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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Journal Papers (1267) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Preliminary Studies on Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni Plants Cultivated Under the Field Conditions of Southern Poland, Kakol E., Capecka E., Michalec Z., Libik-Konieczny M.
Three forms of Stevia rebaudiana were grown in the open field of University of Agriculture in Krakw from mid May to the beginning of October. Some parameters of plant growth and development such as height, width, weight, share of leaves, and number of shoots, were determined. The quality of collected herb was compared taking into consideration the content of steviol glycosides, phenolics, carotenoids, chlorophylls and ascorbic acid.
2 Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning in Wheat Genotypes as Affected by Sowing Date Mediated Heat Stress, Amritpal Kaur Sanghera, Amritpal Kaur Sanghera
Dry matter accumulation and its partitioning to grain are important factors which directly or indirectly affects the grain yield. Heat stress during grain filling period of wheat negatively effects the dry matter production of wheat genotypes. Delay in sowing date significantly reduces the dry matter accumulation of wheat genotypes at anthesis as well as maturity. Grain yield was positively correlated with dry matter at maturity (r = 0.640 and r=0.584 timely and late sown respectively) indicating that plant dry matter is important for grain formation and grain filling in wheat genotypes. At maturity, timely sown genotypes had more percentage of dry matter partitioned to grain as compared to late sown genotypes. High yielding genotypes showed more dry matter accumulation in grain whereas low yielding genotypes retained much dry matter in stem, leaves and chaff. This reduction in dry matter accumulation in grain may be attributed to high temperature stress faced by late sown genotypes during their grain filling period.
3 Growth and Yield of Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) as affected by Different Crop Geometry and Level of Nitrogen Application, Eajaz Ahmad Dar, Shahnawaz Ahmad Rather, Amarjit Singh Harika
A field experiment with six treatments of crop geometry viz. 40 cm x 15 cm, 40 cm x 20 cm, 50 cm x 15 cm, 50 cm x 20 cm, 60 cm x 15 cm and 60 cm x 20 cm in main plots and four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg/ ha) in sub plots was conducted in split plot design with four replications. The present study concluded that planting of baby corn at 50 cm x 15 cm resulted in higher growth and yield attributes and finally yield of baby corn and its fodder.The plant height, Leaf area index, baby corn and green fodder yield were higher in 50 cm x 15 cm crop geometry than all other geometry treatments. Most of the growth attributes as well as cob and baby corn yield increased with increase in the level of N application up to 120 kg N/ha. However, green fodder yield was significantly improved up to 180 kg N/ha.
4 Effect of Operational Parameters on Dehusking Cum-Shelling Efficiency and Broken Grain Percentage of Maize Dehusker-Cum-Sheller, Rudragouda Chilur, Sushilendra, Vijayakumar Palled, M. Veeranouda, R.S. Yaranal, Sharangouda Hiregoudar, Mareppa, N.B.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crop in the global agricultural economy. In India, maize is grown across all the states and it is one of the important staple foods. The conventional method of dehusking and shelling operations are time consuming and involves drudgery and exposure of crop over a times to natural hazards and animals, birds and insects damage leading to losses in quantity and quality of grains. In order to overcome these problems, the maize dehusker cum sheller of 600 kg h-1 capacity suitable for marginal, small and medium size farming community was developed by considering engineering properties of maize. The length of axial flow sheller cylinder was designed as one meter along with 8 row beaters. The solid lugs were provided as threshing element. The blade type blower with converging casing section were developed to separate grains from non-grain material. The V-belt power transmission system was used with an electric motor as prime mover. The numerical optimization technique was fallowed to optimize the operational parameters viz., cylinder peripheral speed (4 levels), concave clearance (4 levels) and feed rate (3 levels). The 7.1 m s-1 of peripheral speed with 25 mm of concave clearance of cylinder at 600 kg h-1 feed rate was found to be optimum and which were having dehusking efficiency, shelling efficiency and broken grain percentage were achieved 98.88, 99.12 and 1.23 per cent, respectively.
5 A Study on Utilisation Pattern of Information Sources by The Farmers of Mahabub nagar District in Andhra Pradesh, B. NEETHI, A. SAILAJA, B. SOUMYA
Communication is an exciting and truly challenging field of human interaction. The main trust of all agricultural development programme is to spread farm technology in entire areas through different communication sources. Extension workers use various channels to send the developmental messages. With object the present study was conducted in four selected mandals of Mahabubnagar district with Ex- post facto research design. The results of study reveal that informal sources followed by formal source and mass media were ranked in the order of utilisation of information sources by the farmers of mahabubnagar district.
6 Hindarances and Strategies for Effective Delivaery and Utilisation of Extension Services in Mahabubnagar District of Andhra Pradesh, B. NEETHI, A. SAILAJA
Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) has been bestowed with the responsibility of teaching, research and extension education. University has reorganized its extension wing by establishing the District Agricultural Advisory and Transfer of Technology Centres (DAATTCs). Ex- post facto research design was followed for carrying out the study. Mahabubnagar district was selected purposively for the study. The villages namely Machinpally from Mahabubnagar mandal; Ibrahimbad from Hanuwada mandal; Gangapuram from Jadcherla mandal; and Manannur from Mirjil mandal were selected four villages randomly by following simple random sampling method. Major problems faced by DAATTC scientists and other stakeholders in delivery of services helped to elicit suggestions. Problems faced by farmers in utilisation of DAATTC services helped to elicit suggestions and strategies.
7 Impact Assessment of SCAD KVK at Tuticorin District of Tamilnadu , Dr. G. Alagukannan, Dr. V. Srinivasan
Indian Agriculture is facing several hurdles due to the lack of technological back up among the farming community and non-adoption of sustainable agricultural practices. Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) is an unique extension institute of Indian Council of Agricultural Research aimed at delivering technologies at the doorsteps of farmers in the District for which the KVK meant for. The impact of interventions in the form of trainings and demonstrations conducted by KVK of Tuticorin Disrict, Tamilnadu has been studied and concluded that KVK is the key institute for the holistic development of village community by adopting proper agricultural and allied practices towards sustainability. The innovation adopted in transfer of technology by KVK, Tuticorin by the way of village level volunteers can be followed by the KVKs across the country. Further, it is recommended that the KVKs serving in the dry tracts may adopt inland fish rearing in seasonal ponds to improve the farm income and also to harvest the rain water effectively
8 In Silico Molecular Interaction Analysis Of Type I Collagen Telopeptides With Cyclodextrins, Lavanya Gunamalai, C.Jaynthy
Type I Collagen is the extracellular matrix protein of skin, tendon, bone etc. The proteomic feature of the collagen is of triple helical form, but the ends are capped by short peptide extensions, called Telopeptides, which are non-helical in nature. Normally telopeptides of collagen denatures at 35C, but in the presence of ?, ? and ? cyclodextrins the denaturation can be prevented until 40C. Increasing concentration of cyclodextrin resulted in aggregation of the protein. Further, cyclodextrin imparts high level of thermal stability to collagen with shrinkage temperature of collagen. It was known that the hydrophobic amino acids play an important role in the fibril formation of collagen. . In this current study , Type I Collagen telopeptide chains were modeled using modeler software also docked with ?, ? and ? cyclodextrins.
9 Forking Pattern of Carpophore in Some Himalayan Umbellifers, Dr Neena Sharma
Evaluation of fruit morphology of 48 taxa of Himalayan Umbelliferae belonging to different tribes and all the three sub families of Apiacae(sensu Drude, 1898) through stereo microscope has revealed that the development of a free carpophore is extensively visible in taxa of the sub family Apioidae. It exhibits varied degree of forking at maturity and facilitates complete separation and improved mechanism for dissemination of the mericarps.
10 Inheritance of Seed Shape in Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.), Meena, H.P., Kumar, J.
Inheritance of seed shape in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was studied during years 2007-08 to 2009-10. The materials used were four genotypes two desi and two kabuli types. The desi genotypes were Pusa-362 and JG-62 and kabuli types were Pusa-1088 and BG-1073. The crosses were attempted between desi and kabuli types as Pusa-362 x Pusa1088 and JG -62 x BG-1073. The data in F2 populations revealed that desi types are dominant over kabuli types. The segregation in F2 populations indicates the monogenic inheritance of desi and kabuli type seeds.
11 Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Vitamin C and Essential Oil Content of Adhatoda Vasica Growing in the Various Regions of Kerala and Maharahtra, Jethmalani Megha, Palathingal Trisa, Sachin Bhagat
Adhatoda vasica (vasaka) is a common plant used for upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis and as an expectorant. The leaves of Adhatoda vasica (vasaka) are important drugs of Ayurveda, prescribed as an expectorant. Adhatoda vasica is known to contain vitamin C and essential oil which is responsible for its antioxidant properties. In the present work plants of Adhatoda vasica were collected from various regions of Kerala and Maharashtra during summer and winter seasons and they were analyzed for Vitamin C content and essential oils. It was observed that in the plants of Adhatoda vasica, the vitamin C content and essential oil was found to be maximum in plants collected from Kerala compared to Maharashtra. Both Vitamin C content and essential oil was found to be maximum in the plants of Adhatoda collected from both Maharashtra and Kerala during the winter season.
12 Variation in the Vitamin C and Essential Oil Content of Ocimum Sanctum, L. Growing in the Various Regions of Kerala and Maharahtra, Jethmalani Megha, Palathingal Trisa. Sachin Bhagat
Herbal medicines are currently in demand and their popularity is increasing day by day. The leaves of Ocimum sanctum L. contains essential oils and alkaloids responsible for curing upper respiratory tract infections. Ocimum sanctum L. is the reservoir plant for therapeutic applications. This medicinal plant is highly valued for their medicinal and aromatic properties in the traditional as well as modern pharmacological system. In the present work plants of Ocimum sanctum L. were collected from various regions of Kerala and Maharashtra during summer and winter seasons and they were analyzed for Vitamin C content and essential oils. It was observed that in the plants of Ocimum sanctum L., the vitamin C content and essential oil was found to be maximum in plants collected from Kerala compared to Maharashtra. Both Vitamin C content and essential oil was found to be maximum in the plants of Ocimum sanctum L. collected from both Maharashtra and Kerala during the winter season.
13 Investigations on The Interactions of Aurintricarboxylic Acid with 18-Crown-6: Analysis of Fluorescence Enhancement, Dr. Tapas Misra
The nature of interactions between aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) and 18-crown-6 (CW) was investigated by measuring steady state absorption quenching spectra and fluorescence enhancement spectra in aqueous medium. 18-crown-6 (CW) is macrocyclic polyethers has an internal nanocavity, a diameter of ca. 2.6-3.2 . The fluorescence intensity of ATA increases significantly with the increasing concentration of CW producing 1:1 complex formation with association constant K~2.9 x 103 M-1. The absorption studies indicate that a ground state complex is formed between the probe ATA and the host CW in aqueous medium. In the other hand in the previous studies, it has been found that the fluorescence intensity is decreased markedly with increasing the concentration of CW in case of protonated tryptophan (Trp). These anomalous behaviours are discussed here by various spectroscopic techniques.
14 A Empirical Study on Customer Awareness, Satisfaction and Media Influence Among the Life Insurers of Coimbatore, DR. M.S.RANJITH KUMAR,Mr. S. MOHAN,Mr. C.KARTHICK
Life insurance is a must for the bread earner of the family, who has dependents. In case of an uncertain death of the bread earner it pays a lump sum amount to the nominee of the life insurance policy, so that the family can continue with the same standard of living even after losing him. Basically we can say life insurance covers the risk of death. Life insurance Policy is a contract between insured and the life insurance company (Insurer) for the specified period of time (term) to protect your family against financial risk of your life to the extent of the life coverage (sum assured) by paying a cost (premium) to the life insurance company. Life insurance is what that protects your family in your absence. Life insurance policies provide a certain amount of money to your family in case something happens to you. These come as a great financial relief during the hour of needs. There are a number of insurance companies in India that offer life insurance policies to its customers.
15 Study of Factors Influencing Current Account Defcit of India (2007-12) with Special Emphasis on Gold Imports, MRS PUJA RAWAT
The period 2007-12 witnessed major developments in terms of the current account deficit of the country. During 2008-09 to 2010-11, CAD averaging at 2.7 per cent of GDP, however, didnt cause any stress as capital inflows have been more than adequate. Subsequently, during 2011-12, CAD exceeded the level of 4.0 per cent of GDP and there has been net drawdown of reserves to the extent of about USD 13 billion. Keeping the above under consideration, the present study tries to analyse the factors influencing current account deficit of India from the year 2007 to 2012. The rising gold import is the most important factor influencing current account deficit.
16 Astonishing Public Expenditure and its Bang on Fiscal Deficits, Taruna Dubey
Public expenditure is a key factor for economic growth as well as development of a country. This paper probes about how daunting increase in public expenditure and fiscal deficits are mounting day by day. Developmental as well as Non-developmental expenditure are taken into account to know about their scenario and came into notice that unproductive expenditure is more which should be curtailed. The receipts of central government and various forms of deficits are highlighted to know about their picture. Fiscal deficits are like a virus causing macroeconomic imbalances and suggestions are also given to curb fiscal deficit.
17 Contribution of Bee-Keeping Industry in the Development of Rural Entrepreneuship - A Case Study of M/S C.k Udyog, Miss Jutimala Bora, Ms. Toralima Bora
Defining entrepreneurship is not an easy task. To some, entrepreneurship means primarily innovation, to others it means risk-taking. To others a market stabilizing force and to others still it means starting, owning and managing a small business. An entrepreneur is a person who either creates new combinations of production factors such as new methods of production, new products, new markets, finds new sources of supply and new organizational forms or as a person who is willing to take risks or a person who by exploiting market opportunities, eliminates disequilibrium between aggregate supply and aggregate demand or as one who owns and operates a business. The Bee-keeping is a village industry and listed in the Government artisan sector. This indigenous industry has been taken by Khadi and Village Industries Commission to develop in the rural areas to create employment and generate production to use as food and medicine This paper will highlight the usefulness of Bee-keeping industry in the process of development of rural entrepreneurship making a case study of M/s C.K Udyog located at Charigaon village of Jorhat District.
18 Noise Removal From Brain CT Images, Bhavna Sharma
Image analysis is an important and challenging task in the computer-aided diagnostic systems. In medical image processing and especially in analysis task, it is very important to pre-process the image. Noise contained in brain images throttle both, the visual interpretation by experts as well as processing and analysis. This paper compares various standard filters for removing noise from brain CT scan images. This improves their performance in analysis task and also in visual quality of the images. We compared the filters by evaluating the brain images in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Execution Time (ET)
19 Role of Social Studies Education in Citizen ship Training: Implication for National Development, EZEGBE, B .N., ESKAY M.,ANYANWU, J., ABIOGU, G.C.
The focus of this paper is that there is an urgent need for citizenship training in Nigeria on account that Nigerian citizens are expected to contribute their own quota to the development of the nation through a good spirit of national consciousness, love for the nation and its noble ideals. These social characteristics are expected to be inculcated in the citizens through social studies education. Taking a look on Nigerian social and political life one needs to review the efficacy of social studies curriculum in achieving national objectives. The social ills in Nigerian society such as Boko harams, child trafficking, child labour, political thuggery, social maladjustment, kidnapping, corruption and corrupt practices and current spates of bombing in private and public places among others envisaged in social life of Nigerians today are attested to the facts. To address these problems, the role of social studies education for citizenship training cannot be over-emphasized. More emphasis should be made on citizenship training aspect of social studies. Hence the paper found that inadequate citizenship training remains the cause of social problems that bring back the pace of development of Nigeria; that adequate citizenship training through social studies education will enable the citizens have knowledge of their fundamental human rights; rule of law and other ideals of democracy and respect same towards national development. This will help them understand their roles toward peaceful and orderly society for national development. The study recommended among others that Social studies education should be taught by qualified teachers (those that read it at NCE, degree, masters and doctorial levels) at all levels of the education system; the Federal Ministry of Education should make social studies education a core subject at senior secondary school level and an elective course at tertiary level given its importance in citizenship training for national development. When these are done, the vices and/ or social malaise in Nigerian society would be reduced to its barest minimum.
20 The Impact of Financial Crisis on Inclusive Education in Nigeria, EZEGBE, B .N., ESKAY M., ANYANWU, J., ABIOGU, G.C.
Inclusive education does not end at rapid increase in students numbers in regular classrooms. Adequate funding is indispensable for a comparable expansion in resources, staff, accommodations and facilities to meet the educational needs of every child.
21 Utilising Audio Visual Aids to make learning Easy and Effective in Primary Education, Deepa Awasthi
At primary level vocabulary of child is not developed enough to understand the lectures given by teachers in classroom. At this level communication is generally one sided, child generally do not reply to teacher due to the fear and hesitation. Such type of situation is not favourable for learning, usually it inhibits the learning. At primary level teaching can be effective when it activates all the sensory organs of child. Using Audio Visual aids can be useful for making learning easy, effective and permanent. Role of teachers is very important in using technology because on one side if it is used appropriately, it can make the learning interesting, but on other side if not used properly then it can distract the mind of young children. In India teachers are not trained in a way to make use of Audio Visual aids. Paucity of funds and attitude of teachers, parents, school management and Government is making the problem wider. Only few private schools are trying the concept of AV aids in teaching but only limited students belonging to elite class can approach to them due to their heavy fee structure. Responsible member of society especially teachers should come forward to make the Audio Visual aids popular among students teachers and parents.
22 A Cognizance on The Decreasing Rate of Enrolment in Govt-Aided Primary School in West Bengal, Dr. Nityagopal Mondal, Mr. Sonjoy Mondal, Mr. Chiranjib Saha, Dr. Birbal Saha
The objective of this paper is to find out the reasons behind the low enrolment in the Govt. Aided Primary School of West Bengal. Data was collected of 200 Primary School Teachers (100 Urban & 100Rural) and 200 Parents (100 Rural and 100 Urban) respectively in around Seven District of West Bengal by randomly. The main conclusions are drawn that 1) Teachers and Parents opinion differ significantly with regard to enrolment in Govt. Aided Primary School; 2) Urban Teachers & Rural Teachers differ significantly with regard to enrolment in Govt. Aided Primary School, 3) Urban Parents & Rural Parents differ significantly with regard to enrolment in Govt. Aided Primary School
23 A Comparative Study of Environmental Awareness and Scientific Attitude of Under Graduate Students, Suneet Tiwari, Dr. Ehtesham Anwar
The present study has been conducted to investigate the environmental awareness of under graduate students. Result of the unmindful exploitation of natural resources by human being. There is an urgent need to create environmental awareness among all human beings to conserve, protect and nurture our environmental resources. Consequently the study was conducted on a random sample of 600 under graduate students. The environmental awareness ability measure by P.K Jha and scientific attitude scale A. Grawal was used collect data. The finding of the study indicated that environmental awareness has positive with scientific attitude among students and Level of environmental awareness intern of components attitude significantly differ to each other. The present study has been conducted to investigate the environmental awareness of under graduate students. Result of the unmindful exploitation of natural resources by human being. There is an urgent need to create environmental awareness among all human beings to conserve, protect and nurture our environmental resources. Consequently the study was conducted on a random sample of 600 under graduate students. The environmental awareness ability measure by P.K Jha and scientific attitude scale A. Grawal was used collect data. The finding of the study indicated that environmental awareness has positive with scientific attitude among students and Level of environmental awareness intern of components attitude significantly differ to each other. The result clearly indicate that a strong relationship between the environmental awareness and scientific attitude. Female students have higher scientific attitude compared to male under graduate students. It shows the science students is higher than the Arts students it indicate that scientific attitude was found better science students.
24 Administrative Flaws in the Mid Day Meal Scheme in India; Evidences From Recent Critical Cases, Tarananum, Dr. Nasrin
Mid Day Meals (MDM) in the Government Primary and its aided schools was envisaged to stop hunger, to drag children from home to schools, to improve enrolment and to increase the rate of retention in the school premise. Students come to school and mid day meal is served to them but quite often terrible incidences occur. Sometimes hygiene plays the devil role while sometimes adulteration takes a horrible form. Moreover, the administrative flaws in the execution of the scheme allow most of the devils to disturb the trust of the people & pupils in the scheme. Several incidents of flaws are visible through cases reported by the mass-media and local authorities during the execution of MDM schemes. The other drawbacks to be pointed out are that this scheme suffers from lack of effective and fair monitoring and from the dominance of corruptions during its execution. This paper is a genuine try to point out some of severe flaws during the administration of such a pivotal scheme. The paper is subdivided into two parts The first part elaborates the administrative charts with its rights and duties while the second part of the paper is a try to reveal the administrative flaws in practice. The actual gap between responsibilities assigned and the accountability of the concerned officers involved in the MDM scheme.
25 B. Ed Students Perception Towards Man-Made Hazards, Dr. R. SOURECHE
A survey was conducted to emphasize the level of perception of B.Ed students towards man made hazards. A 5-point rating scale consists of 50 test items in 5 dimensions was used as a tool for the present study. The sample consists of 450 randomly sampled B.Ed students (includes both gender) procured from 6 different colleges of education in Puducherry. The data collected from the sample was statistically analyzed using SPSS package. The result revealed that the sample have high level of perception towards man-made hazards. Significant difference is exhibited in the level of perception of B.Ed students with respect to different demographic variables.
26 Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Mental Health of Mainstream School Teachers in West Bengal, Diptimayee Behera
The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between job satisfaction and mainstream teachers mental health. The researcher in this study collected data from 600 mainstream school teachers. All the teachers selected for this study were from West Bengal Govt. Sponsored and Aided Mainstream Schools. 1. Teachers Job satisfaction scale developed by S.P. Anand (1992) and RCE. Mental Health Scale developed by S.P. Anand (1992) were used for data Collection. These two scales were adopted in Bengali Version by Nanda (2009). The results indicated that there was a positive relationship between job satisfaction and mental health of mainstream school teachers.
27 Multi Objective Optimization of Wind Energy Water Pumping System (Wewps) Using Nsgaii Approach for Industry Application, Hossein Nasiraghdam, Morteza Nasiraghdam, M. Mohammadi
This paper presents an optimization of wind energy water pumping system (WEWPS) with considering the reliability and economic aspect. This paper deals with a multi-objective optimization problem with conflicting objectives that try to find the best compromise tradeoffs among the feasible solutions in the search space. In the proposed algorithm, an external archive of non-dominated solution is kept which is updated during iteration. These solutions are known as Pareto-optimal solutions or non-dominated solutions. This attribute gives more flexibility to the planner for choosing the best final scheme among the obtained solutions. Due to nature of this optimization problem the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) has been implemented.
28 Optimization of Green Energy Resources With Considering These Sources as Dependent or Independent Sectors, Hossein Nasiraghdam, Morteza Nasiraghdam, M. Mohammadi
In this study an optimized operation and management of microgrid in distribution systems with multiple distributed generation (DG) units under two different market policies are presented. At the first, it is supposed that DG is under ownership of Disco and in second scenario it is assumed that beside the micro grid, DG is a private sector under market too.
29 Low Power Implementation and Analysis of Digital Fir Filter Based Low Power Multiplexer Base Shift/Add Multiplier, D.Hari Priya
Conventional FIR filters consist of cells equal in number to the length of the filter i.e. the number of data taps. Each cell consists of a storage register, a second register and a multiplier. The storage register stores the data tap values, which are digital samples of the signal being processed by the filter. The second register stores the filter coefficients for a particular tap and the multiplier generates the product of the two register contents. The latter product serves as the output of the cell, and the weighted sum that constitutes the FIR filter output is generated by adding the outputs of all of the cells. FIR filters are said to be finite because they do not have any feedback. FIR digital filters are widely used in DSP by the virtue of its stability, linear phase, fewer finite precision error and efficient implementation.
30 Development of Program and Parametric Study of Various Composite Columns , Dr. D. R. Panchal
Composite columns are in an increased usage for construction of high-rise and medium-rise buildings, bridges and other structures. With the use of composite columns, composite decking and composite beams, high-rise structures can be erected in an extremely efficient manner. In the present study, comparative study of Steel-Concrete composite columns with Steel columns is considered for the G+30 storied residential buildings. Various program developed in excel software for different types of composite columns. Three models are prepared considering concrete fully encased column, circular concrete filled steel column and square concrete filled steel column. A three dimensional modeling, analysis and design of all the structures are carried out with the help of ETABS 2013 software. Here, the main parameters of comparison are column sections provided, column axial force, column bending moments (Mx, My), support reaction, base shear, storey drift, storey displacement, quantities of concrete and structural steel and cost of the columns. The results are compared in the tabulated form and graphs are also prepared and found that composite columns are more economical.
31 Super Resolution Imaging Wavelet based Interpolation using Hidden Markov Tree Model and Image Restoration by Cycle Spinning, K. MATHEW, Dr. S. SHIBU
High resolution images are desirable in many applications such as medical diagnosis, remote sensing, monitoring and surveillance. A brief survey of spatial domain super resolution enhancement methods that create high resolution beyond diffraction limit using several low resolution images is presented. Several low resolution images of the same scene at different sub pixel shifts are taken and registered on a common reference frame. A wavelet transform based interpolation is used. The image function is expanded in terms of a sealing function at a particular resolution jo and wavelet functions at different resolutions more than jo. The computation of wavelet coefficient is made easier by employing image pyramid. As wavelet coefficients show probability distribution relation of a Markov process and the statistical behavior of image signals can be suitably modeled using hidden Markov tree. Using Markov tree property we predict wavelet coefficient at finer scales or at higher resolution. This interpolation algorithm produces sharper images. For restoration of images we use cycle spinning and we get well defined edges and textures with high clarity
32 Performance and Emission Characteristics Analysis on Direct Injection Gasoline Engine, K.Kumaravel, B.Premanand,C.G.Saravanan
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have become popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet increasingly stringent environmental standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the fuel atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The conventional diesel engine was modified to GDI engine by increasing the clearance volume. The compression ratio (CR) 17:1 of the diesel engine was modified to CR 9:1. By the use of GDI engine we can able to reduce the losses in carburetor like evaporation. Also it help to avoid fuel wall film in the manifold improved accuracy of air/fuel ratio, CO2 emission also reduce, increased performance and volumetric efficiency due to cooling air charge , better cold start performance and better drive comfort . A set of test was done at different spark angles (16,18 and 20) and injection start angle (90,120 and 150) respectively keeping the particular constant like air - fuel ratio 14:67 , water flow rate (2L/min) and speed at 1500 rpm . During the test exhaust gas released like CO, HC, NOx , CO2 and O2 at different load and degree of spark angle advance and SOI angle has been determined The exhaust gases decreases in every gases like HC, CO, NOx except O2 which increases load and brake power irrespective for all different spark angles and SOI of ATDC. According to test condition and experiment set up spark angle of 20 BTDC and 150 ATDC SOI are appropriatefor obtaining better performance and exhaust gas emission.
33 Investigation the Effects of Utility Unbalance Voltage on Adjustable Speed Drives and Induction Motors, M.Nafar, B.Azadbakht, K.Adinehvand
This paper endeavors to present a comprehensive summary of the causes and effects of voltage unbalance and to discuss related standards, definitions. Several causes of voltage unbalance on the power system and in industrial facilities are presented as well as the resulting adverse effects on the system and on equipment such as induction motors and power electronic converters and drives. Power electronic converters serve as the interface for many large electronic loads ranging from three-phase uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) to motors operating at variable speeds through the use of adjustable speed drives (ASDs). Most of these converters contain diode rectifier front-end. Under the conditions of utility voltage unbalance, the input current harmonics are not restricted to the converter characteristic harmonics, and uncharacteristic triple harmonics can appear such as the 3rd and 9th harmonics. The more details of effects of unbalanced voltages on ASD are investigated follows.
34 Fuzzy Based Control of Shunt Active Filter for Harmonic Compensation for Application in Three Phase Four Wire Power System, M.Nafar, B.Azadbakht, K.Adinehvand
Non-linear loads, especially power electronic loads, create harmonic currents and voltages in the power systems. For many years, various active power filters (APF) have been developed to suppress the harmonics, as well as compensate for reactive power, so that the utility grid will supply sinusoidal voltage and current with unity power factor. Conventionally, a shunt APF is controlled in such a way as to inject harmonic and reactive compensation currents based on calculated reference currents. The injected currents are meant to cancel the harmonic and reactive currents drawn by the non-linear loads. In this paper the fuzzy control scheme for harmonic compensation using shunt active filter is presented and analyzed.
35 Noise Reduction using Low Pass Filter and Wavelet Transform, Rajesh Patil
Wavelet transform (WT) is a powerful tool for removing noise from a variety of signals. In this experiment, wavelet transform is used along with low pass filter. The results of Wavelet transform and combination of Low pass filter with WT are compared. Error between original signal and reconstructed signal is found to be less in combination of Low pass filter with WT
36 Hydrogen Production From Electrolysis, and Its Utilisation in Combustion Engine, Vaibhav Narendra Kulkarni
The study aims at the hydrogen generation / production system i.e. water electrolysis. The performance of the process under different catalyst, Concentration and conditions. This paper also deals with hydrogen internal combustion engine (HICE) for the sophistication of powering equipments and other auxiliary paraphernalia. As hydrogen imbibes gravimetrically more energy than gasoline about 2.5 times of gasoline so it is proved to be more efficient and environmental friendly fuel then gasoline or any other fossil fuels. The detail study of combustion reactions of HICE i.e. oxidation of hydrogen in combustion chamber and power generation using HICE. Also the technical challenges regarding HICE like preignition, Back fire etc...Etc also taken in this paper.
37 Economical Based Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Including Wind Turbines, Solar Cells and Fuel Cells Using Non-Dominated Sorting Method For Power Loss Reduction, M.Montazeri, B.Azadbakht, M.Hosseini Firouz
this paper presents the multi objective optimization of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution system. The two objective functions that have been considered in this research are minimizing power loss of system and minimizing total cost of (DERs). The life cycle cost (LCC) concept is considered for cost analysis in this paper. Since the two objective functions which considered in this research are two conflicting objective, therefore a non dominated approach based NSGAII is employed to optimized the results. This technique addressed a set of results that based on the decision of operator one of solution can be selected.
38 Power Quality Improvement Through Minimizing the Deviation of the Bus Voltage With Considering Cost Analysis With Optimal Sizing of Multi Type Dgs Using Pareto Solutions and Comparison With Ga and Ps, M.Montazeri, A.Mohammadi Rozbahani, B.Alefy
This paper deals with a multi-objective optimization problem with conflicting objectives aims to find the best compromise tradeoffs among the feasible solutions in the search space. These kinds of solutions are known as non-dominated solutions or Pareto solutions. In the test system two wind turbines, one fuel cell and two photovoltaic arrays have implemented to optimal the system operation under two conflicting objective function. The first power quality improvement and second the minimization total cost. The power quality index which considered in this research is deviation of the bus voltage concept. Using NSGAII application, the Pareto set, the best compromise solution is selected according to the fuzzy based decision ranking.
39 Analysis of Practices of Street Food Vendors and Sensory Assessment of Street Foods (Fast Foods And Juices) in Allahabad City,(U.p.) India, Nayansi, Mishra, Atul Anand, Shukla, R.N., Ankita
The present investigation aimed to study the practices of street food vendors and the quality assessment of street foods and juices served by food vendors in Allahabad City, (U.P.) India. The data were gathered from 30 food vendors using semi structured questionnaires. The results showed that the street food sector is dominated by males, and 66% of them attended primary school.66.6% vendors were mobile and none of them possessed health certificate. Major cause of contamination was dusty roads and vehicles passing. 86% vendors didnt use any protective clothing. 83% vendors had short nails. While 66% handled money without washing hands. 50% vendors washed utensils and hand with clean water and none of the vendors used disinfecting soln. Sensory assessment was also done comprising of duo trio test and triangle test. Reference samples were Tropicana juice and Mc Aloo Tikki from Mc Donalds. These findings demonstrate that the ready-to-eat food vended in Allahabad City constitute an important potential hazard to human health. Provision of health education to the vendors and enforcing implementation of appropriate hygienic practices would improve food quality
40 Channel Estimation Using LS and MMSE Estimators, Shakuntala Chouhan
This paper focuses on the channel estimation techniques that are based on the block-type pilot arrangement. Once we establish reliable and practical channel estimation schemes for this type of pilot arrangement. In wireless OFDM transmission using pilot carriers and compare the bit error rate performance by using MMSE and LSE algorithms. Thus comb type pilots provide better resistance to fast fading channels. Also comb type pilot arrangement is sensitive to frequency when comparing to block type arrangement.
41 Cloud Computing: Energy Efficiency for Data Center Resources, Architectural Elements and Open Challenges, Akshay Sharma
Cloud computing is offering utility-oriented IT services to users worldwide. Based on a pay-as-you-go model, it enables hosting of pervasive applications from consumer, scientific, and business domains. However, data centers hosting Cloud applications consume huge amounts of energy, contributing to high operational costs and carbon footprints to the environment. Therefore, we need Green Cloud computing solutions that can not only save energy for the environment but also reduce operational costs. This paper presents vision, challenges, and architectural elements for energy-efficient management of Cloud computing environments. We have validated our approach by conducting a set of rigorous performance evaluation study using the cloud Sim toolkit. Reducing energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) in data centers represent open challenges and driving the future research work for green data centers.
42 Development and Quality Evaluation of Extruded Product of Rice Flour Incorporated With Beetroot (Beta Vulgaris) Pomace and Pulse Powder, Pushyamitra Sinha, Dorcus Masih
Studies were conducted on incorporation of beetroot pomace powder and pulse powder of different fractions in noodles and its quality were analyzed. Different levels of rice flour, pulse powder and beetroot pomace powder were added in the ratio of 100:00:00, 85:7.5:7.5, 80:10:10, 75:12.5:12.5 and 70:15:15 for the development of beetroot incorporated noodles. Physiochemical analysis was carried out for control and beetroot fortified noodles. As quantity of beetroot pomace powder increased fibre content increased. Color became darken as proportion of beetroot pomace increased. There was increase in protein with increase in content of pulse powder. Phosphorus, Iron and fat contents were increased with increased proportion of beetroot pomace powder. Noodles develop with addition of beetroot powder had desirable organoleptic properties as indicated by the taste panel studies as compared to control sample. However, based on sensory analysis, noodles with (T3) 75:12.5:12.5 rice flour, beetroot powder and pulse powder were found more acceptable than other levels and were found optimum for incorporation rice flour noodles for development of beetroot incorporated noodles. Beetroot incorporated noodles was packed in LDPE and stored at room temperature. The storage studies were conducted at the interval of 0-45 days. Protein, fat, crude fibre, phosphorus, iron percentage was decreased during storage.
43 Mathematical Modelling of Uasb Reactor for Dairy Wastewater Treatment, Varsha Parashar, Ashok K. Sharma, Sarita Sharma, Sanjay Verma
A mathematical model was conducted to describing the main microbial processes, occurring in the UASB reactor leading to the production of biogas from dairy waste water. In the model, the UASB reactor is divided in four well-stirred reactors coupled in series and it comprises substrate degradation, biomass growth and death with time and the washout of microorganisms, the reactions that take place within the granules. The important outline of the paper is the development of a UASB reactor model taking into account the mass balances for substrate degradation and microorganisms growth. The simulated results of UASB reactor treating dairy wastewater were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.This model is a useful tool in the optimization and development of UASB reactors.
44 Activity Oriented Learning Methodology to Enhance Reading and Communication Skills, S. SREEJANA
In recent days the habit of reading has become obsolete among public, and taken diverse practices among students. The reasons for this may be the technical advancements and inventions of the electronic gadgets. The noteworthy factor here is the predicament faced by the researchers in analyzing the excellence of ones reading performance due to discrepant practices followed. The aspiration of this paper is to implement activity oriented methodologies and practices to enhance reading skill among the selective informants.
45 A Preliminary Study on Owls of Visakhapatnam and Elemental Characterization of Owls Feathers, Sanchari Biswas, Dr Y.AVASN Maruthi, Dr C.H Rama Krishna
The objective of this study was to carry out an ecological study of the Owls found in Visakhapatnam and screening of their feathers for any sort of elemental analysis. Visakhapatnam remains one of the few studied areas in this field although previous studies were carried out regarding Avifauna in 2009. Visakhapatnam is a city with a moderate climate zone containing the hills of Eastern Ghats that not only have caves and cavities but also supports a wide variety of vegetation types that is preferred by the Owls for their survival. But at the same time, urbanisation, deforestation, pollution and the port activities are increasing tremendously as a result of which the survival of these birds might be threatened and also depict the entry of toxicants into our environment. This was a preliminary level study but much more work remains to be done using owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination.
46 Generation of Land Cover Map and Ecosystem Map of Bungoh Catchment using Geospatial Tools, Les Met, Gabriel.T. N , Latifah, A.M
Mapping land cover and ecosystem of Bungoh Catchment is essential for a wide range of applications, includingdam development projects and other form of anthropogenic activities. The mapping process is being facilitated with the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS). In this study, classification of forest was performed using the information generated from the data collected during the field work and also from the digitise topographic maps.Four major types of forest ecosystem have been identified and mapped. This includes the primary forest, old secondary forest, young secondary forest and angroforestry.The Landsat TM image, combined to field work were submitted to a supervised classification process in order to produce a land cover and ecosystem map. An accuracy assessment was performed on the map, generating the confusion matrix. The overall classification accuracy for the five types of ecosystem for both the TM image and ecosystem map were established as 87.93% and 86.92% respectively which were sufficient for the delineating of ecosystem types in order to be analysed.
47 Study of Morpho Histology of Alimentary Canal in Relation to Feeding Behaviour of Channa Punctatus from The Wetlands (Chaur) of Begusarai District N.bihar.india, SWAPNA CHOUDHARY, UTTAM KUMAR, UTPAL KUMAR
Murrels are very common fish available in the wetland (chaurs) of North Bihar India. In the present study one of the most important species of murrels the Channa punctatus has been selected for the study of its morphohistology and its relation with the feeding behaviour .The study will be helpful for the culture and farming of Channa species. The Anatomy and histology of alimentary canal of Channa punctatus was found to be of carnivorous type . The alimentary canal has a short relatively broad oesophagus, stomach with cardiac and pyloric region with two pyloric ceaca, intestine of moderate size and rectum is not externally differentiated. The histological structure consists of four layers mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. Histologically the different region of the alimentary canal has their own peculiarity. The stomach has cardiac and pyloric region the cardiac part has gastric glands .The intestine has numerous mucosal folds for absorption. Channa punctatus is a carnivorous and surface feeder fish .Its food consist of mainly of fish, crustaceans, insects, mollusk, shells, plant parts and semi digested food. The feeding intensity is minimum during breeding season and the food varies according to the season and avaibility of food. Average R L G value was .85 throughout the study period.
48 Pasting Properties and Color Attributes of Potato Flour as Influenced by Pre-Cooking, Sukhpreet Kaur, Poonam Aggarwal, Amarjeet Kaur
Pasting properties of raw (uncooked) and pre-cooked potato flours were studied by Rapid Visco Analyzer. Significant difference (p < 0.05) in pasting characteristics was noticed in raw and cooked flours. Peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity and setback viscosity was lower in processed potato flour than raw flour. Color attributes indicated higher L* value for pre-cooked flour (66.82) than raw flour (62.18). Pre-cooking improved the functional properties of potato flour by inducing lower viscosities which are considered desirable for product development.
49 Proximate Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Some Hill-Stream Fishes of Manipur, Hawaibam Romharsha, Abdul Hei, Ch. Sarojnalini
The fish muscles were investigated to determine the major components of the three hill stream fishes of Manipur. Proximate composition of the three fish species viz., Neolissochilus stracheyi, Labeo pangusia and Semiplotus manipurensis were carried out. The crude protein ranges between 19.000.92 to 20.640.03. The highest total lipid was recorded in S. manipurensis(3.560.04) and lowest in L. pangusia (2.450.02). The moisture content ranges from 72.800.04 to 76.300.07. Lowest ash content was recorded as 1.200.04 in S. manipurensis and highest as 1.980.01 in N. stracheyi. Total amino acid of the three fish species varied from 104.42 to 113.92 g/100g. Total essential amino acid (EAA) was recorded as 55.08 to 66.51 g/100g and total non-essential amino acid as 46.09 to 56.74 g/100g. The most abundant amino acid in all the fish species was glutamic acid. Leucine, Lysine, Histidine, Valine, Threonine, Phenylalanine and Isoleucine were dominantly found essential amino acids in all the fish species. Knowledge of Amino acid composition of the fish is good to serve as a unique source for nutrients and enlightens the nutritive quality of these fishes.
50 Effect of Hurdle Technology on the Quality and Stability of Minimally Processed Papaya, Ankita, Singh Rongen, Nayansi
The present investigation aimed to study the combined effect of blanching, osmotic dehydration and preservatives on the quality and stability of minimally processed papaya .Osmotic dehydration of Papaya using sucrose solution at mild temperature (25C) was investigated. Different sucrose solution (50%, 55%, 60%, 65% and 70% w/v) were employed for osmotic dehydration process. Physico-chemical analysis ( TSS, water activity and ascorbic acid) and microbial quality along with a sensory analysis were measured at regular intervals throughout the storage period. During storage for 30 days, a decrease in water activity, ascorbic acid (g/kg), firmness (N), color (L* value) and sensory characteristics was observed.From the results it were revealed that the papaya slices obtained showed a good overall acceptability upto 30 days of storage at refrigerated temperature.
51 Preservation of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) by Edible Aloe Vera Gel Coating to Maintain its Quality, N.Padmaja, N.Padmaja
Over ripening of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) fruits at the post harvest stage usually results in a dramatic decline in quality. Aloe vera gel which has been known for its therapeutic, antibacterial and antifungal properties is used as an edible coating to prolong the storage life of tropical and sub tropical fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application as a means of preservation. An attempt has been made to optimize the post harvest dip treatment for shelf life extension maintaining and organo leptic characteristics of Sapota. Aloe vera gel coating of 1:2, 7 minutes and packaged in LDPE film has extended the storage life of Sapota to 20 days at 15 2o c by maintaining initial characteristics of fruits while the untreated Sapota lost its quality attributes after 10 days.
52 Seasonal Variation of Childhood Poisoning, Dr Tabassum Khatoon, Dr Anoop Kumar Verma, Dr. Alok Kumar
BACKGROUND - Acute poisoning is a common paediatric emergency & is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality in children especially in developing countries. AIMS- The cases were studied to see the seasonal variations and other epidemiological and clinical parameters in poisoning cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS- A retrospective study was carried out in the paediatric ward of C.S.M.M.U Lucknow. Patient with history of ingestion of poison, intoxication or envenomation from August 2010 to July 2011were enrolled. The cases were studied to see the seasonal variations and other epidemiological and clinical parameters .Total of hundred patients enrolled in the study were divided in four groups. Prevalence and type of poisoning was observed in winter, spring, summer and rainy seasons respectively. RESULTS- A total of 100 cases of childhood acute poisoning were admitted during the study period. The most vulnerable age group was 1-3 years (39%). Males out-numbered Females (M-70%, F-30%). Kerosene poisoning was the commonest (27%). Poisoning cases were more common during summer season. Overall mortality was 4%. CONCLUSION- Poisoning was common during the summer season and kerosene was found to be most common ingredient. It was possibly due to easy availability of kerosene and during the summer months thirsty children took this substance which was sometimes kept in the discarded container of soft drinks and mineral water bottles etc. People should be warned not to keep these toxic ingredients in such containers and within reach of the children.
53 Assesement of the Spatial Variation of River Tigris Chemistry in Iraq by Discriminant Analysis, Sawsan M. Ali
Multivariate cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were applied to investigate and assess the spatial variations of some hydrochemical parameters along eight stations on the River Tigris in Iraq. These parameters are:pH,TDS,TH,Ca,Mg,Na,K,SO4,HCO3,Cl, NO3, COD and DOB. They are used as an independent variables in the application of the discriminant analysis. Cluster analysis results show presence of three distinct groups of similar water quality parameters behavior. Application of the stepwise selection of the spatial discriminant analysis explained that pH, TDS, EC, TH and Ca are the most discriminating variables among the previously identified groups. Discriminant analysis shows that 100% and 76% of the original data and cross-validated groups data were correctly classified. These results confirm that there no significant effects of anthropogenic factors along all the selected stations could be detected , where the hydrologic and geologic factors are can be regarded as the main responsible factors controlling the River Tigris water chemistry in Iraq
54 sible factors controlling the River Tigris water chemistry in Iraq , Safalta Kumari Patel, Dr Suman Singh, Dr Hemu Rathore, Harshita Jain
Rajasthan produces over 95% of the marble produced in India. The workers mainly involved in marble cutting, stone art and transportation of marble plates are exposed to marble dust which occurs across a range of marble factories. The marble dust particles have high concentration of silica. The workers usually inhale a large amount of dust during working as well as non-working time period also. The present study was done with the objective to assess the pulmonary fitness of the workers engaged in stone art work. The study comprised of a sample of 30 male workers engaged in stone art industries from at least last five years. To measure the pulmonary fitness capacity of workers PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow Rate) meter was used for the workers in different sections of the stone art units viz; Designing, Tracing, Jewelry making, Calibration, Engraving, Fixing and Polishing. The results elicited that the majority of workers were having lung capacity less than 50% of the standard PEFR values. The results of pulmonary ventilation capacity of workers clearly designate the fact that as age of workers advanced the pulmonary fitness level reduced. The possible reason for this may be with advancing age the number of years of exposure to environmental pollutions i.e. stone dust increases, which affects the pulmonary fitness of workers negatively
55 Development of Low Glycemic Foods with The use of Pearl Millet and Finger Millet, Kumari Nidhi, Gupta Alka, Sheikh Sarita
The glycemic index (GI) is a numeric system of measuring how much of a rise in circulating blood sugar a carbohydrate triggers- the higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response. So a low GI food will cause a small rise, while a high GI food will trigger a dramatic spike. A GI of 70 or more is high, a GI of 56 to 69 inclusive is medium, and a GI of 55 or less is low .Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance, which is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Twenty normal subjects aged between 20 to 25 yrs (female) students of SHIATS were selected. They were clinically normal and non diabetic. They were divided into two groups. One group was given Cheela as control food 50g and test food 50g and the other group was given Uthapam 50g as control food and test 50g. All subjects for investigation fasted overnight (10-12) hr. The determination of blood sugar was taken at intervals i.e. 0 fasting, 15mins, 45mins, 60mins, 90mins, and 120mins after feeding the experimental diets. The glycemic index of finger millet and pearl millet flours based cheela (36.831.23) and uthapam (38.721.879) was found to be lower than control cheela (44.071.67) and uthapam (39.91.14). The glycemic load of finger millet and pearl millet flours based cheela (12.50.525) and finger millet and pearl millet flours based uthapam (11.360.533) were found to be lower than control cheela (13.370.794) and control uthapam (14.720.418) respectively. The present study indicates that foods made from finger millet and pearl millet are low glycemic index.
56 Scientometric Analysis of Epidemiology Research Output in Netherland, M.Mahendran, K.Sivasami
This bibliometric study was carried out to investigate the trend in epidemiology research in Netherland from 1999 - 2012. The relevant data collected from web of science database and the publications were identified with the keyword epidemiology and an affiliation to a Netherland institution. We found 1175 articles published since 1999- 2012. The paper deals authorship pattern, subject wise, year wise, institution and language wise. We have observed an increasing and decreasing trend in epidemiology publications based on research done in Netherland, and overall mean doubling time value 3.7.
57 Corporate Social Responsibility in Rural India, S. Ranganadhan
Rural development in India revolves around issues related to agriculture, socio-economic standards and infrastructure. Hence, it is necessary to address the problems related to Infrastructure, Public utility services and Communication. The precursors to improve Health, Education and clean living space are building infrastructure, public utility services and communication. The ultimate goal is to generate rural employment. Agriculture is the major economic activity contributing 67.9% employment. Hence, a sustainable agriculture means a stable economic activity. The important issues in rural development are lack of infrastructure, public services and communication link which are hindering the progress in education and employment. Poor economic status and un-hygienic living space are leading to health issues. A protocol has to be prepared encompassing various social issues which are hindering the development process. Social investments can be possible in various domains of development process.
58 Branding for Talent Attraction and Retention of Employees : A Literature Review, Ms.Sathya, Dr.R.Indradevi
Attracting and retaining talented workers is recognized as a critical success factor by organization. Employer Branding is also very prominent in Human Resource Management point of view and acts as one of the communication magic tools for acquiring and retaining the talent in this fast changing technological era. Employment branding reflects the image of the company in the eyes of existing and prospective employees about working for the company. Building employment brand is one of the few long term solutions to the shortage of talent problem. The best way to retain the talented people in the organization for a long can be done by building loyalty through employer branding. There is an urgent need for creating this positivism in the minds of the prospective and current employees for attraction and retention of talents.
59 Soft Skills Training in the B.P.O Industry, SANTHOSH KUMAR A.V., Dr. MAHESH KUMAR.K.R.
Soft skills form an important component among the various skills to be acquired by an employee in an organization. It is important for an employee to have a well-rounded personality to perform effectively on his\her job. For as long as one is dealing, interacting, reacting with other human beings, the importance of soft skills cannot be overlooked. The Term soft skills refers to the cluster of personality traits, social graces, facility with language, personal habits, friendliness and optimism that mark each of us to varying degrees. Soft skills are essentially people skills. Globalization has increased the pressure on companies, with an increasing need felt to effectively manage oneself properly and also manage clients. Due to cross cultural differences working with people of varied cultures, interaction(language differences, varied accents, corporate etiquette) differs from culture to culture.So,In this context, there has to be more focus on gaining soft skills with the appropriate training tools. In India, the demand for soft skills is symbolic of the transition from an industrial orientation to a service-based economy, particularly in the B.P.O.sector.In view of this transition, Soft skills can become a differentiating factor in providing value addition for servicing clients. Hence soft skills are critical for success at work in a highly competitive job market. This paper focuses on various techniques and tools of imparting soft skills and also impact of soft skill training on employee development in the B.P.O.Industry.This Study focuses on Soft Skills (Transition) Training given by leading Organisations in the B.P.O.Sector. This Paper brings out the importance of Soft skill development in employees which can become a differentiating factor in providing value addition for servicing clients and critical for success at work in a highly competitive job market.
60 Exploration of Association Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Balance Scorecard, Dr Ritika Jain, Prof. Chinmay Gandhi
Performance measurement systems play a key role in evaluating the strategic performance of an organization, but many managers agree that their evaluation systems do not adequately fulfil this function. Hence, in recent years a shift towards the Balanced Scorecard has emerged as a managerial approach to evaluate the strategic performance of an organization. Balanced Scorecard translates an organizations mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures and provides the framework for strategic management. The concept of the Balanced Scorecard is discussed very often concerning its potential to use it as management tool for Corporate Social Responsibility. Although the existing approaches emphasise primarily the financial dimension, the tool can integrate other social and environmental aspects also. BSC can be used to align CSR to create competitive advantage by connecting strategy to performance leading to greater accountability of goals. By developing linkage between CSR and BSC, CSR can become a potent tool for the company to realize enhanced reputation, increased operational efficiency, improved customer and workforce loyalty. This paper explores the relation between CSR and BSC and suggests how linkage can be developed between two in banking industry
61 Supply Chain Challenges for the Indian FMCG Sector, RINOJ P K
This paper reviews the supply chain in India especially to FMCG sector, about what are the different challenging factors for Indian national players as well as global players and how some of the companies could manage it effectively some extend. Logistics is one of the areas where many companies are neglecting this area. Until recently not many firms made a concerted effort to improve the performance of their respective supply chains.
62 Rural Marketing: The New Avtar of Marketing and The Key Driver for Indian Economy, Usha Patel
In the recent years, rural markets have acquired significance in countries like China & India, as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. In Indian rural market generates about 50% Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Rural India comprises around 840 million people and growing income levels & greater ambition are progressively driving demand there. In the period 2009-2012, rural consumption per person increased annually at 19 percent according to data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO).
63 The Competency Strategy Through Reverse Logistics Process, RINOJ P K
This paper review about the concept of Reverse Logistics, how much it is important for organization, advantages of implementing Reverse logistics by taking example of few industrial segments especially software industry and retail industry. Reverse logistics refers to all procedures associated to product returns, repairs, maintenance, recycling and dismantling for products and materials. Overall it incorporates running products in reverse through the supply chain to gain maximum value. Organizations that implement reverse logistics are able to improve customer service and response times; reduce environmental impact by reducing waste and improve overall corporate citizenship.
64 Fdi In Retail; An Opportunity for Small and Medium Entrepreneurs, VIDHUSEKHAR P
Research paper explains Retail Business Management. An over view of global crisis is highlighted. Role of Retail entrepreneurs and Managers is explained. Paper focuses on price mechanism in unorganized retail business. It addresses ground reality and opportunity in e Business. Comparison and advantage of Organised and Unorganised Retail is made.
65 Employees Level of Commitment: A Comparative Study between Private and Public Hospitals of Manipur (India), Anuradha Khoirom, Dr.H.Ramananda Singh
Developing a committed workforce is an important concern in a health care sector where there is a growing complexity of modern hospitals. Further, organizations can enjoy competitive advantage if the employees are committed. Hence there is a need to develop committed employees by creating a positive and satisfying feeling amongst the employees. This study attempts to examine and compare the level of commitment of employees between a private and a public hospital of Manipur. The type of research followed is descriptive in nature. The two populations of the study consist of employees of two hospitals; a private hospital and a public hospital. Employees belonging to different categories such as doctor, nurse, technician and front office personnel are covered in the study. The sample size of the study is 180 employees of a private hospital and 83 employees of a public hospital. The findings reveal that except for front office personnel, employees of private hospital have high level of commitment than that of Public hospital.
66 Contribution of Al-Hilal in Indias Independence movement, Abdullah
Journalism has always been a ray of light for the people living in the darkness of unawareness. Journalism for a change is not confined to a cast, creed, religion or language; it can easily say there is something for everyone. Urdu language being one very important and probably most influential in its own way. The contribution of Urdu Journalism in freedom struggle is well marked with the fieriest slogan of our Freedom Struggle Inquilab Zinadabad, unparalleled in the history of any other languages.Maulana Azads Al-Hilal was powerful instrument to launch a campaign against the colonial and to dislodge the Muslims from the English camp. This weekly journal was played very significant and unpatrolled role for unity amongst Hindus and Muslims for the Indias Independence. The dedicated services and tremendous sacrifices made for the national cause by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and his media Al-Hilal and Al-Balagh will always remain a source of inspiration to the younger generation of postindependence India.
67 Cyclic Fuzzy Neutrosopic Soft Group, R.Nagarajan, S.Subramanian
Neutrosophic soft set theory proposed by S.Broumi and F.Samarandach[14] has been regarded as an effective mathematical tool to deal with uncertainties. In this paper, we apply the concept of fuzzy neutrosophic soft set to group theory. The notion of fuzzy neutrosophic soft groups[FNSG] is introduced and their basic properties are presented. Union, intersection and difference operations of fuzzy neutrosophic soft groups are defined. Further we have defined cyclic fuzzy neutrosophic soft group[CFNSG] and studied some related properties with supporting proofs.
68 Role of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Acute Abdomen, Dr. Nayan Gupta, Dr. Hitesh Mathida, Dr. Raj Agarbattiwala
Background Acute abdomen is not acute a disease in itself but a description of a complex of symptoms combined with severe abdominal pain developed within a time frame of less than 24 hours . In patients with acute abdominal pain, early laparoscopy is an accurate means of both making a definitive diagnosis and avoiding a delay in the diagnosis. Material and Methods: The study was performed in Department of General Surgery in our institute from April 2011 to June 2013. A pre-designed and pretested proforma was used to collect baseline data which was entered into MS Office- Excel 2007 and analysis was done in Epi info version 3.7.1. Results and conclusion The fact that laparoscopy has gained widespread acceptance in acute abdomen as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is clearly underlined by the present study which shows a definitive diagnosis of 100% with diagnostic laparoscopy and a successful therapeutic intervention in 90% of the patients subjected to diagnostic laparoscopy
69 Antihypertensive Treatment, Medication Non-Adherence and Factors Leading to Non-Adherence Among Elderly, Mrs. Melita Sheilini, Dr. ManjunathaHande, Dr. Anice George, Dr. MukhyapranaPrabhu, Dr. Mamatha S Pai, Dr. Elsa Sanatombi Devi
Background: Hypertension is a common chronic health condition among older people and is the most important risk factor for all subtypes of vascular disease and death. According WHO (2003), the hypertension afflicts approximately 600 million people around the world, including the majority of elderly, and imposes enormous burdens through associated cardiovascular diseases. Objectives of the study: are tofind out the proportion of non-adherents to anti-hypertensives, to compare the adherence between the hypertensives without comorbidities and with comorbidities and to explore the key factors leading to non-adherence. Methods: Cross sectional survey design with quota sampling technique was used to collect data from120 elderly hypertensives attending Medicine OPDs of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. Results:The study findings revealed that only 50.8% were adherent to antihypertensives.It was also found that the adherence level among hypertensives without comorbidities (56.25%) was bettercomparing to the adherence level among hypertensives with comorbidities(48.86%). All of the non-adherents expressed that forgetting to take the medications as the major factor for their non-adherence. Conclusion: Poor adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy is one of the biggest obstacles in therapeutic control of high blood pressure. The present study finding also stresses the importance of interventions to the non-adherents.
70 Dynamics of Serum Iron and Hepcidin in Japanese Rugby League Players, Mitsugi Shimoda, Akihito Abe, Yasunori Chiba, Shigeyuki Mitsuhashi,Keiichi Kubota
Background: There have been no studies reporting about hepcidin and its relation with stress due to training or competition in contact sports such as rugby. There are also no studies reporting about the relation of hepcidin with iron, ferritin, or hemoglobin. Research question: The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of serum iron and hepcidin in rugby players. Type of study: Observational parallel-group study. Methods: Forty Eight male rugby players were accrued from the top domestic league for this study. Laboratory data were analyzed on an annual basis. The players were divided into two groups according to the duration of participation in top league games (total competition time 300min for group A and
71 Adult Onset Stills Disease, Dr. Sachinkumar M Patankar, Dr. Rajendra V Bhagwat, Dr. Pranesh Puri, Dr. Somnath Magdum
Adult onset Stills disease(AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiopathogenesis , it is characterized by arthritis, fever, evanescent rash and other systemic presentation . This report describes a case of 24 year old female presented with convulsions , fever , evanescent, salmon colored rash , multiple migratory joint pain and hyperferritinemia . She was diagnosed to have AOSD based on Yamaguchi criteria, after exclusion of other potential diagnosis . The patient responded to high dose steroids and was shifted to oral steroids and analgesics on recovery .
72 Current Trends In The Diagnosis and Management of Post-Hernioplasty Chronic Groin Pain, Dr. BHAUMIK CHUDASAMA, Dr. HITENDRA DESAI
Inguinodynia is one of the recognised complications of the commonly performed Lichtenstein mesh inguinal hernia repair.This has major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients.Correct diagnosis of this problem is relatively difficult.A thorough history and clinical examination are essential.There are various diagnostic tools and treatment options available.
73 A Study of 50 Cases of Management of Acute Pancreatitis, Dr. Krunal R. Kundadia, Dr.Hitendra K.Desai
OBJECTIVE: Acute pancreatitis is very serious disease with significant morbidity and mortality . Therefore, this study was undertaken to treat the patients of acute pancreatitis with help of various modalities of treatment available to our hospitals, to prevent the recurrence . METHOD: The study was conducted in 50 patients of acute pancretitis admited in surgical wards of general hospital. After admission all patients were studied according to proforma. Proforma was designed to record the history, chief complain, past history, family history, personal history, addiction history ,obstetric and menstrual history (in case of female patient), physical examination local examination, neurological examination, investigations and management . RESULT: Out of 50 patients with ACUTE PANCRETITIS, 35 (70 %) were males while remaining 15 (30%) were females. Majority of patients (80%) belonged to the middle age group. 70 % patients were of lower socio-economic class. Average duration of pain was 1 day. Alcoholism and smoking was far more common in males than in females, where as gall stone disease more commen in female. Acute abdominal pain radiating to back was the commonest presenting symptom. DIAGNOSIS made with the help of clinical features ,past history , s.amylase s.lipase ,ultrasonography in emergency department , 85% of patients have interstitial pancreatitis; 15%have necrotizing pancreatitis Among patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, 33% have infected necrosis Mortality in acute pancreatitis overall, is approximately 5%: 3% in interstitial pancreatitis, 17% in necrotizing pancreatitis.In necrotizing pancreatitis, mortality 3-fold infected vs. sterile necrosis CONCLUSION : Acute pancreatitis is very serious condition with great morbidity and mortalIty,that is why its proper management is very important 1.) Volume replacement is the foundation of therapy 2) Establish etiology ,Importance is to prevent recurrence 3) Biliary Pancreatitis ,Utilize laboratory markers for diagnosis of retained CBD .ERCP is only for treating patients with cholangitis 4) Do not use prophylactic antibiotics.only for severe interstitial pancretitis and necrotisizing pancretitis. 5) CT guided aspiration is the diagnostic test for pancreatic infection & allows directed antibiotic therapy 6) Surgical intervention in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis but rarely in sterile necrosis 7) Early enteral feeding is safe, prevents leaky gut and is associated with less complications than TPN 8) Alcohol cessation stricly advised in all patient with alcohol pancreatitis. 9) Elective choleycystectomy offered to all having gall stone pancretitis.
74 Nocardiabrasiliensis as an Emerging Cause of Opportunistic Infection in Surgical Wards, DrShivanand Reddy, DrVijayanand Reddy, DrManjunathShenoy
A 34-year-old female was admitted to the Surgery ward of JSS Hospital with multiple inflammatory nodules, Single keloidal scar and discharging sinuses over the thoracic wall right sided. Physical examination revealed a discharging area that occupied the entire right sided thoracic wall, extending up to the left shoulder and scapular region. There were numerous large sinuses discharging viscous yellow pus and serosanguinous material, often plugged with protuberant masses of granulation tissue.The PCR products were sequenced by using an ABI Prism 377 automated sequencer (PE Applied Biosystems)1.The strain was definitively identified as N. brasiliensis (ATCC 19296, accession number AY756544)2.The patient was medicated with imipenem-cilastatin (60 mg/kg/day i.v. q6h) for 8 weeks, with a good response (healing of most of the cutaneous lesions, improvement of general health, weight gain of 13 kg and Hb increased to 11.4 g/l) (Fig. 1B) and subsequently with trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole (160 mg TMP/800 mg SMZ p.o. q12h) until complete eradication of the organism was documented2.Among the several species of Nocardia causing cutaneous infections, N. brasiliensis is the commonest species isolated . Recently, new species including N. mexicana and N. veterana were reported as causative agents of human mycetoma3. Cutaneous involvement with N. asteroides is usually secondary to haematogenous dissemination from a pulmonary focus. The commonest predisposing event in all the reported cases of primary cutaneous nocardiosis is a local trauma caused by thorns or splinters or, less commonly, insect bites and cat scratches3-4. It is most commonly caused by N. brasiliensis, typically affects immunocompetent individuals, and can be subdivided into 3 clinical entities, including: lymphocutaneous infection, mycetoma, and superficial skin infection, including ulceration, abscess, and cellulites 4. An intermediate form of the disease between mycetoma and superficial skin infection has been reported recently 5.We report here a case of an immunocompetent female patient with extensive and destructive primary cutaneous nocardiosisover the thoracic wall .
75 Histogenesis of Suprarenal Gland in Fetuses of Different Gestational Ages, Dr Mini Mol P., Dr Aruna Mukherjee,Dr Gautam Shroff
Histogenesis of Suprarenal Gland in Fetuses of Different Gestational Ages. A total of sixty foetal suprarenal glands (right and left) from 9 to 36 weeks were studied to note the histological changes using routine histological staining procedures The study also includes the migration patterns of neuroblastic nodules through cortex to medulla of suprarenal gland at different gestational ages. Three distinct zones could be identified foetal transitional and definative zone. The arrangement of cells in definitive cortex changed from the discrete cells and clustures to well formed gomerulus like structure. Neuroblastic cells migrates from capsule towards central blood vessels. They differentiate into the chromaffin cells and sympathetic neurons, decreasing the number of neuroblastic nodules from 20 week onwards.
76 Variation in Branching Pattern of Coronary Arteries, Padmashree Chougule, Dr. Nazmeen Silotry, Dr. Lalita Chavan
The present study gives knowledge of the morphological characteristics and its variation in branching pattern of coronary arteries. The study was carried out on 50 formalin fixed adult human cadaveric hearts of both sexes, were collected from the department of Anatomy. The coronary arteries and their branches were carefully dissected out and followed till their termination .The result of the present study is the right coronary ostium is present in all specimens in the right anterior aortic sinus. SANA was found originating from RCA in 80%, from both (Rt.and Lt.) in 10% , from LCA 10%.LCA in present study we got bifurcation in 35% and trifurcation in 15% out of 50 samples & termination of LCA got at different level . PIVA arise from RCA in 80 % and LCA in 20 %. This study is important for the interpretation of coronary angiography and surgical myocardial revascularization.
77 Knowledge Regarding Sex- Ratio and PCPNDT Act A Cross Sectional Study, Dadwani Roma S, Tintu Thomas
Declining sex ratio is an issue of grave concern in India. The main objective of study is to assess the knowledge regarding adverse sex ratio and PCPNDT Act. A cross sectional study was carried out through house to house visit on 500 randomly selected people of 18-49 years age group of urban and rural field practice areas of C.U. Shah Medical College. 58 % were aware about adverse sex ratio. 46% has replied female foeticide as major cause for adverse sex ratio. 76% were aware about PCPNDT Act. The study concluded that people are aware about causes and effects of adverse sex ratio, but still they are doing prenatal sex determination. Along with education there is a need to change in attitude towards gender equality and recommendations under PCPNDT act to improve declining sex ratio.
78 Comparison of Results of Intramedullary Nailing with Plate Osteosynthesis in the Treatment of Fracture Shaft of Humerus, Dr Dhaval R. Modi, Dr Rukesh R. Patel, Dr Rushi R Solanki, Dr Manthan Mandalia, Dr Ankit Chaudhary
Aims : To compare the outcomes of intramedullary nails with plate osteosynthesis for the treatment of fracture shaft of humerus. Introduction: Humerus is the single long bone of upper arm. There has been considerable controversy about the optimal mode of management for fracture of humerus shaft,as it can be treated both conservatively or operatively. Encouraging results with recent advances in internal fixation techniques and instrumentation have led to an expansion of surgical indications and a dilemma about the procedure of choice between nailing vs. plating. Materials and methods: : We have done retrospective study of 30 patients with humerus shaft fractures with follow up of 12 to 20 months in which 14 cases were operated with plate osteosynthesis & 16 cases operated by intramedullary fixation by TEN nails. We included all acute shaft humerus closed as well as open grade-I &II fractures except 1.open grade-III ( Gustilo and Anderson fractures classification) 2.delayed union 3.Nonunion 4.fractures other than within 2 cm of surgical neck to 3 cm above olecrenon fossa . Final out comes were assesed according to ASES Score and results of platting and nailing compared. Results: Fracture union:50% of patients treated with nails and 75% of patients treated with plates showed evidence of union on or before 16 weeks Functional Outcome: nail group and plating group had similar results at the final follow up. Superficial infection occurred in 2 patients treated with platting. Conclusion: We conclude from the study that plating is the preferred method in the majority of fractures of the shaft of the humerus with better preservation of joint function and better stability of the fracture. The long term results of nailing is almost equal to plating, if done with proper technique and followed with early rehabilitation.
79 Impact of Media on Health & Behaviour of Adolescent, Dr. Rachana Kapadia, Dr. Chhaya Lakhani, Dr. Dhara Prajapati, Dr. Minal Gadhvi
Introduction: The Media have assumed central roles in our adolescents daily lives. The media has demonstrated potentially profound effects, both positive and negative, on their life style1. Aims & Objectives:(1).To identify impact of media on adolescents health & behaviour including Eating patterns & violent behaviour. (2).To find the advantage of positive attributes among their life style. Methods and Material: A cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected Sardatirth Vidyalaya in Asarwa. A total of 300 adolescents studying in 8th & 9th standard were interviewed by using predesigned & pretested proforma. Results: Violent behaviour had been reported in 65%. Excessive eating pattern was found among 63% while using media more than 3 hours a day (P
80 Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases Attending the Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Dr. Chhaya Lakhani, Dr. Rachana Kapadia, Dr. Dhara Prajapati, Dr. A.Bhagyalaxmi
Research Questions: What are the various epidemiological factors related to road traffic accident cases? What are different types of injuries among road traffic accident cases? Aims & Objective: (1) To know the demographic characteristic of victims of road traffic accident cases (2) To identify the social & environmental factors related to road traffic accidents. Methods &Material: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out in civil hospital, Ahmedabad. 255 Road traffic accidents victims were interviewed by using predesigned study proforma. Results: Among 255 road traffic accident victims, 82.35% were male& 17.65% were female. Drivers of various vehicles constituted the 45.49% of victims. Majority of the victims were young adults as 34.5% of them were in the age group of 20-29 year. Head injuries were the commonest form of internal injuries (36.47 %).
81 Dentists Preventive Attitudes Towards Occupational Exposure to Ergonomic Hazards in Moldavian Region of Romania, Lucia Magda Barlean, Carina Balcos
The ergonomic hazards represent a significant occupational risk for the dentists. The study aims to assess the dentists occupational ergonomic problems during patient health-care. Methods. A questionnaire-based study included 280 dentists aged between 27-66 years, from Moldavian Region of Romania.. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14.0 program (p
82 Beti Bachavo Street Play - An Approach to Spread Message Among Community Members of Rural Area of a District Located in Western India, Dr Niyati Parmar, Dr Ajay Parmar, Dr. Shobha Misra, Dr. Bansari Chawada
One of the many health issues in rural areas is female feticide. This sensitive issue needs to be dealt with very deliberately. The overall sex ratio dropped from 934 to 920 per 1000 males in Gujarat, for Vadodara district sex ratio improved from 919 in 2001 to 934 per 1000 male in 2011. In India, socio-cultural factors and practices are the main reasons behind adverse sex ratio. Looking into background factors responsible for decreasing sex ratio, Government of Gujarat launched an intensive awareness campaign called Beti Bachavo Abhiyan (Save the Girl Child Campaign) to change mindsets of community towards the girl child. As an effort to enhance awareness among rural dwellers of Vadodara district and with an objective to contribute in such a nobel work, we started various activities at RHTC (Rural Health Training Centre) to add to this Beti Bachavo campaign. One such activity was a street play in one of the villages of RHTC area.
83 Complete Absence of Suprascapular Notch in Dried Human Scapulae in Gujarat Region: A Risk Factor for Suprascapular Nerve Compression, Dr Ukti Desai
The suprascapular notch, a regular feature of superior border of the scapula may be absent in some cases. This can cause suprascapular nerve entrapment neuropathy with clinical symptoms of vague pain on the superolateral aspect of shoulder, weakness of abduction and external rotation of ipsilateral arm and atrophy of supraspinatus & infraspinatus muscles. The purpose of this study was to find incidence of complete absence of suprascapular notch in Gujarat region. 200 (Right-98, Left-102) dried human scapulae were examined for the absence of the suprascapular notch. 16% (32 in 200) scapulae presented with absence of suprascapular notch.(Right-17, Left-15) The regional variations in the incidence of complete absence of suprascapular notch and its involvement in suprascapular nerve entrapment neuropathy should be kept in mind during surgical or arthroscopic shoulder procedures.
84 Extra Pleural Solitary Fibrous Tumor A Rare Case Report, Dr.K.R.UMADEVI, Dr.J.Srivani, Dr.Ezhilvizhi.A
A 52 year old lady presented with changes in bowel habits and heaviness in the Lower Abdomen to our Gynaecology OPD. On Vaginal examination she was found to have a pelvic mass. Ultra sound and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was obtained in our hospital showed the features characterizing the mass as vascular and homogenous. A core needle biopsy suggested a solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvis. Solitary fibrous tumors are relatively rare mesenchymal neoplasms that were originally described as pleural- or peritoneal-based lesions. They were considered as a form of Mesothelioma.
85 PIEBALDISM: a Rare Melanocytic Disorder, Moiz F. Mithaiwala, Alka K. Raka
Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of melanocytic development, characterized by frontal, median or paramedian depigmented macules and patches with white forelock. We report the case of 10 year male child with typical features of piebaldism with positive family h/o white forelock present. All vitals are stable with routine investigation in normal limit. There was absence of melanocytes and melanin in depigmented areas and hair bulbs. Genetic counseling, photo protective measures and static nature of disease was explained.
86 Study of Prevalence of Depression in Adolescent Girls Studyind in a School at Rudrapur, DR ROHIT KANT SRIVASTAVA
Depression is very common among adolescents and it causes lot of impairment. It affects school performance as such children have impaired attention and concentration. This adolescent period is very crucial for academic, social and personal development so it is very important to detect depression which is mostly ignored. This present study was done in adolescent girls studying in a school and it showed that depression is highly prevalent. 17.85% of adolescent girls studying in class 7th to 10th scored more than 12 on BDI(beck depression inventory), which clearly indicating that this problem should be seriously addressed. We should have provision of regular psychiatrist or psychologist visit to school so that this disorder should be diagnosed and such adolescents should be helped.
87 Anomalous Relation of Suprascapular Nerve and Vessels with the Suprascapular Ligament., Dr. Dayanand V Babaria, Dr. Hetal Patel, Dr. Lalit Ratanpara, Dr. H. R. Shah
Aim of the study: Aim of present study is to describe the relation of suprascapular nerve & vessels with the suprascapular ligament (Transverse Scapular Ligament) and to present the abnormalities if any. Materials and Method: The study was conducted in Anatomy Department , B. J. Medical College, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. 60 Upper limbs were dissected (30 cadavers bilaterally) and relation of the suprascapular nerve & vessels with the suprascapular ligament was observed. Result: Result of present study showed that out of 60 upper limbs, 57 had normal relation of suprascapular nerve and vessels with the suprascapular ligament ( the suprascapular nerve passing below the suprascapular ligament and suprascapular vessels passing above the suprascapular ligament) and 3 had abnormal relation showing that suprascapular nerve and vessels both were passing below the suprascapular ligament. Conclusion: Awareness about details and topographic anatomy of suprascapular nerve and vessels may serve as a useful guide for both radiologist and vascular surgeons. It may help to prevent diagnostic errors and to avoid complications during any surgery over the scapular region. This type of abnormal course of suprascapular vessels can lead to compression of vessel by the suprascapular ligament
88 Overlay Versus Underlay Type I Tympanoplasty with Various Graft Material: A Prospective Study, Dr. Hardik shah, Dr. Neena Bhalodiya
Objective: To study various graft material properties like their strength, durability, avaibility and acceptability to the host. Comparison of surgical teqnique of myringoplasty onlay v/s underlay in related to hearing improvement and graft take up rate. Material and method: Study was conducted in 90 patients and the demographic and clinical data were collected for success rate of type I Tympanoplasty for various graft material and onlay v/s underlay method. Result: In our study the mean average air- bone conduction gap is 28dB. we found that there is 96.66% graft taken up rate for Temporalis fascia and fascia lata, while for tragal perichondrium it is 93.33% and for vein graft it is only 73.33%. We found that out of 40 patients underwent onlay method in 37 patients graft was taken up which is 92.5% while those who underwent underlay method in 46 patients graft was taken up which is 92 %. Conclusion: Type I Tympanoplasty has a high rate of success in closing tympanic membrane perforations In case of graft taken up rate and hearing improvement. Temporalis fascia, tragal perichondrium and fascia lata have same successes rate. However, the surgeon should do what he/she is most experienced and successful with.
89 Effect of Ultrasound Therapy on Synovial Chondromatosis of Knee Joint: A Case Study, Sreeraj S R, Vimal V, Mini Mol P
The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of ultrasound therapy for synovial chondromatosis of knee joint. A 45 year old house wife with history of synovial chondromatosis of left knee with severe pain on activities and multiple loose bodies posteromedial to the joint space received ultrasound therapy and isometric strengthening exercises for two weeks. The patient reported a reduction in pain and a comparative radiographic reading reported minimal resolution in radio dense opacity size of calcified loose bodies. The results suggested the effectiveness of ultrasound therapy on pain relief resulting in improved functionality and sclerolytic effect on breaking calcifications.
90 Job Burnout Among Bulgarian Prison Staff, Stanislava N. Harizanova
Working in a prison is a stressful, challenging and socially important job. The aim of the present study was to assess the job burnout among Bulgarian prison staff. The cross-sectional study took place through individual, voluntary and anonymous interviewing of 307 employees from three district prisons in Bulgaria (209 men and 98 women) at the mean age of 40.590.48 years, as the only criterion for their selection was to have direct contacts with inmates. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to collect data. This study revealed that the prison employees do suffer from burnout (10.42%, 25.73% and 50.49% of respondent experienced high levels of burnout in the emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment subscales, respectively). The high levels of burnout among prison employees were related to maladaptive coping (depersonalization and emotional exhaustion are significantly related to alcohol consumption, while emotional exhaustion is significantly associated with substance use).
91 Comparative Study of Induction of Labour With Dinoprostone Gel and Tab. Misoprostol, DR.NEHA N. LIMBANI, DR.PRIYANKA J. PARMAR, DR.SANJAY P. MUNSHI, DR.SATISH K. KADIKAR
Objective : To compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol (PGE1) with intra cervical dinoprostone gel (PGE2) for induction of labour, To study the maternal & fetal outcome, To measure an average induction to delivery interval time, To assess the need of oxytocin augmentation. Methods : This is a prospective study conducted at labour rooms of V.S. Municipal hospital, S.C.L. Municipal hospital, L.G Hospital attached to Smt. N.H.L. Municipal medical college, Ahmedabad from June 2012 to December 2013.This study was performed with 100 randomly selected patients with an indication for induction of labour. Among them 50 patients were induced with Dinoprostone gel and 50 patients with Tab. Misoprostol. Results : The change in the Bishops score after 6 hours was markedly high in the Tab. Misoprostol group as compared to the Dinoprostone Gel group, 11% Patient in the Tab. Misoprostol group required oxytocin augmentation as compared to 19% in the Dinoprostone Gel group, Induction-Delivery interval was significantly shorter in the Tab. Misoprostol group, Maternal and fetal side effects were low and comparable in both groups. Conclusion : Induction of labour confers benefits in various maternal and fetal conditions, it must be done in the set up where trained staff for continuous monitoring of the patients are available.
92 Outcome of Pregnancy in Cases of Jaundice, DR. NEHA N. LIMBANI, DR. JUHI A. PATEL, DR. BABU S. PATEL
Objective To study the effect of jaundice on maternal health in pregnancy and assess the complications of jaundice in pregnancy. To evaluate the outcome of labour in pregnancy complicated with jaundice and to study the maternal mortality associated with jaundice in pregnancy. And to acknowledge the effect of jaundice on fetus and perinatal mortality rates. Method This study was carried out at our institute from May 2012 to April 2014. 100 patients were included with history of amenorrhea and increase in serum bilirubin ( 3mg%). Result Maternal mortality rate was 9% in this study. Most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy was viral hepatitis accounting for 57% of cases. Most common maternal complication was Hepatic Encephalopathy found in 16% of cases followed by DIC. Conclusion Jaundice in pregnancy is a bad combination. The most common cause of jaundice was viral hepatitis which spreads through feco-oral route. So improvement in sanitation facility and education level in rural area is must to reduce the rate of jaundice in pregnancy and improve its outcome.
93 Treatment of Neers Type 2 Distal End Clavicle Fracture: A Systemic Review of Treatment Modalities in 35 Fractures, Shah Pratik D., Patel Bhavik N., Soman Shardul M.
For Neer type 2 distal clavicle fracture, ideal treatment is still a point of debate. The purpose of this study was to review the outcome of a total of 35 Neer type 2 fractures among which 10 were treated nonsurgically and 25 surgically,among which 10 were received lock plate fixation,5 hook plate,10 K-wire plus tension band technique. At a mean follow-up of 16 months, data were collected by DASH questionnaires, ConstantMurley score.Nonsurgical treatment resulted 30% nonunion and 20% other complications while surgical treatment resulted 8% nonunion and 24% other complications.With surgical treatment, lowest complication(1%) found in pateint received lock plate fixation.The complication rate other than non union was significantly higher in cases of the hook plate(40%) and the K-wire plus tension band wiring(30%).Conclusion:Surgical treatment of these fractures is more appropriate than nonsurgical management to prevent non-union and functional disability with locked plating being the most preferrable implants.
94 Seroprevalence and Trends of Transfusion Transmissible Infections in Blood Donors At Zonal Blood Transfusion Centre, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India., Ankur Gupta, Manju Bohra, Manish Mittal, Mayank Sharma, Ankesh Gupta
Background - Blood is a life saving drug. Transfusion of blood carries risk of transfusion transmitted diseases. Therefore predonation counselling of donors and screening of each unit of blood is mandatory. Aims - Study is done with aim to analyze the seroprevalance of five important infectious diseases on a total of 42121 blood donors over 4 year study period at blood transfusion centre located at Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Material and Methods - Each blood donor is screened for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), rapid plasma reagin (RPR) slide kit test for syphilis and card test for malarial parasites. Screening for anti-HIV, HBsAg and anti-HCV was carried out by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Syphilis was tested using RPR slide kit test. Malarial parasite was tested by antigen rapid card test. Statistical Analysis - Graph pad prism software (Chi square test). Result - Study shows the overall seropositivity of 2.69%(1135/42121), while individual seropositivity for anti-HIV was 0.28%(122/42121), for HBsAg 2.03%(857/42121), for antiHCV 0.21%(91/42121), for syphilis 0.12%(51/42121) and for malaria 0.033%(14/42121). There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the seropositivity of various markers between voluntary and replacement donors except for HBsAg(p
95 Correlation of Duration of Diabetes With Cardiac Autonomic Function Tests in Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus Patients, Chhaya Ahire, Varsha Sarode
Background and objectives: There are very few asian studies that have shown the correlation between duration of diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients ,as in type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) autonomic abnormalities are almost the rule. So we undertook this study. Research Design and Methodology: This study is a cross sectional comparative study, which involved 60 randomly selected patients with type II DM (Group I- 30, short duration of 0-5 years and group II- 30, long duration of >5 years) and 30 healthy controls. The results obtained by performing cardiac autonomic function tests to which score where given. Then, for each patient, Average score was obtained. Pearsons correlation analysis was performed, by taking all test parameters, score as depended variable & duration as independent variable Results and conclusion: The study showed that as the duration of diabetes mellitus increases, susceptibility to CAN also increase accordingly.
96 Effectiveness of Soft Occlusal Splint Therapy in Patients With Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Crossectional Study, Dr. Cheena Singh, Dr. Parvathi Devi M
Background and objectives: Temporomandibular joint disorders have been a highly debated topic in recent years and are associated with signs and symptoms of the masticatory muscles and the joint or both. A variety of treatment modalities has been described in literature for its management and the conservative method is most preferred. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of soft occlusal splint therapy in the management of temporomandibular joint disorders. Materials and methods: 50 subjects with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were included in the study, out of which 28 (56.0%) subjects were males and 22 (44.0%), were females with age ranging from 21-31 years. Soft occlusal splints were given to the patients for about three months and evaluated for temporomandibuar joint clicking, reduced mouth opening, mandibular deviation and tenderness of temporomandibuar joint after one week of initiation of therapy and every month for three months. Results: There was a significant (88%) increase in mouth opening and decrease in the preauricular tenderness (92%), TMJ noises (84%) and mandibular deviation (88%) in subjects after soft occlusal splint therapy. Conclusions: Soft occlusal splints can be used effectively as a conservative treatment modality in reducing sign and symptoms related to the temporomandibular joint disorders. It is more cost effective and easy to fabricate.
97 Socio Demographic Profile of Patients With Cancer of Cervix Attending Tertiary Care Hospital, Dr.Rajesh N, Dr. Sreelakshmi K, Dr.Ramesh K
Introduction: In India it is estimated that approximately 1, 00,000, woman develops cervical cancer each year. In woman cervix cancer were the leading fatal causes in both rural and urban area. The objective of the present study was to know the socio demographic profile of patients with carcinoma cervix attending tertiary care hospital. Methodology: A hospital based cross sectional study was carried out for three years from 2010 to 2013. After obtaining consent, relevant socio demographic information was gathered and data was entered in Microsoft excel and presented as proportions. The 100 patients attending tertiary care hospital during the study period were study subjects. Results: The mean age of study subjects was 45 years. Among total study subjects, 74% of patients belonged to rural area, 92% were Hindus, 38% were illiterates, 32% were not working, and 52% of study subjects belonged to low SES group. Conclusion: Further epidemiological studies are needed to prove the effect of demographic factors on occurrence of cancer cervix.
98 Profile of Pediatric Patients With Clubfoot Attending Tertiary Care Hospital: A Descriptive Study, G.Naveen Bharat, Petnikota Harish, Ramesh K
Background: Club-foot is one of the most prevalent congenital anomalies of the lower extremities. Since there are only few studies on profile of this disease in Karnataka, we decided to assess it in a sample population in Bellary. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in a Tertiary care hospital,Bellary,Karnataka. Sample size was 85 and children with clubfoot were study subjects. Using pre tested semi structured questionnaire, required information was collected. Results:During this study period, we could examine85 children. Of them, 18.8% were female and 81.2%were male. Majority of the children (88.34%) were under age of 1 year with 45% under 1 month. Right side were little higher in number than left side clubfeet. Only 7% of the cases had a positive family history.Conclusion:Some more studies to find out epidemiological determinants of clubfoot should be conducted as there is some association found between sociodemographic factors and clubfoot.
99 Body Mass Index among adolescents: A cross sectional study, Vasanta S Chandaki, Dr.Ramesh.K
Background: Body Mass Index, reflects both fat and fat-free components of body weight. BMI increases from birth to around one year, then declines to around age six, then increases through the remainder of childhood and adolescence. Methodology: A cross sectional study conducted among Government, Private unaided and Private aided High schools. The sample size was 1718 and study subjects were selected by Stratified random sampling technique. BMI was the study tool. Results: Study subjects included were both boys and girls, boys constituted 49.2% (845) and girls 50.8% (873) and the age of the study subjects ranged from 12 to 16 years. The distribution of BMI among boys and girls is almost similar. Conclusion: Regular monitoring BMI among school students may help in prevention of childhood and adolescent obesity
100 Direct Peritoneal Access - A Newer and Safer Method for Inserting Trochar in Peritoneal Cavity, DR. VIKAS BATHLA (M.S,FMAS), Dr. Hard Vasavada, Dr. Parth Sorathiya
BACKGROUND: An open access technique might reduce severe vascular and visceral injuries. Most commonly used method of peritoneal entry is blind insertion of veress needle through infra umbilical stab incision An open peritoneal access through the umbilical cicatrix tube should be developed as a routine method with the goal of the ease, safe and rapid and should be used in all patients.
101 Prevalence of Mrsa Among Post Operative Surgical Site Infection of Laparotomy Cases in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Dr.V.Kanchana, Dr.S.Radha Kumari
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence rate of MRSA and their susceptibility pattern among surgical site infection (SSI) in laparotomy cases for 1 year period to provide guidelines for empirical antibiotic therapy and prevention of transmission of MRSA in post operative infections. During the study period , 720 patients underwent Laparotomy surgery , among them SSI was observed in 100 cases . In that about 52% were Gram positive organisms and 46% were Gram negative organisms and 2% were culture negative. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant causative agent ( 40%) followed by Escherichia coli (17%) . Among 40 Staphylococcus , MRSA was identified in 15 isolates(15%) by disc diffusion method using cefoxitin and rest of them are MSSA (25% ). In that more than 80% of MRSA were resistant to Ampicillin, Gentamycin & Doxycycline & 100% sensitive to Vancomycin, Linezolid & Teicoplanin.
102 A Correlative Study on Epstein Barr Virus Load Determined by Real Time Pcr with Cytokine Profiles in Pediatric Post Transplant Patients , Madhuravasal Krishnan Janani, Jambulingam Malathi, Hajib N Madhavan
OBJECTIVES: Present study was undertaken to determine the load of EBV and the expression of anti-viral cytokines in response to EBV infection among children after liver transplantation. METHODS: Thirty blood samples were obtained from patients with suspected EBV infection and these patients were categorized into three groups as Group I: Liver transplant patients (n=10), group II: EBV induced Infectious mononucleosis (n=10), Group III: Other patients with no EBV (n=10). Peripheral blood specimens collected from renal transplant recipients and others were subjected to detection of antibodies to EBV, presence of EBV by reverse transcriptase PCR targeting Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) gene and determination of viral load by Real Time PCR. Using a multi-analyte ELISA array, we determined the Plasma levels of 11 anti-viral cytokines and correlated with EBV infection and PTLD status. RESULTS: Antibodies to EBV were detected by ELISA in 21 (70%) peripheral blood samples and genomic EBV was detected in 15 (50%) by RTPCR. In 6 (20%) patients, EBV antibodies only were detected and RTPCR did not reveal the presence of EBV in these specimens. Mean and peak EBV levels were significantly higher in liver transplant recipients than patients with EBV induced IM like syndrome. One patient with persistent EBV developed PTLD with high levels of IL-2, IL-1B, IL-17 and IL-10 in plasma. The IL-6 and IL-2 levels were significantly higher in post transplant patient with EBV infection than those in EBV induced IM patients and control population/ NEBV. Levels of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-2, IL-17A and IFN-G were also significantly higher in post transplant and IM patients than NEBV. Conclusion: EBV DNA levels were significantly higher during post transplant patients than IM. Viral RNA or EBV viral load were not detected in control population. The levels of IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-17a were significantly high in post transplant patients than in IM patients and control population. Levels of IL-6 and IL-17a were significantly higher at high EBV DNA levels observed during PTLD and acute IM. These results demonstrate an important role of IL-6 and IL-17a during acute EBV infection and suggest that these cytokines together with anti-EBV antibody control EBV proliferation of during acute EBV infection in IM and post transplant patients and likely preventing PTLD.
103 Microbiological Examination of Spoiled Foods, Ramprasad D., Debashish Sahoo, Bhattar Sreedhar
Foods are subject to spoilage by wide variety of microorganisms which include Bacteria, fungi, yeasts. In the present study we have emphasized the spoilage of various fruits ,vegetables and some common food products was done and symptoms were noted. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage were identified by microscopic examination of stained smears in case of each type of foods. Such microorganisms .Such microorganisms were also isolated in pure culture and were used for future studies.
104 In Vitro Antibacterial Potential of Some Medicinal Plants Against Human Enteric Pathogens, Gajendiran K, Senthilkumar P K, Reetha D
To investigate in vitro antibacterial potentials of five different medicinal plant leaf extracts against enteric pathogens. Five solvent were used Viz., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts. Leaf extracts were evaluated against enteric bacterial pathogens by using standard disc diffusion, determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC). Methanol extract of Vitex negundo leaves showed potent antibacterial activity (inhibition zone: 7.8-20.7 mm, MIC: 15.62 31.25 g/mL, MBC: 31.25 -62.5 g/mL) against all the pathogenic enteric bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio fluvialis, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis) tested. For the first time it was observed that methanol extract of V. negundo leaves exhibited strong vibriocidal activity in vitro conditions. Therefore, it will be useful to identify and isolate the active compounds of this extract that could be a good alternative medicine to treat cholera.
