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Journal of Chemical, Biological and physical sciences

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1 Microwave assisted solid support synthesis of some3, 5-Diaryl- D2 -isoxazolines as potential antibacterial agents, Sheetal Shakhawat, Anju Devpura, Jayant P.Sing, Parul Sharma , Laxmi Lal Dangi and Shiv Sing Dulawat*
An environmentally benign microwave assisted one pot approach for the synthesis of some 3,5-diaryl-D2 -isoxazolines from substituted chalcones with hydroxylamine hydrochloride using basic alumina for its catalytic role as well as energy transfer medium is described. The reaction rate is brought down from hours to minutes along with improved yield as compared to conventional heating. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity.
2 Structure-reactivity correlation in the oxidation of substitutedbenzaldehydes by benzyltriethylammonium chlorochromate, Sonu Barthoraa, Deepika Baghmara, Mamta Gilla, A. Choudharya L. Kotaib and Vinita Sharma
Oxidation of thirty six monosubstituted benzaldehydes by benzyltriethylammonium chlorochromate in dimethyl sulphoxide, leads to the formation of corresponding benzoic acids. The reaction is of first order with respect to chlorochromate and aldehydes. The reaction is promoted by hydrogen ions; the hydrogen-ion dependence has the form kobs= a + b [H+]. The oxidation of duteriated benzaldehyde exhibits substantial primary kinetic isotope effect. The reaction was studied in nineteen different organic solvents and the effect of solvent was analysed using Taft's and Swain's multi-parametric equations. The rates of the oxidation of para- and meta-substituted benzaldehydes showed excellent correlation in terms of Chartons triparametric LDR equation, whereas the oxidation of ortho-substituted benzaldehydes were correlated well with tetraperametric LDRS equation. The oxidation of para-substituted benzaldehydes is more susceptible to the delocalized effect than is the oxidation of ortho- and meta- substituted compounds, which display a greater dependence on the field effect. The positive value of h suggests the presence of an electron-deficient reaction centre in the rate-determining step. The reaction is subjected to steric acceleration by the ortho-substituents. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.
3 Microwave assisted improved synthesis of chalcones under microwave irradiation and their antibacterial activity, Vikas Tiwari, Jayant P. Singh, Parul Sharma, Laxmi lal Dangi, Shiv S. Dulawat*
Chalcones have been synthesized under microwave irradiation by Claisen-Schmidt condensation between substituted acetophenone and appropriately substituted benzeldehydes using catalytic amount of aq. NaOH. Reactions on microwave irradiations (MWI) resulted in enhancement of yield and reaction rates. The protocol offers several advantages such as simple procedure, fast reaction rate, mild reaction conditions and excellent yield.Structure elucidations of synthesized compounds have been accomplished by elemental analysis and spectral data. All the compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity by the cupplate method.
4 Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of some thioacids by imidazolium fluorochromate, Mamta Gillaa, A. Meenaa, A. Choudharya, M. Baghmarb, I.K Sharmab, L. Kotaic and Vinita Sharma*a
Oxidation of thioglycollic, thiolactic and thiomalic acids by imidazolium fluorochromate (IFC) in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) leads to the formation of disulphide dimmers. The reaction is first order in IFC. Michaelies-Menten type of kinetics is observed with respect to the thioacids. Reaction is failed to induce the polymerisation of acrylonitrile. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ion dependence has taking the form kobs = a + b [H+]. The oxidation of thiolactic acid has been studied in nineteen different organic solvents. The solvent effect has been analysed by using Kamlets and Swains multiparametric equations. A mechanism involving the formation of a thioester and its decomposition in slow step has been proposed.
5 Removal of hazardous ions from water by photocatalytic desalination method, Shobha Rastogi1, Manisha Sindal2 and Ajay Sharma2
Water is the most essential component of life. Though on a global scale, there is abundance of water but the main problem is the availability of water in the right place and in the right form. Rajasthan is declared as a desert state because it faces scanty rainfall. The population of Rajasthan is wholly depending on ground water resources and 50% of water resources are unpotable. In urban and rural areas of Rajasthan that have access to water, a sizable population has difficulty to use drinking water with TDS (Total Dissolved Salts) level more than 500 mg / Lt. which is allowed limit in accordance with BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards). Solar desalination process to obtain potable water is competitive with other means of obtaining potable water. Much work has been done in the field of collection of solar energy and its use in desalination process. In the present work, photocatalytic solar desalination process has been developed to obtain good quality of water. For this some metal catalyst were used to increase efficiency of the process. Copper Sulphide, Lead Sulphide, Antimony sulphide etc. are proved to be the best one. The work is restricted to ground water and samples have been collected from different areas of Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The water samples were analyzed for different. water parameters like pH, Salinity, TDS, Conductance, Total hardness etc. and datas were compared with standards given by APHA 1998 (American Public Health Association). After solar desalination process again water samples were analyzed for the same parameters. The quantity of water so produced was quite less and the rate was also very slow. Therefore, to enhance the rate of water production and to improve quality of desalinate water some photocatalysts have been used and found that TDS value of raw water is quite lower down by using these metal sulphides as photocatalysts.
6 Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity evaluation of some new 4- Phenyl - 5- [3, 5-diaryl -2- pyrazolin-1-yl]-3, 4- dihydropyrimidine 2-(1H)-ones., Gunwanti Malhotra* and Y.K. Srivastava
Some novel dihydro pyrimidone derivatives containing pyrazoline nucleus have been prepared by condensation of 1-acetyl pyrazolines with urea and aromatic aldehydes in presence of NBS Catalyst. Newely prepared compounds have been characterised by their elemental analysis and spectral data. Their antimicrobial activities have been checked in vitro.
7 Synthesis and pharmacological properties of 4- (Substitutedbenzylidene)-2-phenyl-1-(5-(pyridin-4- yl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one, Sudhir Bhardwaj1* Narendra Parashar2 Manisha3 and Vandana Gurg4
Microwave-induced organic reaction enhancement (MORE) has gained popularity as a nonconventional technique for rapid organic synthesis in the last few years. Reactions in domestic microwave ovens are currently in use for the synthesis of medicinally important compounds. Within the framework of Green Chemistry we have now developed an environmentally benign and novel approach for the synthesis of 4-(substituted benzylidene)- 2-phenyl-1-(5-(pyridin-4-yl) 1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one. The title compounds were prepared by the reaction of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-amine with various 4-(substituted benzylidene)-2-phenyloxazol-5(4H)-one by using modified domestic microwave oven. The structure of these compounds was assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR spectral data. The compounds showed significant antibacterial activity against B. subtilis , S. aureus (gram-positive) and E.coli (gram-negative) bacteria and antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger fungi.
8 Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata, Ajay Sharma1*, Jitendra Upadhyay, Amit Jain2, M. D. Kharya3, Ajay Namdeo4 and K. R. Mahadik4
This study was planned to investigate antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata (B. serrata) (Family - Burseraceae). Preliminary phytochemical screening indicates that the extract contain large amount of polysaccharides (30-35%). The aqueous extract shows free radical scavenging activity in a concentration dependent manner. At the concentration of 500 mg/mL, 94.6% diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 80.9% nitric oxide, 40.97% hydroxide and 86.2% super oxide radicals were scavenged by the aqueous extract. At the concentration of 500 mg/mL extract shows maximum reducing ability (converting Fe3+ to Fe2+). The facts obtained in the current study implies that the aqueous extract of B. serrata have persuasive anti-oxidant activity in conflict to free radicals in a concentration dependent approach.
9 Visible spectrophotometric method development and validation of aripiprazole in pure form, Mrs..V.V.Dhanu Radha* ; K.Rama Krishna
Two simple, economical and precise visible spectrophotmetric methods have been developed for the estimation of aripiprazole in pure form. These developed methods are based on the formation of yellow complex with sodium nitro prusside and bluish green complex with cobalt thio cyanate by using double distilled water. The maximum absorbance was observed at 430 nm and 625 nm for method 1 and method 2 respectively. Thus statistical analysis proves that the methods developed are reproducible and selective for the routine analysis of the said drug.
10 Rheological analysis on different oils use in tyre tread cap compound, N.Kumar*1 ,R.K.Khandelwalal1,P.L.Meena1 K.S.Meena1,T.K .Chaki 2 and D.K .Mahla2
Rheology is principally concerned with extending the "classical" disciplines of elasticity and (Newtonian) fluid mechanics to materials whose mechanical behavior cannot be described with the classical theories. It is also concerned with establishing predictions for mechanical behavior based on the micro- or nanostructure of the material, e.g. the molecular size and architecture of polymers in solution or the particle size distribution in a solid suspension. Materials flow when subjected to a stress that is a force per area. There are different sorts of stress (e.g. shear, torsional, etc.) and materials can respond in various ways. Thus much of theoretical rheology is concerned with the forces associated and external applied loads and stresses, and the resulting internal strains. The object of this study is to investigate the relaxation time (k) and the viscosity index (k) Min TQ. (lb-in) and Maxs. (lb-in) of a tyre tread compound. The rheological behaviour of the sample are studied using a parallel plate rheometer and the rheological material functions .In this work three types of low PCA and one regular high PCA Petroleum oils are Rheologicaly, analyzed.These low PCA oils can act as the best alternative processing aids for rubber industry. The rheological,properties of SSBR loaded with different LPCA & HPCA oils have been studied. in order to obtain similar properties. 1-5.
11 Rain water harvesting in Indore City: A demanding need for sustainable development, Dheeraj Mandloi1*, Deepak Khare2 and Teena Pareek3
Demand for water is growing in most cities across India as every urban citizen now requires almost double the amount of water needed five years back. With urban India growing by leaps and bounds, it is expected to experience a severe water crisis by 2020 and the per capita availability of water is projected to be less than 1,000 cubic metres. By the year 2020, says a World Bank report, most major Indian cities will run dry. India's supply of water too is rapidly dwindling primarily due to increasing population, mismanagement of water resources, although over-pumping and pollution are also significant contributors. Water security, like food security, is becoming a major national and regional priority in many areas of the world. The shortage of water points to a grim situation as it is bound to adversely affect economic and agricultural growth too. Not long ago, most of our cities were selfsufficient in meeting their water needs from the extensive urban water bodies. Today, these water bodies have disappeared. Municipalities have been stretched to their limits to find water for the growing populations. Groundwater is being mindlessly extracted by the government as well as by private parties.These are the reasons that make rainwater harvesting indispensable for a country like ours. With industrialization being the need of the hour, we just cannot afford to ignore it. In fact, many environmental groups in India are demanding that water harvesting should be made mandatory for all new buildings and housing societies in the urban areas across the country in order to fulfill our water needs to some extent. Various methods and practices followed in Indore city are explained in this paper.
12 Nitrate contaminations in ground water of villages of Deoli Teshil (Tonk District) Rajasthan, K.S. Meena*1, R.K. Gunsaria2 ,N. Kumar1 , P.L.Meena1 R.R. Meena3 and Kanta Meena4
Ground water analysis of 130 villages of Deoli Teshil was carried out during 2008 2011 to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of water. Water sampling was made on mayjun. 2009 and analysis of water samples done by using standard methods.The result shows that nitrate concentration ranged from 4to 320 mg/L2. High nitrate concentration makes the ground water unsuitable for drinking purpose. Permissible limit of nitrate is 40-50 mg/L by WHO. High nitrate levels in water can cause methemoglobinemia or blue baby syndrome, this condition is found especially in infants under six months age.
