and the rapid movement mobile communication devices. In a typical wireless communication atmosphere, multiple propagation paths often exist from a transmitter to a receiver due to scattering by different objects. Signal copies following different paths can undergo different attenuation, distortions, delays and phase shifts. Thus this is necessary to reduce the difficulty of fading, but not at the cost of additional bandwidth. One efficient solution is proposed for wireless system named diversity, without the requirement of extra bandwidth. This thesis deals with the BPSK modulation and AWGN channel to overcome the effect of fading diversity is used at the transmitter to get good signal at the receiver diversity. This technique is used to improve the performance of the radio channel.
83 ANALYSIS OF MALARIA DIAGNOSIS ON PATIENTS USING DATA MINING CLUSTERING TECHNIQUES , Mani Shanker Chaubey*, Adelaja Adebayo Oluwaseun and Nyaaku Oluwayemisi Esther
The research was carried out on the malaria patients with some symptoms on high rate that shows positive +ve result while those with some symptoms on low rate that shows negative -ve result. KNIME data mining tool was used to build a comprehensive work flow model consisting of nodes with their respective functions. Fuzzy c-mean, k-mean and hierarchical clustering nodes were utilized to produce grouped subsets termed clusters from the malaria_result.csv file (training-set). A decision tree level classifier was designed from the patient’s diagnosis of the malaria symptoms. Data Analysis Knowledge Discovery Process for the clustering was also built. The result obtained in this research shows statistical clustering means such as scatter plots, interactive histogram, clustered data table and interactive tables which will be helpful for future observations and predictions of malaria in health care.
84 CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE OF SUPERCONDUCTING STATE PARAMETER: A FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY , Shweta Saklany, Kumar Gaurav Sagar and Ashwani Kumar*
In the present manuscript the concentration dependent study of superconducting state parameters viz., Coulomb pseudopotential *, electron – phonon coupling strength , SC transition temperature TC, interaction strength NOV, semi band gap , energy or mass renormalization parameter Z0 and isotope effect exponent  have been studied. Harrison‟s First Principle pseudopotential (HFPP) technique in conjunction with BCS theory and McMillan‟s formalism has been used in the present investigation. Reasonable agreement with theoretical and experimental data has been obtained.
85 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COMMONLY USED LINING LEATHERS IN FOOTWEAR INDUSTRIES OF BANGLADESH , Yead Mahmud, Syed Badrul Hasan, Md. Minhaz Uddin, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammad Masud Rana Talukder and *Md. Abdur Razzaq
Lining is one of the important parts of shoes which remain under the upper material of it. Depending on its quality- comfortness, breathability, proper fitting and some other characteristics of a shoe could vary. In this study, lining leather sample originated from goat skin used in different footwear industries was collected from eightdifferent footwear industries of Bangladesh. Physical and chemical properties of the collected samples were studied. Finally, a comparative study chart has been illustrated to get overview of the current trend of lining leather consumption in Bangladeshi footwear industries.
86 INFLUENCE OF METAL DIBORIDE AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY IN TELLIRIUM BASED COMPOUND TeB2: A FIRST PRINCIPLE STUDY , Kumar Gaurav Sagar, Shweta Saklany and Ashwani Kumar*
An attempt has been made in the present manuscript to study the concentration dependent study of various superconducting state parameters. In this paper, the superconducting state parameters like Coulomb pseudopotential *, electron – phonon coupling strength , SC transition temperature TC, interaction strength NOV, semi band gap , energy or mass renormalization parameter Z0 and isotope effect exponent  have been studied to explore their dependency on concentration. Harrison’s First Principle pseudopotential (HFPP) method is applied in conjunction with BCS theory and McMillan’s formalism has been used in order to understand the present investigation.
87 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON UTILIZATION OF CRUMB RUBBER IN RIGID PAVEMENTS , N. Mounica*, Hari Krishna Karnam, V. John Prasanth
As the mode of transportation is increasing worldwide, there is an enormous increase in crumb rubber in landfills, which is a serious threat to the environment. In order to reduce the trash and mining of natural sand, which distresses the bridges, river banks and nearby structures, replacement of filler material is the best choice. In view of this aspect crumb rubber from landfills will be a good option for replacement in concrete. In this project an emphasis on replacement of natural material is given. Natural fine aggregate is replaced with crumb rubber at varying percentages i.e., 5, 10, 15, 20 and also adding fly ash to the cement at 5 percentage respectively, and adding 0.2% of silane coupling agent to the fly ash modified cement at all proportions. Related comparisons for the mechanical properties of crumb rubber modified concrete at different proportions in line with the conventional concrete were found out.
88 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF EXTREME STATE OF BALL VALVE , Ren-He Tao, Jian-Yang Song, Kai-Yuan Zhang, Hao-Nan Xu, Can-Fei Wang*
In this study, Solidworks software was used to calculate and analyze the stress and strain of the valve port of the ball valve, and the numerical characteristics of the stress, strain and displacement of the ball valve were preliminarily estimated. The results of this study will provide a good basis for further research on numerical characteristics of ball valve at different positions. By studying the preliminary findings of ball valve in the fully open and fully closed in both cases, the stress, strain and displacement of the valve port suffered under the grid as a variable stress change with the increase of grid number , strain and displacement data in the grid number increase after the change is small, the material is a greater difference between the values of maximum stress under variable, while the smallest stress value were similar, strain and displacement of maximum minimum value difference is not large, in the variable for the load stress and strain when the maximum and the minimum and maximum displacement and load force has a positive correlation. The minimum displacement value does not increase with the increase of the loading force, and remains unchanged.
89 STUDY ON THIN RCC SLAB - BRICKWORK COMPOSITE LINTEL , Dr. N. Balasubramani*, Ar. Vedhajanani B., Er. Shreeshakthi B.
This paper throws light on the possibilities of applications of Thin RCC SLAB - Brickwork Composite Lintel (TRSBWCL). These composite lintels will consist of thin RCC slab precast or cast in situ. On the slab brick masonry will be constructed with cement mortar of ratio equal to or richer than CM 1:5. On loading, the slab and brick the brick work both joined together expected to function as a composite structure and sustain the applied external load. This paper includes the fundamental design methods of the Thin RCC SLAB - Brickwork Composite Lintel (TRSBWCL), with reference to existing literatures, which would be helpful for designers to choose and apply. These lintels generally expected to exhibit the two major possible modes of failures. Moment capacity calculations in both the failure modes are presented.
90 OPTIMAL TRAFFIC SIGNAL TIMING USING GENETIC ALGORITHM CONSIDERING THE VEHICLE EMISSION ISSUE FOR A COMPLEX URBAN ROAD INTERSECTION , Do Van Manh* and Dinh Tuan Hai
Urban growth causes various problems that include the difficulty of managing urban waste, stress on the infrastructure, the pressure of urban traffic networks, and pollution of air quality in the city. Governments of many countries in the world have to pay more attention to optimize the traffic control system as well as to reduce the exhausting emission of traffic networks in urban areas. Particularly, the congested intersection has been the first concern in the traffic network where causes vehicle delays, traffic jams, and excessive fuel consumption. Few researchers attempted to minimize the traffic delays, time loss and queue lengths at a particular intersection. However, those results did not mention the minimization of vehicle emissions at the intersection. On the other hand, several pieces of research suggested the integration of vehicle exhausted emission function in the researched model. Nevertheless, those mentioned models should be enriched by different cases based on real traffic demand. This study aims to generate the comprehensive performance index model that integrates traffic signal optimization and minimizing vehicle exhausted emission for a particular complex intersection in Taichung city Taiwan by Genetic Algorithm. The suggested model has been generated by considering the constraint problems in traffic signal control, optimizing the traffic signal timing, and reducing the fuel consumption at the intersection.
91 SOME COMPACTION STANDARDS AND QUALITY OF COMPACTED SOIL , Abidemi O. Ilori*
Three different compactive efforts, modified AASHTO, British Standard Heavy, and West African Standard were applied to three construction soil aggregates obtained from different aggregates sources in Uyo, in Akwa Ibom state, South eastern Nigeria. The soil aggregates satisfy the requirements for both subgrade and subbase stipulated by United States Unified Facilities Criteria and Nigerian Federal Ministry of Works. All the soil classify as SC (clayey sand), with various percentages of fines passing sieve no 200. The object is to investigate the quality of soil produced by the different compactive efforts. The modified AASHTO effort results in maximum dry density values of 1930 kg/m3, 1890.4 kg/m3, 1890 kg/m3, for samples from Uniuyo, Ukana, and Nsukura aggregates sources respectively. These values represent the highest values obtained for all the standards. Unconfined compressive strength, modulus, and California Bearing Ratio were further determined to evaluate the strength of the compacted samples. Results indicate that soil with maximum dry density values does not necessarily have the largest values of the strength parameters as indicated by poor correlation results between the maximum densities and stiffness or strength parameters.
92 HUMAN IMMUNODEFFICIENCY (HIV) – BLOOD INTERACTIONS: APPLICATION OF SESSILE DROP TECHNIQUES TO THE VERIFICATION OF NEGATIVE HAMAKER CONCEPT , Ozoihu E. M., Omenyi S. N. and R. O. Chime*
An alternative solution to Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been a worldwide concern since the antiretroviral drugs have failed to completely eradicate Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from the blood. However the concept of negative Hamaker coefficient has been widely reported as one of the reliable traditional method of separation between particles that interact both in vacuum and in liquid. It was therefore suggested that the concept of the negative Hamaker as a method of separation might provide a solution to interactions between HIV and blood. This novel was applied to interaction between the HIV and lymphocytes that evidently exist as particles. A sessile drop technique was carried out on ten samples of HIV infected and uninfected blood. The CD4+ cell counts of these bloods reveal the extent of immune cell depletion as determined with partec flow meter. Diodomethane was used to determine the contact angles whose results were used to estimate the interfacial energies and absolute values of Hamaker coefficient for infected lymphocytes (HIV), lymphocytes and Serum. A pair – wise summation of geometric means of the absolute Hamaker coefficients yielded a negative value (-0.145X10-19mJ/m2).This implies that the van der Waals attraction (+) between HIV and lymphocytes could be made repulsive(-), hence a good suggestion to the cure of HIV/AIDS.
93 OVERVIEW OF SOLAR TRACKING DEVICE AND DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT POSITIONING DETECTOR , *Ejiko S. O., Ogunlowo M. and Ukachi P. A.
Solar tracking devices have been in existence for many years but its affordability is limited to medium income earners. The ability to develop component parts locally will go a long way to reduce the cost, hence the development of light positioning detector. Overview of the contributions of some authors in solar tracking technology is presented to highlight some disadvantages that are expected to be tackled. In the development of the light positioning detector, a four quadrants sensor (light dependent resistors) was used as the detector, which serves as a medium for sensing positional change of the sun and in turn influences the repositioning of the solar panel. Signal from the (Solar Tracking Sensor) STS is fed through the potentiometer (10k variable resistors) and the IN4001 diodes, (having all their cathodes connected to the terminal 6(VIN) of ADC0804LNC (Comparator) - Slave micro-controller. This compares the input signal with the reference voltage and the error signal (the difference) is sent through the parallel port to AT89352 - Master micro- controller that then executes pre-defined task in its software. The micro-controller in line with the pre-defined programme written on its software scans through the LEDs and gives a stable signal (voltage) to those LEDs corresponding to the „exposed‟ STS quadrant. The prototype light positioning detector was implemented to save cost using local content and affordable microcontroller.
94 THE IMPACT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON RICE PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE FOOD SECURITY OF BAKALORI DAM IRRIGATION SITES IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA , Ibrahim Maihaja* and Jibril Lawal
In this study the impact of modern technology on rice productivity and sustainable food security of Bakalori dam irrigation area in Zamfara state Nigeria was carried out and analyzed. The Physico-chemical properties and meteorological data of the Bakalori dam were presented which was found to be suitable for the use of some improved rice varieties in the study area. Percentage distribution and mean average of respondent according to the socio – economic characteristics variables were obtained. Hence, it was observed that, out of 105 respondents 64.79% adhere to the average IRV crop spacing of 25-30 cm for optimal yields. Adoption of the modern technology among the farmers are found to be 64.76%. The GPS device is used in mapping the farmland to obtain the accurate farm size, hence the results from GPS accuracy was used to compute mathematically the actual input to be use by farmer for optimal rice yields. Furthermore, the expected crop yields are obtained which were found to be in agreements to the average IRV yields of 5-6 tons per hectare as far as the required inputs are maintained. Finally, the stochastic frontier production function and inefficiency model is used to compute technical efficiency of the farmer production and the results were analyzed.
95 THE BIG POLLUTERS , Jan-Erik Lane*
During the tumultuous COVID-19 pandemic, one may wish to remind of the dangers of unstoppable global warming as well. Both these calamities threaten mankind, but they are in no way the same, one acting on short term and the other in the long run. As of today (April 7, 2020) the CO2 concentration stands at its highest ever, more than 416 ppm (Earth) despite the closure of many factories and less traveling. The Paris Agreement from 2015 commits all participating governments (not including the United States) to stabilize and start decreasing CO2 emissions. How?.
96 THE ITERATION METHOD FOR STUDYING THE KLEIN-GORDON EQUATIONS , Ammarah Marriyam, Mirza Naveed Jahngeer Baig, Nasir Khan, Babar Hussain, Maira Mukhlis, Muhammad Imran Shahid
In recently, different iterative methods viz Adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, Homotopy Pertubation method etc. have been developed for solving linear and nonlinear ordinary and PDEs. Recently Versha and Jafery proposed an iterative method called the New Iterative Method (NIM) and successfully applied it to linear and nonlinear PDEs of integer and fractional order. In this paper we propose an efficient modification to the NIM and applied the modified NIM to obtain improved form solutions of various types of linear and nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations. The proposed modification is easy to use and we obtained excellent performance in comparison with the existing iterative methods that have been traditionally used in finding the solution of linear and nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations. The main feature of the modified NIM is that it reduces the size of calculations and gives the solution rapidly while still maintaining high degree of accuracy.
97 THE STUDY OF PETROLEUM COKE THERMAL STABILITY AND ITS FURTHER MODIFICATION – EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH AND MODELING , Felix Yu. Sharikov*, Leading Research Scientist and Yuri V. Sharikov Professor
The methodology and results of thermal stability study for initial and modified commercial petroleum cokes are presented. TG/DSC technique was applied for an experimental study of the petroleum coke calcination and further characterization of the improved coke in an oxidation reaction. It was found that the commercial coke still contained residual volatiles in a noticeable amount. The high-temperature stability of this commercial “raw coke” to be used for electrodes formation (e.g., in silicone production furnaces) or in carbothermal processes can be further improved via its additional calcination in a tubular kiln or an electro-calcinator under specified conditions. Kinetic modeling of the calcination process was proposed and further simulation of the tubular kiln operation was done to determine the optimal conditions of its functioning. The ash quantity was estimated as close to zero that makes it especially valuable for metallurgical silicone production.
98 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE REDUCIBILITY AND SWELLING OF ITAKPE AND AGBAJA IRON ORE AND THE RESULTANT PELLETS , Ocheri C.*, C. N. Mbah, Adams S. M. and Alabi O. O.
The comparative study on the reducibility and swelling of Itakpe and Agbaja Iron Ore and the resultant pellets were performed. The chemical and morphology of the samples were examined. Thermogravimetry(TG),DifferentialThermal Analyzer (DTA), XRF, Optical and Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).The reducibility and swelling studies were performed in using a muffle furnace. The resultant pellets and the iron ore lumps were taken inside the stainless steel container with diameter 60.75 mm x 59.40 mm inside diameter with a mouth tightly closed by an air tight cover having an out let for exit gas, The samples were surrounded with metallurgical coking coal obtained from the Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited. The highest reducibility value of the resultant pellet for the Itakpe iron ore value was 99.7% with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins, while the highest reducibility value of the resultant pellets for the Agbaja iron ore was obtained at 95.7% with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins. Similarly, the highest reducibility value of the Itakpe iron ore lump was obtained at 74.33% with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins . The highest reducibility value of the Agbja iron ore lumps obtained at 33.00 % with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins..Smiliarly the highest swelling value obtained was 17.2 % for resultant pellets of Itakpe with corresponding value at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins. The highest swelling % of resultant pellets for Agbaja iron ore was as 24.4 with corresponding temperature at 1000oC at time rate of 120mins, while the highest swelling % value of Itakpe iron ore lump was obtained at 15.4 with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins. Finally, the highest swelling % value of the Agbaja iron ore lump was obtained aa 4.41 with corresponding temperature at 1000oC and time rate of 120mins.
99 EXPANSION OF ACORUS CALAMUS L (NORMAL COW) PLANT AND ITS COMPOSITION, BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION IN MEDICINE , А. H. Islomov*, A. D Matchanov, O. O. Gaybullaeva, A. S. Ishmuratova, D. Maxmudova and Q. O. Komilov
In this paper, we discovered methods for increasing the medicinal plant of Acorus calamus L in vitro, as well as the composition of micro and macroelements. The use of Acorus calamus L in the natural chemicals used in medicine and in agriculture
100 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS FOR ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS SKELETON SYSTEMS IN THE MIDWEST , Sherif Attallah*, Alexander Mitchell and Tamer Breakah
According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), residential buildings in Indiana consumed approximately 18% of the state’s total energy usage during 2017. Additionally, the Indiana Residential Code was most recently updated in 2020, after having not changed in 15 years, showing a renewed interest in improving residential building performance. Various strategies have been used in the past to reduce energy consumption or to make buildings more thermally comfortable throughout the seasons, and this is commonly seen in vernacular architecture throughout the world. In the Middle East, a typically hot and dry climate, buildings were traditionally built out of thermally massive stone and brick to help dampen the temperature swings, however this practice has moved recently to insulated concrete forms (ICFs). While the state of Indiana has a mixed-humid climate, very different from the Middle East, ICFs still provided a promise of dampening temperature swings, and providing thermal bridge free insulation. While ICFs may be more expensive than traditional wood-framed walls, energy modeling has shown that they can reduce the annual space conditioning consumption in single family detached residences, and the potential to reduce the need for larger sized mechanical equipment.
101 CARBOHYDRATE BASED OPTIMIZATION MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION USING TRIPARTITE MIXTURE OF COWDUNG, PIGDUNG AND POULTRY DROPPING , *Ejiko S. O., Filani A. O., Onibon G. L. and Olakolegan O. D.