105 Survey of The Microbiological Quality of Frozen Fish Marketed in Abakaliki Metropolis and its Implications for Consumer Health, Orji J.O., Okonkwo E.C., Umezuluike O.I., Anyim, C.
Majority of the frozen fishes sold in Abakaliki Metropolis are sold in open markets, hence this exposure of frozen fish encourages the growth of microorganisms which might facilitate increased transmission and prevalence of pathogens. The microbiological quality of 20 frozen fish from Kpirikpiri and Meat market in Abakaliki were ascertained. A total of 18 bacterial isolates and 7 fungal isolates were obtained from the frozen fishes. The bacteria isolates identified were Bacillus spp. (16.7%), Escherichia spp. (22.2%), Vibrio spp. (11.1%), Pseudomonas spp. (16.7%), Streptococcus spp. (11.1%) and Staphylococcus spp. (22.2%), while the fungal isolates were identified as Aspergillus spp. (28.6%), Mucor spp. (14.3%), Fusarium spp. (42.8%) and Rhizopus spp. (14.3%). The result obtained indicates that frozen fresh fish marketed within Abakaliki Metropolis contain various microorganisms; hence all hygienic measures must be performed during handling, processing and preparing of frozen food to prevent the reach of mould and their toxins to safe the consumer health.
106 Salmonellosis in Japanese Quails A Report From Central Kerala, India, Ambily R., M. Mini
The present study deals with the isolation, biochemical characterization and antibiogram of Salmonella enterica subsps. Gallinarum from Japanese quails in a private farm in central Kerala. There were reports of heavy mortality among birds of 5 to 7 months of age in the farm. Necropsy of the birds revealed lesions suggestive of fowl typhoid. The organ samples were cultured on enrichment and selective media and the colonies obtained were subjected to further biochemical characterization and the organism was proved to be S. Gallinarum. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolate revealed that it was completely resistant to Streptomycin, Ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, oxytetracycline and Augmentin. They were sensitive to Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol and moderately sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin.
107 Prevalence of Neisseria Gonorrhoea Infection by Pcr Method Using Urine Samples From Hiv Sero-Positive Women, Okonkwo, E.C., Ogbu, O., Anyim, C.,Nworie, O., Orji, J.O., Nwuzo, A.C.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection was diagnosed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sero-positive women in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. The samples were screened for HIV at the laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Ebonyi State using diagnostic dipstick, while PCR study was carried out at university of Ibadan. Species specific primers were designed for the specific amplication of a 260bp region of the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudo gene based on the numbering from strain MSII. All strains of N.gonorrhoeae tested were successfully detected by the designed PCR primer giving a single predicted product of 260bp amplicon in gel electrophoresis. The primer could not amplify DNA extracted from other Neisseria species. HIV status was established using rapid immunochromatographic assays as per national standards. Out of the total number of 105 urine samples, N. gonorrhoeae was detected in 16 (15.2%). There was significant association between N. gonorrhoeae infection and age but infection was not related to occupation and marital status. Analysis showed that N. gonorrhoeae infection is significantly associated with HIV status (15.2% vs 100%). N. gonorrhoeae is known to facilitate HIV transmission, hence there is the need for routine testing and treatment of all positive cases of infection to control HIV
108 Determining the Factors Influencing Non-Compliance Among Patient on Art Attending Hiv Op , Mrs. Rajapriya K
Be the master of your will and the slave of our conscience is one of the English proverb which says the importance of self control. But some of the factors like increased population, urbanization more socialization lead the youngsters to loose the self control and get into the problems like alcohol abuse, drug abuse and extra marital contacts. Objective of the study is to determine the factors influencing Non- compliance among patient on ART,to interpret the selected factors in terms of selected socio-demographic variable.The research design selected for the study was descriptive. The population with non- compliance at Madras Medical College & Hospital and Research Institute during the period of the study. A random convenient sampling technique was used. . Sample comprised of 20 patients. Data was collected from 20.12.10 to 22.12.10 between 7-12pm. The results were Strong factors (80-100%) Transportation facilities, Medication,Moderate factors (60- 80%) Diet, Life style, Side effects,Mild factors (below 60%) Knowledge, Stigma & Discrimination, Family Support, Investigations & Health care personnel.
109 Cardiac Invalidism and Perceived Family Support Among Patients with Myocardial Infarction , Soumya S, Sheilini M, Pratibha
Purpose: to find out the cardiac invalidism and perceived family support among patients with first attack of MI. The findings of the study can be used by nurses to assess cardiac invalidism, make patients aware of invalidism, improve their accuracy of health perception, reduce unnecessary anxiety and also to give extended psychological support to MI patients. Family members and friends can also be taught to provide appropriate support to the patients. Methods: Descriptive survey design was used. Data were collected from 78 patients with first attack of MI admitted to Kasturba Hospital, Manipal who underwent angioplasty during their course of treatment using different scales on cardiac invalidism and a scale to assess the perceived family support were administered. Purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Results: None of the participants had severe cardiac invalidism, 9 (11.5%) had moderate cardiac invalidism at discharge. About 54 (69.2%) had mild cardiac invalidism at discharge and 15 (19.2%) were free of cardiac invalidism at discharge. Majority 73 (93.6%) of the participants had perceived family support as moderate, 3 (3.8%) and 2 (2.6%) of the participants perceived their family support at discharge as high and low respectively. Majority 73 (93.6%) perceived their family support as moderate, may be because 42 (57.5%) among them were from joint family. There was a very weak, positive (? =0.25, p =0.02) relationship between cardiac invalidism at discharge and perceived family support. Conclusion: The patients with MI presents with some or other degree of invalidism even when they are physically recovered and it decreases as family support increases.
110 A Comparative Study on Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Prevention of Suicide in Adolescents Among Teachers and Parents of Adolescents of Selected Secondary Schools in Mumbai City, MRS. NANDA M. PARDESHI, Dr.Rakesh Ghildiyal
Adolescence is a crucial stage of life. The academic failure, loss of loved ones during the period of adolescence can affect them seriously. They may turn to the decision of ending their lives by deliberate self-harm (DSH) i.e. suicide. A comparative study was conducted on effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding prevention of suicide in adolescents among teachers and parents of adolescents of selected secondary schools in Mumbai city. A descriptive comparative design was used. A structured questionnaire and a teaching plan on prevention of suicide in adolescents were used. 70 secondary school teachers and 70 parents were selected with a non-probability convenient sampling technique. The collected data was analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Study concluded that the planned teaching was significantly effective in improving the knowledge in parents than the teachers regarding prevention of suicide in adolescents.
111 Kenneth Kaunda and the Quest for an African Humanist Philosophy, Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony (OSA)
After succeeding British rule, the government of Kenneth Kaunda chose Zambian humanism as the Zambian national ideology and philosophy. It was a form of African Socialism, which combined traditional African values with Western socialist and Christian values. At the centre of this humanism were God and the human person, for God was known through the human person and also served through human beings, this creates a very strong connection between God and the human person in the humanism of Kaunda. He emphasized the role of education, none-violent resistance and hard-work in the process of liberation. While this piece observes that Kaunda represents a figure among the people of Zambia that cannot be forgotten too soon and his philosophy, a concrete effort towards the restoration of his people, it also raises fundamental questions as to what extent the Zambian humanism worked?
112 Preparation and Characterization of Graphene/Poly M-Chloroaniline Conducting Polymer Composites, Ashok Kumar Mishra, Gourisankar Roy
In the present research program, we have described the synthesis of Poly metachloroanilinegraphene (PmClAn/RGO) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ bulk polymerization using two different preparation techniques. In the first approach, a mixture of graphite oxide (GO) and Poly (PmClAn)monomers (PmClAn) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator. After the addition of the reducing agent hydrazine hydrate (HH), the product was reduced via microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PmClAn) composites. In the second approach, a mixture of graphite sheets (RGO) and PmClAn monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator to obtain RGO-(PmClAn) composites. The composites were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and conductivity. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability compared with the composites prepared without MWI.
113 Exact Eigenstates of Relativistic Spin-Half Particles in A Radially Varying Magnetic Field Having Azimuthal Symmetry, T. Shivalingaswamy, B. A. Kagali
We discuss exact eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a relativistic spin-half charged particle in a radially decreasing magnetic field having azimuthal symmetry. The possible applications are mentioned.
114 Magnetic Non-Potential Parameter in Solar Active Region NOAA 10930, Yogita Suthar, S.N.A. Jaaffrey
We present the evolution of magnetic non potential parameter in AR 10930, during December 9-15, 2006. This AR highly active and produced a large number of flares with two X-class flare. We used 27 high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained with Hinode/SOT-SP. We studied the evolution of spatially averaged signed shear angle (SASSA) and mean weighted shear angle (MWSA) in the N-polarity and S-polarity regions separately. We found the SASSA is same for both polarities. In S-polarity, the MWSA is high compare to N-polarity. SASSA and MWSA show similar trends during the observed period.
115 Effect of Ultrasound Therapy and Myofascial Release on Pain and Function in Patients With Plantar Fascitis, P. SIVASANKAR
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common conditions that causes of heel pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the the effect of ultrasound therapy and myofascial release on pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis. 20 patients were selected and divided into 2 groups as Group A (n=10) and Group B (n=10). Both groups received plantar fascia and calf stretching exercises, where in addition to exercises Group A received Ultrasound therapy and Myofascial release for plantar fascia. Treatment was given on alternate days for a period of 2 weeks. Pain and function were used as outcome measures. Studentt test was done. Both groups showed significant reduction of pain and improvement of function. Between groups analysis, Group A showed more significant reduction of pain and improvement of function. Ultrasound therapy and Myofascial release is effective on pain and function in patients with plantar fasciitis.
116 The Caring Touch and Psychological Well-Being, Dr Jyoti Singh
The present paper intends reading how care and its allied virtues of empathy sympathy etc are prescribed as feminine virtues and women are expected to adhere them. The endeavour would be to probe how this prescription becomes detrimental when it is not reciprocal.
117 Activities, Social Engagement and Cognitive Decline among Elderly Male , Dr. Ankita Sharma
'Stay active-stay healthy', 'use it or lose it' are common mantra advised for optimal functioning. Though how far it is really applicable to heterogeneous group of Indian elderly is question. Results of the present study through some light on this issue. It was found that elderly are not a homogenous group, there are significant differences in their demographic condition, level and type of social engagement they are involved in, but contrary to usually held conception there was no significant difference on cognitive functioning. The interaction of age, activities and level of cognitive functioning appear to be significantly different. Level and type of activity is determined by age and other demographic characteristics and cognitive functioning is also predicted by these, hence, it is indicated that enhancement in activities and social engagement may have a role to play in maintaining an adequate level of cognitive functioning among the older men.
118 Drivers Against Pedestrians: How to Assess and Change Attitudes, Dr. Leon James
Hundreds of thousands of pedestrians are killed each year on the worlds roads and streets. Although pedestrians are judged by police to be at fault in the majority of collisions, nevertheless drivers aggressive attitudes and threatening behaviors magnify and contribute to the problem. Two checklists are provided to encourage drivers to assess their own practices against pedestrians. Some potential solutions are mentioned involving the improvement of road design and community-based educational interventions.
119 Comparative Review of Physicochemical Assessment of Katraj Lake, Pune, NIDHI JAIN, R. K. SHRIVASTAVA
Water is one of the most critical, scare precious and replenisable natural recourses which cannot be created. Ever increasing population, urbanization and modernization are posing problems of sewage disposal and contamination of surface waters like lakes. Hence, monitoring and conserving these important resources is essential. The present study attempts to bring an acute awareness among the people about the Katraj Lake by comparing various parameters such pH, COD, Cl, hardness, alkalinity, TDS and turbidity. In some of the parameters, it was found that there is continuous fluctuation in the water samples reading. There an increase in Cl and decrease in COD has been seen. For statistical analysis, value of mean, standard deviation and correlation were also calculated for the water quality characteristics.
120 Effect of Environmental and Behavioural Risk Factors on Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men of Eastern Algeria., Ounis L., Zoghmar A., Karaouzene T., Madhkour I., Achili K., Benbouhedja S., Ray P.F., Rouabah L.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to characterize environmental and behavioural risk factors that may be associated with altered sperm parameters. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study carried out in the centre of assisted reproduction clinic Ibn Rushd , Constantine. We selected 404 patients with pathological semen parameters and / or spermocytogramme. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded for each patient and, after exclusion of azoospermia cases, sperm parameters were studied for 327 patients. Results: The semen was disrupted in 84.3% of cases with a predominance of oligo-astheno-teratospermia. We found a small effect of age, smoking and taking hot baths on sperm parameters. In contrast we observed a significant decrease in the sperm count of subjects exposed to high heat and / or toxic inhalations. Conclusion: This study shows a moderate effect of environmental and behavioural risk factors on sperm parameters. Exposure to heat and toxic substances seems to be the most deleterious factor for spermatogenesis.
121 Crassostreacucullata Shells As Indicator to Environmental Changes in The Iraqi Coastlines., Moutaz A. Al-Dabbas, Mohanad H. Al- Jaberi
Surface holes were studied for hundred and sixty-seven of Crassostreacucullata shells that collected from Fadakia, Shatt Al-Basrah, and Iraqi coastlines(RassAlBishah , Khor Abdullah , KhorShytianah , Hacham Island , KhorAlZubair). These shells were studied as environment changes indicator in Iraqi marine territories. There are two main differences between river environment Crassostreacucullata shells and marine shells; the first difference is the abundance and highly distribution of holes on the surface area of Crassostreacucullata shells of river waterthan those shells of marine water. The second is the degree of Crassostreacucullata shells growth, whereas the river shells are smaller and thinner, the marine shells were bigger and thicker. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride , iron and trace elements are increase in the marine shells inRassAlBishah , Khor Abdullah , KhorShytianah , Hacham Island , KhorAlZubair compare with the river shells in Fadakia and Shatt AlBasrah areas as a result to increase of these elements in the sea water compare with river water . Phosphor element in Fadakia shells (river shells) is higher than the other shells, which may be probably due to the phosphorus-rich fertilizers transported from agricultural land near for Fadakia area by Shatt Al Arab river. Silica and aluminum elements are increase in Fadakia and RassAlBishahCrassostreacucullata shells (river shells) compare with the marine shells , that may be attributed to surface contamination in river Crassostreacucullata shells, and most of these elements concentrated in the holes of these shells .
122 Evaluation of Importance and Conservation Strategies of Forest Biodiversity, Preeti Singh
Forest cover is defined as an area more than 1 ha in extent and having tree canopy density of 10 percent and above. Forest biodiversity is highly valued at all three levels for providing products and commodities, amenities and services and aesthetic beauty and natural settings for moral contemplation and spiritual uplifting. But due to insufficient care and protection they are loosing their vigour and being trapped and diminished by human beings selfish and greedy attitude. Here in this review paper it has been tried to explain the forest cover of India in its different parts, importance of forest biodiversity to human beings and some strategies to rejuvenate it at this step of destruction.
123 Effect of Zinc on Road Side Useful Plant Leaves in Bhopal District, Asha Verma, Ranjana Pateriya
Effect of Zinc on important road side plant species Viz. Tamarindus indica (imli) (Leg.) Zizyphus Jujuba (Ber) (Rhan) Psidium guajava (Amrud) (Myrta) Azadirachta India (Neem) (Meli). The concentration of Zn was determined in washed and unwashed road side plant leaves. Differences between the concentration of metal Zn in unwashed and washed samples varied according to the metal pollution level of all the plants. The unwashed plant leaves of Azadichta Indica (Neem) showed highest concentration of Zn with a mean of 4.240 PPm.
124 Analysis of Atomic Absorption Spectra of Lead Present in Road Side Plant Leaves and its Harmful Effects on Human Being, Asha Verma, Ranjana Pateriya
This paper consists of data of postmansoon lead (Pb) concentration in Lowsonia inermis (Mehandi), Tamarindus indica (Imli), Angle marmelos (Bael) and Psidium guajava (Amrud) in washed and unwashed plant leaves. The analyzed data shows the highest and lowest concentration of Pb in unwashed plant leaves were found in Angle marmelos i.e. 5.706 PPm and psidium guajava of i.e. 3.906PPm. And the highest and lowest concentration of Pb in washed plant leaves were found in Angle marmelos i.e.5.254PPm and in psidium guajava i.e.3.096PPm respectively in Bhopal district.
125 School Environment: A Place To Nurture Life Skills An Empirical Study Among Tribal Students, Kannur, Kerala State., Prajina.P.V, Dr. J Godwin Premsingh
Over the past centuries the important of school climate in the development of life skills has been identified. Schools are the place where children spend most of their time. It is the courtyard of socialization. The reviews show that school climate is closely associated with the psycho-social and academic development of the students. Positive school environment contributes to their development and negative school environment results in underdevelopment. Tribes are socially and economically disadvantaged groups. Being born in that community the tribal students also get suffered. They lack quality life and education. The economic deprivation makes them school dropouts. In this empirical study the researcher tries to find out the school environment of ST students as perceived by them with special reference to Kannur District Kerala. The result of the study shows that majority of ST students are comfortable in their school environment.
126 Critics of Modernization and Social Change in India, LATHA.SM.
Change is such an evident feature of social reality that seems in any social-scientific theory. Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors or social relations. The base of social change in thought process in human social may be driven by cultural religious, economic scientific or technological forces among the most conspicuous theories of social change are those that go under the name of modernity or modernization and include other related term such as development as well, yet within this family of theories there are significant refers about whether modernization involves continuity or discontinuity. This article deals with different perspective of modernization and its impact on social structure.
127 The Management of Touristic Destinations - Comparative Analysis, Anca Gabriela Turtureanu, Rodica Pripoaie
This paper aims to make a comparative analysis of how to practice rural tourism in the region Bran - Moeciu (Romania) and Tyrol (Austria), considering all the elements that underlie the practice of rural tourism. The starting point of this analysis is the position that each region occupies to practice rural tourism in its country. Thus, while Tyrol represents the perfect description of rural tourism in Austria, Bran-Moeciu is considered the cradle of Romanian rural tourism.
128 Comparative Analysis of the Evolution Unemployment Rate in the European Union, Romania, Usa and Japan With Adjusted Data Based Seasonally, Rodica Pripoaie, Anca Gabriela Turtureanu
The principal causes of the evolution unemployment rate in EU, Romania, USA and Japan were: the general economic evolution of industries and agriculture, but the specific one of the countries, the relatively low investments, low labour mobility in the territorial plan and professional, and the international economic environment. The comparative analysis of the evolution unemployment rate in the EU, Romania, USA and Japan in august 2013 - may 2014 with adjusted data based seasonally used the average and the function AVEDEV, DEVSQ as well as the coefficient of variation and graphics.
129 Violence Against Women in Gulbarga District: A Sociological Analysis, Shailaja. S. Rangan, Dr. N.H. Patil
Violence against women are of different types such as domestic violence, wife battering, rape, abduction, trafficking, forced prostitution, dowry related torture, sexual harassment at work places, etc. The present study was interviewed women victims of gender based violence in these aspects in Gulbarga district. Total 500 women victims were interviewed and in many cases, the women victims were rejected to give information and under such circumstances, the information was collected from relatives and friends of respondents. It is suggested to increase education of women to prevent violence. Specialized women police wings should be set up at each police station to deal with the violence against women.
130 Women in Higher Education: A Sociological Study in Karnataka State, Hemlata. B.K, Dr. Shinde. Jaganath. R
There is gender disparity in higher education and to fill the gap womens universities were opened up in India at different parts. Still, there are obstacles are faced by women to take up higher education and these include lack of motivation from family members, poor knowledge in choice of career, etc. To address these issues, a survey of female students pursuing higher education was made in Karnataka state covering two universities. The paper addressed the career choices of women students at higher education.
131 Socio-economic Status of Dalit Working Women in Gulbarga City, Anupama. R. Natekar, Dr. N.H. Patil
Dalits are discriminated and suppressed by their castes in society and Dalit women are discriminated and suppressed by their caste as well as their gender in family and society. The education and employment has given Dalit women social status and respect. To assess the social status, equality and respect of Dalit working women, the present study was made in Gulbarga city. Totally 500 Dalit working women were interviewed to collect the primary data. The findings revealed that education and employment given social status, equality, respect, satisfaction in work life, etc to Dalit working women.
132 Reproductive Tract Infections Among Currently Married Females in Andhra Pradesh, N.HEMA PRIYADARSHINI, HARITHA KODALI, V.K.RAVINDRA KUMAR
The term reproductive tract infections (RTIs) refer to a variety of infections affecting the lower and upper reproductive tract of men and women. RTIs have lot more impact on womens health with special reference to the sexually transmitted and other reproductive tract infections. The variation in magnitude and nature of RTIs across women with different socio-economic and demographic characteristics has been discussed in the present paper. More than 51 per cent of the respondents are suffering from moderate severity of RTI diseases and majority of the respondents of below 25 years of age (51.4 %) are suffering from high severity of RTI diseases.
133 Emerging Technology of Smart Class Teaching in School Education- A Literature Review , A.S.Sathishkumar, Dr.P.Karthikeyan
In the context of global policy, global society and global economy, each and every country is seriously thinking of heightening the degree of quality in system of education. Globalization has permitted technical progress in communication field which enables users to access and exchange information at anytime and from any place in the world. Technology plays a vital role in education. In todays competitive world the child needs the skill sets, which are beyond subject knowledge and require concentration, assimilation power and retention. In this regard the role of smart class is quite important. Smart class is an innovative way of delivering various main key activities of teaching and learning process like knowledge acquisition, knowledge imparting, knowledge creation, and knowledge sharing.
134 Rational Decision Making Ability of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. Majority of layer farmers (50.00%), broiler farmers (51.67%) and total farmers (50.83%) were in the medium category of rational decision-making ability
135 Information Seeking Behavior of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhrapradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. It was evident that 43.33 per cent of layer farmers 40.00 per cent of broiler farmers and 41.67 per cent total farmers were in the medium category of information seeking behavior.
136 Economic Orientation Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. About 55.00 per cent of broiler farmers 52.50 per cent of total farmers and 50.00 per cent layer farmers were in medium category of economic orientation.
137 Poultry Farming Experience of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh , Dr.R.HARILAL
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. About 45.00 per cent, 61.67 per cent and 38.34 per cent of total, layer and broiler farmers, respectively were in medium category of farming experience.
138 Scientific Orientation of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. Scientific orientation was upto medium extent among total farmers (61.67%), layer farmers (63.33%) and broiler farmers (60.00%).
139 Rabies The Incurable Wound of The Century, Divya C
Rabies is one of the most important zoonotic diseases causing significant health hazards in almost all warm blooded animals. The disease is caused by an RNA virus which causes disease in the brain and result in death. Rabies is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. Thousands of human deaths occur annually from rabies worldwide. Rabies is unique compared to other infections in that the development of disease following exposure to the virus is preventable even in patients that have not been previously vaccinated, through timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis. Though symptoms can be considered as a factor suggestive of rabies, the disease has to be confirmed by reliable laboratorytests. Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test on impression smears from brainproves to be the gold standard technique for rabies diagnosis because of its sensitivity, accuracy and speed; and dFAT is established as a reliable diagnostic test.
140 Major Pathologic Findings and Probable Cause of Mortality in Wildlife Belonging to Cervidae Family of Wayanad District, Kerala, India From 2006 To 2013, Dr. Litty Mathew, Dr. Pradeep M.
Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the precious wildlife.So in the present study, major pathologic findings and probable causes of death in Cervidae familywere determined by performing a complete necropsy. Over a period of eight years (from January 1st 2006 to 31st December 2013), 26 animalsrepresenting four species were examined.Of these, three (11.54 %) cases were in advanced stage of decomposition and hence unfit for examination. Three(11.54 %) numbers likely died of infectious disease and 20 (76.92%) of noninfectious disease.Septicaemia (Staphyllococcosis) and pulmonary infections (pastereullosis) contributed to the infectious diseases. Non-infectious diseases include traumatic wound and subsequent septicaemia and toxaemia (57.69 %), capture myopathy (15.38 %) and starvation (3.85%).
141 Epidemiological Measures of Disease Frequency Against Sheep Pox, G. Selvaraju
Sheep pox is one of the major viral diseases of sheep; it cause serious socio-economic or public health consequences, and is of major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. An epidemiological study was undertaken to assess the crude and specific measures of morbidity, mortality and case fatality against sheep pox. In this study, a total of 15 sheep pox outbreaks were selected by active and passive surveillances in north-west agroclimatic zone of Tamil Nadu, India. Overall morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 7.20%, 2.42% and 33.57% respectively. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were higher in young than adult animals. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were higher in Trichy black than Mecheri breed and Non-descriptor. Disease frequency was higher in females than males. The present study concludes significant age, breed and sex predisposing exist in the outbreaks of sheep pox.
142 In Vitro Analysis on The Cytotoxicity of Super paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nano particle (SPION) Mediated Anticancer Drug Delivery System., Naheef,K, Vysakh Mohan, Sivanarayanan TB
In this study, we present in vitro cytotoxicity of bare and surface modified iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles) using live cell assays, LDH, and MTT assays with variation of the concentration of nanoparticles and incubation time. The surface of nanoparticles is modified with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane to enhance the biocompatibility. While the cytotoxic effect was negligible for 24 h incubation even at highest concentration of 100 ?g/ml. Bare nanoparticle represented higher level of toxicity than those of silanised nanoparticles. Current results confirmed the predictions and demonstrated that Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP)-silane system functionalised with silane has potential as new targeting strategy in cancer therapy.
143 Formulation and Characterization of Silanised Magnetic anoparticles Conjugated with Folic Acid: A Nanocarrier System for Anticancer Drug Delivery, Naheef,K, Sivanarayanan,TB
Nanotechnology has emerged as one of the very promising fields of biomedical research in the past few decades. Drug delivery is one of the areas where this technology has made remarkable progress. The article presents the formulation and characterization of the Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) mediated targeted anticancer drug delivery system. Modifying the MNP nanocarrier with organic silane 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane makes it more effective as it turns more biocompatible and the surface amino groups provide way to further functionalization. Conjugation with folic acid (FA) increases specific targeted drug delivery towards folate receptor bearing cancer cells to improve anticancer effectiveness by increasing the tissues local concentration of drugs.
144 Effect of Heat Stress on Internal Organs of Four Chicken Varieties, R. Anju Rajan, S.C. Edwin, K. Rajendran, N. Murali, R. Kumar Pramod
Heat stress is one of the most important issues affecting poultry production in tropical countries like India. The production performances and biochemical parameters of chicken were severely affected by elevated temperature. The objective of present study was to assess the effect of high environmental temperature on histology of some of the internal organs of four chicken varieties. The experimental birds were subjected to increased heat treatment i.e., 450 C daily, 2 hours for two weeks period (fifth and sixth week) using artificial heating systems. After the heat treatment, organs were collected and histology of these organs was studied. The results of the study demonstrated that high temperature caused pathological lesions in the liver and bursa of Fabricius of broiler, crossbred and assel except the crossbred birds. However, there was no significant changes were observed in other experimental organs.
145 Effect of Dietary Energy Restriction on Blood Parameters of Non Descript Indian Buck at Thermonuetral Environmental Conditions, Dr. Hari abdul Samad, Dr. Shyma K. latheef, Dr. Anuraj K.S, Dr. V.P. Maurya
The present trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary energy level on the Blood parameters (Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume, and Glucose ) in non descript Indian buck. The study comprised of eight native breeding bucks of uniform age and body weight which were considered as control animals forthe first 10 weeks and as treatment group for next 10 weeks in order to avoid the individual variations between animals. The control animals were provided with full feeding as per ICAR requirement and the treatment groupwere fed with fifty percentage concentrate restriction. Blood was collected once weekly from both control group and treatment group for estimation of blood parameters.Both PCV and Hb% reduced significantly (P
146 Dna Mimicry by Proteins, Harikrishna Pillai, Harikumar, S., Pramod kumar, R., Anuraj, K.S.
Most of the vital body functions are performed by the binding of enzymes to specific regions of DNA, for which it needs to recognize and bind to a target DNA sequence. This is controlled by another protein by direct obstruction of binding site, chemical modification of the binding site, indirect conformational change in the enzyme induced by the binding of the control protein or direct blocking of the DNA binding site on the protein by DNA mimicing. Proteins involved in DNA mimicry is a less explored field. Only a few proteins are reported to have this function which executes its application in a wide range of fields including detection of target DNA binding sites on enzymes and their isolation using the affinity methods. It can target bacterial restriction system, replication, repair and drug resistance, eventually finds it utility in diagnostic and even therapeutic uses of mimic in clinical settings. DNA binding proteins and enzymes are often difficult to crystallize for structural studies. It might be possible to use new DNA mimics, instead of the actual DNA molecule in the preparation of co-crystals aiding in elucidation of the DNA binding site on the target protein. Much more basic research is still to be performed in this area. This mini review details the proteins that function by DNA mimicry and their biological role
147 Egg production performance of progenies of Australorp with three different strains of White Leghorn, Prasoon, S., Anitha, P., Vimal, A. M., Harikrishnan, S., Arun, R. U.
An experiment was conducted at Department of Poultry Science, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy to evaluate and compare the production performance of progenies of Australorp with F, N and P strains of White Leghorn (viz., AW-F, AW-N and AW-P) under deep litter system of rearing. The mean age at sexual maturity was significantly (P
148 Effect of Administration of Lab Isolated L.Plantarum from GI Tract of Guinea Fowl on Intestinal Histomorphometry in Broilers, Vineetha P.G., Simmi Tomar, Deepthi VijayK, Sreelekshmy Mohandas
The study was aimed to investigate the effect of feed supplements viz: Lactobacillus plantarum (lab isolate from gastrointestinal tract of Guinea fowl), Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCDC, Karnal) and in- feed antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) on intestinal histomorphometry in broilers. During the entire experimental period of 35 days in broilers, four treatment groups were provided with different dietary treatments (T1-basal diet (Control-1), T2-Antibiotic growth promoter BMD @ 20g /100kg feed (Control-2), T3 - 1x108cfu of L.acidophilus/gm fermented feed +MOS @ 1g /kg feed T4-1x108 cfu of lab isolated L.plantarum (L.I.L.p) /gm fermented feed+ MOS @ 1g /kg feed. There were 20 birds per each treatment group in Guinea fowl and 25 chicks in broilers. Histomorphological examination of duodenum, ileum of broilers fed different dietary treatments was conducted at 35th day of experiment. Six birds from each group were sacrificed and sections of intestine were cut and processed for histomorphological study and slides were prepared and examined using an optical microscope. In terms of histomorphology of duodenum was concerned, duodenal villous height (VH) and crypt depth (CD) was significantly higher for T4 and T3 and lowest values obtained for antibiotic fed T2 group. Whereas, ileal villous height didnt show any significant difference among treatment groups. Ileal crypt depth was lowest for antibiotic supplemented T2 group over the other three groups. Duodenal villous height:crypt depth ratio was highest for T4 and T3 over T2 and control birds T1. The increment in the height of villi and villous height crypt depth ratio in Lactobacillus plantarum fed T4 group in broilers suggests that guinea fowl specific lab isolated L.plantarum may be used in commercial broiler production for improving growth by augmenting digestion and absorption of nutrients by modifying intestinal histomorphology.
149 Systemic Candidiasis and its Clinical Management in Pigeon , Dr. Shilpa.P, Dr. Vinu David
The present paper deals with isolation and clinical management of systemic candidiasis in pigeon which was showing symptoms like regurgitation, anorexia and the birds were whitish plaques in the mouth. Identification of the yeast was done based on the colony morphology, Gram staining, presence of pseudohyphae, chlamydospores and production of germ tubes. After confirmation the yeast was subjected to antifungal sensitivity test and treated with fluconazole tab.
150 Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Induced Pyothorax in Swine, Dr. Shilpa.P, Dr. Pradeep M
The present paper deals with isolation and identification of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum from lung abcess of Large White Yorkshire female pig carcass which was showing symptoms of respiratory difficulty. Identification of the organism was done based on the colony morphology, Gram staining, biochemical tests. Histopathological examination of lung was also performed. After confirmation the organism was subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test.
151 Antifeedant and Larvicidal Activities Of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Aristolochia Indica Extract Against Helicoverpa Armigera Hbner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Dr. (Sr.) R. Regina Mary, C. Siva, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Logeswaran
In the present study, the antifeedant, larvicidal activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Aristolochia indica against third instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and were evaluated. Antifeedant, larvicidal activities of aqueous crude extracts and synthesized Ag NPs were studied using leaf disc no choice, leaf dipping methods respectively. The maximum antifeedant and larvicidal efficacy was observed in crude aqueous and synthesized Ag NPs against H. armigera larvae (LC50 = 127.49, 84.56 mg/L; 766.54, and 309.98 mg/mL), respectively. It is a novel, eco-friendly, simple, and cost-effective approach to synthesis of Ag NPs using A. indica to control the pest.
152 Analysis of Phytochemical Constituents And Antimicrobial Activities of Wedelia Chinensis Against Pathogens, Arumugam Durga, Rathinasamy Regina Mary
The present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of solvent extracts from leaf and stem of Wedelia chinensis. The ethylacetate, acetone, methanol and hexane extract of medicinal plant were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli by using well diffusion assay. The leaf extract showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis (16.40.7) and lowest activity against Escherichia coli (9.40.6) compared with ciprofloxacin. The stem extract showed maximum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (15.30.8) and lowest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.30.5) compared with ciprofloxacin (10mcg,). The antimicrobial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in South India. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents.
153 Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) from leaf and stem against Human pathogens, Dr. (Sr.)R. Regina Mary, Syed Mohammed Imthiyaz Begum
To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts from leaf and stem of Tridax procumbens. The Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Hexane and Methanol extracts of Tridax procumbens were evaluated against Grampositive Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumonia) by using agar well diffusion method. The results revealed that among five pathogenic bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus belongs Gram-positive bacteria showed higher susceptible for leaf and Stem extracts.
154 Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Textile Dye Effluents Collected from Tirupur, Tamilnad, India and Their Impact on The Ecosystems, Rajaganesh K, Ameer Basha S
Textile industries are large industrial consumers of waters as well as producers of wastewater effluents. In this study the physico chemical parameters such as Colour, Odour, Temperature (T0), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Biological oxygen dement (BOD), Chemical oxygen dement (COD), Phosphate, Nitrite, Iron, Silicate, Hydrogen sulphide, Residual Chlorine, Carbonate, Sulphate, Chromium, Lead and Cadmium of the untreated textile industry effluents randomly collected from Tirupur city of Tamilnadu were analyzed. The physicochemical analysis of the effluents of all the samples indicates that all the samples were highly polluted and having the values higher than the permissible limits. Remedial measures were recommended for the treatment of these effluents.
155 Correlation of Pap Smears with the Cervical Biopsy for Screening Carcinoma Cervix in and Around Mangadu, Dr.K.R.Umadevi
Introduction: Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on there are typically no symptoms. Later symptoms may include: abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain or pain during sex. Aim: To evaluate the frequency of accurate diagnosis from Pap smears. Materials and Methods : A total of 500 Pap smears and their corresponding Cervical biopsies over a 2 years period is included in the study. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 cases over a period of 2 years were included in the study. Cytological and Histopathological studies were performed for all the cases. Results: Age ranges from 21 years to 65 years with a mean age of 43 years. Majority of the patients fall in the category of Inflammatory smear where as few were in Malignant category. Inflammatory lesion was present in 287 cases. Features of Dysplasia were observed in 138 cases and 20 cases were frankly malignant. Atrophic changes were seen in 40 cases, where as 15 cases were normal. Conclusion: Inflammation of the Genital tract was a common Pathology. Pap smears and Cervical biopsy is a valuable tool for Screening of malignancy which can be done easily with low cost, outcome of malignancy can be prevented by early detection of malignancy in the cervix.
156 Study of Endometrial Pathology in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Dr.Shilpa.M.D, Dr. Subramanya
Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is the commonest presenting symptom and major gynecological problem responsible for as many as one-third of all out patient gynecologic visit.1,2 The endometrial sampling is chosen to evaluate abnormal uterine bleeding.An understanding of the varieties in the normal morphological appearance of the endometrium provides an essential background for the evaluation of endometrial pathology.3Aims: 1. To evaluate histopathology of endometrium for identifying the causes of abnormal uterine bleeding.2. To observe the incidence of various pathology in different age groups. Material and methods: The endometrial samples of 200 cases (endometrial curettage/ biopsy and hysterectomy specimens) sent to pathology laboratory were analyzed. Results: Maximum cases of abnormal uterine bleeding were seen between 31-40 years of age. Most of the cases presented with menorrhagia. Histologically most common was the proliferative phase and endometrial adenocarcinoma & endometrial stromal sarcoma were rare. Conclusion: Analysis of histopathology of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding helps in management of patients and to know the pathological incidence of structural causes in AUB prior to surgery
157 Development and Quality Evaluation of Coconut Milk Chocolate By Incorporation of Fat and Corn Flour, Mohammed Umar Farooqui, Abdul Raheem M.I, Dorcus Masih
The demand of milk product is increasing. Among all the milk products, chocolate is mostly preferred confectionary product. Coconut (Cocus nucifera) is the stone of the drupes borne by the coconut palm, a member of the monocotyledonous family Palmae. It is known as the wonder food and is regarded as perfect diet because it contains almost all essential nutrients needed by the human body. Milk is one of the most important ingredients in chocolate production. Coconut milk may be considered as a substitute for cow milk. Soymilk/Coconut milk can be added in chocolate to improve the texture and to increase the binding capacity of chocolate. The texture, flavor and level of mouth feel are unique characteristics. It may be used by the people who cannot tolerate cow milk. For formulation coconut milk, cocoa powder, GMS, coconut shreds, sugar, corn flour and vegetable shortening was selected. The six samples was prepared. These six samples were analyzed for sensory and chemical and microbial analysis. In sensory evaluation the sample which is having (coconut milk: 130ml, sugar: 100g, cocoa powder: 15g, corn flour: 4g, veg. fat shortening: 6g, and coconut shreds: 32g) was having good flavor, taste, color, texture and mouth feel and overall acceptability.
158 Non-Governmental Organizations and Legal Contours in India, Naresh Kumar
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have emerged as key players in bringing change in development, human rights, humanitarian action, environment, and many other areas of public action. In the pursuit of social transformation, NGOs have an active role to play which is very vital for countrys evolution as a progressive nation. But India is also marked by diversities, so the role of these NGOs has to be in close proximity of the legal parameters established by the constitution which takes a great care of its diverse minorities by sanctioning different privileges for various groups. This paper shall underscore the idea how the functions and policies of NGOs have to be shapedviz-a-viznations legal contours.
159 An Assessment of Strength, Power and Agility in Volleyball Players, Taware Govind B, Tapadia Jyoti K, Bhutkar Milind V
Volleyball is one of the most played games in the world. It is the game of power, agility and speed. But the levels of performance of the Indian volleyball players lag far behind the international standards. Physical fitness is of paramount importance in this game Objective : Strength, Power and Agility of volleyball players was assessed, analysed and compared with non volleyball players. Also, findings of the volleyball players were compared with that of the international norms from available literature. Study Design/Methods: Forty male volleyball players of state /national level were taken as subjects and 40 age matched non volleyball players as controls. Their strength was assessed using bench press and bench squat, power by vertical jump and agility by Burpee Test, Shuttle Run and Quadrant Jump. Results: Almost all parameters included were found to be statistically significant in the subjects when compared with the controls. But, when compared with the international standards it was found that our subjects were far behind than the recommended norms for the elite volleyball players. Conclusions: Subjects in our study had more strength, power and agility as compared to controls. But our subjects lag far behind in these parameters when compared with international standards.
160 Data Management and Quality of Service (Qos) Routing Protocol in Manet, Kuldip M. Joshi, Jignesh M. Joshi, Bhanushankar G. Joshi
Providing quality of service (QOS) in a mobile ad hoc network is a not easy task due to its peculiar characteristics. This paper proposes at presenting a data management and quality of service (QOS) routing protocol which identifies data level to be sent, based on the data size the route selected. If huge level of data wants to sent then the routing protocol consider the multiple node-disjoint paths are examined for fulfilling QOS in terms of end-to-end delay and window-based size of channel view is performed. If small size of data want to sent the routing protocol consider end to end delay only. In this paper examine the data level and end-to-end delay along the paths taking into account the IEEE 802.11 argument delays and exceptional capacity. Data Management and QOS routing method is proposed. To study the presentation of routing system has approved out replication. The results show that the planned protocol performs superior in terms of QOS satisfaction ratio and the throughput as compared to an presented protocol.
161 Yield Improvement of Calocybe Indica Fruiting Bodies (Milky Mushroom) From Locally Available Unexplored Lignocellulosic Substrates, V. Karuppuraj, S. Chandra Sekarenthiran, K. Perumal
This research concentrated on yield improvement of C. indica on unexplored locally available lignocellulosic materials such as paddy straw, reeds, banana stem, sugar cane leaves, sugar cane bagasse, coir pith and sorghum husk. The maximum bioefficiency of C. indica was obtained from paddy straw (134.16%) followed by reeds (104.30%). Different casing materials (garden soil, coir pith compost, vermicompost), different shade (blue, yellow and dark) were influenced for yield enhancement of C. indica and maximum bioefficiency was recorded in vermicompost (140.27%) and blue shade (134.16%) respectively. Seven spent mushroom substrate were analyzed for highest reduction of lignin, acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Coir pith recorded for the highest reduction of lignin (25.29%) and acid detergent fiber (18.27%). Sugar cane bagasse recorded for highest reduction of cellulose (31.62%) and banana stem and for hemicelluloses (22.96%). The reeds can be utilized for successful cultivation of C. indica at commercial level than the paddy straw.
162 Impact of Teaching Methods in Teaching Entrepreneurship to Engineering Graduates, G. Satheesh Raju, Y.Nagendar
Entrepreneurship is an area where the teaching community has to play a vital role As the European Commission (2008) pointed out there is a need for more interactive learning approaches where the teacher acts rather as a moderator than a traditional lecturer, where multi-disciplinary approaches to entrepreneurship teaching are adopted and where, among others, specific business skills and knowledge of how to start a company and run it are successfully transmitted. This paper is an attempt to know the better way of teaching entrepreneurship to engineering students who are future for inventions of new market with new products. It also asses the present teaching methods followed in teaching entrepreneurship and an attempt has made to give a teaching criteria which is made out from students feed back to teach entrepreneurship where students are encouraged to learn in order to put it into practice which is the final aim.
163 Study on the Nutritional Status of Karate Martial Art Exponents, Steffi Alexander, Dr. D. Annette Beatrice
Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. The studies on martial art exponents like Karate are very limited. Hence, this study will enable us to elicit information on the demographic profile, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical parameters, dietary pattern and personal habits of the martial art exponents and at the same time the nutritional assessment will give us a birds eye view of the possibilities of chronic diseases among the subjects and their dietary habits in depth. The study also aimed at assessing the biochemical parameters such as fasting plasma glucose levels and serum lipid profile and clinical parameters for the Karate Martial Artist exponent. The results of the study revealed that majority the karate martial artists belonged to the age group of 20-25 years, and are graduates. Most of them do not have any chronic diseases. And none of the karate martial artists have the habit of smoking. Data pertaining to the nutritional status revealed that the karate martial artists were overweight, the mean body fat percentage was higher, and the blood pressure levels were slightly elevated among the Karate martial artists. The mean energy intake of the Karate martial art exponents were (1959355g). This study helped to understand the nutritional importance for Karate martial artists.
164 WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA-A CHANGING SCENARIO, Dr. D. KUMUDA
India with its diversity and rich heritage has an ugly side to it. If women have been worshipped as Goddess, there has been sati too. A silent witness, the oppressed women have come a long way. Though the situation has improved some facts (education rate, sexual harassment among others) are daunting. Many women have broken the barriers and we would still witness a lot more. To help women is to help society. And through this journey of women empowerment our nation will achieve its dream. The dream of reviving its past glory .To become the golden peacock again .Since 1911, the March 8th is celebrated around the world as International Women's Day. Many groups around the world choose different themes each year relevant to global and local gender issues. The UN declared an International Women's Day theme for 2013 and it is A promise is a promise: Time for action to end violence against women. And this is very crucial for India. Womens economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development and pro-poor growth. Achieving womens economic empowerment requires sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment and gender-specific perspectives must be integrated at the design stage of policy and programming. Women must have more equitable access to assets and services; infrastructure programmes should be designed to benefit the poor, both men and women, and employment opportunities must be improved while increasing recognition of womens vast unpaid work. Innovative approaches and partnerships include increased dialogue among development actors, improved co-ordination amongst donors and support for women organising at the national and global level.
165 Oral Manifestations of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura : A Rare Case Report, Dr. Prashant Salve, Dr. Nandita Gupta
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is defined as isolated low platelet count with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. It is also known as primary immune thrombocytopenia primary immune thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. The major causes of ITP consist of immune thrombocytopenia, decreased bone marrow production and increased splenic sequestration. The labo-ratory investigation necessary at the initial visit to made diagnosis were erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, anti-glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antibodies, reticulated platelets, plasma thrombopoietin level. This article present a case report pointing oral manifestation ITP, importance of identifying oral signs of ITP. The concise explainations of points to be consider in the diagnosis and management of ITP also mentioned.
166 The charged Compton sphere, Emad Eldieb
In the form of Einstein equation of the rest mass mo of a particle with rest radius ro, we can put a collection of charges p - obeying Coulomb force- in a closed sphere with a radius r as; Where; p is the number of the protons inside a sphere with a radius r, e is the magnitude of the charge in coulomb and k is the electric constant Where also; the factor inside the big bracket = 1, while the small bracket is not absolutely empty. Our work lies inside the small bracket.
167 Fabrication of Efficiency Increaser by Using Preheating Method, A. Malaisamy, P. Balashanmugam
An attempt has been made in this research work to use preheating of exhaust gas is giving to input of ignition in Two/Four Stroke engine to increase the efficiency. Our foremost aim of selecting this research is to use efficiency increasing. It is also good with regard to economic considerations and engine efficiency. A method and system for preheating internal combustion engine fuel to an optimum temperature before introducing the fuel into the carburetion system. The two wheeler engine is an internal combustion engine. It is a device, which converts the thermal heat energy from the exhaust and converts it to air preheat. Also the atmospheric air is fixed over the silencer for intake the hot air to the carburetor. The concept of increasing the fuel efficiency of a petrol engine in this research is to pre-heat the intake air which is flowing through the carburetor. The humidity in the atmospheric air affects the petrol vaporization in the carburetor . Therefore, by pre-heating the inlet air to the carburetor for a considerable amount, the vaporization can be easier and in turn complete combustion is achieved.
168 The Comparative Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Slotted Defects, Parag sahani, Vandana vikas thakare
The microstrip patch antennas are widely used for the wireless applications in the present scenario. In this paper the microstrip patch antenna is being presented where a comparative study has been done on the frequency of 2 GHz using defects on the ground and on the upper part of the design. The structure has been simulated using CST microwave studio software, the results shows the potential of the antenna design. The effects of the defects enhance the return loss and the gain of the antenna. The simulation result shows the effectiveness of the design return loss with or without defects is decreased up to 50db, and the bandwidth is also found about 34 MHz.
169 Prenancy Outcome in ligohydramnios A Retrospective Study, Soumya Ramakrishnan, Rajalaxmi Kamath, Yogesh Bangera, Tanya Susana
Background : Oligohydramnios is decreased amount of amniotic fluid affecting3-5% of all pregnancies. Pregnancieswitholigohydramnios are associated with increased risk of maternal & fetal morbidity. Early detection of oligohydramnios and its management may help in reduction of perinatal morbidity and mortality and maternal complications. Objective : To study the maternal&fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated by oligohydramnios . Material& Methods : A retrospective hospital based study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics&gynecology of Yenepoya Medical College; a tertiary health care referral centre in Mangalore, Karnataka over a period of 2 years from February 2012 to February 2014.Statistical analysis was not used since it is a descriptive study. Results : Out of the 50 patients subjected to this study, majority of the patients were multigravidas belonging to the age group 20- 30 years. The incidence of hypertension in preganacy, postdatism, IUGR, fetal anomalies were 24%, 20%, 28% & 10% respectively; Idiopathic oligohydramnios being 14%.14% had spontaneous vaginal delivery, 18% delivered vaginally after induction, 42% had emergency caesarean section& 26% had elective caesarean section.The incidence of fetal distress was 36%& 1 min APGAR of
170 Baseline data for insecticide resistance monitoring in tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cole crops in Punjab, India, Prabhjot Kaur, B.K. Kang
The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an agricultural important pest species. S. litura has a wide host range of approximately recorded 150 plant species worldwide (Chari & Patel, 1989). In Punjab, this pest attains sporadic status primarily on cauliflower, Brassica oleracea (L.). This pest destroys vegetable crop and particularly prefers the cruciferae family (Charoensak et al., 2009). However, it is also observed feeding on other crops such as arbi, Colocasia esculenta (L.), mung bean, Vigna radiata (L.), sunflower, Helianthus annuus (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), castor, Ricinus communis (L.), etc. (Kumar, 1992). Larvae of this pest completely devour the leaves of infested plant resulting in huge crop losses which ranges from 50 to 70 per cent. Indiscriminate and continuous use of insecticides has contributed in development of insecticide resistance in insects and caused the environmental degradation as well. Moreover, a base line data regarding the toxicity of the newer insecticides would help in understanding the level of resistance developed in this pest and any possible cross-resistance there in, which could be assessed in advance. Therefore, present studies on development of resistance in S. litura against four new chemistry insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) were carried out in the Toxicology laboratory, Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India during the year 2011-12. Various stages of S. litura (eggs, larvae) were collected from four different locations (Malerkotla, Hoshiarpur, Amritsar and Samrala) of Punjab. Resistance is developed in third instars of lepidopterous pests (Anand et al., 2011). Therefore, larval bioassays were conducted to estimate the response of field populations of thirty third-instar larvae of S. litura under laboratory conditions at 252C and 655 per cent relative humidity. Leaf dip bioassay technique with diluted insecticide formulations recommended by Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) was performed in the laboratory with seven to ten treatments depending on the insecticide class, respectively. LC50 values were estimated by probit analysis after correction to record control mortality data which was used to calculate the resistance ratios (RR). The LC50 values worked out for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb, spinosad are 0.081, 0.088, 0.380, 4.00 parts per million (ppm) against pest populations collected from Malerkotla; 0.051, 0.060, 0.250, 3.00 ppm of Amritsar; 0.002, 0.001, 0.0076, 0.10 ppm for Samrala and 0.000014, 0.00001, 0.00056, 0.003 ppm against pest population of Hoshiarpur, respectively. The LC50 values for populations collected from these four locations were in the order Malerkotla>Amritsar >Samrala>Hoshiarpur for the insecticides (emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad) tested. Based on LC50 values obtained, emamectin benzoate (0.000014 ppm) was found to be the most toxic among all the tested populations, followed by chlorantraniliprole (0.00001 ppm), indoxacarb (0.00056 ppm) and spinosad (0.003 ppm), respectively. The pairwise correlation coefficients of LC50 values indicated that there was lack of cross resistance for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb in populations of S. litura from Punjab. These insecticides may prove to be promising substitutes for the effective control of insecticide resistant populations of S. litura which were collected from Malerkotla region of Punjab state, India.
171 Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture : Initiatives in Andhra Pradesh, N. V. Madhuri
Sustainable agriculture conserves our soil and water resources, protects our climate, enhances agro-diversity, ensures biodiversity, meets the demand for food and safeguards livelihoods. In short, it ensures that the environment thrives, the farm is productive, the farmer makes a net profit and society has enough nutritious food. Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture(CMSA) is one such initiative which is implemented in the state of Andhra Pradesh through the women SHGs and their federations. This paper highlights the major initiatives taken up under the project and their impact on the farmers.
172 Photosynthesis of Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) Plants Subjected to Different Fertilization Rates in Huila, Colombia, Vernica Hoyos, Guido Plaza, Stanislav Magnitskiy
A balanced management of nutrients in a crop involves several aspects, such as the application of the essential elements for crop growth, taking into account the soil conditions that influence their availability, time, sources and doses according to crop needs. The lack of any of these elements has both direct and indirect effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological parameters, such as photosynthesis (Pn) and maximum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm), depending on the nutritional status of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants in the municipalities of Campoalegre and Garzn in the province of Huila, Colombia. The photosynthesis was primarily affected at the initial stages of the crop. Net photosynthesis, and maximum PSII efficiency of tobacco were affected mainly by the location evaluated. The fertilizer application rate influenced the Fv/Fm, and the fertilization source influenced Pn, y Fv/Fm.
173 Effect of Salt Stress on Seedling Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chetukuri Anuradha
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is becoming an increasingly important source of edible vegetable oil throughout the world because of its high polyunsaturated fatty acid content and no cholesterol. The increasing demand for this oil may promote increased hectare of sunflower in the India, where some soils are saline or have the potential to become so. Effects of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics were evaluated for twelve Helianthus annuus L. genotypes in Five treatments of salinity including 0.0 (control), 0.0 (Control), 0.4, 0.9, 1.3 and 1.7 dS/m concentration of NaCl in a three replicated randomized completely block design (RCBD). ANOVA revealed highly significant differences for fresh weight and dry weight and leaf area etc., under various salt concentrations. However, the differences among the genotypes for all the parameters studied were highly significant. The findings suggest that, SFL-07 and PKVSH-27 genotypes were found to be tolerate moderate levels of salinity and can be tried for cultivation on marginal salted soils.
174 Genetic Parameters for Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance in Greengram (Vigna Radiata (L).Wilczek), N. Anusha, Ch. Anuradha, AMN. Srinivas
A study was carried out in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) with 123 F2 plants of cross PM 115 * LGG 460 to estimate mean, range, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance for 8 trait viz. height of the plant, number of branches, number of clusters, days to 50 per cent flowering, number of pods per plant, length of the pod, number of seeds per pod, single plant yield without any replication. Heritability in broad sense and genetic advance as percent of mean was high for number of pods per plant, single plant yield, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length indicating that these traits were controlled by additive genes indicating the availability of sufficient heritable variation that could be made use in the selection programme and can easily be transferred to succeeding generations
175 Phytochemical Screening and Tlc Profiling of Seeds of Crotalaria Verrucosa Linn , P. Kamalakar, G. Prabhakar, K. Shailaja
Seeds of Crotalaria verrucosa L. were screened for their phytochemical constitution following hot continuous and successive extraction by Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative assay and thin layer chromatography was done using a range of solvents. Extraction process was carried using different solvents successively in the order of increasing polarity. Qualitative analysis of the extracts using standard procedures, revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, triterpenoids, phenols, steroids, coumarins, cardiac glycosides and phytosterols. TLC profiling of the extracts was performed using different solvent compositions, which yielded a wide array of compounds. Distinct qualitative manifestation of phytochemicals in screening test and chromatography of the seeds has demonstrated their potential for future drugs.
176 Influence of Microbial Enriched Vermicompost on the Growth and Nutrient Content of Amaranthus Cruentus L., SANJUKTA BISWAS
A field experiment was conducted at Dept. of Botany, Bangalore University, Bangalore, in 2010-2011 to evaluate the response of microbial inoculants and organic manure (vermicompost) on growth of Amaranthus. Combined inoculation with vermicompost and bioinoculants Frateuria aurentia (Potassium mobilizer), Trichoderma viride, Azospirillium brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens significantly increased plant biomass, yield and nutrient content. Plants inoculated with vermicompost and Frateuria aurentia was showed highest nutrient uptake than vermicompost and Azospirillum brasilense inoculated plants followed by Pseudomonas fluorescens.
177 Protein Metabolism During Petal Senescence in Uncut Flowers of Tagetes erecta L. , Desai Renuka J, A Mankad
Flowering often associated with senescence and death. The senescence of flowers involves a coordinated series of complex physiological and biological events leading to eventual collapse and death of the petals. Petals are an excellent model system for the study of fundamental aspects of senescence. The need of present study was felt with the aim to study the changes taking place during petal senescence in uncut flowers of Tagetes erecta L. Estimation of total protein and protease activity was studied from first stage to senescent stage of Tagetes erecta L. Total protein content had a decreasing trend in Tagetes petals. This reduction of protein is due to the breakdown of the proteins might have created an internal environment suitable for the senescent change which leads the flower towards senescence. The protease activity registered a consistent increase with the simultaneous decrease in total protein content.
178 Synthesis, Characterisation and Evaluation for Antibacterial Activities of N-Pyridin-2-Yl Substituted-P-Toluene Sulphonamoyl Ethanamides, Ugwu David I, Okoro Uchechukwu C
Synthesis of N-pyridin-2-yl-p-totuene sulphonamides 6a-e is reported. This was achieved by first reacting p-toluene sulphonyl chloride 1 with various amino acids in basic medium to afford the p-toluene sulphamides 3a-e. p-Toluene sulphonamides upon refluxing with thionyl chloride were converted to the corresponding acyl chlorides 4a-e which on further reaction with 2-amino pyridine 5 in basic medium of triethylamine gave the N-pyridin-2-yl-p-toluene sulphonamides 6a-e. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), proton and carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR and 13CNMR). The antimicrobial properties of the sulphonamides were determined on Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using agar diffusion technique. The intermediates 3a-e and the N-pyridin-2-yl derivatives 6a-e were found to be more active than tetracycline against the tested organisms.
179 Biofortification Approaches to Enhance Grain Mineral Nutrient Concentration in Relation to Zinc - A Review, V.Ravindra Babu, Y.Sharath Kumar Reddy, G. Eswara Reddy, Y.Deepthi Kiran, Pavan Kumar Reddy Yerasi, B.Nagendra Reddy, D.Venkatesh babu
Globally, micronutrient malnutrition alone afflicts more than two billion people, mostly among resource-poor families in developing countries, with Zn, Fe, I and vitamin A deficiencies most prevalent. More than five million childhood deaths occur from micronutrient malnutrition every year. Currently, mineral malnutrition is considered to be among the most serious global challenges to human kind and is avoidable. Among different micronutrients, zinc deficiency is a well-documented problem in food crops, causing decreased crop yields and nutritional quality. Generally, the regions in the world with Zn-deficient soils are also characterized by widespread Zn deficiency in humans. Recent estimates indicate that nearly half of world population suffers from Zn deficiency. Cereal crops play an important role in satisfying daily calorie intake in developing world, but they are inherently very low in Zn concentrations in grain, particularly when grown on Zn-deficient soils. The reliance on cereal-based diets may induce Zn deficiency-related health problems in humans, such as impairments in physical development, immune system and brain function. Among the strategies being discussed as major solution to Zn deficiency, biofortification appears to be a most sustainable and cost-effective approach useful in improving Zn concentrations in grain. Scientific evidence shows this is technically feasible without compromising agronomic productivity
180 tions in grain. Scientific evidence shows this is technically feasible without compromising agronomic productivity, V. Palanivel, Dr. C. Manikanda Muthukumar
Financial institution specially banking industry is one of the areas where many public, private & foreign banks are operating their businesses to different customers in every nuke of the country. This study is undertaking the customer preference towards Tamilnadu Mercantile bank at Dharmapuri Town. Banking is considered to be the nerve center of trade, commerce and business in a country .It plays a vital role in distributing the money for the development of trade, industry and commerce. Therefore we may say that banking is the life blood of modern commerce. A banker is not only dealers in money but also leaders in economic development of a country. The fundamental aspects of banking i.e. trust and the confidence of the people on the institution remain the same. The majority of the banks are still successful in keeping with the confidence of the customer even though the main problems of the customer are not well aware of the service provided by their bank. Financial institution specially banking industry is one of the areas where many public, private & foreign banks are operating their businesses to different customers in every nuke of the country. In the process to attract customers these banks are providing the highest level of service quality to satisfy the varying needs of today's customers, but service quality is not alone sufficient trust among the customers is another important factor which is a predictor of consumer preference.
181 Development of Entrepreneurial Skills in Women- A Study of Women Entrepreneurs of Dharwad District, Dr. A.S.Shiralashetti, Mr. Abhaykumar S. Gasti
The women of today have the capability to analyse, organize and mobilize the surrounding situation for social transformation. Because of participation in social activities, leadership qualities and technical skills are developing in women. Of late, service sector has played a significant role in providing employment opportunities to women. Besides, lot of measures have been taken to promote women entrepreneurship in urban, semi-urban and rural areas. It is observed that women can establish business units in those areas where they have core competency. Women have proved their core competency in the areas of entrepreneurship. Educated women who do not find suitable job and who do not feel comfortable to work in their houses, uses their core competency by becoming entrepreneurs. The present study is based on the primary data collected from 350 women entrepreneurs of five taluks of Dharwad district. The data thus collected has been analysed by using statistical tools like percentage and paired t-test to examine status and skill development among women entrepreneurs of selected district. Appropriate training and up-gradation of women network are some major suggestion to increase the entrepreneurial skills among the women entrepreneurs.
182 Corporate Scandals and Forensic Accounting, PROF. DR. VANDANA K. MISHRA
Recently, the corporate world has witnessed many ups and downs. The stock markets have crashed, and the corporate sector has been plagued by huge business scandals. Today forensic accounting is a highly talked about topic all over the world and is the fastest growing area of accounting. In most of these corporate scandals and failures, accounting fraud has been the main problem. Accounting fraud can come in a variety of ways. The way accounting is practiced or the interpretations that may give different prescriptions in similar situations are some dark areas that may open some scope for the corrupted accountants. The paper discusses various aspects of forensic accounting, the need and the role it can play in solving the annoyed problems of the corporate world. An important accounting technique that is being strongly advocated and much talked about Forensic Accounting
183 Organizational Goals Vs Personal Goals - Their Level of Success in Selected Small Scale Indian Industries, Dr. Mohd. Ashraf Ali, Azam Malik, Sarfaraz Javed
successful organization is one in which the goals of the organizations are achieved,individuals are satisfied and they are more likely to be productive. Individual and organization enters into some kind of Psychological contract. This contract is implemented by the organization through assigning tasks to individuals, imposing certain obligations on individuals to perform their duties efficiently and by subjecting the employees to authority system etc. From his side, individual tries to put in his ability, loyalty, hard work and commitment to influence positively organizational objectives. As a result of interaction between individual and the organization, fusion Process takes place. Thus, individuals enter or form organizations with many expectations and goals; they expect a good return from organizations. Organizations expect individuals to make contribution to achieve its own goals.
184 The Indian Capital Market An Overview, Asst. Prof. (Dr.) Bansi R. Shah
Capital market plays as significant role as money market in the national economy. A developed, dynamic and vibrant capital market can immensely contribute for speedy economic growth and development. The present paper highlights of the working and the performance of financial markets and stock exchanges worldwide. It also covers the functioning of Indian stock market too. The Indian stock market is one of the top most stock exchanges worldwide and it registers the remarkable growth as time passes. In the present paper the researcher has tried to explore the performance of India in the field of financial market worldwide. The working, control and position of all stock exchanges in India have also been studied in the present paper.
185 Different Data Mining Techniques Involved in Heart Disease Prediction: A Survey, K. THENMOZHI, P. DEEPIKA, M.MEIYAPPASAMY
Data mining is used to convert through very large amount of data for useful information. In Data Mining, some of the most important and popular techniques are used. Those are Classification, Clustering, Prediction, Sequential patterns and Association Rules. Heart disease is the term that assigns to a large number of medical conditions related to heart. These medIcal conditions are used to describe the abnormal conditions of health that directly influence the heart and all its parts. This paper aims at analyzing the various data mining techniques introduced in recent years for heart disease prediction.
186 An Analysis Process of Sugar Recovery and Production Dependency on Soil Testing and use of Fertilizers, Dr. Sudhakar D. Bhoite
A cane sugar mill is a factory that processes sugar cane to produces raw or white sugar. India has been known as the original home of sugar and sugarcane. The Indian sugar industry uses sugarcane in the production of sugar and hence maximum number of the companies. Sugar recovery is the most vital economic indicator of any sugar factory. It indicates the sugar production from per metric ton of sugarcane. A soil test is the analysis of a soil sample to check nutrient and contaminated content, composition, and other characteristics such as the acidity or pH level. A soil test can determine fertility, or the expected growth potential of the soil which indicates nutrient deficiencies. Soil testing is used to facilitate fertilizer composition and dosage selection for land.
187 Node Localization in Wireless Sensor Network using Pollination based Optimization, Lovepreet Singh, Sukhpreet Kaur
Accurate location of each ode is highly desirable to achieve high performance of WSN and various optimization techniques are used like as Particle Swarm Optimization, Biogeography Based Optimization, Pollination based algorithm for the optimizes location determination of nodes in WSN. In this paper we have proposed PBO to determine the optimized location of target node. Here the nodes that get localized in iteration act as anchor node. A comparison of the performance of PBO& Hybrid (BBO&PSO) in terms of number of nodes localized,localization error and localization time,end to end delay, end to end loss ratio is presented..
188 Water Crisis in The Country Bringing Tsunami to Indian Economy, Jhanvi Khanna
India has been an agrarian economy which depends extensively on adequate water supply for its cultivation.But today this essential requirement of water supply is getting scarce and country is still dependent on monsoons which are both irregular and inadequate. Due to this scarcity our economy is getting trapped in the vicious circle of economic problems and thus hindering the economic growth and development of the country
189 Job of Primary School Teacher in Uttar Pradesh: A Profession By Chance Not By Choice, Deepa Awasthi
In recent years researchers have pointed out that low quality of Primary level education is the main reason for downfall in overall education level of country. State Government of Uttar Pradesh with the help of Government of India have done its outmost effort in improving Quality of education at primary level but most of the effort were based on providing infrastructure in schools, opening new schools, recruitment of teachers etc. Although teacvher5 plays an important role in our education system yet none of the effort were directed toward the welfare of teachers, they remain neglected assuming that satisfaction of teachers do not affects the quality of education. Although their salary have been increased as per 6th pay commission but in absence of some allowances and facilities such as medical reimbursement facility, transport allowance, absence of new pension scheme etc, it failed in bringing satisfaction among primary school teachers employed in Government primary school run by Basic Education Council of Uttar Pradesh. With the help of survey this research paper will try to focus on the problems of primary school teachers and reasons behind these problems.
190 A Correlational Study of The Variables of Instructional Strategies - Modular And Multimedia- on Achievement in Relation to Cognitive Styles and Achievement Motivation At The Secondary Stage, Dr. Avanish Kumar
The investigation was carried out on a random sample of 500 students of 9th class of secondary/senior secondary schools of Chandigarh. The teaching material consisted of some concepts of English and the lesson Plans were prepared through the techniques of Modular and Multimedia Instructional Strategies. Two different modes of Instructional Strategies were developed. These modes pertained to the use of Instructional Strategies Modular and Multimedia. For the purposes of the present study both these modes were combined into one format. The other variables consisted of the Cognitive Styles and Achievement Motivation. The effect of teaching through Modular and Multimedia Instructional Strategies was observed on the Achievement of the students. The results revealed that the intercorrelation coefficients among the variables of Instructional Strategies, Cognitive Styles, Achievement Motivation and Achievement were positive and significant at .01 level of confidence.
191 Information and Communication Technologies: A Need for Curriculum Reform for Students With Learning Disabilities in Nigerian Schools, Eskay, M. (Ph.D.), Ezeudu, F. (Ph.D.), Aniodo, D. A. (Ph.D.)
The present revolution in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) necessitates a total overhaul of inclusive schools and special education curriculum to reflect the change. Most schools and service delivery systems for learners with learning disabilities now adopt the use of ICT. Hence, there is urgent need to integrate ICT to special education curriculum in order to train special education teachers who can stand the test of time.This paper highlights the need for reform ofspecial education curriculum. Various changes brought about by ICT in special education curriculum, advantages of ICT, the training models, strategies, skill acquisition for effective operations. It highlights the various challenges of integrating ICT to special education curriculum and finally suggests some strategies that could be adoptedfor effective reform and integration of ICT to special education curriculum.
192 Review on Health Needs of Learners With Special Needs (Lsn) in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Eskay, M. (Ph.D.), Ezeudu, F. O. (Ph.D.), Aniodo, D. (Ph.D.)
With the global focus on 2015 and the MDGs, this paper highlights with life circumstances of learners with special needs (LSN) in sub-Saharan Africa, showing how investments in LSN can help achieve the MDGs. This paper is an investigative survey into the status and challenges of health of sub-Saharan Africas LSN. The result of this survey reveals that about 420 million (half of the entire population of the countries in this region are younger than 18. Young women here face a dual threat of unplanned pregnancy and risk of HIV unequalled in the rest of the world. Young men also face myriad challenges, including coping with the environmental degradation occurring in many of their countries. The realization of personal goals for these young women and men, and the economic and social development of their countries; depend to a great extent on the ability of learners with special needs to avoid unintended outcomes. This paper aims to provide educators, science educators, policymakers, programme managers, and the interested public in sub-Saharan Africa and around the world with a better understanding of the health needs and experiences of LSN in the region. It presents statistical data and information on the health issues and challenges that militate against achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as it affects the LSN are highlighted. Recommendations are based on how investments in learners with special needs (LSN) can help achieve the MDGs.
193 Design Control System of Pitch Angle Wind Turbine Horizontal Axis based Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA), Ali Musyafa, Akhmad B. Fauzi
Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) is one of the alternative energies developed from the use of small-scale wind wurbine.WECS capacity is less than 10 kW. Indonesia winds changing and relatively low. To overcome these problems required the control system of wind turbine pitch angle. In this study designed a control system of wind turbine pitch angle based imperial Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The control system is expected at varying wind speeds, can provide rotor angular velocity remains stable and working at optimum area. ICA is a novel evolutionary algorithm to optimize a system inspired from competition rule (imperial Competition). Optimization for ICA-based control system designed using ITAE (Integral Time Absolute Error) as the objective function in determining the PID control parameters. The results showed ICA-based PID control responds well to all set point tests, and the test results set point 10 peps provide the best response when compared to a higher set point. With Kip, Kid, and Kid sequentially 1:49, 3:13 and 0:03 gave the maximum overshoot (maximum overshoot) 11:30% with down time (settling time) for 1.85 seconds and quantitatively ITAE=0.42 for 10 seconds.
194 The Relevance of Information Technology in the Context of Food Security and Environmental Degradation as a Global Issue, Angana chakraborty, Ananya Banerjee
Contribution of livestock towards global food security cannot be denied, but environmental issues associated with livestock production needs immediate attention. Application of innovative approaches in nutrition, breeding, management, and knowledge of information technology are required to be adhered to reduce emissions from animal facilities. The compassion in world farming suggests that policy makers should look afresh at the whole issue of how we should rear animals for food in ways that protect the nutritional needs of people, the livelihoods of farmers, the welfare of farm animals and the global climate and environmental degradation.
195 Quantifying Automobile Emissions, Hariom Maheshwari
Limitation on access to data and resources to collect the necessary data has limited the institutional capacity to develop information baselines. There are various models available having varying level of complexities, which allow cities to develop their inventory. However most of these models are data intensive, only delaying the process of building a baseline. This paper endeavours to highlight various simple methods to quantify emissions from vehicles using commonly available data with local authorities. These methods are not alternative to existing established models. The aim of this research paper is to jump start the analyticalprocess in order to establish a robust information baseline based upon which effective decisions could be taken to reduce automobile emission significantly
196 Spare Additional Confinement in Spiral Arrangements, Ioannis A. Tegos, Theodoros A. Chrysanidis
The research reported in this paper is directed towards the experimental determination of the stress - strain cur?e of concrete confined by spiral and rectangular ties. The experimental study involved the testing of 4 cylindrical (150/300mm), 4 prismatic (150x150x300mm), 8 prismatic (150x300x300mm) and 2 cubic (300x300x300mm) specimens corresponding to different confinement provisions. From each category, two additional unreinforced specimens were constructed in order to demonstrate the improvement of the strength of the confined test specimens against the unreinforced ones. Specimens were subjected to uniaxial compression.
197 Application of Multi-Objective Reconfiguration to Reduce Losses in Distribution Networks and Improve Power Quality Parameters, Mehdi Hedayati, Hossein Barjouei Roshan Pour
In this paper multi-objective reconfiguration of distribution network is performed to minimize real losses and improve power quality parameters. At first problem solve by using genetic algorithm method. Selection of weight coefficient in this approach is difficult and time consuming, therefore to fix this problem, Strength Pareto Evolutionary programming (SPEP) is used.in addition to this methods to investigate the constraints and restrictions of objective functions of the reconfiguration problem such as a radial distribution networks and transmission power to whole loads. Graph theory and adjacency matrix corresponding to the distribution network were used. Proposed methods were performed on 33 bus IEEE distribution system and observed SPEP method gives multi answers which user can select best answer based on his/her experience.
198 Seismic Vulnerability of RC Buildings by Considering the Effect of Shear Wall, Mr. Syed Owaise Showkath Peer, Khalid Nayaz Khan
Shear walls are often introduced in multistoried buildings to resist lateral forces when frame systems alone are insufficient. The term shear wall as used for elevator shafts, stairwells and central core units, in addition to plane walls. Analysis for lateral loads of buildings containing shear walls is generally carried out by assigning all lateral loads to the shear walls, since it was felt that the very big difference in stiffness between the shear walls and the frame would cause the shear walls to accept the total lateral loads. Adding structural walls is one of the most common structure-level retrofitting methods to strengthen existing structures. This approach is effective for controlling global lateral drifts and for reducing damage in frame members. Shear walls resist two types of forces, shear forces and uplift forces. Shear forces are generated in stationary buildings by accelerations resulting from ground movement and by external forces like wind and waves. This action creates shear forces throughout the height of the wall between the top and bottom shear wall connections.
199 Methods To Process Isolation of Vam/Am Fungi in Vascular Plants Roots and Rhizosphere Soil in Jaipur District (Raj.), India, Ajay Pal, Sonali Pandey
Vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi include among its members some of the majority widespread root symbionts species. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) are present in the roots of almost all vascular plants. These common, soil-borne fungi belong to the family, the Endogonaceae and generate fungal structures in the cortex of the roots. VAM play a decisive role in the mineral nutrition of plants by transferring phosphorus and other mineral deposits from the soil to the plant. Techniques for obtaining VAM samples from natural sources from cultivated land (summer and winter crops) around the Jaipur district are outlined. Methods of isolating spores, staining and clearing root samples and of identifying the fungal structures are discussed.
200 Signal timing optimization: A case study of Loni Intersection, New Delhi, Hariom Maheshwari
The rapid pace of urbanization has led to proliferation of automobiles in urban areas. Exponential growth of automobile has caused phenomenal increase in traffic congestion at most of the intersections. In this paper attempt has been made to consider Loni square formed by intersection of Mangal Pandey Marg and Loni road, in the North Eastern part of Delhi. Loni intersection lies in Zone E of Delhi Master Plan - 2021. Presently the intersection suffers major setback in terms of its efficient and safe traffic operation, resulting in traffic congestion, substantial long queue, vehicular delay and increase in pollution. In order to ensure smooth movement of traffic and pedestrian safety, various alternatives were worked out in order to optimize signal timing and prevent delay
201 Flexural Behavior of Multi-Layer PUF Cored Sandwich Beams, Mohamed Aqhil Ahmed M.A, Mir Safiulla, Irfan Pasha
lexural behavior of PUF cored sandwich beams made up of multi-layered core of different layer density were studied numerically using most versatile analysis tool i.e. FEM/ANSYS. To rate the performance of these structures, many engineering parameters such as face sheet stress (?f), core shear (?) beam deflection (y) were considered. To pursue this task, a three layered core model with different layer configurations was generated and analyzed under 3-point bending. All the models were simulated at constant beam length, width, mid span loading with similar and identical face sheets. Various layer configurations (layer density) were examined and an attempt was made to identify the best layer configuration that can perform better under flexural loading. Foremost of above, the analyzing tool i.e. FEM/ANSYS was validated using bench marks. From the present investigation it is evident that for a given multi-layer configuration, layers of foams of increasing densities from bottom to top face can perform better under flexural load.
202 A New Review on H.264 Video Coding Standard, L.C.Manikandan, Dr.R.K.Selvakumar
We give a review on H.264/AVC video coding standard. We use diagram to show the encoding and decoding process. The aim of this review is to provide the succeeding researchers with some constructive information about H.264 video coding, those who are interested in implementing video codec in H.264.
203 Effects of Feeding Different Levels of Proteins on the Mortality in Khaki Campbell Ducks During Starter Stage, S. K. Joshi, S. K. Sahoo, L. K. Babu
The present study was conducted on the 225 unsexed day-old Khaki Campbell ducklings in the Regional Centre, CARI, Bhubaneswar during the period between March to June, 2013. The ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups viz. T1, T2 and T3 supplemented with 18, 20 and 22 per cent crude protein and three replicates in each group to study the effect of feeding different levels of proteins on the performance of the ducks during starter stage. It was found that the mortality ranged from 2.67 to 4.00% during first four weeks of age (0-4 weeks) and 2.67 to 6.67% during next four weeks of age (4-8 weeks). The overall mortality (0-8 weeks) during the experimental period was low in T1 with 18% protein diet (5.33%) compared to T2 with 20% protein diet (9.33%) and T3 with 22% protein diet (9.33%). It can be concluded that with increase in the supplementation of protein in the Khaki Campbell ducks during the starter period significantly impact the health and productive traits of the birds by significantly increasing their mortality and thereby decrease the overall economic status of the farm.
204 The Role of Teacher in English Language Communication Skills Laboratory, B. Balaji Reddy, Dr. S. Krishnaiah
In the era of Information technology, where the world is increasingly becoming a global village, and English becoming a global language, it is expected from everyone to have Effective Communication Skills, especially from Professional students. Keeping the huge importance of English language in the mind, many universities have introduced ELCS laboratories for professional courses to the extent possible. The language laboratory plays an important role in the language learning process which focuses on student-centred learning. The main objective of the English lab is to prepare the students for campus recruitment and making the students to enhance their LSRW skills. The teachers role is that of a facilitator of learning. By being creative, innovative, and designing many useful activities the teacher of English will undoubtedly motivate and encourage the students to learn English language in an easy manner. The Role of English teachers also includes removing the fear of speaking in English and assisting students in developing more positive perceptions of communication activities. The present paper of mine discusses in detail the active role of English teacher as a motivator, diagnostician, counsellor, soft skills trainer.
205 Wear Behavior of Aluminium 6061/Sic/Gr Metal Matrix Composites -An Overview , R.Sindu, M.Vamsi Krishna, Dr.M.Anthony Xaviour
Evolution of metal matrix composite has evoked towards hybridization in the study of composites. The custom made characteristics of MMCs can be designed according to the usage. From this potential, the desired conceptions of the designer are fulfilled by the metal matrix composites. Because of their high wear resistance and intensity level to weight ratio the Al/Al alloy based Metal Matrix Composites have been widely employed as a backup material in structural, automotive and aerospace technology. The objective of this paper is to review the Wear behavior of Al matrix based MMC with different reinforcements and various parameters such as load, speed, sliding distance, etc. Sic based MMC offers great resistance to wear because of its self lubricant property
206 Study of Cottonseed Oil and Maize Oil Biodiesel as a Fuel for C I Engine, AMOL. PATIL, H M DANGE, VISHAL PATIL
Experimental study of performance and emission characteristics has been done with methyl ester of cotton seed oil and its blends (5%B,10%B,15%B, 20%B,25%B, 30%B,100%B and %, 50%, 60%, 80% and 100%B) with diesel. and study of performance and emission characteristics has been done with methyl ester of maize oil and its blends (5%B,10%B,15%B, 20%B,25%B, 30%B,100%B with diesel on single cylinder, four stroke, Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Diesel engine study is conducted at different compression ratio. Performance characteristics include brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, specific energy consumption aAfter experimentation we conclude that, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency of cottonseed and maize oil as compared to diesel is same at higher compression ratio but vary when compression ratio decreases, also at lower compression ratio maize oil blend create more sound pollution than diesel. Fuel consumption of diesel is less as compared to cottonseed oil and maize oil methyl ester blend.
207 Metrics for Measurement of Service Replicas in Grid Environment, P.SunilGavaskar, Ch.D.V.Subbarao
The important requirement in data grid environment is replicas utilization. In general replicas are used as proactive (i.e. failure considered before scheduling of a job) and post active handles the job failure after it has occurred. We used centralized and local replicas within agents. In this paper, we address the probabilistic models of Fault tolerance, communication, efficiency and reliability of simple job submission. We have shown an autonomous, self adaptive agents model to model replicas in distributed environment for long execution of jobs. The applicability of the proposed agents architecture in data grid is able to setup some parameters of replicas such as centralized and local replicas search rate with mean time failure and number of objects used in it. The search values of centralized and local replicas are measured when computing happens. The Metrics used for search value are number of replicas, replication objects with different states and processing capability. The metrics we considered are to reduce complexity in search rate of replicas due to their huge computing and storage capabilities. On the basis of centralized and local replicas search value we predict the unreliable agents computing model as result of that we can increase computing reliability or we can avoid unreliable model into computing. Hence we showed an autonomous, self adaptive agent model in order to reduce service failures of replicas in large scale distributed environment.
208 Pedestrianisation of an Urban Area: A Case Study of Nagerbazar, Kolkata, Hariom Maheshwari, Soumya Mondal
Nagerbazars transport crisis has been exacerbated by deteriorating public transport services, limited and outdated transport infrastructure, sharply rising motor vehicle ownership and use, and a wide range of motorized and non-motorized transport modes sharing roadways. In Nagerbazar non-motorized modes of transport and public transport/para-transit constitute a significant proportion of trips. Due to poor and unreliable supply of public transport, the share of private automobiles is ever increasing. Growing number of automobiles has increased congestion, travel delay and accidents. To reduce these negative externalities both public and non-motorized forms of transport has to be given importance. It will be difficult to increase the share of NMV and public transport unless these modes are made much more convenient, safer and reliable. This article summarizes Nagerbazar's transport system and travel behavior, analyzes the extent and causes of the most severe problems, and recommends policy improvements that would help mitigate Nagerbazar's transport crisis. Key Words: Non-motorized modes, Public transport, Traffic congestion, Pollution, Safety
209 Design and Performance Analysis of Ann Based Hybrid Pid Controller for Liquid Level Control System, G.v phaneendar, kumar I Srin u, Dr. K Satyanarayana
In general, PID controller is designed to suit for offline conditions based on certain algorithms put in the process. But controllers used in online conditions are unable to reject the nonlinear disturbances which occur in the system during entire range operation. In order to overcome this drawback in conventional design, this paper proposes an intelligent approach like Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for disturbance rejection in the system by designing the controller in online conditions the PID controllers gains are altered i.e. online in accordance with the disturbances to reject .The proposed intelligent PID controller design method is based on pessens tuning algorithm for rejection of different disturbance. To validate the proposed method, a liquid level control of a process tank is considered and an intelligent PID controller is designed using the Artificial Neural Network .The designed intelligent PID controller is simulated under different disturbances using MATLAB/Simulink and results are successfully verified.
210 Heat Transfer Characteristics Study on A Water To Water Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger using Effectiveness NTU Method, P.RAVEENDIRAN, Dr.B.SIVARAMAN, Dr.K.SRITHAR
This paper presents the heat transfer characteristics of a water-to-water heat-pipe heat exchanger (W-W HPHE) experimentally. Methanol (CH3OH) is used as a working fluid. The analysis is based on the effectiveness (?) NTU (number of transfer units) approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. The experiment was carried out with various mass flow rate of water, inlet temperature of water in the evaporator section and heat input (Q) to the heat exchanger. The mass flow rate of water to the evaporator section varied from 30 lph to 60 lph, while in the condenser section it has been varied in the range of 10-60 lph. The mass flow rate of water in the condenser section has been altered in the ratio of 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2, 1:2.5 and 1:3 as that of evaporator section. Several experiments were carried out under different operating conditions by varying the heat input to the heat exchanger from 1 kW to 4 kW. By varying the heat input to the heat exchanger, it is found that the inlet temperature of water to the evaporator section is varying in the range of 50-800C. In this study, the variation of overall effectiveness (?) of W-W HPHE with heat capacity ratio (Ch/Cc) was presented and the effect of mass flow rate of water to the evaporator section and inlet temperature of water to the evaporator section were analyzed. The effect of mass flow rate of hot water to the evaporation section with respect to the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) also determined. It was shown that minimum effectiveness of W-W HPHE took place at Ch = Cc. Therefore equal value of mass flow rate of water in the evaporator and condenser section should be avoided. The optimum effectiveness is obtained when Ch = 2Cc for all heat inputs and mass flow rate of water to the evaporator section.
211 Bionomics of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella Occidentalis Pergande on Rose, H.G. KANARA, M.F. ACHARYA
A lab trial was conducted during 2012-13 at Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, JAU, Junagadh to study the bionomics of rose thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Laboratory studies revealed that the female laid their eggs in the leaf tissues by sharp ovipositor. The average incubation period was found 5.28 day. The larva passed through two distinct instar and average duration of each instar was 1.72 and 4.76 day, respectively. The total larval period was on an average of 6.48 day with the total pupal period of 3.96 day. The average pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition period were 3.12, 32.68 and 4.20 day, respectively. The number of progenies produced by a single female varied from 28 to 69 with an average of 58.8. The average longevity of male and female was 21.60 and 42.36 day with entire life span of 25.52 and 48.40 day, respectively. The sex ratio of male to female was worked out as 1:1.73 at a constant temperature of 25 1C
212 Alterations in Growth and Physiology of Wheat to Lead (Pb) Stress Under Soil Culture , Gurpreet Kaur
The present study was conducted to obtain quantitative information about the translocation of lead (Pb) in a soil culture experiment with wheat. The solutions of lead nitrate (500, 1000 and 2500 M) were applied to achieve stress conditions in comparison to unstressed, water treated control variant. Plants were exposed to Pb solutions for 7 days under experimental dome conditions and various observations were recorded. Growth parameters, such as root length, shoot length and dry weight, exhibited a significant decline with increasing Pb treatment. In addition, the level of photosynthetic pigments decreased upon exposure to Pb in a linear manner. These results suggested manifestation of Pb-induced stress, which was confirmed by reduced Photochemical Efficiency of PSII (Fv/ Fm). After 7 days of treatment, malondialdehyde accumulated in the range of ~11-38% with respect to control over 500-2500 M Pb exposure. Further, superoxide dismutase activity increased with increasing concentrations. On the other hand, a significant decline was observed in guaiacol peroxidase activity in wheat roots in a concentration- dependent manner. The study concludes that short-term Pb treatment alters growth and physiology of wheat grown under soil culture.
213 Historical Landscape Structures of the Agricultural Slovak Landscape, Zita Izakovi?ov
In the last period the Slovak agricultural landscape went through vivid changes, which have conditioned in arising of new problems such as agricultural subjects decomposition, changes of agricultural structure, leaving the agricultural land, declining of the intensity of agricultural production, negative influences of leaving agricultural grounds on landscape biodiversity, overmultiplying of synantropic species, increasing pressure on occupation of agricultural soil as a result of increasing pressure on enforcement of particular invested contemplations. All of these changes are also reflected on the changing landscape structure and landscape character of the agricultural landscape. The original traditional agricultural landscape is gradually changing to an artificial intensively used landscape. The paper is focused on the evaluation of the traditional agricultural landscape and specification basic landscape types of historical landscape structure of the Slovakia.
214 Enzymatic Bioremediation: Global Scenario of Environmental Cleaning, Vikram Singh
Pollution is the biggest menace to the living being on this planet today. The pollutant eradication through exploiting the enzyme potential by using the various techniques is being revolutionized in the present global scenario. Enzyme bioremediation is a breakthrough technology that has the potential to offer numerous benefits over conventional technologies. Enzyme bioremediation have greater positive effects and propose significant promise to pollutant bioremediation. In conclusion, the enzymatic bioremediation open the new era of pollutant eradication for clean, safe and green environment.
215 Reverse Osmosis: A Source to Zero Discharge of Effluent in Waste Water Treatment, Dr. N. N. Bandela, M. G. Babrekar, Dr. I. B. Ghorade
The present study investigated the potential of the selected bacterium, a natural Bacillus Subtilis isolated from the soil which was found to be more useful in degrading the Dimethylformamide (DMF) based effluent generated in pharmaceuticals industries. On the assessment of physico-chemical parameters like pH, Turbidity, COD, MLSS and ammonia released during the degradation process. DMF degradation was estimated in the form of reduction in the COD. Continuous increase in turbidity and biomass was also observed during the treatability study. During study it is reported that 70-80% reduction in COD and 7-20% increase in MLSS was recorded, which indicates the degradation of DMF
216 Village Level Detailed Relief Map Preparation Using SRTM Data and GIS in Kolli Hill, Tamil Nadu, India, Gurugnanam.B, Kalaivanan.K
Detailed Relief information up to village level is prepared in the present investigation for Kolli hill, Tamil Nadu, India. The Kolli hill is a part of Central Tamil Nadu region and is taken up for the present investigation. The large scale data derivation is extracted using the contour data. The complete contours were traced from the Survey of India Totopsheet. The maps were registered in ArcGIS and the height values were given as an input in GIS. The attribute data information is added to prepare the relief information of the hill. The village boundary information is extracted from the Taluk map of the study area. The boundaries were digitized and overlaid to assess the relief variation in the study area. The results show that the relief is varied from 1200 - 900 m in the entire Perakarai Nadu, northern and southeastern parts of the study area. Similarly, the relief variation is extracted for all the villages.
217 The Use of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYS) in Estimating the Burden of Brucellosis in Kuku Dairy Scheme, Sudan, Tamador Elkhansaa Elnour Angara
Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were used as a measure to evaluate the impact of the morbidity caused by brucellosis. The use of such non- monetary index has the advantage of avoiding the potentially ethically or morally troublesome task of having to place a monetary value on human health and life. DALYs calculations was based on the fact that brucellosis is a non fatal disease. So the YLL part of DALYS goes to zero. Brucellosis was not included in the world disability weight tables so the estimate of 0.2 disability weight was based on Roth et al., (2003). The healthy years lost by a person as a result of Brucellosis in Kuku Scheme that accounted 7.5 DALYS. The study confirmed the endimicity of brucellosis in the scheme and the non monetary burden of producers health was estimated.
218 An Evolution of the Carry Angle of an Elbow Joint: A Radiographic Study, Ms.WinnieciaDkhar, MrSushilYadav, Mr Suresh S, Ms Susanna Pradhan
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the elbow carrying angle of the elbow joint by radiographic examination in normalchildren and adult inorder to determine the range of normality according to age and skeletal maturity proposing a simple and reliable method for measuring it.Carry angle is considered as the secondary sexual character. The distal end of the humerus and the proximal end of ulna plays a major role in the formation of Carrying angle and has been examined for sex difference. The measurements of the humerus (Trochlear angle and Inclination angle of Olecranon fossa) and also the three measurements of the ulna (Olecranoncoronoid angle, length and width of inferior medial trochlear notch) were devised for the study. The humeral angles failed to prove any sexual difference, but the angle and dimensions of ulna exhibited significant result[1]. The present study also devised the correlation of carrying angle with the length of the forearm and the height of the person.The carry angle of the elbow should also be considered in the construction of elbow prosthesis and identification of skeletal remains. This paper aims at using the advanced measurement software in Digital Radiography (DR) and Computed Tomography (CT), the carrying angle being measured on radiographs, the use of the advancedpostprocessing software in DR and CT. This paper also aims to provide information that Medical Imaging and Radiography plays significant roles not only in diagnoses of pathologies but also in Forensic Radiography, where radiographs are taken for age, sex determination ( for example,medical legal cases, age retirement, adolescence age for marriage etc.).
