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1 Stochastic Mathematical Models of Carcinogenesis, Wai-Yuan Tan*
2 Assessment of fatigue in cancer patients, Paraskevi Theofilou 1,2
3 Store-Operated Calcium Channel And Cancer, Yang S1, Chang WC2,3*
4 20-HETE Mimetics or Inhibitors in the Treatment of Cancer Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock, Tunctan B*
Patients with a variety of malignancies have a greater tendency to acquire infections than patients with non-malignant disorders. Sepsis and septic shock are common complications in patients with cancer. As the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units worldwide, the societal and economic costs of cancer, sepsis, and septic shock are staggering. The molecular pathophysiology of cancer, sepsis, and septic shock remains controversial despite decades of study. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a ?-hydroxylation product of arachidonic acid that is produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, mainly by CYP4A and CYP4F isoforms, has been implicated in the regulation of proto-oncogenic, mitogenic, and angiogenic responses both in vitro and in vivo as well as inflammation that can support tumor progression. Therefore, selective 20-HETE inhibitors has been suggested to be a new class of compounds with antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. On the other hand, studies from our laboratory and others have provided substantial evidence that administration of a synthetic analog of 20-HETE, N-[20-hydroxyeicosa-5(Z),14(Z)-dienoyl]glycine, a 20-HETE mimetic, pre-vents vascular hyporeactivity, hypotension, tachycardia, inflammation, and mortality presumably due to increased CYP4A1 expression and formation of 20-HETE associated with decreased vasodilatory and proinflammatory mediator production in a rodent model of septic shock. This review will focus on the rationale for the use of 20-HETE mimetics or inhibitors for the treatment of cancer patients with sepsis and septic shock.
5 Prognostic Value of Artificial Neural Network in Predicting Bladder Cancer Recurrence After BCG Immunotherapy, Faouzia Ajili1*, Ben Mhamed Issam2,Nadia Kourda3, Amine Darouiche4,Mohamed Chebil4, Samir Boubaker1
Background: Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used in medicine to predict either the treatment or the investigative outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the use of ANN models for predicting recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated by Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Materials And Methods: In this study, we developed a Multilayer Percepteron (MLP) based ANN to detect recurrence in NMIBC through the analysis of histopathologic data. The study includes 308 patients (mean age,63.92 years; range, 31–92 years) who were treated with transurethral resection followed by BCG-immunotherapy.Time follow-up was 30 months. Results:In the test group, 39 out of 40 cases were correctly classified by the MLP base neural network with an optimum Mse error (0.02634). Only one case was classified as false positive, with no false negative results. The correlation between the ANN output and histopathologic results are summarized in Table 2. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values calculated from the output data were 96.66%, 100%, 100%, and 90.9%, respectively (Table 2). Network can predict the outcome of 79% (34*100/35) of patients in the testing data set correctly Conclusion:The proposed algorithm produced high sensitivity and specificity in predicting the recurrence in NMIBC after BCG immunotherapy compared to conventional statistical analysis. Therefore the use of ANNs will increasingly become the method of choice to calibrate complex medical models.
6 Endoscopic Mucosal Resection after Circumferential Mucosal Incision of Large Colorectal Tumors:Comparison With Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection, Yosuke Mochizuki1*, Yasuharu Saito1, Osamu Inatomi2, Yoshihide Fujiyama2, Shigeki Bamba2, Mitsuaki Ishida3, Tomoyuki Tsujikawa4, Akira Andoh5
Background: Endoscopic mucosal resection is widely used for treating superficial colorectal carcinomas or premalignant colorectal tumors. Piecemeal resection and local recurrence are frequent with endoscopic mucosal resection for >20-mm-diameter tumors. Endoscopic submucosal dissection, which facilitates en bloc resection of large colorectal tumors, is useful for superficial colorectal tumors. In our hospital, endoscopic mucosal resection after circumferential mucosal incision was used for colorectal tumors with a diameter of 20–30 mm. Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection after circumferential mucosalincision. Design: Retrospective clinical trial at a single center Settings: Shiga University of Medical Science Patients: 77 colorectal tumors (69 patients) with a diameter of 20–30 mm endoscopically treated between January 2010 and May2012 at Shiga University of Medical Science. Interventions: Endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic mucosal resection after circumferential mucosal incision. Main Outcome Measures: En bloc resection rate, procedure time, complications Results: ESD was associated with longer procedure times compared with C-EMR (p < 0.005). En bloc resection,complete curative resection, and perforation rates were similar in both groups Delayed bleeding was limited tothe ESD group (2.1%). Histopathological analysis revealed that the incidence of adenoma was lower in the ESD group than in the C-EMR group (p = 0). Mucosal cancer was more frequent in the ESD group (p = 0). The nonlifting sign was seen in 16.7% patients with laterally spreading tumors of nongranular type in the en bloc C-EMR group and 100% patients with laterally spreading tumors of nongranular type in the piecemeal C-EMR group (p = 0.035). Limitations: a single-center retrospective studyConclusions: C-EMR and ESD were equally effective for treating colorectal tumors with a diameter of 20–30mm.
7 Anticancer Activity of Acetone Extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier Fagaceae in 1,2 Dimethyl Hydrazine Induced Colon Cancer, Roshni P S1, Ramesh. K G2*
Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) which contains abundant amount of hydrolysable tannins and traces of gallic acid, ellagic acid and sitosterol is reported to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, chemopreventive potential of acetone extract of Q. infectoria (AEQI) 450 mg/kg was assessed in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg) induced colon cancer. DMH produced significant development of aberrant crypts (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) associated with loss of body weight and high mortality. Treatment of rats with AEQI not olnly prevented development of AC and ACF but also reduced mortality and loss of body weight. There was a significant increase in oxidative stress (increase in MDA, MPO, NO and decrease in SOD) as well as TNF ?, TGF ? and VEGF. Treatment with AEQI decreased not only oxidative stress but also oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Our data suggest that Q. infectoria possesses potential anti carcinogenic activity against colon cancer. Decrease in growth factors and anti oxidant activity may be responsible for this anti carcinogenic effect.