The determination of biogas production for varieties of substrates is pivotal in designing a self sufficient digester for private application and also for the development of large scale digester for marketing purposes. Some digester takes over 30days to generate ignitable gas. These substrates utilised in this work were mixture of cow dung, piggery waste and poultry waste. Substrates A, B, C of three digesters were mixed in proportion of 1:2:3, 2:3:1, and 3:1:2 respectively. Smart sensor gas detector was used to determine the biogas production capacity. The mean percentage of the carbohydrate (CH2O) for A, B, and C were 21.167, 26.333, and 19.5 respectively. The maximum quantity of gas produced daily was 0.00479m3 from 0.01125m3 volume of available space. The methane gas production model developed was a function of pig dung, carbohydrate and the curing days. Gas generated by the digester became ignitable at the 17th day of the curing period. The methane gas produce were collected from day 17 to 31. The carbohydrate content was found to be inversely proportional to the volume of methane gas produced. The pig dung has more of protein than carbohydrate. The lesser the carbohydrates content the more the biogas production at the early days which decreases accordingly as the curing days increases. The model developed is an effective tool for optimum collection planning and strategy storage management that will enhance the economic viability of a Biogas production firm. wjert, 2020, Vol. 6, Issue 3, 178-200.
102 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF CARE PACKAGE ON KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE REGARDING REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AMONG FINAL YEAR FEMALE STUDENTS OF A.V.K DEGREE COLLEGE AT HASSAN , Kalaivani D.*
Background: Adolescents are highly vulnerable group. Adolescents are not well informed about their health, sexuality or physical well being. Knowledge is incomplete and confusing regarding the issues of health and sexuality. The religious and traditional beliefs in the Indian setting create a barrier in communication of sexual issues between parents and children‟s. Thus present study was carried out an Experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of self care package on knowledge and practice regarding reproductive health among the final year girls. Objectives: were to assess the level of knowledge and practice regarding reproductive health in study group, to evaluate the effectiveness of self care package by comparing the pre test and post test level of knowledge and practice regarding reproductive health in the study group, to correlate the knowledge and practice of reproductive health in the study group. Materials and Methods: The research approach was quantitative and research design pre - experimental design with one group pre-test & post test design. The study was conducted 50 samples selected by purposive sampling technique. Pre-test was done by questionnaire and observational checklist and the post test was done after 7days.Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. Results: Overall pre-test mean knowledge score 14.88 and SD-4.61 and the pre-test mean practice score 5.52 and SD-1.55. “t” value of the knowledge score was 45.11 and practice 6.7. The total effectiveness of self care package in reproductive health on knowledge was 48.11%and practice was 43.9%.Correlation coefficient obtained 0.8. It states that the level of knowledge significantly positively correlated with the practice. There is no significant association between socio demographic variables. The knowledge and practice of adolescents regarding reproductive health was inadequate in pre-test and whereas the knowledge and practice was improved during the post-test. Self instruction module was effective in improving the knowledge and practice of adolescents regarding reproductive health. Conclusion: The present study proved that self care package was effective among the final year female students to increase knowledge and practice about the reproductive health.
103 ANALYSIS OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMINOUS CONCRETE , Divvela Hari Naga Satya Santhosh* and D. Jyothi Swarup
This topic presents a laboratory study of modified bitumen containing polymer (plastic). Presently conventional bitumen and polymer modified bitumen (PMB) are widely available in the market for road and highway construction. Traditional bituminous binders exhibit various limitations with the overloading of vehicles, increasing service requirements and climatic conditions which lead to important stress-related problems. In addition to this, traffic frequency is increasing rapidly as a consequence of a tremendous increase in the number of vehicles. The bituminous surface on a road should have temperature characteristics that can resist plastic deformation at high temperatures and brittleness at low temperatures. Binder modification is a major break-through and the continuous research in this area aiming to produce new binders with better mechanical characteristics allows the manufacturing and application of road bituminous mixtures with higher performance. Plastic can be added to a bituminous mix either by dry or wet mixing process to get a modified mix. In dry mixing, the plastic is added to heated aggregates before adding a binder. In wet mixing, the plastic is added to plain bitumen producing modified bituminous binder, which is then mixed with aggregates. In this study plastic modified bituminous concrete was prepared by both dry and wet processes and the tests were compared with plain bituminous concrete. In the dry-mix process, the plastic was taken by weight of total mix and for wet mix, the plastic content was taken by weight of bitumen. Materials used for the study included coarse and fine aggregates, bitumen and plastic. Plastic is in the form of small pieces cut out of carrying bags and such others. As a first step, aggregates and binders, both plain and modified bitumen, were tested for different properties as per the Bureau of Indian Standards procedures and the materials were found to satisfy the specifications. Marshall Method of mix design was adopted to find out the optimum binder content.
104 A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAMME (PTP) IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS OF SELECTED ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS OF GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT , Bindi Patel*
The study is conducted with the main objective of “assessing the knowledge gained regarding Prevention and Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia among adolescent girls before and after the administration of planned teaching programme. An extensive literature search keeping in mind the main objective, suggested a Conceptual framework based on a system model, a guide for development,utilization and evaluation. The research approach adopted for the study was Pre-Experimental with one group pretest and post-test design. The Planned teaching Programme was developed for enhancing the knowledge regarding Prevention and management of iron deficiency anemia under expert guidance of Vice Principal, Associate Professor and Assistant Professor of C. M. Patel College of Nursing, Gandhinagar. The Planned Teaching Programme was developed.
105 FOSTERING CIVIC RESPONSIBILITIES THROUGH MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS , *Dr. K. R. Subramanian
People today are so much driven by their personal goals that civic sense as an expression of ethical behavior has become a low priority, almost a nuisance to those who disregard it as unnecessary evil. This attitude could be harmful for the society in the long run. Right from the beginning since man started living as social being; efforts have beenmade to instill civic sense either through stories or religion. Today what we are teaching them is just to keep themselves, their things and their homes in order. With this limiting attitude, it is no wonder that parks, cinema houses and roads are all littered, because they do not belong to anyone. Parents, teachers and authors of management literature can do to a lot to assist this down swinging cooperation with Corporate Management. By setting good examples to their children, parents and teachers can easily inculcate good habits in their children. Many organizations are trying to express their civic and social consciousness through various CSR initiatives. Education is for enabling children to develop as socially conscious attitudes and civic responsibilities. This is the right time for all to reflect if current actions are sufficient or something more is to be done to assuage our conscience!
106 MANAGING NATURAL SAND DEFICIENCY , Dr. Balasubramani N.*, Ar. Vedhajanani B., Er. Shreeshakthi B.
Research works are being successively made from the year 2000 onwards to identify a suitable material as alternate to natural sand to be used in construction projects. But at the same time, engineers must focus on various ways in which the use of sand can be avoided or at least minimized wherever possible in the projects. This paper presents various construction techniques which can be adopted for minimizing and or avoiding the use of natural sand. The paper covers some construction practices related to brick masonry, stone masonry and few innovative techniques. Suggestions for future practices along with precautions to use mud and M-sand as building materials are also presented.
107 TEST ON THIN RCC SLAB - BRICKWORK COMPOSITE LINTEL , Dr. N. Balasubramani*, S. Senthilkumar and M. Arulanandan
This paper enunciates experimental findings of laboratory results of a typical composite lintel consisting of a thin RCC slab supporting brick masonry layers on it. In this paper, two Thin RCC Slab - Brick Work Composite Lintel (TRBWCL) specimens of both 900 mm clear span were cast with 50 mm thin RCC Slab. Out of them, one was over laid with one layer of brick work in CM 1:5 and the other was laid on three courses of brickwork CM 1:5. The ultimate flexural capacity of such TRBWCL were experimentally tested and reported along with its flexural behavior.
108 DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE OF STEWART PLATFORM USING SIX DEGREE OF FREEDOM , Shivam Chandra*, Ashish Chaudhary, Dipak Singh Bisht, Jagjeet Singh, Manoj Hans and Hina Akhtar
This paper gives information about linear actuators which is to be used in a six-degrees-of-freedom dynamic test system using Stewart device application intended for simulation/space technology. The paper reacts to recent calls in the space application. The Stewart platform is frequently used in simulation technology to simulate motion effects in vehicle or airplane simulators. This paper looks at the design and optimal control of an electromechanical linear actuator to be used in a simulation of a 6 D.O.F motion platform. By using this type of platform we can replace the hydraulic system with electro-mechanical system as in linear actuator without affecting kinematic as well as dynamic parameters. The paper provides a comparison of both types of system having a detailed description of the design of optimal control for electromechanical actuators.
109 PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TO PLANNING , Akue Leka-Oscar* and Udom Mina Elsie
Public perceptions and attitudes to planning is of pivotal importance to the planning profession as planning is public based, incorporating public opinions in to professional rational thinking of the planners. This research adopted existing literature to assess and revalidate the role of public perceptions and their attitudes to planning the physical environment. Public perception essentially indicates the performance of the public participation system. Before planners can effectively find more sustainable community development patterns to adapt urban change, they must understand the source of public discontent and impact of their behavior and attitude towards neighborhoods and overall community well-being. Eighty five (85) respondents were purposively sampled in Port Harcourt to ascertain the level of citizen participation in planning the physical environment. The results revealed that the general public has different perceptions and attitudes to planning; although majority of those that have the willingness and interest for participation are rarely invited. The study recommends for public involvement and participation in planning the physical environment and that planning should be seen as public based where the opinion, views and perceptions of the general public is considered and integrated in to the planning process.
110 BIT-ERROR RATE ANALYSIS OF OFDM-MC-CDMA SYSTEM UNDER AWGN AND RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL , *Krishankant Lodhi M. Tech Scholar, Asst. Prof. Naveen Khare
Multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) is a novel radio access scheme that combines time domain spreading and multicarrier modulation suffer from the interference among users. This work is devoted for reducing and analyzing the bit error rate of the system proposed. Multi Carrier modulation has a significant role in mobile communication because of frequency diversity and bandwidth efficiency. Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) suffers from timing errors due to the large number of carriers. So in this paper we present the Analysis of Bit-Error Rate (BER) of the MC DS-CDMA System under Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and multipath Rayleigh fadingchannel.
111 A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHAOTIC PROCESSES IN A BOOST CONVERTER: GENERATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION , Yuval Beck and Yefim Berkovich*
The paper presents a mathematical model, developed with a Matlab program, of a Boost Converter with a control system for studies of chaotic processes originating in the converter, and of various methods of preventing them. The choice of a mathematical model instead of known specialized programs for modeling power electronics circuits is due to the fact that such approach makes it possible to use the entire mathematical apparatus available for carrying out many calculations and processing their results. As will be seen from the paper, the model is sufficiently flexible and compact and allows for simple cyclic calculations of various chaotic processes. For the first time, the paper considers two ways of realization of Current Mode Control (CMC) – by the upper limit of pulses of the input inductance current, and by the lower one. Basing on these, the newly proposed ways of synchronization (preventing) of chaotic processes have been tested on the two mentioned control modes. In the conclusion, a number of calculations on the mathematical model have been compared with the results of modeling with the Orcad-Pspice program, which have shown their totally adequate character.
112 DIURNAL AND SEASONAL VARIATION OF WHISTLERS AT LOW LATITUDE GROUND STATION JAMMU AND RECORDING OF VLF HISS EMISSIONS , Dr. Rajou Kumar Pandita* and Prof. Farooq Ahmed Sofi
This paper presents interesting observations based on the long term Data of whistlers and VLF hiss emission at a low latitude ground station Jammu (Geomagn. lat. 22°16′ N, L = 1.17). The simultaneous observations presented in this paper are unique and are reported for the first time from low latitude ground station Jammu. The present observation of VLF emissions and whistlers along with ESD whistlers at Jammu clearly suggest that these VLF emissions are generated in the magnetosphere due to whistler mode wave-interaction with particles. This experimental study is unlikely to be the final word on the origin of these events and further experimental confirmation will, of course, be required at low latitudes. From the dispersion analysis of the day time whistlers recorded at Jammu, it is found that all the Whistlers have extremely small dispersion (ESD) in the range of 5-10 s1/2, which clearly supports non-ducted propagation. With the advent of the satellites, VLF receivers were placed on rockets and satellites. These receivers detected whistlers whose paths deviated from Earth’s magnetic field lines. Such whistlers are called unducted or non-ducted whistlers, completely in contrast with the earlier findings of ducted propagation of day-time whistlers. VLF emissions are known to originate within the ionosphere/magnetosphere but no satisfactory theory of their origin has yet been put forward. These are generally originated in the ionosphere/magnetosphere by two mechanisms, viz incoherent Cerenkov radiation mechanism and electron cyclotron resonance instability mechanism. The generation mechanism of whistler-mode VLF hiss remain controversial inspite of extensive amount of experimental and theoretical work. A number of mechanisms have been suggested for the generation of VLF hiss from time to time. Sazhin et al.,(1993) have reviewed the generation mechanism of the VLF hiss and have projected out that the most likely energy source of VLF hiss lie in the electrons at energies below 100 electron volts precipitating to the auroral ionosphere. They have shown that initially the waves are generated due to incoherent Cerenkov radiation and they are then amplified due to beam plasma instabilities in the Cerenkov resonance.
113 LITERATURE SURVEY ON POLLUTANTS DETECTED IN SEA WATER DURING REHABILATION , *Hema R. and Sundararajan M.
Substances of foreign origin are called pollutants, plays a main part in alarming health hazards. The essentiality of Water is being used without considering the dreadful contaminants. Arsenic, the most potential and dreadful element is always ignored whenever there is a need for purification of water for the purpose of drinking. Rehabilitation of any affected area in view of health issues is highly mandatory as per the international provisions of Environmental legislations. In this work, we have tried to identify the potential pollutants, their sources and contamination limits toward hazardous health effects.
114 CADASTRAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (CIS) – A VIABLE METHOD FOR HARNESSING THE ECONOMIC INTEREST INHERENT IN LAND: A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL LOW COST HOUSING ESTATE, OYO, OYO STATE, NIGERIA , OKEGBOLA Michael Oketunde*, AJISAFE Benjamin Ifedeji, OLAOSEGBA Solihu Olalekan, OYEYODE Ajiboye Oyesiji, OYEBANJI Sunday Tomiwa
Our country is currently passing through one of the most perilous period of her existence as an independent nation economically. This chronic economic recession was down to the fall in the price of crude oil in the international market which is not unconnected to the global campaign promoting development of eco-friendlier energy sources. The current state of the nation’s economy is a pointed testifier to the need for government at all level to look inward and seek to diversify the economy to source funds even in times of combating the pandemic COVID 19. Land exists in no small quantity in Nigeria but while the Nigerian constitution granted the government control over the utilization of land, it seems the excess revenue from crude oil in the years past have blinded government at all levels to other viable sources of Internally Generated Revenue (IGR). Now the onus is now on all arms of government to drastically work toward salvaging the current economic situation before it turned crisis. Cadastre is a daily maintained record of interest in land. Because of the enormity of data involved in the maintenance of a Cadastre, Information Technology (IT) is now being applied. Cadastral Information System (CIS) helps to eradicate the irregularities found in most analog cadastral system and equally makes for efficient utilization of cadastral information. This paper demonstrates on a small scale how the aforesaid can be achieved. It also discusses some measures to be taken to ensure such effort achieve its general intendment. Conclusively, it implores government at all levels to develop a cadastral information system.
115 INTERVAL TRAINING OF 2 X 800 METERS BETTER THAN 4 X 400 METERS IN INCREASING PHYSICAL FITNESS OF BPBD OFFICERS IN DENPASAR-BALI , R. Ardy Ganggas* and Agustinus Dei
Physical fitness is something that must be owned by employees of the Regional Disaster Management Agency (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah / BPBD). Evaluation results show that the level of physical fitness of BPBD employees is still lacking. This is because the training methods applied are not appropriate. For this reason, research needs to be conducted to find the right training methods to improve physical fitness. This study used a randomized pre and post test control group design design involving 27 BPBD Denpasar staff as samples. Of this amount then allocated into 3 groups. Group-1 (Control Group) is given the old model training, namely line-up training, Group-2 is given 2 X 800 meter interval training interspersed with the road for 6 minutes, and Group-3 is given 4 X 400 meter interval training, interspersed with the road for 2 minutes . The duration of training is 8 weeks with a frequency of 3 times per week. The difference in mean travel time of running 2.4 kilometers between pre-posttest in each group was tested by t-paired while the mean difference between the three groups was tested by ANOVA test. The next test is the Post Hoc LSD test on significance (α = 0.05). From the analysis of the data it was found that Group-1 only gave an increase in physical fitness by 4.5% (p > 0.05), Group-2 gave an increase of 22.7%, (p < 0.05), and Group-3 provided an increase of 13.9% (p < 0.05). The difference in physical fitness improvement between Group-1 and Group-2 was 18.89% (p <0.05), between Group-1 and Group-3 was 9.84% (p <0.05), and between Group-1 with Group-3 at 10.11% (p < 0.05). So the 2 X 800 meter interval training is better than the 4 X 400 meter and the Control Group in improving physical fitness. Where Group-1 is in the poor category, Group-2 is in the good category, and Group-3 is in the moderate category.
116 VARIATIONS IN HORN TYPE, HORN ORIENTATION, AND COAT COLOR OF THE TARO WHITE CATTLE , Ni Putu Sarini*, I. Ketut Puja, I. Wayan Suarna, I. Gusti Agung Arta Putra and Lindawati Doloksaribu
Taro white cattle is Bali germplasm, found only in Gianyar Regency, Bali Province that has not much been identified. This study was undertaken to identify variation of quantitative traits i.e. coat color, horn type and orientation, and their distributions in Taro white cattle population. Physical assessment of 44 Taro white cattle consisted of 23 males and 21 females were photographed for their horn type and variation, and coat color using digital camera. Data of the physical assessment were analysed by qualitative description. Results of physical assessment revealed that there 8 variations of horn type i.e. bajeg, pendang, cono, manggulgangsa, anoa, srinata, subeng, and asimetris where the first five were similar to horn orientation of Bali cattle. Of the 23 males, the cono was found in 21 males (91%) and pedang was found in 2 males (9%). Of the 21 females, 7 horn types were found i.e. 57% cono, 14% bajeg, 9% manggulgangsa, 5% anoa, 5% srinata, 5% subeng, and 5% asimetrical horns. Both females and males had more cono horns i.e. 57% and 91%, respectively. All calves were born white coat color and it turned to be pinky white, ivory white and sudamala. Sudamala was only found in males but not all the males had sudamala. The obtained results are considered as the first values to be published for the Taro white cattle characteristic. In summary, Taro white cattle had 4 coat colors and 8 horn types where 5 of them were similar to the horn types of Bali cattle.