219 Protecting the Body Against the Harmful Effects of Stress through Dance, Ganciu Mihaela, MihaiuCostinel
The Dance Therapy offers a holistic approach to healing, that addresses both body , the mental and emotional state of the person. Knowledge of the individual solutions and strategies for the prevention and removal of negative implications of stress becomes necessary current. This paper aims to present the role that it plays in the fight against stress. In preparing the paper the following research methods are used: sociological survey questionnaire based on self- assessment of stress-Cohen and directed call, statistical and mathematical methods, as well as graphic representation method. The experiment was conducted over an academic year in a group of 50 subjects who participated in two lessons per week and an individualized program of self -employment. The talks have shown interest in the development of female students for dance therapy with health benefits. The most important physical effects felt after practicing dance are : increased self-confidence , increase self-control capacity , reduction of anxiety . Dance therapy lowers the score in the final testing of the questionnaire for self- assessment of stress : if in the initial testing 6,4 % of the subjects were highly stressed, at the final testing only 1.2 % were still included in this category. The conclusion is that the subjects with high stress scores on initial testing had lower levels of stress at the final testing ,which proves that dance is an effective prophylaxis and treatment of stress.
220 The Effects of using Biofeedback Technologies on Students Perceptions of Stress, Health, and Problem-Solving Behaviors, Susan Stockton, David Mc.A Baker
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of two software programs (alone and combined) on health, perceived stress and problem solving among college students.One hundred twenty four University students were recruited (August 2012) from general education health and psychology courses to participate. All four groups participated with pre-posttest instruments. Control subjects only involvement with the study was with the pre-posttest instruments. In addition to pre-posttest instruments, intervention groups were instructed to practice ad libitum with heart-based, i.e., cardiac awareness (em group-Institute of HeartMath), voicebased(E group-Zyto Corporation) or a combination of cardiac awareness and voice (emE group) biofeedback-biocommunication software programs. Pre-posttest instruments used were the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II, ?=0.94), the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale (RSES, ?=0.91-0.93), and Problem-Solving survey (PS, ?=0.77). Significant differences were identified.
221 Agraharas in Dharwad District, Dr.Jagadeesh Kivudanavar, Santhoshkumar K.C.
Ancient India had the tradition of 'Gurukulas'. Under this system students have to live at the 'Ashram' (abode) of the teacher and get the education. This form of the education is known as 'Guru-Shishya Pramapara'. This was developed in the Agraharas. At that time, education was treated as a matter of personal concern and it was not at all emphasized on mass production like modern education industry. Ancient Education System in India is also to be understood as being ultimately the outcome of the Indian theory of knowledge as part of the corresponding scheme of life and values. From the ancient times Dharwad district played a very important role in imparting different branches of knowledge. There were many educational institutions enjoyed royal patronage. In this paper an attempt has made to trace out the history of Agraharas in Dharwad district.
222 Trial and Trumpets of the Rural Panchayat, Dr. S. Rajalakshmi
India will be rich if the villages of India are rich. Panchayat Raj has been said to embrace a totality of ideas such as a. local self government, and agency of government, a development mechanism and so on. Panchayati Raj leadership can play an important role in the interaction between tradition and modernity and also as an educative role in rural development. The commitment, dedication and involvement of elected leaders can play a vital role in educating the rural mass because the majority of the people are illiterate and are ignorant about their welfare should be given greater power Leadership has a pivotal role in the working of Panchayati Raj institutions. They are the eyes and ears of the rural people. It is the uppermost responsibility of every leader to work for the welfare of the people. Leadership should have the capacity to influence people to cooperate towards common end and also to create conditions of collective response Leadership play an important role in shaping the socio-economic and political structure of any society. (Varma etal,2006). Hence the present study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the work carried out by the panchayat president. The data was carried out by the panchayat president. The data was collected through personal visit and field study. The investigator established the rapport at odanthurai panchayat and approached president and conducted interview. The evidence obtained from panchayat records, boards displayed at work sites. A case study method was adopted. The investigator visited odanthurai panchyats from 1999 till date.
223 In the name of God Theory-based law (lex fori) Anglo-Iranian legal system, Dr. Homayoon Maf, Mehdi Rahmani
Theory-based law by German and French authors (Kahn and Bartyn) was introduced in 1980. This theory was accepted by the British courts. According to this theory, the initial trial of the case in accordance with its domestic law, examines the relationship factors. Original jurisdiction means the jurisdiction of the courts of the place of residence is dealt with in rights and international law as a principle has been accepted. Headquartered jurisdiction in cases such as those described in relation , bunch of non-related subject of dispute with one of the association and civil liability also applies in some cases. The procedure, how to reason and how to convey notification to collect the sum and securities law is consistent with the provisions of the court in these cases, the Hague Convention on jurisdiction of the Court endorsed the headquarters. Relational system of private international law to determine the applicable law provides that the court may judge that can be divided into two categories: (1) factors related to the contract, and (2) factors related parties. Factors associated with the contract are fulfilled location, location, contract signing and the closest connection. Factors related parties are as follows: residence, place of residence and place of business. This paper examines the question of the jurisdiction of that court to Where and in what cases the courts are bound to enforce their own domestic law irrespective of foreign law say?
224 Lease Securities: a Tool for Financing Stock Companies, Dr. Sam Mohammadi, Mehdi Rahmani
The aim of this paper is to review the lease securities as a new and efficient instrument to finance the stock companies. In this regard, first we explain the nature and structure of these lease securities and study their characteristics. Afterwards bonds and corporate bonds are evaluated and compared with lease securities while their defects and flaws are examined. At the end, the issuing of lease securities as an efficient tool and proper alternative to conventional bonds and corporate bonds is emphasized.
225 An Overview: The Legal Facets of Women Trafficking in India, Sarthak Pattnaik
Trafficking in women is one of the worst manipulations of human rights. Anyway it is exceptionally hard to gauge the scale of trafficking is nearly identified with child labour, bonded labour, Child marriage, abduction and kidnapping and prostitution despite the fact that these phenomena can exist also independent of trafficking. This has subjected to investigate the nature, causes, modes and volume of trafficking in a nation that has turned into a vulnerable objective for trafficking. India has neglected to follow certain international standards to battle the crime. There is a need to create a multidimensional approach and centresfor consideration on structural variables of trafficking for suggesting significant schemes to counter the social abhorrence.
226 Access Variations to E-Resource Pertaining to Science, Arts and Vocational Genre in the Libraries of Chennai Region, B. Mahalakshmi, Dr. K Sridhar
The study aimed at finding the access variations to e-resources pertaining to Science, Arts and Vocational genre in the libraries of Chennai region. For this study a questionnaire was framed and distributed among 100 regular visitors of the libraries in Chennai region, out of which 80 were returned. It includes the aspects like purpose of visiting the library, types of services provided by the library and users satisfaction level of library services. The present Paper examines the existence of various E-resources, awareness about E-resources, preference to E-resource format, Access points of e-resources, problems faced while accessing the E-resources, user satisfaction of Science, Arts and Vocational genre population in the libraries of Chennai region.
227 Love and Legacy: Toni Morrisons Song of Solomon, Dr. Bh.V.N.Lakshmi
Love and hatred are perennial themes for every writer worth his ink and they equally fascinated the readers down the ages. What is love?, why one loves? and why one loves? are the questions that battered the brilliant minds for a long time. For Shakespeare love is not times fool, for John Keats love is the ultimate truth as he said, Beauty is truth, truth is beauty and for M. K. Gandhi love is God. Love, Truth and God serve as synonyms and whoever wanted to pen something, cannot escape them. Love or its absence constitutes the whole of our world literature. Toni Morrison is no exception. Her master work Song of Solomon is perhaps the greatest novel ever written by Afro-American which has a close affinity to Alex Haleys Roots. The protagonist, Milkman, in a transcendental stage finds himself metamorphosed discovers his identity, ancestral legacy and capacity for love and joy and learns to fly without ever leaving the ground.
228 A Study on the Influence of Leadership Styles and Competency on Performance in the Manufacturing Industry, Mrs.Shalini Sundar
The major objective was to determine influence of leadership styles and competency on performance of fabric manufacturing Industries at Tirupur, Tamilnadu, India. Major leadership styles were considered for the study. The data were collected from 55 fabric manufacturing industries. A sample of 188 project leader/manager was considered purposely for the study. The study was descriptive and found that Democratic Leadership, laissez-faire Leadership, Transactional Leadership and Servant Leadership are significant and having positive effect on organizational performance, which reveals the employees freedom of work, little supervision and cordial relation with the leaders. Competency has a positive and significant influence on the organizational performance.
229 A Study of Training and Development Practices Adopted by BSNL, Prof. Ekta Talwar, Dr. Neha Sharma
Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing particular job .The training is to acquire new skill, technical knowledge, problem- solving, etc. Training improves the performance of employees on present jobs and prepares them for taking up new assignments in the future. Training also helps in the development of the employees. The main objective of the study is to identify the Training & Development Practices adopted by a Public Sector Undertaking - BSNL that has an impact on employee performance.
230 A Study on Emerging Opportunities & Challenges Towards E-Banking System in India, Ms. Megha Arunkumar Jain, Dr. G. H Barhate
E Banking in India is still in the early stages of growth and development. Competition and changes in technology have changed the face of Banking. The changes that have taken place impose on banks tough standards of competition and compliance. Electronic banking is the use of computer to retrieve and process banking data and to initiate transactions directly with a bank via a telecommunication network. In other words-banking is the wave of future. E Banking is likely to bring a host opportunities as well as poses new challenges for authorities in regulating and supervising the financial system and in designing and implementing the macroeconomic policy This paper aims to present A Study on Emerging E-Banking opportunities & challenges in India.
231 HRM Strategies & Issues with Reference to Uae Market Practices, Sayera Mohmand
Basic HRM issues in UAE are acquiring employees, developing employees, motivating them and retaining employees. Acquiring Employees is very important issue in HRM as the selection of correct employee directly affects performance of the whole organization. The main alternatives existing in international management is based on Perlmutters (1969) early work on ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric managerial perspectives and behaviours (Doherty, L., Klenert, A, & Manfredi, S, 2007). Emiritization or host country nationals employment is one of the main key issues in private and public sector both.
232 Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy and Continuation of Business of the Small Scale Entrepreneurs in Tansidco, Coimbatore, Dr.N.Brindha, A.Abirami
The study conducted with entrepreneurs of TANSIDCO, Coimbatore, to find out the level of Entrepreneurial Self Efficacy and the relationship of that with their intension in continuation of their business. Fifty two entrepreneurs responded and the structured questionnaire with the selected variables was used and the through interview schedule the data collected. Search, Planning, Marshaling, implementing in personal and finance were taken in ESE. Their continuity intension of business measured with their future plans of the business in profit increasing, expansion and innovative or creative ideas in crises management, and passion towards their business. The level of self efficacy and the relationship between ESE and the intension in retaining in the business was analyzed. The results were predominant towards the objectives.
233 A Study on Employee Engagement in the Indian it Sector: An Overview, Dr. Sneha Mankikar
The HR managers are laying the path map for the right working conditions which would inspire the employees to be engaged give their best go their extra mile and persist in the face of difficulties. The challenge faced by the management is therefore not just in retaining the talented employees but in engaging them. Thus HR coined the term Employee Engagement when the organization takes measure for an engaged workforce the profit and the efficiency spikes. On the other hand disengaged workers are typically impassive in the job or organization they work for. As a result their competence decreases their disapproval increases and their poor attitude spread like a virus throughout the organization. In a decent economy these employees typically find a new manager where they recuperate interest and their productivity spikes until they become disinterested six months later.
234 Comparitive Study of Various Methods for Solving Transportation Problem , Dr S.Kumaraguru, Mr. B. Satheesh Kumar, Mrs M.Revathy
In this paper Various method are compared for finding an optimal solution. The methods are NWC, LCM, VAM, NMD and Zero Suffix Method all gives an optimal solution. In this paper the best optimality condition has been checked. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the condition.. The Simplex method is not suitable for the Transportation Problem especially for large Scale transportation problem due to its special Structure of the model in 1954 Charnes and Cooper was developed Stepping Stone method for the efficiency reason. An Initial Basic Feasible Solution(IBFS) for the transportation problem can be obtained by using the north-west corner rule row minima, Coiumn minima, Matrix minima and Vogels Approximation Method [Reinfeld and Vogel 1958,Goyals version of VAM ..Kirca and Stair developed a heuristic method to obtain an efficient initial basic feasible solution. Sudhakar etal proposed zero suffix method for finding an optimal solution for transportation problem directly in 2012
235 Clinical Study of Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery, Dr Prabhakar gawandi, Dr Jadhav C A, Dr M A Shinde
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1) To study the incidence, the efficacy and safety of attempted vaginal birth after previous one cesarean section.2)To study the maternal and perinatal outcome in vaginal birth after previous one cesarean section. Method. All women with previous one cesarean section for non-recurrent indications admitted in labor room of our hospital during the period from November 2011 to August 2013 were studied. RESULT Out of 727 patients 67.26% delivered vaginally and 32.74% required repeat cesarean section due to various reasons. The rate of successful VBAC is significantly more in patients with H/O prior vaginal delivery. There was more no. of patients delivered vaginally when the previous indication was abnormal presentation Rate of cesarean section was more when the previous indication was failed induction Conclusion we concluded that trial of labor after one cesarean section should be undertaken in selected patients in well equipped hospitals. Vaginal delivery is much safer than repeat cesarean section.
236 Usage of Mobile Phone among Medical Students in Ahmadabad Gujarat, Dr. Dhara Prajapati, Dr. Swarna Rastogi, Dr. Rachana Kapadia, Dr. Chhaya Lakhani, Dr. Rajshree Bhatt
Background: Mobile phone holds the great importance in everyday life. Mobile phone and internet usage have become universal practice especially among the student community. Mobile Phone usage has both pros and cons .This study focused on the cell phone usage among medical students in an urban setting in Gujarat. Methods: 330 medical students participated in the study. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect data and analysis was done using MS Excel and Epi Info. Results: Out of the total 330 sample, 119 male and 211 female from first ,second and third year MBBS and Post Graduate students . In 59% of the students, Age of initiation of phone usage was around 17 to 19 years. 86.36 % of students had smart phones. 37.88 % students spent Rs.100 to Rs 250 per months.
237 Fanconis Anaemia in Newborn Rare Presentation, Dr. Hemant Jain
Fanconi's anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with pancytopenia, congenital anomalies and chromosomal instability. Identification of the disease at birth is based on charecteristics physical malformations, as hematological menifestations at birth is very rare. Only very few cases were identified in the first month of life and reported in the world literature. We report a case of fanconi's anaemia in a newborn. Who presented with right radial ray defect, absent left kidney, left lumber region herniated sac and mild thrombocytopenia.
238 Study of Peripheral Blood Smear Examination with Hemoglobin Estimation in Pregnant Women Attending The Antenatal Clinic, Dr. Amit Agravat, Dr. Gauravi Dhruva, Dr. Khyati Mehta, Dr. Nisha parmar, Dr. Rutvi Dave
Background: Anemia is defined as decreased hemoglobin level, or circulating red blood cells and it is the most common hematological disorder during pregnancy. There are different types of anemia commonest being iron deficiency anemia which affect mostly pregnant and lactating women and children in developing countries. Present study was conducted at P. D. U. Hospital, Rajkot. Aims and objectives : 1) to find out the prevalence of anemia of different types, 2) to grade the severity of anemia, 3) to detect any other abnormality. Methods : In Present study, 100 pregnant women attending antenatal out patient department, obstetric and gynecology department were selected as subjects. After taking detailed history (including age, gravid status, trimester status, chief complains), preliminary blood tests like complete blood count by automated cell counter (nihon kohden) and peripheral smear examination was performed. Results : Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were selected. Total 100 pregnant women of 15 to 35 years of age have been studied. Among them, 48 (48 %) women were anemic. Out of 100 women, 36(36%) women were having hypochromic microcytic peripheral blood smear, 1(1%) woman was having normochromic macrocytic peripheral blood smear and 63(63%) women were having normochromic normocytic peripheral blood smear. Among 100 women, 39 women were having 1st trimester pregnancy, 40 women were having 2nd trimester pregnancy and 21 women were having 3rd trimester pregnancy. Among those having 1st trimester pregnancy, 23(58.97%) women were having normochromic normocytic peripheral blood smear, 15(38.46%) having hypochromic microcytic peripheral blood smear and 1 (2.56%) was having macrocytic peripheral blood smear. Among those having 2nd trimester pregnancy, 30(75%) women were having normochromic normocytic peripheral blood smear, 10(25%) women were having hypochromic microcytic peripheral blood smear. Among those having 3rd trimester pregnancy, 10 (47.61%) women were having normochromic normocytic peripheral blood smear and 11 (52.38%) women were having hypochromic microcytic peripheral blood smear.
239 Study of Operative Results of Complex Fractures of Distal End Femur Treated by Locking Plates, Dr. Kushal V. Shah, Dr. Sagar B. Sharma
Distal femur fractures for years have remained an unsolved problem in orthopedic trauma. The introduction of distal femur locking plate based on the internal fixator principle has been a welcome change that has brought about a drastic change in the management of these fractures. We present our experience with distal femur locking plate in the managemen of distalfemurfractures . We have done a retrospective study of 40 patients with distal end femur fractures operated during the period of 2009 to 2013 at our institute. There were 30 males and 10 females with maximum number of patients in more than 20age group. The mode of injury was RTA 90%and falls 10.there were closed fracture 55% and open fracture 45%.The fractures were classifiedas A3 (20%), C1(15%), C2 (27.5%), C3 (37.5%). Thetime interval between injury and surgery was 2 days .. The ROM at the end of the follow-up period was 120 in 50% of our patients The use of DFLPin fractures of distal femur in our study seems to be associated with a good functional outcome and early recovery as it provides for early mobilization and rehabilitation and is associated with good results. DFLP is definitely helpful in those comminuted C3 fractures which were earlier associated with poor results when other implants were used. The use of DFLKP in these conditions results in improved outcomes.
240 Caesarean Scar Pregnancy, Dr. Manasi Patnaik, Dr. Dasharatha Murmu, Dr. Swetapadma Mishra, Dr. Subhra Samantray
We present a case where a diagnosis of missed abortion on USG ( in a case of caesarean scar pregnancy ) led to torrential haemorrhage during MVA (Manual Vacuum Aspiration) and the uterus had to be sacrificed to save the mother.
241 An appraisal of topic based integrated learning program in 1st MBBS students of Ashwini Rural Medical College., Dr. Prafull Kamble, Dr. Vandana Kamble, Dr. Anjali Gosavi
Anatomy and Physiology are considered to be the core subject as far as basic medical sciences for medical undergraduates is concerned. A multi-disciplinary integration was established and a topic-based leaning module was introduced and conducted for the first time in our institution, Ashwini Rural Medical College, Hospital & Research Center (ARMCH&RC), Solapur. Our study was designed to introduce horizontal integration for 1st MBBS students onto a topic of Pancreas which was planned, integrated and conducted in our institution by the Departments of Anatomy and Physiology. A pre-ILP and post-ILP MCQ exam was conducted, to assess the effectiveness of the new integrated learning program. Students feedback was collected and analyzed. 92% of students agree that integrated to be more interesting, 78% agree integrated lectures to be less confusing, 94% agree that integrated lectures help them to understand the topic better than traditional teaching and 91% agree that integrated lectures help them in answering questions in their exams. 79% have agreed to implement current practice of integration. Thus an integrated learning program is feasible within a conventional medical curriculum of an Indian medical college.
242 Oncocytic Variant of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Parotid Salivary Gland A Rare Case Report, Dr.K.R.Umadevi, Dr.J.Srivani, Dr.Ezhilvizhi.A
Here we present a 50-year-old female who came with a painless mass gradually increasing in size in the left parotid gland since 3 months to our Surgical OPD. With the help of CT ,Ultrasound and FNAC we came to a conclusion pf Parotid Neoplasm. She underwent Superficial Parotidectomy and the specimen was sent to Histopathology and diagnosed as Oncocytic variant of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Oncocytic metaplasia in salivary glands is a benign change that is associated with increasing age and also seen in a few salivary gland neoplasms', which include oncocytoma, Warthin's tumor, and the rare, oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytic cells comprised the majority of this low-grade lesion and demonstrated granular cytoplasmic phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin staining as well as strong immunohistochemical reactivity to antimitochondrial antibody. Oncocytic differentiation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is uncommon.
243 Prevalence of Various Thyroid Lesions in Kanchipuram District, Chennai, Tamilnadu., Dr.K.R.UMADEVI
Background: In Kanchipuram District places like Kundrathur,Poonamalle, Mangadu little is known about the prevalence of Various Thyroid lesions. Objective is to determine the causes of Thyromegaly in this area. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 Patients who came with Thyromegaly or nodule in Thyroid were included in this study.For all of them FNA and Partial or Total excision of Thyroid gland was done. Cytopathological, Gross,and Histopathological study were carried out for all cases. Age ranged from 16 years to 60 years with a mean age of 38 years. Results: Of the 200 cases 156 were females and 44 were males Majority of the patients had Diffuse or Nodular Hyperplasia of the Thyroid where as few had malignancies. Prevalence of benign causes of Thyromegaly can be easily tackled in the community . Conclusion: Diffuse and Nodular Hyperplasia along with Colloid nodule contributed to 82% of Thyromegaly. Summary Despite its limitations, FNA biopsy is extremely helpful in the diagnosis of many thyroid conditions, including goiter, thyroiditis, and neoplasms. In fact, FNA biopsy is the best test available for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions, One of the most difficult problems for the pathologist is to be confident that a follicular adenoma - usually a benign nodule - is not a follicular cell carcinoma or cancer. In these cases, it is up to the physician and the patient to weigh the option of surgery on a case-by-case basis, with less reliance on the pathologist's interpretation of the biopsy. It is also important to remember that there is a small risk (3%) that a benign nodule diagnosed by FNA may still be cancerous. Thus, even benign nodules should be followed closely by the patient and physician.
244 Frequency, Etiology and Timing of Unexpected Sudden Deaths in the Intensive Care Unit: A Single Center Retrospective Study, Kerem Erkalp, M Salih Sevdi, Sitki Nadir Sinikoglu, Funda Gumus, Zehra Yangin, Aysin Alagol
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of unexpected sudden mortalities (USMs) observed at an intensive care unit (ICU) in terms of patient demographics and frequency, etiology and timing of deaths Methods: A total of 1424 patients who admitted to ICU between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in this retrospective study conducted at a 20-bed capacity ICU that works as closed system within a 345-bed training and research hospital. Of 1424 patients, overall mortality was determined to occur in 249 patients (mean(SD) age: 60.4(22.4) years, ranged 1-105 years, 57.0% were females) including 19 patients with USMs during ICU hospitalization. Patients with mortality (overall, USMs and expected mortalities) were evaluated in terms of data on patient demographics, reasons for referal to ICU, predictable mortality scores of APACHE II and SOFA, admission diagnosis, type of admission as well as the time period (08.00-17.00 or 17.00-08.00) and the day (weekdays/weekend) of deaths. Results: USM was noted in 7.6% of patients (mean(SD) age: 68.5(24.8) years, 52.6% were males). Main reasons for ICU admission were postoperative surgery (26.3%) and pulmonary disease (21.1%). Overall, most of USMs was determined to occur on weekdays (73.7%) and within 17.01-08.00 oclock (63.2%). Hypercarbia and severe asidosis (31.6%) secondary to airway problems and endotracheal tube obstruction with secretion (21.1%) were the two common factors likely to underlie USMs. Mean(SD) age (p=0.015), SpO2 (p=0.000), heart rate (p=0.036), body temperature (p=0.000), mean arterial pressure (p=0.012) and length of stay at ICU (p=0.009) were significantly higher, while APACHE (p=0.036) and SOFA (p=0.001) scores were significiantly lower among patients with USMs compared with patients with expected mortalities. Conclusion: The present single center restrospective study revealed that USMs constitute approximately 7.6% of overall mortalities in ICU, while occurring almost invariably occur due to failure to maintain a secure airway and thence could be avoided.
245 Successful Treatment of a Pregnant Patient Followed Up in the Intensive Care Unite Due to Brain Abscess, Meltem TURKAY, Banu Karakus YILMAZ, Mehmet Salih SEVDİ, Hatice DOGAN, İsmail GERGİN, Aysin ALAGOL, Kerem ERKALP
Though brain abscess is observed rarely in pregnancy, it is a complication that may result in a poor prognosis for both mother and baby. Its symptoms are usually nonspecific; however, central nervous system findings such as headache, attack, neurologic anomalies and changes in consciousness may also be observed. In this study, we aimed to present a 26-year-old patient, pregnant for 24 weeks, requiring mechanical ventilation support in the intensive care unit due to brain abscess, who was successfully treated. For similar cases, a multidisciplinary approach and an early and adequate antibiotic treatment are required.
246 Microsatellite Chromosomal Instability in Bladder Cancer Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus, Kamel Zaki Hemmaid, Amira Awadalla, Hassan Aboelenin, Abdelaziz Hussein, EssamElsawy, Mai B Mohammed, Abd El-Rahman, Nabawy Zekri
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of HCV infection on MSI in cancer bladder. Tissue samples from 100 (50 HCV infected and 50 non-HCV infected) patients (aged 17- 89 years). Surgical specimens were obtained by radical cystectomy of bladder tumors. The frequency of MSI +LOH in D9S162 locus (40%) was higher than that of D9S171 locus (34%). Moreover, there was positive correlation between HCV infection and MSI in D9S171 and D9S162 loci 9. LOH and MSI of D9S171 and D9S162 loci were more frequent in cancer bladder tissues than normal tissues as well as the frequency was higher in HCV infected patients.
247 A Case Report: Liver Abscess in 3 Year Child With No Pre-Existing Medical Illness, Dr Aakash Rathod, Dr Shashank Desai
Although much is known about the pyogenic liver abscess, the gold standard of investigations and treatment is still debatable in developing countries in the paediatric population.Liver abscess in the paediatric age group is uncommon in developing countries, except in cases of septicemia, children with major debilitating diseases, granulocyte dysfunction, or immunosuppression. We report the case of a 3-year-old child from India, with no medical history, with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant& pyrexia, tachycardia & tachypnoea. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a large,hypo dense, non-enhanced area in segment V& VII. Final diagnosis was pyogenic liver abscess based on negative serology, recent liver lesion, blood culture was negative. A percutaneous aspiration under anaesthesia was performed after 3 days of intra venous antibiotic treatment.Cultures of pus isolated E. Coli. She was started on oral antibiotics according to culture.Ultrasound showed a gradual decrease in size of cavity & complete resolution 9 months later. Even if liver abscess is uncommon in developing countries, the diagnosis must be raised in cases of isolated SOL in liver with fever. Management modality should be chosen depending on the abscess location and first day's progression between intra venous antibiotics, percutaneous aspiration, and exploratory surgery.
248 Serum Lipids and Lipoprotein (A) Levels in Psoriasis, Dr K.P. Latha, Dr Anil Kumar .A.S
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with an increased cardiovascular risk profile with multiple underlying factors. Psoriasis has been associated with abnormal plasma lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] has been implied in cardiovascular disease and has been reported to be elevated in patients with psoriasis. The present study was to determine the serum lipid disturbances and to assess the significance of Lipoprotein (a) levels in subjects with psoriasis. 30 patients with psoriasis in the age group of 15 to 75 years were studied and compared with 30 healthy controls matched in terms of age, gender and body mass index. Serum TC, TG, VLDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio levels were significantly higher in the psoriasis patients compared to controls. LDL-C was higher and HDL-C was lower respectively in the cases compared to controls, with the difference which was statistically insignificant. Patients with psoriasis showed significantly higher serum levels of Lp(a) compared to controls. Thus Patients with Psoriasis could be considered as a high risk group for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases because of susceptibility in lipid profile, Lipoprotein content and increased oxidant stress.
249 Serum Tissue Non Specific Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme Level in Chronic Periodontitis Patients, Dr. Gopu Chandran Lenin Perumal, Prof. Dr. Senthil Kumar, Prof. Dr. Mythili .R, Dr. Subashini Suyambukesan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the levels of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in serum of healthy individual and in chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 20 individuals. 10 from healthy individuals and 10 from chronic periodontitis patients. The samples were used to determine the tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme (TNSALP) level.Results:Evaluation and comparison of the tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase isoenzymeactivity between the control and chronic periodontitis patient group showed a decrease in tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase levelamong chronic periodontitis patients. Conclusion: The measurement of tissue non specific alkaline phosphatase level in serum can be considered as an enzymatic assay for evaluating the severity and progression of chronic periodontitis. This might provide useful information if monitored successively over a period of time.
250 Study of Behavior and emperament of the Eldest Son or Eldest Daughter of the Parent Suffering From Bp, Dr. Kuldip Kumar, Dr. Kishore Arya
Parents with Bipolar Affective Disorder (BPAD) have significant effect on their children who may experience problems in multiple areas of functioning. The present study evaluated the gender based variations in the behavior and temperament of the eldest son or eldest daughter of sixty three BPAD parents, by Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) and Temperament Measurement Schedule (TMS). Both the eldest son and the eldest daughter of parent with BPAD are at risk and exhibit significant pathological deviations in their behavior and temperament (CBCL mean score 94 v/s 33; TMS mean score 42.83 v/s 84.17, p-values >.001). Hence it is prudent to have early scrutiny and interventions in such vulnerable children.
251 Assessment in the Level of & Solids (Various Lipoproteins ) in Disease Corneal Eye (Dry Eye) as Compared to Normal Through Chod-Pod Method of Visual Colorimetery, Tandon Anupama, MS, Omar Balram, MD , Panday Achyut, MD
Aim- Main aim was to find out lipid layer of the tear film as the main cause of dry eye in the patients aged 41-60 yrs in tropical and subtropical areas in North Rural India Materials and Methods: Study Design : Observational comparative. Methodology:50 subject including 25 cases of dry eye and 25 (N) Cases serving as control were taken between February 2009 and November 2012 with a minimum follow up of 6 months , ages between 40 to 60 yrs. were included .Complete history and diagnostic evaluation & findings in each visit were noted. Treatment protocol and results were noted.Sturdy maintained cold chain was done to get accurate results.Management of cases was done accordingly. Results: There were 25 cases of dry eye aged 41-60 years in which lipoproteins were estimated. Among subgroups(41-50yrs) ,(51 -60 yrs) all parameters were significantly higher for age group 51 to 60 yrs except LDL. But with the same age group all the parameters were decreased in dry eye cases with the main role of HDL and LDL .5 cases were treated with punctal occlusion and cyclosporins. Apart from lubricants and gels used in all patients, the disease went into remission .Only one case was a failure in which visual acuity dropped with positive Rose Bengal stain and a increase in IgG/IgM levels was found Conclusion :Dry eye Syndrome is a chronic condition and has no real cure. It is apparently a benign condition with an intractable course. Punctal occlusion combined with cyclosporine A drug therapy with maintenance of cold chain can be an effective treatment in severe dry eye in rural areas.
252 Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Mandible of a Child: A Case Report and Review of Literature, Dr Harjit S Kalsi
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is rare benign lesions of bone which are infrequent in craniofacial skeleton. ABCs are characterized by rapid growth pattern with resultant bony expansion and facial asymmetry of the face. We describe a case of ABC in an 11 year old female patient affecting the left side of the face with skin infection on the affected side.The lesion is expansile from the body of the mandible with expansion and thinning of the buccal and lingual cortical plates extending to the left side condylar region. Treatment consisted conservative surgical enucleation of surgical curettage of the lesion. A 6 month follow- up showed restoration of facial symmetry and complete healing of the involved site.
253 Recent Scenario of Most Common Aerobic Bacterial Isolate from Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Saurashtra Region and its Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern, Dr. Asha Mandalia, Dr. Bhoomi Rathod, Dr. Harsh Dalwadi, Dr. Neetu Mundra, Dr. Madhulika Mistry, Dr. Y. S.Goswami
Introduction: A Prospective study Recent scenario of most common aerobic bacterial isolate from Diabetic foot ulcer in saurashtra region and its Antibiotic sensitivity patter was carried out in tertiary care hospital, Rajkot. Total 60 patients were studied. Material and Methods: swab samples were collected from the diabetic foot ulcers and they were processed for culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: out of 60 patients studied 98 organisms were isolate, from which 86 isolate were gram negative bacteria and out of 86 there were 24 Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was the predominant isolate. Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcer infection is polymicrobial in nature and bacteria are multidrug resistant. And use of broad spectrum antibiotic leads to easy survival of resistant bacteria.
254 A Prevalence Of HIV, HBV and HCV In Patients of Thalassemia, Dr. Payal Soni, Dr. Nisarg Trivedi, Dr. Parevee Shah, Dr. Dipa Kinariwala, Dr. Sumeeta Soni, Dr. P. K. Shah
Introduction : Thalassemia is one of the commonest inherited hemolytic disorder.1 Mainstay of management of thalassemics is 2-4 weekly packed red cell transfusion.Most common complication is transfusion transmitted infections.2The aim and objective of study is to determine the prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in thalassemia major children.2 Materials and methods : Present study was done at a tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, India from July 2012 to December 2012. Blood samples of 136 patients attending thalassemia clinics collected and tested by ELISA methods. Observations and results : A total of 136 thalassemic children (86 male) and 50 female) were tested.No one was HIV Positive, 2 (1.47%) were positive for HBsAg and 28 (20.58%) were positive for HCV. Incidence of anti-HCV seropositivity increases with no. of transfusions. Conclusion : Incidence of HIV and HBsAg has decreased due to mandatory screening of blood bags and vaccination of Hepatitis B.Screening of donor for HCV should be done by better recent techniques.
255 Research Paper: Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Dyspepsia, A Prospective Study, Dr. Ronak R. Modi, Dr. Krushna R. Modi
Dyspepsia, also known as Upset Stomach or Indigestion, refers to a condition of impaired digestion. Common causes of dyspepsia include various upper gi pathologies. Helicobacter Pylori is now believed to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer disease and gastritis. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, along with biopsy, is the efficacious way to diagnose underlying organic pathology. This prospective study was done on 240 patients and biopsies were taken as and when required in 108 patients. The main endoscopic diagnoses were duodenal ulcer disease, erosive duodenitis, and erosive antral gastritis. Abnormal endoscopic findings were present in 77.5% of the cases, while 22.5% were endoscopically normal. Identification of H. Pyloriwere made in gastric biopsies of 26 (76.47%) out of 37 patients with erosive gastritis and in 31 out of 35 patients with duodenal ulcer disease (87.5%). H. Pylorimay prove to be an important etiological agent in the pathogenesis of chronic erosive gastritis and non-ulcer.
256 Hypervitaminosis-D, an Uncommon Reality!, Dr. Z. H. Mansuri, Dr. B. C. Kaji, Dr. S. Dumra, Dr. H. N. Buch
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in India. This has set off a trend amongst medical practitioners to prescribe vitamin D supplements empirically. Whilst this approach is generally safe, in predisposed individuals it may lead to hypervitaminosis D. Here we present a case where empirical use of high dose vitamin D supplementation had serious consequences highlighting the need to use vitamin D therapy judiciously and to remain vigilant for side-effects in high-risk individuals.
257 2, 4 - Dinitrophenol Toxicity-Bound Mortality in Patients Doing Bodybuilding, Meltem Turkay, Abdulhalim Karayel, Emin Uysal, Mehmet Salih Sevdi, Kerem Erkalp, Aysin Alagol
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) intoxication is a condition that may result in mortality together with uncontrolled hypothermia and epidemic muscle rigidity. In excessive doses, hyperthermia, tachycardia, excessive sweating, tachypnea, acute renal damage, confusion, agitation, convulsion, and coma may be observed. DNP therapeutic index is a narrow agent. In acute and suicidal exposure, the oral lethal dose changes between 2,8 and 5 gr, and the average has been reported as 4,3 mg/kg. The dose taken orally by our patient who is known to be a sportsman doing body-building exercises is below the lethal dose of 1,8 gr. It must be taken into consideration that a patient can be lost even if the dose is below the lethal dose and adequate support treatment is applied.
258 Immediate Effects of Single Session Post Isometric Relaxation Muscle Energy Technique Versus Mulligans Bent Leg Raise Technique on Pain and Hamstring Flexibility in Knee Osteoarthritis Participants: A Randomised Controlled Study, P. Ratan Khuman, Lourembam Surbala, Priyanka Patel, Dhara Chavda
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects 3346% of Indian adult with the consequence of pain, reduced function and restriction in daily activities. In this study, single session of post isometric relaxation muscle energy technique (PIR-MET), Mulligans bent leg raise technique (BLR) and MH alone were compared on pain and hamstring flexibility in knee OA. 90 participants were selected and randomly allocated into three groups (PIR-MET+MH; BLR+MH and MH alone, n=30 in each group). Visual analog scale and active knee extension test (AKE) were recorded at baseline and immediately after interventions. PRI-MET and BLR group were significantly effective (p0.05). BLR group was more effective compare to PIR-MET and MH alone. In conclusion, a single session of PIR-MET and BLR technique were capable of reducing pain and improving hamstring flexibility in knee OA.
259 Is it Possible to Predict the Difficulty of Third-Molar Surgical Extraction?, Mario Vicente-Barrero, Mara Sacramento Bocanegra-Prez
The goal of this study was to identify a factor or a group of factors, which can be used in daily clinical practice to predict the difficulty of third-molar (M3) surgical extraction. Here we present a prospective cohort study conducted on 100 patients consecutively referred by their primary health care dentists. Six preoperative radiological variables were analyzed in order to identify which ones could be used for preoperative evaluation of surgical difficulty on the basis of surgical time (ST) and osteotomy time (OT). Statistical analysis showed that the M3 position relative to the anterior border of the ramus (ABR) and the Winters distance (WD) were enough for preoperative estimation of ST and OT. This finding renders evaluation of other parameters described in the literature unnecessary
260 A Study of Quality of Life and Psychological Well Being In Patients of Vitiligo, DR RANA RAMNEEK SINGH BRAR, DR (PROF) ROHIT KANT SRIVASTAVA, DR (PROF) C S SHARMA
The chronic nature of disease, long term treatment, lack of uniform effective therapy and unpredictable course of disease is usually very demoralizing for patients suffering from vitiligo.Although the disease does not produce direct physical impairment, it may considerably influence the quality of life and psychological wellbeing of the patients. The disease burden includes stigmatization, depression, and impaired quality of life, lack of self-confidence, embarrassment and self-consciousness. With this background a cross sectional hospital based study done in vitiligo patients .They were assessed on GHQ-30, HAD and DLQI. We found more than 82.8% having depression and anxiety on HAD Scale and lot of significant impairment as reflected on GHQ and DLQI. This study indicated that a comprehensive care is needed for vitiligo patients.
261 A Study of The Results of Double Plating for The Fixation of Fractures of The Lower End of Humerus in Adults., DR DHAVAL R MODI, DR .RUKESH R PATEL, DR KAUSHAL R ANAND, DR GYAN TRIVEDI, DR JWALANT C MODI, DR GEORGE MATHEW KOSHY
Distal humerus fractures in adults are injuries which are highly demanding, and complex because of metaphyseal comminution in the fracture, articular involvement with small fragments, limited subchondral bone, osteoporosis and difficult anatomy and approach to the joint. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES study the results of fractures of the lower end of humerus in adults, treated by the double plating technique in terms of the final range of movement of the elbow, the union time , rate of complications. Materials and method we retrospectively reviewed a series of 24 adults who underwent double plating for the distal humeral fractures at our institute. Results:results were considered in terms of union ,complication ,mobility , implant used, duration of stay,MAYO elbow performense score,varus valgus stability. Conclusion: Two established plating techniques (orthogonal and parallel plating) have yielded excellent outcomes after open reduction and internal fixation. We recommend operating the distal humerus fractures in all cases with ORIF by double plating, focusing on the AO principles, even in the presence of osteoporosis.
262 Vas Deferens Calculus: A Case Report, Dr. Ankita Agarwal, Dr. Ajinkya Patil, Dr. Ibrahim Kothawala
Vas Deferens (Ductus Deferens) is part of the male , which transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts, in anticipation of ejaculation. Vas Deferens Calculi are an extremely rare entity, hence it is difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis. Here we discuss a vas deferens calculus that was misinterpreted for a ureteric calculus and was diagnosed postoperatively on CT scan, after intra-op findings were confirmed, which showed no evidence of calculus.
263 A Histopathological Study of Intestinal Lesions, Dr. MEETA.G.NANAVATI, Dr. JITENDRA H. PARIKH, Dr .K.S. GAMIT, Dr. S.D.MODH
BACKGROUND The small intestine and colon account for the majority of GI tract length and are the sites of a broad array of diseases. The diseases of GIT are more common than any other system of the body .Some of them relate to nutrient and water transport. Intestinal neoplasm is a common form of neoplasm in India and world ever. It is a leading cause of death in the developed world, although more than half cases of carcinoma occurs in developing world. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the prevalence of various intestinal lesions in our institute. This heading shall give special emphasis in reference to the following two features a. To give site wise distribution of various neoplastic and non neoplastic lesions and compare its distribution. b. To give male to female ratio of various intestinal neoplasm and do comparision with various studies. 2. To correlate the study done in our institute with the studies done in nationwide, worldwide statistics of intestinal neoplasm. 3. To classify prevalence into benign and malignant lesions and to give the level of differentiation for the lesion wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHOD: During the period of seven months from October 2009 to april 2010,200 cases of intestinal lesions were received in department of histopathology in B.J Medical College were analysed with clinical and gross details and histopathological findings. CONCLUSION: Non neoplastic lesions are mainly found in small intestine while large intestine harbours most of the neoplastic lesions .among the neoplastic appendicitis was the most common while among the neoplastic adenocarcinoma was the most common .colorectum is the most common site of neoplastic lesion of intestine.4th and 5th decades shows maximum number of cases. There was also a higher incidence in male patients.
264 Baseline Widal Titre Amongst Healthy Individuals in Ahmedabad, India, Dr. Minesh G Vadsmiya, Dr. Hasumati L. Solanki, Dr. Vyoma Chudasama
Single Widal test always carries a risk of wrong interpretation as 4-fold rise in titres are required for confirmation so this study was carried out to determine the baseline Widal titre of community. Blood samples (n= 200) were tested by Widal slide agglutination test. Of the 200 serum samples, 110 samples were positive for agglutinins ( 1 ? in 20) and 90 are negative ( 1 ? in 20). However, 94% samples showed a titre which was equal to or less than 1 in 40 to the O antigen and 86% samples had a titre which was equal to or less than 1 in 40 to the H antigen of Salmonella typhi. Based upon the results of our study,the baseline titre for the O and H antibodies of S. typhi was found to be 1: 40.
265 Prevalence of HAV and HEV in The Patients Presenting with Acute Viral Hepatitis, Dr. Minesh G Vadsmiya, Dr. Hasumati L. Solanki, Dr. Vyoma Chudasama
Viral hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus is a major public health problem due to poor sanitation and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.[1,2] This study is carried out at tertiary care centre at Ahmedabad, India. 1768 samples were tested from suspected cases of viral hepatitis for Anti-HAV IgM antibody and Anti-HEV IgM antibody by ELISA. 275(16 %) were positive for HAV and 464(27%) were positive for HEV. In pediatric age group HAV infection(44.2%) is more common and in adults HEV infection is more common (29%). Co-infection were present in 97(5.64%). Co-infection was more common in 12 years age group(4.5%). Co-infection and super-infection usually cause complications leading to high morbidity and mortality.[11]
266 Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) versus Histopathology in Thyroid lesions., Dr. Sejalkumari M Ninama, Dr. Meeta Nanavati
Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is minimally invasive, cost effective and considered gold standard test for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Aims and objectives: An aim of our study was to co-relate the preoperative FNAC findings with histopathology of post-operative specimens and diagnostic pitfalls of the FNAC. Methods and materials: A retrospective study of 137 cases was done at pathology department; B J Medical college Ahmedabad from January-2012 to November 2013. The cases for which both cytological and histological diagnosis were available was selected. Fine needle aspiration results were compared with histological diagnosis following thyroid operation. Observation and Results: Cytological diagnosis showed benign lesion in 105 patients (76.6%) and malignant in 12 patients (8.7%). Histopathological findings showed benign lesion in 119 specimen (86.8%) and malignant in 18 patients (13.1%). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of our study to diagnose malignant lesions were 75%, 98.3% and 94.5% respectively. Conclusion: FNAC has evolved as an accurate, sensitive and specific tool for the initial screening of thyroid patients and reduced the need of un- necessary surgeries. However histopathological diagnosis is more confirmatory
267 A Study of Upper Respiratory Tract Pathology in Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Lesions, Dr.Umadevi.K.R
Aim: To Study the Upper Respiratory Tract - URT Pathology in Patients of Kanchipuram District with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Lesions and to find out the various causes for this lesions so as to take precautions to prevent them. Materials and Methods :A Total of 700 patients over a period of 2 years who underwent some surgical procedure due to URT Lesions were included in the study. Routine clinical examination and Laboratory investigations were recorded. Gross and Microscopic assessment of various surgical specimens were performed. Age: Age ranged from 5 years to 70 years with a mean age of 37.5 years. All 700 consecutive patients included in the study were both male and female and both children and adults. Results: Of 700 case 262 were Children,205 were Females,233 were Males. Majority of them had Non- neoplastic Lesions like Adeno tonsillitis,sinusitis,pharyngitis and laryngitis.2.3% is a malignant lesion. Conclusion:Non neoplastic and Neoplastic Lesions has increased due to carcinogenic pollutants of air mainly due to Vehicle exhaust, increased Tobacco usage and smoking
268 Assessment of Nutrition In Severly Ill Surgical Patients in Intensive Care Units, Dr. MAYUR M. KADAM, Dr. SATISH BABU. R
Background and Objectives Nutritional assessment of the critically ill is an accepted principal managing patients in the surgical intensive care units. Although various procedures are available to assess the nutritional requirements of individual patients there is no set protocol available to determine or predict the nutritional support of a critically ill surgical patient. This study addresses this issue of nutritional assessment in the critically ill patients. Methods : A prospective cohort study including patient who were admitted to the surgical intensive care unit. Nutritional assessment done for these patients using Subjective Global Assessment and anthropometry and those who received nutritional support were compared with those who have not receive nutritional support. Results Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is more reliable as compared to Anthropometry in assessing nutritional status of critically ill surgical patients Malnourished patients who received nutritional support have a better outcome as compared to those who did not, with a trend towards normalization of biochemical parameters (serum albumin) Conclusion : Nutritional assessment is important especially in the critically ill patients sensitivity to nutritional risk on the part of the physician may lead to identification of patients at risk for developing nutrition related morbidity and mortality. Using tools already at the physicians disposal, patients can be identified who would benefit from nutritional intervention. The nutritional assessment must include the understanding of the difference between malnourishment and dysmetabolism and their different effects on the patient. In summarizing the evidence, it appears that moderate to severely malnourished patients are most likely to benfit from nutritional support intervention.
269 To Evaluate Awareness of Essential Medicines, P-Drug Concept Among Clinicians in A Teaching Hospital, Santosh Kumar Banjara, Kavitha Devi Bhukya
Prescribing is a challenging task requiring knowledge of essential medicine (EM) and personal drugs (P?drug). Though the majority of clinicians recognize the importance of essential medicines, most of them have not been able to apply this knowledge in their medical practice. Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate awareness of essential medicines and p-drug concept among clinicians and sources of drug information. Settings and Design: A cross?sectional, questionnaire based study. Subjects and Methods: Study was carried out in 100 participants including faculty members and junior residents (JRs) in a teaching hospital. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was carried out using fishers exact test. Results: Nearly 90% participants were aware about EM, but only 77% prescribe them. Percentage is significantly higher in participants of age more than 30, having clinical experience
270 ''Evaluation of Major Aorto Pulmonary Collateral Arteries in case of Ventricular Septal Defect-Pulmonary Atresia''-Three Case Report, DR R HEMANTH KUMAR, Dr Nihaal Reddy, Dr Harpreet Singh, Dr R V Mali
Three cases of pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) were examined by computed tomography angiography (CTA) using 64-MDCT to reveal the anatomy and morphology of the pulmonary circulation. We have diagnosed the cases as PA-VSD type A, B & type C. These cases show that 64-MDCT can be used to provide clinical information for PA-VSD with the appropriate examination protocols and post-processing techniques.
271 Case Report of Orbital Oncocystic Carcinoma, Mirdehghan M. S., Seema C., Aluri B.
OC is an unusual proliferation of cytomorphologically malignant oncocytes with adenocarcinomatous architecture phenotypes mainly found in glandular tissue. A report of a rare occurrence of an adult case of orbital oncocystic carcinoma. A 52 year old male type 2 uncontrolled diabetic, presented with right unilateral eccentric proptosis. Left eye was unremarkable. Fundus, Colour vision, and Intra ocular pressure was normal in both eyes. Ultrasonography showed grade 1 prostomegaly and hepatic stenosis. On Orbital CT, heterogeneously enhancing lesion at nasal and inferotemporal quadrants surrounding the right globe and extending to the apex of right orbit, with superolateral displacement of the globe was noted. Fine needle aspiration cytology report from the mass was suggestive of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Patient underwent right orbital exenteration and right partial maxillectomy under GA. Histopathological features were in favour of Oncocystic carcinoma.
272 Duplicate Condylar Canal-A Case Report with Clinical Implications, DR.MEERA JACOB, DR. RAMAKRISHNA AVADHANI, DR.BINDHU.S, DR. RANI NALLATHAMBY, DR.MERIL ANN SOMAN
Posterior condylar canal is one of the largest and inconsistent emissary foramen in human skull. It can be single or multiple. It transmits posterior condylar vein and branch of ascending pharyngeal or occipital artery. During osteology demonstration class of undergraduate MBBS students, a skull was found to have a double condylar canal on right side .Knowledge of this anatomical variation is utmost important for clinicians,radiologists and anatomists.
273 A Study of Endometrial Pathology in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Peri Menopausal and Post Menopausal Patients of Kanchipuram District, Dr.Umadevi.K.R
Introduction: The endometrium is the sheet of cells that grows monthly to line the uterus. Normally, women naturally expel these endometrial cells during menstruation. In some women, however, the growth of cells becomes excessive, resulting either in flat or protruding growths, called endometrial polyps, or in a thickening of the endometrium, called endometrial hyperplasia. Hyperplasia can lead to cancer if not treated. These conditions may occur when a womans hormone levels are out of balance as her endocrine glands produce too much estrogen and not enough progesterone-like hormones that would normally work to counteract estrogens tissue-producing properties. Aim:To evaluate Endometrial pathology in abnormal Uterine bleeding in peri and post menopausal patients of Kanchipuram District consisting of Poonamalle,Kundrathur and Sriperumbudur. Materials and Methods: A total of 5oo cases of peri and post menopausal women attending Gynec OPD for complains of abnormal uterine bleeding who underwent Pipelle endometrial biopsy and Hysterectomy were included for our study. Age: women of 35 years to 65 years were included for our study and the mean age of study was 50 years. Results: 34.4% of the patients had proliferative phase of the Endometrium.41.1% of the patients had Simple hyperplasia without atypia. Conclusion: Thus hormone treatment in the form of oral contraception and ovulation stimulation for family planning to hormone replacement therapy in menopause, to adjuvant therapy of tumors of the breast and uterus play a major role in Endometrial pathology
274 An Extremely Rare Anatomical Variation Bilateral Canalissinuosus and Nasopalatineduct Cyst and Role of Cbct in Diagnosis, Emre KOSE, Ahmet Ercan SEKERCI, Emrah SOYLU, Sinan NAZLIM
Numerous surgical procedures such as placement of dental implants, surgical removal of impacted teeth, periodontal surgery, endodontic surgery, cyst enucleation/marsupialization, and orthognathic surgery are performed in the anterior maxilla which called premaxilla(Allard, Kwast and Waal 1981).With the increase in placement of dental implants and surgical procedures of oral pathologies, increasing numbers of complaints are beingreported due to injuries and failures involving vessels and nerves which cause postoperative paresthesias and hemorrhage.Canalissinuosus (CS) is a small branch of infraorbital canal and rare variation of anterior maxilla which has neurovascular structures. Therefore, it is important to recognize the presence of neurovascular bundles of the infraorbital canal and the odds of accessory canals that must be detected before surgery by imaging(Arx, Lozanoff, Sendi and Bornstein 2013). This report documents rare anatomical variation of bilateral CS and clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings of nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC).
275 Complete ossification of Superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) in dried human scapulae in Gujarat region: A risk Factor for Suprascapular nerve compression, Dr Ukti Desai
The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) bridges the suprascapular notch of scapula, converting it into a suprascapular foramen. The suprascapular nerve traverses through the suprascapular foramen and suprascapular vessels pass above the ligament. Often the STSL gets ossified leading to entrapment of the suprascapular nerve producing relevant symptoms. The entrapment of the suprascapular nerve by the ossified STSL may result in symptoms like pain in the shoulder region and also result in wasting and weakness of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Such a condition has to be differentiated from other conditions like rotator cuff tears. The purpose of present study was to find incidence of complete ossification of STSL in Gujarat region. 200 (Right-98, Left102) dried human scapulae were examined for the complete ossification of STSL. 3.5% (7 in 200) scapulae presented with completely ossified STSL (Right-4, Left-3). It can be one of the leading causes of suprascapular neuropathies.
276 Management of Unerupted, Horizontally Impacted Maxillary Central Incisor by Forced Eruption Method: A Case Report, Suresh K.S., Nagarathna J, Pravin K, Revathi M, Pooja S, Shruti
Ectopic eruption of permanent incisor is an unusual outcome of traumatic injury to their predecessors. In this case report, we describe the surgical-orthodontic management of the unerupted, horizontally impacted right maxillary permanent central incisor in a 10 year old boy
277 Pregnancy With Gynecological Pathology and its Obstetric Outcome, DR. JIMMY CHAUHAN, DR. VISMAY PATEL, DR. NIRMAM PATEL, DR. PAYAL PANCHAL , DR. SHITAL MEHTA, DR. BABU PATEL
BACKGROUND: A variety of coincidental gynecological conditions may present during pregnancy which may need to be dealt during the pregnancy itself. Data are conclusive that these pathology particularly uterine anomalies and some type of fibroids associate with adverse outcome like repeated pregnancy losses, repeated preterm deliveries, increased operative interference and many intra partum and post partum complications.. METHOD: Thisstudy was carried out 125 cases at tertiary health centre with in 2 years period. All patients with these gynecological pathologies known before pregnancy and conceived with that, also patients first time diagnosed during pregnancy, diagnosed at the time of delivery and in puerperium were included in study. RESULTS: In fibroid with pregnancy abortion (22.5%), preterm delivery (20%) and caesarean rate (55%) were quite high. In our study 50% patients had cervical dystocia and emergency Caesarean section in pregnancy with third degree uterine prolapse and procidentia. Out of 20 cyst diagnosed antenatally only 2(10%) were removed in 2nd trimester due to severe abdominal pain. From the 18 cases remaining in most of the patient (78%) either cyst resolved completely or decrease in size in follow up. In our study in uterine anomaly out of 112 pregnancies studies outcomes were: abortion (17.9%), ectopic (7.1%), PTD (24.1%) and term delivery (50.9%). Conclusion: Majority of fibroids do not change their size during pregnancy. Pain is the most common complication and symptom can usually be controlled by conservative management. -The increase use of ultrasound in early gestation has led to an increase in incidence of adnexal pathology. The majority of adnexal masses diagnosed in pregnancy is benign and will resolve spontaneously without invasive intervention. Pregnancy during uterine prolapse is possible and an elective caesarean section nearterm could be the safest mode of delivery!!
278 Prevalence of Lung Function Abnormalities in Petrol Filling Workers, Ravi B. Solanki, Anjali R. Bhise, Dr. Jagdeep C. Jadav
Background Petrol filling workers are exposed to petrol and diesel vapors during there working hours. Air pollutants from motor vehicles and surrounding area can have additional deleterious impact on respiratory hygiene of petrol pump workers. Hence purpose of present study was to assess the Prevalence of altered pulmonary functions in petrol-pump workers Methods A cross sectional observational study was conducted at 33 randomly selected petrol pumps of Ahmedabad city. Total 215 non smoker petrol filling workers undergone for pulmonary function testing. Spirometry parameters measured were FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR and FEF25- 75. Results Overall prevalence of Lung function abnormalities was 42 %. Prevalence of small airway obstruction was highest (40 %). Prevalence of obstructive, restrictive and mixed type of impairment was 2 %, 32% and 17 % respectively. Results also showed that there was no association between presence of lung function abnormalities and duration of exposure. Conclusion Study concludes deleterious impact of air pollutants and petrol/diesel vapors on pulmonary function of petrol pump workers. Results suggest need for control measures and strategies to improve and protect respiratory health of petrol pump workers.
279 Shade Matching in Aesthetic Dentistry: An Overview, Dr. Manu Rathee
In the recent year, marked raised in patients aesthetic expectations has been noted and in replicating the appearance & optical properties of tooth structure requires careful selection of dental materials & control over the form, surface texture, translucency, and colour of the restoration. With the availability of ceramic materials, a minimally invasive restoration such as porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) can be prepared with adequate strength and can successfully be cemented with resin cements. Resin cements are generally used for the cementation of all--ceramic restorations. Since ceramic material and resin cements are produced by several manufacturers in varying shades, a marked effect is noticed on the final colour-match of the PLVs especially the high translucency ceramics. This paper discusses the various factors that finally modulate the colour-match of PLVs with adjacent natural teeth under individual clinical need.
280 Effect of Carbondioxide Pneumoperitoneum on Liver Function in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy at Vims, Bellary, Dr Praveen Khandelwal, Dr Pradeep Y M, Dr Vidyadhar A Kinhal, Dr Ramesh K
Introduction: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers many advantages that include a markedly reduction in hospital stay and decreased cost. Because of these distinct advantages, the procedure has gained worldwide popularity and has now become one of the most common operations performed in general surgical practice. Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on liver function in humans and the possible mechanisms behind such effect. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 50 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy preoperatively once and post operatively on day 1. They were tested for liver function by comparing the level of serum bilirubin(total and direct), serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) , serum alkaline phosphatase and serum gamma glutamyl transferase. Post operative oral feeds and length of hospital stay was also measured. Results : The level of serum AST, ALT, bilirubin ( total and direct ),ALP and GGT increased significantly during the first 24 hrs. post operatively after laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to baseline values. Conclusion: Transient elevation of hepatic enzymes occurs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the major causative factor seemed to be CO2 pneumoperitoneum.
281 A Comparison of Laparoscopic Toupet Versus Nissen Fundoplication in Gerd and/ or Hiatal Hernia, Dr. Manoranjan Kuswaha, Dr. Kushal Shah
Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is used very frequently but may lead to postoperative bloating, inability to belch and dysphagia. Partial wrapping has been reported to be equally effective but associated with fewer unfavorable postoperative symptoms. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to compare the results of a 270 wrap (Toupet) and a 360 wrap (Nissen) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or hiatal hernia.
282 Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis A Rare Case Report, Dr.K.R.Umadevi, Dr.J.Srivani, Dr. C.S.Vijayalakshmi
A 50 years old man came to our skin OPD with a H/O swelling in the right wrist joint for the past 15 years.It started as a small nodule extending to soft tissues and a sinus formation.. Clinically was provisionally diagnosed as ?Mycetoma ,? TB Synovitis. Biopsy was done and sent to Histopathology. With the help of morphology ,Culture and special stains it was diagnosed as a Primary cutaneous Actinomycosis after ruling out Oro Cervico facial,Thoracic , Abdominal and Pelvic actinomycosis. Cutaneous involvement manifests as an intense suppurative and granulomatous inflammation that first may present as a nodular lesion, sometimes with surrounding cellulitis The infection often progress so that nodules evolve into abscesses and sinus tracts.
283 Assessment of Counseling Skill of DOT Providers with A View to Prepare A Counseling Teaching Plan, Jenifer D'Souza, Dr. Radha Aras, Dr. Christopher Sudhakar
Tuberculosis is a public health challenge around the world. Under RNTCP, the DOTS agent is trained in case management and counseling to motivate clients to complete treatment and be cured of TB. This study aims to assess the counseling skills of DOTS providers and to identify gaps in counseling skills.A descriptive study design was adopted and the counseling skills of fifty DOTS providers were assessed by a counseling skill observation checklist. The results showed that the counseling skill scores of the DOTS providers ranged from 6-17 (max score: 20) with a mean score of 10.76 + 3.01. None of the DOTS providers had excellent level of counseling skill scores and only few (6%) had good counseling skill scores.
284 Gallstone in Children: A Retrospective Study of 37 Cases in Southeast of Turkey, Yasin Sahin, Derya Aydin Sahin, Ferhan Bulut, Asli Imran Turkut, Ahmet Rauf Goktepe
Aims: To evaluate the children diagnosed with cholelithiasis in clinical retrospective study. Materials and Methods: The children who were treated and diagnosed with gallstones in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively between May 2013-April 2014. Results: A total of 37 cases, 20 males and 17 females (54%, 46% respectively). The mean age was 116.4 61.5 months. Predisposing factors in patients were ceftriaxone usage history, obesity, hemolytic diseases, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, cystic fibrosis and a history of premature birth and parenteral nutrition. Eleven patients (29.7%) had no risk factors. Gallstone resolution was detected in 11 patients (29.7%) treated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Resolution was observed in 33.3% of children with ceftriaxone-associated gallstone. Conclusion: Due to the frequent use of ultrasonography and increased incidence of obesity, gallstones have been increased in children recently. An underlying risk factors were not detected in the majority of our cases (29.7%). Especially patients who had risk factors should be monitored closely for signs and complications.
285 Genetic Variation in B-cell lymphoma 2- Associated X (BAX) Gene Confers Susceptibility to Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder, Saranjeet Kaur
The aim of the study was to investigate genetic polymorphism in apoptotic gene, BAX (B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X), and the risk of bladder cancer through a hospital-based case-control study. This retrospective analysis consisted of 270 cases of bladder cancer and 252 controls. The AA genotype of BAX 248 G/A polymorphism showed a 2.20-fold risk towards bladder cancer (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.16-4.21) when compared to GG as the referent genotype, hence, proving the additive model. The BAX AA genotype showed a 2.56-fold increased risk (OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.23-5.39) of bladder cancer in males and a significantly increased risk towards bladder cancer in inhabitants of urban area (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.19-9.16). Among alcoholics, both BAX AA (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.27-2.17) and BAX GA + AA (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.09-3.73) genotypes showed an increased risk towards bladder cancer, respectively. The BAX AA genotype also showed an increased risk towards bladder cancer among non-vegetarians (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 0.98-7.60). Among cases having superficial stages, only the BAX AA genotype (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.11-4.32) showed a significantly increased risk towards bladder cancer. The BAX AA genotype also showed a significantly increased risk (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.32-5.51) towards the G2 carcinoma.
286 PREVALENCE OF ESBL AND AMP C BETA LACTAMASE PRODUCTION AMONG Escherichia coli AND Klebsiella ISOLATED IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, Dr.V .P.Sarasu, Dr.S.Radha Kumari
A study was under taken to know the occurrence of ESBL & Amp C ?-lactamases producing strains and their antimicrobial susceptibilities to guide therapy for urinary tract infection. 500 samples were collected from MSU & in it, 150 showed significant growth of bacteria. E. coli 57% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Klebsiella 20%. The phenotypic tests reveal 55% , 60% were found to be ESBL producer in E.coli & Klebsiella respectively. Amp C ?- lactamase producer was E. coli 12% , Klebsiella 23% . ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp showed 100 % sensitivity to Imipenam & Piperacillin-Tazobactum .And Amp C ?- Lactamase producing species shows 100% sensitivity to Imipenam .
287 Morphological Identification of Chironomus Larvae in Jaipur District (Rajasthan) India, Mali Ram Sharma, Varsha Gupta
hironomidae, also known as Chironomids, belongs to phylum Arthropoda. The Chironomidae larva is most suitable animal to test aquatic toxicity of aquatic micro-pollutants. These are the most abundant macro-invertebrates group in limnetic environments and freshwater ecosystems. Larval stages are found in almost any aquatic or semiaquatic habitat. Chironomidae undergoes through three ecdyses during the larval development. Different instars take different time to mature and varying from one species to another, while fourth instars often being longer than earlier instars. The pupal stage is relatively short; when pupa leaves exuviae on the water surface and the adult emerges. Larvae are bright red in color due to presence of hemoglobin; these are frequently known as "bloodworms". Holometabolous metamorphosis is found in this Chironomus larva. This larva bears anterior and posterior parapods and procerci well developed. Penultimate segment with 1-2 pairs of ventral tubules. 1-2 pairs of anal tubules present; striated ventromental plates are present. Median tooth of mentum not so far beyond lateral teeth; mentum bears 3 median teeth and 12 lateral teeth; mandibles with at least 2 inner teeth; antennae 4-8 segmented. Larvae were cultured in laboratory with controlled techniques. Permanent slides of these larvae were prepared using standard method. Photography of these larvae were taken by Nikon Eclipse ME-600 Microscope in CSC Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan. Identification of these larvae is based on key- Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina- John H. Epler.These Chironomus species are closed to circumdatus on the basis of morphological identification.
288 Treatment of Tannery Effluent using Cyanobacterium (Lyngbya Sp.) with Coirpith, K. Lakshmi, Dr. P. Malliga
Aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the treatment of tannery effluent using marine cyanobacterium (Lyngbya sp.) with coir pith. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, OD, EC, COD, BOD, TDS and chloride content and removal of heavy metal such as mercury, chromium, cadmium, Iron, copper and lead was monitored on 14th day intervals of incubation. Growth was monitored by Chlorophyll a level and protein content analysis which was increased in combined treatments when compared to individual such as physical (coir pith) and biological (Lyngbya sp.) treatment process.
289 Rural and urban mothers knowledge and expressed practices regarding supplementary feeding of children (six to twenty months) and its impact on growth parameters, Ruth, Shobha Prasad
A study to assess and compare rural and urban mothers knowledge and expressed practices regarding supplementary feeding of children (six twenty months) and its impact on growth parameters in selected district of Haryana. By using a purposive sampling method, 60 rural mothers and 60 urban mothers were selected for the study in rural area (Bhuddia) and urban area (Ambala cantt). About 33% of mothers in urban were in the age group of 21-25 years and 26-30 years and about 33% of mothers in rural area were in the age group of 21-25 years, 41.6% were secondary, Graduation and above in urban area and 33% were illiterate and secondary in rural area. The findings revealed that the mean knowledge score of urban mothers was higher than the mean knowledge score of rural mothers and the mean expressed practice score (14.48) of urban mothers was higher than the mean practice score (12.68) of rural mothers. Based on the findings, it is recommended that there is a need to conduct a planned teaching programme on knowledge, attitude and practices of urban and rural mothers on supplementary feeding
290 Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Iron Sucrose in Patients with Anemia in Pregnancy and Chronic Kidney Disease with Historical Control Groups of Different Parenteral Iron Preparations, Dr. Panchal Pavan J., Dr. Desai Mira K.
Objective: Comparison of efficacy and safety of iron sucrose in patients with anemia in pregnancy and chronic kidney disease with historical control groups of different parenteral iron preparations Methods: An observational, prospective, historical controlled study in patients of anemia in pregnancy and chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving iron sucrose were included. Demographic details, clinical history, baseline hemoglobin, anemia indices data were recorded in a case record form. The patients were followed up monthly for 12 weeks and observed for clinical and hematological improvement and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Improvement in laboratory parameters with iron sucrose treated patients were compared with historical control groups of different iron preparations. The data was analyzed using paired t-test, unpaired t-test and Fisher`s exact test. Results: Out of total 84 iron sucrose treated patients, 47 were pregnant and 37 were CKD patients. One historical control group includes iron dextran treated 78 CKD patients and second group was of 30 anemic pregnant patients treated with iron sorbitol citric acid. Iron sucrose, iron dextran and iron sorbitol citrate significantly (P
291 Symbols in African Philosophy and the Issue of Nation Building, Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony
A cursory glance at the African culture reveals that symbols are an integral part of the organisational life of African societies, and constitutes a fundamental element in the African peoples construction of sense knowledge and behaviour. Very recently, enquiries in the area of symbolism has generated great interest as a result of its unique ability to manifest the sacred, to encompass a multitude of structurally coherent meanings and to reveal the continuity between the structures of human existence and the cosmic sphere. This paper takes a step further to argue that African symbols can contribute to the quest for nation building, with particular reference to the Igbo-Africans of Nigeria, in areas such as the economy, poverty alleviation and the tourism industry.
292 A Study on Emotional Intelligence of Early Teen Students of Two Category Schools, Prasenjit Barman, Dr. Sanjib Mridha
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is now being recognized as an important field of research, development, and applications. The purpose of this study was to observe the difference, if any, on the early teen boys students of two different type schools. Subjects of this study were one hundred thirty five male Navodaya students of three age categories and similar number of age and height-weight-matched students from other than Navodoy schools ( forty five students for each age group from each type of school). Four dimensions of emotional intelligence, namely- intra-personal awareness (knowing about ones own emotions), inter-personal awareness (knowing about others emotions), intra-personal management (managing ones own emotions) and inter-personal management (managing others emotions) were the criterion measures. Mean, standard deviation (SD) and ANOVA followed by Post-Hoc LSD and independent t-test were the statistics used for data interpretation. Significance difference (p
293 Analysis of Performances and Predominance of Strategies and Tactics in Fifa 2010 Football World Cup, D. Ramesh, Dr. A.Praveen
The purpose of the study was to make a descriptive analysis of performances and predominance of strategies and tactics in FIFA 2010 Football World Cup. The format of the tournament involves two phases, namely, qualification phase and World Cup Finals phase. A qualification phase, which took place over the preceding three years, determined which teams qualify for the tournament together with the host nation(s). 204 Countries entered for qualification phase of World Cup 2010. Of the 204 countries entered, 32 teams were selected for World Cup 2010. Of the 32 teams competing for the title at venues within the host nation(s) over a period of about a month; this phase was often called the World Cup Finals. The 32 teams were divided into 8 Groups of A to H and the matches were played from 22nd June, 2010 to 25th June, 2010 and subsequently. The following four teams were qualified to play semi finals: (1) Uruguay (2) Netherlands (3) Germany and (4) Spain. For this study, the performances and tactics of semi final teams were considered. Apart from the descriptive analysis the primary data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA to find out the significant differences if any among the groups and scheffes post hoc test was used. It was concluded based on the primary data collected and statistical analysis, there were significant differences among the teams on Attack pass and Defending pass. It was concluded that the Spain was significantly better than Germany, Uruguay, Netherlands on attack pass and defending pass which was significantly related to winning performance strategies and tactics.
294 Effect of Plyometric Exercises on Speed Among Volleyball Players, S.Maheshkumar, Dr.S.Gladykirubakar
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of plyometric exercise on speed among men volleyball players. The subjects of the study were 24 men Volleyball players from Madurai district. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups that is an experimental group and a control group with 12 students in each group. The experimental group underwent plyometric training program in a schedule of 60 minutes daily evening, weekly six days for a period of 12 weeks. The control group did not involve in any fitness program. 50 yards run was administrated to find out the effect of training before and after the training period and the difference was recorded to arrive the training significance.
295 Relationship of Selected Physical, Physiological and Anthropometric Variables with Playing Ability Among Boys Mini National Volleyballers, N. Senthilkumar, Dr. R. Desingu Rajan
The aim of the study was to determine the Relationship of selected physical, physiological and anthropometric variables with playing ability among boys mini national volleyballers. Volleyball is a game of applied athletics and it requires well proportionate physique and great amount of physical fitness level. To achieve the objectives of the study two Physical fitness variables, two physiological variables and two anthropometric variables were included as independent variables and playing ability as dependent variable, which was assessed through subjective rating, by three experts, during the mini national Volleyball tournaments and the average was taken as criterion score. Forty five male Volleyball players, who had participated the mini national tournament in 2013-2014 seasons, were selected as subjects. Persons product moment correlation (zero order) was used as a statistical tool to find out the result and it revealed that the physical fitness variables of speed, agility, physiological variables of resting pulse rate, respiratory rate and anthropometrics variables of height, weight, were having significant relationship with Volleyball performance.
296 Enhancement of Isolated, Concurrent, Resistance and Plyometric Training on Selected Strength Parameters Among College Level Court Game Players, S. Mathan, Dr. V. Jeyaveera Pandian
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Concurrent, Resistance and Plyometric Training on selected strength parameters among college level court game player. For this purpose Forty five (N=40) court games players(Volleyball & Basketball) studying in Yadava College Madurai, Tamilnadu were selected as subjects during the academic year 2013- 2014. They were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each, Group I underwent Concurrent Training, Group II underwent Resistance Training, Group III underwent Plyometric Training and Group-IV acted as Control. The Experimental groups underwent the respective training for twelve weeks duration. Among various strength parameters only Explosive strength was selected as a dependent variable, and it was assessed through sergeant Jump test. The data obtained from the experimental groups and control groups before and after the experimental period were statistically analyzed with Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Whenever the F ratio for adjusted post test means was found to be significant, the Scheffes test was applied as post-hoc test to determine the paired mean differences. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 level for all the cases. Explosive power showed significant difference among the groups, further the results suggested that plyometric training was showed better performance when compare to other experimental and control group
297 Analysis of Cardio Respiratory Endurance Among Adolescent School Boys of North-Eastern States of India, Sandip Saha, Dr. V. Gopinath
In the present electronic era most of the adolescent are not participating in leisure activities and concentrate on academics. Regular physical activity would be important for lifes quality even if it had no relationship to disease and longevity. Physical activity is a significant ingredient in the quality of life, because it increases energy and promotes, physical and mental, well being in addition to conferring health benefits. For the present investigation boys from various schools of [Tripura (TR), Meghalaya (ML), Assam (AS), Mizoram (MZ), Manipur (MN), Nagaland (NL) and Arunachal Pradesh (A.R.)] (N=21000) North-Eastern states of India were selected as subjects at random. Their age ranged from 13, 14 & 15 years (studying from 7th to 10th standard). Cardio respiratory endurance was measured by coppers 12 min run/walk test. The collected data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Among the groups if any significant difference, scheffes post hoc test was used to find out the paired mean difference (P ? 0.05). The results of the study show that the adolescent boys of North-Eastern states were differ on Cardio-respiratory endurance. Hence it was concluded that, age, geographical region, growth, social behaviour, food habits and level of physical activity may influence the Cardio-respiratory endurance of adolescent boys.
298 Ultrasonic Study on Bio-Liquids Before and After Sonication, G.Samuel, I. Johnson, K.Johnson
Herbal medicines are currently in demand and their popularity is increasing day by day. The leaves of Solanum lycopersicums,solanum melongena are loaded with all kinds of health benefits for the body. They are in fact, a highly versatile health product and due to their equally versatile preparation options, there's really no reason to neglect the tomato as part of a healthy diet. One of the most well-known tomato eating benefit is its' Lycopene content. Solanum melongena: (Brinjal) probably has its original home in India and China. It is a popular vegetable in Southern Europe also, especially in the Balkans, France and Italy. It is used a vegetable. The leaves of its plants are extracted and they are used to as medicine in many diseases and it contains vitamins A. Both are underwent sonication and then it was studied through interferometer.
299 Studies on the Nutritional Evaluation of Neem Leaves of Pantnagar Area, M. K. Singh, S. K. Singh, S. Sathapathy
The present work was carried out on the Neem leaves of Pantnagar area to elucidate their nutritional properties. The neem leaves of same quantity were collected from the various areas such as Department of Livestock Production Management (LPM), Instructional Poultry Farm (IPF) and Instructional Dairy Farm (IDF) inside the campus of G. B. Pant University of Agri. and Tech., Pantnagar. The leaves were identified and leaf powder was prepared to analyse for proximate analysis, i.e.; Dry matter (DM), CP (Crude Protein), CF (Crude Fibre), total ash, EE (Ether Extract), NFE (Nitrogen Free Extract), calcium and phosphorus. It was revealed that the Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) collected from the Instructional Poultry Farm had higher percentages of dry matter, CP, CF and EE, whereas the values of calcium and phosphorus were found to be more in the leaves collected from the Department of LPM of the University. It can be concluded that the NLP prepared from the leaves collected from the IPF can be included in the diet of the livestock for getting optimum results in growth performance, haematological, biochemical and immunological aspects.
300 Perceived Social Support After Cardiac Diseases and Events: A Systematic Review, Immanuel Paul Vinod. S, Dr. Sheila Christopher
Background: To conduct a systematic review on finding the benefits and pitfalls of social support after a cardiac event Methods: A systematic mixed review approach was carried from, Proquest, PubMed,EBSCO host, springer and science direct. The search strategy was by electronic data base searching and ancestry approach. More than 1500 papers were screened and finally 28 papers which met the inclusion and eligibility criteria were taken into the study. Outcomes: The results of the findings were classified into effects which arise because of low and high social support in patients with chronic heart diseases. Results: Increased social support extended to patients provided better outcomes in terms of reducing depression and anxiety and better quality of life was reported. Medication compliance was better and even recurrence of cardiac events were reduced. Conclusion: The vitality of social support is appreciated after a heart disease. The screening for social support and implementation of various strategies to increase social support should be a part of the cardiac intervention
301 Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution in the Sediments of Iraqi Coastlines, Mohanad H. A. Al-Jaberi, Moutaz A. Al-Dabbas
Twenty three samples were collected from the sediments of Iraqi coastlines, from seven sites, Fao, Raas AlBishah area, Khor Abdullah, Khor Shytianah, Hacham Island, Khor AlZubair, and Shatt AlBasrah. The collected samples has been assessed for Fe, Co, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb metals to detected the sediments pollution in the study area by used three of main indices; geo- accumulation (I- geo) , contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI). The results reflect that the average concentrations of the studied heavy metals were relatively lower in Khor Abdullah, Khor Shytianah , and Hacham Island sites than the other studied sites. I-geo shows that the studied heavy metals have relatively values of (class 0 and 1) in the studied sites reflect unpolluted to slightly polluted areas .The CF for Fe and Ni classified as class 2 which indicate moderately contamination in all samples. While, CF for Pb, Cu, Zn and Co classified as class 1 and 2 (Low to Moderate contamination). The Contamination factor (CF) for Co in all the studied sites classified as class 1 representing a low contamination. PLI values in the studied sites are ranges from 1.05 to 1.57 classified as class 2 (Deterioration on site quality) indicating local pollution, except for Khor Shytianah site that show the range of PLI value of 0.74-1.32 indicates denote perfection with (class 0) and appear no pollution to deteriorating on site quality . The indication of slightly to moderately pollution of sediments in the studied area may be as a result to anthropogenic activities, oil spelling, and daily toxicity wastes that throw for the main rivers in Basra city.
302 Self Efficacy of Youth to Combat With Life Stressors; A Compared Study Between Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, Veluri Sujatha, Prof. Venkiteela Ravindra Kumar
Human functioning is facilitated by a personal sense of control. If people believe that they can take action to solve a problem instrumentally, they become more inclined to do so and feel more committed to this decision. A person who believes in being able to cause an event can conduct a more active and self-determined life course. It reflects the belief of being able to control challenging environmental demands by means of taking adaptive action. It can be regarded as a self-confident view of ones capability to deal with certain life stressors. Self efficacy reflects on the confidence level of individuals when one forced to combat with the unpredicted problems at personal level or at society level. In the present study an attempt was made to measure or estimate the level of self efficacy among youth through assessing their level of confidence on a given set of components. The different components of self-efficacy considered to assess the self-onfidentiality of youth are a) To convince others on what you believe b) To express concerns/opinion to parents/peers c) Firmly withstand if others do harm d) Firmly rely on self-employment if job is not available e) Confident for well settlement in life f) To participate in group discussions in solving local problems g) To involve in resolving fight between two rival caste/religious groups h) To involve actively in control of spreading of infectious disease i) Actively participate in youth awareness programmes on STD(HIV/AIDS) j) Firmly believe that attainment of extra skills will improve confidence k) Firmly believe that morality and honesty result in high dividends l) Firm on changing attitudes according to change in situation.
303 Violence Against Women Indian and Global Perspective, Dr. N.V. Gudaganavar, shri.S.D.Soudagar
Violence against women is touching new heights. Major types of violence against women relate to sexual harassment, rape, acid throwing, honour killing, bride burning, domestic violence, etc. The NCRB has mentioned rape as the biggest crime in India with 242006 cases registered in 2011 as against 22172 in 2010. Patriarchal culture which considers females as secondary citizens has been the main cause for rimes against women. Reports of UNICEF, UN Declaration on Elimination of Violence against Women and studies by Time Magazine, CNN and Special Reporter, etc., have confirmed the incidence of violence against women. India and other South Asian, West Asian countries and a few western countries too are found to be the area where different types of violence against women are committed. Legal enactments have not worked effectively as deterrents against violence against women in India. Social awareness and social responsibility in curbing this menace alone can bring about the desired results of women safety and equality of women in society as stipulated in the Indian Constitution.
304 A Study on Parental Perception Towards Children Viewing Cartoon, A. SOUMYA, Dr. J.O.JERYDA GNANAJANE ELJO, R.ANITHA
This study focuses on the various aspects on the perception of the parents towards children viewing cartoon and it was conducted in two reputed schools in Dibrugarh District of Assam. It tried to explore the influence of cartoon among the children as perceived by their parents and it also tries to reveal the various problems faced by the children in their growing state. The study is descriptive in nature. The universe of the study consists of 140 parents whose children are studying I to III standard in two schools in Assam.Census method was adopted and data was collected from all 140 parents. Self prepared questionnaire was adopted for the study. The finding of this study revealed that majority of the respondents children (72.1%) watch Television every day, 65.7% of the respondents children are viewing cartoon program and 74.3% of the parents feel that their childrens studies get affected by watching Television. There is significant association between the mothers occupation and time spent by the respondents children in watching cartoon.There is a significant association between respondents childs habit of imitating cartoon characters and the learning problems faced by the child.
305 Orchid Farming- A Remunerative Approach for Farmers Livelihood, L.C. De, ArpitaMandal Khan, Raj Kumar, R.P. Medhi
Orchids comprise the largest family of flowering plants with 25,000 to 35,000 species belonging to 600-800 genera. Orchids are found in nearly every environment in the world starting from tropical and subtropical to alpine zones both epiphytically and terrestrially.Several local species of Vanda,Cymbidium, Ascocentrum, Paphiopedilum, Calanthe, Dendrobiumetcare ingreat demand in international market for breeding materials. Among the cut flower crops, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Cattleya, Paphiopedilum, Vanda, Aeridovanda, Aranda, Mokara, Arachnis, Vascostylis, Rhyncovandaetc are important. Important orchid genera used as potted plants in the international market are Phalaenopsis, Oncidium, Miltonia, Cymbidium, Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, Cattleya, Ascocenda, Vanda, Brassia, Miltonia and Epidendrum. Tribal people of North eastern hill region use wild orchids for a variety of folk medicine as orchids are rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and other phytochemicals. Leaves, tubers and pseudobulbs of different species are used for edible purposes. Vanilla- a major spice crop and source of vanillin comes from Vanilla planifolia. Anoectochilus leaves are used as vegetables in Indonesia and Malayasia.
306 Micro - Finance to Women Self Help Groups, Dr. B. Raveendra Naik, Dr. M. Venkata Kumar
The idea of Self Help Group was an inherent part of group work practice right from the very beginning. The beginnings of collective bargaining to improve wages, as an effort to preserve cultural traditions, to promote adult education and to provide growth opportunities through camping were all initial at using groups to tackle common problems through mutual help. They are reasons for starting the Self Help Groups. The steps and tasks involved in their development and the sources of satisfactions and frustrations. They found in their study that people start Self Help Groups because they want connect with others who share their concern an important fact that .
307 Football Shooting Performance Changes During Yoga Practices and Aerobic Dance Among College Men Football Players, Dr. B. Palani Kumar, Bizuneh yirga
Aim of the study was to find out Football shooting performance changes during Yoga practices and Aerobic Dance among college men players. The study was conducted on forty five (N=45) men students studying various colleges affiliated to Madurai University, Madurai, India, during the year 2014-2015 were selected as subjects at random and they were divided randomly into two experimental groups and on control group of fifteen each, namely Group I Yoga Practices, Group II Aerobic Dance and Group III acted as Control. The training period was limited to twelve weeks and for three days per week. The experimental groups underwent their respective experimental treatment for 4 weeks. Among various Football skill performances only shooting skill only selected as dependent variables and it was assessed by Mor- Christian General Soccer Ability Test. All the subjects were tested prior to and after the training for all the selected variables. The data collected from the three groups prior to and post experimentation was statistically analyzed by using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Scheffes post hoc test was applied to determine the significant difference between the paired means. In all the cases 0.05 level of significance was fixed. The result reveals significant differences in Football shooting skill among the experimental groups.
308 Statistical Modeling for Air and Water Pollution Awareness, Packialakshmi P
An investigation was carried out to study the Air and Water pollution awareness of the Arunachalapuram village belongs to Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, India. This study revealed that awareness varies from one age group to another age group and their educational qualifications.
309 Latent Profile Model: A Case Study on Water Quality , Dr. Nazera Khalil Dakhil, Amenah Abdullateef Hameed
Water is a natural resource vital for the survival of humanity and all species on earth. However, the quality and quantity of water in Iraq is increasingly being threatened due to high demand by humans and other living organisms. It is therefore the aim of this research to attempt to study the properties of the water in Al-Najaf province in Iraq, and to evaluate the Latent Profile (LP) by means of classifying water quality. It emerged that the quality of the water in our samples varied from average to poor. Thus the water in Al-Najaf may be suitable for general domestic use but not for drinking.
310 A Comparison on Socio-Economic Status of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi Districts Using Fuzzy Stochastic Model, Arumugam.P, Sathya Sivagami.N
Socioeconomic status is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. For this study, the Below Poverty Line (BPL) of southern districts of Tamil Nadu such as Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi districts are considered. In this paper, for analyzing the significance of which blocks are differ from other blocks in both two districts. The one of the critical difference test is used and also SAS program is implemented for this work.
311 Epr Study of Erythrocyte Properties After in Vitro Treatment With Urea and Hydrogen Peroxide, Anna Pieniazek, Krzysztof Gwozdzinski, Jan Czepas
The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte properties after in vitro treatment with urea and hydrogen peroxide. Changes in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, conformational state of membrane proteins and hemoglobin were investigated using EPR spectroscopy. The urea treatment resulted in increase of lipid membrane fluidity in polar region and hydrophobic core indicated by 5- and 12-doxylstearic acids. The combination of urea and H2O2 lead to deeper changes in lipid microviscosity. The conformational state of membrane proteins was measured using maleimide (MSL) and iodoacetamide (ISL) spin labels. ISL spectra showed a significant decrease in the membrane proteins motion. However, in the combination of urea and H2O2 the spin labeled proteins mobility was similar to control value. Analysis of EPR spectra of MSL attached to hemoglobin showed significant increase in the motion of spin label residues after urea and H2O2 treatment. Similar results were observed for ISL but differences were insignificant.
312 Effect of Garlic and Neem Leaf Powder Supplementation on Immune Response to Ndv and Organoleptic Parameters of Meat in Broilers, Kharde Karan Rajendra, S.Soujanya, Gaikwad Amol Haribhau
Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder on immune response to NDV and organoleptic parameters of meat in broilers. 210 male broiler chicks were distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. The chicks were divided into 7 dietary treatments and reared upto six weeks of age. The experimental design consists of T1 (control), T2 (GP @ 0.5g/kg), T3 (GP @ 1.0 g/kg), T4 (NLP @ 1.0g/kg), T5 (NLP @ 2.0g/kg), T6 (GP @ 0.5g/kg + NLP @ 1.0g/kg) and T7 (GP @ 1.0 g/kg + NLP @ 2g/kg). At 42nd day serum samples were collected for evaluation of immune response. Results showed that supplementation of garlic powder and neem leaf powder alone and their combination significantly (P0.05) difference was noticed in colour, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability.
313 A Retrospective Study on Mortality Pattern of Poultry in Wayanad District of Kerala, Prasanna K.S, Neethu C.K
Poultry production in Kerala has seen marked growth for the last few years. Out of total poultry holding, 93.5 per cent is with marginal farmers and only 4.55 per cent remains with the small scale farmers. A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Veterinary Pathology and the data has been analyzed for a period of three years from 2010 to 2013. The birds registered for postmortem examination included mainly chicken (broiler and layers), ducks (Mallard and Muscovy), quail, turkey and emu. Disease conditions were diagnosed based on case history, clinical symptoms, necropsy findings and laboratory investigations including bacteriological, parasitological and histopathological examinations
314 A Study on Banasthali Vidyapith and The Works of Prof.V.G.ANDANI, Kashinath Waddar
This paper provides the most significant information about of the most famous educational institute of India. It is the largest residential university for women in the world. It provides various courses for womens. Which is having all the facilities of primary to Ph.D level educational courses. This paper also giving the one of the most new dimension to the field of Fine-art. Prof. (Dr.) V.G.Andani. With another Narayan.S.Kumbar is a passionate art teacher who has been imparting drawing and painting classes for the past 12 years
315 New record of Rouxs Forest Lizard Calotes rouxii (Dumril & Bibron, 1837) (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae) from Sandur and Gulbarga, Karnataka, India with a note on its known distribution, Aditya Srinivasulu, C. Srinivasulu
Rouxs Forest Lizard Calotes rouxii (Dumril & Bibron, 1837) is chiefly a forest-dwelling draconine agamid that is widely distributed in the Western Ghats and occasionally reported from the Eastern Ghats and other localities in the central peninsular India. We report the presence of this species for the first time from Sandur forests in Bellary district, Karnataka based on a voucher specimen and from Gulbarga township based on sighting record. A detailed distribution map showing localities from where the species is known is also provided.
316 Reproductive Strategies in Vibrio Harveyi Infected Litopenaeus Vannamei and its Feed Back on Mucuna Pruriens Herbal Treatment, G. Shanmugavel, K. Kaliyaperumal, G. Krishnamoorthy
To evaluate the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP) seed enriched Artemia supplementation on reproductive performance in the spawners of Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory conditions. The MP seed methanolic extracts enriched with Artemia at 100 ppm and 200 ppm fed to Vibrio harveyi infected male and female L.vannamei was conducted for 3 weeks. Reproductive assessment of V.harveyi infected male and female L.vannamei was achieved using assessing the male fecundity rate like sperm count, motility studies and female fecundity rate like egg size, egg count. The results are promising that normal male and female L.vannamei shrimps shows usual pattern of reproductive index whereas the V.harveyi infected shrimps showed drastic fecundity decline in terms of sperm and egg percentage. Shrimp on diet supplementation with MP enriched Artemia shows significant improvement in both male and female reproductive performance by providing vibriosis resistance. The result suggested that treated group proven the potential to improve the performance of fecundity rate in the spawners.