13 Electrical transport in three different citrus fruit juices; bitter Lemon, Grape and sweet Orange, S. S. Oluyamo
The electrical properties of three different citrus fruit juices (i.e bitter lemon, grape and sweet orange) were investigated at electric field values 0.05-3.00 V/m. Fresh and certified ripe samples of the fruits were obtained and the juices extracted using suitable juice extractor. The current through the samples were found to increase gradually with voltage from minimum to maximum values. A small current through all the samples at low voltages below a critical point (i.e. decomposition potential) was observed in all the samples. The averaged decomposition potentials for the three samples were 0.56 V, 0.45 V and 0.30 V for bitter lemon, grape and sweet orange juices. The conductances of the three samples were also found to increase with increase in volume. This is an indication that the concentration of the samples increases with increase in volume. The sweet orange sample had the highest value of the decomposition potential, followed closely by grape orange, while bitter orange had the least conductance. However, the bitter orange had the highest range of conductance followed by sweet orange and then, grape juice.
14 Magnetized anti-stiff fluid cosmological models in lrs bianchi type v universe with time dependent ? and variable magnetic parmeability, Atul tyagi1 and Gajendra pal singh2
Some LRS Bianchi type V cosmological models with electromagnetic field and perfect fluid source obeying the equation of state p = ?? where 0 ?? ? 1,with time dependent cosmological term and variable magnetic permeability are investigated. For the complete determination of the models we assume that the expansion ? in the model is proportional to the shear ?. The magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along x-axis. Thus F23 is the only surviving component of the electromagnetic field tensor. Physical and geometrical features of the models are also discussed.
15 Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of biologically potential Mannich bases of 5-chloro-2-methoxy benzamide derived from sulphonamides, Deepak Khare*, Sheela Joshi and Dheeraj Mandloi
Mannich reaction is the key step in the synthesis of numerous pharmaceutical and natural products. A large number of Mannich bases continue to be synthesized to explore their biological potential, there is an additional effort to look for variations in the execution of Mannich reaction. Due to active hydrogen, 5-chloro-2-methoxy benzamide (substrate) undergoes Mannich reaction. The pharmacological effectiveness of substrate and sulphonamides prompted us to introduce the sulphonamide moiety into the compound, which may furnish products with enhanced therapeutic potency. The Mannich bases of this compound have proved to be more effective and less toxic antibacterial agent. The purity of formed novel Mannich bases were checked by thin layer chromatography and the chemical structure of newly synthesized Mannich bases were confirmed using elemental analyses, UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. All synthesized Mannich bases were evaluated for their antibacterial activity towards pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The results were statistically analyzed, meanwhile, an excellent antibacterial outcome were obtained against the pathogens under research and found to be low toxic as ascertained by LD50 test.
16 Viscometric Intermolecular Interaction studies in binary liquid mixture of carbon tetrachloride with benzene and its substituted products. , K. Yadav, Anita Kumari* and Santosh Kumar
Viscosities (? ) of binary liquid mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with benzene and its substituted products viz. toluene, m?xylene, ethyl benzene and chlorobenzene have been measured at two different temperatures 293.15 k and 303.15k. Excess volume of mixing (VE) and deviation of viscosities ( ?? ) of mixtures from ideal mole fraction law and parameter (d) as a measure of strength of intermolecular interaction between components of binary mixtures have been calculated from data of viscosities. Excess volumes have been found to be negative and positive in sign for binary mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with toluene and chlorobenzene and carbon tetrachloride with benzene, ethyl benzene and m?xylene respectively at entire mole fraction range and at both temperatures i.e. 293.15 k and 303.15 k. On the other hand, ?? were found to be negative for binary mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with toluene, m?xylene and chlorobenzene, except the binary mixture of carbon tetrachloride with benzene at entire mole fraction range and temperature metntioned. Positive value of excess volumes for three mixtures (carbon tetrachloride with benzene, m?xylene and ethyl benzene) show weak intermolecular interactions between components. However, the negative value of ?? for binary mixtures of carbon tetrachloride with toluene, m?xylene and chlorobenzene show weak interaction between components. The different average value of parameter d (dav) for different binary systems show different extent of molecular interactions present there in. The experimental values of VE have been analyzed in the light of Flory`s theory.
17 Synthesis and antifungal activity of some new fluorinated 1-[2-hydroxyethyl] -3-ethoxycarbonyl-5 oxadiazolyl/triazolyl/ pyrrolylaminocarbonylmethoxy-2- methylbenz [g] indoles, Anil KumarMittal1, Dharamveer Singh2, SatyaprakashTripathi*3.
The exclusive formation of 1-[2- aryl]-3-ethoxycarbonyl-7-halo-2-methylbenz [g] indol-5- yloxyacetic acid hydrazides (5a-c) from 1-[2-aryl]-3-ethoxycarbonyl 5- hydroxy-7-halo-2- methylbenz [g] indoles (3a-c) revealed the chemo selectivity of the C5 - ester over C3-ester towards nucleophillic attack of hydrazine hydrate. This monocarbohydrazide (5a-c) is reacted separately with CS2/KOH , acetonyl acetone and isothiocyanates to secure the desired 1-[2-aryl]-3- ethoxycarbonyl-5-(5-mercapto-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) methoxy-7-halo-2-methylbenz [g] indoles (8ac), 1-[2-aryl]-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-(2,5-dimethylpyrrol-1-yl) aminocarbonylmethoxy-7- halo-2- methylbenz [g] indoles (9a-c) and 1-[2-aryl]-3-ethoxycarbonyl-5-(aryl1substituted thiosemicarbazinocarbonyl) methoxy-7-halo -2- methylbenz [g] indoles (6a-i). These thiosemicarbazides (6a-i) are reacted with 4% NaOH to produce the 1-[2-aryl] 5-(4-aryl1subsituted- 5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazol-3-yl) methoxy-7-halo -2- methylbenz [g] indole-3-carboxylic acid (7a-i).Antifungal activity has been compared with Dithane M-45, a commercial fungicide for their fungi toxic action against Phytopthora infestans and Collectotricum falcatum, and the results correlated with their features.
18 Molecular Interaction Study of Lactose, DMF-H2O and NaCl System Using Acoustic, Viscometric and Volumetric Methods at different Temperatures, Rita Mehra* and Brij Bihari Malav
Acoustic, viscometric and volumetric studies are useful for characterization of molecular interactions and to understand the effect of temperature of lactose in mixed solvent of N,Ndimethylformamide (DMF)-H2O+NaCl. Physical properties viz density (r), viscosity (?), sound speed (u) and refractive index (nD) at varying concentrations from 0.0105-0.1045 m at 298, 308 and 318 K have been determined using precalibrated bicapillary pycnometer, Ostwalds viscometer, Abbes refractometer and single frequency ultrasonic interferometer at 2 MHz frequency respectively. The derived parameters like adiabatic compressibility (?), acoustic impedance (Z), absorption coefficient (?/f2), apparent molal volume (fv), apparent molal compressibility (fK), free volume (Vf), intermolecular free length (Lf), acoustical relaxation time (t ), Gibbs free energy (?G), internal pressure (?i), Raos constant (Rm), Wadas constant (W) and molar refractivity (RD) have been determined from experimental data. All the measurements have been carried out in a thermostatically controlled water bath with circulating medium having accuracy of 0.1C
19 Phenylboronic acid: an efficient catalyst for synthesis of 2-aryl-benzimidazole derivatives, Santosh V. Goswami, Prashant B. Thorat, Vijay N. Kadam and Sudhakar R. Bhusare*
A simple and efficient method has been described for the synthesis of 2-aryl- benzimidazole derivatives from o-phenylenediamine and aromatic aldehydes using a mild phenylboronic acid as a catalyst at ambient temperature condition.
20 Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some synthetic compounds derived from sulphanilamide and 6 ethyl benzene- 1, 3 diol, Shipra Baluja1*, Ashish Patel1 and Sumitra Chanda2
Schiff bases derived from sulphanilamide, and 6 ethyl benzene-1,3 diol were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains. Extracts of these compounds were evaluated on 5 strains i.e. E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Agar Ditch method. The Schiff bases synthesized were 1) 4-(1-aza-2-phenylvinyl)benzene sulphanilamide [UC1] (2) 4-[1- aza-2- (4-methoxyphenyl) vinyl] benzene sulphanilamide [UC2] (3) 4 [1-aza-2-(4- methylthiophenyl)vinyl] benzene sulfonamide [UC3] (4) 4-[1-aza-2- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl)vinyl] benzene sulphanilamide [UC4] (5) 4-[2-aza-1-methyl-2-(4nitro phenyl)vinyl]-6- ethylbenzene-1,3-diol [UV1] (6) 4-[2-aza-2-(3,4-dimethyl phenyl) methylvinyl]-6-ethylbenzene-1,3- diol [UV2] (7) 4-[2-aza-1-methyl-2- (3-nitro phenyl) vinyl]-6-ethylbenzene-1,3-diol [UV3] (8) 4-[2- aza-1-methyl-2- (3-mehtyl phenyl)vinyl]-6-ethylbenzene-1,3-diol [UV4]. The BIOASSAYS were evaluated in one polar and one non polar (i.e., DMF and 1,4 dioxan) solvents. It is found that among UC and UV compounds, UV compounds are better than UC and UV1 and UV3 are the best while 1,4 dioxan solvent proved to be more effective than DMF. It appears that the Schiff base with 6 ethyl benzene-1,3diol as central moiety with nitro aniline as side chain both in meta and para position could be lead antibacterial templates.
21 Equilibrium studies of calcium (II) complexes with drug Furosemide and some amino acids, Bhimrao C. Khade1*, Pragati M. Deore2 and Sudhakar R. Ujagare1
The equilibrium studies of the mixed ligands complexes of calcium (II) ion with drug Furosemide as primary ligand and the amino acids viz. leucine and phenylalanine as secondary ligand were determined pH metrically at 270C and an ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO4 in 80% (v/v) ethanol-water medium. The calculations have been made using the stability constant of generalized species computer programmed.
22 Study on the atomic term symbols for f4 (M+3 free ion) configuration, 1P.L.Meena*, 1P.K.Jain, 1N.Kumar and 1K.S.Meena and 2R.Goyal
The term is a particular energy state and term symbol is a label to energy state .The importance of these term symbols has been emphasized in connection with the spectral and magnetic properties of complexes and metal free ions and also provide information about the energy of atomic electrons in orbitals and Total spin, Total orbital and grand total momenta of whole atom and electronic configuration.Ressel-saunders (L-S) coupling and j-j coupling schemes are important schemes for determination of terms and term symbols of the atoms and ions of inner transition elements in which electrons are filled in a f sub-shell with azimuthal quantum number 3.In this proposed work computation is done for calculating all possible terms for f4 configurations without any long tabulation with mental exercise. In recent years a great interest is increased in the field of lanthanide and actinide. The determination of terms and term symbols for fn configuration is very difficult work since there are seven orbitals in f-sub shell which give large number of microstates. The possible microstates and spectroscopic terms calculated for f4 configuration (ions M+3) are 1001and 47. These terms are quintets (5), triplets (9) and singlets (9).