117 AN IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTOTYPE TO ANALYZE CLINICAL EXOME SEQUENCE FOR CANCER PREDICTION USING PYTHON , Dr. Krupa Mehta*, Dr. Devarshi Mehta, Dr. Rakesh Rawal, Dr. Maulik Patel and Dr. Vishal Dahiya
The proteins are the coding regions of the genome which stores the biological detail of human body. The information of mutation causing any disease is also available in protein that makes protein coding region i.e. exome sequence capable to predict the disease. The study of exome sequence helps to predict the disease easily compare to that of DNA sequence. The disease prediction requires passing multiple complex commands on different tools. The implementation of proposed prototype reduces the work load of clinician from passing set of commands to a single click. Moreover, there is absence of a generalized mechanism to predict cancer from exome sequence. This research work is an effort towards this direction. The proposed prototype produces difference between source exome sequence and reference exome sequence with respect to their SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) location and Indels (INsertion DELition). The difference in SNP location is useful for cancer prediction. At present, the clinician is supposed to perform various analysis steps by using different tools making the process of analysis very complex.
118 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXTERNALSELF CURING CONCRETE AND CONVENTIONAL CURING CONCRETE USING DIFFERENT BINDING MATERIALS (OPC AND PPC) , Dr. C. Rajasekaran and Ngirabakunzi Claver*
Abstract- Concrete is the most widely used construction material due to its good compressive strength and durability. The imagination of a world without concrete is impossible as the concrete is a soul of infrastructures. Conventional concrete which is the mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water, needs curing to achieve strength. So it is required to cure for a minimum period of 28 days for good hydration and to achieve target strength. Lack of proper curing can badly affect the strength properties and durability of concrete. The strength and durability of concrete depends on the curing of concrete. The ACI-308 Code states that “self-curing refers to the hydration process of cement with water.” The extent to which this reaction is completed influences the strength and durability of the concrete. Curing is the maintenance of a satisfactory moisture content and temperature in concrete for a period of time immediately following placing and finishing so that the desired properties may develop. Self-curing concrete is one type of modern concrete which cure itself by retaining its moisture content in it. The need for adequate curing of concrete cannot be overemphasized as it has a strong influence on the properties of hardened concrete. This study is investigating whether the use of self-curing concrete is economical for concrete compared to normal curing concrete in remote areas or other regions where there is scarcity of water without compromising the strength properties of concrete while using different binding materials (OPC and PPC). In the present study, comparison of compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength of concrete and concrete water absorption for normal and external self curing concrete have been made; concure WB concrete curing compound has been used for external self curing concrete. Experimental results indicate that conventional curing concrete for OPC and PPC mixes has better mechanical properties and percentage concrete water absorption as compared to external self curing concrete for both binding materials.
119 DIABETES GOES DIGITAL WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND BIG DATA , Dr. Manish Rajak*, Suraj Madhavan and Sneha Raje
Artificial intelligence is renovating our lives globally besides medical field. Prospective of AI to improve outstretch of diabetes care by making it so successful. Numerous cases of diabetes are brought into notice by the Endocrinologist universally and provide us with a possible opportunity for the active availability of data. Controlling the acquired big data using electronic medical records, by the specialists can put the globe at the possible forefront of research in this field. Clinical use of AI can provide larger insights to our obstacles faced during the effective treatment of all sorts of diabetes. As there are various treatment options which are to be added subsequently and incrementally, handling type,[2] diabetes is much more complicated than type,[1] diabetes. Based on a lot of patient personal factors such as BMI, beta-cell function and insulin resistance in comparison with others the choice of medication and its dosage varies. There are magnificent reviews on compiling studies which have used AI approach in diabetes. AI is too good as the big data used to generate this intelligence. In type 1 diabetes the research and reviews are witnessing the evolution of Closed Loop Insulin Delivery System with inbuilt AI algorithms to determine both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic excursions. However, review of literature suggest that these systems are still in infancy and yet to show an impact on long-term outcomes and standard quality of life. A pile of disease can be transfigured into an opportunity, if entire big data is harnessed in a usable form and AI is used to produce insights and solutions very peculiar to our population. The constructive steps are needed by the Central and State Governments and large associations, like, endocrine societies of various countries to initiate big data collections and research.
120 CHIRPED AND DIPOLE SOLITON IN NONLINEAR NEGATIVE-INDEX MATERIAL , Shazia Perveen*, Muhammad Kamran*, Rukhsana Ahmed, Maira Mukhlis, Ammarah Marriyam and Muhammad Aamir Hayat
Due to the vital applications of short light pulses to telecommunication and ultrafast research, the soliton propagation in nonlinear optical fiber has become a vast research topic now a days. It is a type of signal emerged when frequency changes with time. Chirped pulses have vast application in the field of communication and pulse compression. Bouzida et al. used dual power law in non optical fiber to find chirped soliton.
121 AN M/M/C ENCOURAGED ARRIVAL FEEDBACK QUEUING MODEL WITH CUSTOMER IMPATIENCE , Bhupender Kumar Som, Vivek Kumar Sharma and Sunny Seth*
Understanding the behavior of the customers is the most challenging task which firms have to face in today’s scenario of cut-throat competition. In order to gain competitive edge firms often introduce lucrative offers and discounts due to which the customers get attracted towards particular firm these customers are termed as encouraged arrivals. As a consequence of encouraged arrivals more and more customers join the system hereby increasing the time, a customer will have to spend in waiting for the service which results in customer impatience. These impatient customers may leave the system without service. Firms often deploy various strategies to retain these reneging customers for sustainable growth. Encouraged arrivals also put service facility under pressure due to which some customers, dissatisfied with the service join the queue again as feedback customers for satisfactory service. In this paper we develop a queuing model with all issues as discussed above and solve the model in steady state to derive various probabilistic and performance measures and we also present numerical illustration for better understanding of the applicability of the model. Having known these performance measures in advance various strategies can be designed for smooth administration and functioning of the system.
122 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A NETWORK SECURITY MODEL FOR DEPARTMENTS USING TELNET , *Nisarga Patil, Shambhavi Hiremath and Dr. S. V. Viraktamath
Nowadays, network is becoming more and more complex but has become extremely important in present day society. VLANs are widely used in many enterprises, data collection and campus networks. It analyses in detail about the application of VLAN and in addition it proposes a strategy on how to divide different department networks.An active security mechanisms ie; Secure VLAN architecture which is used for switched LAN; is connected to Internet. This paper proposes implementing the method of LAN-Switching using VLAN to break up broadcast domains into segments, so as to improve network performance. It includes implementation of Telnet protocol.
123 RISK ASSOCIATED WITH ONLINE TEACHING – AN EXPLORATORY STUDY , Dr. D. S. Chaubey and *Dr. K. R. Subramanian
Business environment dictates the scope of work for companies particularly after the recent experiences of lock down of academic institutions. This is definitely new for at least in the Indian context and is true in many countries, who are trying to adjust with the new environment. This raises many challenges for the teacher and the taught. In the present research paper the authors would try and explore the various strategies to cope with the present situation. At the outset what strikes most of us is the risks involved in such a learning process. It is new for the teacher and the taught because of the absence of physical presence to clarify any doubts which cannot be done through the electronic medium in the present state of development and wide spread availability of Technology to back it up. Added to that will be the new resources constraints in terms of equipment which may be overcome in the short run. However the challenges of E-learning in a country like ours used to face to face learning with the presence of a competent teacher is are not to be scoffed at. Necessity is the mother of all inventions. So, our Educational systems will also be fine tuned in due course of time. How we manage the interval between the conversion is something we need to look at and face the challenges squarely. After all history is proof of our ability to adapt to new ways and means.
124 FRACTIONAL HARDY-TYPE INEQUALITIES , Muhammad Aamir Hayat*, Mirza Naveed Jahangeer Baig, Huma Khalid, Noman Baig, Muhammad Zaman, Muhammad Aazam and Rukhsana Ahmed
Since the last few decades, the addition of abundant literature on Hardy-type inequalities proves its importance in the field (see [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7, [8], [9], [10], [11]). We give some Hardy-type inequalities for fractional integrals and fractional derivatives in the second chapter. The main objective is to review the paper by Sajid Iqbal et. al.[12] In this article we mainly focused on the mean value theorem for Hadamard-type fractional integral and the related means for fractional integral and derivatives.
125 DESIGN AND PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT OF DIDACTIC HYDRAULIC PANEL TO BE USED IN RWANDA TVET SCHOOLS , Jean Pierre Twajamahoro*, Emmanuel Mudaheranwa and Dr. Kayibanda Vénant
Didactic hydraulic panel is a fully equipped hydraulic training system with all necessary components and aids to conduct a comprehensive training course in the fundamentals of hydraulic controls. The didactic structure of the course is based on the long-established concept of training in hydraulic drive engineering. The central element of the unit is the large assembly panel. Here, two different circuits can be easily constructed using items from the kit of modern standard industrial components and connecting hoses. The moving frame within the didactic hydraulic panel system has a double sided assembly panel with tables sufficiently large for performing practical work at ease on either sides. It is assembled on four wheels, two of which have a brake, which enables moving and holding it in the classroom simply and comfortably. It includes a glass for volumetric measurements on each side of the panel. The lower section has a support shelf for holding the hydraulic power pack and storage drawers for components. A special quick-clamping system ensures all components are securely attached. The component connections face outward to allow easy interconnection by means of quick-couplers. An oil drip tray is positioned beneath the full width of the assembly panel. The sturdy mobile base unit houses the hydraulic unit and the electrical switch box. There is generous space for all the system components to be accommodated in drawers and cabinets. The well-structured instructional material sets out the fundamentals and provides a step-by-step guide through the experiments.[HYDROTRAINER-200 Hydraulics - Electro-hydraulics by Igor J Karassik, 2010, 5th Edition] It will make them the spirit of creativity and innovation. And in this study we will have five chapters: chapter one is the introduction, the second chapter concerns literature review, the third chapter deals with design and data analysis, fourth research methodology, and the fifth is conclusion and recommendation, then reference.
126 A NEW DEFENSE MECHANISM AGAINST SMISHING ATTACKS USING GRAY WOLF OPTIMIZER , *Marwan H. Alsammarraie and Mohamad A. Alfayomi
Recently, the phishing attack is one of the critical threats against the Organizations, Internet users, service provider, cloud computing and many other fields in daily life. In the phishing attack, the intruder attempts to defraud the users and leak or steal the credential information, including personal information such as bank account, passwords etc., by sending a fooled email or SMS to redirect the user to an untrusted website. Various methods have been proposed in terms of filtering and detect different types of phishing attacks, however, the researchers and security information experts still studying to find a solution to assure the internet security from phishing and other attacks. Viewing SMS phishing messages are mostly short text and become a relatively low number associated with legitimate messages, new features for quick writing and oversampling technique for imbalanced data utilized to SMS phishing detection. In this research, a novel framework of the SMS phishing detection presented. The proposed method combines feature extraction, oversampling, optimization algorithm for feature selection and classification. The general framework for SMS phishing detection is consists of Data input, Data preprocessing, Feature extraction, Oversampling. Then, Feature optimization using binary Gray Wolf Optimizer Algorithm, Classification using support vector machine (SVM), and results and output.
127 HYBRID ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMIZING PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO PERFORMANCE IN MIMO-OFDM SYSTEM , *Agwah B. C., Nwabueze C. A. and Akaneme S. A.
This paper has examined the optimization of PAPR in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) -Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) LTE network using hybrid technique. With many different PAPR reduction techniques available and each seems to outperform one another, a hybrid technique that uses precoded OFDM signal with repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering (RCF) and Mu-law companding was proposed for reducing PAPR of OFDM signal and with less computational cost in LTE network. The concept of PAPR in OFDM was initially examined and a conventional model of OFDM system introduced. This was followed by precoded OFDM signal model. Subsequently, different OFDM system models using RCF and Mu-law algorithms were presented. A hybrid algorithm for PAPR reduction was eventually developed combining RCF and Mu-law companding using precoded OFDM signal. Simulations were carried out for LTE network considering 256 data points with QPSK modulation scheme. Also, for optimal performance, RCF algorithm was studied by selecting a clipping ratio (CR) of 3 with four iteration process (clipping and filtering, CF1, CF2, CF3, CF4), oversampling factor of 4, and the Mu value of the Mu-law companding set at 100. Simulation was initially conducted for the conventional OFDM system model when there was no algorithm included to reduce the effect of PAPR and the value of PAPR obtained was 10.51 dB. With the PAPR of the conventional OFDM signal taken as reference value to be reduced, simulations were then carried out considering when RCF was incorporated with the conventional OFDM signal and precoded OFDM signal respectively. Results showed that with RCF and conventional OFDM, the overall reduction of PAPR was 5.739 dB representing 45.39% improvement whereas with precoded OFDM signal, the PAPR was reduced to 5.58 dB that is an improvement of 46.91%. Also, simulation was conducted with Mu-law companding and conventional OFDM signal. The result revealed that PAPR was reduced to 3.267 dB which represents 68.92% improvement in PAPR value. Finally, simulation test was carried out for the proposed hybrid system and the result obtained shows that the OFDM was significantly reduced to 1.757 dB which was 83.28% improvement in PAPR value. Thus, the proposed hybrid technique have shown capacity to largely and optimally reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal and as such is a promising scheme for addressing PAPR problem in MIMO-OFDM systems.
128 REVIEW ON DESIGN CODES AND PROVISIONS RELATED TO PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE , Sanjeev Bhatta*, Yang Jiana, and Qing-Feng Liu
Well documented timeline with major progressive collapse events and the evolution on development of design codes or standard are presented. In addition, the process of progressive collapse along with the prevention strategies and some prevailing design methods of progressive collapse of building structures are studied under threat dependent and threat independent design methods. For aiming to minimize the risk of causing progressive collapse, some structural traits need to consider in the design of building structures are also presented.
129 THE MATHEMATICAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PHENOMENON OF OPTICAL CONFINEMENT , Wim Vegt*
Since the introduction of the LASER in 1960, the first laser has been built by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, several attempts have been made to find a mathematical foundation for the unique phenomenon that the speed of light for a LASER beam equals zero in the transverse directions of propagation. Till now not successfully. It is well-known that Maxwell‘s famous 4 equation do not have the mathematical Framework to solve this phenomenon of a LASER beam. For this reason, a new electromagnetic theory has been introduced, based on Newton‘s fundamental principle of equilibrium. Applying Newton‘s second law of motion at a LASER beam, results in a new mathematical framework which solves this fundamental problem in Physics... The ―New Theory‖ which will be introduced in this article has been based on the fundamental principle of ―Perfect Equilibrium within the Universe‖. A fundamental universal principle in Physics which has already been expressed by Newton‘s famous 3 equations, published in 1687 in ―Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton‘s famous Equations in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton‘s 4- dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell Equations and Newton‘s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non- relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation. We recognize the century of Albert Einstein who triggered in 1905 the large changings in thinking with his famous theory of Special Relativity represented in his publication ―On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies‖. Manifesting a ―New Theory‖ and a ―New Way of Thinking‖ with important contributions of Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and Hermann Minkowski. It is recognizable that with the sudden change in thinking in a new period, a new kind of mutual common sense and a general agreement by many scientists of the new theory and the new way of thinking arises. The ―New Theory‖ will be protected by common sense and mutual agreement. This new way of thinking settles down in the scientific society and become immovable. Other options disappear and simply do not exist anymore. Which will make it almost impossible for the following ―New Theory‖ to rise. The ―New Theory‖ which will be introduced in this article has been based on the fundamental principle of ―Perfect Equilibrium within the Universe‖. A fundamental universal principle in Physics which has already been expressed by Newton‘s famous 3 equations, published in 1687 in ―Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton‘s famous Equations in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton‘s 4- dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell Equations and Newton‘s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.
130 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 89: MANAGEMENT OF A COLOSSAL STATUE TRANSPORTATION PROJECT , Prof. Dr. Galal Ali Hassaan*
The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the management of the transportation project of Nomarch Djehutihotep of the 12th Dynasty. This study presents how the ancient Egyptian artists gathered a lot of management and technical information in a single scene. It presents the objectives of the statue transformation project, management of the statue lashing process, management of the hauling force, transportation project supervision and management of the project documentation.
131 REVIEW ON DESIGN CODES AND PROVISIONS RELATED TO PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE , Sanjeev Bhattaa*, Yang Jiana,b and Qing-Feng Liua
Well documented timeline with major progressive collapse events and the evolution on development of design codes or standard are presented. In addition, the process of progressive collapse along with the prevention strategies and some prevailing design methods of progressive collapse of building structures are studied under threat dependent and threat independent design methods. For aiming to minimize the risk of causing progressive collapse, some structural traits need to consider in the design of building structures are also presented.
132 MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION ON AN INCLINED ROOF OF A HABITAT FOR A TYPICAL CLIMATE OF GUINEA , Binko Mamady Toure, Yacouba Camara*, Mamadou Lamarana Bah and Ansoumane Sakouvogui
The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of the solar radiation incident on the walls of an inclined roof habitat for a typical climate of Guinea and to highlight the influence of the variation in the angle of inclination of the roof. Thereafter, we set up a program for the determination of all its parameters under the Fortran Language and plot our curves through the Origin software. This work allowed us to know, the amount of solar flux that each wall of a habitat receives, the importance of the orientation of the main facade of the habitat to the south, how often the roof is exposed to radiation solar and the influence of the variation of the angle of inclination of the roof compared to the horizontal. For example, for an angle of 15 ° the maximum value of the solar flux received is 547 W / m2 and for that of 75 ° is 995 W / m2. Thus, the optimal angle obtained from analyzes of the variation of solar radiation with respect to the inclination of the roof through Figure 7 is 60°.
133 MAPPING AND ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF ONITSHA METROPOLIS USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES , Uzochukwu O. S., Igbokwe J. I., Ojiako J. C. and *Amusa I. A.
In recent times, Transportation System has been in a very bad state due to the deteriorating state of our intra and inter-city roads around the country including Onitsha. The problem of not getting to destinations on time by the roads users on time and a lot of artificial difficulties are encountered on roads on daily basis. This is also important in these days of COVID-19 pandemic where evacuation of victims is of utmost priorities. The aim of the study is to map and analyze the road transportation network of Onitsha using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. The objectives include designing a geodatabase for the entities of interest in the study area; acquisition of 1.0m resolution Ikonos image of the study area from where the features of interest were extracted through head-on digitizing; creation of a suitable geodatabase and spatial analyses like queries, network analysis to generate best and alternative routes. The methodology involved database design and implementation. It was shown at the end of the study that total road segments were in good condition, 20.61% represents roads in fair condition and 65.36% of the total road segments are in bad condition. The difference in travel distances from the Head Bridge to the Central Police Station (CPS) using the Best and Alternative routes is 50.20m. This is an indication that the best routes are always shorter than the alternative routes all things being equal. The recommendations at the end of the study include paving of bad roads with asphalt and providing functional drainage systems.