317 Preliminary Investigations of Ground Water Quality in Gorakhpur City, Uttra Pradesh, India, Alimuddin
Ground water samples were collected from different area in Gorakhpur City and analysed for different water quality parameters viz. Temperature, pH, Total dissolved solids, Acidity, Alkalinity and total hardness. TDS found to be varies from 249 to 958 mg/l which indicates the significantly higher amount of TDS. The value of hardness ranges between 84 to 375 mg/l which is within the limit according to WHO.
318 Knowledge Regarding Incubator Care Among Nurses Working at Cmcth, Reshma Dhakal, Mr. Basavaraj Mudhol
Rapid growth and advancement in the field of technology has made the survival of sick newborn a reality. Incubators provide special environment for high-risk babies to maintain thermal stability. Descriptive study design wasusedto find out knowledge regarding incubator care among nurses. Out of 196, 50 samples were selected using probability simple random sampling technique. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. The study revealed that 82% of the respondents were of age group 20-25 years, 70% had passed PCL Nursing and 56% had ?12 months of experience. The mean knowledge score was 19.38 with value of standard deviation 3.63. Majority 48% of the respondents had low level of knowledge, 42% had high level of knowledge and 10% had average level of knowledge. Statistically, there was significant association between educational qualification and the knowledge scores regarding incubator care (p=0.005). The finding of the study indicates that the nurses require opportunities to upgrade their knowledge on modern equipment.
319 Reservoir Sedimentation A Simple Analysis on Malampuzha Dam, Kerala, Manoj Nallanathel, Dr. Needhidasan Santhanam
A reservoir to be fully effective in working, its storage capacity for which it is designed should not be depleted due to the accumulated sediments. Interest in sediments is increased nowadays because people are now aware of how rapidly sediments can accumulate in streams, ditches, culverts and reservoirs. The shortened economic life of these structures and the troubling the equipments in these reservoirs were felt by many researchers. Many are concerned about the decreased quality of their drinking water. The major cause of the dried reservoir is siltation which in turn reduces the storage capacity of the reservoirs. Studies reveals that, most of the reservoirs in India are lost their dead storage capacity which is meant to be reserved for the sediment dumping during the life time of the reservoirs. The objective of this paper is to discuss the sedimentation issues in general by touching its causes, impacts and useful controlling measures giving potential to the sedimentation issues in Malampuzha dam in a simple analysis for improving its present condition.
320 Congenital Nevus- A Rare Case Report, Dr.K.R.Umadevi, Dr.Ezhilvizhi.A
Congenital nevi are benign nevomelanocytic proliferations present at birth.Small congenital nevi are defined as those less than 1.5 cm in their largest diameter, medium-sized congenital nevi as those 1.5 to 19.9 cm, and large or giant congenital nevi as those greater or equal to 20 cm. 1% of the newborns have a biopsy-proven nevo melanocytic nevus. However, giant congenital nevi are rare with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000 births. Here we present 35 years old man with a swelling from childhood. Clinically, congenital nevi are round to oval in shape with regular, smooth, and well-demarcated border. Their clinical appearances may change with age. In our case swelling was round to oval with 2 satellite nodules .As the child grows, the nevi become progressively darker with uniform brown to dark brown or black color and they acquire long, coarse, darkly pigmented hairs. Occasionally, they may show considerable variation in pigment color within the background color, irregular border, and sometimes nodule formation. Such changes should be always evaluated for any malignant transformation. The lifetime risk of melanoma for patients with giant congenital nevi ranges from 5% to 10%. The risk is greatest between the ages of 5 and 10 years. The issue of malignant transformation of small congenital nevi is very controversial. Currently, there exists no consensus regarding their increased risk of developing melanoma or their management. However, many authors believe that small congenital nevi may be precursors for at least some cases of cutaneous melanoma but in our case no malignant changes were identified
321 Marketing Problems Artisans in Gulbarga Districts, Dr.Shivanand Hungund
In democracy it is joint responsibility of the state and community and large to improve the lot of artisans the state will have to accept some responsibilities to facilitate to the artisans in rural area. There is need to identify key communicator among rural artisans they can play crucial role in moderating them to accept new ideas. The role of mass media in building awareness cannot be ignore there should be a concert efforts to all mass media to evolve a greater role far artisans in the rural area.
322 Customers Awareness About the Services Provided by the Commercial Banks in Gulbarga District of Karnataka, Mr. Shashikant Kulkarni
To enhance reputation and gain customer loyalty, a study of the performance of the commercial banks is done to see if the perception of service quality has an effect on the banks. It has been observed that in the commercial banks which are perceived to be offering better quality of service it is the increasing competition amongst banks, the findings can act as a strategic tool to achieve competitive advantage and customer satisfaction. It is also an eye-opener for the commercial banks to see the gap between customer expectation and perception regarding the quality of services rendered which should further act as a motivation which results, increases reputation and to achieve customer loyalty. The present study is an attempt in the direction, where quality perceptions of the commercial banks have been compared to reach at logical conclusions
323 Violence Against Women in India: Some Issues, Dr.V.S.Madana
Violence against women is a serious problem in India. Overall, one-third of women age 15-49 have experienced physical violence and about 1 in 10 have experienced sexual violence. In total, 35 percent have experienced physical or sexual violence. This figure translates into millions of women who have suffered, and continue to suffer, at the hands of husbands and other family members. NFHS-3 collected information from married and unmarried women age 15-49 about their experience of physical and sexual violence. Married women were also asked about their experience of emotional violence. NFHS-3 findings underscore the extent and severity of violence against women in India, especially man Violence against women in India is an issue rooted in societal norms and economic dependence. Discriminatory practices are underlined by laws favoring men. Inadequate policing and judicial practices deny female victims proper protection and justice. Although female participation in public life is increasing and laws have been amended, India still has a long way to go to make Indian women equal citizens in their own country
324 Women Empowerment: Some Issues, Dr.V.S.Madana
Women are empowerment is a new phrase in the vocabulary of gender literature. The phrase is used in two broad senses i.e. general and specific. In a general sense, it refers to empowering women to be self-dependent by providing them access to all the freedoms and opportunities, which they were denied in the past only because of their being women. In a specific sense, women empowerment refers to enhancing their position in the power structure of the society. The word women empowerment essentially means that the women have the power or capacity to regulate their day- to- day lives in the social, political and economic terms -a power which enables them to move from the periphery to the centre stage.
325 Artisans in Gulbarga District, Dr.Shivanand Hungund
The Rural Artisans such as potters, carpenters, weavers, cobblers, blacksmiths, tailors, goldsmiths, plumbers etc. helped rural economy sustain on its own. In the earlier time they most often adopted their forefather's vocations; their role was significant in maintaining rich cultural life. Consequently, this enclosed self-sufficient life-style paved the way to rich cultural traditions and practices. In self-sufficient isolated villages. After the harvesting operations were over peasants households used to give a traditionally determined share out of their out-put to craftsmen and artisans and others. Due to progress of market economy this age old bond of community living was destroyed and the Artisans and craftsmen started getting payments for their services in rupees, right at the time of doing the work.
326 The Effective Use of Resource for Bus Scheduling Using Linear Programming, Dr S.Khumaraguru, B.Satheesh kumar, G.Nagalakshmi
In this paper, we investigate the application of constraints programming bus scheduling problem with hour limitation patterns and formulated the mathematical model using a Linear Programming Problem, it is a tool of Operations Research. A numerical illustration example of scheduling bus driver for 8 hour shift is presented and the optimum solution is solved by Excel solver
327 Ocular Dominance and Fmri Activation in Response to Various Stimuli, Jan Lestak, Jaroslav Tintera, Pavel Rozsival
The aim of the study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) activation in response to various types of stimulation is dependent on ocular dominance. Our sample included 20 eyes of 10 healthy subjects (8 female with the mean age of 50.25 and 2 male with the mean age of 59). None of the subjects had ocular or neurological diseases. All subjects were tested for sighting and sensory ocular dominance. All the control subjects underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination with the stimulation of both eyes together and each eye separately using a black-and-white checkerboards with two different sizes - 25.8x16.2 (larger field-LF) and 2x2 (small field-SF). All subjects showed different interocular FMRI activity. Larger differences were observed during small field activation. Sighting and sensory eye dominance did not correlate with the activity FMRI. We did not even observe hemispheric laterality after the separate stimulation of the dominant eye when using a larger field or small field activation.
328 Positive Concept of Marital Life, K. Deepa, M.Phil, Dr. P. Nagarai
Ladies Coupe is an enlightening attempt to reveal the psychological trauma. It is about five women who talk freely about their personal relationships which ultimately leads to a mutual sensitivity about their needs. The novel has two sides one is the positive and negative concepts. Here Janaki is the older generation woman who had a positive notion on marital life and she believes that woman can not live alone and she need help from her husband and son.
329 A Study on Diversity of Tree-Hole Mosquitoes in Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, Makesh Kumar C, Jebanesan A
Tree holes are host for a variety of organisms specially mosquitoes. Tree hole breeding mosquito survey was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in three different places at Kolli hills, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 3646 mosquito larvae, pupae and adults were collected during the survey. 11 species representing 5 genera were recorded in three stations. The mosquitoes collected were Culex uniformis (14.61), Aedesaegypti (12.86), Aedes albopictus (11.76), Orthopodomyia anopheloides (10.28), Ochlerostatus greenivarkanaranus (8.28), Culex quinquefasciatus (7.84), Aedes luteocephalus (7.40), Toxorhynchites viridibasis (7.15), Aedes stokesi (6.80), Toxorhynchites splendens (6.77) and Culex decans(6.19). The highest number of larvae, pupae, and adults were found in Solakkadu (1305), followed by Semmedu (1198) and least in Othakadai (1143). The collected mosquito diversity was studied by Simpsons Index and Simpson's Reciprocal Index1 / D. Most comprehensive account on bioecology, ecophysiology and ethology of the mosquitoes of the tree hole of Kolli hills has been considered as a most fundamental prerequisite for launching any attempt on the etiology of vector borne diseases prevalent in rural parts of Southern India.
330 Online Purchase Behaviour Among Youth in India, Nimitha Aboobaker
The youth constitute a hefty proportion of Internet users. Improved technology has enabled wider internet penetration in the country and with the widespread of smartphones, online shopping have gained momentum, across a huge leap from US$1.6 billion in 2012 to US$8.8 billion in 2016.The objective of this study is to explore the underlying factors that promote online shopping among youth. Both motivating and hindering factors are identified and factors affecting choice of particular e-commerce portal is identified. Managerial implications are also discussed.
331 Comparison of Short-Term Analgesic Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (Eswt) and Conservative Treatment (Ct) In Men With Chronic Heel Spur (Hs), Pawe? Lizis
Surgical removal of heel spur (HS) provokes many controversies. An alternative is Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT), its a non-invasive method. The aims to compare ESWT short-term analgesic effects and conservative treatment (CT) in males with chronic HS. Sixty patients (54.9 4.3 years; 42-59 years) with HS pain were examined. The shockwave group (SG) received 1000-2000 impulses a session. These patients took 5 ESWT once a week. The control group (CG) received CT: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), orthotics, a local cortisone injection. We evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The groups were tested before the first, after the last treatment, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. A significant decrease of VAS (p = 0.000) in the shockwave group. In the control group no significant decrease of VAS. ESWT reduces pain more effectively than CT in men with chronic HS.
332 Molecular Characterization of Medicinal Plant Species of Acathaceae Family Using Rapd Molecular Markers, Prasad.M.P
Various medicinal properties have been attributed to natural herbs. Medicinal plants constitute the main source of new pharmaceuticals and healthcare products. The history of plants being used for medicinal purpose is probably as old as the history of mankind. In this study the genetic diversity among 6 different species belonging to Acanthaceae family was evaluated using RAPD (Random Amplified polymorphic DNA) technique. Two arbitrary primers namely OP A8 and OP D18 were used. Both the primers exhibited polymorphism of 66.66 % and 58.62 % respectively. The dendrogram was constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), and the genotypes were differentiated into various clusters. These results indicate that RAPD is a useful tool for differentiating various species belonging to Acanthacea family
333 Variation and Evaluation of Ground Water Levels and Water Quality in Kandi and Sirowal Belts of Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir, India, Priya Kanwar, Nelofar Khan, Kanwar. P. Singh
This study was conducted to analyse the variations and evaluate the ground water levels and quality in Kandi and Sirowal belts of Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir State. The Kandi and Sirowal belts form the major aquifer systems in the district of which Sirowal belt is more prolific. The two belts comprised of the sediments deposited by the streams. Ground water in these belts occurs under both unconfined and confined conditions in Sirowal and under unconfined to semi-confined conditions in Kandi belt. Detailed hydrogeological investigation associated with periodic ground water levels and water quality monitoring helped in generating the overall idea of the variation in these two parameters in the aquifer system of the area. The dtwl was measured in 41 designated NHNS for pre-monsoon as well as post- monsoon seasons of 2012. The variation in ground water quality of Kandi-Sirowal belt of Jammu district was evaluated using chemical quality results of 54 water samples collected from NHNS during pre monsoon season viz., May 2012. The chemical parameters like specific conductance, pH, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, HCO3, NO3, F, TH and Fe were determined and were compared with the water quality standards of BIS for drinking purpose. The important constituents that influence the water quality for irrigation such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR), Permeability Index (PI), and Kellys Ratio (KR) were assessed and were compared with standard limits.
334 Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on Oviposition and Fecundity of Oligonychus Biharensis (Hirst) (Acari: Tetranychidae) A Pest on Cassava, Sangeetha G. Kaimal, N. Ramani
The impact of temperature and relative humidity on the oviposition and fecundity of the spider mite, Oligonychus biharensis (Hirst) infesting Manihot esculenta, was studied under 3 constant temperature-humidities combination of 35+2oC & 60+5%RH, 30+2oC & 70+5%RH and 25+2oC & 80+5%RH. Shortest pre-oviposition period (0.5+0.12 days) was noted at 35 + 2oC & 60 + 5% RHfollowed by 30 + 2oC & 70 + 5% RH (1.6+0.1 days) and highest at 25 + 2oC & 80 + 5% RH (1.9+0.07 days). Humidity had little influence on the pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods when compared to temperature. Fecundity was recorded highest at 35 + 2oC & 60 + 5% RH (75.6+0.9 eggs per female) followed by 30+2oC & 70+5%RH (58.7+0.9 eggs per female). Lowest number of eggs was laid at 25+2oC & 80+5%RH (26.7+0.6 eggs per female). Higher humidity had negative impact on the egg laying capacity as shown by adult females. A decrease in the duration of oviposition period was recorded at low temperatures and higher humidities. Of all the different temperature-humidity conditions provided, the combination of 35+2oC & 60+5%RH was found to be best suited for the successful survival and development of the mite O. biharensis on M. esculenta in alarming rates so as to acquire the status of a major pest This is almost in agreement with the temperature and humidity conditions prevalent during summer months when the population density of O. biharensis has attained the peak level in the field. The study elucidates that higher temperature and low relative humidity prevailing in the state of Kerala owing to global warming has beyond doubt elevated the status of these mites as dreadful pests well beyond threshold level.
335 Sub-Riemannian Structures on Manifolds, SARIKA M. PATIL
Sub-Riemannian structures naturally occur in different branches of mathematics in the study of constrained systems in classical mechanics, in optimal control, geometric measure theory and differential geometry. Let M be a smooth n-dimensional manifold and let F(M) denote the coframe bundle of M. It is a principal KL(n, R)-bundle over M, where KL(n , R) action is given by the change of basis matrices. Let G be a subgroup of KL(n, R). The K-structure on M is a principal K- subbundle of the coframe bundle of M. In the paper we introduce some notions and results from the theory of K-structures on manifolds.
336 Candida Associated Denture Stomatitis, Shilpa Arora, Neerja Jindal, Ridhima Bhusri, Nitika Dhuria
Objectives- Denture stomatitis (DS) is a common lesion that affects denture wearers. The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence and species of Candida in the oral cavity of dentate and denture wearers and to study their biofilm formation in relation to denture stomatitis. Material and methods- Oral rinse samples obtained from 25 healthy male complete denture wearers and 25 dentate subjects were microbiologically investigated for growth of Candida. Isolated Candida species were identified by conventional methods and confirmed by using automated identification system Vitek 2 Compact (bioMerieux). Biofilm forming property of each strain was detected by using microtitre plate method and its relation to denture stomatitis was studied. Results- Candida spp. were isolated from the oral cavities of 32% dentates and 48% denture wearers (p-value=0.248; non-significant). C. albicans was the most common species isolated from both the groups. 10% of the strains showed biofilm forming characteristic. Denture stomatitis was observed in 20% of denture wearers and Candida was isolated from all these subjects. Conclusions- Both C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida are associated with oral carriage suggesting that non- albicans Candida spp. should also be taken into account for the maintenance of oral healthy mucosa. Candida colonisation is responsible for causing DS and biofilm formation is an important virulence trait during candidosis.
337 Shale Gas an Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resource: Overview, A. Boruah, Dr Md Abdul Rasheed, Dr Syed Z. Hassan
The commercial shale gas exploration requires exhaustive investigations of all the shale rock properties of hydrocarbon bearing shale beds having significant organic matter and maturity. This paper presents the systematic approach using integrated methodology of geological, geophysical, geochemical, geomechanical etc for shale gas resources evaluation. It also attempts to discuss the sedimentology of shale rock, gas generation and retention mechanisms within the shale rock. Thermal maturity, sorbed gas fraction, reservoir thickness and geographic extent, total organic content, mineralogy, water saturation, fracture types, reservoir heterogeneity etc which are the primary controlling factors of shale gas production. But all the parameters may show wide variations in different shale gas systems and even most of the worlds commercial shale gas reservoirs exhibit wide range of these parameters which makes it difficult for establishing the sweet spots for shale gas exploration and exploitation.
338 Molecular Biology of Codon Usage in One-Horned Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis L), SUPRIYO CHAKRABORTY, ARIF UDDIN
Background: This is the first report on the codon usage pattern in Indian one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis L). No literature is available on codon usage bias in Indian one-horned rhino till to date. Indian one-horned rhino is the pride of Assam, being the state animal of Assam. The phenomenon of unequal use of synonymous codons i.e. some codons are more preferred than others in genes is known as codon usage bias. Synonymous codons which vary from two to six codons encode a particular amino acid and these generally differ in the 3rd codon position. However, the usage pattern of synonymous codons differs not only among the organisms but also among the genes within an organism. The codon bias is commonly found in highly expressed genes. Result and Discussion: In this study, we analyzed the codon usage pattern in some selected nuclear genes of one-horned rhino using bioinformatics approach. We found that the overall GC% ranged from 41.3 to 57.2 % with an average of 51.46 %. The GC3 % of rhino genes ranged from 53.3 to 73.6 % with an average of 65.2 %. ENC value varied from 50 to 60 with a mean value of 55. We found a significant negative correlation of ENC with GC (r=-0.934**, p< 0.01) and ENC with GC3 (r=-0.979**, p
339 Dexmedetomidine: A Noble Drug for Analgesia and Sedation, Dr. Gaurav Kumar, Dr. Basant Kumar Ningawal, Dr. Dewesh Kumar, Dr. Shivani Badal
It has been decades since we are searching for a drug that can effectively manage peri operative requirements of analgesia and sedation and which has a better safety profile and physical properties and the search brings us close to the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine that appears to be fit. After its approval by FDA for clinical use dexmedetomidine usage has increased drastically and it appears to be the end of search for the most awaited wonder drug. This review will discuss its role in anesthesia practice as the major drug for various clinical conditions.
340 Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Protocols: A Paradigm Shift in Perioperative Care and Breaking Our Practice Norms, Dr. Gauravkumar Patel, Dr. Sharad Patel
Purpose: The objective of this article is to provide updated review to evidence based components of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) against conventional perioperative care in elective and emergency surgeries. Recent findings: Fast tract surgeries and multimodal enhanced recovery pathways are now achieving world wide recognition as standardized perioperative care in multiple surgical sub-specialties like colorectal and pelvis surgery, urological surgery, gynecological surgery, cardiothoracic and vascular surgery and hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. This optimized care has challenged long standing traditional perioperative care and resulted in a evidenced based well established protocols, which enhances postoperative recovery, reduced hospital stay, readmission rate and overall medical cost. However issues relating to its awareness, training and education, implementation, auditing, patient compliance and cost effectiveness in limited resource settings need to be addressed. Summary: In Summery ERAS protocols are future of discipline-specific or surgery-specific optimized perioperative care pathways, which have potential to fast tract recovery without increasing postoperative mortality and morbidity if implemented with consistency. However it will need more research to address issues related to it.
341 Foreskin Zipper Entrapment: A Simple and Innovative Approach, DR. VIKAS BATHLA, Dr. Pukur Thekdi, Dr. Hard Vasavada, Dr. Pratik Koradiya, Dr. Shaival Majmudar
The foreskin injury caused by entrapment of foreskin between teeth and zip slider of a zipper mechanism is a great distressing situation for the child and parents. Any aggressive management would simply worsen the problem. Here a technique is presented which is quick, painless, requiring minimal anesthesia and only simple instruments like scissors are required and simple to perform.
342 Retinopathic Complications Associated with Fibro Calculous Pancreatic Diabetes Patients, DR. Jhumu Manna, Dr. Asis Manna, DR. Sanjib kr. Gupta
The study was on Fibro-Calculous Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD), which is a subset of Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus and secondary to Tropical Calcific Pancreatitis having multifactorial aetiology, involving both environmental and ethnic factors. We had selected rural areas with mixed socio economic condition for our study, that was the rural areas of gangetic plane of the district of Purba Medinipur West Bengal. At first we confirmed our subjects if they were FCPD affected or not. Due to insufficient information was available in the literature on retinal involvement found from fundoscopic and fluorescein angiographic studies, some of our FCPD patients were subjected to these tests, to have an idea about the degree of injury made by this disease and to compare with other subsets of diabetes. Retinal involvement of our subjects was not very different from other types of diabetes.
343 Comparative Study of Physical Fitness between Physical Education Students and Dancers of Performing Arts, Dr. Mantu Baro, Miss Pikumoni Saikia
The present study was conducted to determine the differences of physical fitness between female Physical Education students and dancers of Performing Arts. The data pertaining to this study were collected from 30 female Physical Education students and 30 female dancers of Performing Arts age ranging from 17 to 25 years. For the study the physical fitness components i.e. Cardio-vascular Endurance, Explosive Leg Strength, Speed, Balance, Arm Strength and Flexibility were tested in the evening from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. by using the Harvard Step Test, Standing Broad Jump, 50 Yards Dash, Stroke Stand Test, Flexed Arm Hang and Sit & Reach Test respectively. The collected raw data were further converted to t- score and analyzed statistically through t-test and the level of significant was observed at 0.05 level of confidence. On the basis of statistical findings it was conclude that there were significant differences in physical fitness between Physical Education students and dancers of Performing Arts (t (0.05, 58) = 5.25 > 2.0017). The Physical Education students have better physical fitness than dancers of Performing Arts (m = 315.99 > 276.69). It was also further concluded that there are significant differences in Speed (2.97), Flexibility (3.14), Explosive Leg Strength (3.32), Balance (3.35) and Arm Strength (2.19) > tabulated t (0.05, 58) = 2.0017 and insignificant difference was observed as in case of Cardiovascular Endurance.
344 Effective Leadership and People Participation towards Achieving all round Development - A Case of Odanthurai Gram Panchayat in Tamilnadu, Dr. R. Chinnadurai
Democratic Decentralization, Participatory Development and Planning at Grassroots Level are the vital areas of concerns of the present approach of poverty reduction and sustainable development in India. This case study documented some best practices of participatory planning and implementation at gram panchayat level. Odanthurai village panchayat of Karamadai block in Coimbatore district in Tamilnadu has been given in this article as a case of success in achieving all round development, based on its success in fulfilling basic needs, education development, provision of housing, technology transfer, production of electricity and coverage of beneficiaries under government development and welfare programmes for its people. It is a worth learning experience for understanding grass roots planning, people participation, effective leadership and transparent local administration.
345 Natural Tooth Pontic - with Resin-Wire Splint, DR.PALLAVI PATIL, DR.PRAJAKTA VALHAVANKAR, DR.ROHINI MALI
Extraction or loss of a hopeless tooth especially in the esthetic region is very distressing for a person and hence its immediate replacement becomes indispensable. Using natural tooth as a pontic bonded to the adjacent abutment teeth with a resin-wire splint is a cost effective, simple, easy chair side technique with esthetically acceptable immediate results. This paper presents a case report to treat the loss of a lower incisor in a patient. The natural tooth pontic (extracted incisor) was stabilized in the extraction socket with a resin-wire splint.
346 Cellulase Producing Streptomycesniveus from Slaughter House Waste, Meignanalakshmi Sundaram, Harini Krishnanandan, Palanisammi A
Streptomycesniveus a cellulase producerwas isolated from the rumen fluid of goat (Capra hircus) collected from the slaughter house. 14 potential isolates were screened by primary screening from which 7 isolates were found to have appreciable cellulase activity. Among the isolates CP 05 was found to have appreciablecellulase activity. For further study, CP 05 was chosen as its specific enzyme activity in the crude and partially purified sample was found to be 1.41 U/mg and 1.53 U/mg respectively. The isolate was found to be Steptomycesniveus by 16S rRNA analyses. Optimizationof cellulase production was carried out for different parameters.At 50C the enzyme activity was maximum. The enzyme activity recorded by the crude and partially purified samples was0.21 and 0.23 U/ml respectively.A maximum enzyme activity of 0.23 U/mlwas obtained atpH 9.0 in the crude extract while in the partially purified sample the activity was found to be 0.24 U/ml. At 1.5% of substrate concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) the activity of the crude sample was 0.2 U/ml. Maximum enzyme activity of the crude sample was achieved at 120 hours of incubation (0.16 U/ml).
347 Carbon Sequestration in Multipurpose Agroforesty Plantations by using Monoculture Agroforesty Models, R. Shankar, Ch. Chandra Sekhar,B. Joseph, K.B. Sunitha Devi, M.A. Aarif Khan
A carbon-flow model for managed agroforesty plantations was used to estimate carbon storage in Acharyear N G Ranga university campus plantations differing in Yield Class(growth rate) and species characteristics. Time averaged, total carbon storage was generally recorded 19,469 kg ha-1 year-1 in trees, 2031 kg ha-1 year -1 in soil organic matter and 3,48,424 kg ha-1 year-1 in wood products. The average rate of carbon storage during early stages in most of the plantations was in 1209 kg C ha-1 year-1. A sensitivity study analysis revaled that average increase in total carbon storage in the tree systems is highest in two tree species viz., Azadirachta indica (6372.0 kg C ha-1 year-1) and Dalbergia sissooo (1415.11 kg C ha-1 year-1). The increase in carbon storage rate was 6-24 m3 ha-1 year-1 and increase in total carbon storage was in the range of 2.5 to 4.6 Mg C ha-1 year-1. If the main objective is to store carbon rapidly in the short term and achieve high carbon storage in the long term, Eucalyptus spp plantations planted in blocks was the best (spacing, year rotations) option. If the objective is to achieve high carbon storage in the medium term without regard to the initial rate of storage, then the plantations of any Dalbergia spp with above 20 years age is suffice. In long term grown broad leaved plantations of Tectona grandis and Azadirachta indica as much carbon stored as the other plantations was observed.
348 Endodontic Management of Radix Entomolaris in Mandibular First Molars Two Case Reports, Maj (Dr.)Ravi Kanth Chintala, Col.(Dr.) Mahesh Gowda, Dr.Potharaju Santhi Priya, Dr. Jai Krishna Srikanth Kolliboyana
Knowledge and understanding of the presence of an additional root and unusual root canal morphology can be a determining factor in the success of endodontic treatment. Unusual root canal anatomy is a common phenomenon, so a comprehensive knowledge of basic root canal anatomy and its variations is necessary for successful completion of endodontic treatment. Here, we describe two radix entomolaris case reports to illustrate the techniques required to visualize and diagnose this anatomical variation. The first of these was a 22-year-old patient with deep caries and irreversible pulpitis in the left mandibular first molar. The second was a 45-year-old patient with chronic irreversible pulpitis and acute apical periodontitis involving the right mandibular first molar. Both patients were found to have a second distal root and root canal in the lingual area. The reports focus particularly on the radiographic techniques necessary to clarify whether such a root is present and on cavity modifications that facilitate the access and instrumentation of these extra canals. We also discuss the importance of locating any additional roots and canals in the context of increased risk of root canal treatment failure if these are not recognized by the clinician.
349 Histopathological Pattern of Sinonasal Masses Reported in A Tertiary Level Hospital, Dr. Usha Sarma, Dr. Surajit Kumar Roy
Nasal obstruction with or without nasal discharge is one of the commonest clinical presentation of sinonasal mass though they have various differential diagnoses. Benign lesion arising from this site may threaten the patient because of high recurrence rate and propensity for malignant potential.A six years retrospective hospital based study was carried out in patients attending ENT department of a tertiary level hospital from north east India with the aim to evaluate the histopathological pattern of sinonasal mass . A total 194 cases were included out of which 59.0% cases were nasal polyp , 38.4% cases were benign tumour and 2.6% cases were malignant lesion. Angiofibroma was the commonest benign tumour detected. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignant tumours. One case of adenoid cystic carcinoma and one case of melanoma were also detected during study period.
350 Detection of Microalbuminuria by Measuring Urinary Protein To Creatinine Ratio Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients., BHAVANI K, DR. VANITHA GOWDA MN
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic nephropathy is the commonest cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in India. Use of urinary microalbumin in screening is limited due to its high cost. The study aimed to determine optimal cut-off value of P:C ratio for the prediction of microalbuminuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 90 patients of type 2 diabetes with random urine samples showing - or (traces) with dipstick test for proteins, were included. Urinary Microalbumin, and total urinary Protien to creatinine ratio were done on random urine samples. RESULTS: 48 subjects had microalbuminuria and 42 subjects had normalbuminuria. Optimal cut-off value for PC Ratio for detection of microalbuminuria was >0.08 with a sensitivity and specificity of 78.83 and 97.62 respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of urinary total Protein to Creatinine Ratio is simple, inexpensive and showed strong positive correlation with the Albumin Creatinine Ratio AND may be more efficient and cost effective than using the albumin to creatinine ratio.
351 Marketing of Health Insurance in Rural Area: a Study With Reference to Gulbarga, Yadgir and Raichur Districts of Karnataka, DR. R.MAREGOUD, MR.ASHOKREDDY B.PATIL
The role and relevance of tax or social health insurance based intervention has come to occupy central stage in recent years in several countries that are undertaking measures to reform health systems. One or a mix of these health-financing models is considered desirable to achieve universal coverage to its population. Most of the low and middle income economies till recently have relied heavily on Out-Of-Pocket (OOP) payments of households, which are regarded as both inefficient and iniquitous. As a consequence, OOP causes financial catastrophe and impoverishment of vulnerable households. The underlying reasons are that the OOP payments preclude the conditions of prepayment, risk-pooling and cross-subsidization. A tax-based health financing mechanism, as in UK, Cuba and Sri Lanka or a broad based social health insurance programs as in Germany, France, Mexico, etc. is being prescribed as a key instrument of health financing strategy for many low income countries like India, if it were to achieve universal health coverage.
352 Pyogenic Granuloma: A Case Report, Bashir Taseer, Srinivas, payal, Saxena Vasu, Yadav Monu, Krishnan Vijay
Pyogenic granuloma is a common vascular nodule that may occur in the skin and mucous surface especially during childhood or early adult life. Young pyogenic granulomas are highly vascular in appearance ranging from soft to spongy in consistency; older lesions tend to become more collagenous and pink and are more rubbery and firm. Here a case report of Pyogenic Granuloma is discussed which was surgically excised.
353 Construction of Single Sampling Plan Indexed Through Average Quality Level, Ponnuraja C, Santhi S
In certain product categories, there will be defective products in virtually every production lot. It is often true even after the manufacturer has checked each individual product and has revamped the defective ones, since visual inspection is not 100% consistent. Consequently, in many supplier or buyer interactions, the supplier is not expected to deliver defect-free commodities. The buyer needs to control the quality of purchased commodities, since the buyer does not want numerous defects. One of the foremost techniques is Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL) which has always stood for the quality level explicitly at the worst tolerability limit. The actual definition of AQL is the percentage of defective parts that is routinely accepted by the sampling plan. In this juncture there is a considerable procedure to deal with this problem using Poisson distribution which is often used as a standard probability model for dealing with this kind of single sampling plan. However many data sets in general are not well fitted by a Poisson model, because they consists of more zero counts than are compatible with the Poisson model. Zero inflated models are used to model count data for which proportion of zero counts is greater than expected. For these situations, a zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) model is generally proposed. It is very logical and encouraging that Zero Inflated Poisson Distribution provided better fit as compared to Poisson distribution in the data sets because of more number of zeros. In this paper the procedure for the construction of Single Sampling Plan (SSP) indexed through Average Quality Level (AQL) using Zero Inflated Poisson (ZIP) distribution as the base line distribution is presented and a table is also presented using Excel packages for the easy selection of the plans.
354 Problems of Elderly Women, Thimmanna, Dr. Chandrakumar. Sedamkar. B
Of the elderly population of more than 60 years, more than half of the population constitutes women. As the elderly women do not have economic security, lack of ownership to properties, lack of respect by younger, etc, the elderly women are suffering from many of the problems in society. Further, elderly women in slum areas and rural areas are more sufferers from many problems as they are illiterates and neglected. These problems should be intervened by NGOs and Government.
355 Power Religious and Socio-Economic Values of Working and Non-Working Women, Dr. Jyoti Mankar, Neeta Ubale
An exploratory research design was employed to know the difference between working and non-working women in respect to their values. 110 working and non-working women comprised sample of the study ranging from 25 to 55age group. The study was trying to explore various values like religious, social, economic, power and so on. The study adopted stratified random sampling method. APersonal values Questionnaire (PVQ) by Dr. G. P. Sherry, Director, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, was administered for observing the values of working and non-working women. Z test was employed to see the difference. The power values of non-working women is higher than that of working women, phenomenal power that energize a family to change atmosphere indicating non-working women are more capable to handle the situation than working women. Economic values, religious values and hedonistic values are significantly negatively related with each other indicates variables are inversely related.
356 Variations in the oracobrachialis and Brachialis of Arm, Dr.Ashwini M Mutalik
Muscular variations are very common in man leading to varieties of anomalies. During routine dissection we found coracobrachialis not pierced by musculocutaneous nerve and with the presence of ligament of struthers. Secondly we also noted that the medial part of brachialis muscle mingled with the fibers of medial head of triceps & finally got inserted into olecranon process of ulna.
357 Study of Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Lmxb Pulsar 4U 1323-619, O.P.Sharma, Moti. R. Dugair, Mukesh Shrimali, S.N.A. Jaaffrey
we reported the detection of a 0.3162 Hz QPO for the first time in the transient pulsar 4U 1323-619. These newly detected QPOs were present more frequently in decline phase of outbursts as compare to the rising phase. However, there are only very few cases of accretion-powered X-ray pulsar such as SMC X-1 (Wojdowski et al. 1998), Her X-1, 4U 1626-67, LMC X-4 (see Table 1 of Shirakawa & Lai 2002) and 4U 0115+63 where multiple QPOs are seen. Another unique thing we detected in this work is the presence of multiple QPOs simultaneously in the same observation at three occasions.
358 Investigating The Effect of Real Activity Management on Conditional Conservatism, M. Karimifard, M. Shirazi, M. Khan-mohammadi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of real activity management (selling, production and discretionary expenditure related activities) on the level of conditional conservatism. The information from 303 listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange for the period of 2001 to 2011 are selected in this study model estimation and research hypotheses testing. Regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. Roychowdhury (2006) model is used in order to estimate the normal level of operating cash flows and abnormal production costs as well as the abnormal discretionary expenditures. Conservatism measurement has been performed using Basu (1997) model. The research hypotheses was investigated using Paternoster et al (1998) test. The research findings shows that companies attempt to reduce the level of conditional conservatism by applying real earning management through managing the production activities and managing the activities related to discretionary expenditures.
359 Drying Of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) to Minimize Pht Loss - A Review, Papu Singh, Sweta Singh, B.R. Singh, Mishra D.K.
Drying is a critical step in the processing of dehydrated products because of the high energy requirement of the process (due to low thermal efficiency of dryers. Increased consumer awareness of food quality as well as the desire to produce a high quality have emphasized the necessity of optimization. Various methods are employed for drying of garlic which have their merits and demerits. Sun drying is suitable for water content reduced from shelf life of products % (db), wind (velocities km/h) for 120 days with over turning once/twice a day and heaping or covering during night and not suitable for large commercial scale. It is a uncontrolled method, non-uniform drying methods. Convection drying is employed for heat and mass transfer coefficient and to study the moistures transport during microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves. It a mechanical process but not feasible operating cost and initial cost. Drying is an industrial preservation method in which water content and water activity of the fruits and vegetables are decreased by heated air to minimized biological, chemical and microbial deterioration. Drying is a process of simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Mathematical modelling help to of drying process help in understanding the physics of drying. At this moisture level, the chances of insects and molds infestation are minimized and thus the commonly can keep well in storage. To obtain the dehydrated product of high quality, the drying process should be such that it allows effective retention of colour appearance, flavour, taste and nutritive value, comparable to fresh vegetables. The technique of drying is probably the oldest method of food preservation practiced by mankind for the extension of food shelf life. The use of artificial drying to preserve agricultural commodities is expanding, creating a need for more rapid drying techniques and methods that reduce the large amount of energy required in drying processes.
360 Effect of Different Processing Methods on Quality of Fresh and Stored Papaya Candy, Chauhan Neelesh, Samsher, Singh Papu, Singh B.R., Singh Jaivir
The study revealed that the moisture content increased with citric acid levels in case of all three processing methods. The values of moisture content increased with citric acid levels in case of all three processing methods. The values of moisture content were found to have decreased after 30, 60 and 90 days of storage. The data showed that the samples packed in PET jars underwent decline in moisture content than the samples packed in PP pouches. The TSS decreased with increase in the level citric acid in tall samples. The TSS was fund to be higher than PP pouches and glass jars respectively at the same level of citric acid. Acidity of fresh samples prepared by first and third processing method at all levels of citric acid. Data obtained for browning index after 30, 60 and 90 days of storage indicated that in case of all samples, the values increased for processing method. The samples having citric acid levels of 0.5%, 0.75% and 1.0% prepared with first processing method had moisture content values of 16.04% and 16.38%, 16.68 and 16.74%, 17.80% and 17.87% respectively after 90 days of storage in PET jars and PP pouches.
361 Studies on Osmatic Dehydration Characteristics of Potato under Tray Dryer, Singh Anuj Pratap, Singh Sweta, Singh Papu, Singh B.R
To investigate mass transfer kinetics, osmosis was carried out in binary sugar and salt solution of varying concentrations using a solution to sample ratio of 1:5. Osmosis was conducted at 30C temperature. At each experimental condition osmotic dehydration was carried out for different time periods. At each designated osmotic time level, the samples were analyzed for moisture content and moisture loss, and the solid gain was calculated based on mass balance. To develop osmo-hot air drying process, potatoes were first osmosed in selected osmotic solutions for selected osmotic time based on the kinetics results. The binary solutions were: 20% sugar 10% salt, 20% sugar 15% salt, 30% sugar 5% salt and 30% sugar 10% salt. Osmotic time was taken to be 1 h. During this period, most of the osmotic water loss potential was achieved and the solid gain remained low so as not to presumably affect the organoleptic characteristics adversely. Osmosed potatoes were then dried in tray dryer at 60, 70, 800C till moisture content reached ?6 % d. b. Non osmosed potato dices were also dried by conventional hot air drying methodblanching and drying at 60oC for comparison. The organoleptic quality of the dried potatoes was determined and statistically analyzed. The moisture loss from and the solid gain by potato increased nonlinearly with duration of osmosis at all solution concentrations and both were higher in the initial period of osmosis than the later period. Further, both moisture loss from and the solid gain by potato dices increased with the increasing salt as well as with the increasing sugar in the osmosis solution.
362 CARBON SEQUESTRATION RATE, CARBON STORAGE RATE AND BIOMASS ESTIMATION IN MAJOR MULTIPURPOSE AGROFORESTRY TREE SPECIES IN DESTRUCTIVE METHOD., R. Shankar, K.B. Sunitha Devi, B. Joseph, M.A. Aarif Khan
Uptake of CO2 from atmosphere and utilization for production of photosynthates at mostly for production of biomass is key principle in CO2 sequestration by plants. The conversion of CO2 to plant carbon differs in plants species mainly due to its genetic nature, photosynthetic rate, energy conversion, age minorly its environment, edaphic factors. The CO2 sequestration rate with the tree differs in different plant parts (bole, stem, foliage) based on its activity. With dwindling forest area agroforesty become alternating source to compensate the forest losses, cultivable land to maintain carbon dioxide balance at optimum level in atmosphere. The present study is on some major six multipurpose trees which include legume and non-legume, timber species were selected within university campus. Among the tree species a comparison is done for estimation of total carbon biomass. Dalbergia sissoo indicated highest total biomass carbon (254.72 kg t-1) and Acacia nilotica (228.42 kg t-1), Albizia lebbeck (219.84 kg t-1) has the lowest values of biomass carbon. The CO2 sequestration rate of above ground parts highest value recorded in Dalbergia sissoo (916.98kg t-1) and lowest in Albizia lebbeck (791.43 kg t-1).Rate of Co2 sequestration is highest in 48% in Dalbergia sissoo and lowest in Albizia lebbeck 43%.
363 Contributions of Jayadev to Odissi Music, MR.DHEERAJ KUMAR MOHAPATRA
The quintessence of Odissi music is discerned in the intrinsic vision of the learners and listeners, who repose in Gitagovinda, for its traits like composition, improvisation, raga repertoire, treatment of rhythms and rhymes, usage and genre. Sri Jayadev has not only originated a specific music tradition, systematic form and definite melodic pattern, raga-tala repertoires but also built a socio-cultural community. The purity, sanctity and characteristic features of Odissi music have been enriched, refined and pervaded its horizon through Gitagovinda of Sri Jayadev. We have the first evidence of Odissi music in an articulated and systematic form from the versifications of Gitagovinda. Gita Govindam is best characterized as a dramatic lyrical poem. It is expressed as a cycle of songs interspersed with recitative metrical forms of classical Kavya verses functioning as independent grammatical and esthetic entities. Some of the descriptive verses stand out as exquisite paintings that stand on their own. Some contain dense descriptions and complex ideas. Alamkara or classical ornamentation is used to expand meaning. Alliterations (Anuprasa) and end-rhymes (Ant-AnuprAsa) occur occasionally
364 Does the type of diet influence Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases, Dr. GAFFAR SARWAR ZAMAN
Aims and Objectives: Dietary pattern may enhance or decrease the risk factors associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different vegetarian diets on type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiac diseases. Materials and Methods: Consumption of selected food items were assessed by a questionnaire. Does who were diabetic, hypertensive or had cardiovascular disease were also assessed by a questionnaire and compared by blood pressure measurements, tests for fasting and postprandial plasma glucose and ECG. Results: No significant numbers of diabetics, hypertensives or heart disease patients were found in the vegan, lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian type but quite a number of diabetics (24.64%), hypertensives (19.57%) and heart disease (6.52%) patients were found in the non-vegetarians. Conclusions: Compared to non-vegetarian diets, vegan diet, lacto-vegetarian diets, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets and pesco-vegetarian diets seem to offer additional protection for hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardivascular diseases
365 Alkaline Phosphatase as a Marker For The Calcification of Coronary Arteries, Dr.Dipika Sathvara, Dr.Himanshu Patel, Dr.Chandan Chakrabarti
Alkaline phosphatase primarily used as a marker for bone calcification. The serum alkaline phosphatase level has shown to be prognostic factor in myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease by its promoting effect on vascular calcification. Considering this vascular calcification contributes to atherosclerosis, vascular hardening and ageing. Serum alkaline phosphatase level may also be linked with poor vascular fate in overall patients with CAD (Coronary artery disease) as well as MI (myocardial infarction) survivors. It was a cross-sectional study. The patients who have disease of coronary vessels admitted for bypass surgery were taken as study cases (n=50) and healthy persons were taken as control (n=50). Both groups are age and sex matched. Serum alkaline phosphatase estimation was done by kinetic method by PNP (p-nitro phenyl phosphate) readymade kit in architect c-8000 ( fully automated closed system instrument). Data were presented as mean SD. P-value (
366 SPECTRUM OF BETA THALASSEMIA MUTATIONS DETECTION IN SOUTH KARNATAKA POPULATION BY USING ARMS-PCR, Harisha S A, Poojitha K, Devaki R N, M N Suma, Devananda D, Vinod Kumar H R
Beta-thalassemia is a highly prevalent autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by the reduced or absent expression of the beta globin gene, leading to an imbalance of alpha and beta globin chains in haemoglobin. Out of 300 different mutations causing beta-thalassemia, IVS1-1, IVS1-5, Codon 41/42, Codon 8/9 are most common in South Karnataka regions, the study was done to analyze the chromosomal background and to detect mutations of beta thalassemia by using ARMS-PCR assay. A total number of 30 diagnosed beta thalassemia cases were taken and DNA samples were used for amplification with different pair of allele specific primers having four pair of test primers and one pair of control primers. The obtained PCR products were electrophorized under optimal conditions. The present study suggests that the most commonly mutation was found to be IVSI-5. These data are useful in future molecular screening of the population for implementing a thalassemia prevention and control program. ARMS-PCR technique were found to be a valuable tool for analysis of beta-thalassemia mutations due to accurate, cost effective, simple and rapid screening.
367 A Study of Phenylthiocarbamide Polymorphism Among Basrah Population/ Iraq, Asaad Y. Ayied, Faizah A. W. Ahmed, Hasna A. Mohaus
The present study deals with the distribution of PTC tasting ability as a marker to study the genetic structure of Basrah population; as no detailed information is available. To investigate the prevalence and gene frequencies of PTC taste sensitivity among male and females in this region and its correlation with body weight, height and BMI. Individuals body weight, height and BMI were also calculated. Genetic and phenotypic analysis was done on collected data. Frequency of taster among female, male and overall were 64.96, 62.90 and 64.32% respectively. Males revealed significant differences between observed and expected values. However, females were under HWE. Observed and expected heterozygosity was 41.20% and 48.74% respectively. Correspondence values for male and female were 31.12% and 66.46% respectively. Genetic breeding coefficient (Fis) was high (around 16%) indicate that there are sort of relative marriages. It was very high (48.8%) for male and was very low (0.7%) for female. However, allele frequency-based correlation between male and female (Fst) was very low (0.0003). With regarding PTC as quantitative traits genetic portion was more than 70% (heritability=0.739) the rest (less than 30%) was environmental factor. PTC scored show positive genetic and additive value (breeding value) with low dominant effect as dominant deviation of Tt genotype was 0.18. BMI showed negatively significant phenotypic correlation (-0.40) with PTC threshold. There is negative and significant regression between BMI and genotype (-2.2671 kg/m3 per 1 unit increase of PTC). PTC genotype determined around 14.8% of body weight variation, whereas, it determined 87.6% of PTC threshold. The genotypes TT and Tt showed lower (P
368 Using Photomicrograph for the Analysis of Chromosomes in Onion (Allium cepa), for Understanding the effect of the Lead (Lead Acetate) and Zinc (Zinc Sulphate) Salts on Chromosome by Sewage Water Irrigation, Dr. Chandan Kumar Sinha, Sarit Pritam Dwibedy, Sudip Mandal, Shruti R Hiremath
The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic effects of some heavy metals on onion (Allium cepa) which is affects human beings directly. Since the beginning of the industrialization, heavy metal pollution of soil and aquatic ecosystems has been significantly increased. The primary reason for actuality of this problem in the human health risk resulting from intake of contaminants through drinking water or through the food chain. Onion is one of the major vegetable crops in India. So for the growing of onion water and soil is required. Untreated sewage water used in agriculture causes biomagnification of heavy metals and it has some genotoxic effects. Onions were obtained commercially and were placed on sand with the tested solutions of two heavy metals. For the control it was used distilled water. When root reached lengths of 2 to 3 cm, they were cut off and incubated with colchicines and fixed with fixative solution containing ethanol and acetic acid in a ratio 1:3. Again incubated with 1N HCl and washed with water. Then fixed roots were placed into staining solution and visualized. Photomicrographs were taken from the well spread preparations. All measurements were taken using the software images. In this study sample 1 has only one type of chromosome that is metacentric, sample 2 has all the three type of chromosome that are metacentric, submetacentric and subtelomeric where the control has two types of chromosome that are metacentric and submetacentric. There had been the change in total chromosome length (TCL), as well as the average chromosome length (ACL), The arm ratio, (p: q) was also affected by the Lead Acetate and Zinc Sulphate.
369 Treatment of Chronic RadiationInducedinjury of Lymphocyte With Exogenously Added Superoxide Dismutase Purified From a Sewage Isolated E Coli, Petkar Medha B, Dr. Pillai Meena M, Dr. PODHA S. Dr KRSS Rao, Mrs Patil Pallavi S, Mrs Thakur Saee H
Accidental exposure toradiation forms free radicals which causes cell death. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme produced for dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide to prevent damage caused by superoxide radical. SOD have been implicated in many disease states including inflammatory diseases, ischemia and reperfusion, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, as well as more subtle roles in cell signaling and perhaps in immune function, SOD is not yet in widespread usage in human clinical medicine. One obstacle has been that none of the three human SODs possesses attractive pharmacological properties to make it a clinically useful therapeutic agent.In this experiment a sewage isolate wasused for production of SOD. Enzyme was purified by mechanical and enzymatic cell disruption then ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by column chromatography method. Then its effect was studied on irradiated lymphocytes. For comparison1mg of purereference SOD powder (sigma) was used. The cell monolayer was irradiated in 25-cm2 culture flasks in the exponential growth phase. Culture flask was irradiated with dose of 6 Gy.SOD was added after 30 min in the culture and incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37C in CO2 incubator for 72 hours. To check percentage viability, cell culture was stained by Trypan blue. The percentage viability clearly shows that the irradiations were lethalfor cells (17.48%). The addition of superoxide dismutase to cells after irradiation attenuated the death of cells by irradiation and was effective for increased survival. Viability with our SOD increases up to 77.96% which was significantly nearer to viability by pure reference SOD values 83.53%. So it can be concluded that, the SOD treatmentcan be used for recovery of irradiated cells and it increases cell viability
370 Studies on The Experimental Control of Dragonfly Larvae Brachythemis Contaminata (Fabr.) (Anisoptera:libellalidae) with Insecticides And Bio Insecticides in the Laboratory, Manpreet Kaur Singh
The studies on the control of odonata larvae Brachythemis contaminata (Fabr.) by insecticides and bioinsecticides were carried out in the laboratory. The results suggest that insecticide and bioinsecticide of different concentrations of Endosulfan, Nuvan, Malathion, Indoneem and a combination of Endosulfan+Indoneem are very effective to eradicate the larvae B. contaminata from fishponds. The present study will be useful for proper preparation of the fish nursery ponds of stocking spawn of carp for better management of fish production practices.
371 A Poisonous Forest Tree Vishtendu (Diospyros Montana Roxb.) : Taxonomic Evaluation, KRANTI RAI, DR. ELA TIWARI
Poisonous plants have many chemical constitutents. Diospyros montana is a naturally occurring tree of deciduous forest. It is poisonous used in various purposes i.e. weapons, in controlling pests and medicines on the basis its constituent properties. Poisonous plants occur in great variety (higher plants and lower groups) in tropical regions. Studies of Diospyros montana are done for their taxonomy, toxic and medicinal properties and epidermal studies. Four types of trichomes i.e. Unicelled flagellate glandular hair, Unicelled branched flagellate glandular hair, Unicelled Conical glandular hair, Uniseriate flagellate glandular hair and two types of stomata i.e. anomocytic and actinocytic are present on different plant parts of Diospyros montana. The study indicates the taxonomic importance of the different parameter of epidermal studies of the plant.
372 Foliotoxicity of Parthenium Hysterophorus L. and Lantana Camera L. on Earth Worm, Ajayan K.V, Babu.R .L
This investigation was undertaken to study the anti-wormal and anti vermi compositing activities of two widespread weeds such as Lantana camera L and Parthenium hysterophorus L.The work highlighted the significance of anti-wormal and anti vermin compositing activities of exotic weeds, which were unknowingly added for preparation of vermi-composit, which in turn reduces the decomposition of litter by death of earthworms. Anti-wormal assay was performed on adult Indian earthworm Pheretima pasthuma. The time taken for paralysis and death of worms was found lesser in case of methanol extract followed by aqueous extract. The results were compared with standard drug Albendazole and confirm that all extracts were potential toxicity on earth worms slightly vary from its concentration and combinations. In all the experiment set the working concentrations is varied from 100g/l to 500 g /l and all extract shown the lethality on earth worms.
373 DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Different Extract of Eclipta alba., Bindia Sahu
Plant & plant products are being used as a source of medicine since a long period in our country. Natural products are organic compound that are synthesized by the plants as secondary metabolites to protect them from insect, pest, or other environmental conditions.The medicinal value of plants was to see chemical substances that produce a definite psychological action on the human body. The most important of these bioactive compounds of plants are alkaloids, flavonoids, tennis, and phenolic compounds. Flavonoids have been reported as an antioxidant. Majority of the disease are mainly linked to the oxidative stress due to free radicals. Free radicals are fundamental to any biochemical process and represent an essential part of aerobic life &metabolism the most common reactive oxygen species (ROS) include (O2-) anion, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (ROO-) radicals & reactive (OH-) radicals. The nitrogen derived free radicals are, nitric oxide (NO) & (ONOO-) anion. ROS have been implicated in over a 100 of disease which range from arthritis & connective tissue disorder to carcinogenesis, ageing physical energy infection & acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Antioxidants play a very important role in the therapy of these diseases. The DPPH method applies to the overall antioxidant capacity of the sample. DPPH is relatively stable free radical and the method determines the ability of acetone extract of plant to reduce the DPPH radical to the corresponding hydrazine by reacting with the hydrogen donors in the antioxidant principles. . Ethanolic extracts of E. alba exhibited better antioxidant potential in comparision to ascorbic acid as evidenced by lower IC50values respectively in DPPH assay
374 Metal Complexation Studies of 1-(4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-N- ethyl phenyl Amino methyl) benzotriazole., P.K.Patel, P.D. Patel
Aminomethylation of benzotriazole was carried out by treating benzotriazole with formaldehyde and N-ethyl 4-aminosalicylic acid. The resultant compound namely was designed as CEPB 1-(4-caroxy-3-hydroxy-N-ethyl phenylamino methyl)benzotriazole. The transition metal complexes of Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+,Mn2+,and Zn2+ of CEPB have been prepared and characterized by Elemental analyser, spectral studies, magnetic moment determination, molar conductivity measurement and antimicrobial activity.
375 Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles Embedded with Extract of the Plant Panicum maximum with Enhanced Antioxidant Behavior , Kanika Agarwal, M M Srivastava
The present piece of work deals with the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles embedded with ethyl acetate extract of plant Panicum maximum. The best parameters used for the synthesis includes NaAuCl4 salt solution (1 ml; 1 mM) and ethyl acetate extract of Panicum maximum (5 ml; 125 g/ml). The results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Antioxidant activities were determined using DPPH and Fenton bioassays. Gold nanoparticles embedded with ethyl acetate extract of Panicum maximum shows 36.2% enhancement in the antioxidant behaviour.
376 Synthesis, Characterization, Docking Studies And Bio-Efficacy Evaluation of Novel 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives, Mohammed Hadi Ali AL-Jumaili
In the present study two new series of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives (1,4-DHPs) containing substituted pyrazole moiety (5a and 5c ) were synthesized by the reaction of pyrazole aldehyde with 1,3-dicarbonylcompounds (ethylacetoacetate and methylacetoacetate) and ammonium acetate. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, study and also by C, H, N analyses. New compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity by paper disc method.
377 Antiproliferative Activity Of New Schiff Bases Derived From 3-Fluoro-5- (Trifluoromethyl)Benzylamine, S. Nagashree , C S. Karthik, Dr. L. Mallesha, Dr. P. Mallu, S. Bindya
A series of new 3-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzylamine derivatives 3(a-i) were synthesized and characterized by different spectral studies. New compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative effect using the MTT assay method against two human cancer cell lines (MCF7 and U373) and one astrocytoma brain tumor (C6 rat glioma) cell line. Among the series, compounds 3e and 3i showed good activity on all cell lines, whereas the other compounds in the series exhibited moderate activity.
378 Properties and Characterization of HDTMA- Cl Modified Jordanian Kaolinite and Its Use in Removal of Aniline from Aqueous Solution, Dr.Salem M.Musleh
Cretaceous Jordanian kaolinite from Batn Al-Ghul was modified by cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammomium chloride( HDTMA-Cl). The raw and the resultant organo clay samples were characterized using Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Fourier Transformed (FTIR), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry(TG/DTA) and UV/ VIS Spectrometry. The FTIR spectra reveal vibration frequencies shift in bands at 2816 and 2820 cm-1 for original kaolinite to 2849 and 2870 cm-1 for organo kaolinite. The XRF results show change in the chemical composition between the raw and the modified sample mainly in loss on ignition, which increase to 21.25% in the organo kaolinite due to the loading of the surfactant. XRD results shows contraction in d(001) from 7.01807A to 6.9795A indicate change in the interlayer spacing due to the adsorption of HDTMA-Cl on the external of the surface of kaolinite. The DTA shows peaks at 374 C indicate intercalation of surfactant on the kaolinite, and at 840 C is the formation of amorphous SiO2 .The raw and modified kaolinite was investigated to check their ability in removing aniline from aqueous solution. It found that surfactant modified kaolinite increase adsorption of aniline by 11.5% more than the raw kaolinite in the range of 30 -150 ppm concentrations.
379 Synthesis and Characterisation of Novel Citric Acid Based Polyester Elastomers From Sunflower Oil, G . S . Prabha Littis Malar, S . Begila David
Novel Biodegradable Polyesters are emerging and promising biomaterials for tissue scaffolding, drug delivery, biomedical and implant coatings. In this work, polyesters were obtained by thermal poly condensation technique on the effect of sunflower oil-based polyols with non-toxic monomers such as citric acid, 1,6-hexanediol, 1,3-propanediol without addition of catalyst. The prepared epoxy resin, polyol were characterized using FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Newly synthesized co-polyesters were characterized by FT-IR, swelling and solubility studies, TG-DTA, SEM analysis and mechanical analysis. These polyesters exhibit excellent properties that can be tuned by the choice of monomers.
380 Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Substituted Piperidine Derivatives, RAJALAKSHMI . S, SRINIVASAN. S, ARUNA.S, R.GIRIJA
These findings prompted us to synthesize compounds containing nearly four piperidine are prepared. The piperidine are coupled with three amino acid hydrazides under microwave irradiation. The products obtained are checked for purity and the characterization is done. All these piperidine derivatives are characterized by 1H, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies.
381 Physico-Chemical and Acoustical Characterization of Lakes in and Around Coimbatore City, R.Mahalakshmi, P.S.Syed shabudeen, K.Rathina
Global warming in aquatic ecosystem will lead to degassing of oxygen, increased stratification, reduced deep water circulation, changes in wind patterns, changes in species composition, eutrophication which leads to overall degradation of lake water ecosystem. In the process towards the creation of better opportunities and better comforts for living man does knowingly or unknowlingly the greatest damage to the ecosystem.The water quality in the form of physico chemical characteristics and Acoustical parameters were studied to assess the lake water suitability for various purposes. Sampling was done in five different lakes in and around Coimbatore city and subjected to water quality assessment .Results revealed that there was a lot of fluctuation in the physico chemical parameters of water samples. The implication on public health and aquatic organisms were also determined.
382 Data of Manufactured Panel Test Smears In The Who-Rntcp, Gujarat, India, Dr. Nilesh D. Patel, Dr. Paresh V. Dave, Dr. Kiran Rade
Aim: To present an overview of manufacturing and validation data about proficiency panel test smears in the RNTCP-EQA, India guideline. Material and Methods: The Intermediate Reference Laboratory, Ahmedabad; Gujarat state, India is a well-functioning tuberculosis reference laboratory and has clinical laboratory resources and instruments required for manufacturing and validating proficiency panel test slides. Manufacturing and validating proficiency panel test smears is an important integral part of EQA guideline, and the Intermediate Reference Laboratory; Ahmedabad is implementing it since 2005, an overview of which is presented in this article. All tuberculosis laboratory procedures described here had been performed in biological safety cabinets along with universal safety precautions as per the WHO-RNTCP guidelines. Results: For each panel batch, it took two to three weeks for abiding manufacturing and validation procedure. The smear characteristics were pleasingly different from those of routine Z-N smear. Four to six intermediate reference laboratory personnel validated consistency of each batch of slides by selecting a sample of six slides from each AFB grade, staining and reading it. True consistency level was found for each AFB grade in every validated batch. Conclusion: Manufacturing panel slides requires considerable resources like well-equipped laboratory, dedicated laboratory staff and meticulous documentation of validation process. Inclusion of N-acetyl-L-cysteine is a key part of sputum digestion process. The technical quality of smears manufactured at the Intermediate Reference Laboratory, Ahmedabad was satisfactory. With this labour intensive and time consuming process, EQA has come closer to gold standard Z-N smear, at least in proficiency panel testing if not in re-checking mechanism. Validated panel smears can be successfully used for assessing proficiency of the laboratory staff in sputum smear microscopy
383 A Study on Services Marketing Mix With Reference to Hotel Industry in Mayiladuthurai Town, Dr. C.BALAJI
Hotel industry one of the fastest growing industry in the current scenario .The demand of hotel industry has been increase in recent time and now days tourists want highly specialized as well as customized services from hotel industry. In addition, competition in the field of hotel industry and tourism has always been extremely on top and it is always difficult for newcomers to adopt the new trends and demand their own market share. Therefore, Hotel industry professionals need to focus on offering better quality services at affordable prices for the customers. The main goal of the industry is to obtain customer satisfaction in terms of services and money and maintain stable relationship with customers in long term basis.
384 Supply Chain- Operational Efficiency in Retail Sector, T. C. BRINDHA, Dr.G. Thamizhchelvan
Organized retail is in a nascent stage of growth in India as it just has a 5.9% share in the total Indian retail trade. However, in recent years, organized retailing has been growing at a robust rate due to rise in the number of shopping malls as well as in the number of organized retail formats. In the course of this retail evolution in India, the supply chain has also seen significant activity. After all, Supply chain forms a major part of the sustenance of any retail venture. For the retail venture to flourish successfully, it should have an efficient and well established supply chain. In the modern format, when all the other aspects of retailing have been discarded as being a differentiating factor, the role of supply chain has become even more important. From being just a part of the operations of a network, supply chain is soon going to become the source of competitive advantage for some firms.
385 Development of Resort by Emerging Entrepreneur: An Innovative Case from Malaysias Village, Dr. Shankar Chatterjee
Based on field study in Malaysia, this article has been prepared. The study was conducted in August 2014 in Malaysias Raub district of Kampung Peruas village, Pahang state. This unique case heralds without college degree or even high school certificate one can be successful entrepreneur as early as in 1992 by setting up small enterprise. A dull place has been developed as tourist resort by an elderly person, Mr. Mustapa, who had no educational qualification and after his death in May 2014 his wife, daughter and son- in- law were managing with six workers. Moreover the resort has facilitated to provide employment to many through development of tertiary sector. Young entrepreneurs may be motivated in such venture in India also. Pertinent to mention that Malaysian currency is known as Ringgit (symbol RM) & RM 1= 19 Indian rupees, approximately.
386 Pornographic Contents Through Social Networks: A Case of Western Ethiopia, Shafaat Hussain, Mohd. Arasad
Social networks, for more than the last two decades, have been reshaping the entire behavior of youths communication. It has reduced their distances; strengthened their relationships; and has increased their volume of communication. This study explores how the Ethiopian youths are using porn materials through social networks. The objective of this research is to analyze the age and gender dynamics of youths regarding threats of using social networks. There are three target population of this study from where the sample is drawn: teen cyber caf visitors, cell phone using older youths and laptop using professional youths. For the first target population, systematic random sampling is used whereas for the second and third snowball sampling is applied. The sample size (264) comprises of questionnaire (n=252) supplemented by interview from key respondents (n=12). The data is collected and analyzed keeping in view the age and gender dynamics and the result is presented.
387 Robust Image Normalization Using H-Connection Technique for Face Recognition, K.M.Ponnmoli, Dr. S. Selvamuthukumaran
Normalization process for face recognition process is a vital one that can be done by perform the H-connection of pixel coordinates from badly degraded face images are very confronting tasks because of high variation between the image background and the foreground layers of different document images. In this proposed system the novel image normalization using the H-CON (Hierarchical Connection) technique handle these issues with the adaptive image contrast. Combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient constitutes the adaptive image contrast. It is adaptive to the variation of text and background with the image degradation. In the proposed system the map is first developed for the degradation of the image. The contrast map is then binarize and it is integrated with the Cannys edge map to recognize the pixel edges. The feature of the image is divided by a threshold and it is determined with the intensities in the pixel edges. In the proposed system the method is clear and strong and includes minimum boundary tuning. The experiments on the test bed has a several challenging tasks and documents .Estimated with other techniques shows the PSNR,FAR and noise level of the output image.
388 A Study On Tomographic Imaging And Its Reconstruction, Rajashekar Kudari
This paper elaborate the field of tomography and computerized tomography image processing the reconstruction methods. Tomography refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave. A device used in tomography is called a tomograph, while the image produced is a tomogram. Tomography as the computed tomographic (CT) scanner was invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, and thereby made an exceptional contribution to medicine. The method is used in radiology, archaeology, biology, atmospheric science, geophysics, oceanography, plasma physics, materials science, astrophysics, quantum information, and other sciences. In most cases it is based on the mathematical procedure called tomographic reconstruction[1].
389 A Study on Employee Satisfaction towards TQM Practices, Mrs. Lilly. J, Ms. Maheshwari. M
When a management team with a reputation for brilliance tackles a business with a reputation for bad economics, it is the reputation of the business that remains intact Warren Buffett TQM has spread its wings in every sphere of the global corporate world and Indian companies. Total Quality Management which is one of the human-centered, participatory, and in the understanding of a customer and employee-oriented philosophy, a system which processes the continuous development and improvement.TQM literature shows the relationship between TQM and employees satisfaction in an organization. Organizational outcomes are effected by employee satisfaction, so it very important for the organizations. The present study will fill this gap and also provide some practical guidance to the software companies dealing with this issue. Many of the basic TQM elements dealing with people have been examined in previous studies such as: teamwork, reward and recognition, customer focus, organizational trust, extensive training, high level of communication, management commitment at all levels, employee involvement, empowerment and organizational culture
390 Possibilities of Balanced Scorecard Application in Commercial Banks, Sanja Broz Tominac
Efficiency measuring of commercial banks is an important aspect of banks management. This paper is about Balanced Scorecard as a tool or methodology of managerial accounting which helps to achieve harmony and mutual maintenance of key banks processes. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how Balanced Scorecard is developed but also applied in banks, i.e. in their performance measurement. Achieving goals of one perspective enables the achievement of goals of other perspectives. That means that results show a relationship between non-financial and financial dimension of Balanced Scorecard. Implementation of BSC model in banks isnt simple because of existing tradition which focuses just on financial indicators. Because of lack of research in this specific area, the contribution of this paper is in knowledge on how banks may apply Balanced Scorecard.
391 Urban Co-Operative Banks and Their Extent of Access to Borrowers- A Study in Gulbarga District of Karnataka , V. Honnappa Gowda, Dr. S. Mahendra Kumar
Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs) are an important part of the financial system in India. It is, therefore, necessary that the UCBs emerge as a sound and healthy network of jointly owned, democratically controlled, and ethically managed banking institutions providing need based quality banking services, essentially to the middle and lower middle classes and marginalized sections of the society. The present study is focused on examining the borrowers preference of Urban Cooperative Banks. The study is an attempt made to examine the extent of borrower purchase behavior influenced by Urban Cooperative Banks in Gulbarga District of Karnataka State and its impact on augmenting income, employment generation and improving the living standards of the sample borrowers. The observations in this study are basically based on the field survey (during 2012-13) conducted on 100 sample borrowers who actively visited the Sir M. Vishweshwaraiah Sahakara Bank Niyamita, Gulbarga taluk (50 borrowers) and Shri Mahatma Basaveshwara Cooperative Bank Ltd, Afzalpur taluk (50 borrowers). It has been found that UCBs are important crowd pullers and played an important role in improving the living style, social status, improving their business based on borrowers interest and their positive involvement at the Urban Cooperative Banks of the sample selected Gulbarga taluk and Afzalpur taluk in Gulbarga district of Karnataka. Most of the borrowers reported that UCBs are provided several types of loans facilities as per members convenience with low rate of Interest.
392 Granger Causality Modeling of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and GDP for India, Parmeshwar Honrao
This paper empirically investigates and analyzing the causality Relationship between the inflows foreign Direct investment and GDP per capita in context of. India. The study Reference during the period of 1975 to 2010. Paper has used the Granger-causality test to examine the relationship between FDI and growth. The direction of causality has important policy implications that there is a unidirectional Granger causality from foreign direct investment. Unit root and ADF test has used for the integrated FDI and GDP.the empirical analysis on basis of ordinary Least Square Method suggests that there is positive relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) investment and GDP
393 Cultural Disability in Nigerian Society, Michael Eskay, Joshua, E. Umeifekwem, Kay C. Onyechi
The concept of Cultural disability has been investigated from various cultural perspectives across the globe. The authors explored how services and how specific support networks have been provided to people with disability in Nigerian Society. Both developed and developing societies have had to deal with unique challenges in monitoring services for people with disability regardless of the geographical location; financial resources, accountability, and adequate staffing are primary problems to the delivery of services to the disabled. Prospects and challenges facing people with disability make for policy reforms and advancements in special education in Nigerian Society.
394 Provision and Maintenance of Quality Education for Learners With Special Needs in Nigerian Inclusive Schools, Michael Eskay, Joshua, E. Umeifekwem, Kay C. Onyechi
Learners with special needs are only different from others in that they requirespecial attention which others may not require.Learners with special needs share in common with their other peers the desire for education and selfdetermination. However, they are limited by the challenges of sustaining attention and focus. Regrettably, quality education within the framework of inclusive education for special needs is gravely undermined by lack of provision of this programme. In the endeavor of finding ways to assist such learners along their individual paths of discovery, it is essential that parents and teachers play their various roles of devising standard means of engaging with special needs. This paper therefore contends that a very important way to achieve quality education for persons with special needs is to inextricably link special educational processes with broader processes of educational reform. More so to integrate them regardless of the type or severity of disability, in their communities so that they experience no physical or attitudinal barriers as they pursue their personal goals in education, housing ,employment, and all other activities of daily living. This process is generally known as inclusion. It will help to achieve the education for all objectives by making it possible for learners with special needs to be educated in least restrictive environment, and will help promote quality education for all children especially those with special needs.
395 Effect of Ct And Tbct on The Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students, PARASURAMA. D, Dr. S. Srikanta Swamy
The objective of the study is to compare the effect of CT and TBCT on the academic achievement of secondary school students. In this study two equivalent group design is considered. In which group -1 is exposed to Constructivist Teaching (CT) and group-2 is exposed to Technology Based Constructivist Teaching (TBCT). The sample comprised of 156 students studying in IX standard of two schools (Government and Private) of Bangalore city. Researcher identified and collected topics from the school and developed CT and TBCT modules considering 5 E Learning model, Jigsaw and Integration of Technology. Intervention of CT and TBCT carried by engaging the students in Home and Expert group, and students were exposed to knowledge construction activities. Researcher developed the Daily Assessment Sheet (DAS), Unit Test and Post-Test to measure the academic achievement of students. Researcher developed the Achievement test based on the Blue Print and approval from the subject experts, to measure the academic achievement of students. Finally post-test was administered to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. The findings of the study are CT and TBCT intervention helped the students to perform better in post-test, TBCT approach is more effective than CT approachto enhancing the academic achievement of students.CT and TBCT approach have not influenced by the gender in private school whereas only TBCT group was influenced by the gender in government school.
396 An Enquiry On The Disadvantaged Background Affecting Students Of Higher And Further Education In Tiruchirappalli District Of Tamilnadu, R. Durai, Dr.R.Subhuraman
This study done on a simple enquiry of interaction done among the students of higher education institutions in Tiruchirappalli district of Tamilnadu, sampling hundred, identifies what affects the experiences of the minority of disadvantaged young people who do enter higher education. Tracking a group of qualified but socio-economically disadvantaged young people, the enquiry identifies factors that hinder their progress as well as the ways in which they overcome barriers. This enquiry follows on from a related statistics available in the internet sources of the district.
397 Design and Analysis of A Cement Mortar Lining Machineshaft Hub and Corresponding Bolts, M Sreelekha, S Praveen kumar, Sreenivasulubejawada
For modern water supply systems ductile Iron pipe has been introduced for industry standards. Ductile iron pipe is used from more than four decades because it is as been proved with good field experience by international standard and it can resist damage of high wearing, high strength, impact loads and corrosion. When shaft rotates at high-speeds continuously, stress builds in tires causing shearing of bolts, connecting rim to the shaft hub. Friction between tire and pipe generates heat which may blow up the tireto avoid this problem by using water as coolant. The corrosion takes places in shaft hub corresponding bolts because of water used as coolant. Production losses occur due to frequently breakdowns of shaft hub and corresponding bolts. Present work mainly focused on the methods of improving the design of the shaft hub and bolts, to overcome the above problem by using ansys software
398 Automated Maintenance System of Solar Panel For Wild (Wheel Impact Load Detector), A.Muniappan, Dr.C.Thiagarajan, Aswin Anand
The project titled WHEEL IMPACT LOAD DETECTOR (WILD) is being actively done in the Organization APNA TECHNOLOGIES AND SOLUTIONS for Indian railways. The organization is the only Indian developer and supplier of this system for Indian Railways. The Internship program consists of intelligent software algorithms that have been developed to identify the Wheel Impact and Impact Load Factor along with other parameters like time & speed of the train, axle number, average dynamic wheel load and maximum wheel load. The sensors on the track senses the dynamic impact load caused by the wheels, the high speed data acquisition system acquires the data and the embedded controller does the signal processing & analysis to identify the impact load data. The same is transferred to a remote centralized server through GPRS and Optical Fiber Communication, i.e. how information traverses through network from source to destination based on the OSI reference model, routing basic , structure of the network, the basic functionality of the devices, tools and process and a brief session on performance management. It also includes hands on experience on the live project at their installed sites.
399 Detrimental Environmental Impact of Mining & Consequential Improvement An Overview, G.Kumar
Environment has become one of the hot topic for discussion these days among most sections of the society. World over, great stress is being laid on a variety of environmental issues such as (i) Conservation and management, (ii) Pollution effects of pollution on health of human being and other organisms, (iii) Solutions and remedies for pollution which are discussed and debated world over. India is the only country in the world where environment has been enshrined in the Constitution. Art. 48 (A) of our Constitution envisages protection, preservation and proper management of the natural wealth by every citizen. The environmental impact of mining includes erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes. Mining companies in some countries are required to follow environmental and rehabilitation codes, ensuring the area mined is returned to close to its original state. Some mining methods may have significant environmental and public health effects. Erosion of exposed hillsides, mine dumps, tailings dams and resultant siltation of drainages, creeks and rivers can significantly impact the surrounding areas. In areas of wilderness mining may cause destruction and disturbance of ecosystems and habitats, and in areas of farming it may disturb or destroy productive grazing and croplands. In urbanized environments mining may produce noise pollution, dust pollution and visual pollution. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight pertinent environmental issues concerning adverse environmental impact of mining
400 Structural And Modal Analysis of A Marine Engine Helical Gear, K.Irshad, M.Vamsi Krishna, Sreenivasulu Bejawada
A helical gear is a most widely used power transmission component and is also used in marine engine propeller shaft. Usually this helical gear is manufactured by mild steel and it is observed that it was failure due to more weight as well as the properties of the material. The present work deals with the designing of the helical gear of marine engine propeller shaft by the materials mild steel and aluminum alloys 7475 and 6061.The gears Parametric 3D modeling is done in CATIA V5 R12 and analysis is done in Ansys14.
401 Optimization of Solar driven Li-Br water absorption system using EGM method, Hussain Abdulhushen Pipwala
As a result of the projected world energy shortage, the use of solar energy for environmental control is receiving much attention in the engineering sciences literature. A stimulation of the solar Li-Br VAR system is carried out that predicts the performance of the system under given ambient condition. An optimization tool namely genetic algorithm (GA) is used to find the optimized parameter at minimum entropy of the component.
402 Health Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance System Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Analysis, Lavanya G, Dr.D.Dhanasekaran, Bhuvaneswari
Recently, research on effective Acoustic Emission based methods for condition monitoring and fault detection has attracted many researchers. Due to the complexity of acoustic signals properties, the effective features of fault detection cannot be easily extracted from the raw acoustic signals; such a problem is solved by utilizing VLSI process. This method depends on the variations in frequency to distinguish different operating conditions of a machine. The intension in this study is to categorize the acoustic signals into faulty andhealthyclasses. Acoustic emission signals are generated from four different motor in both healthy and faulty conditions and various load conditions. It is implemented and configured using an FPGA-PC. There are three approach available for this experiments 1. Acoustic signal Data acquisition 2.Statistical relation between healthy and unhealthy signal 3.Comparisons .
403 Speed Control Of Dc Motor Using Micro Controller, ROMAL BASNET, Mr. P. Balamurugan.
the aim of this project is to control the speed of dc motor in an electronic way i.e. by using micro controller. It is an easiest and less time consuming with a great reliability and high accuracy
404 Decision Trees in Fuzzy Logic, VINNAKOTA MANJULA
This paper describes the Application of Decision Trees in Fuzzy Logic. Decision trees are one of the most popular choices for learning and reasoning Decision Tree analysis involves the construction of diagram that shows at a glance when decisions are expected to be made- in what sequence, the possible consequences etc.This paper, describes an introduction to fuzzy decision trees. They have undergone a number of alterations to deal with language and measurement uncertainties combined by symbolic decision trees with approximate reasoning offered by fuzzy representation. The intent is to exploit complementary advantages of both popularity in applications, and the ability to deal with inexact and uncertain information of fuzzy representation.. In particular, knowledge inferences must be newly defined for the fuzzy tree. Decision-tree algorithms are of the most popular applications in real life The learning method is most suitable for stationary problem.
405 Self-reflexivity in African Fiction: A Study on Coetzee's summertime, Aswathy S M
One of the things that distinguish postmodern aesthetic work from modernist work is extreme self-reflexivity. Postmodernists tend to take this even further than the modernists but in a way that tends often to be more playful, even irreverent. This same self-reflexivity can be found everywhere in pop culture, for example the way the Scream series of movies has characters debating the generic rules behind the horror film. In modernism, self-reflexivity tended to be used by "high" artists in difficult works .Post modernism, self-reflexive strategies can be found in both high art and everything from Seinfeld to MTV. In postmodern architecture, this effect is achieved by keeping visible internal structures and engineering elements (pipes, support beams, building materials, etc.).
406 Communicative Competency- an Essential Skill for Engineering Students, Dr. R. Uma alias Seetha
The ability to learn languages and adapt communicative competencies to the changing needs of a global society is becoming a necessity for future engineers. Effective communication is made possible with the help of language. With globalization, revolution in ICT, a demand is created and placed on the part of the engineers right from the beginning of their career. At present times besides field knowledge, employers look for sound communication skills in job aspirants. In spite of good subject knowledge, students with poor communicative skills are selected out in interviews for placements in jobs; thereby they become unemployable much to the disappointment of both the job aspirants and their parents. So it is clearly proved that, the English language has become a major medium for communication across borders globally; a deficiency in this area might result in barriers for graduates personal and professional development.
407 Research on The Possibility to Utilize Crude Glycerol and Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate For Production of Alkyd Resins, Nikola Todorov, DonkaTodorova
The possibility to utilize two waste products crude glycerol (CGly) and waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for production of alkyd resins was investigated. Flakes, obtained from PET beverage bottles were depolymerized with CGly- a side product by the biodiesel production.Two fractions were separated from the depolymerization product water soluble (WSF) and water insoluble (WIF). Two medium oil alkyd resins were obtained from WSF (or WIF), phthalic anhydride, glycerol and mixture of sunflower oil and linseed oil by the alcoholysis method. A reference alkyd resin was synthesized from phthalic anhydride, glycerol and a mixture of sunflower oil and linseed oil. Progress of the polycondensation reaction, wasmonitored by periodically checking the acid number of the reaction mixture. Films, prepared from alkyd resins solutions in xylene were dried at 25C. Some of their properties were studied drying time, hardness and adhesion.
408 Brewery Waste Water Treatment Using Sequential Batch Reaction: India, Lokesh Kumar Akula, Narsimha rao, P, Habiulla.
Present research study was conducted for a period of six months to evaluate each and every phase of industrys waste water treatment processes as a cumulative research. The quantity and quality of brewery waste water fluctuates significantly, depending upon operations like raw material handling, wort preparation, fermentation, filtration, controls in process (CIP) and packaging. The water discharged is found to be highly organic in nature with high COD consisting of easily biodegradable sugars, soluble starch, ethanol and volatile fatty acids. This article aims to study the performance evaluation of ETP of a brewing industry located nearby Hyderabad, India. By feeding influent with controlled input parameters like pH, TSS and COD in UASB reactor, considerable reductions in the pollution loads were achieved. It was also found that improved removal efficiency is achieved by maintaining Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and controlled oxygenation in the aerobic treatment. The performance evaluation was indicated that 97?98% COD removal, 97%99% TSS removal and 98% BOD removal efficiencies were achieved.
409 A Treatment Study Of Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastewater Using Uasb, Narsimha Rao. P, Habiulla .S, K. Vishnu das Prasad, Anand.Ch
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is widely used for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, performance of a lab-scale Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, treating an antibiotic chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater, was evaluated under different operating conditions. A pipe with a diameter of 250 mm and total height of 120 cm and effective height of 100 cm with approximate volume of 50 liter was used as a reactor. The loading rates on reactor were increased in steps to assess the maximum loading capacity of the reactor to study the performance of reactor at different loading rates. The COD concentrations used in the present investigation ranges between 10,050 mg/L to 15,170 mg/L. The performance of the reactor up to 10.81 kg COD/m3.d was evaluated and the hydraulic retention times were examined. During this study, which lasted for 120 days, the temperature of the wastewater entering the reactor ranged from 30 to 35 o C and no heat exchanger was used. Finally the removal ratio of COD with hydraulic retention time of 33.7 hours and organic loading rate of 10.81 kg COD/m3.day were 54 percent respectively
410 Menace Of Electronic And Electrical Waste In Developing Countries , Vikrant Srivastava
Electrical and Electronic Wastes, in spite of all the hue and cry globally; there is a lot of to be taken care of. No doubt developing countries like India are trying their best to empower and polish themselves as a developed nation, problems emerge. Import of e-waste helps countries like India to come out of the ashes right into the fire. A MAIT GTZ study says 50,000 metric tonne of e-waste is illegally imported to India. [1] If this continues results of accumulation of E-waste would be disastrous. What goes unnoticed by many in this lot is that the improper disposal of e-waste in developing countries is anyway going to affect the environment globally only to create havoc; Price of which we all would have to pay one day or the another. Between the other problems of a developing country like poverty, hunger, illiteracy, unemployment; government and residents of the country hardly focus on the need to employ stringency in proper disposal of e-waste. Resultant, the waste that can be used and disposed off in an environmentally healthy manner gets recycled and reused to be filled up in a landfill, only to increase the concentrations of heavy metals like Mercury and thereby poisoning the environment. If not dumped in a landfill, e-waste is simply burnt which makes the emission of poisonous gases airborne affecting the flora and fauna of the environment which obviously includes the workers involved in disposing off the waste and the human beings, animals and the vegetation of that area. This paper talks about the menace created by e-waste, why is it more so in developing countries, laws implemented in developing countries (taking India as an example) and stringency required to get rid of this waste. Keeping in mind to change our outlook from e-waste to e-wealth, considering it not as a waste but as an upcoming business, yet to be intelligently handled and explored.
411 COW DUNG FOR ECOFRIENDLY AND SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTIVE FARMING, Abhishek Raj, Manoj Kumar Jhariya, Pratap Toppo
Cows dung is a most important source of bio-fertilizer and used in many developing countries for generating energy. It is very effectives alternatives to chemical fertilizers by enhancing productivity in long term with maintaining the soil health and enhances the microbial population. Cowdung manure and vermicompost increases soil organic matter content, and this leads to improved water infiltration and water holding capacity as well as an increased cation exchange capacity. It is one of the renewable and sustainable energy resources through dung cakes or biogas which replace the dependence upon charcoal, fuel wood, firewood and fossil fuel etc. Beside it, application of cowdung in proper and sustainable way can enhance not only productivity of yield but also minimizing the chances bacterial and fungal pathogenic disease. Therefore, improper use of cowdung should be stopped and use as organic manure for maintaining productive and sustainable farming system.
412 Quantitative assessment of SPM (Suspended particulate matter) and bacteria in urban area of Jammu (J&K, India), Prof. Raj Kumar Rampal, Neha Sharma
The study was carried out in the households of urban area of Jammu. Urban area was divided into five zones. At each zone three households were selected and each household (except one room accommodation) was divided into three sub-sites i.e. Living room, Kitchen and Bedroom. Sampling was undertaken by Handy air sampler APM 821. The average indoor SPM and bacteria in the households of the urban area of Jammu during two year study period exhibited significantly higher values (p
413 Clinical, Sonological And Pathological Evaluation of Thyroid Nodule, DR.S. VIJAYA MOHAN RAO, Dr.O.Siddharth
Background and objectives: Nodular thyroid is a common clinical entity. The optimum diagnostic strategy for the patient with nodular thyroid is still a matter of debate. The goal of diagnostic workup now is to select those patients for surgery who have a high likelihood of harboring malignancy in the thyroid nodules. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of FNAC and USG in differentiating benign and malignant nodules. Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 100 patients from 11-70 years age group of both sexes, presenting with thyroid nodules to Dept. of General Surgery during the period of September 2011 September 2013. All patients were evaluated clinically and subjected to FNAC and USG of thyroid. The results of clinical diagnosis, FNAC and USG compared with histopathology reports. Results: The majority of the cases presented were females between the age group of 31- 40 years. Swelling in the anterior neck was the presenting complaint in all 100 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing benign and malignant lesion was 81.3%,100% and 74%,100% and USG 80.4%, 77.77% and 73%, 85.3% respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: The commonest presentation was from the females in the age group of 31-40 years, with swelling in the anterior neck. Solitary thyroid nodule cases had 18% rate of malignancy. It was found that FNAC is a safe, reliable and cost effective diagnostic modality with a high sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100% and is the single best investigation for preoperative evaluation of thyroid nodules.However, a combination of FNAC and USG give optimum results and avoid unnecessary surgery.
414 A Study to Assess The Effectiveness of Structured Teaching Programme (Stp) Regarding Hypertension And Its Prevention Strategies in Terms of Knowledge and Attitude of Selected Rural Population at Karve Area, Ms. More Ujwala Ramchandra, Prof. Avinash H. Salunkhe.
Aim & Objectives: 1. to improve knowledge of selected rural population regarding prevention of hypertension. To identify risk factors and provide structured teaching program on prevention of hypertension. Material & methods: evaluative study was conducted on 30 hypertensive subjects from Karve rural population by using interview schedule method. Sampling technique used for the study was convenient sampling which is type of non probability sampling. The study was conducted in year 2011 in month of November. Stratified random sampling technique was used. Institutional ethics Committee approval and informed consent from the subjects, Sarpanch, medical officer of PHC of Vadgaon Haveli were taken before the study. First pretest questionnaire given to subject then health education through structured teaching provided pamphlets and after seven days post test given. Results: assessing the knowledge in pretest out of 30 samples no one 0(0%) having good knowledge. 23 (76.66%) having average knowledge. Remaining subjects 7(23.33%) are having poor knowledge regarding prevention of hypertension. conclusion: knowledge and attitude of rural population related to prevention of risk factors of hypertension is poor so there is need to give more information to aware people is necessary.
415 Neo-Colonialism: A Retrospect on Colonial Christian Mission in India, Potana Venkateswara Rao
Christians in India are considered as colonial agents because of colonial rule and Christian mission, which worked hand in hand. As far as Indian Church History is concerned the Colonial period is the most important period which made a significant impact on Indian Church and society. Christian missions in India made a positive impact in several areas such as education, medical service, eradication of social evil practices, technology development etc., Especially English education brought renaissance in India which led to Nationalistic movements. Some of the missionaries encouraged Indian nationalistic movements during freedom struggle. Along with their positive impact there are several negative areas that remain as black spots in Indian Christian mission history. Christian mission has always given a wrong impression thinking that mission is always from the superior West to the inferior East and rich North to the poor South. Even though political colonial dominance is over; still the shadow of colonialism is chasing the south by its dominance. It is a fact that Christianity is growing in south, but still its church is under the dominance of western superior power for its theology and mission praxis.
416 Prevalence of hypertension and obesity among urban working, A.Swarnalatha, Dr.M.Amirthaveni
WHO termed obesity as New world syndrome and hypertension as Silent killer by observing its consequences and its increasing prevalence for the past few decades. This study was taken to observe the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among urban working women in southern India by enrolling 120 working women in an educational institution, located at the centre of the city. Well structured questionnaire was developed and distributed to all the women to elicit their socio economic details, life style pattern and food habits. Their weight, height and blood pressure were recorded. Among the selected women obesity was prevalent among 80.2 per cent and the prevalence of hypertension was observed to be 48 per cent. The blood pressure was noticed to increases with increase in body weight of the individuals. The results stress the timely preventive measures for these new endemic disorders to reduce the burden of many chronic morbidity
417 A general overview of Section 498 A of the Indian Penal Code , Naresh Kumar
The present paper aims to throw light on Section 498 A of the Indian Penal Code. In the present paper I am discussing the circumstances that arose to incorporate the section, whats this section gave us, how it began to be abused and how the judiciary has made endeavours to fine tune it.
418 Stretching, An Effective Method of Improving the Elasticity of Muscle at The Aerobic Team From University of Bucharest, Ganciu Mihaela, Ganciu Oana Maria
As theorized in literature, stretching is the deliberate act of lengthening of muscles, in order to increase muscle flexibility and/or joint range of motion. Mobility represents the capacity of making ample movements, in a passive or active way and it refers especially to the articulations. Stretching is a new scientific method that enables mobility training simple and effective. Under aerobic gymnastics, musculoskeletal is requested the most, especially in the joints. Joint mobility, one of the badly needed motric qualities in aerobics, without adequate mobility cannot accede to performance. The purpose of this research study is the optimization of the joint mobility development strategies, by identifying the most efficient operational structures, and convert them into preparation programs based on the method. The individualized application of the intervention procedures through stretching, related to the quality and efficiency evaluation tests of the training process, demonstrates an increase in the quality of training for the experimental group.