23 Kinetic study on oxidation of cobalt (III) complexes of ?- hydroxy acids by imidazolinium dichromate in the presence of micellar medium, B.Mohammed Nawaz, K.Subramani and Mansur Ahamed
The kinetics of one electron transfer route seems to be unavailable for IDC with Cobalt (III) bound and unbound complexes of ??hydroxyacid in micellar medium, IDC oxidizes Cobalt(III) bound and unbound ? ?hydroxyacids. It rules out the synchronous C?C bond fission and electron transfer to Cobalt(III) centre. Oxidation of above complexes increases with increase of temperature. With increase in micellar concentration an increase in the rate is observed. The added CTAB enhances the rate of oxidation of a reaction much more than NaLS. Similar trends has been observed in lactato and glycolato Co(III) complexes.
24 Behavior of chloride and sodium contaminations in ground water, K.K. Sivakumar*1, M.S. Dheenadayalan2, Leena Hebsibhai2, T.R. Kalaivani2 and S. Mahalakshmi3
Ground water analysis of 14 locations in Karur Taluk was carried out during 2010 to 2011 to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of water. Water sampling was made on four seasons in the above mentioned year and analysis of water samples done by using standard methods. The result and thrust problem of high TDS results in this taluk shows that chloride concentration ranged from 36 to 2525 mg/L and sodium 25 to 900 mg/L. High sodium and chloride concentration makes the ground water unsuitable for drinking purpose. Permissible limit of chloride concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/L can give rise to detectable taste in water, but the threshold depends upon the associated cations. Consumers can, however, become accustomed to concentrations in excess of 250 mg/L. Until now no major health?based guideline value (Indian Standard) is proposed for chloride and sodium in drinking?water but prolong consumption is to be sensitive issue in the environment.
25 Electro oxidation of ethanol on to Pt loaded carbon felt surface modified by polyaniline, Abhik Chatterjee
Present paper describes the application of polyaniline ( PANI) in modification of catalytic activity of Pt loaded C?felt electrode towards ethanol (EtOH) electro oxidation. Electro catalytic activities have been studied by cyclic voltammetry(CV) and amperometry. Electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited platinum onto a carbon felt support was measured. The electrode surface was further modified with a very thin film of polyaniline. Electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode is better than Pt deposited electrode. This improvement has been explained by the presence of nano pores over the thin film of polyaniline and good ethanol adsorption onto modified electrode.
26 Build resources against future uncertainty - A review on alternative resources in Oman, Feroz Shaik1 and L Nageswara Rao2
Energy demand is expected to grow in the twenty?first century as more countries seek a better quality of life for their citizens. The energy demand will be met by a global energy mix that is undergoing a transition from an energy portfolio dominated by fossil fuels to an energy portfolio that includes a range of fuel types. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas were the fuel of choice during the last half of the twentieth century. Forecasts of the twenty?first century energy mix show a gradual transition from the current dominance of fossil fuels to a more balanced distribution of energy sources. Omans major source of revenue i.e. oil reserves are declining as years gone by and efforts are being implemented to diversify the Omans economy away from the oil sector. Technical advancement will play a major role to the mobilization of new reserves and the increase in the life time of present reserves. This paper presents a review of Omans fossil fuel reserves and the scope of alternative resources for Omans sustainable development of energy.
27 Thiourea - Zn2+ system as corrosion inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Marine media, M. Manivannan 1 * and S. Rajendran 2,3
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of thiourea (TU) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in marine media in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss study. 95 % IE is obtained from the formulation consisting of 200 ppm TU and 50 ppm Zn2+. It is found that the IE of TU increases by the addition of Zn2+ ion. A synergistic effect exists between TU and Zn2+. The mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied using polarization study. Also FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ TU complex and Zn (OH)2. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study confirms the protection of carbon steel surface by strong adsorption of TU. From the results of above studies a suitable mechanism for corrosion inhibition is proposed.
28 A Review on Pharmacological Studies of Bacopa monniera, Srinivasa Rao Bammidi , Sharan Suresh Volluri , Seema Chaitanya Chippada , Sumanjali Avanigadda , Meena Vangalapati *
Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell (family: Scrophulariaceae) is a reputed drug of Ayurveda. It is used in traditional medicine to treat various nervous disorders; it is also used as a stomachic, a digestive, rejuvenate, for promoting memory and intellect, for skin disorders, and as an antiepileptic, antipyretic, and analgesic. This medicinal plant is locally known as Brahmi. The name Brahmi is derived from the word Brama the mythical creator in the Hindu pantheon. Based on the traditional claims on B. monnieri as a memory enhancer, many classical and proprietary preparations are now available on the market. In the last two decades, B. monnieri has been studied extensively for its chemical constituents, its efficacy has been established in several in vivo and in vitro models, and randomized clinical trials have also been carried out. This article reviews the work carried out on the chemical, pharmacological aspects of this plant.
29 Antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of Centella asiatica extracts, Seema Chaitanya Chippada1and Meena Vangalapati 1*
Centella asiatica is a valuable medicinal herbaceous aromatic creeper which has been valued for centuries in ayurvedic medicine. Phytochemical analysis of Centella asiatica plant extracts revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and saponins etc. Since phenolic compounds, triterpenoids and flavonoids have remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and antioxidant activites, so our present work aims at evaluating the in vitro anti inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Centella asiatica by three in vitro models such as reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, DPPH assays. The inhibition of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken as a measure of the anti inflammatory activity. Protein denaturation, membrane stabilisation and protein inhibitory action were taken as a measure of the in vitro anti-arthritic activity. The total phenolic content was found out to be 33.56 1.56 mg/gm GAE. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and Nitric oxide scavenging activities was concentration dependant with IC50 value being 96.15 1.23 ?g/ml, 261.43 0.92 ?g/ml and 106.32 2.19 ?g/ml respectively. The maximum membrane stabilization of C. asiatica extracts was found to be 94.97 % at a dose of 2000 ?g/ml. The maximum percentage inhibiton of protein denaturation, membrane stabilisation and proteinaseinhibitory action for C. asiatica extracts ware found to be 89.76 %, 94.97 % and 91.63% respectively at a dose of 2000 ?g/ml. The results show that the extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited Antioxidant activity, Anti-arthritic activity and anti-inflammatory activities.
30 Seasonal Fluctuation of Plankton Population Correlated with Physico-Chemical Factors in Backwards of Jaikwadi Dam (Kaigaon), 1Vidya Pradhan * and 2J.D. Shaikh
Limnological survey of Kaigaon was undertaken from May 2006 to December 2008, with a view to investigate the various changes in its hydrogical features during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. Seasons and co-related the same with the plankton biodiversity. The physic-chemical parameters such as water temperature, D.O., Total Alkalinity, Chlorides, pH, Free Carbon-dioxide were studied.
31 Fluoride contaminated ground water and its implications on human health in Deoli Tehsil (Tonk District) in Rajasthan, K.S. Meena*1, R.K. Gunsaria,2 Kanta Meena3, N. Kumar1 , P.L.Meena1 and R.R. Meena3
There is a severe fluoride problem is Deoli Tehsil of Tonk district. Populace are suffering from dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. So that physico-chemical study of 130 villages was done. The ground water samples collected in clean polyethylene bottles were analyzed for different parameters such as pH, total alkalinity (TH), fluoride (F-), nitrate (NO3 -) , total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride (Cl-), total hardness(TH), electrical conductivity(EC), Ca-H, Mg- H, CO3 -2, HCO3 - Na+, K+ by using standard techniques. Results showed that fluoride was found even up to the alarming limit of 9.60 ppm. Minimum (0.30ppm) and maximum (9.60ppm) concentration of Fluoride was observed from Akodiya and Jalseena villages respectively.
32 A Validated reverse phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of telmisartan and ramipril as bulk drug and in tablet dosage form, Santosh V. Gandhi, Padmanabh B. Deshpande*, Varun Godbole, Pankaj Jagdale, Sachin Khiste, Sayali Kadukar
A simple, accurate and sensitive validated Reverse Phase HPLC method for simultaneous determination of two-component drug mixture of Telmisartan and Ramipril in combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. RP-HPLC separation of drugs was carried out on Jasco HPLC system with HiQ-SiL C8 column (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d.), using Acetonitrile: 0.01 M 1- Heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (pH 2.8) i(60: 40, v/v) as mobile phase. Method was developed using phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride as internal standard and detection was carried out using UV detector at 216 nm. Telmisartan and Ramipril obeyed Beers law in the concentration range of 10-50 ?g/mL and 2.5-12.5 ?g/mL, respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of drugs in pharmaceutical formulation. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.
33 Preparation and evaluation of Aceclofenac ophthalmic in-situ gels, K. Ravindra Reddy*, M. Ravi Shankar Yadav and P.Sabitha Reddy.
In?situ gelling systems are viscous polymer?based liquids that exhibit sol?to?gel phase transition on the ocular surface due to change in a specific physico?chemical parameter like temperature, ionic strength, or pH. A major problem in ocular therapeutics is the attainment of optimal drug concentration at the site of action, which is compromised mainly due to pre?corneal loss resulting in only a small fraction of the drug being ocularly absorbed. The effective dose administered can be altered by increasing the retention time of medication into the eye by using in situ gel forming systems, thereby preventing the tear drainage. The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of an ophthalmic delivery system of an anti?inflammatory drug aceclofenac, based on the concept of pH triggered in situ gelation. In vitro release studies indicated among the all formulations, F4 shows better drug release when contacted with STF solution at 8 hrs study period. It shows antimicrobial, antibacterial and antifungal efficacy with selected microorganisms. These results demonstrate that the developed system is an alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops, patient compliance, industrially oriented and economical.
34 In vitro anti-cancer activities of few antihypertensive agents against carcinoma of scalp by MTT assay, G. Swarna Latha*, S.Bhavani Charan Prasad, C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao
Cancer disease arises from mutations and other aberrations of gene regulation and the expressed genes encode various growth factors, growth factor receptors and nuclear proteins which have a central role in the control of cellular proliferation. Though various drugs are available in the market, a therapeutic search for novel, potent anti?cancer agents is under process to combat the dreadful disease. In this study we report the anticancer properties of few anti?hypertensive drugs (Atenolol, Lisinopril, Nefedipine, Aldactone and Propranolol) tested against scalps cancer cells in vitro by MTT assay. A gradual decrease in the viability of scalp cells was observed in a dosedependent manner for all the drugs used in the study. Nefedipine at a tested dose of 256 ?g/ML exhibited maximum percentage inhibition of 40.43%.