134 TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE APPLICATIONS WITH NATURAL CAPSULLA AGAINST DISEASES CAUSED BY IODINE DEFICIENCY , А.Kh. Islomov*, Z.A. Smanova, A.D. Matchanov, N.G. Abdulladjanova, V.A. Saidova, O.O. G'aybullaeva, A.S. Ishmuratova, R.N. Raximov and Z.Sh.Khushvaqtov
This article provides information on the methods of preparation of raisins from grapes, the chemical composition of grapes and raisins, as well as their use in medicine. There is also a method of obtaining a biologically active supplement in the form of capsules based on natural sources of raisins, which provide the body with iodine in the treatment of endocrine diseases caused by iodine deficiency.
135 INTERNET AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE BEHAVIOUR IN BIMSTEC COUNTRIES FOR THEIR ECONOMIC ADVANCEMENT , Dr. Anand Mohan*
World is moving quick thus data innovation through computer and communication , the time has gone out for the jumbling typewriters, nowadays a choice is taken in minutes and it is imparted everywhere throughout the world in seconds. Economic development will lead the world in 21st Century and Information Technology has the best task to carry out in that, the world is moving quick and we can't keep pace with it without IT improvement. Changing Scenario of Information Technology in Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) nations for reasonable advancement of the distinctive nations for example Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal. The advancements in information communication technologies (ICTs) and the Internet specifically have altered the whole fields, creating new market, changing the structure of and dispersion channels and re-designing all procedures. It is felt that a solid activity plan on the best way to limit the innovation hole between the created and creating conditions of the locale has not come up even in this gathering. India has dependably been known as a "harmony cherishing nation". Data and communication innovation (ICT) has turned into an amazing asset for development. India is land where individuals trust in participation and keep up solid association with its neighbour. India has official political relations with most countries and is considered as the world's second most crowded and equitable nation. Its economy is the quickest developing the world over.
136 TRANSFORMATION OF HEALTHCARE THROUGH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE- DELINQUENCY IN THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK , *Ms. Shivangi Sinha and Ms. Sweta Pandey
Artificial Intelligence as the name suggests is one such intellectual aspect which is created artificially i.e. not by natural means and they are programmed in such a way that they think like humans and try to mimic their actions. Initially “AI” was one such concept which was not known by people at large, and there were only few sectors in which we can trace its inception. Gradually as we say, we progress with the society, other precinct, started using this technology as well. The thought process of a person conceptualizes itself on its own, “AI” in its concept was considered something related to technology, like machine language which cannot be interpreted or utilized by common masses. Furthermore, as the technological advancement took place “AI” started gaining its space in almost all sectors worldwide. In this article our focus will be stressed upon the use of this “human mimic” in the medical sector. We will try and show up how Artificial Intelligence is now globally used even in the medical sector, in what ways and forms. Also an effort has been made to throw light upon the pros and cons for the same. Since medical sectors can be considered as one of the most vulnerable forum which requires extreme sense of expertise ( in their field) to stance here for long, so we will try to have a clear picture of working of “AI” both in Indian and Global perspective and will also try and analyze its continuity in this sector.
137 IMPROVEMENT OF VOLTAGE STABILITY OF THE POWER SYSTEM USING OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF UPFC GIVEN BY CUCKOO SEARCH ALGORITHM , Bairu Vijay Kumar*
In this document, the Cuckoo Search (CS) algorithm based optimal location of UPFC to improve the voltage stability of the power system is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is exemplified in the improved searching ability, random reduction and reduced complexity. In this regard, the generator outage affects the system voltage stability constraints such as voltage, power loss, real and reactive power. Here, the CS technique optimizes the maximum power loss line as the suitable location of the UPFC. The affected voltage stability constraints are restored into secure limits by connecting UPFC at optimum location given CS algorithm. The proposed method is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and tested under IEEE 14 standard bench mark system. The proposed method performance is evaluated by comparison with those of different techniques such as ABC,GSA & Bat algorithms. The comparison results invariably prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirm its potential to solve the related problems.
138 DETECTION OF BALL BEARING FAULT IN INDUCTION MOTOR USING MCSA AND HARMONIC ANALYSIS , Sumit S. Kahare*, Devendra P. Indapawar*, Ankush I. Sontakke*, Subodh L. Nagrare*, Dr. Z. J. Khan, Prof. P. G. Asutkar
Induction motor is one of the important part of industry. Therefore, induction motor is called the “horse-force” of the industry. Failure of induction motor leads to industry shut down and huge economic loss to the industry. The faults in induction motor are classified as electrical and mechanical faults. Bearing fault account for 40% fault in the induction motor. Bearing fault deterioration is the main cause of induction motor failure in the existing system. This paper presents the analysis and the detection of bearing fault using motor current signature analysis and harmonic FFT analysis. The experimentation is carried on 1 hp, 3 phase, 4 pole and 1500 rpm induction motor with healthy, dry and damaged bearing on No load and Rated load conditions. From experimentation it can be concluded that during faulty conditions three phase voltages, three phase current, mechanical power, torque, electrical power and power factor increases whereas speed and efficiency of electric motor decreases. Harmonic FFT analysis shows that from healthy to faulty conditions the harmonic contents increases up to 21th harmonics.
139 AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN RETINAL IMAGES USING CLASSIFICATION AND SOFT COMPUTING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES , *P. Nanthini, S. Savitha, V. Vennila and K. Kumaresan
Insulin-dependent mortals are attributed by blemished metabolism of glycogen that leads to long lasting dysfunction and damage of an organ. The most prosaic obstacle of diabetes is Diabetic Retinopathy, which is one of the predominant roots of visual death and visual impairment in middle aged patient. The expeditious mutation of diabetes patient thrust the limitations of the present Diabetic Retinopathy Screening potential for which the digital visualize of eye ball fundus can provide a potential solution by an automated image analysis algorithm. The present learning focus is developing the extraction of normal and isolated characteristics or marks in color retinal images. The adaptive filters are tuned to match the lump of vessel to be extracted in green channel images. To classify the pixels into vessels and non-vessels the Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm is applied.
140 PRIMITIVITY AND IRREDUCIBILITY OF XN + X + 1 OVER A BINARY FIELD F2 , Ahmed Asimi*
In cryptography, more particularly for the linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR) of length n, the irreducibility of the polynomial over 2 is very important to generate a binary pseudorandom sequence corresponding to the nonzero initial state vector derived from the secret key, because it is well known[9] that any LFSR of length n whose characteristic polynomial is a primitive polynomial over 2 will generate a periodic sequence of period 2n-1 for any nonzero initial state vector. In this paper, we start with the study of the reducibility and the parity of the number of irreducible factors of the polynomial in 2. We show that 1) If n = 2 or n = 3, the polynomial P(x) is irreducible over 2; 2) If n ≡ 2 mod 3 and n > 3, the polynomial P(x) is reducible over 2; 3) If n ≡ 0 or 2 or 3 or 5 mod 8 and n > 3, the polynomial P(x) has an even number of irreducible factors over 2, then P(x) is reducible over 2 ; 4) If n ≡ 1 or 4 or 6 or 7 or 9 or 15 or 22 mod 24 and n > 3 then P(x) has an odd number of irreducible factors over 2; 5) If is irreducible over 2 , then n ≡ 1 or 4 or 6 or 7 or 9 or 15 or 22 mod 24 and n > 3. The converse is not true. We close this paper by proposing two programs, in Python language, to build irreducible and primitive polynomials, , over 2. For example, we build all irreducible polynomials, , over 2 of degree at less greater than 1000 and primitive polynomials of
141 PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF PULSATING HEAT PIPE BY TAGUCHI METHOD , Md. Shahidul Haque*, Adib Bin Rashid and Md. Mahbubur Razzaq
Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) has become one of the most promising options for passive heat transfer due to its excellent heat transfer capability, high thermal efficiency and structural simplicity. The paper presents an experimental study on the operational limit of closed-loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) charged with ammonia which is consists of total 14 turns of aluminum tube with 3 mm inner and 4 mm outer diameter. A constant electric power supply of 36 W was provided to run the pulsation mechanism and experiment was carried out for three filling ratios of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 as well as inclination angle of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90° and 180°. Here, the heat transfer rate, thermal resistance and heat transfer co-efficient is measured to determine the performance of the PHP. Then Taguchi method is applied to analyze the effect of working parameters of the pulsating heat pipe to predict the optimum design parameters. In Taguchi method, L18 orthogonal array is selected and the best optimum parameters are identified based on main effect plot for means and signal to noise ratio plot under the characteristic of smaller and larger is the better respectively. The analysis of the Taguchi method reveals that, 60% filling ratio at 30° inclination angle, performance of the PHP is maximum.
142 A FUZZY LOGIC APPROACH TO PREDICT FATIGUE IN TIG MILD STEEL WELDS , Oyinbade A. A., Achebo J. I. and Ozigagun A.*
Welding defects influence the desired properties of welded joints giving Fabrication experts a common problem of not being able to produce weld structures with optimal strength and quality. In this present work, the fuzzy logic system was employed to predict welding fatigue. 30 sets of welding experiments was conducted and fatigue data was collected which was converted from crisp variable into fuzzy sets The result obtained showed that the fuzyy logic tool is a highly effective tool for predicting fatigue present in TIG mild steel weld having a coefficient of determination value of 99%
143 330KV NIGERIA ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM OPTIMISATION BY PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE FOR TWO DIFFERENT POWER POOLS , *Dr. C. I. Obinwa
Optimization technique that is applied in 330 kV and other Extra High Voltage Networks are many but, all in all Primal-Dual Interior-Point (PD-IP) technique currently proves most successful. . The Technique solves load flows which are non-linear with both equality and inequality constraints at the same time thereby saving time and saving the system from encountering problems due to delays in faults clearing. The existing solves one constraint after the other and has more than six (6) iterations before converging, while the developed method converges after first iteration. The developed technique guarantees higher system power generation with, higher loading and higher system stability. With these advantages PD-IP is most cherished and it is obtained by applying the non-negative Primal Variables, “S” and “z” into the problem formulation to transform the Inequality constraint part to Equality constraints and subsequently apply another non-negative Dual Variables, “” and “v” together with Lagrange multiplier “λ” to solve optimisation. Optimisation is solved by incorporating, Barrier Parameter “” which ensures feasible point(s) exist(s) within the feasible region (INTERIOR POINT), Damping Factor or Step length parameter “α”, Step Size ΔY, in conjunction with Safety Factor “” (which improves convergence and keeps the non-negative variables strictly positive) are used for updating variables (Y1=Y0+αΔY0). If initialised variables fail convergence test, iteration starts with the updated variables. The problem formulation is done economically through minimisation of cost of power generation; min C(PG)= α+βPG+γPG2, g(x)=0, stands for conventional power flow equation and other equality constraints, which is represented as; PGPDloss=0 and h  h(x)  ĥ, stands for operating limits on the system, which is represented as PGmin  PG) PGmax. The numerical algorithms of the method runs; Step Zero (Initialisation), Step One (Compute Newton Direction ΔY), Step Two (Update Variables), Step Three (Test for Convergence). Studies with results and analysis of improved performance by using PD-IP technique on the 330KV Bus are discussed with higher system stability obtained.
144 VECTOR ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES USING, GREEN’S THEOREM FOR POISSON’S AND LAPLACE, S EQUATIONS, STOKE’S THEOREM, MAXWELL EQUATION AND LAURENT’S FORCE LAW. , Engr. Dr. C. I. Obinwa*
Vector analysis, having been acquainted with gradient of scalar fields, divergence of vector fields, curl of vector fields, line integral, surface integral and volume integral of vector fields with applications of Gauss‟ theorem, here , the work emphasizes on Green‟s theoremwith different approach to Gauss divergence theorem, where for instance, if , then integral around a closed path is zero, meaning, the work done is zero and the force field is conservative. Application of Green theorem on Poisson‟s equation, where scalar point function vanishes outside a finite region. It also shows that, for Laplace equation where, , which is a scalar point function for every point of the region,is said to be HARMONIC in that region. Maxwell‟s equation is fully analysed. Stoke‟s theorem and its tangential line integral of vector field over any closed surface over any closed surface S bounded by a curve and which is equivalent to normal surface integral of curl of the vector field over the surface. Also Laurent‟s force law analyses force field through concentric circles.
145 REAL TIME GENERIC OBJECT DETECTION AND TRACKING , *Kumar Ayush
This rearch paper, introduces a technique for au- tomating the methodology of detecting and tracking objects using color feature and motion. Video Tracking is the process of finding a moving object over the priod of time using a camera. The main idea of video tracking is to track objects in consecutive frames of video. The relationship can give trouble when the objects are moving with speed with respect to the frame rate. A different situation may arise the uncertainity of the matter is the time when the object tracking changes orientation after eventually. For these circumstances video tracking frameworks typically utilize a movement model which depicts how the image of the target may change for distinctive conceivable movements of the object. Here in this paper we have developed an algorithm to to track object in video frames using color, motion and feature.
146 A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PLANNED TEACHING PROGRAMME REGARDING PREVENTION OF SELECTED COMMON DISEASES IN UNDERFIVE CHILDREN IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE AMONG AANGANWADI WORKERS IN GANDHINAGAR DISTRICT , Roshni Chauhan* and Kalaivani
Prevention is better than cure‖ is a well known concept. IN the present World, we believe that health is more than a non-disease state. Hence preventive and promotive aspects of health are given more importance than curative aspect. During first 5 years of life physical growth, maturation, acquisition of competence and psychological recognition occurs in discontinues burst. The child acquire new competencies in the gross motor, fine motor, cognitive and emotional domains. The family is the central focus in the under five, in turn exerts considerable influence on all other families regardless of the size and form of the family unit. The parents fell more comfortable when the child reaches five year. The health functionary ultimately responsible for delivering of health care services. Most of the childhood diseases can be prevented by giving good, adequate and reliable information and knowledge to the care givers. Therefore, the investigator found that by educating the caregivers with the help of a planned teaching programme on prevention of communicable diseases can reduce the mortality and morbidity rate among the under- five children and this planned teaching programme consisting detailed information about diarrhea, malaria and scabies including its prevention, management. Anaganwadi teachers can impart health information effectively and assist the people in community to develop self care potential. These anaganwadi teachers are in direct contact with children and people in community, so they can play a pivot role in prevention of communicable diseases among children so it is important to educate the anganwadi teachers to improve the health of the underfive children ,so as to built up a healthy population for tomorrow. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood. Diarrhea, is the condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Diarrhea can be prevented by improved sanitation, clean drinking water, and hand washing with soap. Breastfeeding for at least six months and vaccination against rotavirus is also recommended. Oral rehydration solution (ORS)—clean water with modest amounts of salts and sugar—is the treatment of choice. Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It can be mild or serious. Pneumonia is generally more common in children younger than 5 years old. Pneumonia is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world.
147 FABRICATION OF AUTOMOTIVE DOUBLE HACKSAW MACHINE , *R. Panchamoorthy, R. Velappan, P. Balashanmugam and G. Balasubramanian
These days automation is changing the world as we know. We need more and more automated system to make human tasks faster and easier. So here we automate another strenuous work of hacksaw cutting. Human hacksaw cutting is very strenuous and requires a lot of effort. This is not feasible large scale and accurate cutting. So our proposed system automates the hacksaw cutting with a double sided technique where we operate two hacksaws using a single mechanism. We here use a motor with the shaft attached. The motor and shaft are attached using appropriate mounts to hold it in position. Then we use a hacksaw frame and build mounting panels for it using metal structure. We also use a bed and holder to hold the work piece in place. Now we are driving the motor using a supply circuit to operate it and move the shaft. We attach the shaft to saw frames in a way that saw moves in a direction perpendicular to the work piece. Attaching two hacksaws in either direction enables us to operate hacksaw in both direction and operate both directions and operate both of them at the same time. Thus we put forth a smart and efficient hacksaw that can be used for accurate bulk production.
148 EFFECT OF NEUTRAL SYSTEMS ON TEMPORARY OVERVOLTAGE IN DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS , Gamal Hazza*
The effect of neutral systems for distribution networks has been evaluated when overvoltage caused by grounded faults. Sana'a distribution networks; as a part of Yemeni interconnected system; have been investigated as a case study. The obtained results confirmed that temporary overvoltage phenomena should be taken into account when neutral systems connect to the neutral point of transformers. Results demonstrate that the installed neutral systems in the distribution networks need remediation in order to overcome the overvoltage phenomena, especially in the 15 kV level. In this work, some solutions have been suggested for mitigating overvoltage values during the faults. The suggested mitigation method based on a modification of the neutral system to add constraints for preventing the unacceptable temporary overvoltage limit which equals 1.2 pu of the nominal voltage value.
149 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GAMMA IRRADIATION OF DIFFERENT DOSES IN GRAPES, TOMATO, GUAVA, LITCHI, STRAWBERRY AND KINNOW , Kuminder Kaur and R. K. Gupta*
The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation of different doses on various fruits and vegetables. Gamma irradiation has been proved to inhibit microbial growth, delay ripening and extend shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In productivity of plants low temperature during germination and early seedling growth is one of the most significant limiting factors. Radiation doses of 0.75 to 1.0 kGy did not affect the quality parameters of tomatoes like titratable acidity, pH, anthocyanin content.
150 ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF SAFE WELDING FUMES IN TIG WELDING , Eki M. U., Achebo J. I. and Ozigagun A.*
The TIG welding processes are accompanied by some toxic aero-disperse particles which can affect the lungs and respiratory system of welders. This paper has developed a near optimal solution to minimize the fume concentration in TIG welding by systematically applying the genetic algorithm approach. A set of individual solutions characterized by genes such as current, voltage and gas flow rate has been considered. Optimal solution was achieved by population, selection, rossover and mutation procedures. The iteration was performed over 450 generations and 100 stall generations with function and constraint tolerances of 1e-06 and 1e-04 respectively. The genealogy, selection and rank histogram shows the parents contributing to each generation. The pareto optimal solution was obtained and the 10th individual was selected as the fittest. With a current of 170.20 amps, voltage of 19 volts and gas flow rate of 11.31 lit/min will produce a weld with minimum fume concentration of 2.99. The Genetic Algorithm optimal solution can help fabrication experts to reduce the hazards exposed to welders and improve their health integrity.