419 RESISTANCE LITERATURE OF MINORITIES AND DALITS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ROHINTON MISTRYS NOVEL, Mrs. Zehrabi, Mrs. Shaik Shaheen
Resistance literature is always about the plight and protest of marginalized sections of society. India is primarily a Hindu country accommodating many other religions like Islam, Christianity, Parsi etc. The smaller religions in the subcontinent always suffer identity crisis. The bulldozing majority influence their tradition and practices. At the same time, Hinduism is also fragmented greatly by its own caste system. It paves way for resistance literature. Rohinton Mistry is an expatriate Indian-Parsi writer living in Canada. In his writings he often tries to revise the history of his homeland as he focused on the fads and foibles of the minuscule minority Parsi Zoroastrian community in Bombay. He made a conscious effort to embrace more of the social reality of India. Mistry focuses on the history of his homeland. His works reflect the reality of Indian, the predatory polities of corruption, tyranny, exploitation, violence and bloodshed. His novels also give an insight into rural India focusing on the injustice, the cruelty, and the horror of deprivation and portray the trauma of India along communal religious and linguistic lines.
420 Recalling Assams Past: A Study of History Fiction Nexus in PatkairIpareMorDesh, Ms. MonalisaKonwar
A resurgent interest in historicity and the eventual re-writing of native history has animated much recent postcolonial narratives. With a critical vision in enunciating and reconstructing historiography by seamless tailoring of fact and fiction these narratives express scepticism on the monolithic nature of history and offer different alternatives and plural histories to reinterpret and subvert the historical documents and events they refer to. This tendency to reclaim the nations history is noticed among various postcolonial Indian writers including a good number of writers from the North-East too. Their increased inclination for historiography can be explicated as their attempt to assert a sense of historical locations in the erased pages of history. Pushed to the margins of the literary canon it is in part by retrieving own history and recreating personages as subjects and participants in contemporary fictional accounts they claim a fair representation in the national discourse too. ChandanaGoswamis recent novel PatkairIpareMorDesh(meanig Beyond the Patkais Lies my Country)resuscitates an important phase of Asssams history by re-interrogating Ahom history during the 13th and 14th century Assam. This paper attempts at examining incorporation of historiographical elements in PatkairIpareMorDesh focusing on how the writer problematizes the generic boundary between history and fiction and questions the monology and claim to objectivity of historical representation and thereby brings the untold stories to the fore.
421 Using Neural Network For Traffic Control Management System, Bindu T L
Increasing mobility and rising traffic demands cause serious problems in urban road networks. Approaches to reduce the negative impacts of traffic include an improved control of traffic lights and the introduction of dynamic traffic guidance systems that take current conditions into account. One solution for the former aspect is Organic Traffic Control (OTC) which provides a self-organized and self-adaptive system founding on the principles of Organic Computing. This paper introduces further steps in enhancing the current OTC system with a forecasting technique based on neural networks. The prediction of short-term traffic conditions is an important component of an advanced traffic management system. It enables the system to prevent congestions and is able to react faster to changes in the traffic flow.
422 Kisan Credit Card Scheme in India:a Facet of Financial Inclusion, Dr.S.Rajamohan, Mrs.K.Subha
The kisan Credit Card Scheme is a step towards facilitating the access to short term credit for the borrowers from the financial institutions. The scheme was conceived as a uniform credit delivery mechanism, aimed at provision of adequate and timely supply of credit to the farmers to meet their crop production requirements. The KCC instrument would allow farmers to purchase agriculture inputs, such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and also allow them to withdraw some cash for meeting their other crop production related requirement. Farmers heavily depend on non institutional sources of credit due to frequent needs, inadequate availability of institutional credit, unnecessary delays, cumbersome procedure and improper practices adopted by institutional lending agencies. Provision of timely and adequate credit has been one of the major challenges for banks in India in dispensation of agricultural and rural credit to the farmers. Hencethis research paper mainly focused on Kisan Credit Card Scheme: A Facet of Financial Inclusion
423 Measuring Service Quality of Indian Railway, Dr. Ram Kumar Balyan, Ms. Richa Pandit
Indian Railways serves the passengers in a big way, and hence there is a need to integrate passenger concerns in the operation, planning and other processes that impact passenger services and its quality in bigger way. A study of the service quality address passenger concerns more effectively and at the same time it also effectively monitor the creation and maintenance of a good quality services. By using non-probability convenience sampling a survey of 200 passengers of Indian Railway in Ahmedabad was carried out using a structured questionnaire. Analysis was carried out using Factor Analysis & One Way Anova. This paper is intent to measure the service quality of Indian Railway
424 The Neoliberal World Order; A Cataclysm for a Fetish Corporate Hegemony, Prince.TC
This essay is an earnest attempt to look over the psycho- social stress of working populace in the backdrop of corporate hegemony- unleashing tyranny of the states in connivance with corporate-houses against their people, high voltage corporate sponsored media entertainment modalities and super- imposed materialistic interests among consumers are the some of the essential elements of neoliberal market activism, which will have a direct bearing on the social and psychological well being of people; and of course, of their future generations. This is therefore an approach in figuring out the new modalities of neoliberal market fundamentals with a humanitarian point of view and an attempt to put across your concern some of my observations with suggestions.
425 CONSUMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS LOCAL AND GLOBAL BRANDED CARS IN INDIA - A STUDY ON LITERATURE REVIEW, A.Sriram, Dr.B. Nirmaladevi
The car industry in India has seen a tremendous growth and seems to be the fastest growing sector in the world. This sector has responded with an exponential progress in the number of new models launched in the last few years. The craze for cars among people is growing day-by-day. The socio-economic factors namely age, marital status, occupation, education, family size and income are being influenced the customers purchase decision. The customers have bundle of attributes such as good quality, high fuel efficiency, technology, durability, reasonable price, safety and comfort towards local and global branded cars. It is concluded that the manufacturers should redesign their cars by adopting innovative and unique ideas in accordance with the customers expectations and their socio-economic profile.
426 Episodic Stress Management Among Employees of Post Office in Bikaner District, Dr. Aditya Sharma, Mrs. Chhaya Parihar
Episodic stress is a stress which affects those who suffer from Acute stress frequently. People that suffer from this tend to always be in a rush. They take too much on and cant organize themselves to deal with the demands and pressures. Episodic Acute stress affects interpersonal skills and can make sufferers hostile towards others causing rapid deterioration of relationships especially in the workplace. This paper unearth episodic stress management among employees of post office in Bikaner district. Sample size taken was 100 employees and Chi square test was used to analyze the data.
427 Trends in NPA Management: Comparative Study of Indian PSU Banks & Private Banks, Gagan Bhati
Post reform era has changed the whole structure of banking sector of India. The emerging Competition has resulted in new challenges for the Indian banks. Hence, parameters for evaluating the performance of banks have also changed With the slowdown of the Indian economy a number of Companies/Projects are under stress. As a result the Indian Banking System has seen increase in NPAs and restructured accounts during recent years. The public sector banks as a whole are sitting on time bomb of Nonperforming assets that is ticking away fast. All over the problems faced by the banks either flow from it or are vastly aggravated by it. Not only do financially distressed assets produce less than economically possible, they also deteriorate quickly in value. Therefore there is a need to ensure that the banking system recognizes financial distress early, takes prompt steps to solve it. Dilution of government ownership of banks however is a necessary but not sufficient reform to tide over the crisis. This paper an effort has been made to analyze how efficiently Public and Private sector banks can manage NPA.
428 Stability of Gompertz model parameters with mortality deceleration rate, M.Sumathi
In the absence of age speci_c mortality data, the stability analysis (with respect to the population size) of the age-dependent parameter in the Gompertz survival model with a mortality deceleration rate leads to conclude the constancy of the parameter
429 The Study of Common Fixed Points in Complex Valued Symmetric Spaces, ARVIND BHATT
We introduce complex valued symmetric spaces and obtain sufficient conditions for the existence of common fixed points of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Our results extend the results of Pant. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 47H10, 54H25.
430 Satisfactory Roommates Problem With Ties, Ties And Incomplete List, T.Ramachandran, D.Udayakumar, T.Selvakumar
In this paper the generalization of satisfactory roommates problem (SFRP) is developed in to other level in which the preference lists contain ties, ties and incomplete list. For finding satisfactory matching we are using SMAR algorithm, which will help to determine satisfactory matching of roommates problem with ties (SFRPT), ties and incomplete list (SFRPTI) based on preference value, using assignment method.
431 Comparative Study Of 25 Cases Open Vs Laparoscopic Ventral Abdominal Hernia Meshplasty, Dr. Yogesh Modiya, Dr. Kalpesh Parmar, Dr. Brijesh Panchal
The purpose of this study To analyse the risk factor for development of ventral hernia, to observe and learn the technique of laparoscopic mesh repair in Ventral Hernias, to study the outcome of the Laparoscopic Mesh repairs for ventral hernias in terms of patient compliance, recurrence, post operative pain, return to work and wound complications
432 Study of Cases of Postpartum Haemorrhage, DR. PRATIK R. BHALODIA, DR. SHITAL T. MEHTA, DR. BABUBHAI S. PATEL, DR. VISMAY B. PATEL, DR. MAULESHKUMAR P. MODI, DR. CHHAYA R. THAKKAR
INTRODUCTION: PRIMARY PPH is generally defined as any amount of blood loss more than 500 ml from genital track at vaginal delivery, 1000ml at cesarean section or 1500ml at cesarean hysterectomy.12,2 Alternative definitions include a 10% drop in hematocrit13,2 or the need of blood transfusion in first 24 hours after delivery14,2.Third stage hemmorhage occurs before expulsion of placenta and true PPH occurs after expulsion of placenta.. If excessive blood loss occurs after 24 hours but before 6 weeks it is called SECONDARY PPH .The incidence of PPH is 30% among maternal mortality data2.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of PPH, to determine the risk factors for PPH, evaluate the role of obstetrician in preventing PPH, Current protocol of management of PPH, to study maternal mortality and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This study includes 100 patients who developed PPH from August 2012 to July 2014 at tertiary centre.Exact amount of blood loss measurement is often difficult in clinical obstetrics due to contamination with amniotic fluid and other excreta and the blood lost on floor or towels ,clothes so blood loss was assessed on the basis of measurement from the basins and blood loss on linens, mops and sponges. In all cases necessary investigations were carried out and managed accordingly. The data collected was analyzed systematically, tabulations were made and observations compared with series present by various foreign and Indian authors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 29% patients belonged to urban category and 71% belonged to rural category.65% were Emergency cases. Incidence of PPH in primiparas is 41%.46% patients of PPH had undergone Cesarean section65% patients developed atonic PPH, 30% developed traumatic, 3% were associated with coagulopathy, 2% were having secondary PPH.35% of patients responded to medical therapy. In 65% patients, Operative intervention was required- in form of uterine artery ligation, Hypo gastric artery ligation, uterine compression suturing, tear suturing, obstetric hysterectomy , manual removal of placenta, reposition of uterus.Maternal mortality was 2%.CONCLUSION: PPH is a potentially life threating complication of both vaginal and cesarean deliveries. As obstetric care improves the incidence of PPH and maternal death drastically reduces. Early anticipation early interventions with proper planning are required to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in PPH.Early diagnosis of anemia in antenatal period and correction accordingly, during delivery use of prefilled uterotonics, non hasty delivery, active management of third stage of labor having eagles eye at blood loss more than 250 ml can prevent maternal mortality and morbidity to such a good extent. To conclude prevention is better than cure.
433 Functional Outcomes in tuberculosis of spine including drug resistance tuberculosis of spine, Dr Himanshu M. Dodiya, Dr M.M.Prabhakar
Spinal tuberculosis is most common extra pulmonary menifestion. Spinal tuberculosis causes disability starting from limitation of daily activity to complete disability to patient Due to emergence of development of resistance to first line drugs and some second line drugs, it is very important to diagnose these resistant cases and treat them with sensitive second line drugs and with operative management . In our study ,Patients has been followed up after getting drugs sensitivity testing of individual patient. Each patient was treated with operative and medical management with antitubercular drugs. After 2 year . MDR tuberculosis of spine cases are increasing, patients who are having MDR tuberculosis are given second line drugs for 24 months of duration. As duration of treatment is more in MDR tuberculosis, incidence of side-effects are high.. Most of patients who were diagnosed MDR tuberculosis of spine that have been started second line drugs also had good functional outcomes. Proper medical and surgical management of tuberculosis of spine including drugs resistance tuberculosis can leads to excellent to good outcomes.
434 Cross Sectional Study: Assessing Knowledge Regarding Nutrition,Their Eating Habits and Confidence of Interns & Postgraduates in Formulating Diet of Patients in B.j.medical College, Ahmedabad, Dr. SWARNA RASTOGI
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition is an important component in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Despite the acknowledged importance of nutrition, there is evidence to indicate that the nutrition training of medical students is inadequate in both quality and quantity. Material and methods: A cross sectional study done by using a pretested and predesigned questionnaire with multiple choice options from sep 2013 to dec2013 among 98 interns and 72 post-graduate residents of medicine department, community-medicine & surgery department of B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad. Result: 77.8% of postgraduates have healthy eating habits compared to 85.7% of interns. 66.7% of postgraduates have more knowledge compared to 46.9% of interns.84.7% of postgraduates are confident in diet assessment of patients compared to 24% of interns. Knowledge for dietary assessment of pregnant and lactating woman is higher in both groups(26-66%)compared to post-operative patient(8-28%).75% of postgraduates say that medical curriculum for nutrition is sufficient, p= 0.0012(S) .55-58% were of opinion to train the faculty for nutrition followed by having separate department for nutrition(36-43%).
435 A case report: Twin pregnancy Patient with Tuberculosis, Dr. Ankita J. Patel, Dr. Vijay Bhola, Dr. Jayshree Narshetty, Dr. B.C. Boricha
Tuberculosis is an increasingly greater challenge for the obstetric care provider. Missing an active case of tuberculosis can be a lethal mistake for the care provider and the patient if the organism is resistant to several antibiotics. The effects of tuberculosis on pregnancy, and conversely, of pregnancy on the course of tuberculosis, have varied greatly throughout history. Current medical opinion holds that pregnancy and TB do not affect each others course, but that active tuberculosis has adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes.3 The clinician must weigh the risk of dissemination in neonate and mother (about 1 to 2% for the mother) vs the risk of adverse effects from the administration of medication. This case shows that a positive outcome for the neonates are possible with the use of medication.
436 Evaluation of Cleome Gynandra For Its Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Potential And Detection of Flavonoids Using Thin Layer Chromatography, C. L. DeepaShree, Shubha Gopal
Cleome gynandra a well known medicinal plant with known anti-inflammatory activity was studied for its antioxidant property and preliminary detection of compounds responsible for its antioxidant potential. Non polar and polar extracts of Cleome gynandra was subjected to various preliminary phytochemical screening for the detection of phytochemicals. Various in vitro antioxidant method like DPPH radical scavenging assay, Reducing power assay and Metal chelation assay was conducted to evaluate its antioxidant potential and active principle responsible for antioxidant activity was screened using Thin Layer Chromatography. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid, alkaloid, terpenoid, steroid and tannins in different solvents. Both methanol and acetone extract proved the best antioxidant activity when compared with other extracts. And Thin Layer Chromatography guided detection showed that active component of the methanol extract was found to be flavonoid and needs further compound identification. Thus it could serve as antioxidant drug in future.
437 Evaluation of Role of Low Dose Aspirin and Antioxidants For Prevention of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension in Primigravida, Dr.Prakash Prajapati, Dr. Mittal Bhabhor
Introduction:Hypertensive disorders are one of the commonest medical problems, encountered during pregnancy. Hypertension is a human pregnancy specific disorder that adversely affects the health of mother as well as the fetus. It has been suggested that, supplementation of women with abnormal flow velocity waves in uterine arteries, with aspirin and antioxidants, diminishes the frequency of proteinuria, hypertension.Design:In this study 40 subjects in the case group and 40 subjects in the control group were enrolled. The case group subjects received the additional medication in the form of low dose aspirin and antioxidants as a prophylaxis of hypertension.Discussion:There was decrease incidence of preeclampsia,oligohydramnios,meconium stained liquor and low birth weight in case group. Conclusion:There is a preventive role of low dose aspirin and antioxidants against preeclampsia,MSL & low birth weight.
438 Fmri and Ocular Dominance, Jan Lestak, Jaroslav Tintera, Pavel Rozsival
The aim of the study was to determine whether fMRI activation is dependent on ocular dominance. Our sample included 20 eyes of 10 healthy subjects (8 female with mean age 50.25 and two male with mean age 59). None of the subjects in our sample had ocular or neurological disease. All subjects were examined for sighting eye dominance (hole-in-the-hand and pointing-a-finger test) and sensory eye dominance (Worth dot test and fogging test). All the control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging examinations with stimulation of both eyes and each eye separately using a black-and-white checkerboard of size 25.8x16.2 degrees of the visual field. We observed different interocular fMRI activity in all subjects. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.85). Neither the directional nor sensory ocular dominance correlated with the fMRI activity. We did not even demonstrate hemispheric laterality after separate stimulation of the dominant eye.
439 Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Prevention of Dermatitis Among People Residing in a Selected Industrial Area, Manglore, Siddeshwar Angadi
The fast growing modern industries highly influence the environment and the human community. Varieties of diseases emerge due to industrialization and modernization. Dermatitis is the skins way of reaction to the irritant substance or allergen. The overall aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program in preventing dermatitis. A pre-experimental approach was used in the study with sample size of thirty from a selected industrial area. A structured knowledge questionnaire was used in determining pretest knowledge scores, followed by an intervention and posttest knowledge was assessed with the same knowledge questionnaire. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, which revealed, mean pre-test knowledge was 14.93 (51.47%) with SD 2.72 and the mean of post- test knowledge was 29.23 (91.32%) with SD 1.49, this suggests the effectiveness of the PTP in terms of gain in knowledge among people regarding prevention of dermatitis
440 Buffy Coat : A Clue to The Diagnosis of Hairy Cell Leukemia, Dr. Smriti Dewan, Dr. Reeta Dhar
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare disease, comprising 2% of lymphoid leukemias. HCL is B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder affecting middle-aged to elderly adults. HCL is an indolent neoplasm of small mature B lymphoid cells with oval nuclei and abundant cytoplasm with hairy projections involving peripheral blood and diffusely infiltrating the bone marrow and splenic red pulp. Occasional cases may have nuclei that are monocytoid, folded or even bilobed in shape. Buffy coat preparation in pancytopenia cases has proved to be an important modality in clinching the diagnosis of HCL which can be further confirmed with positive markers like DBA.44(CD72) and Annexin A1 on immunohistochemistry. An accurate diagnosis is of critical importance because of the unique approach to the management of HCL patients.
441 Awareness And Knowledge of Blood Donation Among Medical Faculty and Students in Vadodara District, Dr. Smriti Vasisht, DrStuti Sharma, Dr. Tejvansh Shenoy Imrit, Dr. Vaibhav Mehta
Blood is defined as most valuable drug by the World Health Organization that can be substituted only by blood. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge & awareness of blood donation among medical faculty and students of medical colleges in Vadodara district. This prospective study was conducted in three medical colleges in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India from June 2012 to September 2013 among 475 medical personnel. Systemic sampling technique was used for choosing the sample. Results show that 19.2% of participants have carried out blood donation at least once and 80.8% have never donated blood at all voluntarily. General awareness regarding voluntary blood donation is high but has not translated into voluntary blood donation. Medical personnel, who are healthy, enthusiastic and approachable as a group, should be nurtured to become voluntary blood donors and motivators. Wide spread medical education programs of voluntary blood donation should be carried out.
442 Use of Nifedipine as a Tocolytic Agent in Cases of Preterm Labour, DR MRS .SUNILA LELE, DR YOGESH A.THAWAL, DR SANJAYKUMAR G.TAMBE
Over years, preterm birth is the most important determinant of adverse infant outcome in both survival and quality of life.In our study total 54 patients with preterm labour between 28 to 36 weeks of gestation were tocolysed with Nifedipine to increase the intrauterine lifespan of fetus. Close monitoring was done to detect the known side effects of the tocolytic drugs like hypotension, tachycardia, nausea, headache, flushing and palpitation.It was found in this study that Nifedipine significantly arrests the preterm labour with minimal side effects.
443 A Comparison of the Efficacy and Tolerability of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Acute Rhinosinusitis in Adults, Dr.Anil.H.T, Dr.Amrita Suzanne Mathew
Objectives-to compare the efficacy and tolerability of amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil and moxifloxacin in the treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in adults. Methods-90 adults aged 18-40years, clinically diagnosed with acute rhinosinusitis,symptomatic for 7-28days, were randomised into three groups,each receiving an oral antibiotic ie.Amoxicillin-clavulanate(GroupA),Cefuroxime (GroupB),Moxifloxacin(GroupC) and evaluated on days 0,7,14,21,28,60 using Major Symptom Score,Visual Analogue Scale for quality of life and Axelssons sinus X-ray score.Time to improvement, relapse,recurrence and adverse events were noted. Result-In Group A,B,C clinical cure rate was 89.86%, 92.76%, 96.57% respectively; mean time to improvement was 4.36, 4.07, 3.39 days respectively. Relapse,recurrence and adverse events(diarrhoea, nausea and rash) were highest with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Conclusion- Moxifloxacin shows highest efficacy and tolerability.Cefuroxime and amoxicillin-clavulanate have similar clinical cure rates. Cefuroxime has lower relapse,recurrence and adverse event rates.
444 Obesity and Coronary Artery Disease, Dr. Ashish Patel, Dr. Darshan Sandesara, Dr. Kavya Patel
Obesity has been considered one of the most important causative factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Obesity has several effects on endocrine functions contributing to insulin resistance and development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate whether obesity itself or metabolic effects and comorbidies associated with obesity plays an important role in the coronary artery disease.
445 Maximum Voluntary Contraction of Muscle, Body Composition & Ergoreflex in Adult Male Cancer Patients , Dr. Mavneen Kaur
Cancer is a disease in which a group of cells display unregulated growth. Almost half of all the cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia. Ergoreflex is a peripheral reflex originating in skeletal muscles. Metabolic abnormalities in skeletal muscles with early acidosis and accumulation of catabolites on exercise, have been shown to be responsible for their enhanced activity. So the aim of the study is to see if there is any association between peripheral muscle wasting and Ergoreflex. In the present study it was observed that muscle mass was significantly reduced in cancer patients. Also there was statistically significant decrease in mid arm circumference in experimental group. changes in body composition are also an important indicator adjuvant index in the assessment of cachexia. Education about risk factors, early detection, treatment and palliative care can be helpful in decreasing the incidence as well as morbidity and mortality of the disease.
446 A study of Bimalleolar fractures treated with open & closed method by TBW, k-wire, CC screw & semitubular plate, Dr. Bhavik Y. Dalal, Dr. Krunal J. Chaudhri, Dr. Parimal J. Patel, Dr. Ravi R. Bhesaniya
Acute injuries gain importance because body weight is transmitted through it and location depends upon the stability of this joint. Many of these fracture are reduced by conservative treatment and have given good results. The other unstable displaced and open fractures require open reduction internal fixation. Objectives were to study the functional out come and results of surgical treatment of malleolar fractures.
447 Role of Biophysical Profile in Case of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, DR.ARTI J. PATEL, DR.POOJA J PATEL
Biophysical profile is a widely used method of fetal surveillance based on composite assessment of acute and chronic markers of fetal condition. .Present study is an attempt to find out usefulness of biophysical profile in management of cases with pregnancy induced hypertension. Study design: descriptive prospective study conducted at tertiary health care centre Subjects: 50 cases of pregnancy induced hypertension Duration: 1st june 2013 to 31st may 2014 Results :In present study, 41 patients have favourable fetal outcome out of 42 who have favourable BPP score. Out of 08 cases having unfavourable BPP score 06 patients have unfavourable pregnancy outcome. Patients having favourable BPP score only one patient had unfavourable fetal outcome which was due to neonatal jaundice and septicemia. Conclusions: Biophysical profile can guide us for timely intervention & thus, helps us in reduction of morbidity and mortality of fetus in pregnancy induced hypertension.
448 Paracetamol Poisoning-A Case Report, Dr. Sachinkumar M Patankar, Dr. Rajendra V Bhagwat, Dr. Ashlesh R Tiwari, Dr. Santosh S Mali
Paracetamol is probably the most widely used drug in the world. This report aims to review a case of Paracetamol poisoning and management. 18-year-old male presented to the emergency department with acute intoxication. He ingested a total amount of 12.5 gram (g) of Paracetamol for suicidal attempt. and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) regime was given intravenously following a treatment protocol due to acute liver injury. During observation there was acute pain in abdomen, vomiting and his Liver Function Tests were markedly deranged. He was treated successfully and discharged 7 days after admission by confirming normal liver functions.
449 A Study of Clinical Profile of Neurological Manifestations in HIV Positive Patients With Reference to Cd4 Cell Count , Dr. Zeeshan H. Mansuri, Dr. Bharat. C. Kaji, Dr. Keval H. Changadiya
HIV infection affects millions of people around the world and many patients progress to AIDS with profound immunosuppression. HIV can affect central nervous system by direct infection as well as through opportunistic infections. Neurological manifestations are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality amongst HIV positive patients. These neurological manifestations have a definite correlation with CD4 lymphocyte cell count. Certain neurological manifestations occur only with CD4 cell count less than 200. Thus CD4 cell count can help guide the monitoring and treatment of HIV positive patients with neurological manifestations.
450 Clinical And Bacterial Profile Of Pyogenic Meningitis in Children, HARICHARAN K R
AIM To describe the epidemiological, clinical,bacterial and epidemiological profile ofPyogenic meningitis(PM) in children aged between 3 months to 15 years. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of all cases of pyogenic meningitis collected in the Department of pediatrics of Adichunchanagiri Institute of medical sciences, during a period of June2012-May2014.Thirty cases of bacterial meningitis based on inclusion and exclusion criteria were recorded and their profile analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS Majority of the cases (92%) occurred during infancy. The most frequent species were Streptococcus pneumonia(43%) and Haemophilusinfluenza(40%) followed by Neisseria meningitides(6%) . The main clinical manifestations were fever (100 %), seizures (28 %) and vomiting (22 %). Bulging fontanel was noted in 15cases (55 %), somnolence in 11 cases (40 %) and axial hypotonia in 12 cases (44 %). 29% of the children were found to have post meningitis sequel
451 Esthetic Crown Lengthning: a Treatment for Gummy Smile A Case Report, Dr.Shilpa Choudhari, Dr.Vishakha Patil, Dr Pallavi Patil
The esthetic demands in smile are continually rising, thus, critical factors such as; dental midline, smile line, incisal embrasures, tooth position, width to length ratio of crown, symmetry of contra?lateral gingival margins, and gingival display need to be taken into consideration. It is well- recognized that excessive gingival display can have a negative impact on a patient's smile. Excessive gingival display due to gingival enlargement or altrered passive eruption (dentogingival causes) can be corrected effectively through periodontal surgeries. A case report of short clinical crown with gummy smile is discussed in this article.
452 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics Observational Study, Gra?yna Michalska-Krzanowska
To analyze the spectrum of adverse reactions to local anesthetics. Twenty consecutive patients due to severe reaction observed after administration of local anesthetic. Skin prick tests, intradermal tests, and progressive provocation challenge with suspected local anesthetic and its commercially available replacers were conducted 4 weeks to 2 months following the episode of post-drug reaction. The list of suspected local anesthetics included lidocaine (n=11), mepivacaine (n=4), articaine (n=3), bupivacaine and tetracaine (n=1 each). The safety of mepivacaine was confirmed in 5/7, bupivacaine in 6/7, and lidocaine in only 1/3 tested subjects. One mepivacaine-sensitive individual and one patient sensitive to lidocaine further proved tolerant to bupivacaine. One subject with bupivacaine hypersensitivity showed tolerance to mepivacaine. There were six cases of cross-reactivity between various anesthetic agents. Comprehensive evaluation of potential hypersensitivity to LA should include analysis of patient history and medical documentation, testing for immediate reaction to a given anesthetic preparation, as well as cross-reactivity testing.
453 Therapetic Efficacy of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Chronic Abdominal Pain of Undiagnosed Etiology, Salesh kumar soni, Nidhi soni, kaushal suthar
Chronic abdominal pain is a common condition which we encounter quite often. As a treating doctor we need a single master modality of treatment having both diagnostic and therapeutic advantage which should be efficient enough to provide relief in patients suffering. Diagnostic Laparoscopy has emerged as a very efficient tool in managing these patients. The aim of this study was to detect the therapeutic efficacy of diagnostic laparoscopy in chronic abdominal pain of undiagnosed etiology. Study was conducted on 100 patients of chronic abdominal pain ( of more then 3 months and undiagnosed by routine available investigations) of both sex and above 14 years of age from jan 2012 to june 2014. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. If any specific etiology was found, then appropriate therapeutic intervention was taken in the same sitting. If nothing abnormal was found, then procedure completed by doing laparoscopic appendectomy. Patient was then reviewed in follow up at 1,3,6 and 12 month and enquired about status of their symptoms. Most common finding was chronic appendicitis (24%) followed by Adhesions (14%), Tuberculosis (12%), Ovarian cyst (8%), Mesenteric adenitis (12%), Meckels diverticulum (2%), intussusceptions (1%),Endometriasis (5%), Normal study (22%). In follow up 91 % of the patient claimed that they have got relief from their symptoms at the end of one year. Also 63% of those patients who had normal finding in diagnostic laparoscopy and subjected to complementary appendectomy also shown improvement in their symptoms. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a descent therapeutic efficacy of 91 %. It should be considered as treatment of choice for the patients of Chronic abdominal pain of undiagnosed etiology
454 Minimally Invasive (Endo-Laparoscopic and Laparosopic Choledochotomy) Versus Open Choledochotomy for The Management of Cholelithiasis With Choledocholithiasis: Where Do We Stand, Anil Negi, Sudesh Kumar Sagar, Dhiraj Kumar, Sunil kumar
Common bile duct stones have been reported in approximate 5-15% of population. At present, preoperative ERCPS with LC is the treatment of choice for CBD stones at most centers. This study was undertaken to compare the management of choledocholithiasis between the different existent modalities. This study was conducted in the department of General Surgery, SRMS IMS Bareilly from August 2010 for a period of 2 years. Operating times (p=0.01.), postoperative hospital stay duration (p=0.01), mean days of rest after discharge (p=0.04) and total man days lost (p=0.01) were found to have statistically significant difference when compared amongst the three different modalities. Thus, we conclude that though open procedure is poorly accepted cosmetically, but in terms of clearance of stones and complications it is comparable to other two modalities and superior in terms of operating time and cost
455 ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF CLIPING FOR CEREBRAL ANEURYSAM, Dr Dipika Patel, Dr Nita Gosai, Dr.Sagar Pithiya, Dr.Manojravindar
Intracranial aneurysm is one of the commonest vascular abnormalities requiring early attention. Management of intracranial aneurysm is challenging both for the anesthetists and surgeon because, almost all the cerebral aneurysm present with SAH. A retrospective study of outcome of anesthesia in microsurgical clipping was carried out. A total of 50 patients had their aneurysm clipped, out of which 44 had good outcome 4 severely disabled and two died..
456 Thymoma - A Case Report, Dr. Reeta Dhar, Dr. Shilpi Sahu, Dr. Arnav Roychoudhury
The thymic epithelial tumours are an uncommon group of anterior mediastinal tumours. They have a highly variable behaviour. Whether benign or malignant, they have tendency to invade locally, recur and metastasize A 56 year old male, known case of Myasthenia gravis, presented with complaints of difficulty in swallowing along with bilateral ptosis and progressive easy fatigability. He underwent thymectomy. On the basis of WHO classification, it was reported as cortical type- B2 Based on the Koga Masaoke staging system it was type IVa. It was reported as Invasive Thymoma( B2 type-cortical) with infiltration of lung parenchyma and pericardium. No vascular invasion was evident and also the distal resected surgical margins were free of tumour infiltration thereby showing good prognosis.
457 A Study of Upper & Lower Posterior Border of Human Hip Bone, Dr. Gautam Kumar Singh, Dr. Siddharth Shankar Roy
It is a measurement based study where we studied the posterior border of hip bone .The Hip bone which is the important bone for the determination of sex in human being, it has posterior and anterior border which will be longer than other borders of this bone. The posterior border which has following landmarks i.e. above to downwards, they are posterior superior iliac spine(psis), posterior inferior iliac spine(piis), ischial spine(is), ischial tuberosity(it).we studied the distance between psis and piis which is measured by sliding caliper and length between them measured by thread along its border, and another measurement the distance and length between IS and IT.we have found some important relations between male and female,male has higher value in comparison to female and right and left sides does not show significant relations. these are because in Indian subcontinent average height of males are more than females.
458 Study of 40 Cases of Pancreatitis Etiology Management and Clinical Evaluation, Dr. Kalpesh A. Parmar, Dr. Yogesh Modiya, Dr. Pallav Patel
AIMS :- TO STUDY 40 CASES OF PANCREATITIS ETIOLOGY MANAGEMENT AND CLINICAL EVALUATION OBJECTIVES:- To identify demographics in case of pancreatitis To identify common etiology in case of pancreatitis in Indian setup To identify incidence of severity & their etiology of pancreatitis To identify common clinical features of pancreatitis To observe the different modalities of treatment in case of pancreatitis with operative and conservative management
459 A Study of 10 Cases of Duodenal Injury After Blunt Abdominal Trauma Managed by Triple Tube Method, Dr. Pratik R. Shah, Dr. HareshItaliya, Dr. Ajay Rajyaguru, Dr. Jatin Bhatt
Duodenal injuries are found in only 3-5% laparotomies for blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma. Delay in diagnosis due to late clinical presentation, subtle diagnostic findings, incorrect classification of the injury leads to increased morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively analysed 10 consecutive patients diagnosed with traumatic duodenal injuries over 4 years. In that 10 patients, majority of them were of21 40 years and 40 % were in shock at the time of presentation. 6 patients were patients were preoperatively diagnosed, and 4 were diagnosed intra-operatively. All the patients underwent triple tube decompression with primary repair of injury. Only 1 patient with head injury died rest all were survived and discharged successively. Summary: Triple tube decompression with primary repair is an effective alternative in unstable, non-complex duodenal injury patients.
460 Feeding Plate for The Management of Neonate Born With Cleft Lip and Palate, DR. RAVIKUMAR AKULWAR
Cleft lip and palate is most common congenital anomalies of craniofacial region. Cleft lip and palate is a single anomaly and its possible consequence affects several systems and functions that include facial growth, dentition, speech, hearing and genetic aspects because of the complex mode of inheritance. Feeding problems frequently associated with cleft lip and palate neonate which make it difficult for the infant to maintain adequate nutrition. This clinical report describes fabrication of feeding plate for neonate born with cleft lip and palate.
461 Malignant Phyllodes Tumor: A Rare Presentation, Dr. Reeta Dhar, Dr. Ujwala Maheshwari, Dr. Richa chopra
Introduction. Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial lesions.Accurate preoperative pathological diagnosis allows correct surgical planning and avoidance of reoperation. Treatment can be either wide local excision or mastectomy to achieve histologically clear margins. Discussion. The exact aetiology of phyllodes tumour and its relationship with fibroadenoma are unclear. Women aged between 35 and 55 years are commonly involved. The median tumour size is 4 cm but can grow even larger having dilated veins and a blue discoloration over skin. Palpable axillary lymphadenopathy can be identified in up to 1015% of patients but
462 Scope of Natural Pesticides in Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, Dr. Satej Tippanna Banne,Yogesh H. Girigaon
Pesticides are chemical compounds that are used to kill pests, including insects, rodents, fungi and unwanted plants (weeds). Pesticides are used in public health to kill vectors of disease, such as mosquitoes and to damage crops. By their nature, pesticides are potentially toxic to other organisms, including humans, and need to be used safely and disposed of properly. So development of natural pesticides is required in present era. Plants have been much more successfully exploited as sources of pesticides for pests other than weeds. This is probably due to several factors. The selection pressure caused by pathogens and herbivores has probably been more acute and intense than that caused by plant competitors. A plant species can effectively compete with plant foes in many ways other than by poisoning them and having to cope with auto toxicity. The molecular complexity, limited environmental stability and low activity of many biocides from plants, compared to synthetic pesticides are discouraging. However, advances in chemical and biotechnology are increasing the speed and ease with which man can discover and develop secondary compounds of plants as pesticides.
463 Early Laproscopic Cholecystectomy as a Fruitful Tool For Acute Cholecystitis in The Patients of Lower Socioeconomic Domain, Dr.Salesh kumar soni, Dr.S.P. Chouhan, Dr.Kedar nath
Cholecystectomy in acute attack has been a subject of debate in recent past due to fear of increased morbidity. The need of early lap. Cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis becomes more obvious particularly in the patients of lower socioeconomic domain, as once they are treated conservatively for acute attack they do not return till another attack or any complication develops. If gall bladder can be removed in acute attack these complications as well as major burden on the health care system can be reduced.The Aims and Objectives of the study was to compare the outcome of early vs delayed cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis and to assess the feasibility of Laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a preferential method over open cholecystectomy particularly in the patients of lower socioeconomic domain. The study was done in 104 patients of lower socioeconomic status(class 5 of b.kuppuswamy 1971) between 2010 2013. Two groups were made. Patients of early group were operated early with in 96 hrs of onset of symptomes in same hospitalization, half by open and half by laparoscopic method. While patients of delayed surgery group were first managed conservatively and then operated after 6 weeks as interval cholecystectomy, half by open and half by laparoscopic method.There was no significant difference in operative time (71.55min. early vs 67.54min. delayed) and post operative complication ,with open cholecystectomy taking more time than lap. Cholecystectomy in both the group. There was a significant increase in the post op. hospital stay of 1.50 days (5.24days early vs 3.74 days delayed) in early surgery group, But the total mean hospital stay of early surgery group was significantly lower(7.34days early vs 11.32 delayed). Dropout rate of patients who didnt come for interval cholecystectomy on advised time was 46%. Most of these patients came back with another attack or some other complication. Average total cost of treatment was 32% less in early group. Conversion rate from open to lap was a little higher in early group(7.6% early vs 3.8% delayed) probably because relaxing criteria of early cholecystectomy from 72 hrs to 96 hrs. we concluded that whenever possible early surgical intervention should be tried in patients of lower socioeconomic domain suffering from AC, even up to 96 hrs after onset of symptoms . It gives the advantage of less overall hospital stay, less overall economical burden to the patient, reduces the work load of health care system, reduces the chances of recurrent episodes of cholecystitis and other gallstone related complications. LC is a safe, valid alternative to OC in these patients , providing all the advantages of minimal invasive surgery .
464 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Its Risk Factors: a Case Control Study, Entela Nako, Laureta Malushi, Enver Roshi
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is understand the role of risk factors for occurrence of COPD. A case control study was carried out at Dispensary of Tirana district over the two year period January 2012 December 2013 were included in the study. Cases were recruited from newly diagnosed outpatient cases of mild, moderate or severe COPD. Controls were obtained from outpatients consulting for various extrapulmonary problems. All patients answered a standardized questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Age ?60yrs, smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETC) exposure at home and exposure to solid fuel smoke at home are significant independent risk factors for COPD. Public health implications should include promotional campaigns to quit smoking and measures to ameliorate the indoor levels of air pollution.
465 The Relationship Between Coping Styles and Temperament and Character Traits in Nurses, Esra Yazici,Osman Esen,Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Hayrunisa Esen, Mustafa Ince,Selma Bozkurt Zincir
Background: Coping style and personality are related with stress management and became intriguing subjects for different disciplines, which interact with stress, as psychiatry, psychology, occupation management, business, economics etc. | Aim: This study aims to investigate the relationship between coping styles, temperament and character traits and anxiety and depression scores in nurses. | Study Design: The study is designed to be conducted with nurses working at a training and research hospital in a cross-sectional model with self report forms. | Methods: 94 nurses are included to the study. Sociodemographical data form, Temperament and Character Inventory by Cloninger, Coping Styles Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale are performed. | Results : Lower harm avoidance scores and higher persistence and cooperativeness scores were predictors of self confident style. Lower harm avoidance and higher Cooperativeness scores were predictors of optimistic style. Higher harm avoidance, reward dependence and self transcendence scores were predictors of helpless style. The only predictor for submissive style was higher harm avoidance scores and for social support seeking style was higher reward dependence. | Conclusion: This study presents temperament and character traits as predictors of coping styles. Especially harm avoidance was high lightened in this study with its relation to unsatisfactory coping styles as submissive and helpless style and so anxiety and depression scores. Investigation of different dimensions of the relations between personality and coping may be subject for further studies. |
466 Study of Autonomic Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus, Darshana Makwana, JanakChokshi, Krishna K Lakhani, Deepak Kumar, Avinash Jain
Aims and objectives: To study prevalence of DAN(Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy), evaluate and compare autonomic dysfunction with reference to cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, sudomotor and metabolic systems and with concurrence of other diabetic complications.
467 Study of Electrocardiographic and Echo Cardiographic Profile of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients, JANAK CHOKSHI, AMIT PATIL, KRISHNA LAKHANI, Nirav Purohit, Krunal Patel
BACKGROUND=Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease presents as an immense and a serious global public health problem all over the world.Most of the increased mortality associated with COPD . Electrocardiography and Echocardiography provide a rapid, non-invasive,portable and an accurate method to evaluate the effective functioning of the cardiovascular system. AIMS& OBJECTIVE= To study the various changes on Electrocardiography & electrocardiogram with its correlation with severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MATERIAL & METHO=DThis study was conducted during the period from November 2012 to October 2013. It included Ninety Five (95) adult indoor patients, with COPD. The diagnosis of COPD was made as per the guidelines by Global Institute for Chronic Obstructive Lung disease (GOLD) .All of the patients had undergone clinical examination and the investigations including 2D ECHO & ECG. RESULT=in this study44% of the patients had ECG evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy .Incomplete RBBB was found in 18.18% of the patients with RVH. 48% of the patients in the study had P pulmonale.Also, Pulmonary hypertension was seen in 56% of the patients in the present study54% of the patients had echocardiography evidence of corpulmonale. CONCLUSION=Statistically significant correlation with severity was found in the incidence among ECG and Echocardiography findings.
468 A Comparative Study of Intraperitoneal Nebulization Versus Intraperitoneal Instillation of Ropivacaine Hydrochloride and Morphine Sulphate for Postoperative Analgesia in Laparoscopic Surgery, Solanki Rekha N,Gosai Nita D,Thakkar Jayshree M
Aim: To study the effect of intraperitoneal local anesthetic administration for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic surgeries. Method: 60 patients of ASA I & II, aged 18-60years were divided in two groups. At the end of surgery Ropivacaine (0.75%) 2mg/kg & morphine 1% 2mg was nebulized in group N and instilled in group I .Visual analogue score (VAS) for static and dynamic pain, duration of analgesia, total opiate consumption during first twenty four hours, and complications were noted. Results: VAS(at rest) at 0, 12 and 18 hours was 5.29 1.03 vs. 16.30 3.61, 15.232.25 vs. 32.211.53 and 29.462.05 vs. 38.602.71 respectively(P
469 Isolation And Enumeration of Marine Actinobacteria Diversity from Kovalam Mangrove Soil, East Coast of Tamil Nadu, India, KARTHIKEYAN P, SENTHILKUMAR G, PANNEERSELVAM A
The marine soil sample were collected from marine mangrove environment of Kovalam east coast of Tamil Nadu India. A total of 23 different actinobacteria were isolated by serial dilution plate technique on starch casein agar medium. Physico-chemical analysis of the soil revealed the following parameters like pH, Electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, salinity, zinc, copper, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, Cation exchange capacity, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, were studied. Actinobacteria strains were chosen using selective isolation approaches, and then morphological properties of the isolates were determined. The isolates belonged to the following genus, Jonesia, Planomonospora, Pseudonocardia (2), Kineospora, Micromonospora, Nocardia(2), Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora hirsuta, Saccharopolyspora, Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum, Streptomyces cyaneus, Streptomyces (7), Terrabacter (2) and Thermoactinomycetes.
470 Acute Pain: A Study of Intravenous Tramadol Hydrochloride Versus Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Irrigation Through Surgical Drains, Solanki Rekha N, Thakkar Jayshree M, Patel Bipin M, Makwana Yogesh C, Chauhan Arun S, Pol Dhiraj S
Background Aims of the study were to determine the effects of bupivacaine irrigation in management of acute postoperative pain after radical surgery for breast cancer and to study the twenty four hour dose requirement of tramadol after bupivacaine irrigation with its safety profile. Methods: This study was conducted in forty adult patients belonging to ASA I and II posted for elective modified radical mastectomy under general anaesthesia. They were randomly assigned into two groups of twenty each. Group B-10 ml of 0.4% bupivacaine in each drain 8 hourly. Group T-Intravenous infusion of tramadol at the rate of 0.25 mg/kg/hour. Postoperative pain scores, and side effects like nausea, vomiting, sedation, urinary retention, respiratory depression, pruritus, ECG, haemodynamic changes were monitored and requirement of additional rescue analgesic doses were noted. Results: Bupivacaine irrigation through surgical drains is a reasonably good technique for acute postmastectomy pain relief.It is associated with reduction in tramadol requirement by one fifth.(P-0.0004) Nausea, vomiting, sedation and respiratory depression are less in B group than in T group and are statistically significant.(P
471 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Regarding Infection Control Measures Among Dental Students in Central India, Nilesh Agrawal, Dr. Pranay Gandhi, Sunita Sharma
A questionnaire study was conducted among 245 dental students from Nagpur city, Central India, to determine their level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures and if any correlation exists among the knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. We found that 61.2 percent of the dental students had not been vaccinated with hepatitis B. Use of face mask, gloves, eyewear, and protective clothing as standard infection control measures was practiced only by two students. Mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 3.75 (1.01), 3.40 (0.75), and 3.35 (1.04), respectively. Significant linear correlation was seen between attitude and practice scores (r=0.20, p?0.01). The level of knowledge and practice of infection control measures was poor among dental students. We recommend rigorous training on infection control measures prior to graduation and mandatory hepatitis B immunization of students before exposure to clinical practice.
472 Effect of Type II Diabetes Mellitus on Treatment Outcomes of Tuberculosis, Nilesh Agrawal, Dr. Pranay Gandhi, Sunita Sharma
AIMS: To compare treatment outcomes among TB patients with diabetes with those without diabetes. SETTING AND DESIGN: Study was conducted in a tertiary care centre in central India, among patients registered with Revised National TB Control Programme. Prospective observational study design was used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Registered TB patients aged 30 and above were invited to participate in the study. Those who were not aware of their diabetic status were diagnosed using oral glucose tolerance test. A total of 89 diabetic and 120 non-diabetic patients were recruited in the study. RESULTS: Bi-variate (unadjusted) analysis showed similar treatment success rates in the two groups. But adjusted odds ratios for successful treatment among diabetic patients were significantly lower (0.191, 95% CI 0.04-0.90) for pulmonary TB patients and for smear positive pulmonary TB patients (odds ratio 0.099, 0.013-0.761). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes increases risk of poor treatment outcomes among pulmonary TB patients
473 Health problems of the elderly-A cross sectional study, Nilesh Agrawal, Dr. Pranay Gandhi, Sunita Sharma
Background:Estimates of health problems of the elderly in developing countries are required from time to time. Aims:To identify the common geriatric health problems in slum and a village and to explore any gender and urban rural difference in morbidity. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a village in the field practice area of a teaching hospital having population of 407. Results: Visual impairment was the most common handicap with prevalence of 83.29% (339/407), with males more affected than females (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.32-4.87). Uncorrected hearing impairment was also common. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (125/407); 12% (49/407) had diabetes; 7.6% (31/407) gave history of ischemic heart disease. Conclusion: Unmet health needs exist in elderly.
474 Effectiveness of Educational Package on Knowledge Regarding Pneumonia And Its Prevention Among The Mothers of Under-Five Children In Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka State, Dr. Veena Gretta Tauro, Dr. Indrani Dasarathan
Childhood Pneumonia has been identified as a major forgotten Killer of children by UNICEF in 2006. It is a primary cause of child mortality worldwide. In the view of the nature of the problem, an experimental study was conducted with an aim to assess the effectiveness of educational package on knowledge regarding pneumonia and its prevention among the mothers of the under-five children. Random sampling technique by lottery method was used to select thefour subcentres each of Amblamogaru and Kudupu PHCs. Systematic sampling was utilized to select 60 samples fromeach of these subcentres. Total 480(240 experimental and 240 control)samples were included in the study. Data was collected using the structured knowledge questionnaire. The pre-test was conducted on the day one and afteradministration of the educational package using the same questionnaire datawas collected on the eighth day and three months after intervention. The findings of the study were: Significant difference between the mean pre-test knowledge scoreand mean post-test I and post-test II knowledge scores of motherswas found in the experimental group (F2,717 =529.734, p
475 Comparative Study of Open Versus Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome- A Clinical Study, Dr V.K MOHANDAS KURUP, Dr ABHISHEK CHOWDHERY
Background: To define which rehabilitation methodology is best suited for patellofemoral pain syndrome as there is not much study to define in a comparative clinical set up with an O.K.C and C.K.C exercise with prolong follow up. | Hypothesis: The long-term effect of closed kinetic chain training is significantly better compared to the effect of open kinetic chain in patellofemoral pain. | Study Design: Prospective randomized clinical trial. | Methods: 54 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, one group followed of open kinetic chain rehabilitation method and other one closed chain rehabilitation method for 12 week. Pre and post test result were compared with 4 defined functional test, results are statistically compared. | Results: At the end of six month follow-up, all 4 tests (1- triple hop test, 2-flexion measurement test, 3- quadriceps girth, 4- V.A.S) were assessed in pre and post test result form and were compared statically. | Conclusions: On the basis of these results, it was noted that both open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain programs lead to an equal long-term good functional outcome. | Abbreviation used- O.K.C (Open kinetic chain), C.K.C (closed kinetic chain), V.A.S (Visual pain analog scale), Quad.G. (Quadriceps girth), PFPS (Patellofemoral pain syndrome) R.M (Repetitive maximum) |
476 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MAMMOGRAPHY AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF PALPABLE BREAST MASSES AND CO-RELATE WITH HISTOPAHOLOGICAL FINDINGS, DR SAURABH M GARASIA
This is the study of 50 female patients having the complain of breast lump .Few of them having complaining breast pain.All the patients are examined by the surgeon with their clinical findings and send them for USG and mammography .All the patients are examined by histopathological finding and follow up after surgical evaluation of each patient.And my conclusion is mammography and ultrsonography have similar sensivity but specificity of mammography increases with use of ultrasonography. Mammosonography findings correlates well with histo pathological diagnosis.Benign lesions have typical predominance under age of 40 years, while malignant lesions have peak after age of 40 years.Fibro adenoma is very common in young females below age of 40 years & most common lesion in this age group encountered during study.
477 An Extremely Rare Case of Bilateral Ruptured Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy With One Tubal Molar Pregnancy in A Primigravida, DR YOGESH A.THAWAL, DR SANJAYKUMAR TAMBE, DR SHRUTI KALLURKAR, DR TANIA ANAND
Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon event with simultaneous rupture of both being rare. The rarest form of ectopic pregnancy is bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy in which twinning occurs with pregnancy in both tubes. The fate of the two pregnancies are independent of each other .We report a case of 26 years primigravida with bilateral ruptured ectopic pregnancy. On histopatholgy report one sac showed molar pregnancy. In the past two decades there has been three fold rise in incidence of heterotrophic as well as tubal ectopic pregnancies with assisted reproduction techniques, but occurrence of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is exceedingly rare. The incidence is thought to be 1 in 2, 00,000 intrauterine pregnancies and somewhere between 1 in 725 to 1 in 1580 ectopic pregnancies.
478 A STUDY ON DIFFERENT MODALITIES IN MANAGEMENT OF FISSURE IN ANO, Dr. VISHRUTH K. RAJ, Dr. MAYUR M. KADAM
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Fissure in Ano is defined as a longitudinal split in the anoderm of the distal anal canal, which extends from the anal verge proximally towards, but not beyond, the dentate line. It can be acute or chronic. Its situation in the unmentionable site adds to the morbidity as the shy and female patients avoid surgical consultation. Though fissure in ano is a very old entity, controversy still exists in the management of fissure in ano. An attempt is made in this dissertation to study the correlation between several etiological factors, morbidity, recurrences, and also comparatively study four modalities of treatment of fissure in ano.The purpose of this study is to: 1. To study the different clinical presentations and etiological factors of the fissure in ano. 2. To study the different modalities of treatment of fissure in ano i.e., application of Glyceryl trinitrate ointment, Sclerotherapy, Lords dilatation and Subcutaneous lateral internal sphincterotomy. 3. To study the complications associated with fissure in ano as well as those with its treatment. METHOD This is a prospective cohort study for a period of 15 months. 60 patients diagnosed to have fissure in ano were included in the study and divided into acute and chronic groups depending on the presentation. They were then treated with a predefined modality and efficacy and complications were studied. RESULTS Among 30 patients in the acute group 10 patients each were treated with sclerotherapy, application of GTN ointment and Lords dilatation. Sclerotherapy wasfound to have immediate pain relief in patients but very poor effect on healing of thefissure. Lords dilatation had good pain relief and fissure healing percentage but wasassociated with high rate of post treatment complications and disturbances of anal continence. GTN ointment was found to have good pain relief and fissure healing rateand also minimal post treatment complications. Among 30 patients in the chronic group 10 patients each were treated with GTN ointment application, Lords dilatation and Lateral internal sphincterotomy. GTN ointment was found to have good pain relief and fissure healing with headache being the only complication in a small percentage of patients. Lords dilatation again had a high rate of post op hemorrhage and post op disturbances in continence. Lateral internal sphincterotomy was by far the best method and had the best pain relief and fissure healing and the least complications. CONCLUSION This study showed that fissure in ano is the commonest painful condition of the anal canal and the maximum number of cases was encountered in the third decade of life. The male to female ratio was almost equal. The commonest presenting complaint in acute fissures was pain during defecation and in chronic fissures was a sentinel skin tag, while the second most common complaint in both was bleeding per rectum. The posterior midline was the commonest site of fissure in both males and females. Anterior fissures were rare and seen mostly in females. Application of GTN ointment was found to be the ideal treatment modality for acute fissure and lateral internal sphincterotomy the most ideal for chronic fissure. In patients with chronic fissure who refused or were unfit for surgery, GTN ointment application is the next best option.
479 Outcomes of Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Complicated Pediatric Appendicitis, Dr. ARUN. K, Dr. MAYUR M. KADAM
OBJECTIVES To assess the safety and efficacy of Laparoscopic appendectomy in complicated appendicitis in children. METHODS: All children admitted with diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. All children suspected to have complicated appendicitis are subjected to clinical examination and imaging. All children would be subjected to Laparoscopic appendectomy. RESULTS In our study it was seen that there was no incidence of post operative intra abdominal abscess. Lower incidence of post operative adhesions compared to open appendectomy. Lower incidence of infections, wound haematoma and post operative bowel paralysis when compared to open appendectomy. CONCLUSION Our results have indicated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy in complicated appendicitis in children. The incidence of post-operative intra abdominal abcess was nil in our study probably due to the efforts taken to give a thorough peritoneal lavage and also an adequate course of higher antibiotics. Duration of surgery was dependent on the severity of the peritonitis and the associated paralytic ileus with dilated bowel loops which made the procedure technically challenging. Surgical site infection in our study though not significant could have been avoided with the use of endobag . Although the number of patients enrolled in this study thus far is small , preliminary results show that our experiences with Laparoscopic appendectomy in Complicated Appendicitis in children has been encouraging .In conculsion having found less morbidity with laparoscopic approach we advocate the use of laparoscopy in children even with complicated appendicitis.
480 Maternal And Neonatal Outcomes In Preeclampsia In Yenepoya Medical College Hospital From 2009-2013- A Retrospective Study, DR SAUDA, DR SADIQUINNISA, DR SMITHA .B. RAO, DR RAJAGOPALA
OBJECTIVE: TO FIND OUT THE MATERNAL AND NEONATAL OUTCOME IN PREECLAMPSIA IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL FROM 2009-2013 STUDYDESIGN: IT IS A RETROSPECTIVE CASE SERIES STUDY. MATERIALANDMETHODS ALL THE PATIENTS ADMITTED IN YENEPOYA MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL FROM 2009-2013 WITH THE DIAGNOSIS OF PREECLAMPSIA WERE ANALYSED FROM THE MEDICAL RECORDS SECTION . 250 CASE SHEETS WERE ANALYSED RESULTS: THE PATIENTS RECORDS WERE ANALYSED SHOWED THAT MOST OF PATIENTS WERE BOOKED BUT NOT ATTENDED REGULAR ANC (80% ) ,UNBOOKED (20%),ILLITERATE(6%) ,LITERATE(94%).DISTRIBUTED IN AGE GROUP OF 21-30 YRS (80%) , 30-40YRS(20%),PRIMIGRAVIDA(69.6%) , MULTIGRAVIDA (30.4%) ,PERIOD OF GESTATION37 WEEKS PERIOD OF GESTATION(20%). HEADACHE WAS THE MOST COMMON SYMPTOM (80%) .SPONTANEOUS(80%,) ,PG E2( 20%) . MODE OF DELIVERY WAS VAGINAL(24%) OF WHICH INSTRUMENTAL (3.2%) ,LSCS( 72%) .MATERNAL COMPLICATIONS WERE POSTPARTUM HEMORRAGHE (1.6%), ABRUPTIO PLACENTA (8%) ,RENAL DYSFUNCTION (17.2%) ,PULMONARY OEDEMA (0.8%), HELLP SYNDROME (4%),DIC(0.8%),MATERNAL MORTALITY(0.4%).FETAL COMPLICATIONS WERE PRETERM (76%) BIRTH ASPHYSXIA (1.6%) IUGR (4%) NICU ADMISSION (80%) ,PERINATAL MORTALITY (4%). CONCLUSIONS: THIS STUDY IMPLIES THAT THE PATIENTS WERE LITERATE BUT DID NOT COME FOR REGULAR ANTENATAL VISITS .WE SHOULD IMPRESS UPON THE IMPORTANCE OF ANTENATAL VISITS AND MAKE THE PEOPLE AWARE OF HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCY ESPECIALLY ABOUT PREECLAMPSIA AND MATERNAL AND FETAL COMPLICATIONS AND CAN BE PREVENTED .
481 The Segmental Measurements of Humerus, Dr Zarana A. Ashiyani, Dr H. R. Jadav
The aim of the present study was to determine the length of various segments of humerus in the Indian population and compare these data with the data of other countries for use in forensic & archeological study. The study was conducted on 100 dry humeri bones. Total length of humerus is measured with osteometric board and 4 segments of humerus are measured with vernier caliper. The mean value of the total humerus length was identified as 30.32 1.58 cm and 30.39 1.66 cm on the left and right side respectively. No significant difference was found in the measurements between left and right sided specimens. The study provides morphometrical data of humerus. Our study demonstrates that length of humerus in Indian population is similar to that of Turkish population.
482 Study of Clinicopathological Profile of Patients With Multinodular Goiter In A Tertiary Care Center, Dr Kiran T, Dr Ashwini B R
Multinodular goiter is a common disorder characterized by a nodular enlargement of the thyroid gland a problem commonly encountered in medical practice. It is a condition occurring in about 12% of the adults characterized by nodules that grow slowly with in the thyroid. There are different diagnostic modalities like Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), ultrasound examination and biochemical analysis. However histopathology remains the gold standard. The study was conducted at our institution to find the clinicopatholoical profile of the patients with multinodular goiter, and to study the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing multinodular goiter. Our study showed that multinodular goiter is common in females than in males and in frequent in 3rd decade of life. Majority of the patients had euthyroid status in thyroid profile. Non neoplastic lesions were more common than neoplastic lesions. FNAC was found to be a safe and effective diagnostic modality with specificity of 100% and efficacy of 98%.
483 Dysphagia : Foramen magnum meningioma - a rare presentation, Dr Viral Patel, Dr Jit Brahmbhatt, Dr Harsh Shah, Dr Tanmai Dhawan, Dr Khushbu Patel, Dr K. J. Pathak
We present a case of a foramen magnum meningioma that highlights the importance of the neurologic exam when evaluating a patient with dysphagia. A 46-year-old woman presented with an 18-months history of progressive dysphagia, chronic cough and weight loss. Prior gastroenterologic and laryngologic workup was unrevealing. Her neurologic examination revealed an absent gag reflex, decreased sensation to light touch on bilateral distal extremities, hyperreflexia, and tandem gait instability. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy was normal, whereas laryngoscopy revealed marked hypopharyngeal dysfunction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated aforamen magnum mass consistent with meningioma. The patient underwent neurosurgical resection of her mass with near complete resolution of her neurologic symptoms. Pathology confirmed diagnosis of a WHO grade I meningothelial meningioma. Conclusion : CNS pathology is an uncommon but impressive cause of dysphagia. Our case demonstrates the importance of a thorough neurologic survey when evaluating such a patient.
484 Somatic mutations in Interferon-? signaling molecules in human uterine leiomyoscoma, Takuma Hayashi
Human uterine leiomyosarcoma (Ut-LMS) is neoplastic malignancy that typically arises in tissues of mesenchymal origin. The identification of novel molecular mechanism leading to human Ut-LMS formation and the establishment of new therapies has been hampered by several critical points. We earlier reported that mice with a homozygous deficiency for proteasome subunit beta type (PSMB) 9, an interferon (IFN)-? inducible factor, spontaneously develop Ut-LMS. The use of research findings of the experiment with mouse model has been successful in increasing our knowledge and understanding of how alterations, in relevant oncogenic, tumor suppressive, and signaling pathways directly impact sarcomagenesis. The IFN-? pathway is important for control of tumor growth and invasion and has been implicated in several malignant tumors. In this study, experiments with human tissues revealed a defective PSMB9 expression in human Ut-LMS that was traced to the IFN-? pathway and the specific effect of somatic mutations of JAK1 molecule or PSMB9 gene promoter region on the PSMB9 gene transcriptional activation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human Ut-LMS may lead to identification of new diagnostic candidates or therapeutic targets in human Ut-LMS.
485 Comparison of external and endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy in primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction, Zahra Sarafraz, Seyyed Ali Musavi, Mohammad Hossein Azaraein
Introduction: Epiphora is an annoying symptom, embarrassing the patient both socially and functionally, two widely acceptable treatment modalities of epiphora due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) are external and endoscopic dacryocyctorhinostomy (DCR). Purpose of this study is comparison of complications and success rate of these two methods in patients with NLDO. Material and methods: Retrospective study of patients who underwent surgical endoscopic and external DCR and comparison of their success rate and postoperative complications from 2012-2013 with 6 months follow up in otolaryngology department of shahid sadughi hospital in yazd. Results: A total of 105 patients underwent surgeries for NLDO (52 patients in endoscopic and 53 patients in external group). Min age was 49 years and 62.4% of subjects were female. There was not any significant difference in success rate between two groups (endoscopic 92.3% versus external 86.7%, P value=0.35). Epistaxis and nasal discharge occured just in endoscopic DCR [ epistaxis 7(13.5%) and nasal discharge 8 (15.3%)]. Some complications occured exclusively in external DCR group such as: Unacceptable scar 15 (28.4%), wound dehiscence 5(9.4%), transient lagophtalmus 2(3.7%), transient orbicularis hypototony 1(1.8%). Failure rate in functional subgroup was higher. In endoscopic DCR group in anatomic obstruction special complications (epistaxis and nasal discharge) were higher than functional subgroup (P
486 Pleomorphic Adenoma : 2 Case Report With Review of Literature, Dr. Ravi Shekhar, Dr. M.N.Ghatage, Dr. A.S.Joshi, Dr. R.M.Kulkarni, Dr. A.D.Chougale
Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common neoplasm of the minor salivary glands which are uncommon among the entire salivary gland tumors. The lower lip is a very rare site of occurrence for pleomorphic adenoma and most common is post auricular region. We intended to present two cases of pleomorphic adenoma one of the lower lip, rarest one and one of the post auricular region ,commonest one.
487 Melioidosis in Andrha Pradesh,India, Dr.P.Lakshmi vasantha, Dr.K.Sai Leela
Melioidosis is endemic disease in South East Asia & Northern Australia. Significant number of cases were reported from India, especially from South India. But only few cases were reported from Andhra Pradesh state.It was recognized as emerging disease in India. Here we report a case of melioidosis with septicemia in a diabetic individual from Andhrapradesh. Patient presented with multiple abscesses in liver and spleen.Pus culture from liver abscess and blood culture yielded Burkholderia pseudomallei.Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment by followingguidelines is needed for the management of this disease.
488 VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA (VAP): MICROBIOLOGY AND ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, Dr Seema Solanki, Dr K. Saileela
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the commonest nosocomial infection occurring in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). It occurs in 9% to 27% of patients receiving continuous mechanical ventilation. This prospective study was done for the period of one year to determine the etiological agents of VAP and assess their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Semi-quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirates of ventilated patients was done. In our study, Incidence of VAP was found to be 33.47%. Among the causative agents, Pseudomonas spp (44.45%) and Klebsiella spp (22.22%) were found to be the commonest etiological agents in patients with VAP. The mortality rate in our study was 16.04%. Combined approaches of rotational antibiotic therapy and education program might be beneficial to fight against these MDR pathogens and will help to decrease the incidence of VAP
489 Influence of Culture Condition and Ph on Growth and Production of Brown Pigment From Alternaria Alternata, Sagarika Devi, Perumal Karuppan
Alternaria spp. grows over a wide range of pH, temperature and simple sugars. However, limited reports are available on the combined influence of pH, temperature and simple sugars on mycelial growth and pigment production. In the present investigation, the influence of culture condition and pH was investigated on mycelial growth and production of brown pigment from Alternaria alternata in 6 media at pH 4-9. Among 3 natural and 3 synthetic media investigated for mycelial growth and production of brown pigment from A. alternata, natural medium Sorghum Extract maintained at 28oC 2oC under stationary condition favoured maximum mycelial growth and brown production of pigment. Among all pH studied, pH 6 on day 9 supported maximum mycelial growth (12.92 0.03 g L-1) in Sorghum Extract medium and maximum brown pigment (14.3 0.86 mg g-1) in Maize Grain Extract.
490 Atomic Charges and Molecular Orbital Analysis of Naphthalene Under External Electric Field, Dr. K. Selvaraju, Mrs. B. Jothi
The effect of Au metal electrodes on the Naphthalene molecule under external electric field and the corresponding electrostatic properties have been studied by analyzing the geometrical parameters as well as MPA and NPA atomic charges. All the quantum chemical calculations have been carried out with density functional theory (DFT) coupled with Baders AIM theory under various applied EFs using Gaussian09 program package. As the field increases, the observed structural variations are small; however, in most cases it is found to be systematic and almost uniform. When the field increases from 0.00 to 0.15 V-1, the hybridization of molecular levels broadens the DOS and decreases the HLG from 2.45 to 1.98 eV. Overall, the terminal groups of the Naphthalene are found to be very sensitive to applied field in comparison with those molecular regions.
491 Comparative Efficacy And Safety Of Doxofylline Versus Theophylline in Bronchial Asthma And Copd Patients, Dr. Rupali Bajrang Jadhav, Dr. Mirza Shiraz Baig, Dr. Prakashchandra Rambhau Gade, Dr. Prakash Narayan khandelwal
The present study was conducted in the department of pharmacology at government medical college and hospital , Aurangabad to compare the efficacy and safety of doxofylline versus theophylline in the form of sustained release tablets in mild to morderate asthma and COPD patients. It was a randomized open label phase 3 clinical trial including men and women above 18 years of age attending medicine opd.The investigations carried out at start were lung function tests ie FEV1 , FVC, FEF, PEFR and ratio of FEV1/ FVC, they were repeated after 1 month of study period when patients were given theophylline and doxofylline after randomization in two groups.At the end it was found that FEV1, FEF and PEFR was significantly improved in doxofylline group than theophylline group . Considering the results obtained in the present study ,doxofylline seems to be a better alternative to theophylline in maintenance therapy for bronchial asthma and COPD.
492 THE DARANA OF THE TWO SAINTS OF ASSAM, ANKAR DEVA AND JN PR : A COMPARATIVE STUDY, Aktarun Nehar Kazi, Dr. Dharani Kanta Das
The two saints of Assam, ?ankaradeva and ?j?n Pr, though preached two different religions namely the Vaisnavism and the Islamism respectively, contributed the simplification of rituals and the use of vernacular for translating their respective religious directives, played a great role to enter in to the heart of the people of Assam of their times and now. ?ankardeva composed a numbers of Nm, Kirtana containing the religious ideologies of the Mahapurusi? vaisnavism. ?j?n P?r was not an Assamese by birth like ?ankardeva, he came to Assam from Bagdad, Iraq and acquired mastery in the indigenous Assamese language and composed a number of religious songs (zikir and z?ri) in Assamese language that simplified the learning of Islamic preachings. The present study is a comparative analytical study to enquire their contribution in propagating their religious idea and tolerance.
493 The Manichean Situation Between Ideology and ubjectivity, Viorella Manolache
The present study involves the expansion of Umberto Ecos scheme to include the elements from Skyfall (2012), providing a pretext for reconstructing the functional-combinatorial mechanics of the intersection of the political philosophy and literature cinematography. The study also draws on the body of Romanian critical studies, confirming/contesting their ability to reflect the dilution or fragile/fragilising weakening in postmodern fashion of identity/subjectivity. Between the Manichean situation and / or ideology, the Bondian world remains a construct divided between the artistic scaffolding and the ideological choice and/or rhetorical demands.
494 PHONEMIC FLUENCY AMONG ENGLISH MEDIUM AND KANNADA MEDIUM PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS, Chetan S.V., Dr. Y.T. Balakrishna Acharya
The study examined the effects of medium of instruction (English & Kannada) and gender on phonemic fluency in primary school students. The sample consisted of 30 boys and 30 girls studying in Class II and III, aged between 8 and 9 years. Simple Random sampling procedure was used for the study. The sample was administered the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, t test of statistical significance and Two-Way Analysis of Variance (Two-way ANOVA) were performed to study the interactive effect of gender and medium of instruction on phonemic fluency. The findings reveal that,English medium primary school students have higher phonemic fluency than Kannada medium students and there is no significant gender difference in phonemic fluency with respect to primary school students. The findings also reveal that, the interaction of gender and medium of instruction has no significant effect on phonemic fluency in primary school students; however, English medium girls have higher phonemic fluency than Kannada medium girls.
495 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND SUBJECTIVE WELLBEING OF EMPLOYEES IN AN ORGANIZATION, DIVYA DOVINA T., CHANCHAL NAIR
As many nations of the world enter an era of post materialism in which basic survival needs are met, interest in Subjective Well-Being is likely to grow, affecting the ways in which policy makers govern. Continued research into Subjective Well-Being may ultimately answer the question of what composes the good life. Campbell, Converse, and Rodgers (1976) found that the demographic factors of age, sex, income, race, education, and marital status accounted for less than 20% of the variance in Subjective Well-Being. Argyle (1999) determined that external circumstances account for approximately 15% of the variance in Subjective Well-Being. It is concluded that personal reactions to lifes circumstances are more important than the events themselves and that personality affects our reactions. The present study examined the relationship between subjective wellbeing and emotional intelligence. Positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) by Watson, Clark &Tellegen (1988) ,The satisfaction with life scale byDiener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin (1985) and The assessing emotions scale bySchutte, Malouff&Bhullar (1998) was used. Non probability convenient sampling method was used to collect data. Pearsons product moment correlation, students independent t-test and ANOVA were carried out to test the formulated hypotheses.
496 Attitudes Towards Breastfeeding and Weaning Among Nursing Women, JUSTINA T. ASHIGABU, SHAFA .A. YUNUS, ABUBAKAR .M. TAFIDA
The study investigated the attitudes of women on feeding and weaning, inPrimary Health Care Keffi Local Government of Nasarawa State. The purpose is to find out how the women practice breastfeeding and weaning in order to suggest solutions where they will have problems. The review of literature shows that working class women in other places also faced problems like women in Keffi. A descriptive survey research was used where a questionnaire was structure to collect information in the opinions of 120 women in the three centres under study. Mean statistics was employed to analyse the data. It was discovered that the women are not breastfeeding exclusively for six months and most weaned their babies abruptly before two ears. Some of the problems faced are resentment by employers and colleagues; workload is much, lack of family and societal support to encourage nursing mothers are hindrance to exclusive breastfeeding. Base on the findings, recommendation is made that nursing mothers should be given breaks for two hours to go and breastfeed, maternity leave should be extended from three months to six months in order to allow more time to breastfeed their babies before weaning for the childrens good health
497 Study of Pollination Type Role in the Manifestation of Genome Genetic Instability in Nicotianatabacuml. Cells, Sevil Mamedli
Radiation-induced genomic instability in Nicoti?natabacumLplants was studied. Increase in the number of chromosomal aberrations of the plants of M1 and M2 generation was shown. Level of the chromosomal aberrations depended on the exposure dose and pollination type.
498 Ethyl Methanesulphonate (Ems), A Potent Chemical Mutagen: A Review, Shahnawaz khursheed, Samiullah khan
World food insecurity is posing a great threat to the human civilization now-a- days. Scientists are busy worldwide to find out workable solutions for combating food insecurity. Different methods are applied worldwide to improve the yield of plants. Out of these, mutation breeding plays an important role to improve the yield and to ameliorate food insecurity which is spreading worldwide. In mutation breeding, both physical and chemical mutagens are applied. The main chemical mutagens are methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (DES) and sodium azide (SA). EMS is ranked after MMS as a potent chemical mutagen to induce the genetic variability to improve the useful characters in plants. EMS has been used from past to improve the yield characters in plants. In future, it is an important tool and hope to reduce the food insecurity of worlds growing population.
499 Induction And Assessment of Quantitative Traits By Single And Combined Treatments of Gamma Rays And Ethyl Methane Sulphonate in Two Varieties of Vicia Faba L, Shahnawaz khursheed, Samiullah khan
Food insecurity due to the increasing population is posing a great threat throughout the world. Pulses are the major source of proteins. The current experiment was conducted to increase the yield and its attributing traits in two varieties of Vicia faba L viz., PRT-12 and Vikrant. through mutation breeding. Seeds of two varieties of Vicia faba L. were treated with Gamma rays and Ethyl methanesulphonate alone and in combinations. The seeds were then sown to raise the M1 generation. Meiosis of PMCs were observed in M1 generation. Lower doses/concentrations of both individual and combination treatments of mutagens induced less meiotic abnormalities than higher doses/concentrations in M1 generation The M1 generation seeds were sown to raise the M2 generation. Quantitative characters of both the varieties were studied in M2 generation. Lower concentrations/doses of individual and combination treatments were found to increase the yield of both varieties but the higher one had negative effects. Variety Vikrant showed more positive responsive towards mutagens at lower doses/concentrations than variety PRT-12
500 Climate Change And Its Impact On Orchid Productivity, L.C. De, R.P. Medhi
Orchids are the most complex, advanced and successful family of flowers on the planet. Epiphytic orchids usually grow on tree trunks or branches and survive through nutrients from decaying organic matter that accumulates around the root zone and on their leaves and are usually distributed in tropical areas. Terrestrial orchids are originated from temperate regions and can tolerate adverse climatic conditions. Climate change due to global warming interacts with habitat loss and fragmentation, introduced and invasive species and population growths and many ecosystems are likely to undergo severe modification. In Asia, climate change is projected to compound the pressures on natural resources and the environment associated with rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development. Semi-arid vegetation will tend to be replaced by arid vegetation. Levels of precipitation are likely to change radically in many areas of the world. Increasing temperature may result in vegetational zones gradually moving vertically up mountain sides, both permitting tropical species to subtropical areas, subtropical species to temperate areas and eliminating the species in the highest zones. Epiphytic orchids may be affected in various ways by changes in the availability of light, nutrients and moisture. Climate change is major threat to pollination services and there is a need to conserve plant communities in which orchids live. The combination of higher temperatures and lower rainfall may make forests more susceptible to fire and it may lead to extinction of local species. Majority of orchid species are capable of tolerating dry storage for many decades when stored at -20oC. Liquid nitrogen storage may produce further extensions of life spans of orchid seeds. Living collections are recently underutilized as a conservation tool and there is a need to do more to induce members of the wider orchid community
501 INDIAN COFFEE PRODUCTION AND EXPORT DESTINATIONS: AN OVERVIEW, Dr. M. AMARAVATHI, ANAND SHANKAR RAJA. M
Coffee is not just a drink. It is a global commodity. As one of the world's most traded products, second in value only to oil, the coffee industry employs millions of people around the world through its growing, processing and trading. While the coffee trade is vital to the politics, survival and economies of many developing nations, the industry's pricing and futures are decided in conference rooms and on stock exchange floors in some of the world's wealthiest cities. Climate change is threatening coffee crops in virtually every major coffee producing region of the world. Higher temperatures, long droughts punctuated by intense rainfall, more resilient pests and plant diseases, all of which are associated with climate change, have reduced coffee supplies dramatically in recent years. Indian coffee production is affected due to the continuous fall in rainfall affecting production and export. This study aims at determining the position of coffee production in general, with regard to region wise split-up, taking into account Indian geographical area and production units and export data
502 Social Audit on Household and Community Sanitation Units - A Study in Tamil Nadu, Dr. R. Mani, Mr. M. Diraviaraj
The paper addresses the Major issue of Non-utilization of the sanitary facilities by beneficiaries, which is due to lack of awareness on sanitary practices and the strings of problems tied to the non practices on one side and that the units are built with poor cooperation and willingness of the beneficiaries on the other side. In most cases, the target coverage has been the priority than the actual needs and realization of the need and utilization by the users themselves, where the concentrated education on sanitation has been lacking. Where also the situation of huge contributions to be made by the beneficiaries as co-financing along with the government [ TSC], has played a major role, in beneficiaries not willing to own a facility. The dominant factor has been that major portions of these units remained un-utilized due lack of awareness and community education on the importance of sanitation. At this background, an NGO called Y-NEEW, has adopted the principles of community education, participation and social audit, while promoting 5 community sanitation units, in 5 hamlets [with support of CAPART, Ministry of Rural Development, GoI-2004-2005] and 25 house hold sanitation units for as many families [with support of TSC-DRDA, Dindigul, Tamilnadu-2009-10], processed by the Community Sanitation Committee [CSC] and Social Audit Committee [SAC]. The paper studies these two situations in relation to the roles of social audit committee and community participation, where there has been intense community education on the need of sanitation, in leading the users into whole some utilization of the facilities. The study of two situations reveals that the units, as self-designed user friendly units, established with community cooperation and peer group influence. Such models of people acting for their own needs with external facilitation and focused education create scope for replication and lead to the wholesome practice among the rural population. If the MDG sanitation target is to be achieved, innovative approaches and people or user friendly models and strategies need to be developed and adopted to reduce the time span from policymaking to services delivery.
503 Study on Quality of Life of Elderly, Dr. L. Ranjit
Ageing is natural and universal. Many persons in every society pass through this process. At no point of time in the history of this country, have we been more preoccupied with the problem of ageing than of now. The care of the elderly, by their parents or grandparents is a focus of concern an issues of discard in many family with the number of the graying of India has become more visible than ever. The present study concludes that a low level of quality of life was found among the respondents. The study also concludes that demographic variables namely gender and savings do influence the level of quality of life of the respondents.
504 Home Loan: A Comparative Analysis Of SBI And HDFC Bank, Ms. Prabha Garg, Dr. Ramphool Sharma
Every citizen of the country dreams of having his own house. Especially when you plan to buy a home on loan. Home loans means that you buy a house on installments. In other words w hen you want to own a home and cannot afford to pay the amount in lump sum, you can pay it in monthly installments with an interest rate. There are number of companies and banks offer cheap loans at a low interest rate. Loan is offered to a borrower to purchase or build a new house on the basis of his/her eligibility and the banks lending rules. Government gave encouragement for house finance subsidiaries by offering number of tax concessions to individuals with the overall encouragement given to this sector, a number of players entered in housing finance. One of the most important benefits of taking a home loan is the interest rate that is allowed on the home loan. So this particular section will keep the housing loan demand high and increased lending rates can only shelve their plans for some time.
505 Tibetan Self Immolation And Suicide -Two Sides Of The Same Coin, Tshering Doma
Like a suicidal attack, an act of self-immolation involves an individual intentionally killing himself or herself (or at least gambling with death) on behalf of a collective cause. According to Durkhiem suicide results from over integration and excessive regulation between individual and society.Altruistic suicide is that form of suicide where there is over integration of the individual with his social group and strong community- bound consciousness which propels one to sacrifice for the benefit of others and this is one of the major reason for self immolation to take place not only in Tibet but in other regions of the world inhabited by Tibetan refugees. Fatalistic suicide refers to excessive regulation, when the futures is pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline .This is clearly depicted among the Tibetan prisoners who are excessively regulated by the Chinese authorities.
506 Problems of Females in Primary Education in Rural Areas of Gulbarga District: A Sample Survey, Chandrakala. N.H, Dr (Smt). Shashikala. D.J
Female education is important as it helps to reduce maternal mortality, dowry practice, increase family health, more awareness on family welfare, reduce gender based violence, increase child care, etc. Still, female participation in primary education is lower in rural areas. There are many reasons and problems faced by female students in rural areas to get primary education. Hence, the present study was ascertained the problems faced by female students in rural areas of Gulbarga district. Total 150 female students studying in 10 primary schools were interviewed to collect the primary data. The problems faced by female students include household work, social customs, parents suppression, etc. Due to these factors, the female education is neglected. The paper has also given useful suggestions for the improvement and development of female education.
507 Construction of Partially Balanced Incomplete Block (Pbib) Designs Using Factorial Treatment Combinations, Dr.Davinder Kumar Garg, Syed Aadil Farooq
In this paper, we have constructed two series of two and nth (n=2,3,) associate class partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs by establishing a link between PBIB designs and factorial treatment combinations. Some numerical illustrations of construction of such type of designs are also discussed in detail. Efficiencies of the newly constructed PBIB designs are also computed for the purpose of comparisons. During the study, it was found that some designs are new, and some newly constructed designs are more efficient as compared to the existing designs.
508 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF ALOE VERA, OMEPRAZOLE AND RABEPRAZOLE IN ASPIRIN INDUCED PEPETIC ULCERS IN GUINEA PIGS., Dr. ASHUTOSH KUMAR SINGH, B. KAVITHA
Comparitive study of anti-ulcer effect of Aloe vera, Omeprazole and rabeprazole in Aspirin induced peptic ulcers in guinea pigs. SUB TITLE: To study and compare the anti ulcer effect of Aloe Vera, Omeprazole and Rabeprazole in Aspirin induced peptic ulcers in Guinea pig. SUMMARY: This study was performed to compare the Anti-ulcer effects of Aloe vera, Omeprazole & Rabeprazole on Aspirin induced peptic ulcers in Guinea pigs of either sex weighing between 400 600 gm were randomly allotted into four groups with six animals each. Aspirin 200 mg/kg- body weight was administered orally and kept fasting for 6 h. A. vera powder was mixed with gum acacia, the solution was administered orally through the oral gavage to guinea pigs in the dose of 200 mg/kg. Omeprazole 3.5mg/ Kg, Rabeprazole 2.5-mg/kg body weight was administered orally as a standard drug for present study. At the end of the study, ulcer index were studied. The significance of difference between means of control and treated groups were determined by one- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.
509 MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE LABIAL SALIVARY GLANDS OF THE SHEEP (OVIS ARIES), A.D. Singh, R. K. Jain, Pawan Kumar, Kritima Kapoor
The present study was undertaken on ten healthy adult sheep of local mixed breed of either sex to study the histomorphological, histochemical and micrometrical studies on the labial salivary glands of sheep. The labial salivary glands were of branched tubuloacinar type having loose irregular connective tissue and surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The parenchyma was comprised of secretory units (adenomeres) and ductal system. The adenomeres were of seromucous type with predominance of mucous acini. Histochemically, the mucous cells contained mucosubstances, glycogen, mucopolysaccharides, mucin and lipids while serous cells were negative to all these histochemical reactions.
510 Salivary Mucocele In A Bullock: A Case Report, Raj Kumar Patel, B. Bharti
A 7 year old bullock was presented with history of developed swelling below left ear. Physical examination revealed a fluctuant swelling and present at the caudal border of the vertical part of ramus of mandible. Diagnosis was based on the history, clinical signs, location, nature of fluid and postoperative evolution. The saliva was drained by using sterilized needle 16G and lugols iodine 20ml was infused under swelling. But after three days of treatment swelling was regained its size. Bullock was sedate with the help of xylazine HCl @0.05mg/kgbwt, i/m and 4cm long horizontal incision was given over swelling. The accumulated fluid was removed and then gland was cauterized with help of copper sulfate crystals. Daily dressing was done with help of povidine iodine solution 0.5% and Post operative management with help of antibiotic and analges ic. The wound was healed in 17 days.
511 Antibiogram of Bacteria Belonging to Enterobacteriaceae Family From Canine Pyometra, Dr. Litty Mathew, Dr. Shilpa P., Dr. Koshy John
The present study was conducted to isolate the bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family from canine pyometra samples and to find out the antibiotics which are effective against them. E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus spp. were the bacteria identified. Antibiotics which are commonly used to treat bacterial infections like Amoxycillin, Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Ceftriaxone, Polymixin, Colistin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclin, Oxytetracyclin, Ciprofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, Erythromycin and Gentamicin, were checked for susceptibility to assess the proper therapeutic measures and to find out the presence of multidrug resistant organism.
512 PRICE INCREMENT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN FRESH WATER FISHES IN SOME YEARS USING PAASCHE PRICE INDEX, Dr. Devdatta Gopal
In the present research work some important Indian freshwater fishes and their price increment analysis is being done using Paasche price index. The Paasche price index for the year 2006 is 153.57 % and for 2014 is 232.14 %. The year 1998 is considered as base year. The findings of the present research exhibits that the percentage inflation of retail prices of fresh water fishes from 1998 to 2006 were 53.57 %, while the percentage inflation rate has increased from 2006 to 2014 by 78.57 %. The inflation rate is tremendous year after year. The present research work is a foremost research work and must be considered as a baseline research with a scope for future addition and analysis of data.
513 Comparative Studies of Protein Profile of Cleavage Stage of Lymnaea species after using Antitubulin Drug, Dr. Payal Mahobiya
Lymnaea species are the pest of aquatic plants and aquatic vegetations. It is found in fresh water pond and lakes. These pestiferous snails are also prolific breeders and acts as vector or intermediate host of trematode parasites. So it is very essential to control the fertility, hatchability, viability by increasing the rate of mortality and declining the rate of longevity. So the present investigation was done to know more about the intoxication of alkaloid on development of snail pest. In this study paclitaxel and colchicine was tested for lethal toxicity of cleavage stage of Lymnaea species and values of lethal toxicity was summarized in table 1 and 2. Detection of negatively charged protein fraction in cleavage stage of control and treated snails by SDS-PAGE of Lymnaea species was assessed in the present investigation.
514 Overview Of Tumor Markers In Gynecology, Dr Himangini Shukla, Dr Aniket Kakade
Ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers are the three most common malignancies of the female genital tract. Historically CA 125 happens to be the only tumor markers known for ovarian tumors. Tremendous research is ongoing for newer tumor markers and recent genomic and proteomic based studies show great promise for the discovery of new and more useful biomarkers. An ideal marker should be highly sensitive, specific, and reliable with high prognostic value, organ specific and correlate with tumor stages. However none of the markers reported to date fulfills these characteristics. While the research on ideal tumor markers for gynecological malignancies is still in progress, we discuss the currently utilized tumor markers for gynecological malignancies and the novel biomarkers under investigation.
515 Recurrent Renal Pelvic Tumour An Interesting Ureteropyelogram., DR GOUTHAM GOPINATH, DR RAMYA, DR SHOLA CHITRAN
Upper urinary tract tumour is relatively rare urological nepoplasm. Most of these tumours are transitional cell carcinomas. Recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of renal pelvis in contralateral kidney is rare. The incidence of upper urinary tract tumour after primary bladder cancer is only one to four percent.[1] We are reporting an interesting case of right renal pelvic tumour recurring after treatment of left ureteric tumour. 73 year old male on ileal conduit following left nephroureterectomy and radical cystectomy. He presented with hematuria. Excretary urography or CECT could not be performed due to presence of renal impairment. Retrograde pyeloureterogram done noninvasively delineated the tumour in this patient. Ureteropyeloscopy combined with cytology and biopsy is diagnostic in upper urinary tract tumours. Our patient was treated palliatively due to his poor general condition and presence of renal impairment. Among ureteral tumors, distal tumors are more frequent than proximal tumors, with a ratio of 70:20:10 for the distal, middle, and proximal ureter, respectively. [3]
516 Symptomatic Pineal Arachnoid Cyst Rare Case, Dr Vinayak Kadlimatti, Dr.Vidyavathi Chitharagi, Dr Shivanand Reddy K.V
Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal region are common incidental findings in adults. In contrast, symptomatic pineal cysts are rare and their management is not well defined1. Their importance is mainly in the fact that they cannot be distinguished from cystic tumours2, especially when large or when atypical features are present1. Pineal cysts are typically found in young aged adults (20-30 years of age) with a predilection for women (3:1 female to male ratio) . They are seen in approximately 1-4 % of brain MRIs and 20-40% of autopsy series2. Histologically, they are composed of an inner layer of gliotic tissue, middle layer of pineal parenchymal tissue and an outer layer of connective tissue3,5.
517 Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Gland Follicular Variant: A Case Report, Shrimal Rimjhim, Negi S. R., Vaishnav Kusum, Kumar Ankur
Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, slow growing, low grade neoplasm of salivary glands. ACC-follicular variant is histologically composed of closely packed round cystic spaces filled with colloid like material. The follicles are lined by intercalated duct like cells and non-specific glandular cells. The clinical picture is not specific and diagnosis is based on the histopathologic examination. We present a case of acinic cell carcinoma in a 40 year old female who reported with a painful swelling in the parotid region, which was clinically diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma and histologically diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma follicular variant and discuss the myriad architectural patterns exhibited by it.
518 Adsorption of Iron from Aqueous solution using Almond shell as adsorbent, Dr. G. Anusha, Dr. J. Raja Murugadoss
Iron is normally found in spent pickle and from plating shops, steel mills, foundries, chemical milling, and wire drawing operations. It is also found in ground water. Iron in water is normally found in the ferrous state. Next to hardness, the presence of iron is probably the most common water problem faced by consumers and water treatment professionals. The secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for Iron is 0.3mg/l. Iron may cause conjunctivitis, choroiditis, and retinitis if it contacts and remains in the tissues. Hence to remove iron from water, a batch study has been conducted by adsorption process using activated carbon prepared from almond shell as adsorbent and the removal efficiency was found by varying the parameters such as dosage, time, pH and concentration. The removal efficiency was found to be more than 89%.This experimental study has been carried out to develop an economical method of iron removal, so that even small industries can adopt this method for their wastewater treatment and hence they can prevent the polluted water entering the stream.