35 Design, synthesis, characterization and screening of thiophene derivatives for anti-inflammatory activity, A. Jerad Suresha*, K. Anithab and D. Vinodc
A promising heterocyclic nucleus (Thiophene) which was prominently proved of exhibiting different biological activities had been used to prepare a database which was then docked against CYCLO OXYGENASE-2 for anti- inflammatory activity by using Glide software (Maestro 9.1).Extra precision (XP) scoring function was utilised to rank order the compounds. The different derivatives of thiophene were docked to the specific protein target site. The best compounds with top scores were filtered. The top three compounds were synthesized, recrystallised and purity was conformed by TLC. The characterization was carried out by UV, IR, NMR and MASS Spectroscopy. All synthesized compounds were screened for anti -inflammatory activity by invitro Membrane stabilising method. The recorded values showed significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with standard Diclofenac sodium. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated by acute toxicity study.
36 Optimization Studies on Biosynthesis of Succinic acid Production, S.Raja* and R.Dhanasekar
In this study, two bacterias are found to give better results for the production of succinic acid from the isolated colonies. The experiment was carried out at different pH, Temperature and dextrose concentration. The fermentation process was carried out under CO2 atmosphere with N2 gas. The effect of pH, temperature and initial dextrose concentration were studied. The optimum fermentation conditions were found to be dextrose 7.5g/L, initial pH?7.0 and temperature 37C. At these optimized fermentation condition, the maximum succinic acid production were found to be 12.6 g/L and 7.6 g/L. From the results, it can be concluded that Strain 1 and Strain 2 may therefore be considered as a cost effective strain to produce Succinic acid.
37 Role of invertase enzyme in ripening of honey of indigenous hive honeybee apis cerana indica, M.V.Balasubramanyam
Enzymes form integral part and play decisive role in biological metabolism and systems. The present study emphasized on biochemical aspects of honey ripening in hive honeybee Apis cerana indica. Five stages of conversion of nectar to honey include floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). The levels of sucrose in the fn and sh cells was 19.01%, and 2.40 % respectively, while invertase content in fn and sh cells was 0.00% and 42.40 ml respectively. Results have clearly exemplify that invertase enzyme secreted by honeybee glands plays an instrumental role in formation of viscous honey from dilute floral nectar. The analysis of variance of invertase activity was not significant at P
38 Factors Affecting Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Tomato Plants cultured in Vitro Conditions, Srinivasulu Morla*, C. S. V. Ramachandra Rao, R. Chakrapani
The effect of two sterilization substances (Mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite) on the germination rate, and Multiwall carbon nanotubes on both seed germination and seedling growth, was studied in tomato plant (lycopersicum esculantum var.Arka Vikas). Surface sterilization of mature seeds using 4% sodium hypochlorite (Naocl) stimulated the germination rate; although0.1% mercuric chloride (HgCl2) completely inhibits the tomato seed germination. Multi walled Carbon nanotubes shows the positive effect on the tomato seed germination and plant growth when compared to the normal medium, the maximum germination rate and seedling growth was observed at 40 ?g/ml concentration of carbon nanotubes.
39 Synthesis of Novel Functionalized Chalcones and their In-vitro Antimalarial Evaluation, Kunwarvir Singh1, Manisha2, Mamta Likhawat3 and Lal Singh2
Two series of novel chalcones have been synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54). Of the 14 compounds synthesized, 5 compounds viz, 4f, 5b, 5e, 5f and 5g were found to be most potent and shown IC50 values in the range 2-9 ?g/mL.
40 Synthesis and Investigation of Antibacterial activity of Some Schiff bases, Shipra Baluja1* and Sumitra Chanda2
Eight Schiff bases were synthesized from 4-amino benzoic acid and were characterized by IR and NMR spectral analysis. In all 8 compounds were synthesized viz. (1) 4-[(4-Methoxy-benzylidene)-imino]- benzoic acid, (2) 4-(Benzylidene-imino)-benzoic acid, (3) 4-[(2-chloro-benzylidene)-imino]-benzoic acid, (4) 4-[(Furan-2-ylmethylene)-imino]-benzoic acid, (5) 4-(3-Phenyl-allylideneimino)-benzoic acid, (6) 4- [(2-Hydroxy-benzylidene)-imino] -benzoic acid, (7) 4-[(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-imino]- benzoic acid and (8) 4-[(3-Nitro-benzylidene)-imino]-benzoic acid. Antibacterial activities of these synthesized Schiff bases have been tested against six bacterial strains. The studied bacterial strains are S. aureus ATCC 25923, B. cereus ATCC 11778, P. mirabilis NCIM 2241, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S. typhimurium ATCC 23564 and A. fecalis ATCC 8750. The antibacterial activity was done by Agar Ditch method. The solvents used for studying antibacterial activity were 1, 4-dioxan (non-polar) and DMF (polar, Dimethylformamide). A differential effect of the compounds was found in the bacterial strains investigated and the solvents used, suggesting once again that the antibacterial activity is dependent on the molecular structure of the compound, solvent used and the bacterial strains under consideration.
41 Eco-friendly Synthetic Route for New Pyrazolines Bearing Sulfonamido and Quinolino Pharmacophore in PEG-400, Vasant B. Jagrut1, Dinesh L. Lingampalle2, Rajendra P. Phase3, Wamanrao N. Jadhav3*
A series of new 3-(4'-tosylaminophenyl)-5-(2'-chloro-substitutedquinolin-3-yl)-4,5-dihydro pyrazolines (2) have been prepared by carrying cyclocondensation of 3-(2-chloro-substitutedquinolin-3-yl)-1-(4- (tosylamino)phenyl)prop-2-en-1-ones (1) with hydrazine using grnner reaction media, polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) at room temperature.
42 Synthesis, Characterization and anti-HIV activity of 3-methyl-1h-pyrano [2, 3:4, 5] pyrano [3, 2-c] chromene-1, 5, 12-trione, Denish C. Karia*1, Hetal K. Pandya1, Nilesh K. Godvani1 and Anamik K. Shah2
Substituted 4-hydroxy -2H,5H pyrano (3,2-C) chromene 2,5 dione(I) have been prepared by 4-Hydroxy coumarin when treated with phosphorus oxychloride and zinc chloride. (I) on reaction with acetic acid and phosphorous oxychlorideto give 3- acetyl 4-hydroxy -2H,5H pyrano (3,2-C) chromene 2,5 dione(II). Which on heating with ethyl acetate and pulverized sodium metal for several hours afforded 4-hydroxy-3-(3-oxobutanoyl)2H,5H pyrano(3,2- c)chromene-2,5-dione (III) . (III)when treated with ethanol and hydrochloric acid afforded to give 3-Methyl-1H-Pyrano[2,3:4,5]Pyrano[3,2-c]chromene-1,5,12-trione(IV).Several of similar derivatives were also synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been assigned on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, NMR and mass spectral studies.
43 Optimization of Chitinase Production Using Statistics Based Experimental Designs, Sudhakar.P* and Nagarajan.P
Statistics based experimental design on chitinase production by Serratia marcescens was optimized in solid state fermentation using Plackett-Burman design and Response surface methodology. The important medium components identified by initial screening method of Plackett-Burman were colloidal chitin, yeast extract, MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4. Plackett-Burman Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance of the variables affecting the cellmass production. Central composite response surface methodology was performed to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration on production of chitinase by Serratia marcescens was studied using sugarcane bagasse under solid state fermentation. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the linear and quadric terms of these four variables had significant effects and evident interactions existing between pH and substrate concentration were found to contribute to the response at a significant level. Under the conditions of pH (6), Temperature (30oC), inoculum size (2.4%) and substrate concentration (2 g) in the experiment. The predicted response for chitinase production was 52.72 U/ml
44 Residence Time Distribution Studies in Miniature Pipes, Suleiman Mohammed Al-Abry, L Nageswara Rao* and Shaik Feroz
The research work is focused on the residence time distribution (RTD) studies in small pipes using pulse input technique. The extent of dispersion is expressed in terms of dispersion coefficient (DL). RTD studies are carried out by tracer analysis and DL is estimated using axial dispersion model. Laminar flow in short pipes follow pure convection model but the experimental data in the present study is found to be in good agreement with axial dispersion model. The variance and dispersion coefficients are estimated and the effects of flow and geometric parameter on dispersion coefficients are studied. In scope of present study, the dispersion coefficient is found to increase with an increase in velocity and length of tube but the effect of pipe diameter on dispersion coefficient is found to be marginal.
45 Polynomial Interpolation using Newtons Divided Difference and Lagranges Methods, R. B. Srivastava* and Purushottam Kumar Srivastava
Polynomials of degree 10 for function f(x) = tan-1x have been obtained in the interval [-1, 1] using Newtons divided difference and Lagranges formulas by dividing the interval in to 200 equal parts. Values of function have been calculated at the points of the interval using these interpolating polynomials and compared with their exact values for the estimation of errors. Comparison of the values of interpolating polynomials with exact values show that Newtons divided formula is approximately two times better as compared to Lagranges interpolation formula.
46 IPR- The Backbone of Biotechnology, Priyanka Kriplani1* and Rahul Taneja2
The role of intellectual property rights has become a key issue in agricultural and resource economics over the past two decades. The changes in biotechnology and intellectual property protection that have occurred since 1980 make private enterprise possible for the first time in many broad research areas in agriculture and the health sciences. Furthermore, universities, cooperatives and other public and non-profit institutions now have the option of licensing or selling research outputs in this area, rather than giving their results away for free. As the scope and power of Intellectual property rights in biotechnology has grown, their international reach has expanded. These developments raise many fascinating and important issues: optimal patent design and licensing; the implications of Intellectual property rights under cumulative innovation, typical of agriculture and biotechnology; the effects of the TRIPS agreement on developing countries and the effects of Intellectual property rights on monopolization of key sectors.2
47 A Review of Sugar Cane Cultivation in Chamarajanagar District, Harish M
An outlook of sugarcane crops grown in the Chamarajanagar district has been given in the present study. The sugarcane is influenced by the spatial and the influence of environment in particular region for its growth. An unplanned cultivation has brought severe problems for the cultivation of sugar cane in the Chamarajanagar district. This study found that the yield and land use of sugarcane is low compared to other districts in Karnataka. This study has made an attempt to analyze the sugar cane cultivated areas within the Chamarajanaagr district. So for this the mere trend is to understand and analyze the problems and suggest creative measures for its cultivation. Agriculturists have a greater challenging role to play in the present context where cultivation technology is given utmost importance.
48 Drinking water quality surveillance in Hyderabad, Syeda Azeem Unnisa1* and Bhupatthi Rao2
It is well established that a large number of infectious diseases are transmitted primarily through water supplies contaminated with human and animal excreta particularly faeces. The purpose of the study was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in Hyderabad City, Andhra Pradesh. It is a cross sectional descriptive study performing the Hyderabad city during the months of June and July 2011. A total of 50 water samples were collected from different localities of the Hyderabad city. These represented areas with different socio-economic conditions. The samples were collected in sterilized containers and brought to the laboratory within two hours of collection. All the samples were tested for contamination with bacteria using multiple tube method to determine most probable number of total coliforms and faecal coliforms using standard procedure. Among 50 water samples, 20 samples (40%) were positive for bacterial contamination. It was observed that bacterial contamination was maximum in areas with low SEC (52%), followed by intermediate SEC (40%) and high SEC (10%). The difference was found to be statistically significant (p0.5) between areas with low and intermediate SEC. Bacterial contamination is significant problem in Hyderabad City. Regular monitoring and chlorination/cleaning of water filtration plants and change of old water distribution pipelines can improve this situation.