151 NEW METHOD WITH LAPLACE TRANSFORM TO SOLVE NONLINEAR PDES , Eltaib M. Abd Elmohmoud* and Tarig M. Elzaki
In this paper, we are going to introduce a brand new methodology and mix it with the mathematician remodel to unravel a number of non-linear partial differential equations. This method is characterized by the ease and abbreviation of many steps, as we have come up with an exact solution using only one step, depending on how to choose the appropriate preliminary approximation.
152 OPTIMIZATION OF OPTICAL IMMUNE BIOSENSOR WORK AT THE EXPRESS DETERMINATION OF THE INSULIN SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES , M. F. Starodub* and M. I. Fedelesh-Gladinets
Summary: The detection of individual autoantibodies, including insulin-specific ones, in the blood of patients is essential at the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The existing traditional methods allow for the necessary analysis, but they require considerable time for its implementation, the availability of specialized stationary laboratories and are quite expensive. An alternative solution is to use analytical tools based on biosensor principles. This article presents the results of studies on the optimization of the work of the immune biosensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the analysis of anti-insulin immunoglobulin's (Ig). It has been found that the preliminary preparation of the transducer surface of the SPR with a monolayer of such polyelectrolyte as polyallylamine (PAA) hydrochloride is the best option. Because the sensitivity and specificity of the biosensor SPR is quite high when used on the transducer surface of an insulin monolayer at the identification of the diabetic patients, there is no need to form its branched layers, despite the fact that this significantly increases the sensitivity of the assay. The concentration of insulin to be immobilized on the surface of the transducer should be in the range of 250-500 μg/ml. The simplest and most appropriate for practice is the using assay that involves the direct interaction of insulin with specific serum antibodies. To avoid nonspecific reactions at the determination ot anti-insulin Ig the dilution of serum blood should be 10-100 times.
153 THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON LANGUAGE OF INSTRUCTION IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: AN EXPERIENCE FROM TANZANIA , Issa Omar Malecela (Ph.D)*
Globalization process has brought a change on the language of instruction in the developing countries across the globe. This change is made by shifting from using vernacular/native languages to English language as their medium of instruction. The emergence of English as a language of instruction threatens the survival of vernacular/native languages as well as quality education in the developing countries. Additionally, culture and national identity are gradually diminished by the so called globalization. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: 1. what is the best way of embedding English language as a medium of instruction without affecting the existence of the first language (vernacular), culture and national identity in the countries where English is not the first language? 2. What is the best way of embedding English language as a medium of instruction without affecting the quality of education in the countries where English is not the first language?
154 MEASUREMENT OF DRAG AND LIFT FORCE OF A HOLLOW PROJECTILE UNDER DIFFERENT WIND CONDITIONS , M. Nasir Uddin*, Md. Humayun Kabir Bhuiyan and M. Qamrul Islam
The hollow projectile known as a tubular projectile is an important parameter to be considered to improve its performance characteristics greatly. The design parameters of a projectile depend on the drag and lift forces acting on the projectile. Therefore, a detail experimental and simulation are required to understand the projectile performance against the wind. In this study, experimental and numerical investigations of a hollow shape projectile under different wind conditions are carried out. Here a 105 mm hollow shape projectile is used in while performing the experiment. The experiment is carried out by placing the projectile in front of the wind tunnel. The simulation was done using software at an Angle of Attack (AOA) 45°, keeping wind velocity and geometry the same. The pressure coefficients were calculated from the measured values of the surface static pressure distribution on the projectile. The drag and lift coefficients were further obtained from the measured pressure and a projected area of the projectiles. The wind flow effect on the projectiles was also analysed by ANSYS software. The simulation and experimental result show similar trend regarding drag and lift forces.
155 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NON-EDIBLE VEGETABLE SEED OIL AS CUTTING FLUID IN METAL TURNING OPERATION , Eziwhuo S. J.* and Joseph T.
In this research work, Oil was extracted from non-edible vegetable seeds (Cocoa seeds CS, Soursop seed SS, and blend of 50%CSO and 50%SSO). The percentage yield of the non-edible vegetable seeds oil was calculated and the result are analysed in pie chat. The physicochemical analysis of all the non-edible vegetable seed oils and mineral cutting fluids were carried out. The non-edible vegetable seeds oils were prepared into cutting fluid with additive (Washing Soap, Tri ethanol Amine, and Distilled Water) used by percentage of volume and blended non-edible vegetable seed oil with difference percentages. The surface turning operation was carried out using Ø30mm diameter mild steel (AISI 1020) as work piece, then the two cutting fluids (non-edible vegetable base cutting fluid NVBCF and mineral cutting fluid MCF) were applied through gravitational method. The temperature, surface roughness, and chip thickness were measured. All the machining output parameters (Interfacial Temperature, Surface Roughness, and Chip thickness) were used for comparison with vegetable based cutting fluids and mineral cutting fluids. The results showed that increase in speed decreased the surface roughness of AISI 1020 steel; and the least surface roughness-value and surface temperature value was 1.7μm, 48.90C obtained at the spindle speed of 200 rpm for blended of 50%CSO and 50%SSO) oil-based fluids. The NVBCFs of different formulations all showed good lubricant properties which compared favourably with the commercial cutting fluids (CCFs). The non-edible vegetable seeds base cutting fluids (NVSBCFs) formulation that showed the best surface cooling lowest roughness, and chip thickness formation was blended of 50%CSO and 50%SSO) Cutting fluids, even better than the commercial cutting fluid (CCFs).characteristics,
156 TUNING OF A PI-PD CONTROLLER USED WITH A THIRD ORDER PROCESS , Akram F. Singer*, Galal A. Hassaan, Mohamed A. Elgamil
Highly oscillation in industrial processes is completely undesirable, and controller tuning has to solve this problem. PI-PD is a controller type of the PID family which is suggested to overcome this problem with improved performance regarding the spike characteristics associated with certain types of controllers. This work has proven that using the PI-PD controller is capable of solving the problems of the highly oscillated third order process. A highly oscillated third order process of 57% maximum overshoot and 75 seconds settling time is controlled using a PI-PD controller (through simulation). The controller is tuned by minimizing the sum square error (ISE) of the control system using a software package. The MATLAB optimization toolbox is used assuming that the tuning problem is with functional constraints. The overshoot, undershoot and settling time are used to investigate the performance of the closed loop control system. The performance of the control system using an PI-PD controller using the present tuning technique is compared with that using the ITAE standard forms tuning technique.
157 HEMOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF THE HEMOSTATIC DRUG GLILAGIN IN GEL FORM , *Dr. F. A. Sobirova, A. K. H. Islamov, A. V. Filatova and A. D. Matchanov
this article, the effect of the gel form of Glilagin in the form of a soft drug on the blood transfusion process in intact animals and the effect on the blood transfusion process on foreign blood-borne blood clotting analogues: Hemostatic gauze (Russia), Hemostatic sponge (Russia) and Taxo-Combom (Austria) was found to have a blood transfusion property of 1.5–2.0 times higher in the relative study.
158 A BEHAVIOURAL AND INDUSTRIAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA AND JAPAN , Chung Sulin and Abhay Tiwari*
Social entrepreneurship has become the popular and attractive word in India and its gaining the attention of so many youths in Japan as well as around the world now a days. Youths have found this concept to solve the social problems because, it has the best mixture of social service and entrepreneurship; this combination makes it most unique in nature and best way to solve the social problems. Usually entrepreneurship is related to business and economic activities and being ruthlessly profit making and ignoring social benefits or societal wellbeing, but social entrepreneurship has changed the concept of entrepreneurship among the present youth. In the present era of heavy industrialization and economic growth, societal gains have taken back seat or even out of the sight all around the world, including India, with the concept of social entrepreneurship rising in India and developed country like Japan has helped in serving the society in more meaningful manner than ever before. The CSR activity by the major companies are now a days is just a formality and we cannot see the ground level effect, even though the government of India is trying to make CSR a more realistic responsibility for the companies by some government policies but it still need self-realization by the companies for there responsibilities for the society. In this era a revolutionary concept of social entrepreneurship among youths are now looking for their grater roles in helping the society in a way that is both economically and socially beneficial. As the definition of social entrepreneurship itself clarifies that its fine combination of entrepreneurship and societal gains. In recent times, the concept has taken new identities and shapes, and has been accepted among wider areas. The main objective of social entrepreneurship is that, entrepreneurs should more responsible for society and its well-being than earning profits only. This concept also addresses social need and social innovations in its totality, in the opinion of experts; social entrepreneurship is nothing but identification of social need and addressing that need with a unique social innovation. This is where the social and economic entrepreneurship differentiate with each other, economic entrepreneurship focuses on economic need, on the other hands, social entrepreneurship focuses on social needs. This paper is a detailed study on variety of topics related to social entrepreneurship in India and Japan, including the conceptual framework and process of social entrepreneurship in India and Japan. This research paper also includes the various challenges faced by social entrepreneurs and puts forwards its recommendations to improve the overall situation of social entrepreneurship/entrepreneurs in India and Japan. Research paper further discusses similarity and contrast about social entrepreneurship along Indian and Japanese youths. The paper also explains the concepts like, what is social entrepreneurship? social needs and social innovations from Indian and Japanese entrepreneurship‟s point of view. Social entrepreneurship has increased its scope and importance in recent years in India and Japan. At last, how social entrepreneurship can change or impact on the social setup and social culture in India and Japan specifically at the bottom of the pyramid level is also underlined in this research paper.
159 A SURVEY ON MULTIPLE CLASSIFIERS SYSTEM FOR ANOMALY DETECTION IN CREDIT CARD DATA WITH UNBALANCED AND OVERLAPPED CLASSES , *Mukesh Kumar Mandal and Dr. Avinash Sharma
Credit card plays a very important rule in today's economy. It becomes an unavoidable part of household, business and global activities. Although using credit cards provides enormous benefits when used carefully and responsibly, significant credit and financial damages may be caused by fraudulent activities. Many techniques have been proposed to confront the growth in credit card fraud. However, all of these techniques have the same goal of avoiding the credit card fraud; each one has its own drawbacks, advantages and characteristics. The widened uses of Internet credit cards in e-banking systems are currently prone to credit card fraud. Data imbalance also poses a significant difficulty in the method of fraud detection. The efficiency of the existing fraud detection systems is only in question because it detects fraudulent action after the suspect transaction has been completed. In this study, a Multiple Classifiers System (MCS) has been used on two data sets: (i) credit card frauds (CCF), and (ii) credit card default payments (CCDP). The MCS employs a sequential decision combination strategy to produce accurate anomaly detection. The empirical studies show that the MCS outperforms the existing research, particularly in detecting the anomalies that are minorities in these two credit card data sets.
160 QUANTIFICATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE USING MULTI-MISSION SATELLITE ALTIMETRY DATA OVER NIGERIAN TERRITORIAL WATERS , Okafor Somtoochukwu Chukwunonso* and Uzodinma Victus Ndubuisi
Many low-lying and vulnerable coastal areas especially the Nigerian coastlines are threatened by global sea level rise. Human lives and economic assets such as sea ports and tourism centres are threatened. This study assesses these threats by quantifying sea level variations and trends off the Nigerian coastline using measurements from multiple altimeter missions over 1993–2016. Sea level anomalies (SLAs) data were extracted from 9 satellite altimeter missions namely: TOPEX/ Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, Jason 3, ERS-1, ERS-2, EnviSat, CryoSat-2 and SARAL. Sea level trends were determined by using moving average and time series linear regression analysis of both monthly and yearly averaged SLA solutions. The result showed that rate sea level rise trends over Nigerian territorial waters just off the coastline ranges from 2.23 ± 0.39 mm/yr to 4.90 ± 0.41 mm/yr. Over 1993–2016, the mean rising rate within the study area is 3.25 ± 0.65 mm/yr. Tidal SLA measurements of Sao Tome tide gauge station at Sao Tome and Province was used to validate SLAs from altimetry. The assessment result shows similar patterns of SLAs with high correlation coefficient of 90% and small root mean square differences (RMSE) of 3.62 cm between SLAs from altimetry and tide gauge over the same period. Predictions were made based on the assumption that sea level rise is constant every year, the obtained predictions as shows that sea level rise off the Nigerian coastline will be 0.18 – 0.21 m by the year 2041, 0.42 – 0.49 m by the year 2066, 0.66 – 0.77 m by 2091 and 0.90 – 1.05 m by the year 2116. For the few areas where the comparison in elevation of some coastal areas and the sea was done, the results showed that the difference ranges between 0.4 – 1.0 m. This study predicted the impact of such rising sea levels on the Nigerian coastal areas and proffers remedial measures to mitigate such impacts.
161 DECREASE INVENTORY INACCURATE BY PDCA APPROACH A CASE STUDY IN INDONESIAN’S RETAIL COMPANY , Tukhas Shilul Imaroh and Fatihatul Azkiyah*
Inventory accuracy is one indicator of the success of managing the distribution warehouse as part of the supply chain. One way to reduce the level of inventory accuracy is low is to use continuous improvement that is applied to all parts of the process in the distribution warehouse. The continuous improvement system used must be able to solve the problems that arise in the operational activities. This research will use the Plan Do Check Action (PDCA) method then the results will be analyzed by Cause and Effect Analysis method. Inventory data in 2017 shows a high level of inaccurate compared to the tolerance limits set by the company. To be able to support the implementation of the Plan Do Check Action (PDCA), it is very necessary to have an effective teamwork and involve all parts of the operational system in the distribution warehouse, therefore primarily the distribution warehouse needs to first examine its ability to carry out operational processes.
162 PRIMITIVE ELEMENTS OF FINITE FIELDS Fp WHERE p = 1 + 2n IS A PRIME NUMBER  , Ahmed Asimi*
In this digital age, modern cryptographic techniques have many uses, such as to digitally sign documents, access control, implement electronic money, elliptic curves, IT security and network security for example design and validation of authentication and trust architectures. Because of these important uses it is necessary that users be able to estimate the efficiency and security of cryptographic techniques. It is ot sufficient for them to know only how the techniques work. One of the most useful of these structures is that of finite fields which are perfectly connected to these primitive elements. Indeed, every finite field is commutative and admits a primitive element. In this paper, we effectively determinate the primitive elements of finite fields where is a prime number. We show that 1) if is a prime number then is a Fermat prime number; 2) is a primitive element of if and only if is not a quadratic residue modulo ; 3) the elements 32n+1 modulo for all ℕ are the primitive elements of with ; and 4) 2 is a primitive element of if and only if (ie ).
163 INVESTIGATION OF DRAG & LIFT FORCES FOR A HOLLOW PROJECTILE AND ITS NUMERICAL VALIDATION , MD Rafiqur Rahman*
Accurate experimental methods for determining the drag and lift forces of the projectile is very important. The trajectory of a projectile through the air is affected both by gravity and by aerodynamic forces. The aerodynamic forces can conveniently be ignored in many situations, even when they are comparatively large. In this paper 37 mm hollow projectile is considered since it shows good performance characteristics and easy to handle. Here main emphasis was given to determine pressure coefficient, Drag coefficients, lift coefficient of the hollow projectiles at different angle of attack. To study the aerodynamic characteristics of the projectiles the experiment was conducted in an open circuit subsonic wind tunnel where uniform flow velocity is maintained across the flow direction. For the experiment varied angles of the attack mostly between 30° to 50° is considered with an interval of 5°. Here inclined manometer was used to find out the surface static pressure and then the pressure coefficient was determined from that. Finally, for the numerical scheme, the ANSYS Software was used to simulate the experiment. In this study, it was found that the drag and lift forces acting on the projectiles, both increases when the angle of attack increases.
164 EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON WATER DEMAND AND STRENGTH OF A CONCRETE MIX , *Adinna Boniface Okafor and Okonkwo John Chibuzo
The need to make concrete stronger, more workable and durable has led to increased research among scholars in the area of construction chemicals, especially cement dispersants or plasticizers. Fly ash seems to be the earliest, simplest and most common cement plasticizing compound; though not as active as the modern super plasticizers, but is still used in combination with them to achieve better results. This research studies the effect of fly ash on mixing water demand and 28-days strength of the hardened concrete at a constant consistency or slump. Five concrete mixes were studied containing 0%, 4%, 8%, 10% and 12% of class F fly ash, respectively, by weight of the cement content. The first mix containing 0% fly ash (control) was made with water-to-cement (w/c) ratio of 0.5, and it gave a slump of 30mm and a 28-days strength of 22.22N/mm2. For the remaining mixes, approximately the same slump (or consistency) was maintained by increasing the quantity of fly ash while reducing the quantity of water needed. At 8% fly ash content, maximum strength of 34.67N/mm2 and minimum water demand (effective w/c of 0.46) was obtained. Fly ash was then recommended to be used at 8%, by weight of the cement content, when used as a plasticizer alone, or in combination with other plasticizers, to achieve maximum results.
165 USE OF EMPTY-OIL-PALM-FRUIT-BUNCH ASH AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR CEMENT IN STRUCTURAL CONCRETE , Adinna Boniface Okafor*
The oil palm, Elaeis guineesis, is an agricultural tree grown extensively in West Africa, Malaysia and Indonesia. It produces it fruits in bunches, each bunch containing 150 to 200 fruits held in sockets in one fruit bunch. During harvest, the bunch is defruited and the empty-oil-palm-fruit-bunch (EOPFB) is discarded as waste. In countries that produce red palm oil for export, this waste normally constitute environmental problems. This study investigates the possibility of using the ash produced from empty-oil-palm-bunch as a partial substitute for cement in concrete production in order to provide an economic and proper way of disposal for the agro-waste. In this regard, a nominal mix proportion of 1:1½:3 (being ratios of cement, sand and gravel) with a water-cement ratio of 0.55 was used to produce concretes containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of empty oil-palm-fruit-bunch ash (EOPFBA) as a partial substitute for cement; the percentages being calculated by weight of the original cement content. 48 cubes were produced, 12 for each of the percentage substitutions. Two cubes from each of the percentage ash contents were tested for compressive strength at 7, 14, 21, 28, 60 and 90 days of water curing, and the results analyzed with graphs. The oxide composition of the ash was also investigated with x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. From the graphs it was observed that the concretes of the various ash contents hydrated like every other pozzolana and the strengths of 10% and 20% ash contents equalized with that of zero percent (0%) at 90 days water curing instead of 28 days as already known for rice-husk ash and fly ash. From the oxide composition it was also observed that silica, alumina and iron oxide content of the empty-oil- palm-fruit bunch ash was much lower than the values commonly found in rice husk and fly ash, and that could be the reason for the slow pozzolanic reaction. It was then concluded that empty-oil-palm-fruit-bunch ash is a pozzolana and should be used to substitute cement at 10 – 20% by weight of the original cement content in concrete. The concrete so produced should be protected from aggressive chemical as it may contain more pores relative to the control.