519 SPATIAL PATTERNS OF INTRA-DISTRICT MIGRATION IN PUNJAB, 1991-2001, Dr. Gaurav Kalotra
Migration is one of the three basic determinants of population change in any spatial unit, the other two being fertility and mortality. In India the proportion of internal migration has been increasing over the time but even now the percentage of short distance migration i.e. within the district of enumeration is much higher. An attempt has been made to study the intradistrict migration within Punjab. The analysis is based on the 1991 & 2001 D-2 & D-3 Migration Tables of Punjab released by the Census of India. The study revealed that about fifty per cent of all the migrations taking place in Punjab were intra-district migration not only in 1991 but also in 2001 and it was dominated by females in the rural areas of the state. This migration was largely because of female migration due to marriage.
520 Threats of Globalization and Role of Higher Education, Dr. Saima Siddiqi
Globalization has become an important topic in contemporary society. No doubt higher education has attained a key position in the knowledge society under globalization. However the threats/challenges faced are immense and far reaching. Globalization has not only made higher education a very expensive proposition but has also induced massive changes in the structure of courses, their content and even research. Professional courses are in high demand and institutions as well as students are losing interest in traditional courses. In response to globalization, the emerging education agenda includes new notions of internationalization, marketization, privatization, and decentralization and the role of technology in global era. . More focus should be given on three traditional functions performed by higher education structures: knowledge creation, knowledge transmission and knowledge conservation. Universities need to provide specialized knowledge and professional development to knowledge workers as well as opportunities for continuous upgrading they need to function as learning centers for all members of the community
521 Biology of Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera : Saturniidae) A Wild Silk Worm of India, Dr. R. P. Kavane, Dr. T. V. SATHE
Attacus atlas, Linnaeus (Lepidoptera : Saturniidae) is wild silk worm, which produce durable, brownish and wooly like silk. The silk worms feed on Angeer Ficus carica Linnaeus, Castor Recinus comnunis, Mango Mangifera indica Linnaeus and Custard apple Annona squamosa Linnaeus. The biology of A. atlas was studied on E. carica at laboratory conditions (271oC, 75-80% R.H. and 12 hr photoperiod). A. atlas completed its life cycle from egg to adult within 62 days. Incubation, larval and pupal periods were 10 days, 26.5 days and 28 days respectively. Morphological features and general appearance of immature stages of A. atacus have been reported. Moth emergence from cocoon took place early in the morning. Mated female laid 134 to 160 eggs. The pupa was brownish colored and 4.4 cm long and 1.5 cm broad.
522 A RARE CASE OF CUTANEOUS DRAIN SITE METASTASIS SECONDARY TO GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA, Dr.Sunil Kumar B.B, Dr.Mahesh Shetty, Dr.Dileep M, Dr.Lakshman.
Cutaneous metastasis from intra abdominal malignant solid tumors such as gastric adenocarcinoma is very rare1.Development of cutaneous metastasis after gastric carcinoma resection indicates tumor recurrence and disseminated disease2.Here we present a case of 61 yr old male patient operated for carcinoma stomach underwent radical gastrectomy with D 2 lymphadenectomy and 3 months later developed a growth at the drain site which was found to be metastatic adenocarcinoma.
523 Evaluation of Bt cotton with local hybrid cotton variety in Haveri district of Karnataka, M.V. Nagaraja, T. Ganapathi, G.R. Rajakumar
There was a favorable attitude towards the Bt cotton than Hybrid cotton till recent past. The personnel perceived that the Bt cotton seeds are costlier beyond the capacity of small and marginal farmers and they require training in IPM and INM before the season commences. The farmers of the Haveri area obtained more yield in Bt cotton than Hybrid cotton. The farmers faced major constraints such as, high seed cost of Bt cotton, high pest and disease incidence other than bollworm, in turn less yield and low market price.
524 Heavy metals characteristics of settled particles during dust storms in Basrah city- Iraq, Mohanad Hamid Alaberi
The collected dust storms samples were from Basrah city- south Iraq. The heavy metals with the dust storms were studied and it used as indicator for pollution byused three of main indices; geo- accumulation (I- geo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI).The higher concentrations of Co, Zn, Pb, and Ni in Harthah, Qarmmat Ali, Ashar, Fao, and Umm Qasir areas may be as a result to effect of urbanization and industrial processes problems that represented byemission of factory chimneys , household electric power generator, motor vehicle fuel combustionand Impacts of waste flaring associated gas from oil drilling sites. I-geo for Co, Zn, Pb, and Ni in the studied sites shows relatively values of class 1, which indicated the slightly polluted, while I-geo for Fe and Cu shows relatively values of class 0, which indicated no pollution. The contamination factor for Co, Zn, Pb, and Ni classified as class 2, which indicator to moderately contamination, while the contamination factor for Fe and Cu classified as class 1, which indicator for low contamination. PLI values in the all of studied sites classified as class 2 (Deterioration on site quality) indicating local pollution, except in Qurnah ( S2 and S3) and Abu Al Khassib (S14 and S15) , that show the range of PLI values between 0.91 to 0.97 which indicate denote perfection with (class 0) and appear no pollution .
525 Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in a Middle Eastern University Hospital: the Effect of care bundle Implementation, RadwaHamdi Bakr MD, Hesham Mohamed MamdouhAbdelaziz MD
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious health care-acquired infection that occurs in up to 30% of mechanically ventilated patients and leads to prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased hospital stay, and mortality. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of implementing a VAP prevention bundle on VAP rates, antibiotic use, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. Design & Setting: This study used a before-and-after structure to analyze the effects of implementing a VAP prevention bundle in the surgical ICU of a Middle-Eastern university hospital Interventions: A ventilator-associated pneumonia care bundle, consisting of 30o head-of-bed elevation, oral chlorhexidine, continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions (CASS), daily sedation hold, and daily assessment for weaning. Results: During the pre-implementation phase, 323 patients were included in the study and 306 were included in the post-implementation phase. Compliance was 95% for the 30o head-up tilt and the oral chlorhexidine, 85% for the CASS, 75% for the daily sedation hold and assessment for weaning, and 70% for all five elements of the bundle. Rates of microbiologically confirmed VAP were 14 per thousand ventilator days in the pre- implementation period and 5 per thousand ventilator days in the post-implementation period (p=0.047). The mean length of time of antibiotic therapy was lower in the post-implementation phase but not reaching statistical significance. There was a significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation in the post-implementation phase (p=0.01). Conclusion: VAP care bundle is an effective measure for lowering VAP rates in the ICU.
526 Yield Gap Analysis in Onion under Front Line Demonstration in Haveri District, S. M. Hiremath, M.V. Nagaraja
Problems of onion production and their solution at farming situation were studied with the participation of this regard, under technology development and refinement, front line demonstrations on onion was conducted at different locations in Haveri district. These demonstrations focused on increased productivity of onion per unit area and get the feedback from farmers on the performances of onion variety. From the study it revealed that over the years variety Arka kalyan performed superior over local check. The gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio recorded highest in Arka kalyan compared to local. Further the technology index and its adoption index over the local check were also highest in Arka kalyan.
527 Levels of Urbanization in Western Himalaya Region , Dr. Gaurav Kalotra, Satish Kumar
Western Himalaya Region comprises of the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. This paper tries to describe the levels of urbanization in Western Himalaya Region on the basis of district and town level data of Census of India, 2011. It focuses on the urban landscape as it highlights the spatial structure of urban settlements and the irregular spread of towns and cities in the region. The urbanization of Western Himalayas has been influenced by its topography, international border and needs for efficient and effective local administration which helps in the development of the hill stations, cantonment towns and administrative headquarters towns respectively. Further, numbers of other towns have emerged due to modernization of means of transport and industrialization. The paper analyses the levels of urbanization and the spatial pattern of towns with their specific location and size. The three states comprising Western Himalayas present sharp contrasts in terms of levels of urbanization. The result shows that the Jammu & Kashmir is the most urbanized state (47.9 per cent) while Himachal Pradesh is the least urbanized state in the region. It has been observed that most of the urban population in the region is concentrated in valleys which provide better living conditions.
528 Efficacy of Primerless Light Cured Orthodontic Composite over two conventional Bonding Systems; an inVitro Study, Dr. Prasad Chitra, Dr. Yashpal
Objective: To study bonding and debonding characteristics of primerless orthodontic composite in comparison with two conventional bonding systems. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human premolar teeth mounted on similar sized aluminum blocks were divided into three groups of ten teeth each. All teeth were bonded with three different bonding systems with metallic premolar brackets (0.022 Ortho Organizers) and were evaluated for shear bond strength using an Instron testing machine. Surface characteristics were studied under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and evaluated using the adhesive remnant index (ARIndex). Results were evaluated and compared. Results: Shear bond strength (SBS) of primerless light cure Heliosit (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan,Liechtenstein,) composite is clinically significant and lies intermediate to Transbond XT light-cure composite (3M Unitek, CA, USA) and Rely-a-Bond self-cure composite(Reliance Orthodontic Product, Inc., Illinois, USA). Conclusion: Heliosit light cured primerless composite may be recommended for routine clinical use due to its ideal characteristics of sufficient bond strength and reduced chances of enamel damage at debonding.
529 Achieving the Poverty Reduction Targets of The Millennium Development Goals (Mdgs) For Enhanced Economic Empowerment Prospects In Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria., Nwaubani, Okechukwu O, Ugwuanyi, Benedict E, Mezieobi, Daniel I, Eneogu, Njideka
Poverty reduction is a core mandate of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), of which Nigeria is a signatory. However, despite its perceived viability as an economic empowerment strategy, poverty still persists in Nigeria. Against this backdrop, this study sought to determine the extent to which the MDGs targets on poverty reduction have enhanced poverty alleviation and economic empowerment prospects in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Four research questions and three hypotheses (tested at 0.05 level of significance) guided the study. Sample for the study consisted of 200 adult respondents drawn from thirteen (13) communities in Nsukka L.G.A. through purposive and stratified sampling techniques based on the 2006 National Population Census figures. Instrument for data collection consisted of thirty (30) item questionnaire developed by the researchers for the purpose of the study. The instrument was validated by experts and reliability co-efficient established. Data obtained were analyzed with mean and standard deviation for research questions and z-test statistic for the test of hypotheses. Findings among other things showed that although poverty persists in the area of study, the public still seem to be aware of the various strategies (in line with MDGs stipulation) put in place by government to enhance poverty alleviation and economic empowerment. Indeed, despite some perceived challenges, such as corruption, poor data base, multiple taxation, etc. respondents seem optimistic that poverty alleviation/reduction could still be achieved by the year 2020. Similarly, respondents did not differ significantly on the above views on account of gender and locationvariables. These findings were exhaustively discussed with far-reaching recommendations and policy implications for poverty alleviation and economic empowerment prospects in Nigeria. Conclusively, it was recognized that although attaining MDGs target on poverty reduction still faces challenges, it could still be achieved through concerted institutional efforts.
530 Linguistic Constraints on Code-mixing, Hamzeh Moradi
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics which stresses the importance of language as a system and concerns the language based on systematic rules and grammatical aspects of the language and investigates linguistic units such as sounds, words, sentences have within this system. The structural approach attempts to identify syntactic and morphosyntactic patterns underlying the grammar of code-switching and code-mixing. The present study reviews the most significant linguistic constrains on code-mixing. It presents the universal constrains proposed on the occurrence of this communicative linguistic phenomenon.
531 Ergonomic Study on Postural Discomfort and Exertion Perceived by House Construction Workers, Kiran Bairwa, Rekha Vyas
The construction industry in India is an integral part of the nation and can be identified as one of the rapidly growing sector which gives employment to maximum of the workers after agriculture. Construction workers are the backbone of the Indian economy. The workers who work in construction industry perform a large variety of duties like building, repairing, mixing sand, cement, concrete, spreading concrete and other material etc. The work involves hard physical labour as the workers work under difficult conditions including hot, cold, and wet weather. The workplace, work, environment and variety of postures bring body discomfort to the workers. Ergonomics tries to come up with solution to make sure that the workers stay safe, comfortable and productive. Thus, the present study was done with the objectives to analyze various postures used by the workers in selected manually performed construction activities, to find the musculoskeletal risks and to assess the exertion perceived by them. The study was conducted in Udaipur city. A sample of 60 male workers 30 skilled and 30 unskilled were purposively selected. The results of the study show that approximately 23.33 percent of the respondents were in this occupation from last 16-20 years. The respondent were in the category of low weight normal and only one-forth had normal Body Mass Index (BMI). Regarding VO2 max more than 60 percent of the total respondents were in the category of good to excellent. Time spent on work by the respondents was 9 hours/day with break of one hour for lunch. Continuous sitting and bending postures were adopted by the construction workers and more than half of the respondents carried load in hand. Regarding feeling of pain during and after work it was found that more than half of the respondents reported pain after work. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) was used to assess musculoskeletal risks to the workers due to work. It was observed that the majority of respondents were at very high risk of body discomfort and change in work method and posture was immediately required. The ergonomic guideline for improving the change in work process and equipment, use of personal protective equipment was suggested by the investigator so that health and efficiency of the house construction workers could be enhanced.
532 Design of High Reflectivity Birefringent Multilayers Laser Mirrors, Haider Y. Hammod, Farah G. Khalid, Noor L .Husain
In present research we used open filter software program with Matlap asa complete program to study influence of incident light angle with surface reflectivity and relationship withbriefringent.When the wavelength equal to 1500 nm and thirty reflective layers. Finally we can get the maximum reflectivity when the optical thickness of coating layers equal to quarter wave length.
533 Aberrant Canal Morphology of Mandibular Premolars- Case Report, Janet Kirilova
Introduction: Mandibular premolars have gained a reputation for having aberrant anatomy. They are considered to be the most difficult teeth for endodontic treatment. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate a case of mandibular premolar with taurodontism. Material and methods: The case with taurodontism is described in the following article. Careful exploration of the grooves between all orifices with magnification, use of ultrasonic irrigation; and a modified filling technique are of particular use. Results: Results are observed after several years. In performing a root canal treatment on such teeth, one should appreciate the complexity of the root canal system, canal obliteration and configuration, and the potential for additional root canal systems. Conclusions: The proper knowledge of the phenomenon of taurodontism will improve the medical practice of the general dental practitioner.
534 The Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge of Lifestyle Modification Among Post Myocardial Infarction Patient, Mr. Ruban David. P
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in most of the developed and developing countries. Coronary heart disease was the underlying causes of nearly 26% of death of the patients. Objectives: 1.to assess the pre test level of knowledge on life style modification among post myocardial infarction patients.2.determine the effectiveness of self instructional module on knowledge on life style modification among post myocardial infarction patient.3. Associate the selected demographic variables with post test knowledge on life style modification among post myocardial infarction patients. Methods/approach: pre experimental research with one group pre test and post test design. Results: There was a significant increase in the level of knowledge regarding life style modifications of Myocardial Infarction patient before and after receiving the self instructional module at P < 0.001 level
535 Nutritional Biochemistry of Healthy Hoof, Dr. Smitha Kaimal
Healthy hooves are very important for the well-being of the animal. Many factors are responsible for the condition of hoof, including environment, hoof diseases and proper nutrition. Nutritious feed containing optimum amount of proteins, energy, vitamins, minerals and fats are essential for hoof health. Amino acids like cystine and methionine are very important in the metabolism of hoof. Energy deficient feed may lead to secondary protein deficiency. Calcium, phosphorus, iodine, copper, zinc, manganese and selenium are the minerals that have an important role in hoof metabolism. Absence of vitamins A, D, E and all B-complex vitamins especially biotin adversely affect hoof integrity. Fat also acts as a seal to prevent entry of excess moisture into hoof. Perfusion of blood vessels that supply hoof producing tissue, farriery techniques adopted, health care measures and genetic selection methods implemented in the farm can also affect hoof health.
536 An Overview on Markedness Model, Hamzeh Moradi
Nowadays there is a lot of research on code-switching phenomenon within three main perspectives which include: linguistics, sociolinguistics, and more recently, psycholinguistics. On the basis of these perspectives, various universal models and theories on CS and CM have been proposed and formulated. The present article gives an in-depth overview on Markednes model of Myers-Scotton which is one of the most significant and controversial theories within the sociolinguistic perspective. According to this theory, an unmarked language within a certain sociolinguistic situation is more likely to be the ML. The term unmarked language refers to the status or general acceptance of a given language in a situation or a society
537 Retrospective Analysis of Saddle Block For Vaginismus Threatment, Ismail Coskuner, Meltem Turkay, Emin Silay, Hüseyin Yıldız, Ali Koray Bayramoglu
Introduction: Vaginismus is characterized by repeated involuntary contractions, when vaginal penetration occurs, of one-third of the outer layer of the perineal muscles surrounding the vagina. This study started with the idea that pain and contractions can be prevented by blocking the lower lumbar and sacral segments by using the saddle-block technique. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we screened 30 patients with a diagnosis of vaginismus who were treated with saddle block from 2005 to 2012. We recorded: the patients heart rates and mean artery pressure values at entry, at 5, 10, and 20 minutes post-block and post-intercourse; age; marriage duration; saddle-block regression time; mean age of the spouses; the level of sensory block; whether sedation was applied; whether erectile dysfunction occurred; or whether any problem occurred during sexual intercourse after the procedure. Results: The mean age of the patients was 22.372.51 years. The mean marriage duration was 17.914.62 months. The complete regression time of the saddle block was 117.9710.78 minutes. Sedation was applied to two patients. Sexual dysfunction occurred after the procedure in only one patient. Conclusion: Some vaginismus cases may be treated effectively by applying saddle block in favorable conditions and with careful hemodynamic follow-up.
538 Hotel Room Sales And Marketing: A Study of Hotels In Chandigarh (U.t), Mr. Abhishek Ghai
This paper examines the distribution channels used in past by the consumers and which channel helps the customer more to find out the hotel room in Chandigarh (U.T). This paper focuses on the analysis of review from the past several studies in the context of hotel sales & marketing as well. To address the objectives of the study 100 respondents were questioned from various hotels in Chandigarh. The results reveal customers are inclined towards hotel websites as it is the main source of information and has the highest mean value. It is suggested that hotel operators need to consider distribution channels as a significant factor in hotel sales & marketing. The review of literature also reveals that a number of studies have been carried out in context to the hotel room sales & marketing, but less work has been carried forward in regard to the hospitality industry in general and in specific to Indian context. Moreover, Indian hospitality management literature revealed that there is a dire need to add exploratory data in the less researched area i.e. Hotel room sales & marketing
539 Role of Composite Sections in a Multistoried Building, Laxmikant N. Vairagade, Dinesh W. Gawatre
Steel-concrete composite members are an interesting option for structural designers, but the reliability of design procedures both in the case of gravity and seismic loads is in continuous development. composite steel concrete design provide a significant economy through reduced materials and faster construction, such system make use of each type of member in the most efficient manner to maximize the structural and economic benefits. In this project, theoretical, numerical aspects and applications concerning the seismic behavior of steel-concrete composite structures are to be analysed. The interest has been focusing in this area on the capability of composite framed structures to dissipate seismic energy by means of inelastic deformations with the objectives to: (1) Apply non linear analysis methods to evaluate building performance. (2)The principal features affecting the seismic response of composite frames. (3) A numerical analysis has been conduct to investigate the influence of composite behavior of the structures.(4) A finite element modal has been develop to account for the dynamic behavior of composite structure and (5) The influence of shear connector on the behavior of composite framed structure in seismic loading.
540 Achieving the Poverty Reduction Targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Enhanced Economic Empowerment Prospects in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria, Nwaubani, Ugwuanyi, Mezieobi, Eneogu
Poverty reduction is a core mandate of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), of which Nigeria is a signatory. However, despite its perceived viability as an economic empowerment strategy, poverty still persists in Nigeria. Against this backdrop, this study sought to determine the extent to which the MDGs targets on poverty reduction have enhanced poverty alleviation and economic empowerment prospects in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Four research questions and three hypotheses (tested at 0.05 level of significance) guided the study. Sample for the study consisted of 200 adult respondents drawn from thirteen (13) communities in Nsukka L.G.A. through purposive and stratified sampling techniques based on the 2006 National Population Census figures. Instrument for data collection consisted of thirty (30) item questionnaire developed by the researchers for the purpose of the study. The instrument was validated by experts and reliability co-efficient established. Data obtained were analyzed with mean and standard deviation for research questions and z-test statistic for the test of hypotheses. Findings among other things showed that although poverty persists in the area of study, the public still seem to be aware of the various strategies (in line with MDGs stipulation) put in place by government to enhance poverty alleviation and economic empowerment. Indeed, despite some perceived challenges, such as corruption, poor data base, multiple taxation, etc. respondents seem optimistic that poverty alleviation/reduction could still be achieved by the year 2020. Similarly, respondents did not differ significantly on the above views on account of gender and locationvariables. These findings were exhaustively discussed with far-reaching recommendations and policy implications for poverty alleviation and economic empowerment prospects in Nigeria. Conclusively, it was recognized that although attaining MDGs target on poverty reduction still faces challenges, it could still be achieved through concerted institutional efforts.
541 LANDSLIDE PROCESSES IN THE SHUMEN PLATEAU REGION, Dimitar Todorov ladev
The paper deals with the results of a complex research on the reasons for landslide activity ant present day manifestation of landslide in Shumen plateau. Special attention has been paid to the main factors leading to landslide processes the tectonics, litologo-stratigraphic peculiarities and physico-mechanical properties of the rock complexes and the soils, the underground waters, climate, vegetation and anthropogenic influences. A detailed morphographic and morphological characteristics of the landslides in the region of the roads between the villages of Kochovo and Lozevo and between Shumen and Divdyadovo has been offered as well as the possible means for prevention and control of landslide activities.
542 A Study of Impact of E-Accounting, Dr. Jyotsna I. Patel
The Accounting Act of 1997 and further guidelines issued by the Accounting Board in 2000 provide an institutional setting for the use of electronic data media in financial accounting for registering transferring and storing data as well as reporting information electronically. Thus, source documents and accounting records exist in digital form instead of on paper in electronic accounting system. New technologies, like the Internet and mobile solutions, have provided new business opportunities and operations. E-Accounting is new development in field of accounting. In e-accounting, source documents and accounting records exist in digital form instead of on paper; E-accounting concept is adopted at international level. E-accounting helps business keep their financial data and accounting software in a safe, secure environment, allowing real time access to authorized users, irrespective of their location or computing platform. Therefore this paper is based on Basic Concepts and features of e-accounting, problems of e-accounting have been discussed in the paper comprehensively. This paper is carried out to evaluate the impact of computerized AIS; known an E-Accounting, after the section includes the measures of task performance and adoption and the last section presents the conclusion.
543 Relationship Between Growth Parameters and Aloin Content in Aloe Vera , Dr. G. Alagukannan, Dr. S. Ganesh
Aloin is a biologically active molecule synthesized in small sheath cells surrounding the vascular bundles and stored in large paranchymatous cells of Aloe vera leaves which has the laxative and purgative properties. The relationship among growth parameters like leaf length, leaf width and latex colour with aloin content was established in twenty one Aloe vera accessions. The accessions with brown and red colour latex showed the highest aloin content irrespective of its leaf length and width. However, the highest aloin yield per leaf was obtained from the accession named AV17 in which the leaf length and width was the highest and inturn they could posses more number of small sheath cells surrounding the vascular bundles where aloin is synthesized.
544 Diffusion and Adoption of Agri-Expert Systems Among Extension Professionals in Kerala, Modem Ravi Kishore, Dr. Allan Thomas
The paper focuses on the diffusion-adoption stages in terms of extent of use of expert system technology vis a vis extension professionals in Kerala. A survey was conducted among three targeted segments of Kerala extension professionals to evaluate questions about the stage of respondent in using agri-expert systems for the benefit of farming community and effective agriculture decision making. The study was conducted among a sample 100 extension professionals actively involved in the field of agriculture. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was administered to collect data. The Diffusion-Adoption Model was employed to categorize extension professionals by stage in the technology adoption process. Based on the stage of adoption, respondents were categorised into different adopter categories which leads to comparison with Rogers adopter categorisation.
545 Determination of Organic Carbon Stability in Grassland Soils Using The Method of Chemo-Destructive Fractionation, Dr. Inga Liaudanskiene, Dr. Jonas SLEPETYS, Dr. Alvyra SLEPETIENE
Plant species can influence soil organic carbon (SOC) quantity and qualitative composition. This research determined total SOC content and carbon distribution in SOC fractions of different stability in grassland soils in Central Lithuania by ap-plying chemo-destructive fractionation in order to investigate SOC reliance on herbaceous plant species. The pure legume swards and mixture with other legumes and with Festulolium was grown under organic management on EndocalcariEndohypo-gleyic Cambisol. For comparison, the old semi-natural pasture has been used. The highest amount of SOC accumulated in the soil under four-component sward (Galega orientalis + Medicago sativa + Trifolium pratense + Festulolium). This sward also determined the increase of carbon content in residual F4 fraction, which can be de-fined as strengthening of SOC stability. The most sustainable was the soil of old semi-natural pasture, whereas the compara-ble amount of labile and recalcitrant SOC fractions determines the soil fertility and SOC sequestration and protection from de-composition simultaneously
546 Heritability and Genetic Advance Estimation From Parental Lines of Hybrid Rice, Arpita Shrivastava, D. K. Mishra, G. K. Koutu, S. K. Singh
Genetic variability studies provide basic information regarding the genetic properties of the population based on which breeding methods are formulated for further improvement of the crop. The estimates of heritability, coefficients of variability and genetic advance computed for 31 yield contributing traits. High GCV and PCV reported for the traits Unfilled spikelets panicle-1, filled spikelets panicle-1, seed yield plant-1, pollen viability, total spikelets panicle-1, effective tillers plant-1, panicle weight plant-1, tillers plant-1, spikelet density, spikelet fertility, biological yield plant-1, harvest index, flag leaf length and culm length. The traits viz., unfilled spikelets panicle-1, filled spikelets panicle-1, seed yield plant-1, panicle weight plant-1, total spikelets panicle-1, effective tillers plant-1, pollen viability, spikelet density, tillers plant-1, spikelet fertility, harvest index, biological yield plant-1, flag leaf width, panicle index, length breadth ratio, head rice recovery, 1000 seed weight, length breadth ratio of decorticated seed, culm length, plant height, flag leaf length, panicle length, decorticated seed width, milling percent, hulling percent, decorticated seed length, seed width and seed length had high heritability accompanied with high genetic advance indicating lesser environmental influence and were under the control of additive gene effect.
547 Comparison of Meat Quality Characteristics of Vigova Super M and Kuttanad Ducks, GIBIN GEORGE T, RENUKA NAYAR, STELLA CYRIAC
A study was conducted to compare the meat quality characteristics of Vigova Super M duck, a broiler duck strain and Kuttanad duck, a dual purpose duck indigenous to Kerala. Meat quality characteristics, viz., pH, Water Holding Capacity (WHC), Myofibrillar Fragmentation Index (MFI), fibre diameter, colour, cooking loss, chemical composition including proximate composition, cholesterol and mineral composition and sensory attributes of breast and thigh muscles of the two groups of ducks were studied. The values of pH, WHC and MFI were higher in Kuttanad ducks and these values in thigh meat were higher compared to those in breast meat. Kuttanad duck meat had higher fibre diameter values than Vigova duck meat. L* value was highest in Vigova breast meat whereas redness value (a*) was highest in Kuttanad thigh meat. Kuttanad duck meat showed a significantly lower (P
548 Primary Productivity Studies in Nagaram Tank of Warangal District, Andhra Pradesh, NarasimhaRamulu. K, G. Benarjee
Primary productivity is the most important biological parameter in. It is the manifestation of food as well as energy for flora and fauna. Primary Productivity has been used for potential index of productivity for many diverse ecosystems of the world.Primary production in aquatic ecosystem is mainly controlled by the interaction of many factors like environmental and biotic factors and the nutrient status of the water body.In aquatic ecosystem algae macrophytes and green bacteria are responsible for primary productivity (Gaarder and Graan 1927). The present investigations are Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and Community Respiration (CR) in Nagaram Tank of Warangal district for a period of three years i.e., June 2007 to May 2010 were aimed at understanding the productivity potential of the tank for proper fish production. Primary Production in situ was estimated by Gaarder and Gran(1927) light and dark bottle method. The gross and net primary production and community respiration was calculated by using standard formula. The Gross Primary Productivity of the tank followed a more or less similar trend of fluctuations and also exhibited an increasing trend through the rainy season towards summer season with distinct peaks during three years of study and lower values were observed during rainy season. It was clear that the Gross Primary Productivity changing significantly with seasons. Net primary productivity of Nagaram tank followed a more or less similar trend of fluctuations in all four stations exhibited an increasing trend towards a rainy season and winter season with distinct peaks while lower values of net primary productivity observed during rainy season. Community Respiration observation in the tank followed a similar trend of oscillation in all four stations lower values during winter season throughout the study period and exhibiting an increasing trend toward summer and rainy season.
549 Antidiabetic Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Ixora macrothyrsa (Tejism. & Binn.) on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats, Suruthi Saraswathi. G, Dr. Victor Arokia Doss D
In the present work antidiabetic activity of Ixora macrothyrsa was evaluated. The hydroethanolic leaf extract showed significant decrease in the levels of Glucose, Urea, Creatinine, Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, VLDL and increase in the level of HDL in Sreptozotocin induced diabetic rats at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight when administered orally for 30 days. This implies that the Phytochemicals present in the leaf extract might exert a potential in controlling lipid profile, blood glucose, Urea, Creatinine levels and lipid profile in the body
550 Effect of Dried Tuna Waste Silage on Mineral Availability in Large White Yorkshire Pigs, Anuraj K S, Shyama K, Sreeparvathy M
An investigation was carried out in Large White Yorkshire pigs to find out the effect of dietary incorporation of dried tuna waste silage on mineral availability. Piglets (n=36) were randomly allotted to the three dietary treatments, T1 (standard ration with 10 % dried fish), T2 (ration with 50 per cent of protein of dried fish replaced by dried tuna waste silage) and T3 (ration with 100 per cent of protein of dried fish replaced by dried tuna waste silage) up to 70 kg body weight. A digestion trial was conducted towards the end of the experiment to find out the nutrient utilization. There was no significant difference in availability of phosphorus, magnesium, and copper where as availability of calcium, manganese and zinc was lower in treatment groups. But it didnt affect the growth of the animals.
551 Spatial Analysis of Cancer Incidences to Identify Risk Areas and Hot Spots: a Case Study in the Western Regions of Tamil Nadu, India, Dr. P. B. Harathi, Janani Selvaraj, Dr. M. Prashanthi Devi, Dr. S. Valarmathi, Dr. S. Balasubramanian
Background: The burden of cancer is growing globally and is one of the top leading causes of death. Information on cancer patterns is essential for effective planning of cancer control interventions. In specific the geographical study of cancer will help in identifying the high risk communities for further etiological studies. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the application of various spatial statistical tools to identify the high cancer risk zones in the western regions of Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology: Spatial point pattern analysis was performed to assess the area based risk factor for cancer in the study area. The cancer incidences recorded in each address were geo-coded to build point features. Dual kernel estimation method was used to simplify the complex point patterns without diminishing the significance of the incidence level data. The incident hot spots were verified and tested for their statistical significance against a random distribution by means of Nearest Neighborhood Index, Ripleys K, Gearys C and Morans I test. CrimeStat software (CrimeStat III, 2004) and ArcGIS 9.1 were used to obtain these results. Results and Conclusion: The smoothed map produced through the Kernel estimation method showed high clustering in the Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South and Erode taluks and was confirmed statistically by the Nearest Neighbouhood Index and Ripleys K test. Further, from the values obtained by the Morans I and Gearys C test it is observed that there exists positive partial autocorrelation in the point data. Hence the spatial analytical methods will be useful tools in conducting further etiological studies in the high risk regions. In addition, it will be also helpful for the health professionals to organize early cancer screening programs and better prevention strategies for the society
552 A Method for Cell Culture and Rna Extraction of Rabbit Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, RemyaV, Naveen Kumar, Kutty M.V.H
Stem cells biology bagged a paramount portion of research studies of last decade. The most investigated adult stem cells were mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Bone marrow stroma represents the major source of MSCs. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self-renewing and are potent in differentiating into multiple cells and tissues. The objective of study was to develop a protocol for efficient collection, isolation, culture and purification of the MSCs from bone marrow of rabbit and to standardize a protocol RNA extraction from this isolated cell line.
553 Separation of Natural Keratin Protein from The Chicken Feather Waste, N. B. Dhayanithi, S. Meenakshisundaram
Protein is an important nutrient needed by our body to maintain body structures and is an important ingredient for cosmetic products. Chicken feathers have high level of keratin protein content and can become a suitable protein source. So, the present research has conducted to extract keratin protein from chicken feathers. The chicken feathers were reduced using sodium sulfide solution and later on separating the protein from chemicals. The percentage of keratin protein is evaluated by use of biuret test and FTIR analysis. The analysis by FTIR confirmed the presence of carboxyl acid and amino groups in the protein solution. The biuret test helps in determining the concentration of protein obtained from different methods. Thus these two tests confirm the presence of protein in the solution. From this research, it is concluded that keratin protein can be extracted from chicken feathers.
554 Effect of Aluminum Toxicity on Plasma Electrolytes of a Fresh Water Teleost Fish, Cyprinus Carpio Var. Communis, R. AZHAGU SENTHIL RADHA
The present paper deals with the changes in plasma electrolytes levels ( Na*, K* & Cl ) of fish Cyprinus Carpio when exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of Aluminium sulphate. In acute treatments, sodium and potassium level decreased significantly during sublethal treatment, sodium and potassium level was gradually increased and chloride level was decreased. The probable reasons governing the facts are interpreted and discussed in the light of earlier literature.
555 Cultivation of Ganoderma Lucidum (Curt.fr.) P.karst., M.Nithya, V.Ambikapathy, A.Panneerselvam
Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom, Ling Zhi) is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in the Orient for more than 2000 years. It has been an economically important species, particularly in the Far East countries (China, Japan, Korea, etc.), for over 4000 years. It is widely grown on a commercial scale and is commonly purchased for its medicinal and spiritual properties. Therefore, present investigations were undertaken to use locally available sawdust, wheat bran, sorghum and sorghum grains in combination with chalk powder and gypsum for selection of an ideal material for Ganoderma lucidum spawn production. G.lucidum had maximum and faster linear growth rate having sorghum and its combinations. It colonized sorghum substrate rapidly without any contamination and the spawn prepared with sorghum had maximum yield and biological efficiency. The results showed that the parameters which are used for the preparation of mother spawn, and fruit body development.
556 Sloanea sterculiacea ( Elaeocarpaceae): a New Generic Record for Odisha, India, T. Kar, A. K. Nayak, K. K. Mandal
Sloanea sterculiacea (Benth.) Rehder & Wilson is first time reported from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha. Detailed description, photographs, phenology, habitat and distributional note have been provided for easy identification.
557 Extraction and Study of Seed Protein Concentrates of Some Legume Plants from the North Eastern UP, Rakesh Pandey, V. N. Pandey
Growing world population pushed the world towards hunger and malnutrition. Cheaper sources of proteins are becoming unavailable to the poor people. New sources of low cost proteins are required to meet the growing demand. The present study revealed the possibility of some new neglected legumes to cope with the emerging problem of protein deficiency. All the five plant species viz. Adenanthera pavonina, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Peltophorum ferrugineum and Pongamia pinnata showed the promising results in this direction.
558 A Case Report : Cesarean Section of in Vitro Fertilization with Sickle Cell Anemia, Postop Myomectomy, Gestational Diabetes & Preclampsia. Management, Dr. Swati Singh, Dr. Jayshree Narshetty, Dr. B. G. Boricha, Dr. Vijay Bhola
We report a case of in vitro fertilization of a 36 year old female gravida 2, abortion 1, with five months of amenorrhea, who came for a regular ANC registration and checkup. As per the history given by the patient, she was a known case of Sickle cell anemia since 15 years of age on penicillin prophylaxis, she even received swine and influenza flu vaccines as recommended. Patient had a history of myomectomy 3 years back in view of posterior wall uterine fibroid. Besides all these patient also had a negative history of in vitro fertilization with a donor egg last year which ended in a spontaneous abortion at three months of gestation. From our experience of managing one of the most interesting cases in view of precious pregnancy and multiple co-morbidities, we concluded that appropriate monitoring and management of these patients is essential. As so many co-morbidities can rapidly turn the most routine surgery into a deleterious situation. Surgeons and anaesthesiologists should co-ordinate and manage the patient as per protocols and guidelines for the best of outcomes.
559 Removal of Copper from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on to The Montmorillonite Clay Mineral, M. E. M. Hassouna, M.E.M.A. Hafez
The study was carried out to examine the efficiency of natural raw clay (RC), its acid activated form (AAC) and functionalized polymer/clay nanocomposite (PCN) for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. XRD, TGA and IR analyses were used to characterize the mineralogical compositions of the three adsorbents. Batch adsorption method was applied for optimumization of adsorption conditions viz., adsorbent dosage, contact time, effect of temperature, effect of pH and initial copper concentration. Residual Cu2+ ions were determined using ICP-MS. Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm equations have been applied to analyze the obtained experimental data. The isotherms affinity order were determined. The maximum adsorption capacities for RC, AAC and PCN were found to be 7.22, 7.04 and 19.45 mg/g, respectively
560 A Simple and Effective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Iron(III) with ResAcetophenone Guanylhydrazone (Rag), VITTHAL A. DIVATE, PARAMANAND S. MANOLI, SAVITA R. DHONGADE
We report here a new simple effective spectrophotometric method for the determination of Iron(III) with Res-acetophenone guanylhydrazone [RAG]. A standard procedure of the absorption spectra of the reagent and the complex is recommended. The absorbance measurements are carried out at 520 nm [Molar extinction co-efficient is 0.4033 x 104 lit. mole cm-1] at pH 7.6. Beers law is valid up to 10.0 ppm. Sandells sensitivity of the method is 0.1164 g/cm2. The Jobs variation and mole ratio method show that the composition of Fe(III) RAG complex is 1:2. The instability constant is 0.1289 x10-8. The method is applied for the determination of iron in cupranickel alloy and synthetic mixtures.
561 Evaluation of Arsenic Accumulation in the Vegetables Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Grown in Contaminated Soils, Sukanya Chandra, Rajnarayan Saha, Parimal Pal
Experimental investigations are carried out to determine the arsenic uptake by the vegetable crops like Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) and Phaseolus vulgaris (beans). Arsenic (As) was applied in the pots as an aqueous solution of sodium arsenate containing six different levels of arsenic as 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg of soil. The highest concentration of total arsenic were found in the roots of all vegetables and decreased in the aerial portions of the plants. Arsenic accumulation followed the trend of roots>fruits>leaves>stems in okra whereas in case of beans the trend is roots>leaves>stems>fruits. The accumulation of arsenic in different parts of the plants increased with increasing concentration of the applied arsenic solution. The results showed that these crops accumulated arsenic from contaminated soil and as a consequence a significant quantity of arsenic may enter into the human body through food chain mechanism.
562 Synthesis, Characterisation and Antimicrobial Activity Study of (Morpholino (Thiophen-2-Yl) Methyl) Nicotino Hydrazide and its Metal(II) Complexes, M. Syed Ali Padusha, S. Farook Basha
A new Mannich base, namely N-(Morpholino(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)nicotino hydrazide(MTN) was synthesized through Mannich condensation by reacting thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, morpholine and benzohydrazide as substrate. The structure of the formed compound was characterised by IR, 1HNMR and mass spectroscopy and CHN analyses. Using the above compound as ligand, metal complexes were prepared and their structures were established by elemental analyses, IR , UV-visible spectra, molar conductivity and magnetic moment studies. The results of these study indicate the square planar geometry for all the complexes. Further, the ligand and the metal complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial studies revealed that metal complexes possess higher activity than those of the metal salts and ligands.
563 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of L-ascorbic Acid by Silver (I) in Acid Perchlorate Medium, Narendra Kumar Soni, Riya Sailani, Prem Dutt Sharma
The kinetics of oxidation of l-ascorbic acid (H2A) by silver (I) has been studied in acid nitrate medium potentiometrically. The reaction is second order first order with respect to oxidant and substrate respectively. The stoichiometry of the reaction is represented by eqn(1). 2Ag (I) + H2 A ? 2Ag (0) + 2H+ + A (1) where A is dehydro ascorbic acid The kinetic rate law (2) corresponds to the proposed mechanism. (2)Energy and entropy of activation have also been evaluated.
564 An Emprical Study of Performance Evaluation of Selected Elss Mutual Fund Schemes, J. Lilly, Dr. D.Anusuya
ELSS is a dedicated mutual fund scheme that allows investors to save tax. ELSS falls under section 80C, one can claim up to Rs. 1, 00,000 from his/her investment as a deduction from his/her gross total income. It also provides an opportunity for long term capital appreciation. Since it is an equity fund, the returns from this scheme are market determined. In this study performance of 49 open-ended tax saving ELSS schemes were examined for the period between April 2008 to March 2013. Sharpe ratio, Treynor ratio, Sortion ratio and Jensens Alpha are used in performance evaluation of funds. It was found that LIC Nomura MF growth and dividend schemes has outperformed the market and are risk borne when compared to other schemes.
565 Open Source Technologies the Way to Future Innovations and Development in it Domain, Dr. Tulshidas G. Mirge
Open source technologies are developed by open source communities. Open Source means universal access with the help of Free License to a product design or blueprint and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone.[1][2]. "Any system of innovation or production that relies on goaloriented, loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike".[3] There is a galaxy of open source technologies available .Currently IT industry have tools which are 60% open sourced[4] .The black Ducks Future Of Open Source Survey (OSS) an initiative by IT Organization ZFrog survey reported, 56 percent of corporations expect to contribute to more open source projects in 2014. The industrial giants such as Oracle, MySql((database software),IBM, Eclipse(Open Source java development platform), JBoss (application server), Scalix (Linuxbased email and collaboration platform), RedHat (Linux distributor), and SugarCRM (sales force automation) Twitter, Netflix, Sony Ericsson ,Samsung ( Android apps A derivative of Linus),Novell and Google (Major internet giants) have accepted Open Source[5] as means to development the only exception is Microsoft. This paper looks in to history of open sourcing and examines various free software licenses, Advantages, Scope and Revenue generation from Open Source
566 Job Related Stress on Teachers in SelfFinancing Schools in Chennai, Dr. P. S. BUVANESWARI
The study examined the causes of job related stress among the teachers in self financing schools in Chennai. Questionnaire was issued to 100 teachers to elicit information on the stress related issues. The data was collected from teachers in ten private schools randomly selected with ten teachers from each school. The study reveals that most of the teachers experience moderate level of stress. Teachers enjoy teaching despite the family problems being one of the significant stressor among the teachers. Demographic factors such as age, experience and income are dependent to the level of stress and the gender of the respondents is not associated with the level of stress
567 e-Tailing a Contemporaneous Dimension in E-Commerce, Preeti Khitoliya
The internet user base has skyrocketed in India in last decade. It is the third country in the world having highest internet users followed by USA and China. The exponentially growing internet user base in India provides e-commerce and its organ e-tailing immense scope to accelerate in future. E-tailing is an untrodden path for entrepreneurs and venture capitalists and calling the talent to cash in the burgeoning online demand. Therefore the present study attempts to gain an insight of e-tailing business in India. The study is descriptive in nature and speaks in three core areas. The first section gives an overview of e-tailing in India. The second section explains the various e-tailing models. Third section explores on the basis of substances how it throws an opportunity for entrepreneurs, venture capitalist and retailers. Lastly discusses the challenges in e-Tailing.
568 A Study on Financial Performance of Iron and Steel Industries India, K. S. Kavitha, Dr. P. Palanivelu
Iron and Steel Industry is importance for the economic development of a country in terms of foreign exchange, employment generation, infrastructure development and technology. It is one of the most energy intensive sectors in Indian economy. The Steel Industry is a fundamental sector for development of nation. The level of per capita consumption of steel is treated as an important index of the level of socioeconomic development and standard of living of the people in any country. At present, India is worlds second largest producer of steel. High demand of Iron and steel by sectors like, Infrastructure, Automobile and Real estate have given a boost to Iron and Steel Industry in India. Combined with huge production to the export of Iron and steel has also grown by 12.5%.
569 Comparative Study of Grid and Cloud Computing, Farheen Patel
This paper explains the importance of cloud and grid in the computing. Often in all most all persons who were related to the field of computer technology that if cloud computing is actually something new and, if so, what exactly distinguishes this new paradigm from former computing models like cluster and grid computing. In grid computing where more than one computer coordinates to solve a problem together. Often used for problems involving a lot of number crunching, which can be easily parallelizable. Cloud computing is where an application doesn't access resources it requires directly, rather it accesses them through something like a service. As provided by the cloud computing like Software As Service, Infrastructure As Service and Platform As Service.
570 Computer Simulation of Luminescence in Silicon Rich Oxide thin Films Arising From Silicon-Oxygen Bonds, N. D. Espinosa-Torres, J. F. J Flores-Gracia, J. A. Luna-Lopez, D. Hernandez de la Luz, J. Martinez-Juarez
A new Global Reaction Model (GRM)has been used to evaluate theoretically the optical properties of nanostructured Silicon-Rich Oxides (SRO) thin films. In this work we evaluate the optical spectra of a selected set of [Sin On ] nano-structures (5 26 ? ? n ). We obtain FTIR, Raman and luminescence spectra, besides, we calculate the Orbital Energies plots and propose a plausible mechanism for the generation of this kind of nanostructures which considers the necessary reactions for the formation of different oxide matrices along with the compositional and luminescence spectra changes, before and after the thermal treatment. For the case of luminescence studies, we make comparisons between our theoretical luminescent spectra with those of electroluminescence obtained from thin SRO films grown by the LPCVD technique, finding that the experimental observed spectrum peak at ~690 nm is in good agreement within experimental precision with the corresponding one for the calculated Si15O15 structure (694.37 nm).Similar situation happens for the case of the Si11O11 nano-structurewhich has an emission peak at 699 nm.
571 Computer Network Skills and Job Opportunities in the Arena, Mrs. Abhilasha Kale, Dr. Sudhakar D. Bhoite
This research paper highlights on the realities in network skills and job opportunities in the arena. This article is an outcome of review taken from a Network Certification Course in a regional institute and its associated branches. The data used in this process is real one & explained as a collective effort on relation between the computer network knowledge, skills and job opportunities in arena. A reference framework applied on a network technology is fast growing branch of IT industries.
572 Overview on Noise, Types of Noises which Corrupts The Digital Images and The Lsh-Frequency Domain Filtering Technique to Remove Noise in Medical Ultrasound Image, Manju Mandot, Shrusti Porwal, Reena Gupta
Now a day in regular emerging field of technology use of digital imaging grows. Digital image processing refers to processing of digital images by the digital computer to improve the quality of image and enhancing the image and their edges. DIP is vast area of work. This digital image processing is used in many fields like in photography, high security number plate recognition system and in medical field also. This paper mainly focuses on pre- processing step of digital imaging, noise present in digital image and how filtering technique improves the quality of image and reduces the noise in synthesis medical images. In this paper we take ultrasound medical images for pre-processing on digital image processing. So the input is ultrasound image for pre-processing.
573 Growth and Development of Women Multipurpose Co-Operative Societies in India, Dr. B.S. Chandrashekar
Co-operative in India is playing an important role in socioeconomic transformation and development of the country. The co-operative principle of open and voluntary membership empowers women to become members of any type of societies in accordance with their need and interest. In this background, the present study is tries to analyze the growth and development of women cooperatives in India and Karnataka in particular. Co-operative has a vast opportunity but until recently largely neglected, in connection with the women of India. The co-operative societies have always been open to women, but difficulties in connecting with the security, which women can offer the custody of funds etc., have been so long held the center stage. The study shows that there is a clear evidence that the WMPCS performing well. Therefore, both the Central and State Governments have to give more thrust to form and support these categories of societies.
574 A Study on Consumer Awareness on Consumer Protection Council A Special Reference to Coimbatore District , Dr.P.Gurusamy, P.Manochithra, J.Princy
The Consumer Protection Council is the apex consumer protection agency of the Federal Government of India established to promote and protect consumers interests. Its core activities are: to inform consumers; to eliminate hazardous products from the market and ensure that products and services comply with required standards and to receive, mediate and provide redress to consumer complaints. According to the CPC, it would achieve success when consumers can be described as well protected, getting their moneys worth, knowledgeable about the market place and its mechanisms, vigilant about what takes place in it, assertive about their rights and conscious of their responsibilities. The study is focus on analyzing the level of awareness and the extent of utilization of Consumer Protection Council.
575 Attitude of Rural Women Towards Employment in Dairying, Soumya Sankar
The women can easily be considered as backbone of any nation and better half of the men in almost all spheres of community development, of which India is not an exception. Rural women, who constitute about 50 % of total rural population, play an active role in all spheres of economic life and contribute richly towards national income. The present study was done at Kollam district at Kerala. Simple sampling technique was used for sample selection and a total of 60 women were selected for the study. Result revealed that majority of the rural women agree that family members should have an open mind about the rural women working outside the home.Fifty five percentage of the respondents agree that livestock rearing generates employment primarly for family labour.
576 Seasonal Ph, Temperature and Electrical Conductivity of Pond Water in and Around Motera, Ahmedabad, Dr. Kiran Prajapati
The physico-chemical characteristics of water have direct impact on prevailing organism as well as on human being. Expanding population and industrial settlements, the demand of fresh water is increasing day by day. In India 80% of the surface water is vulnerable to pollution as more than 95% of the sewage in the country is not treated. Lentic water bodies play a very important role in maintaining the biodiversity and overall ecological balance in nature. The present study is attempted to characterize the water quality of ponds with respect to their pH, Temperature and Electrical Conductivity (EC). Four different ponds were selected such as Motera, Chandkheda, Amiyapur and Sughad pond. The seasonal mean pH of observed water sample of selected ponds ranges between 7.27 and 7.63. pH value goes to 7.63 in late summer and 7.27 in winter. Seasonal mean temperature of all sites ranges from lowest 21.32 in winter to 28.120C in late summer. The EC mean ranged between 0.98 to 1.81 ?S/cm. Maximum EC is observed during late summer and minimum in late monsoon
577 Women Entrepreneurship in Karnataka , Asharani S, Dr. K. E Sriramappa
Economic empowerment reveals both diversity and commonality. It includes of gaining power and control over the decision mating. In a democratic system of governance, womens participation in all development activities is a desirable aspect. Everything about women in history is rest dark and dismal. Women now seen to be in the forefront in economic and social activities. NGOs, SHGs, Rural Development and Self-Employment Training Institutions (RUDSETIs) conduct specific custom-made programs women empowerment. Entrepreneurship Development program (EDP), Skill Development Programs, and Prime Ministers Employment Generation Program (PMEGP), working effectively for economic empowerment of women through entrepreneurship in Mysore district. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the trend and pattern of women entrepreneurship in Karnataka. To examine economic empowerment of women through small entrepreneurship in Mysore city. The data for the study has been collected both from the primary and secondary sources. Primary data have been collected from Mysore city. Educated women are involved in business in urban areas. Beauty parlor management and Tailoring business are attractive entrepreneurship in the city area. Family support is found to be essential for successful entrepreneurship.
578 Impact of Dairy Cooperative Societies on the Dairy Management Practices of the Farmers In Odisha, Dr. Dharmabrata Mohapatra, Dr. Atal Bihari Das
The paper makes an attempt to examine the knowledge level of milk producers on various dairy management practices with the help of an empirical study conducted in Sadar block of Cuttack district of Odisha. The findings clearly show that the knowledge level of member respondents are more than the non-members and the dairy cooperative societies, are successful in disseminating modern technology and knowledge among its members through regular training, extension services, method demonstrations, field trials, provision of animal health care facilities, free supply of fodder seed mini-kits. These facilities are not available to the non members. As a result their knowledge level differs to a great extent from that of the members of the dairy cooperative societies.
579 An Assessment of Fiscal Imbalance Position of the Central Government of India, Kalkikumar S. Soni
In the presence of sharp fiscal deterioration at central government, fiscal imbalance position assumes a critical importance in the overall macroeconomic framework in India. This paper analyses the Indian experience with fiscal imbalance position of the central government during 1970-71 to 2012-13. The main focus is on the growth and pattern of the different measures of the deficit and debt and principal causes of high fiscal imbalance position of the central government of India. Study concluded that gross primary deficit was the main culprit for the economic crisis of 1991 but in the post-reform period, revenue and fiscal deficit have become the main culprits for most of the years. On the other hand public debt as percent of GDP has increased continuously through the study period. Increase in subsidies, interest payments and defence expenditure were the principal causes for the high fiscal imbalance position of India.
580 Need for Corporate Governance in Small Scale Industry, Vasu Jalari, Dr. M. Devarajulu
Recruits of small scale industries have usually been view as outsider to the corporation. Position and responsibilities of workers within the small scale industry infrequently occupies much space, and worry, in Indian corporate laws. This is simulated in contemporary theories of the corporation, where the dominant paradigm of corporate governance takes a narrow approach, which is constrained to the relationship between directors and workers. Comparative corporate governance, however, provides different views on the position of small scale industrial employees vis-a-vis the corporation. One of the benefits of comparative corporate governance has been to show us an assortment of achievable governance solutions to different problems in SSI sector. There have been important reforms in the area of corporate governance, which provide incentives for enhanced standards of corporate social responsibility and conduct. This study examines ways in which the wellbeing of the employee could be included within the enterprise. Then it discusses the position of the employee might be treated differently through the lens of corporate and labor law principles. Further the paper studies the contemporary endorsed developments and reform proposals outside corporate law, which affect both the position of SSI worker interests and employee participatory rights in corporate governance.
581 Wastage in Elementary Education: A Comparative Study of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, Dr. Anjan Saikia
Recent studies have been conducted in India and abroad on wastage and stagnation in Elementary Education Sadar & Fulzele (2008), Blum & Diwan (2007), Mehta (2005), Gyneswar (2000), Acharya (1996), Das (1969), Jesson & Sime (1990), Thomas & Motimone (1990), yet no studies have been specifically reported on a comparative analysis of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh where the problem of wastage in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh is seen as a significant factor in determining the quality of elementary education. The paper focuses on the rates of wastage in elementary school level in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh keeping in view the following objectives. 1. To investigate the wastage at the elementary school level in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The above objective has also considered in the light of: i) gender (male & female) ii) locality (rural & urban) 2. To study the district-wise wastage of learners at the elementary school stage of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The study uses the descriptive-cum-normative survey method. The data includes using 21 schools from PapumPare and Lower Subansiri districts of Arunachal Pradesh and 20 schools from that of Dhemaji and Kokrajhar districts of Assam. The data was analysed by using the t-test method. The findings of the study indicate that the wastage among the elementary school stage learners in Arunachal Pradesh is lesser than that of Assam while comparing the sex and settlement wise variables. Relevant theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical implications for elementary education are also discussed.
582 A Study on Job Satisfaction of Mainstream School Teachers in West Bengal, Diptimayee Behera
The aim of this study is to find out job satisfaction amongst normal school teachers. The researcher in this study collects data from 300 normal school teachers. All the teachers selected for this study were from West Bengal Govt. Sponsored and Aided normal Schools. Job satisfaction scale developed by Anand, S. P. (1992) was used for data Collection. Data analysis done using t test. The results indicated that maximum number of school teachers experienced job satisfaction.
583 A Brief Study of Defence Mechanism, Dr. Nivedita Deshmukh
To find the areas of temporary defense against anxiety and inadequacy to get rid of conflicts and adverse situations to get the temporary relief, the study of defense mechanism shows different mechanism with the help of which person avoid the current problem which become problem in future. In the said research, a study of defense Mechanism was conducted.
584 Value Crisis Among Our Youth in Emerging Society and Value Oriented Education., Mrs. Noni Rajkhowa
This study mainly highlights the causes of value-crisis among our youths and attempts have been made to make education value-oriented. The concerted effort of all formal and non formal agencies of education is needed very much in this emerging aspect.
585 Experimental Investigation of Laser Welded Joints on AISI 304L Stainless Steel Using Fiber Laser, Ganesh S. Rathod, V.K.Haribhakta
Using laser technology joining of thin materialshas been an increased interest in recent years.Laser beam welding (LBW) offers a high speed, high power, clean heat source to join materials. Due to its advantage over conventional welding processes Laser welding of thin material are increasingly used in various industry such as less heat affected zone (HAZ), less contamination of the joint,no indentation mark, short process time and accuracy.In this study Fiber laser welding process has successfully used for butt welding of thin austenitic stainless steel (AISI 304L) plates. Selection of proper parameters is important to obtain the desired quality of weld. Laser power, welding speed and beam diameter are selected as process parameters. A statistical design of experiment (DOE) is used to optimize selected LBW parameters. The experiments are designed with full factorial approach. Butt welding trials are conducted as per DOE using 100W SPI fiber laser source in the continuous wave mode on 0.2 mm and thick sheet.
586 Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solution using Industrial Grade Alum, SailajaKumari Battula, Jyostna Cheukuri, Raman. N. V. V. S. S, Himabindu.V
The ability of Industrial grade alum to remove Fluoride from aqueous solution has been investigated. The studies were carried out as functions of contact time, concentration and pH. The data indicate that Industrial grade alum surface sites are heterogeneous in nature and that Fits into a heterogeneous site binding model. The optimum pH for complete removal of Fluoride from aqueous solution was found to be 6. The rate of fluoride removal was rapid during the initial 20 minutes, and equilibrium was attained within 50 minutes.
587 Modelling and Analysis of Three Phase Four Switch Pwm Converter, Dr.S.Baskar, Ms.Dhanalakshmi
Controller design for six-switch pulse width modulated (PWM) voltage source rectifiers (vsrs) is often accomplished in the rotating d-q frame coordinates in order to achieve a high-performance control. In contrast, the development of a d-q Frame controller for a four-switch PWM VSR is rarely reported in the literature. . For this purpose, a mathematical model of the four-switch PWM VSR In rotating d-q frame is first derived. Its success is relied on performing a so-called reduced Park Transformation on switching functions. The derived model shares much structural property with that of a six-switch VSR. The modeling and design of four switch three phase PWM converter with controller performance are analyzed in this paper. The high performance control of two d-q frame current controller design based on propositional plus integral controller (LPI) is performed in this project. Their effectiveness is verified via computer simulation and hardware experiment. The performance of four switch PWM voltage source rectifier results will be compared with three phase six switch rectifier. With LPI D-Q current controller delivers nearly sinusoidal and balanced line currents and small dc bus voltage ripples. The proposed voltage source rectifier will be fabricated by using MOSFET. Then, two d-q frame current controller designs, inputoutput feedback linearization (IOFL) and linear
588 Redesign of Catalytic Converter, T. Sekar, Mr. P. Kumaran, S. Mohana Murugan, A. Sivasubramanian
An improvement of catalytic converter design requires better fundamental understanding of complex processes taking place involving fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions. The project deals with the study of fluid flow inside the catalytic converter and the study of temperature distribution and back pressure in catalytic converter. Based on the outcome of the study, simulation has been conducted to redesign the catalytic converter to provide better efficiency, ease reusability and replaceable ceramic instead of replacing the complete unit, using ANSYS-13 on fluid dynamics (CFX). CATIAV5R17 and SOLIDWORKS have been used for geometric modeling of catalytic converter which intern used in ANSYS designing. Flow field in the catalytic converter is influenced by the flow resistance of the substrate for a given geometric configuration. As the mass flow rate increases, the pressure drop also increases. At lower temperature, the catalytic converter will be inactive.
589 Feasiability Analysis of Total Quality Management (TQM) Model in Small Scale Industry, Dr. Devendra S Verma, Mr. Ajit Rathod
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a means for improving personal effectiveness and performance for aligning and focusing all individual efforts throughout an organization. Quality of product is still an important issue for the manufacturing industry. Only a few manufacturers are producing high quality products with higher customer satisfaction. In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the common critical factors of TQM for selected manufacturing industry by measuring the importance of TQM practices as perceived by respondents of the firm in their organizational context. This paper will also measure the implementation level of identified important practices, thus demonstrating the current status of TQM, and will finally identify implementation barrier to practices that are perceived important but not implemented by organizations.
590 Modeling and Simulation of Grid Connected Fuel Cell Distributed Generation using Quasi Z-Source Inverter, C. DINAKARAN, K. Eswaramma
This paper presents a Quasi Z-Source inverter based DC/DC converter for fuel powered system reduces the component stresses and size of the converter. This network provides voltage boost and buck functions in single stage without any additional switches by special switching method. In Presence of this method provides continuous input current on the primary side of this inverter. To maintain the grid voltage and current magnitude at constant value in three phase average model based voltage source inverter is designed. The Quasi Z-Source inverter based fuel cell powered system is analyzed by MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. From this system we can drive the three phase load easily.
591 Particle Swarm Optimization based wind Turbine Location in Distribution System with Aiming Environmental protection, M.Mohammadi, A.Mohammadi Rozbahani, S.Abasi Garavand
This research focuses on the environmental protection by avoiding of CO2 emissions using wind turbines (WT) placement in demand side of power distribution system. This paper proposes a particle swarm optimization algorithm based approach to analyze the long-term benefits of wind turbines (WTs) allocation at the demand side of a power distribution system. The benefits are evaluated based on the solar electricity generation and the avoidance of CO2 emissions. The objective function has been considered as total emission minimizing with considering economical parameters for optimal location of WTs for installation in distribution system.
592 Optimal Photovoltaic Cells Placement in Distribution System for Environmental Protection by CO2 Emissions Reduction using Genetic Algorithm, M.Mohammadi, A.Mohammadi Rozbahani, S.Abasi Garavand
This paper proposes a genetic algorithm based approach to analyze the long-term benefits of Photovoltaic cells (PV) allocation at the demand side of a power distribution system. The benefits are evaluated based on the solar electricity generation and the avoidance of CO2 emissions. The objective function has been considered as total emission minimizing with considering economical parameters for optimal location of PVs for installation in distribution system.
593 Efficient Zone based Multicast RoutingProtocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks, Veena, Ms.TanushreeAggarwal, Ms. NishaCharaya
Mobile Adhoc network (MANET) is a collection of self-organized mobile nodes without using any type of infrastructure. The goal of a MANET routing protocol is to transfer the data packets from one point to another safely and in minimum time. In recent years, many efforts have been made in designing multicast protocol for MANETs. It is difficult to design the efficient multicast protocol due to management of group membership, data packets forwarding and a large network size. So, in this paper we propose an Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol which provides high efficiency of data delivery keeping in view the time taken and group membership management due to the zone based network.
594 Analysis of Cutting Forces for Different Work Materials and Tool Material: Effect of Rake Angle in Turning Process, Ashutosh Verma, Prof. Suman Sharma
The aim of this work is to study experimentally the influence of tool rake angle, work piece material type and tool material on the main cutting force during a turning process. EN 31, MS, Aluminum specimens have been used as work piece materials, High Speed Steel and Carbide tools are used as tool materials. The experiments have been obtained with constant cutting speed (550 rpm), depth of cut and feed rate with five different tool rake angles (00 -160 ). For the estimation of the material type influence on the main cutting force, the experiments have been performed with the same cutting conditions, tool characteristics on the three work piece materials and two tool materials. The effect of the tool rake angle on the main cutting force depends on the type of work piece material, i.e. for EN 31, M.S. specimens the main cutting force has a decreasing trend as the rake angle increases from 00 to 160 but for the Aluminum specimen the main cutting force was increased as increasing the tool rake angle. The experimental results show that main cutting force has the maximum value at the EN 31 specimen, average value at the MS specimen and the lower value at the Aluminum specimen. In this experiments HSS and Carbide tool have been used, the value of cutting force is more in carbide tool than HSS tool for same cutting conditions.
595 Low Carbon Transportation System for Indian Cities, Hariom Maheshwari
This paper endeavours to illuminate the challenges and issues that need to be addressed to achieve sustainable urban transportation system in Indian cities. This paper will try to trace pattern of urbanization, motorization and their impact on mobility, environment and road safety. Further, the paper will explainvarious efforts taken by government authorities to address the transportation issues and there outcomes. The paper also explains various Transport Demand Management strategies which if be adopted will ensure low carbon growth of urban areas. Low carbon cities will help in enhancing Indias energy security and lower its carbon footprint.
596 Automatic Accident Detection and Ambulance Rescue With Intelligent Traffic Light System, R Jeevana Jyothi, VVGS Rajendra Prasad, N Anuradha
: Nowadays the road accidents in modern urban areas are increased to uncertain level. The loss of human life due to accident is to be avoided. Traffic congestion and tidal flow are major facts that cause delay to ambulance. To bar loss of human life due to accidents we introduce a scheme called ITLS (Intelligent Traffic Light system). The main theme behind this scheme is to provide a smooth flow for the emergency vehicles like ambulance to reach the hospitals in time and thus minimizing the delay caused by traffic congestion. The idea behind this scheme is to implement ITLS which would control mechanically the traffic lights in the path of the ambulance. The ambulance is controlled by the control unit which furnishes adequate route to the ambulance and also controls the traffic light according to the ambulance location and thus reaching the hospital safely. The controller identifies the location of the accident spot through the sensor systems in the vehicle which determined the accident and thus the controller walks through the ambulance to the spot. This scheme is fully automated, thus it finds the accident spot, controls the traffic lights, helping to reach the hospital in time.
597 Multi-Agent System: A Recent Trend in Control Engineering, Rakesh B. Patel
Multi-agent control (MAC) is a new approach to control systems comprised of interacting autonomous agents. The MAC promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to do research. Some have gone so far as to contend that MAC is a new way of designing control applications. Computational advances make possible a growing number of agent-based applications across many fields. This paper describes the foundations of MAC, identifies MAC toolkits and development methods illustrated through some applications review.
598 A Review on Adaptive Equalizer Algorithms, Sumit Bhardwaj, DR.Vinod Shokeen, Arun kumar
Todays wireless world demands transmitting data without noise. Additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN) gets added to the signal and however due to the presence of multipath channel and band limited channel time spread symbols reaches the receiver and act as noise for subsequent symbols giving rise to intersymbol interference(ISI). Thus the most favored solution to this problem is use Adaptive Equalizer. In this paper we will discuss in brief about the Adaptive equalizer and main algorithms used by equalizer.
599 Computer Aided Design Analysis of Electrical Motor Drives for Traction Application, Jacinth Kumari
The main aim of this paper is the analysis of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). For a Wind turbines (WTs) application both during steady-state operation and transient operation. ln order to analyze the DFIG during transient operation both the control and the modeling of the system is of importance. Hence, the control and the modeling are also important parts of the thesis. The main contribution of this paper is dynamic and steady-state analysis of the DFIG. And in this paper an investigation of the influence of the converters size on the energy production for a DFIG system is analyzed. A general rotor current control law is derived for the DFIG system. The grid-fault response of a DFIG wind turbine system is studied. And finally analyze, dynamically and in the steady state, two different voltage sag ride-through systems for the DFIG.
600 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Nano Engine Running on Plastic Oil Extract, T.Shanmuga vadivel, P.Balashanmugam, T.Sivakumar
The reserves of petroleum based fuels are being rapidly depleted, because of the increased use of fossil fuels for energy production. It is well known that the future availability of energy resources as well as the need for reducing the emission from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels.. In this study, the effects ethanol-gasoline blend with Waste Plastic derived oil in a twin cylinder Nano engine was investigated. This project aims at using the Waste Plastic derived oil as an alternate fuel in petrol engines. The performance and emission tests were conducted in a NANO engine. The main aim of this project is to find a solution to the mounting problem of waste plastic disposal, for which the plastics are converted into useable fuel. The test fuels were prepared using 99.9% pure ethanol and gasoline with WPO blend, in the ratio of E5 + 5 WPO, E15 + 15 WPO, E25 + 25 WPO and the rest gasoline. The experimental results reveal an increase in brake thermal efficiency for the blends when compared to that of sole fuel. During this investigation, the emission tests are made with the help of the AVL di gas analyzer, in which CO, CO2 , HC, NOx is appreciably reduced and O2 is increased for all the blends when compared to gasoline as the sole fuel.
601 Transmission Error Analysis of Involute Gears in Mesh by Fem, Sachindra Kumar, Anjani Kumar Singh, Nitesh Kumar, Sushil Patel, Ajit Kumar
The characteristics of an involute gear system and transmission errors of gears in mesh. Gearing is one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems. Transmission error is considered to be one of the main contributors to noise and vibration in a gear set. Transmission error measurement has become popular as an area of research on gears and is possible method for quality control. To estimate transmission error in a gear system, the characteristics of involute spur gears were analyzed by using the finite element method. Transmission error can be achieved by inserting a contact element placed in between the two areas where contact occurs. The results of the two dimensional FEM analyses from ANSYS are presented. These stresses were compared with the theoretical values. Both results agree very well. This indicates that the FEM model is accurate.
602 Chlorpyrifos Methyl Degradation in Soil and Human Exposure, Maria-Elisabeta Lovasz, Irina Dumitrascu, Ramona Balc
Synthetic pesticides are one of the most widespread methods used for pest control in agriculture. Chlorpyrifos-methyl is commonly used in Romania, and it is classified as an organophosphorus non-carcinogenic substance used to control insects, by inhibiting the activity of acetylcholinesterase. This studys aim was to monitor the degradation of chlorpyrifos-methyl pesticide after spraying directly on vegetation-free soil, under natural conditions, and to calculate the exposure dose through ingestion and dermal contact. The presence of pesticides in the vegetation-free soil was detectable even after 133 days following the time of use. After 49 days, significant chlorpyrifos-methyl concentration differences (p
603 Assessment of Water Quality in Manas Lake (Pune-India) With Reference to the Human Impact, Dr. Roohollah Behzad, Dr. Ravindra G. Jaynhaye, Dr. Praveen G. Saptarshi
The Manas lake is one of the most important lake near Pune city, Maharashtra state that there is large number of tourist come there for enjoying scenery and recreation reason. Also there are many restaurant, hotels and agricultural land that direct or indirect discharge their sewage into the lake. For identify measure of pollution on this lake sampling and measuring process was taken place on December 2008 and April 2009. The analysis of water has been done and the results for pH, Biological oxygen demand, Chemical oxygen demand, Total alkalinity, Hardness, Dissolved oxygen, Sulphate, Nitrate and other parameters in both samples were compared to understanding the level of pollution on this lake
604 Estimation of Composite Air Quality Index For Katra Town (J&K), Anita Sharma, Anil K. Raina
The present study aims at assessing the ambient air quality status of Katra town (one of the important town of Jammu from economic as well as religious point of view). Data collected for a period ranging from July 2010 to June 2011 has been computed to find out Air Quality Index (AQI) on a five rating scale in quantifying air pollution, based on measuring parameters such as sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10) and Total Suspended Particulate Matter TSPM, at selected locations of residential areas, commercial areas and traffic crossings. According to air quality scale, the air quality status has been measured at each site. From the study it has been found that the traffic crossings has highest air quality index followed by commercial areas whereas residential areas have the lowest air quality index values.
605 Seasonal Water Quality Assessment of Lake Mansar, Jammu, J&K (India), Sheetu Dhar, Deepika Slathia
Present work focused on the seasonal variation in the water quality parameters of lake Mansar (J&K) for a period of one year (2011-2012). The water samples collected were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as air temperature (A.T), water temperature (W.T), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, salinity, pH, free carbon dioxide (CO?), carbonate, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chloride (Cl-), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), total hardness (TH), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+). The results have indicated that the lake is receiving heavy pollution load from surrounding areas due to discharge of domestic sewage, agricultural runoff and other anthropogenic activities. Measures for minimization of organic load in the water body have been suggested.
606 A Self Defense Wearable - Anti - Molestation Jacket, Dr. (Prof) Noopur Anand, Nishant Priya, Shahzad Ahmad
Violence against women is a serious problem plaguing the world. This research and consequent product development (Anti molestation jacket) was an endeavor to develop an effective self-defense gadget which would provide protection to women in case of any assault or unsolicited contact. This jacket uses electric shock as a deterring agent, which immobilizes the assailer for a few moments and thus giving the victim time to escape and/or make a rescue call. The shock pulse or the jolt would surprise the assaulter and deter him from approaching further. This jacket is designed in a way that both the aesthetics and the desired functionality are harmonized. Anti molestation jacket is effective, comfortable, unobtrusive, deceptive and an economical self defense gadget for women.
607 Oxidative Stress of Bisphenol- A and its Adverse Effect on the Liver of Fresh Water Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Chitra K.C., Sr. Maiby
Bisphenol A at sub lethal concentration (1 mg/ L) was given to ten adult freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus for 10 and 20 days maintaining the controls. Exposure to bisphenol A significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase with increased level of lipid peroxidation in time-dependent manner when compared to control groups thereby indicating that bisphenol A induces oxidative stress in liver of Oreochromis. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly decreased in liver of treated fish due to the decreased state of inter and intracellular membrane transport owing to the toxicity of bisphenol A. It also resulted in hepatic lesions including degeneration, necrosis, irregular position of nuclei and vacuolization of cell cytoplasm. The present findings suggest that bisphenol A exerts its toxicity effect in liver of fish by the generation of oxygen free radicals thus inducing lipid peroxidation and modifying the antioxidant status in time-dependent manner.
608 Efficacy of Extrusion Process Variables and its Optimization For Ready to Eat Defatted Soy and Carrot Pomace Incorporated Wheat Based Snacks, Dr. Mohammad Shafiq Alam, Dr. Shivani Pathania
The present investigation was carried out to develop soy-carrot pomace incorporated wheat based nutritionally rich snacks. Different experimental combinations of extrusion process variables i.e. die temperature, screw speed, and wheat flour in the feed formulation of wheat, defatted soy flour and carrot pomace powder, were tried using BoxBehnken design of experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of die temperature (120- 180C), screw speed (300-500 rpm) and wheat flour (65-85%) with soy-carrot pomace blend in equal proportion on product responses like bulk density (BD), expansion ratio (ER), water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that, among the process variables wheat flour percentage in feed formulation had significantly higher effect on BD, ER, WAI and WSI. Die temperature and screw speed were observed to have significantly lower effect on the selected responses. In order to develop an extruded product with desired product quality, the extrusion conditions were optimized and desirability of 0.785 was accomplished.
609 Gait Pattern Significance in Forensics: A Review, Ms. Manashree Mane
Tracking through gait pattern is an art. It is practiced in various parts of India by certain families. The trackers are known as Khojis. Police forces have utilized them for tracking criminals. Some of them have joined police forces. They follow track of individuals, animals or drag marks or even stick marks. They know the peculiarities of foot, distances, angles and pressures in foot, footwear and allied marks. Gait pattern has been studied scientifically. Individual foot or footwear marks are seldom clear in sandy places, but gait pattern is usually distinct. Hence it is more useful for study.
610 Forest Certifications in Sustainable Forest Management: Concerns Associated to its Application in A Forested Area of Tuscany, Roberto Fratini, Francesco Riccioli, Toufic El Asmar
Forest certification was launched over a decade ago to help protect forests from destructive logging practices. The systems adopted by the Italian forests, are based on an independent evaluation, or a certification of an external body. This study aims to define the direct and indirect costs that a logging company must address to achieve forest certification. The reference is to Tuscany (Italy) and some types of forestry enterprise. The study examines the direct and indirect costs to accede to the process of forest certification.
611 Impact of Urban Development on Singapores Only Primary Rainforest, Kalyani Chatterjea
Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (163 km)in Singapore is surrounded by dense urban residential development. While the forest interior still retains a pristine forest micro-climate, the peripheral areas are characterized by concrete-covered surfaces, high-rise buildings, and highways with high radiation potentials and other associated environmental attributes. This research investigates changes in four specific environmental factors, such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, and wind velocities in the interior forests, as well as the forest boundaries. The research determines the changes at the forest peripheries and also analyses the extent of influence into the forest interior. Steep environmental gradients and several hot spots with intense alterations of environment have been demarcated, although forest interiors still retain the original microclimatic conditions of a typical rainforest. These assessments are useful in forest conservation and forest boundary management.
612 A Drinking and Irrigational use Assessment of Groundwater in Part of Thirumanimuthar Sub Basin (Cauvery), Tamil Nadu, India., N. VIJAYAKUMAR
The objective of this paper is to document and evaluate the groundwater quality of part of Thirumanimuthar sub basin (Cauvery) during May 2013. The analysis was conducted for the upper part of the watershed. During pre-monsoon season of 2013, thirty two representative groundwater samples were collected from dug and bore wells. These samples were analyzed to monitor the water chemistry of various ions, comprising Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO3 , HCO3 , SO4 and Cl. The hydro geochemical values were compared with WHO 2004 standards. The other geochemical parameters like TDS, EC, SAR, Kelleys ratio SSP and Mg hazards were also determined. The above given parameters were calculated and used to find out the suitability of groundwater for drinking and Agricultural purposes. The USSL and Piper Trilinear Diagram interpretation were made to know the irrigational quality and facies of groundwater. It reveals that, the subsurface water is medium to high salinity in nature and falls in the Ca-Mg-CO3 type.
613 Provenance, Weathering and Tectonic Setting of Talchir Formation in Parts of Son Valley Sub Basin Chhattisgarh, India During Late Paleozoic Era: Petrological and Geochemical Evidences, Khansa Zaidi, Dr. Sarwar Rais
The Talchir Formation (Permo-carboniferous) is the lowermost unit of Gondwana Supergroup which rests unconformably over the Precambrian basement of Indian peninsula. Modal analysis and geochemistry of Talchir sandstones and shales of Chirimiri area, Son valley sub basin, Chhattisgarh, is carried out to know nature of provenance and its composition, weathering condition and tectonic setting of both source area and depositional basin. These characters are determined with the help of QtFL parameter, and bivariate plot between TiO2 vs Zr, geochemical proxies [A/ACNK)*100] and ratio of major oxide K2O/Na2O vs SiO2 have been utilised to achieve this aim. The petrochemical attributes of the clastic rocks of Talchir Formation suggest that these sediments have been derived from continental block having rocks of mixed composition which was subjected to moderate weathering during late Palaeozoic time. These sediments were deposited in basin situated at passive margin.
614 Determinants of Low Birth Weight: A Case Control Study in Pravara Rural Hospital in Western Maharashtra, India., Reecha Ghimire, D.B. Phalke, V. D. Phalke, BijendraBanjade, Aalok Kumar Singh
Background: Low Birth Weight(LBW) is getting a public health importance due to the numerous factors like its high incidence, association with mental retardation and a high risk of perinatal and infant mortality and morbidity, human wastage and suffering, very high cost of special care and intensive care units and its association with social economic under development. The objective of the study is to know the important maternal determinants of Low Birth Weight. Method and Materials: The hospital based case control study done in Pravara Rural Hospital from September 2013 to April 2014. Total 763 case papers of mothers (277 cases and 486 controls) and their singleton newborn babies were studied. Result: After using Multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal age (
615 Generation of Short Time Width Optical Soliton Pulse Inside an Optical Fiber, Dr. Puspendu Kuila
Short time width pulse is very much essential in optical communication system. The acceptance of the all optical soliton (AOS) pulse in communication field will be automatically enhanced if the time widths of the pulses are shorten. Here I propose a new idea to generate a short time width soliton pulse inside the optical fiber media. For this purpose the electro-optic behavior and the non-linear character of the fiber media are exploited actively. Here, I use L-type biasing of the electrooptic modulator (EOM) in amplitude modulation scheme. The optical Gaussian pulse (OGP) is first modulated by the modulator and then fed into the non-linear optical fiber (NLOF).
616 Social Responsibility and Ethical Issues in Managing Global Business, Dr. Rajesh Faldu
Managing global business is not easy as the corporate world is full of young bright businessmen and one minute-moralists. Social responsibility and ethical issues needs to be managed for managing global business. Social responsibility is understood as the obligation of decision-makers to take actions that protect and improve the welfare of society as a whole along with their own interests. Business ethics refer to the application of ethics to business. An international business faces several challenges while undertaking social actions. Certain ethical issues are prominent in international business like bribery & corruption and work practices & worker remuneration. Every MNC should take care of certain areas of ethical and social responsibility while operating in global environment. MNCs need to develop code of conduct for managing certain issues. This paper focuses on social responsibility and ethical issues involved in managing global business
617 Alves: Arabic Language Vocalization using an Expert System, Tebbi Hanane, Hamadouche Maamar, Azzoune Hamid
In this work we aim to develop a Human-Machine Interface in which progressively are integrated tools for automatic natural language processing. Especially a speech synthesis system from a text modeled by an expert system; The final goal of this research is the production of voice which is more likely of that of human beings, both in terms of intelligibility and naturalness. This challenge requires knowledge of various kinds to be modeled by the essential tool of artificial intelligence which is the expert system. The approach is based on a conceptual analysis of the different stages of creating of our expert speech synthesis system from a text written in Standard Arabic.
618 Impression of it based Library Sources and Services in Academic Libraries, Sh. Rajnikant Sindhav, Dr. Umesh A Patel
The advent of IT technology has turned the world towards rapid competition in applying its services. Educational field is also not remained untouched from IT. It was cataloging that brought computers and networking into libraries on a large scale more than forty year ago. The evolution of technical services during the past thirty years has been dramatic. During the 1960s and 1970s, large libraries contributed their original cataloging to the database, which was largely dependent on the library of Congress's cataloging in the form of MARC tapes. Increasingly, the term used for this activity was shared cataloging, reflecting the fact that many libraries contributed data to the database.
619 e-Learning and e-Marketing in Libraries, M.P. RAINA
Due to globalisation and frequency in information exchanges, the role of e-learning is gaining momentum. The present paper highlights the key concepts of e-learning & e-marketing with the distinguishing dimensions, implementations, benefits, barriers, success factors and recommendations.
620 The Buying Habits of Fast Moving Consumer Goods: A Case Study on the Slum Area in Delhi, Dr. Aparna Goyal
Targeting convenience customer behavior requires a shift in attitudes from retailers and manufacturers alike and its strong impact on the people living in slum areas of Delhi. Effectively targeting this group will require the development of a deeper understanding of consumer needs. The key will be offering goods and services that provide solutions of availability of the products to consumer needs --highlighting the need for more prepared foods, hot snacks and drinks, and more appropriate packaging formats. This study examines the latest developments and changes affecting the taste and habits of uses of the population of slums and to provide key data on consumer behavior and insight into consumer needs in these areas.
621 Analysis of Liquidity and Operating Profitability of Selected Power Sector Companies In India, Mr. R.Narayanan, Dr.R.Hamsalakshmi
The Indian Power Industry is one of the largest and most important industries in India as it fulfils the energy requirements of various other industries. It is one of the most critical components of infrastructure that affects economic growth and the well-being of our nation. India has the worlds 5th largest electricity generation capacity and it is the 6th largest energy consumer accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption. Due to the fast-paced growth of the Indian economy, the countrys energy demand has grown at an average of 3.6% p.a. over the past 30 years. In India, power is generated by State utilities, Central utilities and Private players. Looking at the companies with a diversified portfolio of power, NTPC is the largest company (on Net Sales), but Tata Power has registered the highest growth rates in Sales and Net Profit. Among hydro power producers, NHPCs performance has been very good. Since the power sector is a heavy capital intensive industry it attracts a limited private investors again the public sector companies are performing at a faster rate. In this background this article envisages an analysis of relationship between liquidity and operating profit of selected power generation and distribution companies in India.
622 A Study on Telecommuting as a Coping Strategy for Work Family Conflict , K. HariPriya, Dr.N Brindha
This study focusses on finding whether telecommuting would help employees to cope up with work life conflict. Telecommuting policy is gaining importance nowadays. The study is conducted among IT professionals working in Bangalore. Firstly, the study, through secondary research confines the attributes of telecommuting and work family conflict. The second step of the study is a survey administering a questionnaire. The employees opinion on the benefits of telecommuting is analyzed in finding whether telecommuting is the coping strategy. Telecommuting is infamous due to the practical difficulties and challenges in implementing the policy in India. There are good number of benefits for both the employer and employee in adapting telecommuting policy and keeping this in mind, telecommuting increases scope for better performance, higher productivity, reduction in overhead, improved employee retention and attraction, better work-life balance for the employees, etc. This paper analyzes the policy of telecommuting with reference to work-family conflict of employees.
623 Traditional Trade-off V/S Pecking Order, Which is a Better Theory?, MOSTAFA HASHEMI-TILEHNOUEI, B. SHIVARAJ
Core objective of each firm is to maximize the firm value by selecting the projects with positive net present value and lowest cost of capital. Of course capital structure of firm is a critical element for firms to maximize their value. The purpose of this study is to examine financing behavior of Indian firms and to investigate that which theory of capital structure is better in explaining financing behavior of Indian firms and whether financing behavior of firms operating in India as a developing country and emerging economy is in accordance with financing behavior of developed countries or not. Two main theories of capital structure in this paper are tested: the traditional trade-off theory and the pecking order theory. Results suggest that the pecking order theory rather than the traditional trade-off theory is better in explaining the financing behavior of Indian companies. Results of this paper are consistent with the results for most of the developed countries.
624 Product Standardization and Marketing Approach for Tourism Products, VIDHUSEKHAR P
The Research paper reviews various tourism products, its availability and marketing approaches for promoting tourism in Kerala.Case study of Kasaragod district is taken as a bench mark for generalising the product through out the state. It discusses recent trend in Tourism Industry, Advantage Kerala in Tourism Marketing with almost similar products available in each district. The infrastructure connectivity by Air, Road and Rail are highlighted. And finally a CulturePiligrim-Festival circuit is drawn to highlight the potential products.
625 A Study on Labour Relation in Textile Industries with Special Reference to Coimbatore City, Dr.P.GURUSAMY, C.PRAMILA, J. PAVITHRA
Today the industries are neither viewed as a venture of employers alone nor profit if considered as its sole objective. It is considered to be a venture based on purposeful cooperation between management and labour in the process of production and maximum social good is regarded as its ultimate end and both management and employees contribute in their own way towards its success. Industrial relations constitute one of the most delicate and complex problems of the modern industrial society. This phenomenon of a new complex industrial set-up is directly attributable to the emergence of Industrial Revolution. The pre-industrial revolution period was characterized by a simple process of manufacture, small scale investment, local markets and small number of persons employed. All this led to close proximity between the manager and the managed. Due to personal and direct relationship between the employer and the employee it was easier to secure the cooperation of the latter. Any grievance or misunderstanding on the part of either party could be promptly removed.
626 Organic Food Perception of Buyers and Non Buyers of Erode, Tamilnadu, India, Ms. M. Gomathi, Dr. S. Kalyani
There is a growing awareness of the environment and the dangers of chemically grown products. Besides, with a growing number of retailers offering various organic products, they are now more visible and therefore, are more likely to generate demand. Another key factor driving demand has been the change in the consumer perception from organic products being elitist to healthy. The major objective of the project was to identify the organic food Perception of buyers and non buyers, factors influencing the buying of organic food products and find problems faced by users towards organic food products. In order to study the objectives, primary data have been collected through questionnaire. The sample size for the study was 300 which were collected according to the convenience of the researcher. The research design used is descriptive research. The data is analyzed using the percentage analysis, factor analysis and Weighted average method.
627 Emerging Perspectives of Knowledge Management Systems, Parasuraman. D
This paper is prepared with the intention of introduction the concept of Knowledge Management (KM). It defines the concepts, data, information and knowledge. The relation between these concepts and their emerging pattern is shown with the help of a diagram. The conceptual meaning of Knowledge management is provided. It also presents the value of KM and gives a brief note about the relevance of KM in libraries and Information centers.
628 Equitable Cototal Domination in Graphs, B. Basavanagoud, Vijay V. Teli
Let G=(V,E) be a simple graph. A subset D of V is called an equitable dominating set if for every v?V-D, there exists a vertex u?D such that uv?E(G) and |deg(u)-deg(v)|?1, where deg(u) and deg(v) denotes the degree of a vertex u and degree of a vertex v respectively. An equitable dominating set D is said to be an equitable cototal dominating set (ecd-set) if the induced subgraph ?V-D? has no isolated vertices. The equitable cototal domination number ?e ct (G) of a graph G is the minimum cardinality of an ecd-set of G. In this paper, we obtain some bounds on ?e ct (G) and its exact values for some standard class of graphs are found.
629 A Statistical Approach to Two-Parameter Families of Triple Close Approaches in Stellar System (I), Ranjeet Kumar, Navin Chandra, Surekha Tomar
A statistical approach to two-parameter families of triple close approaches which result a systematic regularity of escape with the formation of a binary is studied in a series of two papers. This paper deals statistical theory with low initial velocities and equal masses in the evolution of stellar system in two-dimensional space. The complete statistical solutions (i.e. the distributions of eccentricity e of the binary, binary energy Eb and the escape velocity of escaper vs ,etc.) of the system are calculated and are in good agreement with the numerical results of dynamical evolution in the range of in all direction of in a plane. We have also applied double limit process to the system in a plane and observed that the perturbing velocity v0 ?0+ the product of the semi-major axis a of the final binary and the square of the escape velocity i.e. , in all direction of ?
630 Scattered Calcification in Psoas Due to Renal Tuberculosis: A Rare Entity, Dr. AVANISH KUMAR SAXENA, Dr. AMRITA GUPTA, DR VARUN KUMAR AGARWAL, DR ANKIT JAIN, DR NITIKA MITTAL
Tuberculosis remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Even in the era of effective chemotherapy, TB still accounts for a substantial number of deaths annually. Early diagnosis is challenging, even in areas with abundant medical resources1 . In 2012, there were an estimated 12 million TB cases globally, including 8.6 million new cases, and 1.3 million fatal cases2 . Renal tuberculosis autonephrectomy is the end stage of chronic renal tuberculosis infection and results from the caseous necrosis and progressive cavitation of the kidney. Resultant calcification may mimic the appearances of a renal calculus on plane film X-ray. The IVU has been considered as one of the most useful tests for obtaining anatomical and functional details of the kidneys.