49 Comparing Air Quality Standards in Developed, Developing, and Underdeveloped Nations and Its Relative Analysis with Indian Standards, Vijaya Sharma and Prashant Mehta*
The fast growing economies in the World, and continued urbanization in countries, have increased the demand for mobility and energy in the region, resulting in high levels of air pollution in cities from both point and non point sources. The World Health Organization estimates that about 500,000 premature deaths per year are caused by air pollution, leaving the urban poor particularly vulnerable since they live in air pollution hotspots having wider exposure to variety of pollutants, which have resulted in pollution related diseases besides low respiratory resistance due to bad nutrition, and lack access to quality health care. However, by initiating air quality management measures, reducing the pollutants at source at various stages of economic development, communities and countries can avoid the severity of air pollution impacts and related costs and attain better air quality.
50 Mineral characteristics of indigenous bee, Apis dorsata and Apis cerana indica honey from plains, hills and western ghats of Karnataka., B alasubramanyam, M.V. 1 and Chandrasekhara Reddy, C.2
Multifloral honey of giant honey bee, A. dorsata (wild) and indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) was collected from the plains, hills and western ghats of Karnataka and mineral characteristics were determined during April 2010 to March 2011. Honey of A. dorsata had more mineral content than that of A.cerana. Often mineral characteristics tested in honey, potassium was found maximum while chromium was minimal. Seasonally, mineral content of honey was relatively more in winter than summer. Mineral content of honey was higher in Western Ghats followed by plains and hills. The potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and magnesium of honey were significant at 1% (P
51 Analytical study of physico chemical and metallic elements of ground water and surface water in Balco industrial Area, Korba, C.G., Vaishnav M.M.1* Dewangan S.2
A systematic investigation has been carried out to assess the water quality of SW and GW of Balco industrial areas in context of statistical approach. For this purpose we have taken monthly based investigation of the water. 30 water samples were collected from ten selected sites (BS1 BS10) in 2L capacity containers, separately (Oct 2009 to Dec 2009). Then water samples were subjected to analytical study prescribed by standard agencies. The results were interpreted via statistical means like mean, SD, SE, %CV, r and WQI. Turbidity (SW 82.05 NTU, GW 21.66 NTU), Fe (GW 2.385mg/L), Al(SW 0.76mg/L,) were found above the threshold value. Strong +ive relation was calculated for GW between TS vs TDS [GW = + 0.950(3.042)] and EC vs TDS [Sw r = + 0.973(4.216)]. The high % CV was calculated for Zn 127.791 (GW) and As in 184.185 (SW). Highest WQI is obtained in case of BS5 : 2472.32. The analysis showed water sources in and around Balco industries are not applicable for any purpose in human development.
52 Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) Complexes with Thiosemicarbazone as Primary Ligand and 2,2'Bipyridyl as Secondary Ligand, 1Rakhi Chaudhary and Shelly2
Complexes of Mn(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with 2,5Dihydroxy butyrophenone thiosemicarbazone(L1)/2,5 Dihydroxy benzophenone thiosemicarbazone(L1) as primary ligands and 2,2'bipyridyl(L2) as secondary ligand have been isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, electronic spectra, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. Conductivity data of the complexes in DMSO suggested their non?electrolytic nature. The molecular weight of the complexes determined by the Rast Camphor method corresponds with the weight of the formula, indicating their monomer nature. TG analysis confirms the presence of one coordinated water molecule in all the complexes. On the basis of above observations the complexes are proposed to be octahedral in nature.
53 Effect of pH on the formation of complex compounds with Schiff bases derived from 3-aldehydosalicylic acid with 7-amino-4-methyl coumarin, Basavaraj M. Kalshetty1*, S.S.Suvarnakhandi1, R.C.Sheth1 and M.B.Kalashetti 2
The complex compounds of metal ions like Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II), Cd (II), with the Schiff base ligand LH2 have been synthesized at different pH ranges. The synthesized complex compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar mass and IR spectral studies. Hence, the study reveals that the ligand LH2 (Scheme 1) behaves as a monobasic bidentate ON donor where the two structures suggest the non-involvement of carboxylic oxygen atom in coordination at pH= 3-4. The ligand LH2 behaves as dibasic tridentate OON donor, suggesting the non-involvement of carbonyl oxygen atom of coumarin in the complex compounds at pH= 7. The ligand LH2 behaves as a dibasic tetra dentate OONO donor at pH=8, suggesting the coordination of coumarin carbonyl oxygen atom to the metal ions in the complex compounds.
54 Equilibrium Studies on Mixed Ligand Complexes of Drug Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride with Chromium and Cobalt Metal Ions, Pragati M. Deore1* , Bhimrao C.Khade2 , Arun Khalkar3and B.R. Arbad4
Equilibrium studies on metal-ligand complex equilibria involving Chromium and Cobalt metal ions with drug, Phenylpropanolamine Hydrochloride with Amino acids Glycine and Glutamine in 80% (v/v) ethanolwater mixture at 300C 0.10C and ionic strength of 0.1M (NaClO4 ) has been studied. Formation of complex species with respect to pH have been discussed by Irving-Rossotti technique and evaluated by SCOGS computer program.
55 DFT based study of charge transfer and interaction energy between phenyl tin (IV) chlorides and derivatives of pyridine-Part II, P. P. Singh, R. K. Singh and Ramesh Chandra Sharma
Interaction of phenyl tin(IV) chlorides have been discussed with eleven ortho, meta and para derivatives of pyridine with total number of 99 interactions. Phenyl tin(IV) chlorides form most stable complexes with ortho, meta and para derivatives of phenylacetatopyridine and least stable complexes with ortho, meta and para derivatives of nitropyridine. The order is ortho > meta > para. Best interaction is shown by C6H5SnCl3 with cyanopyridine-o as in this case SA ? SB.
56 Microwave mediated Solid phase synthesis of N-phenyl- 3-(substituted phenyl)-5-aryl- 2 pyrazolines and their antibacterial activity, Sheetal Shaktawat, Anju Devpura, Mangalshree Dulawat, Jayant P. Singh, Sumer S. Chundawat and Shiv S. Dulawat*
An ecofriendly approach for the synthesis of title compounds using inorganic solid support for its catalytic role as well as an energy transfer medium is described. In this methodology pyrazolines have been synthesized by Michael addition reaction under Microwave irradiation using Alumina as solid support. The reaction time is brought down from hours to minutes along with yield enhancement. The structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Some compounds showed significant antibacterial activities
57 Bombax Ceiba flower extract: Biological screening and application as pH indicator, Pathan Mohd Arif Khan*a, Syed Hussainb, Mohd Mohsina, Mazahar Farooquic, Ahmed Zaheera
New flavone has been isolated from the flower extract Bombax Ceiba. The isolated compound is separated and identified using mass, NMR, IR and UV. The compound is tested for suitability as an indicator for acidbase, complexometric and redox titrations. Titration error, relative error and percentage error has been calculated for different set of titrations viz strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base, weak acidstrong base, weak acid weak base. Isolated compound is also screened for its antibacterial and anti fungal activity
58 A study of fluoride and their removal through adsorption from ground water of Rajgarh (block) M.P.INDIA, Choubey O.N.* and Agrawal G.D.
A survey was carried out to evaluate the status of fluoride content in drinking water sources of villages of Rajgarh District M.P. The water samples were collected from the hand pumps of 15 villages of Rajgarh (Block) in summer season. The result revealed that fluoride content in all samples ranges between 2.5 to 4 ppm. The adsorption of fluoride on different adsorbents was investigated in the present study. The adsorption of fluoride on adsorbents was found to follow Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm1.
59 Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediments of the River Parbati, Baran, Rajasthan, M.K.Jain, L.K.Dadhich and Kalpana S.
The concentrations of nine heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn and Co) were determined in riverbed sediments collected from selected ten locations on River Parbati in Baran district of Rajasthan in pre-monsoon season in consecutive three years (2008 to 2010) to evaluate their levels and distribution along river length. The ranges of the measured concentrations in the riverbed sediments on dry basis are as follows: Fe: 0.35-0.88%; Zn: 49.0-106.7mg/kg; Ni: 4.2-18.3mg/kg; Cu: 19.8-68.2mg/kg; Cd: 0.20- 0.75mg/kg; Cr: 5.7-14.9mg/kg; Pb: 1.1-7.3mg/kg; Mn: 37.5-138.9mg/kg and Co: 0.90-3.8mg/kg on dry weight basis. To assess metal contamination in sediment, US Environmental Protection Agencys (USEPA) guidelines were applied. To evaluate the origin Pearson Correlation Coefficient was calculated, which shows that there are no significant correlations among these metals, indicating that they have different anthropogenic and natural sources.
60 Microwave assisted improved synthesis and antibacterial activity of some 1-acetyl-3, 5-diaryl- 2 pyrazolines, Jayant P. Singh, Vikash Tiwari, Sumer S. Chundawat, Anju Devpura, Neetu Jaitawat, Mangalshree Dulawat, Shiv S. Dulawat*
Microwave induced solvent-free solid phase synthesis of 1-acetyl-3,5-diaryl- ?2 pyrazolines has been achieved by the cyclocondensation of substituted chalcones (1a-f) with hydrazine hydrate (2) followed by acetic acid in the presence of alumina under solvent free condition using domestic microwave oven has been described. The process has advantage over conventional methods such as shorter reaction time, higher yield and environmental acceptability. The structures of these compounds were established by elemental analysis and spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Some compounds showed significant antibacterial activities.
61 Study of stability constant of biological active molecules (drug) using potentiometric titration technique, Abdulbaset A. Zaida, Mazahar Farooquia,b , D.M. Janraoc
In this review article, we described the study of stability constant of some biological active molecules with various metal ions by potentiometric titration technique. The literature survey reveals that the compounds contains donor group are extensively used in biology and medicinal chemistry. The metal chelates of donor groups are also used, in view of the great analytical, biological, industrial and manifold uses of donor groups complexes with metal ions.
62 Synergistic effect of DTPMP in well water by sodium tungstate-Zn2+ system, S.Agnesia Kanimozhi*1 and S.Rajendran 2, 3
The aim of this present work is to study, the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in well water in the presence of sodium tungstate (ST)-Zn2+- Diethylenetriamine entamethylene phosphonicacid (DTPMP). Weight loss study has been employed tom evaluate the inhibition efficiency of this system. It was found that the inhibition efficiency (IE) of ST (50 ppm)-Zn2+ (10 ppm) was improved from 8% to 82% by the addition of 150 ppm of DTPMP. Surface film has been analysed by FTIR spectroscopy, UV florescence and SEM analysis. The protective film consists of Fe2+-WO4 2-, Fe2+-DTPMP complex on anodic site and Zn (OH)2 complex at cathodic site. It is found to be UV florescent. A mechanism for the inhibition of corrosion is proposed based on the above results.