166 REMARKS ON MULTIPLICATIVE GENERALIZED DERIVATIONS IN PRIME AND SEMIPRIME RINGS , Moharram A. Khan*, Muhammad Minkail and Hamisu Musa
Let be a semiprime ring with center and a nonzero left ideal of. A map (not necessarily additive) is called multiplicative generalized derivation if it satisfies for all a derivation. The main aim in this paper is to study the following situations: ) for all in some appropriate subset of
167 TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE WITH BIOMEDICAL WASTE ASH , Bashir Ahmed Memon*, Ghulam Mustafa Khanzada, Mahboob Oad* and Abdul Hafeez Buller
Use of alternative ingredients and management of waste generated from different primary processes is active area of research around the globe. This research article combines both aspects by investigating the tensile strength of concrete made with partial replacement of cement with biomedical waste ash. Ten by weight replacement of cement (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9% and 1.0%) were used to cast 288 concrete cylinders of standard size. 1:2:4 concrete mix with 0.5 w/c ratio was used. Additionally, one batch of concrete cylinders was prepared without biomedical waste to compare the results of proposed concrete. Curing of specimens was done for 7-, 14-, 28- and 90-day. Comparison of the results shows that the tensile strength of proposed concrete was within the specified range of tensile strength of conventional concrete. In relation with 28-day cured conventional concrete minimum reduction is obtained at 5% dosage of 28-day cured specimens. Elongated curing shows increase in the parameter for all levels of cement replacement with the waste ash. Maximum increase is recorded at 1% replacement of cement with ash.
168 FLEXURAL STRENGTH VS STRAIN OF REINFORCED RAC RICH MIX BEAMS WITH HIGHER WATER-CEMENT RATIO , Mahboob Oad*, Bashir Ahmed Memon, Abdul Hafeez Buller, Amjad Husssain Bhutto, Samiullah Sohu
This research paper presents laboratory investigations for the effect of higher water-cement ratio on the flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams cast with 50% dosage of recyclable aggregates from demolished concrete. 12 reinforced concrete beams were cast using rich mix (1:1.5:3). Additionally, six reinforced concrete beams were also cast using rich mix and all-natural aggregates. Water-cement ratio of 0.6 is used to study its effect on flexural strength, strain, deflection and cracking. Equal number of the beams was cured for 7- and 28-day. The test results show that increasing water-cement ratio has positive effect on flexural strength. However, deflection and strain remained higher than control specimen. The failure mode of the beams is observed shear failure.
169 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN NATURAL PARKS: CHIRIBIQUETE NATURAL PARK , Yesica Blanco*, Michelle Moreno, Natalia Rivera, Santiago Rivera, Ricardo Monroy and Vanessa Rodriguez
Serranía of Chiribiquete Natural National Park is located between the departments of Caquetá and Guaviare and is considered the heart of the Colombian Amazon because of its geographical position, it is the largest nationally and one on a continental level with an approximate of 4'268.095 hectares, it has been the home and continues to be the home of indigenous peoples who have inhabited it since ancient times and thanks to them it has been conserved from generation to generation and may have one of the novel landscapes in our territory, it has rules for the protection which is not to allow the entrance to people who can cause irreversible damages in this ecosystem (Pardo, 2018).
170 EARTH IS IN THE CENTRE OF UNIVERSE 95% NO ALIENS IN THE UNIVERSE STOP THE ARRIVAL OF THIRD WORLD WAR BEFORE COMING, PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT FROM EARTHQUAKE, CYCLONE AND TSUNAMI IN WORLD FROM 2019 TO INFINITY YEARS , Dr. P. Deivanayagam*
This article is based on universal energy or sexual energy of attraction of universe. Earth is in centre point of rotation of axis in universe, Gulf of guinea is the centre point of universe, and zero point energy(0) starts from that point to entire universe(infinity). Earth is in centre of universe without earth universe cannot function. Atom bomb, hydrogen bomb explosion must be eradicated in 100 percentage. Dinosaur has been killed by nature for the arrival of human being. Mother earth is the only planet in universe life is in earth only. Stoppage of arrival of third world war is essential for united nation organization. In 2749 our earth is covered by 75% sea water. Planting of green trees is essential we want to protect our environment in great manner. 1, 2, 3…… infinity. Infinity means human being, positive infinity means man, negative infinity means women and middle infinity means ivinch men and women. Earthquake, cyclone, tsunami, more rainfall and flood take place in world in great manner from 2019 to 2030 in world please save all the plants, animals and human beings in world. Nostradamus predicted there must be a third world war from 2019 to 2030 and usage of atom bomb and hydrogen bomb by world countries and more number of environmental damage in world. Human being want to construct houses, buildings bridges, military, office, schools, colleges inside the sea for future generation. Bhagavad kita, bible and quran come to the world for the protection of earth not only for human living purpose in the world. Lord Krishna, Jesus and nabigal nayagam come for the protection of earth only. We want to protect the 700 crore peoples, plants and all animals in earth.
171 A REVIEW: EFFICIENT WIRELESS SYSTEM BASED ON MPSK USING DIVERSITY , Shivani Rajput M. Tech Scholar, Asst. Prof. Vikash Panthi
These days the requirements the increase in the number of wireless devices and the requirement for higher data rates places an increasing demand on bandwidth. The advance generation of wireless communication systems faces the demand for increased higher mobility, data rates, larger carrier frequencies, and more link reliability. Wireless channels are characterized by diversity, fading, multipath, limited bandwidth, and frequency and time variant, time invariant selectivity which make system design a challenges. This necessitates the need for communication systems with increased throughput and capacity. The requirements in wireless communication are to have high voice quality, high data rates, high voice quality multimedia features, lightweight communication devices etc. But the wireless communication channel suffers from much impairment.
172 LINEAR PARALLELEPIPEDIC ELECTRIC MACHINE: LOSSES IN THE MOVING PLATE , Pierre Kenfack*, Stève Ngoffe Perabi and Abraham Dandoussou
This paper details the calculation of losses in the flat moving plate (rotor) consisting of permanent magnets (NdFeB) between two fixed stators of a linear parallelepipedic electric machine. The resistivity of Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets is between 120 and 160*10-8 Ω.m. The heat dissipation from the two stationary stators can cause a temperature rise that demagnetizes the highly temperature-sensitive NdFeB magnets. The heating of the NdFeB magnets reduces the remanent induction Br and therefore the tangential force. In addition, this heating can damage adhesives, resins or varnishes, which can cause permanent magnets to loosen. Eddy current losses in permanent magnets are created by the space and time harmonics of the armature reaction field, as well as by the permeance variations seen by the magnets (alternating teeth and slots); they cannot be neglected. The losses in the magnets (moving plate) of the linear parallelepipedic machine are determined by the finite element method using the ANSYS MAXWELL software.
173 DEVELOPMENT OF GRAPHENE BASED NANOSTRUCTURES AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN FOOD QUALITY CONTROL AND HEALTH CARE , Abhijit Kar Gupta, Arjun Dutta*, Dr. Kakoli Dutta* and Dr. Subhasis Rana2
Synthetic dyes are very often used as food colors to make the food stuff attractive. All the dyes however, are not good for health and therefore are not permitted to be used in food. There are total nine synthetic dyes approved by U.S Food and Drug Administration(FDA) which are commonly used in soft drinks, breakfast cereals, candies snacks, baked goods, frozen desserts etc. Recently certain dyes contain azo-groups are also found to be deleterious to the consumers causing cancers, hyperactivity and other disorders. So the determination of trace amount of these toxic food dyes in food stuff has become an analytical challenge. Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms(sp2 hybridized), that are packed in a hexagonal honeycomb crystalline structure. It has extremely high electron mobility at room temperature high surface to volume ratio and high electrical conductivity. Synthesis of graphene can be done either by chemical vapour deposition technique or by chemical exfoliation of graphite into Graphene Oxide(GO).The reduced GO(RGO) sheets are usually considered as one kind of chemically derived graphite whose properties can be altered depending on the reduction process. There is different domain of application in this graphene based nanostructures of which food quality control and healthcare is an important sector. In the present work our aim is to synthesize and characterize several graphene oxide based nanostructures and to study their applicability in the detection of trace amount of some carcinogenic food dyes.
174 RELIABILITY MEASURES OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM WITH SOFTWARE REDUNDANCY SUBJECT TO MAXIMUM REPAIR TIME , V. J. Munday* and Permila
In this paper, the authors are concentrated on the reliability measures of a computer system with software redundancy by introducing the concepts of maximum repair time. The system fails independently from normal mode. All the repair activities such as hardware repair, software up-gradation and hardware replacement are carried out by a single server immediately on need basis. The hardware component is replaced after a pre-specific time‘t’ (called maximum repair time) by new one when server fails to get its repair. All random variables are statistically independent. The negative exponential distribution is taken for the failure time of the component while the distributions of repair time, up-gradation time and replacement time are assumed arbitrary with different probability density functions. Semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique are used for obtaining the values of various performance measures. The behaviour of some important performance measure has been examined for different parameters and costs. The profit comparison of the present model has also been made with that of the model analyzed by Munday and Malik (2015).
175 ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM USED TO CLASSIFY THE FIVE MAJOR TYPES OF BRAIN TUMORS , *Shawni Dutta and Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Life threatening diseases in both male and female are Brain tumor, stroke, hemorrhage and multiple sclerosis (MS). The most common and widespread disease among these brain diseases is Brain tumor. Early and accurate diagnosis of brain lesion is vital for determining accurate treatment and prognosis. However, the diagnosis is a very challenging task and can only be performed by specialists in neuroradiology. In this paper, initially MRI image is taken as input and is normalized. The second stage includes extraction of feature vectors from the image which results in reducing redundancy of data to serve as the input to the classifier. The classifier extracted vector as features to produce classified output. The methodology performed very efficiently and accurately. Proposed work exhibits the application of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) based classifier known as Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to successfully classify the five major types of brain tumors.
176 SIMULATION OF SATURABLE ABSORBER MATERIAL POPULATION DENSITY EFFECT ON PULSE CHARACTERISTICS OF PASSIVELY Q-SWITCHING YB+3 DOPED FIBER LASER , *Dunya Saad Hussein and Dr. Abdul-Kareem Mahdi Salih
Saturable absorber material (SAM) population density effect on the pulse characteristics of passively Q-switching Yb+3 doped fiber laser has been simulated. Cr+4:YAG used as a SAM in the study. Software computer program buildup in this study for numerical solving of Rate equations model by Runga Kutta –Fehlberg method. The results shows the increasing of saturable absorber material population density lead to increasing each of initial and final values of population inversion density, maximum photons number, and pulse energy. While on another hand lead to decreasing each of rising time and falling time of pulse.
177 DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION DETAILS OF A LOW COST CONTACTLESS-DIGITAL TACHOMETER , *Ogunjirin O.A., O.A. Ojo, O.A. Ola and Nwaobilor Promise
vA Tachometer has been defined as a device used to determine the speed of rotation, typically of a shaft or rotating disc, usually measured in revolutions per minute (RPM). The constructed digital tachometer does this by taking advantage of the properties of the Infrared (IR) sensor to detect the body been measured. It also employs some mathematical computations to convert the IR detections to Revolutions per Minutes (RPM) by extrapolating the data. The entire device was built around the ATmega328-p Arduino Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) which uses the embedded C++ programming language. After Performance testing and evaluation of the device against a commercial tachometer a percentage error of 4.165% was observed, which is well within an acceptable range. The device promises several opportunities especially in automation, instrumentation and control as it can readily be put to use in the performance and evaluation of the agricultural processing machines and tractors alike in the center.
178 MODIFICATION OF NCAM MOTORIZED CASSAVA GRATING MACHINE , *Ogunjirin O. A., Bello M. K., Oladipo N. O. and R. O. Jimoh
The need to redesign the NCAM motorized cassava grater became imperative upon discovery that the existing motorized NCAM developed grating machine splashes grated mash on the operator, not portable, as it was too heavy to be transported from a location to the other using motorcycle. The hopper was therefore redesigned and further scaled down for ease of transportation with motorcycle on the farm. The design gave birth to an affordable and portable cassava grating machine. The performance evaluation revealed that using a 9HP petrol engine at a speed 78.40 rpm to run the cassava grater gives an output capacity of 2.0 tons/day at 84% efficiency. This is in addition to its portability and elimination of splashing of grated cassava mash on the operator.
179 DEVELOPMENT OF INDIGENOUS MOTORIZED COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA) DEHUSKING MACHINE , Ogunjirin O. A.*, R. O. Jimoh, N. O. Oladipo and M. K. Bello
Nigeria is one of the countries of the world with large coconut plantation. One of the problems encountered during the process of coconut is dehusking which majorly is carried out manually. With the drive to encourage the youths and women into processing of coconut fruit, an indigenous motorized dehusking machine was developed consisting of hopper, spur gears, spiked roller, and reduction gear following engineering design principle. Preliminary test was carried out by using the machine for dehusking coconut fruit was successful without breaking or distorting the coconut fruit
180 PERSPECTIVE ABOUT BRTS (BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM) IN HUBBALLI-DHARWAD , *Dr. Veda Malagatti and Ramaswamy D. Malagatti
Bus rapid transit System (BRTS), also called a busway or transitway, is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system. The world is adapting this Modernized form of transportation of passengers. The purpose for such mode of transport is obviously for the convenience, speedy commutation and impressive services. The objective of this study is to analyse the feasibility of the BRTS and the services by conducting the survey by using questionnaire. Acceptance of the system by the public and their enthusiasm is very crucial for the success of the system. A study has been carried out at pre and post launch of BRTS where the time gap between the two survey is less than a year. Factor analysis is calculated to study the loadings and reliability of factor influencing the effectiveness of BRTS .Chi-Square supports the positive impact of BRTS in Hubballi Dharwad city. At the last, the public has also expressed a vision of metro train would have been a better alternate of BRTS.
181 AN IDEA OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLING THE POLLUTANTS , Ramaswamy D. Malagatti* and Dr. Veda D.Malagatti
It is a device which removes all the pollutants (99.9% -100%) from the exhaust gases of any vehicle, at the silencer.
182 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE OF CLAY BUILDINGS BETWEEN POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES IN HADHRAMOUT REGION, YEMEN , Dr. Anwar Ahmed Baeissa*
Several of Yemeni cities are on architectural heritage sites and in Hadhramout in particular, they are endowed with enormous wealth over a broad geographic field. These heritage sites can be developed as tourist destinations and research fields that are visited by tourists, visitors and researchers from all over the world. In return, the region will witness a scientific and urbanized renaissance. It will also witness burgeoning tourist development. In this notion, the architectural heritage sites are considered a national wealth that should be preserved against any sort of decay. The present study presents a framework to conserve, renovate, and develop the architectural heritage sites by selecting the suitable developmental patterns specific to a particular site. To meet this goal, the methodology of the study used field trips, survey, and documenting some of the architectural heritage clay sites. This is an analytical and comparative study for the architectural heritage sites; their types, potentials, the encountering challenges, and prospective investment patterns. The study presents some recommendations for selecting the suitable the developmental patterns for the architectural heritage sites based on the findings. The study found that conservation process of architectural heritage sites could not be achieved except by improving the economic, cultural and social conditions of the heritage sites. The development process should be well planned and directed based on the type, significance, and location of the heritage site. The study suggests to revisit the conservation processes in use where revitalization of architectural heritage sites requires real partnership between the state represented by the general sector and investors. There should be a real investment partnership between general and private sectors.
183 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF BUOYANCY DRIVEN HYDROMAGNETIC TURBULENT FLUID FLOW OVER A VERTICAL INFINITE PLATE USING TURBULENT PRANDTL NUMBER , W. O. Mukuna*, E. Chepkemoi and J. K. Rotich
A mathematical model of hydromagnetic buoyancy driven turbulent fluid flow over an infinite vertical plate using Turbulent Prandtl number is analysed. The fluid is considered to exhibit a turbulent flow over a vertical infinite plate in within a magnetic field. The fluid flow is modeled using Reynolds time averaged conservation equations of momentum and energy. This gives rise to the governing equations relating to primary velocity, secondary velocity and temperature. The governing equations are subsequently non-dimensionalised leading to the inclusion of non-dimensional parameters. The turbulence in energy equation is resolved using turbulent Prandtl number. An analytic solution for the model equations is not feasible due to nonlinearity hence the approximate numerical solution for the model equations is computed by use of the finite difference scheme. The finite difference scheme is run on a computer using MATLAB software given much computation involved. The results are displayed in graphs. The various non-dimensional parameters are examined of their effects on the velocities and temperature profiles. It is established that the primary velocity increases with decreasing magnetic parameter while it increases with increase in Hall parameter and Grashoff number.
184 APPLICATION OF SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM FOR OPERATING A STEAM POWER PLANT , Dr. Kamaljyoti Talukdar*
In this work the thermal energy required by a boiler is obtained by passing high amount of direct current (DC) generated by solar photovoltaic (SPV) modules after passing through a fixed resistance. Also current required by pump in steam power plant is obtained from solar photovoltaic modules after converting into alternating current(AC) by an inverter and the excess current is supplied to rechargeable battery for operating steam power plant during non sunshine hours. In this work boiler pressure is assumed to be 15 MPa, entry temperature of steam to steam turbine (ST) to be 6000C, condenser pressure to be 0.01MPa with dryness fraction of steam 0.8041.The power produced by ST is 1 MW and a supply of 0.68 kg/s of steam is needed to produce 1MW power by boiler. For production of 0.68kg/s,178.256 A current is required considering 100 ohm resistance and for pumping power (10.294 kW), 62.35 A current is required and for that 963 SPV modules in parallel and 2 modules in series of Central Electronics Limited Make PM 150 for January and May in Kolkata city, India. The amount of charge stored and discharged by battery in January and May are 17823 Ah, 3113 Ah and 29084Ah, 3113 Ah respectively.