631 Comparative Study Between Partial Inferior Turbinectomy and Submucosal Diathermy in the Management of Inferior Turbinate Hypertrophy, Dr.Anil.H.T, Dr. Bilkhis Mahjabeen G M
Objective- Inferior turbinate hypertrophy leads to chronic nasal obstruction which causes significant morbidity. In our study, we aim to compare the efficacy of two popular surgical techniques in the treatment of hypertrophy of inferior turbinates, namely partial inferior turbinectomy and submucosal diathermy. Methods - A prospective study involving 100 patients aged between 18-50yrs and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria was conducted. Patients were sequentially grouped into two groups of 50 patients each, partial inferior turbinectomy was performed on one group and submucosal diathermy on another. Subjective and objective assessments were made at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months post operatively. Results- It was concluded in our study that early and better results were seen in patients who underwent partial inferior turbinectomy
632 Patterns of Tobacco Use Amongst Engineering College Students in Ahmedabad District, Dr. Punit G. Patel, Dr. Anand G. Shah, Dr. Vijay L Goplani
Purpose: Smoking is currently the single leading preventable cause of death. Anyone with a smoking habit has an increased chance of lung, cervical, and other types of cancer; respiratory diseases such as emphysema, asthma, and chronic bronchitis; and cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, stroke, and atherosclerosis. Though some people believe some brand of cigarette are safer, it also carries health risks. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 engineering students of three engineering colleges of Ahmadabad with pre designed questionnaire which included Current smoking status, starting age, and average consumptions per day were obtained. Data was collected after explaining the purpose of the study and verbal consent was obtained from each patient. Results: Mean age of students was 19.4 year with 1.9 SD. Out of total 250 students , 47 (18.8%) were found to be current smokers. The prevalence of current smoking among 22-23 years age group was 40% followed by 20-21 years (24.1). Proportion of current smoker among students with parentral history was 40.1%. Majority of students (87.5%) were smoking less than 5 cigarette per day and 5% of students were smoking more than 10 cigarette per day. More than 2/3rd (80%) of students were spending up to 200 rupees per week. Around 40% of students were not willing to quit. Conclusion: Present As demonstrated in this study, significant factors were lower socio-economic class, personal reasons and female sex, these factors must be taken into account while giving health education. Sound referral system can also minimize treatment delay
633 Cytological Diagnosis of Rhinoscleroma, Dr. Sushma R. Gulhane, Dr. Madhuri S. Kate, Dr. Smita Sonawane
Rhinoscleroma is a granulomatous infection caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis affecting nose and, other structures of respiratory tract. In general, the diagnosis is based on histological features and microbiological identification of causative agent. The diagnosis is facilitated by cytology of lesion which is easy to perform and minimally invasive procedure. The characteristic Mikulicz cells are observed in smear. This paper presents a case of 45-year old female with a rhinosclerotic granuloma protruding through right nasal vestibule. The diagnosis was done on cytology and confirmed on histology. This patient was treated with the course of ciprofloxacin following excision of mass. She has remained asymptomatic after treatment. There are only two reports up till now describing cytology of this entity. Although diagnosis of this disease is made by tissue biopsy and bacteriology of lesion, the present report indicates that cytology has definite role in its diagnosis
634 Antibiotic use Among Medical and Para Medical Students: Knowledge, Attitude and its Practice in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in Chennai- a Scientific Insight, Dr.M.Ganesh, Dr.S.A.Sridevi, Dr.Christina Mary Paul
Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice about antibiotic use among the medical and para medical students. Research have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among general population on antibiotic use. But very few studies have been published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we survey the medical students and para medical students KAP on the use of antibiotics and scrutinize the effect of curriculum and their knowledge on antibiotic use and its resistance. Methodology: In this study, 300 students were included to participate in the questionnaire survey on students knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Analysis was done based on Chi square test .Results: 272 (90.66%) respondents were considered valid for statistical analysis. The students included were interns(100), final year medical students(100) and physiotherapy students(100).The level of knowledge of Medical students on the use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of Non medical students (p < 0.0001). Analysis was done among all the three groups and statistically analysed. Conclusion: This study states that medical curriculum significantly improves students knowledge on antibiotics and brings their attention on antibiotic resistance due to inappropriate use of antibiotics.
635 Study of Mycobactin From Different Mycobacterial Species by its Effect on Growth of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp Paratuberculosis, Radhika Syam, Justin Davis Kollannur, Pranabananda Das
Genus Mycobacterium consists of pathogenic and saprophytic organisms who meet the demand of iron by synthesizing mycobactins and exochelins. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) is unable to synthesize required amount of mycobactin and require exogenous mycobactin. The mycobactins extracted from various mycobacterial species by ethanol and chloroform extraction and purified by aluminium oxide chromatography. M phlei and M tuberculosis gave maximum growth in varying iron concentrations indicating its ability to utilize iron efficiently. Among all the mycobacterial species studied, highest mycobactin production was noticed in M fortuitum. Out of all extracted mycobactins used for the growth assay, mycobactins extracted from M tuberculosis, M phlei and MAP had produced best growth of MAP
636 Drug Usage Patterns in Ent Out Patients Department of Teaching Hospital , Rajesh Kumar Suman, Rakesh kumar, Yogesh A. Garje, Abhay R.Wagh, Ashweni Satpathy, Ipseeta Mohanty Ray
Objective: The present study evaluated the pattern of drug usage in ENT OPD Method: Questionnaires was specifically designed factoring patients demographical profile, diagnosis of disease, Drug regimen Result: A total 100 prescriptions of patients were analysed who visited ENT OPD Department. Maximum patients were patients were of the age group between 21 30 yr (56%). Incidence male(62%) were higher than female(38%). The total 314 drug were prescribed in 100 prescription of the patients. Among 100 prescription, There were following class of drug prescribed. Antihistaminic were prescribed in 25% of the prescription, Antibiotic prescribed were in 25% of the prescription. Nasal decongestant, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Antiulcer and vitamin were prescribed in 10%, 15%, 5%, 12%, 8% respectively. Most commonly drug prescribed were Levocetrizine (18%) among total drug prescribed, Amoxycillin+clavulinic acid(12%), oxymetazoline(9%), Ibuprofen(10%), Paracetamol(5%), pantaprazole(10%), Multivitamin(8%) respectively prescribed and 28% were other drug prescribed but from same above classification of drug , etc. common Ear infection diagnosed were Chronic Suppurative Otitis media, Acute Suppurative Otitis Media, Otitis Media and wax in 30%, 8%, 10% and 5% of the prescription. In Nasal disease, Allergic Rhinitis (15%) and Running nose (5%) were diagnosed. Pharyingitis(18) and Tonsillitis (9%) were common Throat infection diagnosed. All the prescribed by brand name. Conclusion: The study showed maximum case was diagnosed as ear infection. Chronic suppurative Otitis media was most common diases diagnosed in ENT department. Amoxicillin and Clavulinic acid combination was commonly antibiotic prescribed in this study
637 Effectiveness of Information Booklet on Intravenous Infusion on Knowledge of Staff Nurses in Selected Hospitals of Mangalore, Mrs. Shalini Lidwin Fernandes
Intravenous infusion ( IV) is the introduction of a large amount of fluid into the body through the vein. IV infusion mainly given to restore fluid volume to normal incase of hemorrhage, diarrhea and vomiting. It prevents and treats shock and collapse. The nurse is responsible for initiating, monitoring and discontinuing the therapy.1 The aim of the study was to assess the Effectiveness of Information Booklet on Intravenous Infusion on knowledge of staff nurses. An evaluative study design was adopted. Simple Random sampling technique was used to collect the sample. Knowledge questionnaire on IV fluid therapy was administered to the staff nurses. Booklet was given on the same day. Post test was conducted on the 8th day. In the pre-test majority of nurses, 76% had average knowledge score (12-22) on IV fluid therapy, 20% had good knowledge and 4% had poor knowledge (0-11). In the post test 84% of the sample had good knowledge and 26% had average knowledge on IV fluid therapy. The mean post test knowledge score of staff nurses (28+_1.9) was significantly higher than the pre-test knowledge score (19_+, t29=2.06,p=0.05). There was no significant association of variables age (?2 =0.7), gender(?2 =0.06), education (?2 =0) years of experience (?2 =7.37) and source of information (?2 =2.71) with their pre-test knowledge score
638 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude Towards Artificial Reproductive Technology (Art) Among Women Attending Selected Infertility Clinic of Mangalore, Mrs. Sequeira Maria Deepthi
Parenthood is a fundamental human need. Pregnancy is a profound experience that is unique amongst couples in which the outcome and their ability to manage the pregnancy are often unpredictable.1 For many women suffering from infertility; ART is often viewed as a viable alternative. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude towards ART among women attending selected infertility clinic of Mangalore. Descriptive research design was adopted. A structured knowledge questionnaire and attitude scale was used to collect data from 100 primary infertile women attending infertility clinic undergoing follow-up treatment using purposive sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that majority (65%) of the women had poor knowledge, 20% had average knowledge, 15% had good knowledge whereas none of them had very good knowledge. Majority (91%) of the women had favorable attitude whereas minority (9%) had unfavorable attitude. There was significant association of knowledge scores with wifes age (?2 =13.59), educational status (?2 =14.69) and marital relationship (?2 =9.14) whereas no association with wifes occupation (?2 =3.81), husbands age (?2 =1.55) and husbands occupation (?2 =2.70)
639 The Implementation of Silicone Implant and Valve Bronchoblocation at Collapsosurgical Treatment of Patients with Extensively Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB), Yerimbetov K.D., Abildaev T.Sh., Bektursinov B.U., Tursynbayeva A.S., Abdullina A.G.
There were analyzed the outcomes of collapsosurgical treatment of 32 patients with extensive drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB). There were implemented the surgical interventions, including thoracoplasty with extrapleural filling with silicone implant and with preliminary performed valve bronchoblocation of the draining bronchus of the injured lung segment (lobe) in the main group from 13 patients, while in the remained 19 patients (the control group) there were implemented the operative interventions including extrapleural thoracomyoplasty only. The analysis of outcomes showed that the collapsosurgical interventions in both groups gave the virtually equal effectiveness: in the main group it constituted 61.5%, in the control one it did 63.1%. Despite of the equal treatment effectiveness, there were determined the advantages of the collapsosurgical method with use of silicone implant versus conventional method of thoracoplasty: a) absence of the cosmetic defect of the chest wall (OR-32, P
640 Rare Case of Frontoethmoidal Mucocele with Orbital Invasion a Case Report, Dr. P. VITHAL PRASAD, Dr. C. P. DAS, DR. MOHANTY D, Dr. PRATHYUSHA
Fronto ethmoidal mucoceles can present with different clinical features, mostly ophthalmic. Though not a neopalsm, they have a tendency to expand by thinning the bony walls of sinuses. They displace and invade sorrounding structures by pressure and bony resorption. Orbital involvement mimics the behaviour of benign neoplasms primarily arising in the orbit. Here with we are reporting a case of frontoethmoidal mucocele extending into the orbit, in a 60 year old female patient, whose eye has been enucleated following trauma. Endoscopic sinus surgery done under LA gave good relief from symptoms.
641 Comparative Study of Intraperitoneal Instillation of 0.5% Bupivacaine with Adrenaline and Placebo for Postoperative Analgesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy, Dr Rajanikant S M, Dr Naveen kumar C P, Dr Akkamahadevi P
Background : This study was designed to know the analgesic effects of bupivacaine administered intraperitoneally in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: prospective randomized clinical study was carried out on 100 patients belonging to ASA grade I&II, age group between 18-60yrs posted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group A(study group) received 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine with adrenaline intraperitoneally at gall bladder bed and under right hemidiaphragm both before and at the end of surgery through laparoscope port in trendelenburgh position. Group B(placebo group) received 20 ml normal saline intraperitoneally at the same location. Vital parameters, duration of effective analgesia were recorded and compared. Statistical analysis: Repeated measure ANOVA, Student t test and paired t test was used. Results: Study group provided a substantial reduction of pain intensity during the first 4 hours postoperatively and this was found to be statistically significant. Total rescue analgesic doses required in study group was less compared to placebo group. Conclusions: Bupivacaine is effective at preventing pain at wake-up and over the first 4-8h after laparoscopic cholecystectomy when intraperitoneally instilled at the beginning and end of laparoscopy
642 Hospital Acquired Infections due to Gram Negative Bacteria Related to Endotracheal Tube at Tertiary Care Hospital, Dr Kanizfatma Durani
Objective: Prolonged use of endotracheal (ET) tube has been recognized as a major threat for developing Ventilator associated Pneumonia (VAP) particularly by Gram negative organisms. So the purpose of the study was to determine the organisms causing VAP and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and Method: This retrospective observational study was conducted over a period of 9 months from January -September 2012 in microbiology department, G.G.H. hospital, Jamnagar during which total 82 ET tube samples were received. Identification of bacteria was done by various biochemical tests. antibiotic sensitivity of isolate was done by Kirby-Baur method. Result: 24 (72.73%) isolates are gram negative bacteria & 9 (27.27%) infections are due to gram positive bacteria. Acinetobacter baumannii (18 samples; 54.5%) was the most common organism isolated, which was resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the effectiveness of integrated infection control programs to control and manage nosocomial infections caused by highly resistant organisms.
643 A Study to Evaluate the Medical Emergencies and Complications Among Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Admitted in Medicine Department of Tertiary Care Hospital, Ahmedabad, Dr.Nirmal Brahmbhatt, Dr. Anoopsingh Rajput, Dr.Hitesh Bhabhor, Dr. Krunal Varia, Dr. Rajshree Bhatt, Dr. Niti Talsania
Objective: To evaluate medical emergencies and complications among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methodology: A retrospective record base study along with interview of participants using semi-structured questionnaire was carried out at medicine department, Tertiary care hospital, Ahmadabad for period of 3 months. All 847 patients (age >20 years) admitted in hospital during study period were included. Result: Among the total 847 study participants about 84(9.9%) were diabetic. The ratio of occurrence of medical emergencies among diabetic and non-diabetic patients was found statistically significant While occurrence of complications among diabetic & nondiabetic patients were Neuropathy(16.66% & 3.27%), Cataract(8.33% & 5.63%), Peripheral vascular disease(5.95% & 3.80%), Retinopathy(5.95% & 2.22%) and Renal failure(2.38% & 2.22%) respectively. Occurrence of complications among the diabetic patients was found to be more which was supported by statistical analysis.
644 Hand Bones Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma, Dr. M. A. Q. Ansari, Dr. A. Farheen
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of bone is a rare tumor of vascular origin with borderline malignancy and pursues a clinical course intermediate between hemangioma and an angiosarcoma. Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma has been reported more commonly in soft tissues and viscera involving lungs and liver but less so in bones. The tumor is usually multicentric with a predilection for bones of a particular anatomical area. We describe a case of multicentric Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma of right hand. Roentgenographs revealed multiple lytic lesions involving the metacarpals and phalanges with impending pathological fracture. Histologically the tumor exhibited cords of epithelioid-appearing cells in a myxoid stroma and inflammatory cells with few mitotic figures. The patient was treated with primary surgical resection, curettage, bone grafting and K-wire fixation. Follow-up x-rays revealed good consolidation of bone graft with no signs of local recurrence.
645 Kyasanur Forest Disease - an Emerging Threat in Kerala, Shyma V.H, Kutty M.V.H, RemyaV
Kysanur Forest Disease (KFD), The monkey born zoonotic disease is becoming an emerging threat in the land of kerala as there was few reports on the incidence of this disease both in monkeys and human being in years 2013 and in the ongoing year 2014. This article is a briefing about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, necropsy findings, diagnostic methods, treatments and preventive measures of this disease.
646 Cranberry : a Boon to Periodontium, Dr.Babita Pawar, Dr. P. P. Marawar, Dr.Richa Patel, Dr.Tushar Bhople
Over the past decade, cranberries and their molecular components have received increasing attention from researchers in human health. A non-dialysable cranberry fraction enriched in high molecular weight polyphenols has very promising properties with respect to cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria, as well as to the host inflammatory response and enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. Cranberry components are potential anti-caries agents since they inhibit acid production, attachment, and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. Glucan-binding proteins, extracellular enzymes, carbohydrate production, and bacterial hydrophobicity, are affected by cranberry components. Cranberry polyphenols may reduce the inflammatory response, as well as the production and activity of proteolytic enzymes contributing to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease. The polyphenols of cranberries also interfere with various activities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis. The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits. Possible chemopreventive mechanisms of action by cranberry phytochemicals include induction of apoptosis in tumor cells, reduced ornithine decarboxylase activity, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases. This article summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the potential of cranberry polyphenols to prevent and/or treat diseases of oral diseases.
647 Seroepidemiology of Brucellosis Among Cattle in various Part of India, Dr Justin Davis Kollannur, Radhika Syam
Brucellosis is one of the worlds major zoonoses, which is endemic in India caused mainly by Brucella abortus and B. melitensis and is readily transmissible to man as an occupational hazard. The disease in cattle seems to be associated primarily with intensive farming practices. Brucellosis is widely prevalent in India among the bovine population both in farms and in the villages. It causes heavy economic loss to the animal industry through abortion, delayed conception, temporary or permanent infertility in the affected animals. Analysis of disease incidence in relation to characteristics of time, place and host will help to understand the disease as well as its preventive measures to control the disease. Seroprevalence of Brucella was noted as 8.47% and among these higher seroprevalence was detected in Delhi (29.74%) followed by Jammu & Kashmir (27.02%). Least seroprevalence was noticed in Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala.
648 Surgical Evaluation of Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Instrumentation in Degenerative Lumbar Spine, Jigar B chhapan, Saral J Patel, Bharat R Dave, Pankaj R Patel
The goal of fusion of the lumbar spine is to obtain primary solid arthrodesis thus to alleviate pain. The TLIF procedure has rapidly gained popularity; because of its posterolateral extracanalar discectomy and fusion, it has been reported as a safe technique, without the potential complications.(1) A retrospective clinical and radiographic study of 46 patients with symptomatic degenerative lumbar spine treated with TLIF was performed. In this study improvement in ODI score from 63% to 13% and in mJOA score from 9 to 25 at final follow up. The advantages of this technique are: few complications, the simplicity and speed of execution and versatility, less neurologic injury. Few complications encountered during study do not affect overall long term outcome. Adjacent segment disease and accelerated disc degeneration above or below the level of fusion is major concern on long term follow-up
649 Dexmeditomidine as an Adjuvant to Bupivacaine in Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block , Dr. G. H. MEGHA, Dr. SANJEEV G M
Alpha-2 agonists are mixed with local anaesthetic agents to extend the duration of spinal, extradural and peripheral nerve blocks. We studied the effect of dexmeditomidine as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in brachial plexus block on onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, level of sedation,perioperative hemodynamic parameters and complications. Methods: forty patients of ASA ? and ASA ?? scheduled for upper limb surgery were included in double blind randomised comparison of inj. Dexmeditomidine and inj. Normal saline. We divided patients in two groups. Group A patients were given inj dexmeditomidine 50 microgm (0.5ml) and group B patients were given inj normal saline in brachial plexus block as adjuvant to 30 ml of local anaesthesic solution containing 14 ml of lidocaine with adrenaline and 16ml bupivacaine. We recorded time of onset and duration of sensory and motor block, level of sedation, duration of analgesia, hemodynamic changes and side effects in both groups. Results: mean time to onset of sensory block was 5.421.39 min in group A and 8.34 1.35 min group B and that of motor block was 11.1 2.6min in group A and 18.0 2.9min in group B.Total duration of sensory block was 730.1578.27min in group A and 360.6261.7min in group B and that of motor block was 616.2 54.46min in group A and 288.4 54.26min in group B. Duration of analgesia was 970.36 80.7 min in group A and 30040.31 min in group B. Conclusion: addition of 50 microgm of inj dexmeditomidine to bupivacaine in brachial plexus block shortens onset and prolongs duration of sensory and motor block, prolongs duration of analgesia and decreases intraoperative requirement of sedatives.
650 A Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Efficacy of Ultrasound Therapy With End Range Mobilization Over Ultrasound Therapy With Capsular Stretching in Frozen Shoulder, Balbir Kaur, Reena Arora, Lalit Arora, Sandeep Kumar, Aseem Khajuria
Frozen shoulder clinically referred to as adhesive capsulitis, has been described as a condition of unknown etiology and characterized by gradually progressive, painful restriction of shoulder joint motion with spontaneous restoration of partial or complete motion over months to years.In the physical therapy setting, physical therapists utilize a variety of interventions to treat patients with adhesive capsulitis.At present various interventions are available to treat frozen shoulder. However, there are not many studies that have analysed the effects of end range mobilization and capsular stretching in the treatment of frozen shoulder. The aim of the study was to find out the effectiveness of end range mobilization and capsular stretching on pain and functional disability in frozen shoulder.Thirty subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Both groups received treatment of 6 days a week for 4 weeks. Group A received end range mobilization and ultrasound therapy for 10 minutes, whereas group B received capsular stretching and ultrasound therapy for 10 minutes. Outcomes were evaluated by visual analog scale, shoulder pain and disability index and range of motion. Study showed significant (p
651 Gut Microbiota - A Key to Sustainable Health, Kutty M.V.H, Remya V, Radhika Syam, Shyma V.H
Human body is colonized by large number of microorganisms. These microbes are essential for the normal functioning of body. Some disease conditions like obesity, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autism are associated with imbalance in microbiota of our body (dysbiosis). Manipulation of gut microbiota can be used to alleviate these disease conditions. Establishment of healthy microbiota should be the target of dietary intervention for sustainable heath.
652 A Clinical Study on the Management of Complicated Inguinal Hernias, Dr. Manish Baria, Dr. Ankita Parmar
Background Complicated inguinal hernias pose a threat to the life of the patient as well as increase the morbidity associated with management of an otherwise straightforward condition. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the presentation, treatment and management outcome of complicated inguinal hernias in our set up. Methods The study was carried out among 50 patients admitted in the Department of General Surgery of our institute during the period of 2011 to 2013 with complicated inguinal hernia. Data obtained included demographic characteristics, presentation, operative findings and outcome. Conclusions From the present study it is evident that most patients of complicated inguinal hernias present with painful irreducible inguinoscrotal swellings. These swellings if not taken care of, then of course progress to obstruction and strangulation.
653 Identification of Maternal, Environmental and Hygienic Practices as Risk Factors for Diarrhoea , Dr. Ravindra Ahuja, Dr Ruchi Thakur, Dr. Rajat Ahuja
Objective: To identify maternal, environmental and hygienic determinants of childhood diarrhoea which can be modified to improve child health. Methods: This was a case-control study matched for age and sex under 3 years children. A case was defined as ?3 loose stools per day in a child and was the first person in the household with diarrhoea. Controls were healthy children residing in the nearby household and had no history of diarrhoea in last one month. The households with children
654 A Comparative Study of Early Versus Interval Cholecystectomy in a Case of Acute Cholecystitis , Nakulkumar N Sulegaon, Gunvant H Rathod, Rakesh A Makwana, Ram A. Parmar, Hemal P. Chheda
Introduction: In present days, there is controversy regarding superiority of early versus interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy Objectives : To study and compare early laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with regards to benefits and harms. Outcome measures : Conversion to open cholecystectomy, Operating time, Bile duct injury, Unfavorable intra-operative inadvertent events & Total Hospital stay. Conclusion : Even though, there is no significant different in these two intervention, Early cholecystectomy is safer & has definate socio-economical advantage in reducing total hospital stays.
655 Large Sequence Polymorphism-12 Based Faecal PCR for Detection of Johnes Disease in Domestic Ruminants, Radhika Syam, J D Kollannur, V Remya, MVH Kutty, P Das
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis or Johnes disease in cattle, sheep and goats. There are many methods for diagnosis of Johnes disease and among these, cultural identification is the gold standard for diagnosis in spite of its long turn over time. Works on mycobacterial genomics revealed that genomic reduction through the loss of large sequence polymorphisms is the major contributor of genomic diversity in M avium subspecies. LSPP 12 is present in mbt A gene of mycobactin synthesis operon replacing LSP 4 in M avium and LSPP12 internal sequence PCR can be used for specific detection of MAP. LSPP12 faecal PCR gave similar results as that of IS 900 PCR and only MAP DNA gave specific amplification with LSPP12 PCR compared to mother mycobacteria used in this study.
656 Effectiveness of Footbath Therapy on Fatigue Among Patients with Chronic Renal Failure in Selected Hospitals at Mangalore, Ms. Soumya Susan Sam., Mrs. Shambhavi.
Fatigue has been identified by end stage renal disease patients who are under haemodialysis treatment as a distressing and disabling symptom that interferes their ability to enjoy life and to take care of themselves. This study is to assess the effectiveness of footbath therapy on fatigue among chronic renal failure patients in selected hospitals at Mangalore. A quasi experimental, interrupted time series design was used for the study. Using purposive sampling technique, 30 chronic renal failure patients were selected (15 each in experimental and control group) and data was collected using demographic proforma and also with Piper Fatigue Scale-12. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between the pre test and post test fatigue scores in the experimental group F(3,56)= 71.297,p< 0.05. The study concluded that footbath therapy was effective in reducing the fatigue among chronic renal failure patients.
657 Diagnostic Utility of Typhoid Elisa Test In Comparison to Other Conventional Methods for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever, Dr. Neha Makwana, Dr. Pratik R. Shah, Dr. Madhulika Mistry, Dr. Yogesh Goswami
Typhoid fever is endemic in many parts of the world and continues to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in our country. We have studied typhoid IgM ELISA test, a rapid serological test for diagnosis of typhoid fever and its usefulness for an early diagnosis, its sensitivity and specificity as compared to widal test. Out of 100 samples 22 (22%) cases were positive by blood culture, 30 (30%) were positive with Widal test and 36 (36%) were positive with typhoid ELISA test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of Widal test was 63.6%, 79.4%, 46.6% and 88.5% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of typhoid IgM ELISA test was 95.4%, 80.7%, 58.3% and 98.4% respectively proving the superiority of typhoid IgM ELISA test.
658 Outcome of Pregnancy in Cases of Jaundice, DR. NEHA N. LIMBANI, DR. JUHI A. PATEL, DR. BABU S. PATEL
Objective To study the effect of jaundice on maternal health in pregnancy and assess the complications of jaundice in pregnancy. To evaluate the outcome of labour in pregnancy complicated with jaundice and to study the maternal mortality associated with jaundice in pregnancy. And to acknowledge the effect of jaundice on fetus and perinatal mortality rates. Method This study was carried out at our institute from May 2012 to April 2014. 100 patients were included with history of amenorrhea and increase in serum bilirubin ( 3mg%). Result Maternal mortality rate was 9% in this study. Most common cause of jaundice during pregnancy was viral hepatitis accounting for 57% of cases. Most common maternal complication was Hepatic Encephalopathy found in 16% of cases followed by DIC. Conclusion Jaundice in pregnancy is a bad combination. The most common cause of jaundice was viral hepatitis which spreads through feco-oral route. So improvement in sanitation facility and education level in rural area is must to reduce the rate of jaundice in pregnancy and improve its outcome.
659 Comparative Study of Induction of Labour with Dinoprostone Gel and Tab. Misoprostol , DR.NEHA N. LIMBANI, DR.PRIYANKA J. PARMAR, DR.SANTVAN B. MEHTA, DR.RIDDHI B. SHAH, DR.MUNJAL J. PANDYA, DR.JANKI M. PANDYA
Objective : To compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol (PGE1) with intra cervical dinoprostone gel (PGE2) for induction of labour, To study the maternal & fetal outcome, To measure an average induction to delivery interval time, To assess the need of oxytocin augmentation. Methods : This is a prospective study conducted at labour rooms of V.S. Municipal hospital, S.C.L. Municipal hospital, L.G Hospital attached to Smt. N.H.L. Municipal medical college, Ahmedabad from June 2012 to December 2013.This study was performed with 100 randomly selected patients with an indication for induction of labour. Among them 50 patients were induced with Dinoprostone gel and 50 patients with Tab. Misoprostol. Results : The change in the Bishops score after 6 hours was markedly high in the Tab. Misoprostol group as compared to the Dinoprostone Gel group, 11% Patient in the Tab. Misoprostol group required oxytocin augmentation as compared to 19% in the Dinoprostone Gel group, Induction-Delivery interval was significantly shorter in the Tab. Misoprostol group, Maternal and fetal side effects were low and comparable in both groups. Conclusion : Induction of labour confers benefits in various maternal and fetal conditions, it must be done in the set up where trained staff for continuous monitoring of the patients are available.
660 Neurohistopathological Effectsof Mercury on Cerebrum of Adult Albimo Rat S M Dawar Husain,Brajeshranjan, S.m. Yunus, Dr S M Dawar Husain, Dr BrajeshRanjan, S. M. Yunus
Mercury is virtually toxic to every organ of body, including central nervous system. The present study is aimed to observe the histopathological changes in thecerebrum of rat induced by oral administration of mercuric chloride in adult albino rats. A total number of 20 adult albino rats of either sex were included in the present study,consisting of equal numbers in both control and experimental groups. Experimental group received mercuric chloride in distilled water for a period of 15 days, then animals of both groups were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with 10% formalin. Cerebrum was dissected. 10 thick sections were obtained by usual histological procedure and were stained with H&E. On light microscopic observation, cerebrum from experimental group revealed pleomorphic changes with pyknosis of nuclei, dense clustering with prominent spongiosis, multiple foci of necrosis with gliosis and congestion of blood capillaries with prominent perivascular fibrosis. It was concluded that mercury has toxic effects on the central nervous system including cerebrum which may explain the clinical manifestation of mercury neurotoxicity.
661 Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis-A Case Report With Oral Diagnostic Perspective And Review, Dr.Bhanushree R., Dr. Praveen B. N., Dr.Shubhasini A. R., Dr.Shubha G., Dr. Keerthi G., Dr.Sushma C.N
An unusual Oral physiological presentation of any clinical case needs an immediate referral to oral diagnostician which helps in early diagnosis, good prognosis and more life expectation. This is a case report of a 4 year old girl who was referred to oral physician due to unresolved persistent facial swelling which was later diagnosed as langerhans cell Histiocytosis. This is a reminder and suggestion for early referral to prevent extensive clinical manifestation, extended regime of treatment protocol, suffering from ailment and financial burden.
662 Effecttivenness of Birthball Usage During Labour on Pain and Child Birth Experience Among Primi Parturient Mothers : A Randomized Interventional Study, Mrs. M. vaijayanthimala, Dr. A. Judie
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of birthball usage during labour on pain and child birth experience of primi parturient mothers. In addition , it also tested the effect of bithball usage on labour outcome. Participants and setting: The study was conducted in Government general hospital, Thambaram in Chennai, Tamilnadu with 3000- 3500 annual births. 240 low risk primi parturient mothers were recruited and were allocated bySimple random sampling technique into the two arms of the study,but only 106 in study and 105 in control group participants completed the trial. Intervention: The study group underwentbirthball exercise programme consisted of 15 minutes videotape followed by live demonstration on birthball positioning and movements during prenatal checkups. Members of study group were asked to practice the swaying movements and positions on birthball at least 20 minutes after the 36 weeks of gestation. Each women in study group was given birth ball during labour and encouraged every hour to practice movements withbithball. Both the groups were received standard nursing care in all aspects of childbirth. Measurement and findings: In active stage of labour (3-6 cm of cervical dilatation) the women completed the demographic and obstetrical information and pain was measured by 0- 10 numerical rating scale and child birth experience was measured by modified labouragentry scale. This study revealed that there was high significant difference found in pain and child birth experience at p=0.001 level between study and control group. Mothers in study group had shorter duration of first stage , less need for augmentation and pain medication and fewer caesarian delivery than control group. Conclusion: The study concluded that, clinical implementation of birthball usage during labour could be an effective non pharmacological intervention in reducing pain perception and andimprove the child birth experience.
663 A Clinical and Histopathological Study of Varieties of Cutaneous TB and its Treatement Analysis, Dr. Rikeeta Deshmukh, Dr. Raju Chaudhary
OBJECTIVE-: To study the patterns of clinical presentation of various types of cutaneous tuberculosis(TB) and to assess the efficacy of ATT treatment. DESIGN-: 10year study of patients attending skin opd,Shardabeben hospital. RESULTS-: Cutaneous TB was found in 0.15% of patients with 3:2 male preponderance and majority being 21-30year age. Lupus vulgaris 36% was most common,followed by Tuberculous verrucosa cutis and scrofuloderma. Face involved in 36% patients followed by buttocks and trunk as most common sites.Study revealed Single lesion in 90% patients, BCG vaccination in75%,and Mantoux tested positive in 68% patients.Histopahologically correlation was important in clinically challenging cases.Diabetes was associated with 14%patients; hypertension with 7%patients;pulmonary TB was associated in 4%patients. All three diseases were found to be more common in Scrofuloderma. Disseminated disease was found more in unvaccinated patients and Scrofuloderma as compared to vaccinated and in other types.Patients were treated with ATT treatment category III regimen and followed up to find excellent recovery without relapse. CONCLUSION-: As cutaneous TB sometimes reflects the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis and some cases of cutaneous TB misleading as diagnosis of other skin condition; its incidence should not be ignored.
664 All on 4 Concept in Dental Implants: Short Review, DrAvinash V Mehandale, Dr Mithun upadhya
Edentulous state causes a negative impact on anatomic, aesthetic and psychological aspect of an individual. Advances in dental implants have changed the routine approach of fabrication of conventional complete denture for management of completely edentulous patients.Osseo-integrated dental implants significantly improved the quality of life for edentulous patients in comparison with conventional complete dentures and also overcomes the drawbacks associated with conventional complete dentures.In the recent years this protocol for placing dental implants has changed where it is encouraged to place fewer implants for immediate loading. Hence the concept of using two axially implants in theanterior region and two tilted posterior implants has been popularized as the All On four concept. The purpose of this article is to review the advantages, indications and prosthetic considerations for placing dental implants with immediate loading using the All-on-Four concept.
665 Neurohistopathologicaleffects of Mercury on Cerebellum of Adult Albimo Rat, Dr S M Dawar Husain, Dr BrajeshRanjan, S. M. Yunus
Mercury is toxic to almost every organ of body, including central nervous system. The aim of present study is to observe the histopathological changes in the cerebellum of rat induced by oral administration of mercuric chloride in adult albino rats. A total number of 20 adult albino rats of either sex were included in the present study,consisting of equal numbers in both control and experimental groups. Experimental group received mercuric chloride in distilled water for aperiod of 15 days, then animals of both groups were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with 10% formalin. Cerebellum was dissected out. 10 thick sections, obtained by usual histological procedure, were stained with H&E. On light microscopic observation, cerebellum from experimental group revealedmarked congestion of the blood capillaries with prominent perivascular fibrosis. Cerebellum of experimental group also showed spongiosis in the molecular layer and markedly increased cellular granular cell layer with pyknotic nucleus. Few purkinje cells could be seen.It was concluded that mercury has toxic effects on the central nervous system including cerebellum which may explain the clinical manifestation of mercury neurotoxicity
666 Air Descemetopexy as a Treatment of Iatrogenic Descemets Membrane Detachment, Dr Veerendra Godbole, Dr Swapnagandha S. Halikar
Descemets membrane detachment( DMD ) is not an uncommon occurrence during cataract surgery, however large detachments are rare and can lead to substantial diminution of vision. Early recognition and appropriate management is the key to a favorable visual outcome. In this report, we present a case of DMD and its management by intracameral air injection. In our method, we neither injected expanding gas nor used a suture. Consequently, there was little chance of increased intraocular pressure or suture-induced astigmatism. This technique may be considered a relatively safe and simple surgical method for the management of postoperative DMD.
667 Role of Percutaneous Nephrostomy in Obstructive Uropathy in Gynecologic Malignancy, Dr.Sunil Jadav, Dr.Malini R. Desai
A retrospective study of 25 cases of obstructive uropathy in patients with gynaecological malignancy who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy tube insertion, from June 2010 to April 2012 at Civil Hospital Ahmedabad. Evaluation of patients age, primary disease, chief complaints, complications, gynaecological malignancy, renal function and benefits of percutaneous nephrostomy was done.
668 Study of Opportunistic Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Stool of Hiv Seropositive Patients ot A Tertiary Care Hospital n India, Dr Desai Kairavi J, Dr Malek Saklainhaider S, Dr Purohit Payal H
Introduction: This study was meant to determine the prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasites with or without diarrhea in stool of HIV sero-positive patients and to study age and sex in relation with the parasite isolated. Material & Methods: Stool samples from 90 HIV positive patients were collected at Microbiology Laboratory, Sir Takhtasinhnji Hospital, Bhavnagar and examined for enteric parasites by wet mount ( saline wet mount, iodine wet mount, LPCB wet mount ) and stained smear preparation by modified ZN stain. Results: Out of 90 seropositive patients of HIV, 60 patients were found to be positive for opportunistic parasitic infections. The higher percentage of parasitic infection was found in adults. The maximum numbers found were of Cryptosporidium followed by Cyclospora, Microspora, Isospora and Giardia lamblia. Conclusion: A regular screening program is mandatory for HIV positive patients for opportunistic parasitic infection in form of routine stool examination.
669 A Study To Assess The Early Suckling on Third Stage of Labour Among Parturient Mothers, Ms. J.Jenifer Shalini
Breast feeding is the womens right, and to be breast fed is a babys right. Joint commission 2010 sentinel event warns that two third of maternal death in 11 developing countries, India heading the list with 63,000. Maternal mortality rate as well as the infant mortality rate both can be reduced effectively with the management of early suckling and adequate breast feeding. Objectives: 1. to assess the early suckling on third stage of labour among parturient mother. 2. Associate the third stage of labour among parturient mother with the demographic variables. Methods/Approach: research approach utilized in this study was Quantitative research approach. The research design adopted for this study was descriptive design. Data was collected by using structured observation record. Results: The total duration of third stage of labour among parturient mothers was 8-10mts (n=27) with the mean 9.63 and standard deviation of 0.62.The mean score of 11-13mts (n=18) was 12.28 with the standard deviation of 0.82. The total duration of 14-16mts (n=11) with the mean 14.64 and the standard deviation of 0.67and the mean score of >16mts (n=4) was 18.25 with the standard deviation of 1.25.There is a significant association between the type of delivery and the third stage of labour with the P value of 0.007
670 Effectiveness of Play Activities on Socialization Among Mentally Challenged Children at Balavihar Chennai, Mrs.Mary Minolin
Normal children need a healthy environment for attaining their normal ability. When the children are disabled, the conductive environment has to be created to result in various developments. Socialization and communication are the most needed factors to be developed in the disabled children. Play is a natural and most easily available outlet for childrens expression of needs. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of play activities on socialization among mentally challenged children Methods: An experimental research design was with 50 samples at Balvihar, the school for mentally challenged. The tool used for this study was socialization skill check list. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Paired t test revealed that there was improvement in communication skills, self help skills, social skills and occupation skills. The overall level of socialization is appreciably improved at P
671 Unveiling The Precedence of Risk Factors for Pre-Eclampsia: for Suitable Surveilance and Prophylaxis, Mrs. Latha K, Dr. Judie A
Introduction: Pre-eclampsiarepresents a major cause of maternal morbidity and morbidity in many parts of the world. Objectives:To assess the prevalence of pre- eclampsia among at risk primigravid mothers. Methods:Non experimental descriptive research design was used.120 at risk primi gravid mothers for pre-eclampsia,who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected by proportionate stratified random sampling. Results:It was observed that 31(30%) out of 103 of the atrisk primigravid mothers developed preeclampsia. 11(33%) out of 33 mothers in Group A (age < 18 years), 10(28.5%) out of 35 mothers in Group B (age>30 years) and Group C(mothers with pre-pregnancy BMI>27.5(obese) developed preeclampsia. Mothers of age > 30 years in group B developed severe pre-eclmpticfeatures as early as 24 weeks of gestation.Educational qualification and socio-economic status was found to have statistical significant association with the level of pre-eclampsiaat p
672 A Comparison of The Effectiveness of Simulation-Based Versus Conventional Training Methods To Teach Patient Safety Competencies in Undergraduate Nursing Education, Amina Hemida Salem Ghattas, Radwa Hamdi Bakr
The alarming rise in morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients throughout the world increases concerns about health care professional competency. Nurses and other health care professionals are under increased pressure to provide safe and effective care. As a result, nursing programs are faced with increased demand to produce graduates capable of providing safe, efficient patient care. Toward that end, nursing education programs develop curricula, hire qualified faculty, and select learning experiences for students in an effort to train and graduate competent, effective nurses. The use of high fidelity simulation as an accepted substitute for traditional clinical learning experience over the past decade. However, little research evidence, in nursing, has documented the efficacy of these simulated learning experiences, particularly on objective outcomes such as examination performance. (Kohn & Corrigan & Donaldson, 2000) (Durham & Alden, 2008). Therefore this study was aimed to compare of the effectiveness of simulation based to conventional training methods to teach patient safety competencies among students enrolled in critical care nursing course. Method: A randomized controlled design was used to conduct this study. One hundred students enrolled in the critical care course were included and randomly divided to two groups. Competency check lists with emphasizing on patient safety competencies were developed. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001) between the two groups in relation to mastering the skills and attitudes related to patient safety. These differences were reflected in mean percent of knowledge, skills and attitude scores. Conclusions: It is necessary for simulation based method to be fully integrated and used as a teaching method within nursing education programs at all stages. It is necessary to train the trainers through the development of a skilled faculty of expert clinical facilitators supported by adjunctive support staff in dedicated simulation suites.
673 The Prevalence of Antituberculosis Multidrug Resistance in Yemen 2013, Doaa Anwar Ibrahim, Al-Akhali A, Farouk A.Al-Qadasi
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect organs in the central nervous system, lymphatic and the circulatory systems. An estimated 14 million people worldwide are infected with active tuberculosis (TB), which is a disease affecting mainly young adults. The vast majority of deaths from TB are in the developing world and TB is considered to be the second most contagious disease to cause fatalities in the world.The Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100,000 people) in Yemen was last reported 49 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new pulmonary, smear positive, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The aim of this study to survey multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR TB) against four drugs used in Yemen (isoniazide, rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin) among new cases. Samples were collected from The National Tuberculosis Institute (NTI), Sanaa between Jan. and Sept. 2013. About 731 of 2226 of patients from different governances that referred to NTI were reported as Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive cultures.209 of 731 were showed mono or multidrug resistance, the others either negative or contaminated. 201 of 209 cultures were obtained from new cases and 8 previously treated. The prevalence of any resistance to four drugs was 63.7% (95 CI 58.1-71.3) among new cases compared with 25%(95CI 7.1-59.1) among previously treated cases. The prevalence of MDR TB was shown 41.3% (95 %CI 34.5-48.1) among new cases compared with 12.5% (95% 2.2-47.1). Conclusion: there is high prevalence of MDRTB developed worldwide in the last three yearsdeveloped between new cases. This estimates high prevalence problem not only in Yemen but around the world.
674 Phenomenological Study of Superdeformed Bands in 80Sr, Ajay Kumar Sharma, Dr. S.K. Khosa
Two phenomenological methods, namely ab formula and power expression, have been used to study the systematics of superdeformed (SD) bands in A~80 mass region by taking the case of 80Sr. Calculations have been performed on four SD bands of 80Sr for transition energies and results are compared with their experimental counterparts. Kinematic moment of inertia have also been extracted for these SD bands and are plotted against rotational frequencies. Besides this, ratio of transition energy over spin (RTEOS) has also been plotted against spin and compared with the available experimental data in order to check the validity and reliability of the phenomenological methods applied. The calculated results show an overall good agreement with the corresponding experimental data for all the SD bands.
675 Medium Optimization for The Production of Mycophenolic Acid by Penicillium Brevicompactum through Statistical Assessment At Shake Flask Level, Umesh Luthra, Sneha Khadpekar, Aditi Trivedi
Penicillium brevicompactum is an fungal isolate used for the production of mycophenolic acid (MPA). MPA is an immunosupressive agent also having antineoplastic, antifungal, antiinflammatory properties. One of the efforts carried out to meet the increasing demand of MPA and its cost effective production, is media optimization through statistical approach. To determine the best carbon and nitrogen source and also the type of casein enzyme hydrolysate to increase the MPA production, a categorical factorial experiment was conducted. Thereafter nine components were screened using Plackett Burman design which were then optimized using full factorial design and further by one variable at a time. Along with the conventional method like Analysis of Variance, Half Normal, Normal plot and Pareto chart were employed to screen the significant factors. Casein enzyme hydrolysate, and polypropylene glycol were found to be the most significant factors that increase the production by 50%. The optimum concentration of 25 g/l of casein enzyme hydrolysate and 1 g/l of PPG gave the maximum yield of 8.85 mg/gm.
676 The Spanish Cinematographic Offer Facing Youth Today and its Perception, Consumer Behaviour and Promotion Codes in The New Social Network Environment, Antonio BARAYBAR Fernndez, Rafael LINARES Palomar
In a context characterised by relevant industrial transformations, technologies and communication, this paper reflects on the vision and knowledge which the young public currently possesses regarding the Spanish Cinematographic offer. Delving deeper into the communication processes related with the communication of films at the same time, suggests new lines of investigation related to the use of social networks by the public which is the target of this study. Doing this, presents the results obtained in an investigation which identifies the essential aspects of present day cinematographic marketing and permits determining the key tools in the design of whatever launch i .
677 Aeromycological Study of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Roselle) In Winter Season, Seema Sahu, Dr. K. Sharma, Dr. S. Patra
Aerobiological investigation has been carried out with special reference to diseases on crops, vegetable and fruits etc. The present paper deals with the aero biological work carried out in Hibiscus sabdariffa plant to study fungal spores of aeromycoflora . Aeromycoflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa was studied for one year with the help of Petri plate method. Environmental factor play an important role for the distribution of the fungal spores. Maximum numbers of fungi were isolated from winter season, Moderate from Rainy season and Minimum from summer season. It was observed that fungal population was varying from season to season and month to month. During the investigation period Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium , Curvularia, Fusarium, Mycelia sterilia, , Penicillium, Rhizopus etc. fungal species were isolated.
678 Storage of Nutrients In Different Components of Selected Tree Species, Shrubs and Herb Layer Under the Tree Species, Dr.Beena Sharma
In the present study accumulation of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, and K) in various plant parts of three different dominant trees i.e. Acacia senegal (As), Acacia tortilis (At) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec), shrubs and herb layer present under their canopy was determined. Concentration of nutrients was determined for bole, first order branch, other branch, foliage, seeds, stump root, lateral root and fine roots while for the dominant shrubs nutrient concentration was determined in stem, foliage and roots. In case of herbaceous ground vegetation, nutrient concentration was estimated for above ground and below ground parts. The study was carried out in the sand dunes of Western foot hill gaps of Central Aravalli located at a distance of 10 Km N-W to Ajmer, a centrally situated city of Rajasthan. The concentration of nutrients was found to be maximum in foliage except for nitrogen which was estimated higher in seeds of A. senegal and A. tortilis. A different pattern was recorded for E. camaldulensis where N, Ca, and Mg were recorded maximum in other branch, while P and K in foliage parts. The pattern of nutrient concentration in different life forms was observed in the order: Trees > Shrubs > Herbs. Result shows the concentration of nutrients in different tree components in the order: foliage > seeds > other branch > first order branch > bole, and in root components: fine root > lateral root > stump root. Total nutrient concentration was found to be maximum in As followed by At and Ec. It is concluded that the foliage and above ground component of various trees, shrubs and herb layer has maximum nutrient concentrations. There are marked variations in the concentration of different nutrients in each component.
679 Isolation, Screening and Identification of Fungi From Soil, RAKESH KUMAR SONI, KAVITA SHARMA
Mycoflora from the soil of Bhopal was investigated at some different locations from February to June, 2003. The fungi were isolated by using soil dilution and soil plate method. On the basis of cultural and microscopic characteristics, the isolated strains were identified as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp. etc. Total 14 species were obtained from 20 soil samples. Aspergillus niger showed highest percentage contribution.
680 Knowledge and Attitude of Feeding Practices Adopted by the Mothers of Infants in Davanagere City, Pradeepkumar PC
India is a chief victim of underplay of nutrition. The rise of malnutrition in children during the first two years of life is indicative of poor infant feeding practice among mothers of infants. Growth during the first year of life is greater than at any other time after the birth. During this stage growth of the baby is largely promoted by breast milk fed by mother in addition to it adequate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of the children. Due to various reasons like conventional feeding practices, lack of infant feeding knowledge, and poor knowledge of nutrition, poor health practices that causes infant mortality. In order to prevent these problems and to promote infant and maternal health, it is important that mothers should have awareness on infant feeding practices that contributes largely in reducing infant mortality rate and promoting child health. Hence this study is undertaken to know the infant feeding practices which is prevalent among mothers in Davangere city. The present study is in descriptive in nature. An attempt is made to describe the different infant feeding practices adopted by mothers in Davangere city.
681 Education Effect and the Portability of Recurrent Suicide Attempts in Nazareth During 2013-2014, Farhat Kamal, Bisharat Bishara, Abd-El Qader Amir, Nibal Abu-Ahmad, Farah Joseph, Elia Haj, Bowirrat Abdalla, William Nseir
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in many developed countries, but in Mediterranean countries this phenomenon was until recently extremely rare. Our previous study, performed during 2005-2012 came to shed lights on the prevalence and the underlying reasons of the notable increase of suicide attempts in the conservative and religious Arab community of Nazareth, Israel. The current study performed during 2012-2014 comes to examine the portability of reoccurrence of suicide attempts among educated individuals and to evaluate the fact whether level of education attainment (calculated by the number of education years/ high academic studies: finished 9th school grade; 11th grade, 12th grade and academic studies respectively) is a protective method or a mechanism that actuates suicide attempts the results of this study may give a clue or a picture whether education is a risk factor or a protective factor against repeated suicide attempts. In addition, the present study will address the patterns used by attempters in second suicide attempt comparing to the repeated suicide attempts (more than two attempts). Interviews, sociodemographic information, suicide risk factors in addition to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersIV (DSM-IV) diagnoses will be used in current retrospective study of 197 educated suicide attempters in the emergency room at the Nazareth Hospital. Statistical analysis using percentage distribution was used. From figure 1, which presents the data demonstrated on Table 2, we classified the suicide attempters in two groups: suicide attempters who committed previously two suicide attempts and suicide attempters who committed more than two suicide attempts. We examined and compared the effect of education on suicide attempt between the two groups. We observed a roughly two folds increase in suicide attempt among attempters who committed more than two suicide attempt (The 9th school grade (12% vs. 28%); the 11th grade (14% vs. 23.2%); and 12th grade (14.2% vs. 25.7%), whereas, we observed a dramatic decline by twofold among academic subjects to commit more than two suicide attempts (13.3% vs. 6.7% respectively). Other significant finding was notified by comparing academic subjects, regardless of the number of suicide attempts, versus subjects of less education [(20%) vs. (40% (9th grade), 37.2% (11th grade), 39.9% (12th grade) respectively]. We noticed that academic group tend to have a 50% decrease in suicide attempts compared to less schooled groups. Important differences between groups related to the methods used by attempters are also represented in Table -2 and are illustrated in Figure 2. Attempters who left school at the 9th grade used self harm in 40% of cases, while low percentage of higher educated attempters (11th, 12th grades and academic) used this method (12%, 14% and 20% respectively). We observed that drug is the preferred methods for suicide attempters in 11th grade, 12th grade and academic (84%; 81% and 63% respectively). Other variables were examined such as familiar status (single vs. married) and religion effect (Christian vs. Muslim). Neither family status nor religion was found to convey any significant effect on the frequency of suicide attempts (Figure 3)
682 Impact of Life Skills Among Adolescents: a Review, Mrs.Prajina.P.V, Dr.J.Godwin Premsingh
The end of twentieth century can be considered as both the best and worst time for adolescents. It provided maximum opportunities to grow independently. But at certain extend unimaginabledevelopments of technologies diverted their capabilities to unfertileengagements. The psycho-social factors of adolescents itself is a contributing factor to their misbehavior. Being the turning period of life this is the right time to take right decision. In this condition life skills have important role in their future determination. Life skills are those psycho-social skills that enable individuals to cope effectively with their life challenges. This article draws how the life skills contribute to the individual development of adolescents does.
683 A Study on the Problems of Adolescent Students in School, Mrs. S. RAJESWARI, Dr. J. O. Jeryda Gnanajane Eljo
Adolescence is a conversion period from childhood to adulthood where the adolescents face lot of physical changes, psychological changes and social changes which pose a major threat for their positive development. They are loaded with academic pressure and also have problems in finding their friends, adjusting with the peers in class and maintaining cordial relationship with teachers. Even at home they find it very difficult to adjust with their parents and siblings. The study aims to analyze the problems faced by the adolescent students in school and suggest suitable life skills for their positive development by adopting descriptive research design and using systematic random sampling method to collect data from 101 students studying in XI standard by executing Student Problems inventory developed by Dr.Harkant D.Badami(1977). The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between the age and the level of adolescent students problem.
684 A Study of Prison System in India, Miss. Veena Vasant Mooganur
The paper provides an analytical approach to conditions of Indian prisons. The paper throws lights on prison system with objectives of knowing the trends of prisons, reformation, prison population, demography of prison inmates, deaths in prisons and to study the expenses on prisons. Apart from that this paper attempts to describe the state wise differences in trends and prison conditions. Secondary data have been used for this study and data was mainly referred from National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB).
685 Effect of Feed Particle Size on Slaughter Parameters in Broiler Chicken, DrArun.R.Unni, Dr Binoj Chacko, Dr Narayanankutty K., Dr Harikrishnan. S
One hundred and fifty,day-old commercial broiler chicks (Vencobb-400) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 5 replicates each and 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. An iso-caloric and iso nitrogenous maize-soya based broiler feed (BIS 2007) ground in hammer mill using 3mm, 5mm and 7mm screens was offered from day 1 to 42.Homogenously mixed 6 samples of each experimental ration were taken for the measurement of particle size distributions using laboratory sieves of 4.76, 2.00, 1.00 and 0.50 mm screens. Result reveals that hammer mill screen opening of 3mm, 5mm and 7mm did not differ significantly inweight and length of different segments of digestive tract, processing yields and losses and abdominal fat per cent of broiler at 42 days of age.
686 Immuno Modulatory Potential of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Cells Against a Biological Graft, Dr RemyaV, Naveen Kumar
In the present study bone marrow derived mesenchymal cells of rat (R-BMSCs) were seeded over fish swim bladder (FSB) matrix. This cell- matrix construct was implanted in 2020mm2 size full thickness skin defect created on rat model. Humoral and cell mediated immune response against this biological graft was tested through ELISA and Lymphocyte Stimulation Test (LST) respectively. Results were compared with that of control model, where fish swim bladder alone, without R-BMCs was used as biological graft. The immune response elicited by test model was significantly (P
687 Socioeconomic Impacts of Human Trypanosomiasis : a Review, Tamador Elkhansaa Elnour Angara
Zoonoses are important constraint to human development; Human Trypanosomiasis is one of the most important and most neglected tropical zoonosis. Combating Trypanosomiasis needs collaborative efforts from both health and agricultural sectors in order to set the priorities for disease control. The socioeconomic impact of the diseases play an important role in the decision making process. The objective of this paper is to review what had been written in literature on the socioeconomic aspects of Human Trypanosomiasis. Over 20 papers on the subject were reviewed, and the findings were categorized to qualitative and quantitative monetary and non-monetary assessments. Moreover, the socio-economic impacts of the disease were compared between the different geographical locations. The result showed that worldwide the disease has serious socio-economic impacts on the affected communi-ties, on national, regional and international levels. The development of drug resistance against trypanocidal drugs aggravates even more the problem. These results were critically discussed and conclusions were drawn and accordingly some recommendations were set.
688 Knowledge on Poultry Farming of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL, Dr.T.PADMA
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. Majority of layer farmers (55.00%), broiler farmers (58.33%) and total (56.67%) farmers were in medium category of knowledge on poultry farming.
689 Knowledge on Ict Tools of Commercial Poultry Farmers of Andhra Pradesh, Dr.R.HARILAL, Dr.T.PADMA
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts were selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results. About 54 per cent of total farmers, 50.00 per cent layer farmers and 56.67 per cent broiler farmers were in medium category of knowledge on ICT tools.
690 Farming Performance of Commercial Poultry Farmers, Dr. R. HARILAL, Dr. T. PADMA
An expost facto research design followed in the present investigation for which 120 commercial poultry farmers ( 60 layer + 60 broiler farmers) of Rangareddy, Chittoor and East Godavari districts selected randomly to study the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on farming performance of commercial poultry farmers. The data pertaining to dependent variables viz. ICT utilization and farming performance and independent variables collected with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule developed for the purpose. After collection of data, farmers were divided into three groups based on type of flock i.e. layer farmers, broiler farmers and total farmers for better analysis and presentation of results.
691 External Skeletal Fixation for Fracture Management In Animals, Dr. Bini Joy, Dr. Syam K Venugopal
External skeletal fixation is one of the novel technique used for fracture management in animals . It has been widely used in human practice. The external skeletal fixation has lot of unique advantages in its application which popularize its use in animals.it can be used in any type of fractures like open, closed, simple or comminuted with least invasiveness and much stability to fracture by preventing the fracture forces. It can be used in conjunction with internal fixation and its configuration can be altered even after application or during the bone healing process. It has wider application in cases like limb or bone lenghtening, treatment of inected bony conditions etc. its adaptability helps in widely using it in veterinary practice. Summary External skeletal fixation is an external coaptation technique used to stabilize bone fragments or joints with percutaneous wires or pins held together by an external frame. The technique is simple in its application with least effort to surgeon and less invasiveness to animal. It can be used in all conditions where the use of internal fixation device fails. It can be applied in case of long bone fractures ( open, closed, simple or comminuted ), treatment of choice for highly comminuted fractures that cannot be anatomically reconstructed, treatment of choice in osteomyelitis, treatment of choice for high-energy fractures, limb lengthening procedures etc. Direct or indirect healing noticed depending on alignment of fracture site. Healing by biological fracture fixation or bridging osteosynthesis. Some degree of interfacing motion /loading is accepted if fracture is stabilized in a manner that minimally disrupts soft tissues and vascular supply. Fracture healing is manipulated by Dynamization or progressive disassembly hastens healing (6wk). Modification done to reduce rigidity. Distraction osteogenesis also occurs in external skeletal fixation. More of that the clamps and connecting bars are reusable and so economical too. Thus external skeletal fixation is gaining much popularity among veterinary
692 Effect of Beak Trimming on Growth Performance of Japanese Quail Chicks, VIMAL ANTONY M., ANITHA P., LEO J., BINOJ C., Arun R. U.
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of beak trimming on growth performance of Japanese quail chicks from zero to six weeks of age. One thousand five hundred (1500), day-old Japanese quail chicks were allotted randomly to three treatment groups viz; T1, T2 and T3 with five replicates of hundred quails each. Chicks in T1 were the control group without beak trimming. Chicks in T2 and T3 were beak trimmed at 7th and 14th day of age respectively. Individual body weight of all birds in each replicate was recorded at day-old and at weekly intervals up to six weeks. The mean body weight of quails up to three weeks of age did not differ significantly between treatment groups, while it was higher in T3 than T2 during the later stage of growth. The returns per quail housed over feed and chick cost was higher in the beak trimmed groups.. The results of the present study suggest that beak trimming can be practiced at fourteenth day of age for rearing quail chicks up to six weeks of age.
693 A Study To Assess The Effect of Yoga Therapy on Selected Lung Parameters in Subjects with Cop, Dr. K Krishna Sharma, Dr. Thirumaleshwara Prasada H, Dr. Udayakumara K, Ajithesha N.H
A Study to assess the effect of yoga therapy on selected lung parameters in subjects with COPD conducted KSRP 7TH Battalion Assaigoli, Mangalore. 20 subjects with COPD were randomly selected for the current study. Among, 10 were in experimental group and other 10 were in control group. Another 10 subjects were selected for control group. The experimental group was given with selected yogic practices for one hour daily, from 7.00 am to 8.00am for a period of 45 days.. The session included a series of Asanas, Pranayamas, and Relaxation techniques. The control group was not given any of these. FVC, FEV and Lung age readings were recorded for both the groups before and after the study. The results of various tests were analysed through student t test and have been compared for the two groups. After Yoga therapy, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in FVC, FEV and Lung age at a level of significance p
694 Impact of Sugar Industry Environment on Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate of Sugar Industry Workers, Dr.S.A.NAYAKAWADI
The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development,supportingIndias economic growth. In Maharashtra it is one of the most notable and large scale manufacturing sectors in the country. The sugar industry is characterized by multitude of concomitantly occurring exposures such as high intensity noise, high temperature,high concentration of clay dust, bagasse dust, fumes of toxic gases, chemicals. The adverse working environment, unsafe working conditions and lack of welfare schemeaffect the safety and health of the industrial worker.In the present investigation the effect of dust and adverse working environment on erythrocyte sedimentation rateof worker has been studied.It was found that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate of workers working in cane yard, mill and bagasse baling section of sugar industry is high as compare to control group
695 Influence of Host Plants on the Efficacy of Nucleopolyhedro Virus of Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), S. Ramakrishna, M.G.Venkatesha
The comparative efficacy of microbial pesticides on gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera and on the effect and dosage of HaNPV on the susceptibility of the borer was studied. Larvae were fed on different host plants treated with HaNPV of three different concentrations. Along with this midgut pH, foliage pH and protease enzyme activity was also observed. The bioassay results clearly correlated the susceptibility of H armigera larvae to both the change in midgut pH as well as protease in the midgut of the larvae on different host plants
696 Histochemical Study of Mucin in the Adenomatic Transformation of Barretts Esophagus in Human Esophageal Epithelium, Nithya Regupathi, Halagowder Devaraj
Barretts esophagus (BE) is an early stage and predictive marker in the progression of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The prevalence and risk factors of BE and its complications are thought to be infrequent in India. There is a need for more endoscopic and histological studies on the diagnosis of BE. Mucin secretions in BE excogitate the functional state of the mucosa in human esophageal epithelium. Hence, the present study was performed to understand the mucin histochemistry using Alcian blue (AB) and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining in the progressive stages of Barretts adenocarcinoma.
697 Effect of Sugar Industry Workplace Environment on Total White Blood Cell Count of Worker During Work., Dr.S.A.NAYAKAWADI
The sugar industries in Maharashtra acts as an nuclei for economic development of state.It provides employment to thousands of peoples from rural areas .The working environment of sugar industry is adverse which affects the health of the workers. The working condition to which workers are exposed constitutes high intensity noise, high temperature, high concentration of dust,toxic fumes of gases, chemicals excessive workload,shift work and night shift.In present investigation randomly selected fifty workers from engineering section of sugar industry were assessed for the total white blood cell count.It was found that the number of total white blood cells was increased in workers working as cane yard, Mill and bagasse baling section than control group general office workers and the total number of white blood cells decreased in workers working in boiler section.
698 A Study on Clinical Presentations of Oral Cancer at Tertiary Care Hospital, Bellary, Karnataka, Dr Govindaraja, Dr Jashvanth, Dr Murali Krishna, Dr Kasa Somasekhar, Dr Ramesh K
Introduction: Oral malignancy is the most common form of malignancy in India and it constitutes a significant cancer burden in India. Each year about 5,00,000 new cases occur globally and in India, about 56,000 new cases are reported each year. Methodology: This study was conducted from Jan 2012 to Jun 2013 in the Department of Surgery, Vijayanagara institute of Medical sciences Hospital, Bellary. Total 100 patients were studied. Patients having complaint of lesion in oral cavity were selected using purposive sampling technique. Results: Totally 100 patients with oral cancer were studied and it was observed that oral cancer was more commonly found in the age group of 40 49 years (36%), Males were 49% and females were 51% of total study subjects. History of substance abuse revealed that 94% of patients were using smokeless tobacco, 52% were using betel nut, 22% were smokers and 15% were alcoholics. The most common type of lesion of oral cavity was Ulcerative (63%) followed by infiltrating (27%) and papillary (10%) Conclusion: Oral cavity cancer more commonly affects age more than forty years. No difference is observed in gender suffering with oral cavity cancer. Most common type of lesion of oral cavity is Ulcerative.
699 Arthroscopic, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Evaluation of Meniscal Tears in Patients with Chronic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears, Dr. Ankit Syal, Dr. Yash Bharat Shah, Dr. Chintan Vinod Desai, Dr. Suryaprakash Pitamber Chandani
Purpose: Ours is a prospective cross sectional study performed to evaluate the incidence of meniscus tears arthroscopically and the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-1.5 Tesla) and clinical examination in detecting these lesions in patients with chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Methods: We reviewed 99 patients (92 male and 7 female) with a mean age of 28.4 years (range, 15 to 52 years) who underwent ACL reconstruction for chronic ACL tears. Injuries were classified as chronic because arthroscopy was performed after more than 6 weeks of injury. All 99 patients had clinical and MRI evaluation followed by knee arthroscopy. The presence of meniscus tears was analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical examination and MRI was calculated and compared. Results: On arthroscopy, a medial meniscus tear was found in 39 patients (39.4%), a lateral meniscus tear is found in 23 patients (23.23%), both meniscus were torn in 16 patients (16.16%) and no meniscus lesions were found in 21 patients (21.21%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting medial meniscus tears in Chronic ACL tears on clinical examination were 85.45%, 65.9%, 75.8% and 78.4% respectively; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting medial meniscus tears on MRI were 74.45%, 59.1%, 69.5% and 65%. Similarly the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting lateral meniscus tears in Chronic ACL tears on clinical examination were 48.7%, 96.7%, 90.5% and 74.35%; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for detecting lateral meniscus tears on MRI were 46.15%, 95%, 85.71% and 73%. Conclusion: We conclude from our study that in patients on chronic ACL tear patients, the prevalence of medial meniscus tears seems to be high.
700 L5-S1 Spondyloptosis: Surgical Treatment by Two Staged GAINES Procedure: A Case Report, Dr. Ankit Syal, Dr. Yash Bharat Shah, Dr. Chintan Vinod Desai, Dr. Suryaprakash Pitamber Chandani
INTRODUCTION: Various operation techniques are performed for treatment of lumbosacral spondyloptosis. Gaines procedure is one of such procedures. In which there is circumferential excision of L5. With L4-L5-S1 root decompression, with L4-S1 reduction fixation & fusion. MATERIALS and METHODS: A25-year-old lady with lumbosacral spondyloptosis with incapacitating low back pain & neurological claudication, was treated by the Gaines procedure in 2 stages : In 1st stage in supine, the anterior lumbosacral spine was approached through transperitoneal approach and the body of L5 was first removed to the base of the pedicles; L4-L5 & L5-S1 partial Dissectomy done ;In 2nd stage in prone, after 7 days ,residual pedicles, discs & complete neural arch of L5 removed; L4 & S1partial laminectomy done, L4-L5-S1& sacral nerve roots decompression done , and the body of L4 was reduced onto S1with pedicle screw fixation and intervening 10 mm height TLIF cage & banked autologous cancellous bone grafts from excised body all around(360 degree), further stabilized by transverse connector, all through a midline posterior approach, without complication. Initially rest for 6 wks, followed by gradual rehabilitation with LS brace done. RESULTS: Complaints of the patient have relieved completely after 3 months & now independent in ADL at 6 months. Anterior plus posterior fusion is progressive on sequential xrays. Satisfactory back ROM is achieved & full function is expected at 1 year CONCLUSION: Though Gaines procedure is technically demanding & time consuming procedure, in experienced hands, it definitely fulfils all requirements of curative surgery & yields good outcome for difficult problem of lumbosacral spondyloptosis in young patients.
701 Comparison of Different Modalities of Treatment for Extra-Capsular Proximal Femur Fractures, Dr. Ankit Syal, Dr. Yash Bharat Shah, Dr. Chintan Vinod Desai, Dr. Suryaprakash Pitamber Chandani
Introduction: Our study has aimed to assess extra- capsular neck femur fractures and mainly on comparing three different modalities of treatment that were used in our patient group namely proximal femur nail, dynamic hip screw and Enders nail. Materials and methods: 82 patients from May 2012-13 having extra-capsular proximal femur fractures. 76 patients were operated using any of the three modalities. Cases were followed and evaluated at 6 weeks interval for 6 months, the results were evaluated and recorded radiologically and functionally as per criterias laid down by Harris hip score. The study comprises of data of sixty patients which followed up for 6 months, rest of the patients were lost to attrition. Results: We found that in type III and type IV inter-trochantric and sub-trochantric fractures proximal femoral nail implants have better results as compared to others (Dynamic Hip Screw & Enders nail). Weight bearing was earliest in those patients operated with proximal femur nail, optimal range of motion of hip, cross leg sitting and higher harris hip scores were seen in cases of proximal femur nails and were least in those of Enders nails. Radiologically union and alignment was seen in higher percentage in those patients of proximal femur nail group and were these with varus collapse were seen mostly in patients who were operated using Enders nail. Infection rate were higher in patients operated using dynamic hip screw mostly due to open reduction.
702 Spatial Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Urban Population: an Analysis of Regional Wise Towns in Erstwhile Andhra Pradesh, India, Dr. Ashok Kumar Lonavath
In the metropolitan Indian cities the traditional, social institutions and cultural pattern have begun to change, and new modes of living and working are coming in to vogue. The emergence of urban culture characterized primarily by non animal source of power, higher degree of specialization and higher per capita income, higher level of living, higher literacy rate, lower mortality rates, higher prevalence of functional associations, increasing secularization , greater citizen participation in municipal affairs, wider circulation of mass media and swifter means of transportation (Nagpaul Hans,1996). The developments are modifying considerably the traditional religious beliefs of the caste system, nature of the family and marriagesocial satisfaction and other traditional ways of life. The industrialization and urbanization may not always result in the transformation of traditional ways of life but the metropolitan cities do show that the old ways are undergoing considerable changes and new pattern of life, combining both old and new in varying degree are taking shape, emphasizing more or less greater degree of individuality, rationality, adaptive attitude, occupational achievement, formalism and secondary form of relationship. The trends constitute the basis of modernization. The aim of the present study deals with the changing pattern of scheduled Tribe Urban population in erst while Andhra Pradesh from 1961-2011.
703 Utilisation Study of CT Scan in a Multi-Speciality Hospital, Dr. P. Naveen Kumar
The cost of imaging modalities is humungous in multi-specialty care hospitals. The administrators have to drive the management of plethora of investigative modalities with utmost care. As these are capital intensive, utilisation studies of such equipment after installation is very essential and drawn lot of significance since beginning. The introduction of CT has been one of the most significant advances among the imaging techniques.The first users were physicians within Research hospitals, then, community hospitals started using them and private practitioners, meanwhile, typically did not purchase the expensive systems. To study the utilisation of CT scan, the approach undertaken was a prospective study to find the number of scans done over a 6-month period, the average scans done in a day were calculated. The average time taken per scan was found. These calculations give us the time the machine is being run over in a 8-hour shift. The 8-hour shift was considered as maximum time the machine is operable. The utilisation co-efficient index was the tool used to deduce the utilisation percentage of the CT scan. The machine in the study was utilised with 50% of its full potential.
704 Stressors Induced Antioxidant System in Silkworm Bombyx Mori, Ann Sandhya Micheal, Muthangi Subramanyam
The present study, discuss the role of antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) to overcome free radicals produced under the influence of various stressors. A 24 hours exposure of silkworm, Bombyx mori to cold, hypoxia and nuclear polyhedral virus resulted in a significant increase in AOEs, Superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the haemolymph of both IV and V instars. However, upon recovery from stress, antioxidant enzymes activity returned to base value and larvae showed an age dependent decrease in antioxidant system. All the results are discussed in the light of immediate response of lepidopterans to various stressors.
705 Radiological Age & Sex Determination from Sternum, Winniecia Dkhar
Imaging techniques plays a significant role in determining the age and sex of an individual. The aim of this study is to determine the age and sex of an individual through the calculation of the size of the sternum and also the degree of ossification of various element of sternum process radio-graphically. This relatively slow ossification rate of the sternum interfered with accurate age determination(1).The length and diameter of the sternum varied with age but was also gender dependent. Sternal ossifications are taken as a guide for determination of olderage most commonly used to fix up retirement age (1)
706 Genetic Implications in Class II Subdivision 2 Malocclusion in Two Siblings. Case Report, Dana Festila, Mircea Ghergie, Alexandrina Muntean
The aim of this study was to find genetic implication in the etiology of Class II subdivision 2 malocclusion using single nucleotide polymorphism as genetic marker in two siblings with Class II subdivision 2 malocclusion, starting from the literatures opinions regarding the inherited patterns of this anomaly. Clinical aspects knowing as being hereditary were found out after the extra oral, intraoral and radiological examination. Genomic DNA was also extracted from the buccal mucosa of the two siblings in order to determine their genotype. Four markers were selected from each patient, MyoH1, VDR, PAX9 and RUNX2. Genetic association was found between single nucleotide polymorphism and this malocclusion for PAX9 gene. Even though genetic analyze demonstrated the hereditary etiology of the Class II subdivision 2 malocclusion, some clinical features were different in the two siblings.
707 Studies on L-Asparaginase Producing Bacteria from Soil Samples of Akola District, Vijay Nimkande, Dipali Barate.
L- Asparaginase is an extracellular enzyme having potential therapeutic applications. The present work describes the isolation, screening, Identification, enzyme production, protein estimation and characterization of bacteria isolated from various parts of Akola region. Bacteria were screened for L- asparaginase production from farm soil on the basis of formation of pink color zone around the colony. L-asparaginase producing bacteria were further characterized by morphological, physiological and biochemical studies as Bacillus sp, P. aeruginosa, Serratia sp. and S. aureus. Maximum growth was observed at optimum conditions (pH 7, temperature at 37C and time 72 rrs.) Maximum protein estimated from isolate no. SR 9. The crude enzyme characterized for effect of temperature, pH, metal ion and substrate and enzyme concentration.
708 Bacteriological and Physicochemical Assessment of Potable Water Samples from Taluka Telhara Dist.-Akola, Pankaj A Matre, S. N. Zodpe.
A total 100 water samples were collected aseptically in a sterilized container from different water sources from various locations. The different test such as Ortho-Toludiene test, H2S Strip field test and MPN test was done to detect the presence of Coliforms in drinking water. The results revealed that most of water sample collected from P.H.C of Akola district shows high MPN and so was found to be non-potable. Whereas the source which is chlorinated was found to be potable. Further the physicochemical analysis was also carried out to study the different parameter. Such as colour, odour, pH, TDS, Turbidity, Hardness, pH, Alkalanity, irons, fluorides and nitrate by adapting the standard method. From the complete study the results revealed that out of 50 only 24 samples were found to be potable for drinking purposes, so further processing of water sources is needed to avoid of to overcome the difficulties related to health hazards and water borne diseases.
709 Usefulness of Venous Blood Gas Analysis to Determine Acid-Base Status in Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Sadariya Bhavesh R, Hariom Sharma, Sahema Shaikh, Mittal Panchal
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with greatest morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Blood gas analysis is required to know acid-base status of the body in patients of acute exacerbation of COPD. Routinely arterial blood obtained by arterial puncture is used for blood gas analysis. It has been shown that venous blood can be used in place of arterial blood for blood gas analysis. The aim of present study was to see the changes in acid base status of the body in AECOPD patients by using venous blood for blood gas analysis. Methods: This study included previously diagnosed 100 patients of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 100 healthy subjects. VBG sample was taken from each patient analyzed for pH, PCO2 , HCO3 -, PO2 and SO2 . Results: The mean SD values for pH, PCO2 and HCO3 - in AECOPD patients were 7.36 0.1, 53.3118.62 mmHg and 29.218.78 mmol/L, respectively. In healthy controls, the mean SD values for pH, PCO2 and HCO3 - were 7.390.04, 46.026.7 mmHg and 28.34.1 mmol/L. Conclusion: Venous values of pH were slightly lower while venous values of PCO2 and HCO3 - were slightly higher in AECOPD patients as compared to the healthy subjects showed that AECOPD patients were in respiratory acidosis state.
710 Impact of Aerobic Training and Elastic Strength Training on Cardiorespiratory Endurance Among College Male Students, Anees Ahamed E. K, Dr. George Abraham
The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the impact of aerobic training and the elastic strength training on cardiovascular endurance. Thirty physically active college male students (n = 30) were taken as a subject and the age of the subjects were ranged between 17 to 22 years. Randomly selected subjects were again divided into three equal groups of ten each (n = 10). The groups were named as an aerobic training group (AG), elastic strength training group (EG) and the control group (CG). Two of the training groups were involved in the training program for twelve weeks duration. The systematic training program was planned three sessions only in a week. The control group didnt do any training protocol for the training duration. Aerobic endurance was taken as a test variable and the test were used for the study was 1500 run test. The time taken to cover the distance was considered as data. The stopwatch was used as an instrument for the study. The pre and the post test timing were analyzed by using the statistical tool of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffes test was applied as a post hoc test to determine the paired mean difference if any. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 in all cases. The result of the study describes that the both training groups have had significant difference (p ? ?0. 05) as compared with the control group in cardiovascular endurance. It was also concluded that the aerobic training group had better results (p ? ?0. 05) than the polymeric training group for cardiovascular fitness.
711 Knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) & associated factors of parents/guardians on Childhood eye care, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia, Asressie Molla, Berhan Meshesha, Demoze Delelegn, Dr. P. Surender Reddy
Background: KAP Study tells what people know about certain things, how they feel and how they behave. Objective: To assess KAP & factors related to childhood eye diseases of Dale district. Method: Cross- sectional (quantitative & qualitative) methods. Hierarchal logistic regression (quantitative), multistage sampling (quantitative) design was employed. Result: Three-fourth of the respondents diagnose childhood eye disease by other individuals than health professionals, 52.92% of them either dont know or misunderstand the mode of transmission. Nearly half & 41.0% of mothers/caregivers misperceive that the risk is higher in poorer families & can be completely cured by praying. Two-third of children either received nothing or inappropriate medication. Conclusion: There were misunderstanding, misperception, malpractice and poor health seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers about childhood eye diseases. Marital & occupational status, source & time to fetch water, presence of animals in the near vicinity and waste disposal system are reasons. Awareness creation, tailored behavior change interventions are recommended.
712 Functional Software on Traditional Therapeutic Foods of Tamilnadu- An Efficacy Study, K. Karthika Devi, Dr. V. Premala Priyadharshini
Reintroducing the forgotten arts of culinary skills with Therapeutic value addition in unison with technology will help the food lovers to make a healthy choice during disease and convalescent period. With the objectives to develop and evaluate a database on traditional therapeutic recipes of Tamilnadu, original Traditional therapeutic recipes (150) were surveyed and classified for nine therapeutic conditions namely Cold (15), Cough (16), Constipation (33), Diabetes (12), Febrile condition (4), Indigestion (4), Ulcer (15), Multi Therapeutic condition (47) and during Convalescent period (4) and were standardized. The standardized recipes were further tested for its acceptability by a panel of 20 members using a Score card. A user friendly database Med Food was developed by the investigator with four inbuilt module namely Thera food, Recipe Park, Nutri Sort and Glossopedia using the programme Visual Basic 2010 and the database was evaluated. The data base was on the whole rated to be effective and user friendly.
713 Comorbidity in Hypertensive Inhabitants of the North, Hasnulin VI, Artamonova OG, Sevostyanova EV
It has been shown that the climate-geographic stress in the hypertensive patients in the North is accompanied by a significantly greater severity of comorbidity than in similar hypertensive patients living in the middle latitudes. It has been also found that severity of combined pathological disorders in high latitudes depends on the level of cortisol increase in the blood, the degree of psychoemotional stress and desynchronosis increase, especially in people with morning chronotype. It was revealed the high dependence of diastolic blood pressure increase and adaptive-restoring potential decrease in the northern patients on the level of desynchronosis. The highest level of comorbidity has been found in the hypertensive patients in the North with a strong resistance to the development of desynchronosis.
714 Empowering Rural Women the Higher Education Way, KUMAR BIGYANANAND SINGH
The dynamics of the future call for knowledge leadership. India today can boost of a large educated manpower, which is crucial for the socio-economic growth of any nation. Rural education will prepare India for a letter tomorrow. Quality, relevance and inclusiveness of education is cause of concern at the national level but it is more serious in rural India. Government need to ensure productive corporate sector participation. Education is able to empower women especially rural women. It ultimately leads to gender equality. Against this background, a modest attempt has been made to discuss some related issues in Indian perspective.
715 On Cordial Graphs, A. Nellai Murugan, A. Meenakshi Sundari
A cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection from V to {0,1} such that if each edge uv is assigned the label |f(u)?f(v)| the number of vertices labeled with 0 and the number of vertices labeled with 1 differ by atmost 1and the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by atmost 1.A graph which cordial admits cordial labeling is the cordial graph. A Resideo cordial labeling of a graph G with vertex set V is a bijection from V to {0,1} such that if each edge uv is assigned the label (f(u)+f(v))(mod 2) the number of vertices labeled with 0 and the number of vertices labeled with 1 differ by atmost 1and the number of edges labeled with 0 and the number of edges labeled with 1 differ by atmost 1.A graph which admits Resideo cordial labeling is the Resideo cordial graph. In this paper, it is proved that every shadow graph is a cordial graph and that every shadow graph is a Resideo cordial graph.
716 Study of (Single Incision Laproscopic Surgery) Sils & Other Modification of Laproscopic Appendicectomy, Ram A Parmar, Gunvant H Rathod, Rakesh A Makwana, Ravi P Gadani, Rajesh K Patel, Nakulkumar N Sulegaon, Hemal P Chheda
The next advancement in the field of minimally invasive surgery, in the recent times, has been the use of single incision for accessing the abdominal cavity. potential benefits of single incision laparoscopic surgery(SILS) are decreased postoperative pain, reduced port site complication and early recovery. we report case study of various technique of single incision laparoscopic appendicectomy(SILA) by employing conventional laparoscopic instruments without the need for any expensive specialized equipment. Design : prospective randomised controlled trial Subjects : 20 patients , diagnosed with appendicitis who underwent single incision laparoscopic appendicectomy and other modification of conventional laparoscopic appendicectomy from May 2011 to December 2013. Intervention : SILA(using triport)-11 cases,SILA(using suture passing needle)-03 cases,SILA(using epidural needle)-03 cases,DILA(double incision laparoscopic appendicectomy)-03 cases Outcome measures : operative technique Operating time & learning curve Unfavorable intra-operative inadvertent events & post-operative pain, complications cost effectiveness.
717 A Comparitive Study on Music and Traditional Method to Develop Vocabulary, S. V. Karthiga, Dr. P. Nagaraj
This paper focuses on the traditional teaching tools and music. In order to find the learners view a study was conducted. A course was designed to find out the vocabulary level of the learners using music and traditional blackboard method. Initially students were only allowed to use paper, dictionaries where traditional blackboard method was followed. Secondly the same course to the same group of students was conducted using music; here the learners were allowed to use their mobile phones in order to find out the meaning of the words. At the end of both courses a test was conducted to find out which method has been more successful. Questionnaire was given to identify the learners interest. Music is one of the major contributing factors in the development of society especially in non-English speaking countries. The reason is that people show more interest in singing the English songs which inspired them a lot even without knowing its meaning at first. By this people get acquainted to music very easily. A key part of the teaching approach is the facilities used in method of teaching. Today teachers have lots of new technologies, electronic instructional and communicational technologies which can be used in teaching vocabulary. A learner can attain language proficiency easily if the vocabulary level is high.
718 African Philosophy and The Problem of Methodology, Kanu, Ikechukwu Anthony
This piece asserts that the problem of methodology in African philosophy, like the issue of trends, dates back to the period when African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and worldviews, as embedded in pre-colonial African cultures, constituted African philosophy. However, contrary to the universalist perspective, it argues that the cultural differences found among human beings accounts for the differences found in their methodology. To deny the differences in methodology is to deny the differences in worldview and culture. However, it observes that care has to be taken to avoid a situation of relativism, where every ones position, no matter what it looks like is considered to be good. It further addressed particular methodological issues of orature and collective thought dominant in African philosophy. However, this piece submits that the issue methodology in African philosophy, is a discourse between the universalist and particularist schools, between the modern and the traditional. While it hardly changes the dominant discourses in African philosophy, its relevance is that it keeps African philosophy alive on the dialectical path.
719 Economic Violence Against Dalit Entrepreneurs in Tamilnadu, Dr. C. Paramasivan, P. Mari Selvam
Although the economic violation of dalit entrepreneurs has consistently reiterated the proposition that all human rights are intertwined responses to violations of economic, social and cultural rights, both procedural and substantive arrangements which guarantee the economic rights of the disadvantaged in the market ensure equality of opportunity and equality in the outcome of economic processes have paled in comparison to the seriousness accorded by infringements of civil and political rights, economic, social and cultural Rights, despite much conceptual and interpretative progress in this area of law over the past decade. This article is focused on the Economic violence against dalit entrepreneurs in Tamilnadu.
720 Dus Test Guidelines in Cattleya orchids, L.C. De, A.N. Rao, P.K. Rajeevan, S. R. Dhiman, Manoj Srivastava, R.P. Medhi,Geetamani Chhetri
According to UPOV Convention 1961, DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability) testing is useful system for protection of varieties, for evolving of new genotypes of plants and for the utility of breeders and farmers. It provides rights for breeders and farmers to exploit or develop new plant varieties, to allow access to foreign varieties with widen gene pool, to promote intensive breeding activities and to prevent unauthorized varieties exploitations. In the present study, 8 hybrids of Cattleya were evaluated for development of DUS test guidelines using common descriptors. Out of 53 common descriptors developed, plant height, leaf number/ pseudobulb, flower width in front view, petal predominant colour, lip predominant colour and lip colour pattern were used for grouping of hybrids.
721 Ideal induction agent for LMA insertion: A comparitive study between Thiopental Sodium and Propofol, Mrunalini Parasa
Adequate depth of anaesthesia and supression of airway reflexes is essential to facilitate insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA). This study was performed to evaluate the conditions for LMA insertion, the incidence of undesirable side effects and hemodynamics using Propofol or Thiopentone for LMA insertion. 60 ASA physical status I/ II patients of age 20-50 years were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly allocated in to Group 1 (Propofol) /Group 2 (Thiopental). After standard premedication, both the groups were induced with either 3mg/kg Propofol or 6mg/kg Thiopental. The study revealed statistically significant difference in jaw relaxation ( p 0.02) and in the incidence of undesirable effects (gagging (p 0.03), cough (p 0.02) and patient movements (p 0.05) between Propofol and Thiopental groups with better conditions for LMA insertion in Propofol group. Conclusion: Propofol is an ideal induction agent for LMA insertion
722 Ketamine gargles and post operative sore throat after laryngeal mask airway use., Poonam S Ghodki,Noopur D Singh
The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of ketamine gargles with placebo in attenuating POST after LMA. Fifty female patients for elective surgery were enrolled in this prospective and randomized trial and were randomly allocated in to two groups of 25 each. Group K received 50mg preservative free ketamine (1ml) in 29 ml of saline, while group C received 30 ml of saline for gargling for 30 seconds, five minutes before induction. POST was graded at 0, 4 and 24 hours after surgery on a four point scale (0-3). The incidence of POST was higher in group C as compared with group K (p
723 Changes in Whartons Jelly in Hypertensive Pregnancy: An Original Study from Rural Indian Population, N.N.Srivastava,Anita Rawat,Anuj Jain,Jayant Verma,N.K.Gupta,Alok Kumar
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic features of the morphology of the Whartons jelly in selected cases of pregnancy with hypertension in north Indian rural population. Materials and methods: 60 umbilical cords were included in the study. Each of them underwent pathological examination after routine processing to assess the morphological parameters of the umbilical cord and Whartons jelly. Results: Significant differences between the control group and the hypertensive group in terms of the diameter of the umbilical cord and diameter of the Whartons jelly - smaller diameters in the hypertensive group than in the control group. Conclusions: 1.The areas as well as content of Whartons jelly are considerably reduced in pregnancy with hypertension. 2. The assessment of umbilical cord morphology should become an integral part of ultrasound exam in all pregnancies especially, if complicated by hypertension. This study is being presented on account of its rarity; to the best of authors knowledge, such study on rural population of North India has not been done previously
724 The Essence of Classical Odissi Music, PROF.(Dr.) JAGANNATH KUANR
Application of new Raga or tunes indicates that developing of musical trends in accordance of our Indian contemporary music; the predecessors of our music have established a special identity for us. As a result of which we feel proud today for our tradition of Odissi music. The most unique nature in Odissi music as said in Sanskrit language is Na Drut na Bilambita which means that neither it is very speed nor fast nor it is too slow. Hence it belongs to a proportionate class or similar. Hence the velocity of our music maintains certain stability along with a beautiful and artistic presentation which displays its special identity. On the basis of functioning range of our music, it usually transforms itself into a smooth and beautiful it into a smooth and beautiful form during presentation and thus it maintains it uniqueness
725 Hearing Loss - Continuous Noise Exposure among Street Hawkers & Shop Keepers, Mrs. Sreevidya.Sherla, Mrs. Lubna Eram
Exposure to loud sound source results in damage to the structures of cochlea such as hair cells and associated nerve causing hearing loss. Hair cells are tonotopically organized and the damage to the same occurs in correspondence to the frequency of sound being exposed to. Exposure to noise in occupational setting majorly occurs in the high frequency region; therefore, the characteristic feature of noise induced hearing loss ranges from 3 kHz 6 kHz (Dobie,2001). The current study focused on investigating the effect of traffic noise on shopkeepers and street hawkers. A total of 60 subjects were selected and divided into groups on base of their years of experience. Hearing thresholds were obtained. Results revealed that a significant difference exists in hearing threshold of the two groups. It was also noted that long duration exposure resulted in high frequency loss.
726 Namburi Phased Spot Test Analysis (Npst) of Rasasindura (Herbomineral Preparation), Dr. Veena B Kupati,Dr.P.G.Jadar
Rasasindura (red sulphide of mercury) is a type of kupipakvarasayana (medicine prepared in bottle) and it is called as Red sulphide of mercury. Mainly used in the condition of Prameha (diabetes mellitus), Bhagandara ( fistula), Rajayakshma (tuberculosis), Kushtha (leprocy), Pandu (anaemia), Gulma (extra growth) etc. The analysis of Rasasinura (red sulphide of mercury) was done by NPST (nambhuri phased spot test) to know the proper preparation of Rasasindura (red sulphide of mercury). The analysis was observed in three phases, from 0min to 72 hours and compared with standard protocol. The prepared Rasasindura (red sulphide of mercury) shows accurate results.
727 Distribution of Plankton Communities in Penaeus Monodon (Fabricius) Culture Systems Of Kerala, S. Lekshmy, W. Soumya, M. Mini, Tresa Radhakrishnan
Quantitative distribution of plankton communities in extensive and modified extensive Penaeus monodon culture systems on the southwest coast of Kerala, was studied during three shrimp culture seasons. Phytoplankton constituted the major component in both systems, 84.9% - 93.5% in extensive and 88.5% - 90.8% in modified extensive system. Among phytoplankton, Bacillariophyceae dominated throughout in both extensive (56.8% - 67.0%) and modified extensive (70.2% - 75%) system. Zooplankton constituted only a small portion of the plankton in both systems. In extensive system densities of Chlorophyceae and Myxophyceae were negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.05). A significant positive relation (P < 0.05) between density of Chlorophyceae and DO was observed. In modified extensive system, densities of Myxophyceae (P < 0.01) and zooplankton (P < 0.05) were negatively correlated with water temperature. Negative correlation was registered between density of Myxophyceae and H2S, alkalinity (P < 0.05) and NH3 (P < 0.01), also between zooplankton density and NH3 and alkalinity (P < 0.05). In extensive and modified extensive system, natural food contributed significantly to the growth of P. monodon and proper assessment of this food in the pond may help reduce the use of supplementary feed
728 Protective Effect of Hesperidin Agains Neurobehavioral Disorders And oxidative Stress in The Diabetic Ratte Gestante Strain Wistar, Chouba Ibtissem,Nessaibia Issam, Haloui Meriem,Tahraoui Abdelkrim
Our problem is to evaluate the behavioral effects of infection and combination diabetes - infection in pregnant rats and the protective effect of an antioxidant on neurobehavioral alterations and complications. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin ( STZ ) at a dose of 60 mg / kg . The hesperidins, a natural flavonoid was administered orally (gavages) at a dose of 100 mg / kg. This administration reduces anxiety and reduces damage due to hyperglycemia associated with a significant decrease in the rates of reduced glutathione (GSH) and maternal liver on the other hand, by increasing the activity of glutathione S- transferase (GST) hepatic mother, biomarkers of oxidative stress. The results indicate the ability of hesperidin to prevent changes induced by experimental diabetes.