63 Thermal profile and decomposition kinetics of some new Schiff bases derived from 4-amino antipyrine, Shipra Baluja, Jagdish Movaliya and Ashish Patel
Thermal properties of some new Schiff bases derived from 4?amino antipyrine and different aromatic aldehydes have been studied by TGA, DTA and DSC methods. Thermal analysis of these bases were done along with the evaluation of some kinetic parameters such as energy of activation (E), frequency factor (A), order of reaction (n) and entropy of activation (?S).
64 Manganese acetate: as an efficient environmentally benign catalyst for acetylation of phenols, V. P. Sondankara*, V. B. Deshmukha, K. R. Rathoda and S. R. Bhusareb
Phenols were efficiently acetylated with acetic acid in the presence of catalytic amount of manganese acetate at reflux condition in high yields. The process is efficient and eco-friendly in the sense that it avoids the use of acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride and is percent atom economical.
65 Ultrasonic velocity studies of solutions of some organic compounds at 298.15 K, Shipra Baluja* and Falguni Karia
The density, viscosity and sound velocity of 1-H-benzimidazole and 2- methyl benzimidazole derivatives in methanol and chloroform solutions have been studied at 298.15 K over a wide range of concentration. From these experimental data, some acoustical parameters such as intermolecular free length (Lf), isentropic compressibility (?s), relaxation strength (r), internal pressure (p) and free volume (Vf) have been evaluated. A fairly good correlation between a given parameter and concentration is observed. The results are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions like solvent-solvent, solvent-solute and solutesolute interactions.
66 Equilibrium studies on mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with Tazobactum (antibiotics) drug and amino acids, B. K. Magarea and M. B. Ubaleb*
Equilibrium studies on mixed ligand complexes of transition metal ions with tazobactum ,an antibiotics drug (L) and a series of eight amino acids(R) have been carried out at 27 0C temperature and 0.1 M ionic strength (NaClO4) in aqueous solution. The formation of complex species has been evaluated by computer program and discussed in terms of various relative stability parameters.
67 Synthesis and crystal structure of 4-((2-aphthalen-1-yl)- diazenyl) benzenesulfonamide, Ali BENOSMANE1, HassibaBOUGUERRIA1, Abdelkader BOUCHOUL1* andSalah Eddine BOUAOUD1
The unsymmetrical azo-compound namely 4-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) diazenyl) benzeneesulfonamide was synthesized and isolated as crystal reddish-orange needles. Crystal structure determination was occurred by X-ray diffraction. Resolution of structure shows a dimer of formula C32H26N6O6S2 which crystallizes in space group P21 / a, monoclinic system with: a = 7.4033, b = 15.1317 c = 26.2888; ? =90.00, ? = 95.1787 , ? =90.00.
68 De-escalation of Concentration of Fluorides by Clayware with Alum Salts in Potable Water, Mohana Rao Abburi1, Divya Jyothi.M2*, H.K.R.Prasad. S1, Vinod. P1 and Zeneba Tedasse1
For de-escalation of fluorides in the potable water, we have enumerable de fluoride techniques of which flocculation, Coagulation, Electro Coagulation, Adsorption, Absorption, have been taken a vital path. This research where it has been successfully adopted by the researchers took place at highlands around 3000 ft from the sea level in Ethiopia Country. We identified various concentrations of fluoride in the ground water around Aksum town of Ethiopia. Aluminum Ammonium Sulphate clayware is the one of the vital methods in the community at economical sustainability for de-escalation of the fluorides in the potable waters. The villages which are surrounded by the Aksum city of Ethiopia have been identified as fluoride contaminated areas and the people of these places (woredas) have been excruciating for the last 25-30 years vigorously with the Fluorosis. Here we concentrate predominantly Longmuir studies to carry this Proposal.
69 Kinetics of the reaction of o-Hydroxy benzaldehyde with m-anisidine, Bhausaheb K. Magara*, Vijay N. Bhosalea , Anil S. Kirdantb, Trimbak K. Chondhekarc
The rate of formation of Schiff base from o-Hydroxybenzaldehyde with m-anisidine has been reported in ethyl alcohol at room temperature. The order of reaction is second. The rate of reaction is first order with respect to o-Hydroxy benzaldehyde and first order with respect to manisidine. Suitable reaction mechanism has been suggested for the formation of the Schiff base.
70 Impact of Abattoir Effluent on River Landzu, Bida, Nigeria, Mohammed Saidu*1 and John Jiya Musa2
This study assesses the impact of Abattoir effluent on the physico?chemical parameters of Landzu River. Water samples were collected from four different sampling point; P1, P2, P3 and P4, it was collected at both the upstream and downstream of the effluent point of discharge. The parameters tested were pH, Dissolve Oxygen, Suspended Solids, Electrical Conductivity, Manganese, Chloride, Copper, Iron and standard method of water and wastewater analysis were used and compared with WHO permissible limit. The results shows that virtually all the sample were above the WHO standard which make the river water to be unsafe to both Human and aquatic life. There is need to upgrade the present abattoir to reduce it level of pollution.
71 Synthesis and Characterization of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with 4-{(E)-[(2-chlorophenyl) imino] methyl} benzene-1,2-diamine, K. George Abraham, Manohar V. Lokhande and Sudhakar Bhusare
The complexation of a series of new Schiff bases containing 4-{(E)-[(2-chlorophenyl)imino]methyl}benzene- 1,2-diamine moiety with some transition metal ions like Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) Cu(II)and Zn(II) with general stoichiometric ratio is 1:2 and molecular formula is [M(L2)nH2O]X [ where M= Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) Cu(II)and Zn(II)L= 4-{(E)-[(2-chlorophenyl)imino]methyl}benzene-1,2-diamine and X= Cl, Br, I] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility and spectral techniques like IR, UV-Visible, Mass ,TGA/DTA, ESR & X-ray powder diffraction. The complexes were found octahedral geometry. The mass spectral data confirms the monomeric structure of the metal complexes while the TGA/DTA studies confirm the presence of two water molecules in the complexes. The covalency factor (?), bonding parameter (b1/2) suggest the covalent nature of the complexes. The free Schiff base and its complexes have been tested for their antibacterial as well as antifungal activity by using disc diffusion method are discussed.
72 Kinetic and Degradation Studies of Organic Compound in Photo catalytic Reactors, S Feroz, Anna Jesil, Baqir Al Lawati, Ahmed, L.Nageswara Rao*
An experimental investigation was carried out in photocatalytic reactors exposed to artificial UV source to study the kinetic and degradation of model organic compound benzoic acid. The apparent rate constant was determined in two different situations where either the concentration of organic compound or catalyst is kept constant in a batch reactor. The effect of concentrations and the dosage of photocatalyst on the degradation of benzoic acid in batch and continuous tank reactor were investigated.
73 Kinetics and Mechanism of Hydrolysis of N-Salicylidene -p-methylaniline Spectrophotometrically, Anil S. Kirdanta, Bhausaheb K.Magarb* and Trimbak K. Chondhekarc
Kinetics of hydrolysis reaction of the Schiff base, N? salicylidene ?p?methyl aniline (HL) have been studied in the pH range 2.86?12.30 at temperature range 293?308 K. A rate profile diagram of pH v/s rate constant shows the rate minimum in the pH range 4.51?10.42 and reaches a plateau at pH > 10.73. Suitable reaction mechanism has been suggested for the hydrolysis of the Schiff base in acidic, neutral and basic medium. From the effect of temperature on the rate, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated.
74 Corrosion behavior of 304-stainless steel in aqueous sulphate Environment, P.Selvakumar* and G.T.Parthiban1
In different industries Stainless steel corrode in different environments. The various environments can affect the metal to different extents. The effect of pH and concentration of Aluminium sulphate in aqueous environment has been studied. The potentiodynamic polarization experiment was carried out at 0.003M, 0.03M and 0.15M concentration with the pH values of 5, 7, 9, 11, and 12.5. Weight loss experiment was also carried out at 0.003M, 0.03M and 0.15M concentrations. The results from potentiodynamic polarization technique indicate that when the pH value increases, corrosion potential shifts towards less negative values. Hence the metal becomes less susceptible to corrosion. Corrosion rate determined from the corrosion current density was compared with those obtained by weight loss method. From the above studies, it is observed that the corrosion of stainless steel is decreased with decrease in the concentration of Aluminium sulphate (0.003M to 0.15M) at constant pH or with increase in pH at constant concentration.
75 Effect of phase inversion and rheological factor on formation of asymmetric polyethersulpone ultrafilteration membranes for separation of metal ions, S. Velu* and L. Muruganandam
Asymmetric ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were prepared from poly (ether sulfone) (PES) using N, N? dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent by phase inversion method. Solution cast PES membranes were homogeneous for all studied compositions, 12.5 to 20 % polymer and 87.5 to 80 % of solvent. The fabricated membranes were characterized for their UF performance such as pure water flux, water content and membrane hydraulic resistance and found to be moderate changes. It is estimated that the pure water flux of 20 % PES membrane increases from 12 to 76 l/m2.h, when the polymer concentration was decreased to 12.5 % in the casting solution. The membranes were also characterized for their separation performance through metal ions in aqueous solution. The percentage rejection of metal ions was increased while the permeate flux has decreasing trend.
76 Computational Investigations on the Corrosion Inhibition efficiency of some Pyridine based alkaloids, P.Udhayakala a*and T.V. Rajendiran b
The adsorption mechanism and inhibition performance of two pyridine based derivatives 4-methoxy-1- methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile(C1) and 4-methoxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3 carbonitrile (C2) were investigated using Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set level in order to elucidate the different inhibition efficiencies and reactive sites of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data. The calculated quantum chemical parameters correlated to the inhibition efficiency are EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital energy), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy), the energy gap(?E), hardness(?), Softness(S), dipole moment(?), electron affinity(EA), ionization potential(IE), the absolute electronegativity (?) and the fraction of electron transferred (?N). The local reactivity has been studied through the Fukui and condensed softness indices in order to predict both the reactive centres and to know the possible sites of nucleophilic and electrophilic attacks.
77 Neural network modeling and optimization of ?-amylase production from spoiled starch rich vegetables, Satish Babu Rajulapati1 and Lakshmi Narasu. M 2
Modeling and Optimization of process variables for the improvement of ?-amylase production in the specially made starch medium by the cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was performed using artificial neural networks and Genetic Algorithm (G.A). Cultivation of Aspergillus Niger was conducted in submerged fermentation in the starch medium. Initially, the effect of incubation time (12-72 hours), pH (4-8), Temperature (25-450C), starch concentration (5- 25 mg/mL) and Inoculum size (5-25 v/v%) on two objectives i.e total amount of crude enzyme and its activity was examined. It is observed that process variables were found to have a significant influence on the enzyme production, and it was further modeled and optimized using neural networks and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Predicted values were compared between statistical model and neural networks model. neural network model predicted more accurately than a statistical model. Then multi objective optimization was done with the genetic algorithm. Optimal process variables found from Genetic Algorithm (GA) were- Incubation time (50hrs), pH (6.5), Temperature (340C), Starch Concentration (17 mg/mL) and Inoculum size (25%). At these variables, maximum concentration of protein and its activity was observed as 9.09 mg/ml and 96.4 IU/mL respectively.