185 AUTOMATIC DUAL-AXIS SOLAR TRACKER WITH SOLAR PANEL , Arjun Dutta*, Abhirup Majumder and Akash Das
Solar energy is clean source of energy that has a much lower environmental impact than conventional energy. Solar energy has been increasing in a wide range of applications. Even though the wide usages of solar energy, the efficiency is not up to mark. Upon scheffler dish principle in practical the solar panel is parabolic in shape. This paper focuses on low cost dual axis solar tracking system to magnify the use of solar energy. To enhance the efficiency, combination of two types of solar tracking designs are implemented. LDR and servo motor is selected as the driving mechanism of the model. Dual axis is more acceptable as it’s efficiency is more. The four active sensors present constantly monitor the sun and rotates the panel towards the direction of maximum intensity obtained. With the implementation the proposed configuration the additional energy generated is around 25% to 30%.there is very less consumption of energy by the system itself. The system have increased efficiency and reduced cost so that it can be implemented mainly in rural area.
186 THE MECHANICAL COMPOSITION, TEXTURE, SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA AND THEIR AGRONOMIC IMPLICATIONS FOR PROFILES OF SOILS DEVELOPED FROM SANDSTONES IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA , Dr. Michael Otu Eyong* and Okon P. B.
The mechanical composition of soils, referred to as particle size distribution, used to determine the proportion of different sized particles in a soil, hence the textural class, was evaluated for soils of Ekureku in central Cross River State. Three profile pits were sunk on three landscape elements of crest, middleslope and valley bottom along a well defined and identified toposequence. The mean surface soil content of sand, silt and clay for the profiles were 69.0%, 26.0% and 5.0% while the mean subsoil content of same particles were 61.0 % (sand), 23.0 %(silt) and 16.05(clay) respectively. It was observed that sand was the dominant particle size fraction reflecting the sandstones from which the soils were derived. The textures of the crest, middleslope and valley bottom were loamy sands for crest and loams for middleslope and valley bottom. The loamy sands are coarse textured, very light and therefore subject to shearing, detachment and transportation, therefore prone to erosion and leaching. They are therefore very poor dry soils with low water holding capacity. The loams are medium textured, fairly retentive of moisture, good drainage, fertile and productive and good for irrigation. The soils on the crest are therefore poorly endowed but with good management are suited for arable crops like groundnuts, cocoyam, and plantation crops like cashew, oil palm, sugar cane, sod development and golf courses. The loams are prime agricultural land and good for many arable crops. Since the ability to change texture to suit desired crops is limited, land use should be adjusted to fit existing physical conditions. Therefore the best management option is to use adapted crops.
187 IMPACT OF THE KARKHEH RIVER DAM ON THE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF THE HAWIZEH MARSH , Oday Jeewan and Professor Patricia Terry*
In 2003, Iran began construction of a dam along the shared border of the Hawizeh Marsh -a transboundary wetland between Iran-Iraq. The project was completed in late 2007. After damage already done to the marsh in the 1980s under previous leadership, Iraq had in 2003 begun efforts to restore the marsh ecosystem. The objective of this study is to determine if this dam has affected the Hawizeh ecosystem. Because of political instability and for security reasons, physical measurement of marsh characteristics has not been possible, so remotely measured data was needed to assess the impact. This study used nine years of Landsat 7 satellite images of thermal bands to determine the impact of the dam on land surface temperature, LST. LSTs were compared for both the areas above and below the dam before and after dam construction and filling. Results showed that LST increased by an average of 2.8oC below the dam, where water flow decreased, and decreased by the same amount above the dam, where a reservoir was formed. Given the temperature sensitivity of many living organisms, one can conclude that the dam impacted the marsh ecosystem.
188 PARAMETER ESTIMATION FROM NEGATIVE-LINDLEY BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION WITH MAXIMUM POSSIBLE METHODS: APPLICATION IN MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE , Yudhistira Naufal Sulaeman, Berlian Setiawaty, I. Gusti Putu Purnaba and Tita Rosita*
Frequency modeling of insurance claims plays an important role in an insurance company. This paper explains about negative binomial-Lindley distribution. This distribution has the greatest probability value at zero frequency. Negative binomial-Lindley distribution is usually used to model overdispersed data with large zero frequency probability which is often found in motor vehicle insurance data. For its application, the distribution parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood method. The numerical calculation has done by using Wolfram Mathematica 11.2 and R 3.5.1 software. The result shows that negative binomial-Lindley distribution is suitable for estimating the frequency of motor vehicle insurance claims with a very good degree of accuracy.
189 -ZERO SETS AND THEIR PROPERTIES IN TOPOLOGY , Govindappa Navalagi*
In 1990, Malghan et al. have defined and studied the concepts of almost p-regular, p-completely regular and almost p-completely regular spaces. In 1997 & 2004 Malghan et al. have defined and studied the concepts of almost s-completely regular spaces and s- completely regular spaces. In 2010, Navalagi introduced the concepts of pre-zero sets and co-pre-zero sets to characterize the concepts of p-completely regular spaces and almost p-completely regular spaces. In this paper, we offer some new concepts of -zero sets, co--zero sets, -completely regular spaces and almost -completely regular spaces. We also characterize their basic properties via -zero sets.
190 FLOOD VULNERABILITY MAPPING OF KOSOFE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS, NIGERIA , *Atagbaza A. O., Olayinka D. N and Pepple G. T.
The devastating nature of the floods on the environment that causes loss of lives and properties thus necessitates the need for flood vulnerability maps. This research identified and delineated area liable to flood and subsequently generate vulnerability maps that will aid in the efficient management of flood and flood related issues. This study identified heavy rainfall as the major cause of flooding which results in the overflow of the Ogun River. Land cover Analysis was carried out and six major land cover types were identified namely: Bare earth, Built up Area, Water-body Mangrove, Vegetation and Wetland. Results obtained from the analysis performed showed that bare earth decreased by 0.75km2 (1984 - 2002) and further decreased by 0.4km2 (2002 - 2013), built up area also showed a marked increase of 25.83km2 (1984 - 2002) to 1.35km2 (2002 - 2013). Mangrove had significantly decreased was as a result of rejuvenation 6.05km2 to 0.64km2 while vegetation and wetland decreased marginally from 15.87km2 to 9.18km2 and from 11.58km2 to 6.47km2 both between 1984 and 2013 respectively. The area occupied by water-body increased slightly within the period of this study which implies that the wetlands were lost due to human encroachment and urbanization i.e. reclaimed and used or transformed into built-up area which explains the increases in the settlements in Kosofe LGA. Some of the environmental consequences of this land cover change and alteration of coastal habitats are known to include erosion, flooding, pollution, threats to groundwater, effects of climate change and rising sea levels (UNEP, 2002; Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006; Brody et. al, 2007). Two methods are used in this research to identify flood, generate vulnerability maps and identify infrastructures at risk. The first method is „bath-tub‟ method, a zero dimensional approach method using the Arc-GIS 9.3 environment to produce maximum flood extent for different flood scenarios. The second one is CAESAR model, a two dimensional flow and sediment transport model than can simulate morphological changes in river catchments or reaches, on a flood by flood basis, over periods up to several thousands of years. The model results show flood extent spread at different flow regimes with infrastructures at risk in the area and the method results show flood vulnerability maps at normal, medium and worst flood scenarios.
191 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN ANCIENT EGYPT, PART 93: INSCRIPTION OF THE 11TH AND 12TH DYNASTIES TOMBS , Prof. Galal Ali Hassaan*
The objective of this paper is to investigate the development of mechanical engineering in ancient Egypt through the study of the inscription of the tombs of the 11th and 12th Dynasties. This study presents how the ancient Egyptian artists could record their daily-life activities in the form of reliefs and scenes on the walls of their tombs. They inscribed activities such as: hair dressing, fishing, fowling, weaving, presenting offering tables, receiving foreign delegates and wrestling. The paper highlights the use of the hieroglyphic script to define the activities covered in the tomb reliefs and scenes.
192 MALIGNANT MENINGIOMA WITH EXTRA-CRANIAL METASTASIS: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE , *Ruquaya Mir and Vikram P. Singh
Extracerebral metastasis can be present in patients with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas. On multivariate analysis, histological grade, Mitotic rate/HPF, Nuclear Atypia, Ki-67 (MIB-1 labelling index)and extent of resection remains important prognostic factors. The median survival for anaplastic meningioma remains 18 months, with 5-year mortality of 68%.
193 MODAL ANALYSIS OF A MOTORBIKE , Ajay G. Malayil* and Ramesh Kumar R.
Dynamic response of a 350cc bike having tubular chassis out of AISI 4130 alloy steel is studied considering the actual geometric data and stiffness distribution with engine and passenger masses and replacing spring mass system for the wheel and tire assembly. The fundamental frequency of the bike is observed as 12.7Hz and comparison with the reported frequency when structural mass alone is considered for 150cc bike is seen in the expected range. Fixity of engine mounting brackets makes the design insensitive with the wheel assembly. Under gravitational load the induced stresses are much lower as expected with a margin of safety of three with respect to the endurance limit value of the alloy steel. Structural elements that possess low frequency have been identified. Participating mass of the engine for respective mode shapes shows that engine mass location is quite safe and ideal.
194 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND ALGORITHM FOR A GANTRY ROBOT , Abhinanth M. M.* and Ramesh Kumar R.
A scaled version of a gantry robot to cover an envelope of 300 x 300 x150mm is designed to establish the accuracy of end positions prior to the manufacturing of any industrial gantry robot. A desk top 3-D printer is suitably modified for the fabrication of robot and measured translational motions are compared with prediction following well known D-H parameter. A good agreement on the end positions between the test and prediction are illustrated. Arduino code employed to control the real time execution of the gantry robot movement in a semi-automatic mode is provided for the designer.
195 SWITCHED-CAPACITOR/SWITCHED-INDUCTOR STRUCTURES FOR GETTING TRANSFORMERLESS BIDIRECTIONAL DC–DC PWM CONVERTERS: STEADY STATE AND DYNAMICS , Boris Axelrod, Yefim Berkovich* and Sagi Moshe
This paper is devoted to expanding sphere of application of the universal Switched-Capacitor/ Switched-Inductor Structures by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs. These structures allow to build a large family of bidirectional converters with an increased/decreased voltage ratio depending on the operating mode. These structures are based on the three diode blocks proposed for decrease the voltage and three diode blocks for increase it. The use of MOSFETs allow to save all the properties of these structures in the diode mode, but also to obtain new possibilities when the transistors operate themselves. At the same time, the step-down structures become increasing, and, conversely, the step-up structures become decreasing. The paper describes the basic structures, describes the Boost / Buck and Buck-Boost bidirectional converters, and shows opportunity of their use in bidirectional Cuk, Sepic and Zeta converters. To analyze the dynamics of such converters having a rather complicated structure, a methodology for replacing them with an equivalent circuit of a conventional converter of the same type, the dynamic characteristics of which are well known, is proposed. An analysis of their work and the results of the experiment are given, which confirm the correctness of the conclusions.
196 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE FROM FRESH AND SALT WATER , *Umana Oto-Obong I. and Captain Uranta Jonathan D.
Fresh water is any naturally occurring water such as Lakes, Rivers, Ponds etc that has no dissolved salt, whereas salt water (sea water) is also a naturally occurring water but contains large concentration of dissolved inorganic ions such as sodium, chloride, sulphate, magnesium etc. This paper aimed at comparing the strength of concrete made from both fresh and salt water. Slump and comparative strength tests were performed on concrete made for both water and their initial and final setting time were noted. The paper conclude that concrete made from salt water has higher comparative strength than concrete made from fresh water, but gradually decreases after 28 days. The paper recommends that test should be conducted to evaluate the salinity of water before it is used at any construction site.
197 CORRELATION BETWEEN AGE, HIGH, WEIGHT, AND FLEXIBILITY OF MAE GERI ABILITY ON KARATE JUNIOR ATLET OF DOJO PUSAKA DENPASAR , Maryoto Subekti and Agustinus Dei*
This study aims to determine the relationship between flexibility and the ability of mae geri (straight kick). The population of this research is 37 junior karateka of Dojo Pusaka Denpasar who are male and aged between 16-20 years. 24 people were selected from this population. Determination of the sample is done by total sampling technique. The method used is descriptive method with a correlational approach. Data collected were age, height, weight, flexibility and a 15-second mae geri test to measure the ability of the mae geri. The data obtained were analyzed with Pearson correlation followed by multiple regression at the significance level α < 0.05. The results of the data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between flexibility in the ability of the mae geri with the value of r = 0.696 and p = 0.000, while age, height, and weight were not related to the ability of the mae geri. The simultaneous correlation between age, height, weight, and flexibility was significantly related to the ability of the mae geri with r = 0.780 and p = 0.001. Age, height, weight, and flexibility give an effect of 60.9% on the ability of the mae geri. This means that the ability to mae geri kick depends on flexibility.
198 GROUNDWATER RECHARGE STUDIES IN HANUR WATERSHED, KOLLEGAL TALUK, CHAMARAJANAGAR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA, USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS , *Siddaraju K. and P. Madesh
Changes in groundwater storage involve various recharge and discharge processes. Major recharge sources are rainfall, recharge from rivers, tanks, irrigation fields, ponds, wetlands, etc. Similarly, discharge processes include evapotranspiration, pumping, base flow to rivers, etc. Groundwater resource estimation studies in Hanur Watershed of Kollegal Taluk, Chamarajanagar District, are the drought-prone area, the average rainy days are 49 (as per Chamarajanagar district glance book 2017-18). The Hanur watershed area receives an average annual rainfall of 571.56 mm. (2001-2018). Groundwater is the major source of drinking and irrigation purposes in present study area. The increasing population and agricultural growing demands of threatens the sustainability of water resources. The recharge of groundwater mainly depends on geology formation, soils, geomorphology, and slope of the study area maps are prepared for using IRS-1C and 1D PAN+LISS III (the Year2005 with the resolution of 26 meters) were overlaid on Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on1:50,000 scale constructed through visual interpretation and using Arc Map (V 10.21) and Erdas Imagine 9.2 software. Hence, the groundwater estimation of resources and status in groundwater development in Hanur Watershed is carried out utilizing the Remote Sensing and GIS techniques & Coupled with fieldwork. The groundwater resources were evaluated based on the Groundwater Resource Estimation Committee (GEC) norms of 1997.
199 TOURIST DESTINATIONS IN BIRBHUM , *Dr. Anand Bethapudi B. E. and Dr. Neeraja M. Professor
Tourism has tremendous potential due to people‟s interest in travel and desire to explore nature and new destinations. Tourism in India is expected to play a key role in the country‟s economic growth, human resource, culture, wealth of the country interms of foreign exchange earnings etc., This present study attempts to determine the experiences of visitors from the importance and ability of attractiveness attribute. An IPA (Importance Performance analysis) analysis was conducted. A survey has been steered during the month of October 2019 in multiple attraction sites in Birbhum. Birbhum District is an administrative unit in West Bengal, India. The outcome finds that santiniketan heritage, history and cultural attraction is the only attractiveness attribute that satisfied visitor. In conclusion, these findings will provide additional knowledge on how visitor perceived the attraction in birbhum in term of satisfaction and which attribute need to be focused by destination marketers for future marketing strategy.
200 EVALUATION OF HEIGHT ACCURACY FROM HIGH RESOLUTION WORLDVIEW-3 STEREO SATELLITE IMAGERY , Prof. Ismat M. Elhassan*
Topographic variation description obtained from topographic maps or Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is quite commonly used for several applications especially in the fields of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and civil engineering projects. Many procedures are now used to prepare height data for topographic maps and DEMs formation. These include classical ground surveying methods: levelling plus triangulation or traversing, total station and stereo images from air photos captured by aerial and drone cameras. All these techniques would give very high accurate elevations, but they are very much time consuming and labor intensive. Recent techniques use space stereo imageries to produce ground point elevation. One of the high resolution satellite imageries (HRSI) capturing stereo images is the satellite borne WorldView-3 (WV-3). Although such remote sensing methods save a lot of time and expenditure the limitation is the height accuracy obtained. This paper analyze (instead of compares) the elevation accuracy. that can be derived from WV-3 stereo imagery using elevations determined by total station as reference. Test results show that WV-3 stereo imagery can allow height accuracy that can be used for several applications including production of 1:5000 scale topographic maps, saving both money and time.
201 ONLINE LEARNING PERFORMANCE ON E-LEARNING SYSTEM , Dr. P. S. S. Akilashri* and E. S. Revathi
Education is typically perceived as the technique whereby we have students in a classroom delivery lessons from a Teacher but with the facilitating of information technology through the internet, learning can now be accomplished without essentially having a teacher right in front of a student. E-learning is one of the tools that appear from information technology and has been integrated in lots of universities education programs, variation from the traditional approach of education to electronic environment in which a student can admittance and make utilize of information everywhere and at any well-situated time. The intention of E-learning Management System is to make routine the existing manual scheme by the assist of computerized equipment’s and full-fledged computer software, satisfying their requirements, so that their precious data/information can be stored from a long epoch with effortless accessing and manipulation of the same. The necessary software and hardware are effortlessly obtainable and simple to work with. E-learning Management System, as described higher than, can guide to error gratis, secure, consistent and fast management classification. It can support the user to deliberate on their other activities moderately to think on the verification keeping. Thus, it resolves help organization in enhanced utilization of resources. The organization can preserve computerized records without redundant entries. That means that one need not be distracted by information that is not pertinent, while being able to reach the information. It may help collecting perfect management in particulars. In an extremely short time, the assortment will be noticeable, simple and reasonable. It will assist a person to know the management of passed year absolutely and brightly. It also helps in current every work relative to E-learning Management System. It will be also condensed the cost of accumulating the management & collection practice will go on smoothly.
202 MULTI-PLATFORM CHATBOT MODELING AND DEPLOYMENT WITH FRAMEWORK , Dr. M. Anusha* and Thamaraiselvi J.
Chatbots turns into a difficult undertaking that requires ability in an assortment of specialized spaces, going from characteristic language preparing to a profound comprehension of the APIs of the focused-on texting stages and outsider administrations to be incorporated. Chatbot (and voice bot) applications are progressively received in different spaces, for example, internet business or client administrations as an immediate correspondence channel among organizations and end- clients. Various systems have been created to facilitate their definition and arrangement. While these structures are productive to plan straightforward chatbot applications, they despite everything require propelled specialized information to characterize complex associations and are hard to advance alongside the organization needs (for example it is regularly difficult to change the NL motor supplier). What's more, the arrangement of a chatbot application for the most part requires a profound comprehension of the focused-on stages, particularly back-end associations, expanding the turn of events and support costs. In this paper, we present the Xatkit system. Xatkit handles these issues by giving a lot of Domain Specific Languages to characterize chatbots (and voice bots and bots by and large) in a stage autonomous way. Xatkit additionally accompanies a runtime motor that consequently sends the visit bot application and deals with the characterized discussion rationale over the foundation of decision. Xatkit measured engineering encourages the different development of any of its segments. Xatkit is open source and completely accessible on the web.