729 Effects of Chronic Hypertension Caused by Repeated Episodes of Air Jet Stress on the Plasma Levels of TSH, T3 and T4 in Wistar rats, Nessaibia Issam, Chouba Ibtissem, Tahraoui Abdelkrim
Disruptions of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in response to chronic crises of hypertension is relatively less known mainly regarding the defense mechanisms of the body facing a stressful external aggression and the repercussions caused by neuroendocrine mediation related to this axis. This study deals experimentally with a social deficit model on Wistar rats. This state of hypertension is caused by using chronic exposure to 1 bar 2 hours / day of air jet stress. The results show a significant increase in the TSH plasma and T3, T4 symptomatic of hyperthyroidism. This may be directly caused by the direct impact of hypertension on the activity of the para-ventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the production of TRH, as well as a probable imbalance of immune rate Th1 / Th2 towards a Th2 hormonal profile triggered by the stress and consequently, the production of anti-TSH.
730 Species Diversity of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia, Dr. B. SAI RAM PATTNAIK
Lake Hawassa is one of the many freshwater shallow lakes found in the central Ethiopian Rift Valley. The sum totalities of aquatic and terrestrial habitats adjoining the lake facilitate for the rich diversity of flora and fauna compared to other Ethiopian Rift valley lakes. Scores of species with sundry forms of plants, animals and micro-organisms make the lake extremely bio-diverse. The littoral area is covered with emergent and submerged macrophytes those serve as shelter, thrashing and proliferation zones for several benthonic and pelagic zooplanktons such as Protozoans, Rotifers, Crustaceans, and several weed bed fauna like annelids, insects as well as fishes. The littoral and open water of the lake is dominated by wide-ranging delivery of qetema (Cyperaceae), fila (Typha sp.), the floating grass Paspalidium germinatum and hydrophytes such as the Blue water lily (Nymphaea coerulea), water cabbage (Pistia stratiotes) and Wolfia arrhiza, considered to be the smallest flowering plant in the world.(Tilahun et al., 1996, EFASA-2013). The lake is among one of the biggest bird sanctuaries in the rift and homeland for several hundred species of water birds, including local and palaearctic migrants with large population of Marabou storks. The animal population includes large hippopotamus, otters, monitor lizards, Velvet and Colobus monkeys surviving on flanking lake ecosystem. Six varieties of fishes are abundantly found in the lake of which the native African species Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are dominant. The lake is a major source of income through eco-tourism while the inhabitants depend on the lake for fishing and recreation. Present investigation is a maiden attempt to bring out first hand information by this visiting investigator who made a general enquiry for a small period of time to understand the ecosystem and species diversity of fresh water lakes of Ethiopia.
731 Growth Characterization of oxalate degrading probiotics Lactobacillus, Mahalingam, P.U
In this study, an attempt was made to screen and characterize oxalate degrading probiotics Lactobacillus. Probiotic organism was isolated from curd sample and are screened and characterized for its growth in different concentration of Potassium oxalate with various pH and Temperature conditions. The results revealed that probiotic Lactobacillus spp showed better growth performance (0.95OD) in medium of 25mM concentration of Potassium oxalate with pH 7 and at 37?
732 A Dermatoglyphics Study of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome A case Study, Dr. Chandan Kumar Sinha, Shweta Shashikant Patel, Urja Prashant Zaveri
The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern present on palm print of a patient suffering from speech and hearing impairment and comparing it with his mother. The word Dermatoglyphics comes from the two words Derma- skin, Glyphic-curves. The ridge formation of the skin of an individual begins to appear during 3rd or 4th month of fetal development. The fingerprints or the ridges on the palm and its pattern are determined by genes in embryonic life. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first reported by Stein and Leventhal who reported women suffering from amenorrhea, enlarged or swollen ovaries with multiple cysts and hirsutism. Its marked expressivity, ambiguous list of associated conditions, and hence possible risk to a womens health remains a genetic and diagnostic threat. Distinguish landmark had been found in the palm print of the patients suffering from PCOS.
733 Use of Paddy Straw During Composting to Bringdown the Cost of Mushroom Production, Dr. Parveen Garg
Considering the high cost of wheat straw in local market, three different combinations wheat and paddy straw were tested for their influence on yield and cost of production of Button Mushroom. Agaricus bisporous (lange) Sing. Compost was prepared by mixing 10%, 20% and 30% Paddy and wheat straw by long method of composting. 100% wheat straw was used as control. All the ingredients composted for 20 days single phase out door composting as advocate by Kapoor1. Fresh grain spawn was obtained from Bharat Mushrooms, Delhi. Formaldehyde treated casing soil (1:1 mixture of 2year old farm yard manure and garden soil) was used for casing of beds. The results show that all the combinations affected yield and proved to be promising for low cost production of mushroom. Combination with 30% Paddy straw and 70% wheat straw gave maximum production of mushroom (8.4 Kg/m2). Results of mustard straw in combination with wheat straw were also encouraging
734 Dielectric, thermal and rheological behaviour of graphene-PMMA nanocomposites, Manasi Singhi,M. Fahim
A series of graphene filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites was prepared by in-situ polymeriA series of graphene filled polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites was prepared by in-situ polymeri
735 Microwave assisted synthesis and antifungal activity of some substituted 3( 2-furyl) pyrazoline derivatives, J.V. Phirke,Y.K.Meshram
Various chalcones were synthesized from 2-furyl acetone with substituted aromatic aldehydes which in treated with phenyl hydrazine resulted in synthesis of final compounds i.e 3( furan-2-yl)-1,5-diphenyl4-5dihydro-1-Hpyrazole;5(4-chorophenyl)-3-( furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl4-5-dihydro-1-H-pyarzole;5(4-nitrophenyl)-3-( furan-2-yl)-1-phenyl4-5-dihydro-1-Hpyarzole etc.have been synthesized employing microwave technique and confirmed by suitable spectroscopic technique such as 1H NMR. The compounds have been evaluated for the antifungal activity
736 Determination of Vitamin C and its Heat Stability in Local Fruit Juices Available in Shillong City of Meghalaya State, India, Diengdoh D F, Dkhar E R, Mukhim T, Nongpiur C L
Vitamin C is a very good source of biological antioxidants and is freely available from fruits and vegetables. Defciency of vitamin C leads to scurvy in humans. Vitamin C is destroyed by many cooking processes and on exposure to air. The objective of this study is to determine the amount of vitamin C in seven local madefruit juices available in Shillong city. The effect of heat on percentage reduction of vitamin C was also investigated in these juices. The study showed that orange juice contained more vitamin C in the fresh state while prunus juice had the least vitamin C content at 200C. A reduction in the concentration of vitamin C on heating from 300C to 700C was also observed. Therefore fruit juices should not be stored at higher temperature conditions to prevent the loss of vitamin C.
737 Methods of Determination Viscosity Index for Sunflower oils, Ioana Stanciu
In this article we presented viscosity index for sunflower oil using three method. Viscosity index are calculated from the measured viscosity at 40 and 100oC according to ASTM D 2270, using program VI and graphical method from ASTM D 341. The viscosity-temperature coefficients for sunflower oil were calculated from the measured viscosity at 40 and 100oC.
738 Sorption Studies on Removal of Malachite Green from Wastewater By Coal fly ash, M.K.Dwivedi, I.P.Tripathi, Atul Kumar Dwivedi
Coal fly ash has been used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from wastewater. Effect of various operating variables, viz., solution pH, adsorbent dose, adsorbate concentration, temperature on the removal of malachite green has been studied. The experimental results indicate that 10 mg L-1 g of coal fly ash was able to remove 99.5% of dye from an initial concentration of 10 mg L-1.Equilibrium was achieved in 60 min. The adsorption of malachite green decreased with increasing temperature indicating exothermic nature of the adsorption process. The material exhibits good adsorption capacity and the adsorption data follow the Freundlich model better than the Langmuir model. Isotherms have been used to determine thermodynamic parameters of the process, viz., free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change.
739 Spectral and Antibacterial Studies of Organotin (IV) Complexes Ligated by 2-Thiobarbituric Acid, R.N. PANDEY, RAKESH RANJAN
Some new organotin(IV)-chelates of 2-thiobarbituric acid were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, conductometric, IR, Uv-vis and 'H NMR spectral studies. IR Spectral Studies provides strong evidence in support bidentate (N, O) coordination of deprotonated mono negative anion of ligand in octahedral structure. The ligand and metal chelates were screened for their anti-microbial activity against the gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacteria, Staphyllococcus aureus. All tin(IV)-chelates exhibit more activity than free ligand.
740 Effect of FDI Inflows in Indian Automobile Industry, Ms.Reshmi.A.Rajan,Dr.N.Ravichandran
The automobile industry in India is one of the largest automotive markets in the world. Recently India had reached sixth position in passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing segment. Similarly, India became third largest exporter of passenger cars. These kinds of achievements would happen when serious of initiatives, progresses and supports taken by Government, Organizations and public. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is type of financial instrument to substantiate the foreign funds in India for economical and country development. Thus this paper investigates the effect of FDI in automobile industry
741 Hybrid Learning: a Paradigm in Teaching Methodology, Ms. Subina Syal
Hybrid learning suggests the prospective to generate effective training, to save time and money for the Institute, to make teaching more appealing and expedient for students, and to offer the professionals a chance to innovate. The aim of this paper is to provide aneffective confab of the prospective of blended learning in the context of the challenges in front of higher education. There is a great requirement to rethink and restructure the learning experience
742 Production Process of Cement in India, Mrs.P.R.Kousalya, Dr. K. Rajakarthikeyan, B.Janani
India is the second largest producer of cement in the world. Cement production increased at a compound annual growth rate of 9.7 per cent in the period 2006 2013, producing 272 million tons (MT). Its capacity is projected to reach 550 MT by FY 2020. The cement industry has been expanding on the back of increasing infrastructure activities and demand from housing sector. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, report that cement and gypsum products attracted foreign direct investment worth Rs 13,370.32 crores (US$ 2.24 billion) between April 2000 and Feb2014.The housing segment accounts for a major portion of the total domestic demand for cement in India. In the 12th Five Year Plan of the Government, there is a strong focus on infrastructure development and the Government plans to increase investment in infrastructure to an amount of US$ 1 trillion.
743 Anthropometric assessment of growth and nutritional status of school going boys of Himachal Pradesh, Dr Rajib Biswas,Neetu Saini,Dr JasjitKaur
The study intends to conduct an anthropometric assessment to evaluate the nutritional status of the school going boys of Himachal Pradesh between 9 11 years of age. Height for age, weight for age and BMI for age was evaluated as per WHO standard to evaluate the prevalence of stunting, under nutrition and thinness and Z- scores values were calculated. An increasing pattern was observed for height, weight and BMI with age in all the age groups. None of the subjects were classified as severely stunted or under nutrition. The prevalence of moderate stunting and under nutrition was much lower than the mild category Malnutrition in terms of stunting and wasting was lower as compared to other reports from other Indian states. Prevalence of stunting was less than that of wasting which reflected an acute state malnutrition.
744 A Study on Patients Attitude and Satisfaction towards Multispecialty Hospitals (Special reference with Coimbatore city), P. Govindaraj, Dr. M. Venkatraman
In recent era rising healthcare consumerism is changing the traditional physician-patient relationship into a provider-consumer one. By taking a consumerist stance, patients are now more inclined to ask questions, contribute to decision making, sample healthcare providers and switch services if they experience dissatisfaction. The whole focus of healthcare industry is patients well-being (both physical and mental). Patients are usually in a physical or a psychological discomfort when they consume health services. Further, due to high degree of intangibility involved in providing care and high professionalism (e.g. physician specialization, skills, etc.) demanded, healthcare services are difficult to evaluate patients/consumers in healthcare. Healthcare has numerous consumers: patients, who actually consume the service provided; physicians, who recommend healthcare providers for their patients; third-party payers, who dictate patients choice of hospitals by their substantial financial influence. Keeping pace with technological advances, there is a fundamental shift in healthcare consumerism patients are becoming better informed, more involved in their own healthcare and more demanding.
745 Escalating Development of E-Commerce in India, Manav Aggarwal
India is the seventh largest by geographical area, the second most populated country in the world and third largest reservoir of technical human resource with fastest growing free market economy. Indian government accepted free market policies in 1991, and globalization has increased trade and investments in Indian market. E-commerce in recent times has been growing rapidly across the world. E-commerce means sale or purchase of goods and services through internet or other electronic source. The trend of e-commerce is escalating rapidly now. So, the need of the hour is to understand the escalating development of e-commerce especially in Indian context.
746 A Study on Female Breast Cancer in India, Mrs. S. S. Digraje
The incidence of breast cancer is increasing almost everywhere. This unfavorable Trend is due in part to increases in risk factors decreased childbearing and breast feeding, detrimental dietary and lifestyle changes, including obesity and less physical activity. Mortality is now decreasing in many high risk countries due to a combination of intensified early detection efforts and the introduction of mammographic screening, resulting in the diagnosis of small early stage tumors and advances in treatment.
747 Problems of Sugarcane Cultivators in Gulbarga District of Karnataka, MR. ASHOKKUMAR G. POLICEPATIL
The farmers are vital role players in agro-based production units, hence only the consolidated results of financial, cost and technical performance of such units cannot be considered as total performance, unless the performance of key role players is added with such performance. Based on this statement, an attempt has been made in this chapter to analyse profiles and problems of sugarcane growers of selected units. The primary data relating to the farmers have been collected through a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of three parts viz., sugarcane growers' personal profile, agriculture profile and problems faced by the sugarcane growers
748 Sworkings of Select Urban Co-Operative Banks in Tamilnadu With Reference to Profitability Analysis, Dr.J.Paramasivam, R.Venkatasamy
Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs) were established in India in order to extend the banking services to economically backward people also. Now UCBs are rendering banking services almost in all part of the country. As on 31st March, 2014 there are 1589 UCBs are functioning in India, in Tamilnadu there are 129 UCBs are rendering banking services to the people. An efficient financial management of a bank will reflect in its profit earning. Both efficient management of funds and assets of a bank will lead to earn more profit. Not only the above, other aspects such as spread, burden also will have its impact on profit earning of a bank, hence it is essential to study profitability of a bank. The study found growth in net profit for all selected UCBs over the study period
749 Contemporary Marketing Tools Used from Bulgarian Private Dentists, Kazakova S,D. Kirov,D. Krastev
This study examines the use of different marketing tools among dentists for the development of private dental practices. Material and methods: A phone call survey was conducted. The survey consisted of questions related to the use of different marketing tools used by dentists for the development of their practices. Conclusion: Dentists are not well acquainted with the contemporary marketing tools. The internal marketing is most secure tool for attracting new patients. Internet technology gives opportunity for additional form of rapid communication and advertisement on a moderate price.
750 Neem Toothpaste: A Review of The Literature , Dr.Supreet Grover, DrRamyaShenoy
Ayurveda has been used in medicine for decades and has emerged as a perfect source for novel therapeutic agents especially in oral diseases such as periodontal diseases.Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation and destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth. One of the herbal agents Azadirachtaindicaalso known as neem is being used in India and Indian subcontinent for thousands of years as a promising tool for maintaining healthy periodontium because of its chemopreventive action.Neem leaves, barks or twigs have been tried in treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis as a part of various toothpastes such as neem active and dabur herbal and proven to be successful.But still, its use of treatment for periodontitis is not very clear and as a result this study was commissioned to provide a comprehensive systematic review of the efficacy of neem toothpaste as an antimicrobial agent.We have systematically reviewed for articles with toothpastes containing neem. Electronic databases (Cochrane central register of controlled trials, MEDLINE, PUBMED, ENBASE) were screened for studies from March and April 2014.Cross referencing was done to review further articles. The search was limited to English language. Neither the author nor journals were blinded to reviewers. Gray literature was screened systematically. Review process was done by 2 reviewers. If data were missing or any methodological issues were to be addressed the study author contacted via email and this information was added to data extraction.We found 24 articles where 21 are related to neem used in various form other than dentifrice. A total of four articles including an invitro study, one cross sectional study and two randomized controlled trials were evaluated. out of two randomized controlled trials, one randomized controlled trial had toothpaste containing exclusively neem as a primary ingredient.There is a growing clinical evidence supporting the herbal components in toothpaste, but more randomized controlled trials are required to support this. To conclude neem containing toothpastes proven have beneficial for teeth and gums but there is lack of scientific evidence. Further systematic studies are required on this aspect.
751 Customized Complete Denture for Xerostomic Patients With Resorbed Ridge, DR. MANU RATHEE, DR.POONAM MALIK, DR. MOHANEESH BHORIA
The environment of the oral cavity is to a large degree created and regulated by saliva. The fact that the teeth and oral mucosa are in constant contact with and bathed by the saliva would suggest that this environmental agent could profoundly influence the state of oral health of a person especially in cases of partially or completely edentulous patients . This case report describes a technique for the construction of liquid supported denture in the maxillary denture and a reservoir is placed in the mandibular denture especially beneficial and constructed in cases of xerostomic patients
752 Efficacy of Green tea Extract in Reduction of Oral Salivary Microorganisms, an in Vitro Study, Dr. Ajay Rao H.T,Dr. Sham S. Bhat, Dr.SundeepHegde K, Dr.RakshaBallal, Dr.VikramJhamb
Objective: To assess the antimicrobial effect of green tea extract against oral salivary microorganisms. Materials andMethods: 30 Salivary samples were obtained by spitting into dry plastic vials. Collected saliva samples were centrifuged. Each vial was mixed completely on a shaker after which 1 ml of saliva added to 9 ml of ethanol by a sterile pipette and mixed. 1 ml of green tea hydro alcoholic extract and 1 ml of mouthwash was added to 1-1 ml of each case specimen and was transferred to culture medium of trypticase soy agar. Agar plates incubated at 37 degree celcius for 48 hours to allow for microbial growth.microbial colonies counted by independent interpreter to evaluate the result. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained analysed using one way annova test.P values less than 0.001 groups were statistically significant. Result: Result of our study showed that Mean colony count of salivary microbial population was (1752493) 974 in saline group (negative control), (477) 22 in (0.12%) chlorhexidine group (positive control),(542135) 172 in green tea extract (2%) group (case control). Conclusion: Mouthwash containing green tea extract can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash.
753 Design and comparison of VCO With Gates Of PMOS Transistors Grounded and VCO With Voltage Applied To Both PMOS And NMOS Transistors of Ring VCO on Variation in Power Consumption and Frequency in 70 nm CMOS technology, Sunil Patidar,Sheetesh Sad
The proposed work describes the performance evaluation of different types of ring oscillator Voltage Controlled Oscillator topologies on the basis of two characteristic parameters power and frequency in 70 nm CMOS technology. The various topologies analyzed includes Current Starved VCO, VCO with Gates of PMOS Transistor Grounded, VCO with PMOS Diode Connected, VCO with NMOS Diode Connected, VCO with voltage applied to both PMOS and NMOS Transistor. Simulation of different parameters of ring oscillator VCO is carried out on Tanner tool Version 13. VCO topologies are evaluated on the basis of frequency and power consumption by taking lower supply voltage of 1.2 V. Performance evaluation and comparison of different topologies results in minimum power consumption of 0.57 uW by Current Starved VCO topology and maximum operating frequency of 0.57 MHz by VCO with Gates of PMOS Transistor Grounded.
754 Social Sector Development in the Tribal Community: A Study in Warangal District of Telangana State, Dr. Ankasala Samba Siva Rao
The study is divided into four parts, part one deals with the introduction of social sector, part two deals with the methodology and objectives, the empirical data analysis is in the part three and the conclusion and suggestions are in the fourth part
755 the Performance Of Grama Vikas Samithi: a Case Study an Punganur Mandal of Chittoor District, M. Rama Mohan, Dr. G. Prathap, Prof. M. Chinnaswamy Naidu
The GVS started in the year 1980. They worked for a period of two years in B.C.T a reputed voluntary organization in VIZAG District of Andhra Pradesh, prior to promoting GVS. GANDHI stated in 1942 that an ideal Indian village have cottages built of material obtainable within a radius of five miles of it. It will have wells according to its needs and accessible to all, a Co-operative diary, primary and secondary schools and it will have panchayats for settling disputes. It will have a common meeting place, common land for grazing its cattle. Its vision of development is equitable, gender sensitive, eco-friendly human society, which is non-exploitative in nature, based on the principles of peaceful for coexistence and critical collaboration for consistent and sustainable development. Since its inception, GVS has held the belief that education plays a vital role in the development of rural children. GVS lays emphasis on education programmes, because only a literate society can fully understand the objectives of development work and the problems it aims to overcome. GVS sponsored different educational programmes.
756 Construction of Language Creativity Test in Tamil for Higher Secondary Students, M.SURESH PRABAKARAN, Dr. N.O. NELLAIYAPEN
The aim of this present study is to measure the Language Creativity in Tamil among higher secondary students. The test has five sub-tests namely: i) Plot building or story construction, ii) Descriptive style iii) Poetic Diction, iv) Vocabulary test and v) Dialogue writing. There are 15 items constructed by the investigator with help of the language experts and subject experts in Tamil. Finally all the 15 items are selected for the final study. The basic behind this classification is that in creative writing, words employed and ideas expressed are unique in their own way and the students can opt for any stream of writing viz., poetry, lyric, story, drama, essay or letter-writing as their medium of expression.
757 Construction and Validation of Achievement Motivation for High School Students, M.SURESH PRABAKARAN, Dr. N.O. NELLAIYAPEN
The aim of the present study is to measure the Achievement motivation in high school students. For that the investigator constructed an achievement motivation inventory. That inventory consists of 45 items with 3 responses. The Achievement motivation inventory has been developed to provide a simple and objective measure of Achievement motivation of high school students. In that process the pilot study tool was given to a sample of 100 high school students and thus the collected data were subjected to analysis. Finally 35 items were retained. The tool is also subjected to reliability measure. Norms were also established.
758 Kinematic Characteristics of the Attack Spike in Female Volleyball Players Before and After Stretching, Alipasali Foteini,Zakas Athanasios,Gissis Ioannis,Vrabas Ioannis, Charitonidis Kostantinos, Komsis Stergios,Komsis Georgios
The purpose of the present study was firstly to investigate the effect of static stretching on female volleyball players kinematics characteristics during volleyball spike from the back row defense, in position 1. Twelve female volleyball players (age 18-21, training age 6-10 years, height 178.17} 3.15 cm and weight 65.90 } 5.80 kg), volunteered as participants and they were randomly divided into two groups of 6 players. The exercise protocol involved a 5 minutes general warm-up, followed by the initial spike, followed by the static stretching of the upper limbs and followed by the final spike. The kinematics characteristics of the players during the initial and final spike, into 2 times (T) and 1 phases, were evaluated by a three-dimensional (3D) vinteoanalysis APAS. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon analysis showed significant difference and increase after the static stretching, of the right wrist displacement (DRWr) at the T 2 and 4 (p=0.014, p=0.039), of the left wrist displacement (DLWr) at the T 3 (p=0.012) and of the right wrist range of motion (RomRWr) at the first phase (p=0.037). Significant difference and reduction, after the static stretching, was found of the left shoulder angular velocity (VLSh) at T 4 (p = 0.024) and of the right wrist (VRKarp) at T 4 (p = 0.008, p = 0.017). No difference was observed on the kinematics characteristics of the lower limbs, on the total displacement (D) and the velocity of the center of body mass (CM), on the jump height and the speed of the ball. It is concluded that the volleyball players should avoid static stretching before the competition.
759 Role of Emotional Intelligence in Higher Education with emphasis on Teachers Training, Ritima Malhotra
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. It is often said that emotional intelligence can be learned, strengthened, while it is also believed that it is an inborn characteristic. It is also paramount in personal, academic and career success.Different studies indicated that the key to success is not just cognitive intelligence rather 80% success in life depends on emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2005). In view of the primary role of teachers in training students, it seems that strengtheningemotional qualifications of teachers and including these qualifications in tactical plan of teacher training is inevitable. This paper is aimed to shed light on scientific evidences about the basic role of emotional qualifications in improvement of personal, social, scientific performance of students and effectiveness and efficiency of teachers. It symbolizes its relation with objectives of present education and prerequisites for developing emotional qualifications in Education. It suggests that as a prime pedagogy, pre-service training is necessary for professional development of a teacher.
760 Changes Observed on Leg Explosive Power and Sprinting Performance of Male Handball Players During A Handball Match, C. Jayakumar, B. Chittibabu
The study was proposed to investigate the changes observed on leg explosive power and sprinting performance of male handball players during a handball match. We selected twelve (12) university represented male handball players from Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu. However, in the present study goalkeepers were excluded from the study. The players were tested on leg explosive power by standing broad jump and sprinting performance by 30 metres run. The data was collected at two points one at the end of first half and the second at the end of second half. The result of the study showed that leg explosive power (t = 0.178, p = 0.862) and sprinting performance (t = 0.625, p = 0.545) showed no significant difference between first and second half during a handball match. It is concluded that comparison of first and second half of a handball match displayed no changes in leg explosive power and sprinting performance of male university handball players.
761 Effect of Performance in Basic Mathematical Operations Among Rural Upper Primary Children, Mrs. M.Kavitha, Dr. AR. Saravanakumar
In this article we have dealt with the concept of using some strategies to enhance the performance in basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division among rural upper primary children. The strategies are Arithmetic games, Rhymes and Educational activities. The rural upper primary children find it very difficult to do the basic mathematical operations as they were taught in the conventional method of teaching. By giving proper training in basic mathematical operations through the activity based strategies, we can enhance the learners performance in mathematics. When they become thorough in basic mathematical operations, they themselves get ready to do more complex operations in mathematics. They become more confident than before in doing sums. Continuous practice in these strategies and proper guidance leads to the best performance of the rural upper primary students in basic mathematical operations.
762 Enhancing English Pronunciation Among B.Ed., Trainees by Implementing Selected Strategies, MS S.Gowrie, Dr.AR.Saravanakumar, Dr.S.Subbiah
In this article we have dealt with the concept of enhancing English pronunciation of B.Ed., optional I teacher trainees by implementing the selected strategies for pronunciation namely Segmentation and Blending, Pronunciation Drills and Audio Assistance. The non native speakers of English find English pronunciation very difficult as they do not receive any systematic pronunciation training from the basics. With proper guidance in articulation and drill and practice in English sounds through the selected strategies, we can enhance the learners pronunciation. Pronunciation strategies are very useful in giving training and drill and practice. Along with the development in pronunciation learners acquire good reading skills, thinking power, correct spelling, vocabulary and interest to use English language. As these are learner centered the students use these activities freely without any fear or hesitation. These strategies can be used frequently in the English class rooms to motivate the learners to pronounce well.
763 Educating the Students Personality Through Outdoor Education Activities, Elena Moldovan
The present article deals with improving the instructive and educative process of extracurricular activities and with molding the latter through the experimental implementation of a certain educational activity program outside that can contribute to the high school students personality. The analysis of the scientific and methodological literature has emphasized that forming such an education through outside activities is not sufficiently dealt with, still existing educational deficiencies in correlation with heuristic values. In trying to prove the advantages of using the forms of outside activities in educating students, we have applied a set of outdoor activities depending on the major educational objectives and the main components of the extracurricular activities. The scheme of the program presents a structure that includes forms of outdoor activities, motivational strategies, new information and elements regarding the content of the outdoor activities domain accessible to high school students that contribute to the positive influence of the personality traits and to the increase of the formative aspect of these activities. All the elements of this program try firstly to increase the number of the students involved in practicing these type of activities and within this created basis try to influence the students personality.
764 Restandardization of Emotional Intelligence And Adjustment Inventories Under North-East Indian Conditions , Jakir Hussain Laskar, Dr.Sudarshan Mishra
The investigator has selected two standardized tools for re-standardization through pilot study; these two tools were developed to assess the emotional intelligence and adjustment of secondary school teachers. The present Pilot studies are undertaken to test the Emotional Intelligence and Adjustment Inventories, what to be used for a larger study; for data collection. Pilot study serves as a guide for a larger study. Mangal's(2008) Teachers Emotional Intelligence Inventory (tEQi,) actually standardized at Noida. Mangal's(1996) Teachers Adjustment Inventory(TAI) also standardized at Rohtak. To test their applicability under North-East Indian conditions in the larger sample; and whether these two inventories are fit for this situation. The pilot studies for re-standardization were conducted on hundred secondary school teachers selected by simple random basis from the five different schools of Kamrup Urban, Assam. On completing the test, the researcher found comfortable in administering and scoring all the tests. Subjects found emotional intelligence and adjustment inventories are very simple and relevant to the daily life situations of the teachers.
765 Organizational Climate and Teachers Morale in the Higher Secondary Schools of Namakkal District, Dr. VINCENT THANINAYAGAM
To study aims to find out the organizational climate and teachers morale in the higher secondary schools of Namakkal district. A samples of 220 higher secondary school teachers selected randomly were studied. A questionnaire method of survey was used to find out the teacher Organizational Climate and Teachers Morale. People through out the world have shown considerable interest in studying organizational climate prevailing in Education Institutions. They have also identified different types of climates and studied the differential effects of these climates on different variables concerning the teachers, the learners or the teachinglearning situations. There is no doubt that a conducive atmosphere will place the institutions on the top of its reputation. Again this will help for building up the teacher morale. When the morale is high it helps for shaping the personality of the pupils which is the ultimate goal of education. It is therefore very important and interesting to study the relationship between school climate and morale of the teachers. The data were collected by using questionnaire as an instrument. Primary data were collected by conducting direct structured interview using questionnaire. All the respondents were asked the same questions in the same fashion and they were informed the purpose of study. Descriptive Statistics, ANOVA and t-test analysis was applied to test the hypotheses. The findings and observations are the result and outcome of the interpretations made during the study of analysis. This will create motivation to the teachers also encourage the management to achiever more in their good organizational climate
766 Education is Important for the Development of Women in All Spheres of their Life, Shabnam Parveen
Education is most important for better and regular employment. Education not only linked with the income distribution. It also linked with proper diet, clothing, housing, health, hygiene, disease, knowledge and choice of health care, fertility patterns etc. An illiterate woman is blind and handicapped. She is in darkness and ignorance because she can not take any decision alone. An educated woman can solve any problem of her life without anybodys help. Education helps the women in all spheres of their life. Educated women know the importance of health care and know how to seek it for themselves, their children and family members. Mothers education is more influential than fathers education. Education (literacy) is the third eye which not only opens our eyes it also liberates our mind. Womens literacy is essential for economic viability and independence. Woman is the most important part of our society. She is the daughter, sister, wife and mother so, she has more responsibilities on their shoulders to perform. Women can not neglect their responsibilities. They should be educated to perform all these responsibilities but women are illiterate, ignorant, unaware, unhealthy, unfit, half-starved, under weight, weak and sick in our society. The objectives of the study are to examine the educational status of women in Aligarh city. The study is mainly based on primary data generated through the field surveys. Out of 70 wards 10 wards are randomly selected. The various information on 500 sample women households has been gathered from extensive field survey.
767 Review on Charge Coupled Devices in Cameras, Monika Bhatnagar,Rohit Kumar Srivastava
Any camera will need a device to convert optical image into an electrical signal. Now let us consider a picture frame made of small picture element. For more sharpness or better resolution we have to increase these elements. This picture frame can now be focused on to a structure of so many CCD elements. Each CCD element will now convert the light information on it to a charge signal. All we need now is to have an arrangement to collect this charge and convert it to voltage. This is the basic principle on which CCD cameras are based
768 Nature of Fall Accidents in Construction Industry: An Indian Scenario, C.Vigneshkumar
Fall accidents in construction projects, particularly building works, are the most frequent accidents. Those accidents may results in death and serious injuries of workers involved and other consequences such as lost of work days and the industry bad image. Robust accident prevention is required through improving continuously health and safety in construction. Therefore, understanding triggering events and their factors leading to fall accidents are of important input. The objective of this paper is to findings of triggering events based past fall accident cases in India. The fall accident cases were retrieved from accident reports provided by ADSI 2012 and Indian statistical report 2012. In this paper, current profile of accident records of India is presented. This paper also presents the nature of fall accidents. The event area and their potential active failures leading to fall of accidents are described. It is expected the knowledge shared in this paper assist all people involved in construction projects to plan an accident prevention strategy properly.
769 Comparative Theoretical and Experimental Study on The Stresses and Strains in the Cardan Shaft, Eugen Avrigean
The paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on a component of the cardan transmission - the cardan shaft.The study presents the mathematical calculus method for this component, applied to the model of the cardan transmission from a Dacia car, as well as a study with finite elements, targeting the correlation of the results from the two methods. Further there is presented also an experimental study, realised using resistive electrical tensometry and tensometric transducers, needed for the confirmation of the results obtained in the theoretical study. The study represents a model that can be applied also the the other components of cardan transmissions, but also to other mechanical parts.
770 Development in the Performance of A Valve Pulse Jet Engine, Yarram shetti Deva Harsha
pulse jet engine sucks air in the front and then pushes it out the back. Valve pulsejet engines use a mechanical valve to control the flow of expanding exhaust, forcing the hot gas to go out of the back of the engine through the tailpipe only, and allow fresh air and more fuel to enter through the intake. The valves prevent the explosive gas of the ignited fuel mixture in the combustion chamber from exiting and disrupting the intake airflow, although with all practical valve pulsejets there is some 'blowback' while running statically and at low speed, as the valves cannot close fast enough to stop all the gas from exiting the intake. The superheated exhaust gases exit through an acoustically resonant exhaust pipe.
771 Rule Based Expert system for the selection of a Bridge site, VRINDA.T,DR. M.S. KALAPPA
This paper describes a rule based expert system for the selection of a bridge site for river crossing bridges among alternative proposed sites. An Expert System is an intelligent interactive program which should emulate an expert and provide an advice that requires vast experience in a particular domain. To develop a fully efficient expert system an attempt is made to include the heuristic, qualitative, quantitative knowledge and the knowledge gain from the experts in this domain, in the knowledge base. In this study the knowledge in the knowledge base is represented using production rules and provides the mechanism of forward chaining. The uncertainty in the selection of a best site is handled using Stanford model of Certainty factors
772 BOX TYPE SOLAR COOKER, DINESH KUMAR.C.M,BOOBALAN.D,KOHUL RAJ.M.K.M,ALWIN.P,DEEPAK.S,R.Karthikeyan
Solar energy is the most abundant form of energy on earth. Harnessing this energy may be of abundant importance to mankind as this energy is renewable. The main objective of this project is to cook food by using solar energy instead of electricity or fuel. A box type solar cooker is designed here at an economically affordable cost. This is accomplished with a simple design consisting of easily available components. The designed device has been tested for efficiency and the scope for future work has been realized.
773 AUTO TURNING FUEL VALVE FOR TWO WHEELERS, Anandha Sithan,N.Ranjith,Senthil Kumar,Rohit Gupta,Ponnarasan,A.Sivasubramanian,Dr.G.Arunkumar
The Need for innovative ideas in automotive sector is a highly demanded thing to match the technology improvements in the field for managing success and competition. Our paper deals with making an auto turning fuel valve for two wheelers. aim of this work under taken in is to improvetechnology in mechanical field and also for doing a job in a scientific way. In fabricating this we gained invaluable technical knowledge regarding, material solution, planning the project, group efforts in achieving targets, cost estimation and also gained confidence in doing works.
774 Fabrication of zig zag Bending Machine, Aravinth.a,Arun kumar.b,Anil Pokhrel, Jayakumar.G,Mr.A.Velmurugan,A.Pandiyan
The hydraulic jack has to give the manual pressure the horizontal bar move towards the work piece the work peace which bend towards the zig zag position the final work has obtained .The zig zag position is used to heat transfer take place and it is also used in different types of grill works. Copper is one of the heat transfer material the refrigerant flows inside the tube the large amount of heat transfer take place due to the zig zag position gradually heat will be reduced. Mild steel work piece is one of the zig zag stylish work has to be obtained by the machine more force than that of the conventional one. No maintenance is required since its an easy mechanism, reduced man power
775 Design and Fabrication of Welding Fixture for a Single Doorframe, C.A.Arjun,S.K Vishal,Wahid Hussain,Prabhu Bala ganapathi,Shahul Hameed,Aditya Anand,A. Sivasubramanian,Dr.G.Arunkumar
Mass production aims at high productivity to reduce unit cost and interchangeability to facilitate easy assembly. This necessitates production devices to increase the rate of manufacture and inspection devices to speed up the inspection procedure.Production devices are generally work holders with / without tool guiding / setting arrangement. These are called jigs & fixtures. The advantages of welding fixtures in production are that increase in productivity, interchangeability, operator fatigue reduction and cost reduction.Fixtures hold the work pieces securely in correct position with respect to the welding / machine / cutter during operation. The effect of the clamping element an integral part of the fixture gets a gets importance while implementing it in an operation.Welding fixture that can serve better technically as well as economically will make a significant difference in production processes.
776 Modified Tricycle for Disabled People, Surajkumar Reddy,Hemant Sinha, V.Venkatraju,M.Sathish,D.Prasanna Kumar, Dr.S.Ranganathan
Modified Tricycle for Disabled people" is a paper based on assisting and supporting disabled individuals with one functional leg to easily ride bicycles and to make them feel confident performing work like healthy people. In this project the conventional Tricycle design was improved and some of its parts were modified in order to suit the utilization by such category of people. The design put into consideration that they are not similar to healthy people in terms of strength, balance and flexibility, thus modifications were done in a way to suit ease of usage, and balance to avoid falling. These modifications were applied on three main parts of the conventional bicycle. The parts that causes difficulties were adjusted using CATIA software to work as supporting units as well as facilitating usage of the "Modified Tricycle for Disabled people" by such individuals.
777 Design and Fabrication of Digital Oil Level Indicator, A.ShyamKumar,S.Surya Nishanth,S.Thulasi Raman,N.Rajkumar,A.Velmurugan
The aim of our project is to monitor the level of the oil in the vehicle oil tank and to automatically indicate the level information through LCD display.The main blocks are micro controller unit, oil level sensor and LCD display unit. The oil level detection circuit is used to detect the level of the oil in the tank here sensors are placed at certain places to find out the oil level and the signals are sent to the micro controller unit for further operations. Here sensors are placed at various places to sense the oil level and the signals from these sensors are sent to the micro controller unit to decide the exact level information. When the oil level reaches the top level sensor which means that the tank is full and this will be indicated to the user by means of the level information is indicated through LCD. By this same method the other sensors are working accordingly. The temperature sensor will sense the temperature of the oil. The viscous meter will sense the viscosity of the oil. Here the level information is displayed in terms of percentage and this information is preprogrammed according to the sensor position. The oil level indication is set to execute once for medium level and for high level and it will repeat continuously for the low level until the user fills the level of the oil correctly.
778 Multi-Tool Mechanical Machining, Syed hameez.H,Siddharth.R Vivek.S, Yuvaraj.I, Suji Kannan,Dr.R.Narayanan,A.Sivasubramanian
In this ever changing environment need for manufacturing of products and higher rate is greatly enhanced by the market trend and demand.The process involved in manufacturing also needs a global approach and has to be done by making the process more easy and reliable.Considering these aspects there is a need to design a methodology that would hope for the higher rate of production at greater quality. The aim of our paper is to design and fabricate an electrically operated multipurpose device for doing major operations carried out during manufacturing of a product. We have fabricated the device in such a way that the number of operations can be performed in it without shifting the work to next machine or station. The device is designed in such a way that we can carry out operations such as Drilling, Grinding and Milling in the same.This would reduce the set up time of each machine and increase productivity through conventional way
779 Dynamic Measurement of Tyre air Pressure in Vehicle, Ranjith Kanna,Sathivel.M,Sathya.C,Selva Ganapathy.S,Sasikanth,Dr.S.Christopher
This paper proposes a method to implement Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) in vehicles. TPMS measures the air pressure inside pneumatic tyre of automobiles. The proposed TPMS has an electronic unit that directly screws onto the stem of tyre. The unit includes a pressure sensor and switch, signal conditioning unit, microcontroller, RF (radio frequency) transmitter and battery. An on-board RF receiver communicates with the TPMS unit and displays real-time tire pressure of all tyres.The unit can be easily detached and re-attached to the tire. Modification to the tire is not required. The system and each TPMS unit have unique to prevent false data reception from neighboring vehicles. Tyre replacement or maintenance will not affect the system's working. Warning is generated whenever tire pressure crosses the maximum or minimum safe pressure level, or when it changes abruptly. This lower level and upper limit of tyre pressure or safe range of abrupt change can be modified by user through the user interface. The system can be implemented on any vehicle. It has given accurate results while proving to be user friendly.
780 Conversion of Reciprocating Motion Into Rotary Motion in Conventional Hand Pump, Arumugam,Harikrishnan,Dhatchnamoorthy, V.Saimurali,Sivasubramaniam, Dr.S.Christopher
A human power pumped designed to lift the water from a depth of 50 m or less. The pump was designed to serve to village water needs. This type of hand pump is difficult to repair to village level and mechanism involves for more effort for pumping.In present scenarios Indian society are in need of water supply and use of hand pump is most effective way for supply of water. We are seeing hand pumps which uses crank type of pumping, which need a greater effort for pumping. In this paper we go for a rotary type of motion in handling the pump. This conversion is mainly focused on senior citizen who find difficult to pump using a conventional pump. The effort made by them is really minimized.
781 Comparative Evalution on Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites With Jute Fiber (Cempec), R.Ranjith kanna,Ranjeet phokharel, N.Ranjith, C.Sathya,Bharaneedharan
The aim of this study is to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile and weight properties of natural fibersisal/jute epoxy composites. Microscopic examinations are carried out to analyze the interfacial characteristics of materials, internal structure of the fractured surfaces and material failure morphology by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).to scan the internal micro grain structure.The developed composites were characterized by tensile and three points bend tests and the experimental results thus Obtained were compared with that of the theoretical values. The results indicated that the incorporation of sisal fiber exhibited mechanical properties than the natural jute fiber with composites in tensile properties and jute fibercomposites performed better in flexural and natural jute fiber under mechanical properties.
782 Fabrication of Dip Coating Apparatus, Raghav V,Rambabu N,Monish K,Midhun Prasad K,Parthiban T,Ramakrishna K,Raghavendran S,Praveen Kumar S,ManojPrabhakar R,Santhosh Kumar. P,P.Kumaran
Catalytic converters are devices that are used to reduce the harmful emissions of the vehicles that use petroleum products as their fuel. These converters are coated by different chemicals and its combinations over the surface, which would act as a redox agent to reduce and oxidize the emission gasses. To coat the chemicals all over the converter we use a dip coating apparatus. A dip coating apparatus can dip the converter into the slurry of chemicals and develop the converter with the chemicals coated over it. There is no commercial equipments for experimenting the different chemical behaviors; hence we decided to fabricate the dip coating apparatus for a catalytic converter
783 Experimental Study of Mechanical Behavior of Glass Fiber Composite Plate With and Without Fiber Orientation, Padmanabhan. M,Mutharasan. S,Praveen Kumar. P,Bharaneedharan M
In general strength of a fiber along its axial direction will be more against its normal direction. The same factor will affect the quality of the composite plate made of it. With respect to orientation of fibers there is a greater variation in the mechanical property of the composite plate. There are many studies going on the same and this paper discuss about the properties of the laminates with respect to its fiber orientation, which are taken from experimental data.
784 Engine Start Features Using Voice Command, V. Mahilan,J. Naveen kumar,K. Naveen kumar,S. Prabhu,A. Pandiyan,Dr. G. Arunkumar
Speech recognition applications are becoming more and more useful nowadays. Various interactive speech aware applications are available in the market. But they are usually meant for and executed on the traditional generalpurpose computers. With growth in the needs for embedded computing and the demand for emerging embedded platforms, it is required that the speech recognition systems (SRS) are available on them too. PDAs and other handheld devices are becoming more and more powerful and affordable as well. It has become possible to run multimedia on these devices. Speech recognition systems emerge as efficient alternatives for such devices where typing becomes difficult attributed to their small screen limitations.
785 Design and Fabrication of Pedal Operated Hacksaw, Thangaprakash,Naresh,G.Venkatesh,N.S.Vishal,Suresh Kannan,A.Sivasubramanian, Dr.G.Arunkumar
The Pedal Powered Hacksaw Machine is a device which is used for cutting wood, plastic and metals. The basic principle of this machine is slider crank mechanism, which is an inversion of four bar mechanism. The concept of this mechanism is that the rotary motion is converted into reciprocating motion. The mechanism has four links connected to form sliding pair. Thus when one link is moved along the circumference of the circle, the final link will generate the sliding movement for cutting process.
786 Design and Fabrication of Latch Jig for Contour Profile Component, Muthukumaran,Ravi,C.Sivaram,Dinesh,P.S. Balaji,C.Sadasivam,A.Muniappan
Our paper is based on the need for the work holding devices. This design and fabrication which will enable the operation like drilling, reaming, tapping process easier even the job profile are Angular. Our project is mainly composed of design and fabrication of the LATCH JIG which cover the absolute design to the specified dimensions of the work piece. Angular jig permits drilling holes in one sides of the work piece with a single location and clamping operation this saves time and increase production rate.
787 Solar Power Drill, Maneesh.M,SatheshKumar.M,Naveen Kumar.P,Mahendra Babu.A, Mrs.T.S.A. SuryaKumari,P.Kumaran
We designed and fabricated the solar power drill to reduce the power consumption with the help of solar panel by power drilling. Self-generating power by using stepper motor. With the help of solar energy the drilling is done. Generator is connected to the motor so that there produce more power. The fastener is used to tighten the drill bit.The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the motor and rotated while on the switch against the target material. The tip of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material.
788 Fabrication of Pedal Operated Water Pump, Maanyam.Sairam,Seetharam Sandeep, SaiPrahallad,Sachin Gogoi,M.V.Sukumar Reddy, Dr. S. Ranganathan
In this paper, design and construct pedal operated water pump which used in small irrigation and garden irrigation. The pedal operated pump can be construct using local material and skill. A water system includes a Centrifugal pump operated by pedal power. The pump stand includes a housing in which a foot pedal and a drive shaft rotate. It works on the principle of compression and sudden release of a tube by creating negative pressure in the tube and this vacuum created draws water from the sump. This bicycle pedal operated pumps water at 2-3 gallons per minute from wells and boreholes up to 23 in feet depth. Provides irrigation and drinking water where electricity is not available.
789 Power Generation by Using Cycle RIM, Anayash Niraula,Bikash Tamang,Krishna Kumar Rai,K.S. Gouse Basha,K. Maheedhar,Ajay John Paul
This project helps us to generate the power by using cycle rim. By giving small input of D.C supply to the system, we can easily produce large amount of power. In this project we are using 12 volts of D.C battery which is connected to a D.C series gear motor which having a very high starting torque for rotational move.Gear motor is attached to a cycle rim which is moving with high r.p.m speed nearly (600-700) r.p.m. Then by the rotation of the cycle rim the smaller wheel of the dynamo starts rotating, where cycle rim has large size compare to dynamo wheel so that while rim takes single rotation simultaneously the dynamo wheel takes 10-15 rotation which produces a very large amount of output current. Dynamo output again connected to circuit which converts the dynamo small input to a large output of A.C current upto (220-240) volt. Without any fluctuation of current/voltage.By this we can give various loads to household components such as T.v ,fans tube lights. Main advantage of this project is it will never discharge the battery before discharge of the battery the dynamo makes it fully charged so we can get continuous rotation of the cycle rim.
790 Design of Automatic Headlight Dimmer Prototype, KEERTHITHARAN.P,JAGADEESHWARAN.E, SHEIK ABDULLAH.J, VIGNESH.P, SANJEEV RAJ THIAJARAJAN.C
Headlights of vehicles pose a great danger during night driving. The drivers of most vehicles use high, bright beam while driving at night. This causes a discomfort to the person travelling from the opposite direction. He experiences a sudden glare for a short period of time. This is caused due to the high intense headlight beam from the other vehicle coming towards him from the opposite direction. We are expected to dim the headlight to avoid this glare. This glare causes a temporary blindness to a person resulting in road accidents during the night. To avoid such incidents, we have fabricated a prototype of automatic headlight dimmer. This automatically switches the high beam into low beam thus reducing the glare effect by sensing the approaching vehicle. It also eliminates the requirement of manual switching by the driver which is not done at all times. The construction, working and the advantages of this prototype model is discussed in detail in this paper.
791 Development and Implementation of Reverse Drive Mechanism in Bikes , G.Sathish kumar,J.Jerris,J.Purushothaman, J.Jude Shelley,A.Abdul khadeer,Ranjeet Pokharel,J.Arshad Basha,P.Saravanan, P.Kumaran
At times when the front wheel gets into a trench it is very difficult to take the vehicle from parking. Even normal people face much problem to take the vehicle out of the parking at that time. In case of the handicapped people who drive two wheelers with extra support wheels, face much problem to take the vehicle out of the parking by pushing the vehicle with legs as we do. In order to take the vehicle out of the parking they need to seek others help or they should push it out of the parking. As a help to them we have designed a gear box which will be fit to the vehicle without altering the existing gear box. The paper deals with the design of such a gear box and the assembly process of the gear box to the vehicle. The design deals with the conditions of the gear box operation, and the design of the gear box based on easy assembly and easy manufacturing at low cost.
792 Automobile A/C System Using Waste Heat from the I.C Engine- A Conceptual Approach, Janardhanan.k,Jaya vishagan.V,U.Gowtham, Anil Pokhrel,Dilip kumar,Jaypal,Jeeva Prakash,A.Sivasubramanian,Dr.G.Arunkumar
The increasingly worldwide problem regarding rapid economy development and a relative shortage of energy, the internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat and environmental pollution has been more emphasized heavily recently. Out of the total heat supplied to the engine in the form of fuel, approximately, 30 to 40% is converted into useful mechanical work; the remaining heat is expelled to the environment through exhaust gases and engine cooling systems, resulting in to entropy rise and serious environmental pollution, so it is required to utilized waste heat into useful work. The refrigerating units currently used in road transport vehicle are of Vapour Compression Refrigeration system (VCRS). This system utilizes power from the engine shaft as the input power to drive the compressor of the refrigeration system, hence the engine has to produce extra work to run the compressor of the refrigerating unit utilizing extra amount of fuel. This loss of power of the vehicle for refrigeration can be neglected by utilizing another refrigeration system i,e. a Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System (VARS).In a Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System, a physicochemical process replaces the mechanical process of the Vapour Compression Refrigeration System by using energy in the form of heat rather than mechanical work. IN this paper we have dealt with a concept of the heat required for running the Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System can be obtained from that which is wasted into the atmosphere from an IC engine.
793 Design and Fabrication of Angular Plate Jig, M.Jagadish,S.Bakkiyaraj,Kharmugilan,Palani Vinod,Prasanth,A.Sivasubramanian,Dr.G.Arunkumar
Our paper is based on the need for the work holding devices during manufacturing processes. This design and fabrication which will enable the operation like drilling, reaming, tapping process easier. The need for such devices would greatly enhance the ability of the production unit to meet the requirement of the market and higher rate. Our paper is mainly composed of design and fabrication of the Angular Plate jig which cover the absolute design to the specified dimensions of the work piece and would make the production process easier. This jig is economical means to produce. Our paper is based on the need for the work holding devices during manufacturing processes. This design and fabrication which will enable the operation like drilling, reaming, tapping process easier. The need for such devices would greatly enhance the ability of the production unit to meet the requirement of the market and higher rate. Our paper is mainly composed of design and fabrication of the Angular Plate jig which cover the absolute design to the specified dimensions of the work piece and would make the production process easier. This jig is economical means to produce.
794 Design and Fabrication of HYKE-Idle Fuel Saver, Vineesh Vishnu.V,Venkatesh Kumar.S, Vishal.P.M,Venkatesh.S,Vinesh.V,Muniappan.A
In the Normal Vehicles the idle rpm of the Engine run by the Fuel and hence during the static position of the vehicle the fuel gets wasted. To overcome this wastage of fuel in two wheeler this runs by electric power in idle speed and runs in fuel during acceleration of Vehicles.During idle run time of engine the fuel gets wasted unnecessarily and hence to reduce the consumption of fuel during that time the electric motor is used.The idle RPM of the engine is to be run by the electric motor and only during the acceleration the fuel is used. Hence the minimum RPM is run by electric motor and the accelerating RPM is run by fuel. Our project is a design and fabrication of refrigerator which utilizes maximum energy as possible instead of wasting the energy in the form of heat to the environment.
795 Fabrication of U-Type, V-Type, L-Type Angle Bending Machine, Hemnath.D,Asthalin.A,FaizalAhamed.N,Karthikeyan.R,Disho John.M,P.Ravishankar
In this paper bending of U shaped metal rod is carried with the help of pneumatic cylinder arrangement. This method is very useful in industries to convert the lengthiest metal rod to the u shaped type. Here the main aim of the our project is reduce the man power, applying constant force at all time, automating the process and also increase the rate of production.The project is designed by following equipment compressor, control unit, Solenoid valve, Pneumatic Cylinder and Mechanical model.
796 Design & Fabrication of Compound Tool, J.Vinoth Kumar,T.Suresh,N.Jagatheesh, B.Rajasekaran,Syed Abuthahir, A.Sivasubramanian
While converting a raw material into a finished product the product should be accurate .So to require the accurate product the design should be accurate .If the design is not accurate then defects will occur in manufactured product. Small mistakes in designing will make the product useless. So while designing the product only we should be very care full. By the implementation of the computers in design field, designing process became easier and the time also has been reduced. The basic fundamental reason for implementing the computer aided design is to increase the productivity, get more accuracy and also for sub dividing the parts which we required. There by reducing the time for synthesizing, analyzing and documentation purposes. In our project we used Catia for designing a Compound Die. The product which we designed is washer of M10 bolt generally the progressive tools are called as stage tool. We have done the two stage progressive tool which means the final component will come at second stage. The first stage is the piercing and the second stage is blanking
797 Design and Fabrication OF Flywheel Bicycle with Mobile Charger, D.K.Naresh Kumar,M.Sarath Kumar,S.Murugavel,M.Pradeep,P.Prasath,C.Sadhasivam
At the beginning of the preliminary step of the project, we came to know about the important application of the flywheel and dynamo. In actual bicycle the kinetic energy obtained from the pedaling power is utilized and is not recovered. By designing and fabricating the flywheel bicycle with mobile charger fetches you the recovery of the kinetic energy produced from the pedaling power and also with addition of mobile charger by the use of the headlight generator (dynamo).
798 Fabrication of Zig Zag Pneumatic Lift, Bharath Kumar K., Bibin George Thomas, Deepak Kumar R, Gowtham S.,Kiron Antony Rebeiro, Paul James Thadhani
This project is developed for the users to lift any weight using air pressure. High pressure air is stored in a tank. A cylinder with piston arrangement is connected with a zig-zag pattern. Two pipes connected with ball valves connect the air tank with the cylinder. When one valve is opened, the air rushes out into the cylinder. Therefore the piston moves in one direction. The rod connected with the piston pushes the zig-zag frame so that the lift moves up. When the other ball valve is opened, the air inside the cylinder is released. Therefore the lift comes down.
799 Water Purification by Heating Using Solar Power as Fuel, AHAMED .M,ASWIN .A,BADRIVISHAL .B,DEVENTHERAN .D,LOKESH KUMAR .C,Deepak Kumar R
Purification by heating is one of many processes available for water purification, and sunlight is one of several forms of heat energy that can be used to power that process. Sunlight has the advantage of zero fuel cost but it requires more space ( for its collection) and generally more costly equipment. To dispel a common belief, it is not necessary to boil water to 100oC to purify. Simply elevating its temperature, short of boiling, will adequately increase the evaporation rate. In fact, although vigorous boiling hastens the purification process it also can force unwanted residue into the bottom, defeating purification. Furthermore, to boil water with sunlight doesnt require more costly apparatus than is needed to distill it a little more slowly without boiling. Many levels of purification can be achieved with this process, depending upon the intended application. Sterilized water for medical uses requires a different process than that used to make drinking water. Purification of water heavy in dissolved salts differs from purification of water that has been dirtied by other chemicals or suspended solids. For people concerned about the quality of their municipally-supplied drinking water and unhappy with other methods of additional purification available to them, solar distillation of tap water or brackish groundwater can be a pleasant, energy-efficient option. Solar purification systems can be small or large. They are designed either to serve the needs of a single family, producing from to 3 gallons of drinking water a day on the average, or to produce much greater amounts for an entire neighborhood or village. In some parts of the world the scarcity of fresh water is partially overcome by covering shallow salt water basins with glass in greenhouse-like structures. These solar purification plants are relatively inexpensive, low-technology systems, especially useful where the need for small plants exists. Solar purification of portable water from saline (salty) water has been practiced for many years in tropical and sub-tropical regions where fresh water is scare. However, where fresh water is plentiful and energy rates are moderate, the most cost-effective method has been to pump and purify.
800 Design and Fabrication of Multi Nut Removing Tool, Avinash.S,A.Balaraman,M.Kaleeswaran,V.Ganesan,S.Karthik,M.Bharaneedharan
The main concept of the proposed system is nut fitting & removing without human help for driving. The heart of the project and implementation is motor. The components used here for efficient function of individual blocks are Motor, Nut fitting arrangement (spanner) and spur gear arrangement.The main objective of the model is to remove the nuts of a wheel at once and not one at a time. The principle of the model is the usage of spur gear to transmit relative motion to other gears. In the model, the primary spur gear is connected to the motor shaftwhich has rotational motion due to the motor. The driver gear is the primary gear and the driven gears are the secondary gears. The primary gear is placed on the centre of the model. The secondary gears are in mesh with the primary gear. The secondary gears are placed at calculated distance at the base plate to make prefect meshing and for the perfect spacing of the tool. A primary gear is attached to the drive axle. A plurality of secondary axles extends through the cover. Each of the secondary axles has a first end positioned within the housing and a second end extending outwardly away from the cover. Each of a plurality of secondary gears is attached to one of the first ends. The secondary gears are each in communication with the primary gear. Each of a plurality of couplers is attached to one of the secondary axles. The project and implementation has to give the positive & negative potential to the motor. If we push the corresponding switch for forward rotation, it helps to fix the nut, or else if we push the corresponding switch for reverse rotation, the given polarity will be changed oppositely and it helps to remove the nut. The motor can be operated according to the operators requirement. The electric power can be given by the battery. The operator should lift the model and place at the appropriate place to tighten or remove the nut
801 Solar Powered Crack Detector Applicable For Tracks, SATHISH KUMAR.G, Dr.NARAYANAN. R
In this ever changing world, every manufacturer is moving towards lean technology to make his product much more fitter against heavy competition.This project relates to the location of singular points in the automatic control of railway tracks. According to a possible embodiment, the railway carriage carrying the control equipments is provided with sensor, orientated to detect the crack. Once the crack is detected, the carriage will stop the movement and produce signal, informing the operator
802 Design and Construction of a Prototype Hearing Aid With Cerumen Detection Capability, Dr. Mohsen Ahmadi, Fatemeh Mirghaemi
Since the advent of ITE hearing instruments, the efficiency, reliability, performance, and life span of such devices has been limited by cerumen build up within its key internal component: the receiver. Initially, cerumen accumulation physically blocks the receiver port occluding the acoustic path and preventing sound waves from efficiently reaching the tympanic membrane. Eventually, the cerumen can penetrate into the receiver housing and damage the sensitive mechanical and electrical components located within the housing. The monetary and time costs associated with replacing failed hearing devices due to cerumen clogging and receiver damage is significant. The management of cerumen continues to be a challenge for dispensing professionals, consumers, and the industry alike. Historically, the quest for managing cerumen whether in the form of a wax guard or collection device installed within the hearing aid itself or as a counter-top apparatus has yielded limited success and none of these systems has performed with optimum results. The aim of this research work was to design and construct a prototype hearing aid with cerumen detecting system for hearing aids based on infrared sensor. Our findings shows the system can detect cerumen efficiently, and can therefore resolve the key issue with hearing device failures
803 Growth Performance of Sal in Mahamaya Central Forest Nursery (Ambikapur), Chhattisgarh, R. Sinha, D.K. Yadav, M.K. Jhariya
In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the growth performance of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) in Sarguja Forest Division at Mahamaya central forest nursery during the year 2013-14. It is evident from the study that there are prominent variations in the seedlings height during the 6 months period and one year aged seedlings. The root shoot ratio at 6 months stage of sal seedling ranged between 0.67 to 0.82. The percent of average leaf infected was 49.50 per individual seedlings. During one year stage the mean total height and root length of the individual seedling was 42.40 cm and 17.93 cm, respectively. The total height of the seedlings ranged from 19.10 to 106.00 cm. Among the total leaf in a seedling the mean infected leaf percent was 37.73% at one year aged stage. The root shoot ratio at 1 year old sal seedling ranged between 0.31 to 0.74. The growth performance of the sal seedling is slower as compared to other tropical species in the nursery stage. Proper management practices should also be opted so that the good growth performance can be achieved.
804 Clinical Study on Post Operative Wound Infections, DR.S. VIJAYA MOHAN RAO,Dr.O.Siddharth
Causesof post-operativewoundinfectionare multifactorial, determined bytheinteractionofseveralfactors:thenatur eanddegree of contaminationofthewound,localtissuefactorsandthegeneralresistanceof thepatientprobablymodified bytherapeuticmeasures.Variousfactorsboth intrinsicandextrinsictothepatienthavebeenincriminatedtowoundsepsis.This is a prospective study conducted in the General surgery department during the period between June 2011 to Oct 2013. Out of the 346 wounds in the study 47 got infected. Of these 27 were mild infections, 11 were moderate infections and 9 were severe infections including 1 burst abdomen. The overall infection rate in this study was 13.58%.
805 A Case Report of Unusual Self - Mutilation in A Paranoid Schizophrenic Patient, Dr Saswat Kumar Dandpat, Dr Suresh Babu D., Dr Shilpa A Rao
Self mutilation is defined as intentional damage of body without an intention to die3.This type of behaviour is observed in a group of patient particularly schizophrenics.In these patients self-mutilating behaviour may have unusual manifestation related to Hallucination or delusion.In this article an unusual and chronic form of self mutilation of a paranoid schizophrenic patient is reported.The subject inserted multiple sewing needle on his own neck,chest,abdomen,root of the penis,both upper limb and lower limb over a 3-4 month period.
806 Mobile Technology in Management of Field-Based Learning in Geography: An Analysis of Niemgeo, Associate Professor (Dr) Kalyani Chatterjea
Field-based research in any field-based discipline involves recording of huge datasets, multiple researchers. There is a need for an integrated platform that allows seamless data recording and post-field data analysis, using contextrich and spatially-coded data. This research analyses the operations of a mobile application, NIEmGeo, that integrates field-based data recording and integrates post-field quantitative analysis and spatial mapping on one single platform. The application has been used by more than 2000 students for field-based research so far, allowing opportunities to teachers to venture out with large numbers of students, otherwise impossible.
807 Geostatistical Analysis of Groundwater in and Around Kadiri, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India, Dr.G.SudarsanaRaju,Dr.K.Raghu babu,P.T.Ashok kumar Reddy,P.L.Keshava Kiran kumar
Geostatistical analysis of groundwater were carried out in and around Kadiri,Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. In the present study 41 hydro chemical data of groundwater samples for both the seasons (pre monsoon and post monsoon) were collected from different locations of the study area. Eight variables Ca, Mg, Na + K, SiO2, HCO3, SO4, Cl and EC were used in the study. Statistical analysis was carried out by using software STATISTICA. Further, multivariate statistical methods were used. Statistical methods can be classified as independent method and dependent method. From the dependent method, it is noted that a variable or set of variables was taken as dependent one and the remaining variables as independent/s (Regression analysis).By this method it is possible to predict the groundwater characters of an area. But in the independent method all variables were analysed as single sets(Cluster analysis, Principal components and Factor methods)Using this technique the deterministic model can be obtained, which evaluates the groundwater quality , and also analyses the underlying parameters of relationships for a group of variables.
808 Formulation and Supplementation of Iron Rich Health Mix and its Effect on Haemoglobin Levels of Adolescent Girls, Mrs.V.SUBASSHINI,Mrs.S.AYESHA
Anaemia continues to be a major health problem, particularly among late adolescent girls and affects overall nutritional status of adolescent girls.Hence a study was framed to assess the formulation and supplementation of Iron rich health mix among adolescent girls. The samples include 50 anaemic adolescent vegetarian girls and Non-vegetarian girl (aged 17 to 21years). Iron rich healthmix was prepared with selected Iron rich foods and standardized. They were screened with random sampling and 20 girls were in the control group and 20 girls were supplemented with 20g of iron rich health mix daily for 60 days as experimental group. There was a significant increase in the haemoglobin level of the subjects belonging to the Vegetarian Experimental Group throughout the test periods. The t values were 1.9391 [0th vs 30th day],4.5381 [oth vs 60th day]and 2.425[30th vs 60th day] which is significant at 1% and 5% level .
809 Clinical Assessment of Health and Nutritional Status of School Going Children of Tirupati, G.Sireesha,Dr. D.L. Kusuma
Health and nutritional status of Tirupati urban school children of Chittoor district was studied with the help of clinical examination, and height and weight measurements. A total of 776 children (342 boys and 434 girls) formed the study group. With clinical symptoms of height and weight, the prevalence of undernutrition was also determined. A close proximation was observed in the appearance of deficiency symptoms and undernutrition between boys and girls, depicting their poor state of health and nutrition.
810 Comparative Study on Nutritional Quality and Detection of Pesticide Residues in Organically Grown Versus ConventionallyGrown Fruits and Vegetables., R.Revathi, Dr. Usha.T, Dr.Nithya Maloney Bright
People are becoming conscious of the risks of an unhealthy life style and are trying to find ways to increase their quality of life by living healthier. (Flynn, 2001) one way in which people change their diet to become healthier is to buy " organic foods". They are marketed as pesticide free and nutrient rich (Marcus, 2001) Awasthi et al in 1998 studied on levels of contamination in sampled vegetables, fruits , oilseed, animal and spice products. The magnitude of pesticide contamination was seem to be more severe in India than in developed countries. Therefore the present study was undertaken in order to assess the nutritional quality of the selected organic and conventional fruits and vegetables namely carrot, cucumber, papaya and tomato and also to detect the presence of pesticide residues to ascertain their overall quality. Study showed that there was no significant detection of BHC, DDT, aldrin and dieldrin levels both in conventional and organic fruits and vegetables except for presence of BHC in conventional cucumber. There was a significant difference between the nutrient contents namely iron, phosphorous and vitamin-C of organic fruits and vegetables with that of conventional ones.
811 Bagru, the Traditional Hand Printed Textile of Jaipur , Meena Batham
This study was carried out to create awareness about the unique bagru printing art where artisan were using natural sources like harda and myrobalam to dye and print the fabric. This report would be a step towards improving economic and social status of the people and help to preserve the cultural heritage of our country. The objective of the study was to analyse the various aspects of printing process on fabric practised in the bagru village. A descriptive research design was planned. Purposive sampling technique was used where all the craftsmen involved in printing were interviewed during the survey at bagru village, Jaipur. The interview question dealt with demographic details, history of craft and process of producing the craft. Observations were recorded by taking photographs. The study was carried out to understand the process which was followed by the artisan to create a bagru printed fabric.
812 Resistance in Learning Hris in Education And it Companies, Devadesh Sharma, S. S.Nathawat
Acomparative study was conducted in educational sector and IT sector in this research paper to find out the level of resistance and to assess the level of preparedness required to motivate employees to accept Human Resource Information System (HRIS) and increase acceptance. Furthermore it was planned to explore the perceived critical skills needed by employees in the education and IT sector for the implementation ofHRIS. The major research problems presented:1. what role the system of the organization plays in reducing the resistance towards change / HRIS. The effort was made in this study to exploreandexamine2. Howthe technology could be implemented effectively in the organizations with very less or no resistance to change.Recommendations for consideration after conducting the comparative analysis were suggested for both the sectors. To suggest acceptance level and managing acceptability amongst the employees, was the biggest challenge to be handled by the change inspectors in the educational and IT sectors.It was also suggested that if required, professional help should be taken to reduce resistance and increase acceptability
813 Assams Contact With The indian National Congress, Dr. Chandana Goswami
The paper makes and attempt to highlight the role of the Assamese intelligentsia in the proceedings of the Indian National Congress. That Assam has always been an integral part of the Indian Sub-continent is proved by the participation of the Assamese leaders in the various sessions of the congress. The part played by the leaders of Assam in bringing forth the various problems of the province to a wider platform is highly laudable. The Assamese leaders tried hard to settle the valleys quest for linguistic and regional identity. While western education inspired the intellectuals, the national awareness and a sense of political awakening among the educated and enlightened sections encourage them to get organised and march forward in an attempt to assert their identity.
814 Recent Changes and Amendments in Relation to Crimes Against Women in India, TALAPALA VENKATA NAGARAJA, Indla Devasena
India is the fourth most dangerous place in the world for women to live in. In India, police records show a high incidence of crimes against women. Earlier many crimes against women were not reported to the police due to the social stigma attached to the rape and molestation. Official statistics show a dramatic increase in the number of reported crimes against women. Many crimes are happening from decades against women and various laws and sections were framed to deal with those crimes. The death following a gang rape of a 23 year
815 Impact of C/N Ratio of Pretreated Parthenium Hysterophorus L. On Biomethanation , Ramya. R, Shree. M. P
The objective of this study was to know the effect of Carbon-Nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) in pretreated Parthenium hysterophorus L., on the microbes involved in the biomethanation. Experiments were performed based on completely randomized design with five pretreatments of P. hysterophorus i.e. alkali, acid, water, biological and whey water which is replicated thrice to obtain the C/N ratio. The results showed that the C/N ratio obtained were statistically significant with respect to that of the pretreatments which was further subjected for anaerobic digestion. The results also indicated that the C/N ratio is independent to that of the pretreatment with respect to that of the CH4 yield.
816 Reduction of Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Hepatocarcinoma Cells by Optimization of Treatment Conditions, Odii Benedict Onyekachi,Coussons Peter
Cisplatin otherwise known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) is an anticancer agent with broad spectrum of effectiveness against different types of tumour. Its use in cancer treatment is characterised and limited by several potentially dangerous side effects, affecting organ systems. Previously, we established a model drug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells from human hepatocarcinoma (HEPG2) cell line using pharmacologic agents, including cisplatin; and through dose-dependent assessment of cisplatin toxicity to HEPG2 cells, we observed that the drug is highly toxic to the cells. This is in agreement with many clinical reports of wide range of cisplatin-induced toxicities. Here, we aimed at establishing the optimal treatment conditions for cisplatin, and developing a model to understand more about the kinetics of cisplatin cytotoxic effects, in this case, on hepatocarcinoma cells. Time-course analysis of HEPG2 cell death by flow cytometry showed consistent EC50 value of 4M, irrespective of the incubation time. Flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle at optimal treatment time showed a near-complete arrest at G0/G1 phase only at highest concentration. Analysis of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis showed high degree of toxicity after 12 to 48 hours of cisplatin treatment. The continuous treatment of HEPG2 cells with cisplatin for 12 hours followed by 48 hours incubation in drug-free medium, showed a comparable magnitude of cytotoxicity and apoptosis with 24 to 48hrs continuous treatment. These results are discussed in relation to current clinical use of cisplatin in cancer therapy. The study shows that similar level of effectiveness can be achieved within shorter time of cisplatin treatment, against prolonged exposure that could result in damage of non-target cells and range of side effects. Furthermore, it suggests that the optimal treatment time for a given dose of cisplatin is 12 hours. Finally, the study underlines the importance of optimization of treatment conditions as a means of obviating cellular toxicity due to any given chemotherapeutic agent.
817 Diversity of Free-Living Protozoans in the Karamana River, Trivandrum, Kerala, Mini Mohandas,Athira Nagendran,Apreshgi K. P,Lekshmy S.,Tresa Radhakrishnan
Karamana River (Kerala) ranks 15th in catchment area and 17th in stream length. It is one of the major rivers flowing through Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala State. The River originates from Western Ghats falls in to the Lakshadweep Sea. The deterioration of quality, loss of biodiversity and fast depletion of water resources are the main challenges, which need urgent attention. An attempt is made to study the diversity of the free living forms of Sarcomastigophorans and some ciliates in the Karamana River. The entire complex of purification plants can make use of these protozoans in order to reduce the pollutant level in Karamana River. Protozoa literally means first animal which constitute a subkingdom of the Animal Kingdom. It encompasses single celled eukaryotic animalcules of microscopic size, ranging mostly between 5 micrometers to 250 micrometers. This study identified a total of 22 rhizopod species belonging to 8 Genera and 5 Families 3 Orders and 3 Classes and 6 species of ciliates belonging to 6 Genera and 6 Families 6 Orders and 4 Classes. Phacus sp., Arcella conica, Arcella catinus, Arcella gibbosa, Centropyxis minuta, Centropyxis discoides, Difflugia tuberculata, Difflugia urcealata, Lesquereusia modesta, Porodon sp., Lacrymaria sp., and Vorticella sp. were the first reports in Kerala. Netzelia oviformis was first reported in India during the study
818 Gita for Contemporary Management: Holy Text with Secular Advice, Tania Mahapatra
In any organization diverse people work towards achieving a goal through planning and utilizing present means within the constraints of ethics and morals. Competition may drive a person to reach far but social mores may hold back. Also, distinguishing greed from duty can help one to balance spirituality with secularity. The philosophy of ancient text, Gita has been time and again described as a guide for personal and professional management. Between the battlefield and todays pragmatic world, one can discern the common thread among problems of Arjuna and the modern manager. Just as Arjuna felt distressed in the face of complex situation, a manager constantly deals with deadlines, resources, results, subordinates, work-life & competition. In this storm of life, the centuries old doctrine, applicable to people of all outlooks comes to help.
819 Segment Marketing Challenges (Marketing to Women, Youth, Kids, Senior Citizens and Gays), Gayathiri Ramachari, Prof. Lalitha Ramakrishnan
Segment marketing is categorizing wide-ranging markets into different groups of customers having similar penchant of buying. Subsequent to segmenting the market into different groups, an organization can target a picky market segment or more than one. This paper converses a small number of marketing techniques which can be used fruitfully to some precise market segments like women, kids, youth, senior citizens and gays. For example while marketing to women one has to more concern about constructing trust by customer affiliation. Marketing to youth can ponder on viral marketing as these segments are big internet users. Identifying the products where kids become the buying influencers like car, television, mobile phones, computers etc is the crucial role for marketers today. When considering Gerontographics, one has to instigate price sensitivity, health perception and convenience buying. Separate marketing strategies for gay and lesbian groups are also very money-spinning for entry level organizations as they are the early adopters of many products and services.
820 Study on the Effectiveness of Employee Training in Selected Electrolyte Capacitor Manufacturing Organizations, Vidhusekhar P
The study focuses on the effectiveness of employee training in electrolyte capacitor manufacturing companies. It develops a thinking stream of the logic of spending money for training programmes. It draws clues for training imparted and the employee promotion.
821 Specific And Generic Skills in Architectural Geometry Teaching: Review And New Developments, Enrique Castano, Manuel de Miguel, Alberto Lastra
The work is devoted to exhibit how teaching methodology and learning activities experience a deep change in architectural geometry teaching when considering specific and generic skills in the teaching-learning process. These skills are not limited to technical skills, but actually reflect the competences which are claimed in the world of work nowadays.
822 Some Fixed Point Theorems For Cyclic Contractions In Dislocated Quasi-Metric Spaces, T.SENTHIL KUMAR, R.JAHIR HUSSAIN
In this paper, we study some fixed point theorems for cyclic contractions in a dislocated quasi-metric space which improve and extend some existing results.
823 Nutrient Foramina of the Dry Human Clavicle and Their Clinical Significance, Dr. Hetalben G. Patel,Dr. Dayanand Babariya,Dr. C. A. Pensi
Aim of the study: To study the number, direction and position of nutrient foramen of the dry human clavicle. Material and Method:The study comprised 75 clavicles which were obtained from anatomy department of B.J.Medical College and grossly observed for the number,location and direction of the nutrient foramina. The Foraminal Index was calculated for each clavicle by applying the Hughes formula. All the measurements were taken by using digital Vernier Calipers in millimeters. Results: In present study the foramen was single in 56(74.66%) clavicles,double in11(14.66%) clavicles,more than two in 6(8%) clavicles and absent in 2(2.66%) clavicles.The foramen was present in 79(82.29%) claviclesat middle 1/3, in 8(8.33%)at medial 1/3 and in 9(9.37%) clavicles at lateral 1/3 of clavicle.The foramen was present on inferior surface in 18(18.75%) clavicles on posterior surface in 76 (79.16%) clavicles and on superior surface in 2(2.08%) clavicles. Mean Foraminal Index was 52.66. Conclusion: Most of the foramina were on posterior surface and on middle 1/3(proved by Foraminal Index). Undoubtedly all foramina were directed towards the acromial end, so nutrient foramina ofclavicle follow the growing end theory. Theknowledge from the present study will be helpful in certain surgical procedures to preserve circulation, for bone grafting,surgical approach for internal fixation and coracoclavicular ligament repair.
824 The Utility of PSA Density in the Detection of Carcinoma Prostate in Men with PSA levels of 4-10Ng/ml., Dr. Lakshmi. S.,Dr. Sudharshan Babu K. G.,Dr. Madhusudhan.H.R.,Dr. Hemanth Vupputuri,Dr. Madhan Swamy D.P.
INTRODUCTION: Role of PSA in diagnosis of prostate cancer has been proved but for those patients in the gray zone of 4-10ng/ml further refining of measurement of PSA is required . This can help in further defining the guidelines for prostate biopsy which is an invasive procedure. Hence this study aims at measuring the efficacy of PSA density in predicting possibility of prostate cancer in patients with Se. PSA levels 4-10ng/ml MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 42 patients with serum PSA 4-10 ng/ml were recruited in this study. Patients underwent prostate volume assessment by TRUS and Free : Total PSA estimation. All patients underwent TRUS guided prostate biopsy. PSAD was estimated by predefined formula. RESULT: TRUS guided biopsy was performed for all patients , 27 (64.3%) cases were reported as BPH while remaining 15 (35.7%) cases were proven as carcinoma prostate on biopsy. F/T PSA cut off value of < 0.25 was considered as carcionoma prostate , 9 out of the 15 cases of biopsy proven carcinoma had F/T PSA 0.25. . A cut off value of >0.15 ng/ml2 was considered to suggest Ca .Prostate. 14 of the 15 biopsy proven carcinoma cases had PSAD value >0.15 ng/ml2 and all 27 cases of BPH has PSAD levels
825 Need For Palliative, Corrective, and Second-Corrective Surgery in Adult Patients With Congenital Cardiopathy Classified According to Disease Complexity, Claudio G. Moros,Marisa Pacheco Otero,Maria Grippo,Maria del Carmen Rubio,Liliana N. Nicolosi
The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease has increased with advances in endovascular surgery and treatments. It is therefore essential to determine the need for surgery in these patients throughout their lives. Based on a multi-center database on Grown-up congenital heart disease (GUTI-GUCH), an observational study was performed to assess the need for palliative, corrective, and second-corrective surgery, in patients with adult congenital heart disease. Patients were classified as having MILD, MODERATE, or SEVERE anomalies. The association between need for surgery and severity of cardiopathy was analyzed using Kaplan Meier analysis. Study population: 714 patients; age: 32years 11.59; females: 55.3%. Open surgery 52.8%; Closed surgery 23.9%; Palliative surgery 15.3%; Corrective surgery 57.7%; reoperation, 11.2%. Mild cardiopathy: 26%; moderate cardiopathy: 52.4%; severe cardiopathy: 21.6%. None of the patients with mild, 9% of patients with moderate, and 48% of patients with severe cardiopathy needed palliative surgery before age 10 years. Patients not requiring corrective surgery before age 10-20-30-40 years: mild cardiopathy: 90%-84%-75%-70%, moderate cardiopathy: 50%-37%-30%-27%, severe cardiopathy: 52%-34%-29%-29%. Patients not requiring reoperation before age 10-20-30-40 years: mild cardiopathy: 92%-92%-92%-92%, moderate cardiopathy: 85%-81%-77%-75% and severe cardiopathy: 85%-70%-61%-61%, respectively. Half the patients with severe and moderate cardiopathy required corrective surgery in their first decade, and 70% required corrective surgery in their third decade of life. The need for palliative and corrective reoperation was significantly higher in patients with severe congenital heart disease.
826 Trying triangle in silicon sling suspension surgery in ptosis, Dr. Gazala Mansuri,Dr. Nitin Trivedi
Aim: To compare pentagonal pattern of silicon sling suspension with triangular pattern. Methods: 37 eyelids of 31 patients with ptosis, 6 patients operated bilaterally where18 eyelids undergone pentagonal pattern and 19 eyelids with triangular pattern. Successful surgical results were judged by lid level, lid symmetry and lid contour during the follow up period of 9 months. Result: No difference in functional success, ptosis recurrence, or change in MRD I was noticed in both the groups. No patient was seen with complications like exposure keratitis, granuloma formation. 4 eyelids, 2 in each group required re-surgery during the follow up period. Conclusion: The use of triangular pattern of silicone rod frontalis suspension surgery for ptosis repair is equally effective, with few complications, easily adjustable in case of recurrence or overcorrection and better cosmesis with triangular pattern.
827 Comparison of Pre and Post Interventional Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients With Mitral Valve Heart Disease - (A Study of 50 cases), Dr. Zeeshan H. Mansuri,Dr. Bharat C. Kaji,Dr. Ekta B. Vala,Dr. Raju Talwar
Valvular heart disease is seen in a large number of patients in India owing to high incidence of rheumatic heart disease. Mitral valve being commonly affected. Mitral valve disease progressively leads to deterioration in the pulmonary functions. Aim of my study is to determine the state of pulmonary function in patients with symptomatic mitral valve disease and to assess the changes in the same after patients undergo operative intervention. The study included 50 patients having symptomatic mitral valve disease and their pulmonary functions were analysed using spirometry. All these patients underwent operative procedures namely Balloon Mitral Valvotomy or Mitral Valve Repair. Their pulmonary functions were assessed again after 6 months and comparative analysis was done with pre interventional status. The study revealed that all patients with symptomatic mitral valve disease had developed restrictive pattern of respiratory dysfunction and following operative intervention most of them benefitted evidently as was observed in spirometric analyses.
828 Study of comparision between Anterior V/S Posterior Decompression and various factors affecting surgical outcome of compressive cervical myelopathy, Dr. Yusuf Asgar Bharmal, Dr. Kevin Rajesh Choksey, Dr. Rahul Parmar
Introduction: Compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM) is one of the commonest problem for aged patients. Methods and material: Retrospectively analysed 35 patients for factors affecting outcome of CCM including Age, Neurology including myelopathy, spasticity, flaccidity, radiculopathy, sphincter involvement, ambulation, dynamic X-rays, MRI(cord changes), single to multiple compressive segments, anterior/posterior or combined pathology, type including spondylotic, flourotic, OPLL. Pre op score including Nurick score and JOA score, types of surgery anterior/posterior/combined and staged with/without fixation and fusion, associated comorbidities. Result: At minimum of 9-months and average 1-year follow up showed Nuricks grade I pts having Excellent, Grade II & III having good to excellent and Grade IV & V having fair outcome. JOA Score >10 had Excellent and
829 Comparison of Patella Resurfacing and Patelloplasty in Operated Bilateral Total Knee Replacement, Dr. Kevin Rajesh Choksey, Dr. H.P. Bhalodiya, Dr. Z.M.Patel,Dr. Hiren K. Patel,Dr. Aditya Banta,Dr. Shaival S Dalal
Up to 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome following total knee replacement (TKR), because of many factors, an important one being patellofemoral joint. The aim of this study was to study and compare the outcomes of patella resurfacing and modified patelloplasty in controlled matched group of patients. 40 patients had staged bilateral total knee replacement surgery and kept blinded to which side patella resurfacing was done. Patella resurfacing was done always on side operated second. In followup, patients were examined for anterior knee pain, range of motion, Standard radiographs, KSS, VAS score, and Feller patellar scores were calculated. There was no significant difference between both groups in terms of scores, function and radiographic alignment. The results of patelloplasty were as good as resurfacing & in case of persistent anterior knee pain it offers option of secondary resurfacing, also avoiding complications associated with resurfacing.
830 Intraoperative Radiography for Assessment of Clearance during Surgical Resection of Jaws, Dr. Manish Kumar Bhagania,Dr. Abhay Taranath Kamath,Dr. Srikanth G.,Dr. Anukool Choube,Dr. Neha Sharma,Dr. Prem Sasikumar
Aims: Jaws are seldom affected by pathologies which require resection for comprehensive management to ensure clearance and minimise recurrence. This paper highlights the importance of intra operative radiography in determining adequate margins during surgery. Methods: Ten patients were operated for surgical resection of jaws wherein the resected specimens were subjected to radiography for evaluating the adequacy of clear margins which was later sent for histopathology. Patients were followed up for least three years. Results: Intra operative radiograph revealed adequate clearance which was confirmed by histopathology. The follow up period was free of any disease thereof. Conclusion: Intra operative radiography is a helpful tool during surgical resection of pathologies afflicting the jaws. It proves to be a very economical, low hazard and a quick means to assist the operating surgeons in assessing the clearance of the margins.
831 Effect of Hip Abductor Strengthening on Knee Disability in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, Benish Aslam,Nishat Quddus,Supriya Bali,Sohrab A. Khan,Deepak Malhotra
This paper talks about the effectiveness of hip abductor strengthening exercises on knee disability in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. The study was conducted on 30 patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome at Physiotherapy Department, Majeedia Hospital, Jamia Hamdard; New Delhi, India. In the study; Group A (Experimental) received Conventional treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Close chain kinetic semisquat quadriceps strengthening protocol & Hip abductor Strengthening and Group B (Control) received only Close chain kinetic semisquat quadriceps strengthening protocol. The knee disability was measured using Anterior knee Pain Scale (AKPS). The addition of hip abductor strengthening to close chain kinetic semisquat exercises has shown greater improvement in the isometric strength and function as compared to using only close chain kinetic semisquat exercises over a 3 week period in Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) patients.
832 Validation of the Polish version of P-QOL Questionnaire, Jakub Rzepka,Kamil Zalewski,Artur Stefanowicz,Krzysztof Cendrowski,Wlodzimierz Sawicki,Vik Khullar,Steven Swift,Allesandro Digesu
Objective: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common morbidity that affects many woman and significantly decreases quality of life. The severity and the impact of the prolapse on the quality of life are important parameters in the management and follow-up of affected patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Polish version of the Prolapse Quality-of-Life questionnaire (P-QoL). Methods:The P-QOL questionnaire was translated into Polish and administered to women recruited from two gynecological outpatient clinics. Both symptomatic and asymptomatic women were included in the study and examined in supine position using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP-Q). The validity was assessed by comparing symptom scores and quality-of-life scores between symp-tomatic and asymptomatic women. Result:A total number of 154 symptomatic and 77 asymptomatic women were included. There was a strong correlation between severity of the disease based on physical findings (POP-Q scale) and the P-QoL scores in main prolapse quality-of-life domains. The overall scores for each life domain were significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic women (p
833 Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells, Maarif Jafarov,E.F. Nasirov,S.A.Jahangirova
A low-temperature colloid synthesis approach was applied to synthesize Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles for the first time. This method produced gram quantities of material with a chemical yield in excess of 90% within a short synthesis time. The formation reaction of kesterite CZTS fabricated from synthesized nanoparticles was investigated, and the results showed that the sufficiently high partial pressures of Sn with S during the annealing process were important for the fabrication of high-quality CZTS films. The compositional ratios as determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) after the KCN etch are Cu/(Zn,Sn): 1.0 and Zn/ Sn: 1.0.
834 Rp-Hplc Method Development and Valdation for the Simultaneous Determination of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form , N. Mukuntha Kumar, Sumathi V rao, Konde Abbulu, B.Venkata Narayana, I. Sukumar
A simple, accurate, precise RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in fixed-dosage formulation. The separation was achieved on a C-18 reversed phase column (ACE 5, C-18, 150mm x 4.6mm, 5) using Acetonitrile: water: Orthophosphoricacid acid (95:5:01 v/v) as mobile phase-A & Acetonitrile: water: Orthophosphoricacid acid (5:95:01 v/v) as mobile phase-B at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min and temperature of 25C. The UV detection was carried out at 254nm. The retention time of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin was found to be 9.08 and 14.68 min. respectively. The method has been validated for Specificity, Linearity, Accuracy, Precision and Robustness. The calibration curve for Telmisartan and Atorvastatin were linear from the range of 20.01-120.05 g/mL and 2.5-14.97g/mL respectively. The mean recoveries obtained for Telmisartan and Atorvastatin were 99.9% and 99.2% respectively. The developed method was found to be Specific, Accurate, Precise, Robust and rapid for the simultaneous estimation of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in Bulk & Tablets 40mg/10mg & 80mg/10mg
835 Soft Tissue Chin Thickness Comparisons in Indian Adult Class II Division 1 Subjects, Dr. Prasad Chitra, Dr. Alapati Prasanna
Thickness of soft tissues may affect the position and relationships among facial structures affecting facial esthetics. Such differences between skeletal and soft tissues can cause a disassociation between the position of underlying bony structures and facial appearance that may shift treatment into the range of orthognathic and cosmetic surgery. AIM: To evaluate the association between soft tissue chin (STC) thickness and mandibular divergence in adult Class II division 1 subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mean age of 22.4 years were divided into four groups based on cephalometric mandibular plane inclination(MP) to anterior cranial base(SN) as: Low MP/SN ?27?, medium-low 27?to < 32?, medium- high 32? to < 37? and high ? 37?. The soft tissue chin (STC) thicknesses were measured at Pogonion(Pog), Gnathion(Gn) and Menton(Me). Students t-test, Two-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All STC measurements were greater in hypodivergent and lowest in hyperdivergent groups in both genders. CONCLUSION: In Class II division 1 subjects with retrognathic mandibles, who require sagittal mandibular advancement with orthodontic or orthognathic surgical corrections, an increased soft tissue chin thickness can help in achieving esthetic facial profiles with minimal corrections.
836 Pregnancy and Oral Health, Dr. Rashmirekha Mallick, Dr. Sandhyarani Mohanty, Dr. Subasish Behera, Dr. Soumyaranjan Nanda, Dr. Priyanka Sarangi
Pregnancy, the period from conception to birth, is characterised by profound hormonal changes. The tissues supporting the teeth, including the periodontium especially gingiva is affected. There are several reasons why dental professionals should focus on oral health in pregnant women. This article focus light on some of these oral diseases.
837 Distal Tibial Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Treated by Using Bone Graft Substitute and Autologous Cortic