78 Effect of various sources and parameters on the production of an extracellular lipase from Aspergillus heteromorphus and optimization using response surface methodology, Sneha.P.M, Tatineni Parimala1, C.S.V.Ramachandra Rao1, R.Satish Babu1*
Optimization of medium composition for the improvement of lipase enzyme activity using Aspergillus heteromorphus, was performed by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Initially, the effect of seven types of carbon sources (lactose, glycerol, starch, dextrose, sucrose, fructose, and sorbitol) and five types of nitrogen source (CSL, yeast extract, meat extract, urea and ammonium sulphate) and different inducers (mustard, gingelly, coconut, sunflower, castor, olive, palm, and groundnut oils) on growth of Aspergillus sp. was studied. The concentration of medium component that was found to significantly influence the growth of Aspergillus sp (olive oil, sorbitol, and meat extract) was further optimized using RSM. The medium that consists of 0.5% w/v sorbitol, 2% w/v meat extract and 2% w/v olive oil at 30C temperature and at 68th hr was found optimal for lipase production from Aspergillus sp. showing an activity of around 24.7U/ml which was more than the previous value prior to optimization i.e. 22.3 U/ml.
79 Herbal remedy for Xanthomonas infection on vegetable crops, A. John De Britto* , D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin and P. Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kumar
Pathovars Xanthomonas campestris is very dangerous. Farmers used synthetic pesticides to control the pathogens. But many Xanthomonas Pathovars have acquired resistance to synthetic pesticides more over the incessant and extensive use of these synthetic pesticides are posing serious problem to the life supporting systems due to their residual toxicity. It is estimated that hardly 0.1% of the agro-chemicals used in crop protection reaches the target pest, leaving the remaining 99.9% to the environment to cause hazards to non target organisms including humans. Considering the deleterious effects of synthetic pesticides on life supporting system, there is an urgent need for alternative agents for the management of pathogenic microorganisms. Hence the present study focused to control the phyto pathogen in eco friendly method using herbal extracts. Different parts of a medicinal plant namely Tridax procumbens was screened for their antibacterial activity on X. campestris. The methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruits of the plant exhibited significant inhibitory effects against the tested bacteria. Hence in future the selected plant may be used as biocontrol agent to control Xanthomonas infection on vegetable crops.
80 Response surface optimization of process variables for alkaline protease production by bacillus subtilis, Tatineni Parimala1, Sneha.P.M1, C.S.V.Ramachandra Rao1, R.Satish Babu1*
culture medium for the production of bacterial alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis was developed by Response Surface Methodology (R.S.M). Central composite design was used to optimize the process variables which are responsible for the production of protease. The variables studied for production of protease enzyme were agitation, aeration, pH, and temperature and substrate concentration. The optimized values of variables were found to be agitation 300rpm, aeration 1.7 vvm, pH 7, temperature 300C and substrate concentration 2.09 %( w/v) respectively. At these values maximum alkaline protease specific activity was observed as 12.45 U/mg
81 Amylase and starch content in ripening of honey of indigenous hive bee Apis cerana indica, Balasubramanyam, M.V.* and Ramesha, I. **
Enzymes are an integral part of biological systems and hence play decisive role in the bio-metabolism. The honey ripening mechanism entails physical, chemical, biochemical, physiological, behavioral and ecological factors. The present study emphasized on biochemical aspects of honey ripening in hive honeybee A. cerana indica. Five stages of nectar to honey transformation includes floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). The level of amylase in the floral nectar (fn) and honey crop of foragers (hf) was 0.00ml and 0.58 ml respectively. Further, the level of amylase in honey crop of house bees (hh), and unsealed honey cells (uh) was 0.79 ml and 4.21 ml respectively. Finally the level of amylase was maximal with a value of 16.01 ml. in sealed honey cells (sh). Correspondingly the levels of starch in the floral nectar (fn) and sealed honey cells (sh) were 0.56% and 0.17% respectively. The analysis of variance of amylase activity was significant at P
82 Busulfan-induced lipid peroxidation: Protective role of morin, Supratim Ray
Considering drug-induced lipid peroxidation as a possible mediator of drug-induced toxicity and exploiting the free radical scavenging action of antioxidants, the present study was designed to evaluate the antiperoxidative potential of morin on busulfan-induced lipid peroxidation. The study was performed in vitro using goat liver as lipid source. This evaluation was done by measuring the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4- HNE) and nitric oxide (NO) content of liver tissue homogenates as markers of lipid peroxidation. The study reveals the lipid peroxidation induction capacity of busulfan and the antiperoxidative potential of morin on busulfan-induced lipid peroxidation
83 Population genetic differentiation of Heliotropium indicum as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, *P. Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kumar and A. John De Britto
Heliotropium indicum L. is an important traditional medicinal plant. Establishing the genetic diversity of the species would assist in its conservation and breeding program. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population genetic differentiation in 5 wild populations of H.indicum from southern regions of Tamil Nadu. ISSR analysis using six primers produced a total of 177 polymorphic bands. The number of polymorphic loci was 34 and the percentage of polymorphism was 79.07. The overall observed (na) and effective number of alleles (ne) was 1.7907 and 1.4770. Neis (1978) overall gene diversity (He) was 0.2870. The Shannons information index (I) was 0.4305. The genetic distance between the populations ranged from 0.1953 to 0.5034 and the genetic identity is ranged from 0.6045 to 0.8226. The similarity result indicates the presence of high level genetic diversity between populations and a dendrogram constructed by UPGMA method.
84 Development and evaluation of ethosomes for transdermal deliveryof Fluconazole, Sarath Chandran C1*, Arun Shirwaikar2, Maria Rose Kuriakose3 and Sabna N. S4,
Antifungal drug, Fluconazole was loaded in to ethosomal vesicles for topical application. Fluconazole ethosomes were prepared by patented technology with modifications using phospholipid, drug and ethanol in varying concentrations. The prepared ethosomes were characterized for size, shape, entrapment efficiency, in-vitro permeation (by Franz diffusion cell) and physical stability. The studies demonstrated successful preparation of Fluconazole ethosomes and effect of varying concentrations of ethanol on size, shape, entrapment efficiency and stability of vesicles. In vitro permeation studies demonstrated that % drug released from ethosomes was nearly 26% greater than plain drug incorporated cream across cellulose membrane. From the evaluation, the developed novel delivery system demonstrated enhanced properties than other vesicular delivery systems.
85 Production of l-glutaminase by Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212 under solid state fermentation using agro residues, K. Lakshmi Prasanna* and K. Jaya Raju
Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of L-glutaminase by Aspergillus oryzae using different agro residues including wheat bran, rice bran, green gram husk, black gram husk, coconut oil cake, groundnut oil cake and sesame oil cake as solid substrates. L-glutaminase has received significant attention in recent years owing to its potential applications in medicine as an anticancer agent, as an efficient anti-retroviral agent and as a biosensor. In food industries it is used as a flavor and aroma enhancing agent. The maximum yield (51.72 U/gds) of L-glutaminase by A.oryzae was obtained using coconut oil cake of 70% initial moisture content, initial pH 7.0, supplemented with D-glucose (2.0%), sodium nitrate (2.0%), and L-glutamine (2.0% w/v), inoculated with 3ml of 4 day old fungal culture and incubated at 30oC for 2 days. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters had played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-glutaminase. Medium with optimized conditions and supplementation gave a maximum glutaminase yield of 51.72 U/gds which is above 2 fold increase in yield than that with medium of basal conditions (23.41 U/gds).
86 Hypoglycemic effect of Pueraria tuberosa tubers in healthy and alloxan diabetic Rats, Rashmi Raghuwanshi and Bharti Jain*
Pueraria tuberosa is a medicinal plant used in the Indian traditional system of medicine. Hypoglycemic activity was studied in ethyl acetate extracts of the pueraria tuberosa tubers in healthy and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract was obtained from dried tubers and intraperitoneally administered to healthy rats. Results show that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited good hypoglycemic effect in this experimental model also.
87 Extraction and partial purification and sequencing of thaumatin-like protein (TLP) from barley and its screening for antimicrobial properties, Sindhuri Madineni
Thaumatin like proteins (TLPs) are the products of a large, highly complex gene family involved in host defense mechanism and belongs to pathogenesis related proteins of group 5. TLPs show homology with thaumatin, a sweet tasting protein from fruits of Thaumatococcus danielli. TLPs have glucan binding and glucanase activities. The current study reported the extraction, purification and sequencing of TLPs from Hordeum vulgare grains. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 22 KD, which was one of the most abundant proteins in extracts of barley grains was purified by ion exchange chromatography and identified by amino acid sequence to be a thaumatin-like protein. The partial sequencing of protein contains 111 aminoacids. The TLP coding gene was sequenced by isolating DNA and amplifying with the specific TLP primers. The 181bp PCR amplified product was sequenced. The comparison of sequence with the other TLP proteins gave 100% similarity. The antimicrobial activity of TLP protein was tested against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, E.coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as they are pathogenic organisms. The results showed that it has maximum inhibitory affect against Candida albicans.
88 High performance thin layer chromatographic determination of lornoxicam in human plasma, Shital S. Bhandari , Santosh V. Gandhi*, Padmanabh B. Deshpande, Navjot Ghobale
A new simple High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) method for determination of Lornoxicam in human plasma has been developed and validated. The quantitative separation was achieved by using precoated silica gel 60 F254 plates as stationary phase and mobile phase consisting of Toluene: Acetic acid (8:2, v/v) with UV detection at 380 nm. Detection and quantitation were performed without using an internal standard. The calibration curve was linear over the range 20-800 ng/band. The limit of quantitation for Lornoxicam in human plasma was 10 ng/band and no interference was found from endogenous compounds. The recovery of Lornoxicam from human plasma was about 94.27 %. The method provides a direct estimate of the amount of Lornoxicam present in human plasma.
89 Production of Lovastatin by Aspergillus parasiticus NCIM 696 using rice bran under solid state fermentation, D.Geeta Aparna* and D. Sri Rami Reddy
Production of lovastatin was carried out by Aspergillus parasiticus NCIM 696 using agro-industrial residues like rice bran as substrate under solid state fermentation. Lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. In recent years, lovastatin has also been reported as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various types of tumors and also play a tremendous role in the regulation of the inflammatory and immune response, coagulation process, bone marrow, neovascularization, vascular tone, and arterial pressure. Process parameters like Incubation time (120 h), Temperature (28oC), Moisture content (70%), Inoculum age (6 days), Inoculum volume (20% v/w),pH of the medium(6.0), carbon source (2% Lactose) and nitrogen source (1.5% Ammonium Sulphate) were optimized and gave an overall yield of 9.2 mg/gds of lovastatin after optimization.