203 DROPOUT STUDENT PREDICTION USING NAIVE BAYS CLASSIFIER , *Dr.P.S.S.Akilashri, P. Sundari and M. Vijayalakshmi
The objectives of this research work is to identify relevant attribute from socio-demographic, academic and institutional data of first year students from undergraduate at the University and design a prototype machine learning tool which can routinely distinguish whether the student persist their revise or drop their learning using classification technique based on decision tree. For powerful decision making tool different parameter are need to be considered such as socio-demographic data, parental attitude and institutional factors. The generated knowledge will be quite useful for tutor and management of university to develop policies and strategies related to increase the enrolment rate in University and to take precautionary and consultative procedures and thereby diminish student dropout. It can also use to find the reasons and relevant factors that affect the dropout students.
204 EMERGING TRENDS IN E-LEARNING , *Mohit Divya, Himanshu Sonwani, Anurag Dhawan and Adnan Saliq
Technology has rendered human lives with an amazing and reliant imprint. It has impacted many domains like healthcare, sports, politics and various banking and finance services. Education sector is also changing by utilizing some of these technologies. People are introduced to different innovative ways of learning and teaching; people are able to use these technologies to learn and to consume study materials in very different ways than conventional methods of teaching. Learning innovation will trigger a powerful learning cycle that can be extremely beneficial to learners and teachers around the globe. In this paper we will briefly address the different technologies and how they change the way we learn and communicate with these technologies; we are going to compare their usability and find their educational benefits. Some of these technologies are emerging while some of them have been around for quite some time, we will also shed some light on the limitations of these technologies that can be addressed in future research. We will focus on technology such as 5G, an emerging technological innovation in the field of mobile networking, cloud computing that has been largely incorporated into our lives in the form of web-based services like E-Learning, E-Commerce, MOOCs and much more. We will also discuss some relatively new technologies such as Augmented Reality in order to make learning more intuitive and to engage learners. Together, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence would revolutionize the way that learners across the globe are offered courses by presenting them with personalized syllabi.
205 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A KAOLIN-RICH CEMENT PRECURSOR OF A CONCRETE FOR DISPOSAL OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE , Yasmina Mouheb, Nour-El-Hayet Kamel*, Soumia Kamariz, Fairouz Aouchiche and Dalila Moudir
Concrete is a second containment barrier for low-level radioactive elements. Cement-based materials are widely used in the nuclear industry for the packaging and storage of radioactive waste. Actually, innovative concretes contain cements with both Si2O5 and Si2O6 units in aluminosilicates. In this study, kaolin-enriched cement is synthesized from sand, gravel, Ca2SiO4 and Ca3Al2O5. It is calcined at 1450°C for 2 h. Its structure is identified before incorporation into the concrete. The characterization of this cement is carried out by different methods of analysis XRD, FTIR, SEM. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that this cement is mainly constituted by 90% XAlSi3O8 alkaline aluminosilicates (X can be K, Li or Na), with Si2O6 units. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy shows the main bonds vibrations of KAlSi3O8 and those of feldspars, such as the asymmetrical elongation vibrations of (Si–O–Si) and (Si–O–Al(Si)), the deformation absorption of (O–Si(Al)–O) and (O–Si–O). The shoulder between 1000 and 1200 cm-l is associated to the stretching of Si(Al)-O tetrahedrons. These bands overlap with those of LiAlSi4O10 petalite, a secondary aluminosilicate phase in the cement, which contains Si2O5 units. The Scanning electron microscopy micrographs show the cement morphology. The aim of synthesizing cement with Si2O5 and Si2O6 units is reached.
206 EXTRACTION AND LUBRICITY ASSESSMENT OF VEGETABLE OIL BLENDS IN AUTOMOBILE ENGINES , Olawale, Kazeem Babalola* and Emmanuel, Simon Yayock
The Automobile lubricants in use today are based on mineral oil, though chemically stable and have excellent lubricating properties. However, there have been challenges with the use of such oils; such challenges include hassle of importation, high foreign exchange rate and impacts on the environment of both fresh and used engine oil. Exhaust emissions such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxide of Nitrogen (NOX) e.t.c from automobile engines based on mineral oils add up to planet-wide problem and climate change: the issue of global concern. This paper seeks to investigate the lubricity properties of vegetable oil blends formulated from castor and neem oil as an alternative lubricant in Automobile engines. The castor and neem seeds used for this research were oven dried at the temperature of 1050C, and then pressed mechanically in a drum to obtain high yield oil. The oil was then filtered to remove the various unwanted particles. Each sample of the oil was investigated of tribological and physiochemical properties. Castor oil showed high viscosity value of 65.33 cps when tested at 23.60C, the neem oil showed viscosity value of 12.00cp at 23.60C while mineral oil showed 22.5cps at 23.60C. Among other formulated lubricants, 60%neem oil and 40%castor oil blend showed an improved property in terms of viscosity value (27.33cps at 23.60C), saponification value (39.830), iodine value (81.23mg/g) and specific gravity (0.933). The high flash point temperature of 3270C from 60%neem oil and 40%castor oil blend confirms the absence of risk of fire during lubrication. The saponification test showed that castor and neem oil have 35.904 and 31.696 value respectively. From the cooling curves, it was observed that the thermal gradient of 60%neem oil and 40%castor oil blend is 3.57 which is steeper than that of castor oil (4.15), neem oil (8.43) and mineral oil (5.809). Hence, the steeper the thermal gradient of the cooling curves the shorter and faster the cooling rate. Tribology test conducted on all the formulated lubricants showed that the optimum blend has minimum Wear Scar Diameter (WSD) of 0.13mm, and therefore this is desirable during the boundary lubrication to protect the mating members from metal to metal contact. From the findings, it can be concluded that 60% neem oil and 40% castor oil blend possess the minimum requirements for an ideal lubricant and hence, it can replace the conventional mineral oil (engine oil) used in automobile engines.
207 -ZERO SETS AND THEIR PROPERTIES IN TOPOLOGY , Govindappa Navalagi*
In 1990, Malghan et al. have defined and studied the concepts of almost p-regular, p-completely regular and almost p-completely regular spaces. In 1997 & 2004, Malghan et al. have defined and studied the concepts of almost s-completely regular spaces and s-completely regular spaces. In 2010, Navalagi introduced the concepts of pre-zero sets and co-pre-zero sets to characterize the concepts of p-completely regular spaces and almost p-completely regular spaces. In this paper, we offer some new concepts of -zero sets, co--zero sets, -completely regular spaces and almost -completely regular spaces. We also characterize their basic properties via -zero sets.
208 MODIFIED VARIATION ITERATION METHOD AND LAPLACE – ELZAKI TRANSFORM FOR SOLVE HIROTA, SCHRODINGER AND COMPLEX MKDV EQUATIONS , *Alla M. Elsheikh and Tarig M. Elzaki
In this paper, we practicea replacement Modified Variation Iteration technique and Laplace – Elzaki Transform to resolve Hirota, Schrödingerand, sophisticated mKdV Equations. This method may be a mixture of the new modified variation iteration technique and Laplace – Elzaki transform.
209 DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR A HALF-WAVE DIPOLE ANTENNA FOR 2.4GHz WIRELESS APPLICATION USING CST MICROWAVE STUDIO , Onu, Igochi Praise* and Dr. Orakwue, Stella Ifeoma
This paper breaks down a simple Half-Wave Dipole Antenna which has been designed and analysed for wireless application using a resonating frequency of 2.4 GHz which most wireless devices operate on. This design was carried out successfully using a simulation tool called CST Microwave Studio. The Return Loss Curve, Bandwidth, VSWR, Far-Field Directivity and Gain were all observed in this paper.
210 THE NECESSITY OF HARMONY BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL AND ENVIRONMENT , Dr. K. R. Subramanian*
There are constant changes in the environment – it comes about at a slower pace than changes to the individual as he goes through the stages of childhood, adolescence, youth, adulthood and old age. The changes to the individual are irreversible during his short life time. The environmental changes are also not static, but society and individuals adjust to these changes. While certain environmental changes can be avoided or delayed, this very much depends on the individual‘s Aim and Objectives of life. So, it is this aim and objectives of life that determines the Harmonious blending of individual and his environment. The objective of individuals may or may not be fulfilled during his life time; but he can make progress towards the same so that the succeeding generations can enjoy the fruits of his actions. In fact this interaction between the individual and environment in society is what is called Life or History of Life. History is HIS-STORY of how he has lived a life of fulfillment in harmony with his environment. Man‘s sojourn or his term, is limited by his life time. But history of man continues and the environment exists with whatever he does to it. So, it is but natural that man co-exists with his environment with Harmony so that future generation of humans may thank him.
211 RELATION BETWEEN FERTILITY ASPECTS WITH REFERENCES TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION ON DALIT COMMUNITY IN NEPAL ,
212 RELATION BETWEEN FERTILITY ASPECTS WITH REFERENCES TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION ON DALIT COMMUNITY IN NEPAL , Dr. Uttam Khanal*
The fertility behavior of lower caste people of Dalit community in Nepal has highly relation and low socio-economic status. It has focused on fertility aspect of women and their household economic condition and using analytical research approach. Out of the total survey population, 51.20 % were male and 48.80 % were female. Among these 85% female were eligible respondents of reproductive aged 15 to 49 years. Similarly, 57.64 percent respondent's women were currently using family planning methods. Among users 27.06 % were the users of female sterilization, followed by Depo 12.94 %, male sterilization 9.41 percent, Pills 7.06 % and IUD 1.18 % and Out of total respondents, 62.3 % women are engaged in daily wage. This was followed by household work 32.91, agriculture as well as business 2.41 percent. The mean of entire women of the study was found 2.74. Child bearing is highly concentrated in the age group 40 to 44. The literate women have low fertility level than the illiterate women. There is negative relationship between fertility and age at marriage. The mean number of child early birth is 3.10 for the women who married between ages 10 to 14. The mean was found lowest 2.62 where age at marriage was age group of 15 to 19 years. The mean child ever born was the highest 3 among those who involved in agriculture followed by daily wage of 2.96. The lowest mean child ever born was found among those who involved in household work.
213 SURVEY ON INTRUSION DETECTION APPROACHES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS , Sumalatha M. S.*, Dr. V. Nandalal, C. Santhoshkumar
Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as one of the most promising technologies for the future. This has been enabled by advances in technology and availability of small, inexpensive, and smart sensors resulting in cost effective and easily deployable WSNs. However, researchers must address a variety of challenges to facilitate the widespread deployment of WSN technology in real-world domains. In this survey, give an overview of wireless sensor networks and their application domains including the challenges that should be addressed in order to push the technology further. In this work, the WSNs are generally deployed in an unattended area, they are prone to various types of attacks. In this scenario, legitimate node shares data to the malicious node and the data are lost. So that it becomes necessary to secure the network from this type of attack. The Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) can play an important role in detecting and preventing security attacks. This paper aims to study, discuss and analyze the various techniques for detection of security attack in Wireless Sensor Networks. Also various protocols affected by security attack are studied and analyzed. The existing research methodologies are discussed with their merits and demerits, so that the further research works can be concentrated more.
214 GENERALISED CLOSED SETS IN TINY TOPOLOGICAL SPACE , P. Karthiksankar* and Mrs. P. Subbulakshmi
The basic objective of this paper is to introduce the new topological space called “Tiny topological space” and investigate the properties of generalised closed sets in this topological space.
215 OPTIMIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO MINIMIZATION OF TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTIONS IN INDUSTRIES , *Sangeeta and Er. Harjeet Singh
Artificial Intelligence is based on a biological inspired process in which a stronger individual is the final solution among all the individuals in the competition i.e. survival of the fittest. This individual represents the set of solution and is composed of different parameters. These parameters are called genes of a chromosomes and is represented by binary strings. The best possible (the fittest) solution at the end approaches the optimum point through several iterations of the algorithm. The bio-inspired intelligent algorithm is one of the best methods for optimization. The aim of using AI here is to optimize the switching angles to reduce the low order odd harmonics. This can be done by genetic algorithm to minimize the objective function.
216 COVERAGE ANALYSIS FOR 5G NETWORK IN METROPOLITAN AREA UNDER SIMULATIONS ON ICS TELECOM , *Oswaldo Pérez Murillo and Ingrid Patricia Páez Parra
In this project has been made a study and coverage analysis for mobile telecommunication network in technology 5G in metropolitan area from the city of Bogota, Colombia. This begins, with an explanation of what is 5G and what is expect about this technology; watching some similar studies made around to world including Colombia. With this preamble we could establish the parameters and configurations that used in this study. The stage, on the other hand, they were chosen in order to analyze the case more presented in the moment to mobile telecommunications systems without line of sight (NLOS). The results show the signal loss in free space in the work frequency 5G which is from 3 GHz until 100 GHz, what it entails the use of millimeter-waves that generates in highest frequency more bandwidth by channel getting a highest speed.
217 GRAY SCALE IMAGE NOISE DETECTION AND CORRECTION USING LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS , Nishtha Vyas*, Anand Kumar Tripathi and Anupam Vyas
Noise is major limiting factor in digital images, due to noise quality of image is degrade. According to the effect of noise and pattern of noise the noises are categorized in different types. For improving quality of image filtering techniques are used. There are various filtering technique are reported in last few years. In this presented work the impulse noise and their effect in image is measured. In addition of that the recent contributions on the image filters for impulse noise detection and correction is also investigated. After evaluation of de-noising techniques an improved impulse noise filter is proposed. The proposed image filtering technique detects and removes impulse noise from digital grey-scale images. During impulse noise the image pixels are corrupted therefore to distinguish between corrupted and uncorrupted pixels the proposed technique incorporates regression analysis. After differentiation of corrupted pixel, these pixels are processed by calculating average value of itself and two neighbouring pixels which are uncorrupted. Corrupted pixels are not properly removed in single processing therefore in iterative manner the noise is removed from image. This processing can damage the image edges therefore in order to preserve the image edges L0 smoothing is employed with each iteration. Finally for removing the remaining noise effect a median filter is applied over the image. The implementation of the desired technique is performed using MATLAB simulation environment. Result of the proposed technique measure in term of visual quality, histogram and PSNR (pick signal to noise ratio). The proposed technique demonstrates the effectiveness with respect to the previously available technique.[1,2] The proposed method is adoptable due to their less memory and time consumption.
218 EVALUATION OF EFFICIENCY OF SPR-BASED BIOSENSOR AND ZnO PHOTOLUMINESCENT BIOSENSOR IN THE ANLYSYS OF BIOGENIC POLYAMINES , M. P. Prilutskiy, N. F. Starodub* and O. P. Taran
Summary: In this research it was demonstrated the efficiency of the biosensors based on the different principles at the detection of the biogenic amines which are as informative elements at the diagnostic of the cancer events including development of the breast cancer. It was compared two type of the optical devices namely based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and on the photoluminescence of the ZnO nanostructures. Both types of the biosensors could able to detect such low molecular agents as polyamines in model solution at the concentration from 10 to 100 ng/ml. Nevertheless SPR-based biosensor showed better results than ZnO biosensor at the detecting as low and high concentrations of polyamines. In particular, the differences in the analyse efficiency at the determination of the above indicated concentrations between the used biosensors was in range from 14% to 30%. In spite of this data it was demonstrated that ZnO biosensor also may be used for estimation of level of polyamines at the cancer diagnostics.
219 IMPACT OF USING TCSC ON POWER SYSTEM STABILITY , *Majeed Rashid Zaidan, Saber Izadpanah Toos and Saif Tahseen Hussain
Power system stability issues are generally classified into two parts, steady-state and transient. Steady-state stability is related to the ability of the power system to keep synchronism after low disturbances like gradual load change. Transient stability deals with the effects of large and sudden disturbances like fault occurrence, line outage, and sudden change in loads. The Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is a type of series FACTS Devices that has various applications. In this paper, the impact of TCSC on power system stability under load disturbances is investigated. For the case studies, the IEEE 14-bus test system is chosen, and a TCSC is installed in the system. According to simulation results, the TCSC can improve the voltage profile and result in power system stability under load disturbances.
220 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SUSTAINABILITY IN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES BEFORE THE PANDEMIC PERIOD AND IN THE NEW NORMAL , *Prof. Sritama Dey Saha, Baisakhi Biswas and Dr. Tania Shaw
India, being a secular country, is that the first country within the world to form corporate social responsibility (CSR) mandatory, following an amendment to the Companies Act, 2013 in April 2014. Businesses can invest their profits in areas like education, poverty, gender equality, and hunger as a part of any CSR compliance. It is mandated by the government that 2% to 5% of the total profit made by any company has to be used for social works mentioned above as their corporate social responsibility (CSR).
221 A NOVEL FPGA BASED MAC UNIT DESIGN USING REVERSIBLE LOGIC GATE APPROACH , M. Sirisha*, Dr. K. V. Rama Rao and B. Venkateswara Rao
In this paper, a design of Multiply and Accumulate (MAC) unit using reversible logic gates is proposed. This methodology enables us to design high-performance low power, Very Large Scale Integration [VLSI] systems for different real-time applications. In this work, a 4-bit MAC unit is designed with Sirisha-Purushottam-Tilak (SPT) reversible gate. The 4-bit MAC unit is modeled using Verilog and implemented on the SPARTAN 3E family on the XC3S500E using Xilinx 14.7 (IDE). The performance has been evaluated using parameters such as gate count, garbage outputs, propagation delay, and power dissipation. The performance of the proposed system found to be superior compared to the MAC unit designed with Toffoli, Fredkin, and Feynman gates.
222 LEAD CONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT IN THE SOIL OF KOTA CITY , Rajat Soni*
The current study has been designed to assess the level of soil contamination from the heavy metal lead in Kota city, India. Soil samples from different zones that include: Industrial zone, Commercial zone, Residential zone and Agricultural zone have been collected. Each zone includes two to three locations. Samples have been collected during the months from April to July 2017.Soil samples have been analyzed for total lead concentration. Pb concentrations have been analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Results have been compared to the levels of the control site, their ratio showing the metal pollution index. Highest Metal Pollution Index was found in Industrial zone while least was in Residential zone. It was concluded from the study that high metal pollution index has been a growing ecological concern especially for urban area such as Kota city.