90 Molecular imprinting: A pharmaceutical Approach, Nilesh Bhole*, Bari Bhagyashree, Akshay Chaudhari, Sunil Bavaskar, Arvind Umarkar and Shashikant Barhate
Molecular imprinting technology is a developing technique for the preparation of polymers having specific molecular recognition properties for a given compound. Molecular imprinting technology (MIT) concerns formation of selective sites in a polymer matrix with the memory of a template. Recently, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have aroused extensive attention and been widely applied in many fields, such as solid-phase extraction, chemical sensors and artificial antibodies owing to their desired selectivity, physical robustness, thermal stability, with low cost and easy preparation. and the rapid development of MIT as a research. It faces a number of challenges, involving biological macromolecule imprinting, heterogeneous binding sites, template leakage, incompatibility with aqueous media, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer, which restricts its applications in various aspects. This critical review briefly reviews the current status of MIT, particular emphasis on significant progresses of novel imprinting methods, some challenges and effective strategies for MIT, and highlighted applications of MIPs.
91 Antibacterial activity of stem extracts of Ocimum basilicum, V.Bharathi1, A. Shanmuga priya2 and S.Janathul Firdous 2
Ocimum basilicum (common basil) is member of the family Lamiaceae. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum have been reported to various pharmacological effects such as mosquito repellant activity, hepatoprotectiv, effect on liver antioxidant system, immunomodulatory effect, wound healing activity and antiprotozoal effects .The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Ocimum basilicum was used for the present study. Disc Diffusion method, Streak plate method and Agar Well Diffusion methods were used in this study. It has been observed that Staphylococcus aureus showed highest inhibition zone in disc diffusion method, while klebsiella pnumonia have significant activity in streak and agar well diffusion methods. Escheria coli showed moderate activity in ethyl acetate extract.
92 Detection of DNA polymorphism by RAPD-PCR fingerprint in Cassia alata L. in Tamil Nadu, T. Leon Stephan Raj*, A. John De Britto and R. Pramely
Cassia alata L. belonging to the family Fabaceae is one of the potent antimicrobial drugs yielding plant. In order to ascertain the genetic variability, plants of this species were collected from different accessions of Tamil Nadu and RAPD-PCR fingerprint analysis was carried out using random primers. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 59.38. The genetic distance between the population ranged from 0.2076 to 0.7577 and the genetic identity ranged from 0.4688 to 0.8125. The overall observed and effective number of alleles was about 1.5938 and 1.5057. Neis (1978) overall genetic diversity is 0.2700. Cluster analyses of RAPD data using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages has produced one major cluster and three sub-clusters. Overall, molecular fingerprinting revealed that the existence of considerable genetic variations in the Cassia alata L. collected from Tamil Nadu.
93 Validation of a new simple Reverse Phase-HPLC method for determination of Donepezil hydrochloride, Sukhbir Lal Khokra, Hitesh Dhamija, Abhishek Chandel, Deepika Gupta Sunil Dutt and Bharat Parashar
A rapid, simple, specific, sensitive, precise, accurate and reliable reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of Donepezil hydrochloride tablets. Donepezil is a reversible acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor which is used in the treatment of Alzheimers disease. A mixture of buffer (6.8 g of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate in 100 mL of water then 5 mL Triethylamine, pH adjusted to 2.2 0.1), methanol (60:40 V/V) as mobile phase was delivered at a flow rate 1.2 mL/min and wavelength of detection at 286 nm using reverse phase column Hypersil BDS C18, 100 mm 4.6 mm, 5?m. The retention time was found to be 11.45. The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision selectivity, specificity, solution stability, filter compatibility, filter saturation, robustness and system suitability as per ICH guidelines. The method is advantageous as the standard and sample preparation requires less time and no tedious extraction procedure was involved in the analysis of formulation. The method can be effectively applied for routine analysis in research institutions, quality control department in industries, approved testing laboratories, bio-pharmaceutics & bio-equivalence studies and in clinical pharmacokinetic studies.
94 Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Catalase from Aspergillus Species, Azad Chandrashekar.P
The catalase enzyme was purified to homogeneity from catalase has been purified from Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger that were grown under submerged fermentation. Different purification steps (including Ammonium sulfate fractionation dialysis and column chromatography) were applied to the crude culture filtrate to obtain a pure enzyme preparation. In SDS PAGE, both enzymes migrated as polydisperse aggregates yielding broad and diffused bonds. These two fractions yielded one band corresponding to a molecular weight range from above 35 KDa (catalase). The enzyme exhibited distinctly under different pH and temperature profiles. The optimum pH and temperature for catalase were found to be 6 and 45C respectively. Hence the purified enzyme will be used in industrials applications as well as clinical trials.
95 Development of a novel water soluble ?-cyclodextrinepichlorohydrin polymer complex to improve aqueous solubility, R.Deveswaran*, Harika Puppala S.K, S.Bharath, B.V.Basavaraj, V.Madhavan
The purpose of this work is to synthesize and evaluate a novel water-soluble ?-cyclodextrinepichlorohydrin (?-CDEPI) polymer that could be useful as a carrier to improve the aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drug, aceclofenac. The melting point of synthesized ?-CDEPI was 230-2400C. Solubility of aceclofenac in distilled water was enhanced to marked extent using the ?-CDEPI polymer as compared with pure aceclofenac. The FTIR studies confirmed the formation of polymer complex of ?-cyclodextrin with the addition of epichlorohydrin by preserving the basic structural units. This also confirmed the absence of any chemical interaction between the drug and the prepared complex. The drug content of all prepared complexes was found to be in the range between 97-100%. Dissolution studies results revealed that the dissolution rate of complex prepared by kneading process was found to be faster as compared to physical mixture and pure drug. The dissolution rates of complexes were found to be greater than that of the pure drug due to the wetting effect of the cyclodextrin during the dissolution. The results of the formulations were found to be statistically significant. Thus, the synthesized complex was useful in improvement of dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug aceclofenac, thereby leading to better absorption in gastrointestinal tract.
96 Efficacy of methanol and chloroform extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn in inhibiting pathogens, N. Jyothirmayi*and Saripalli. H. K. R. Prasad,
Plants have been in therapeutic use since the beginning of disease which, in itself is immemorial. Traditionally plants have been used for treating various human ailments such as malaria, parasitic infections, tumors, fungal and bacterial and leishmanicidal infections. Still a number of plants are yet to be screened for their potential as medicinal plants. In accordance with this information, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the seeds of Euphorbia hirta L., which is commonly considered as medicinal plant, were tested. Solvent extracts of seeds of Euphorbia hirta Linn made in methanol and chloroform were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Both solvent extracts were found to be effective against all the tested organisms.
97 Water and sugar levels in ripening of honey in indigenous hive apis cerana indica, Balasubramanyam, M.V.1, Ramesha Iyyanahalli 1, Jayaram K.M. and Reddy, C.C. 3
Honeybees effectuate nectar to honey transformation. Water and sugar levels were determined in five stages of honey ripening process of indigenous hive bee A. cerana indica. The five stages in nectar to honey transformation comprise floral nectar (FN), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). Water levels of fn and sh cells was maximum of 79.65% and minimum of 21.24%. Monosaccharide, laevulose of fn and sh cells was maximum of 1.75% and minimum of 38.02%, dextrose of fn was lowest of 0.96 % and highest of 33.38 % in sh stage. On the contrary, sucrose of sh cells and FN was 4.11% and 19.50% respectively. Results clearly suggest that maximum hydrolysis of sucrose into laevulose and dextrose due the action of invertase occurs in uh stage. Hence, content of laevulose and dextrose were inversely proportional to water and sucrose throughout the five stages of nectar-honey transformation. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of water, laevulose, dextrose in ripening of honey was significant at 1% level (p
98 Gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.) - a potential crop for bioprocessing, D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin*1, A. Selvin Samuel 2 and A. Pauldurai Samraj 2
Gene technology has given unlimited powers to developed countries to exploit the genetic resources of poor nations, leading to a situation of 'Biopiracy" and gene robbing. It is extremely important for the biodiversity-rich nations to inventories and documents the bioresearches. More recently, the term bioprocess has been widely used to assert the economic potential of plant species. Bioprocessing is one of the challenging areas of future research. Bioprocessing will enhance the conservation value of Indian medicinal plants. The present study deals with the processing methods of a potential crop Gherkins.
99 Analysis of Myoelectric Signals for below Elbow Amputation for the development of a Prosthetic Arm, Meghamala Dutta
In the last few decades, myoelectric based prosthetic limbs, which are controlled by sensing the signals for muscle movements which are electrical in nature, have become much more common than purely mechanical limbs or semi-automatic assisted contraptions. Based on the established concept that muscle activity is associated with change in voltage levels [order of micro-volts], sensors can be positioned appropriately to care placed between the simulated upper arm muscles and the virtual prosthetic arm. Small amounts of current generated due to this potential difference are amplified and filtered to get the desired output using simulated software. With the widespread use of Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing coupled with artificial intelligence [especially Genetic Algorithm], improvements in DSP and its implementation cost reducing over the years, our goal was primarily to analyze the myoelectric signals from the amputated and real elbow using a simulating software and predict the signal range which might be necessary for fitting of the prosthetic arm.
100 Biodegradation of perchlorate by methylophaga sp. lmn developed from an acclimatized mixed microbial consortium, J.R. Anoop Raj1* and L. Muruganandam2
Present study deal with the microbial degradation of perchlorate (ClO4 -) present in waste water using a pure culture developed from an acclimatized mixed microbial consortium. The microbial screening study shows that the strain LMN isolated from the mixed consortium has the capacity to degrade perchlorate. The effect of varying perchlorate concentration on strain LMN was studied using batch reactor under anaerobic environment. Growth kinetic study conducted over different perchlorate concentration range from 0 to 100 mg/L. The dry weight of cells and colony forming units per millilitre (CFU/ml) studies were carried out to determine the growth of bacteria. The dynamic growth rate of the strain LMN was identified in the logarithmic phase and a linear relationship between growth rate and perchlorate concentration calculated. A kinetic model was developed incorporating the cell density, growth rate and perchlorate degradation rate. Batch reactor studies shows that around 89.2% of perchlorate reduction was achieved within 9 h of incubation at an initial perchlorate concentration of 25 mg/L. Growth retardation effect was observed on strain LMN and found to be predominant at >50 mg/L. The relationship obtained between growth rate and perchlorate concentration proves that growth and degradation rate of bacteria were inversely proportional to the perchlorate level. The perchlorate concentration and biomass level are the important factors in the biodegradation mechanism. Study results prove that perchlorate as an environmental pollutant exhibit mild growth inhibitory effect towards Methylophaga sp. LMN and the above findings are useful for the development of perchlorate remediation systems.
101 Numerical Rate of Convergence of Bisection Method, R. B. Srivastava*and Shalini Srivastava
A computer program in C++ language has been developed to calculate cube roots of numbers from 1 to 25 in interval [1, 3] using bisection method. Rate of convergence has been found out in each calculation. Lowest rate of convergence has been observed in the evaluation of cube root of 18 and highest in the evaluation of cube root of 9. Average rate of convergence of bisection method has been found to be 2.488206405.
102 Mechanoluminescence of Eu2+ doped Sr5 (PO4)3Cl phosphor, A.K.Sahu*,P.S.Chowdhury*,V.Nayar* and S.J.Dhoble ?
Synthesis of Sr5(PO4)3Cl phosphor by using the solid state diffusion technique. The ML intensity of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ phosphor increases linearly with time and then it attains a maximum value Im at a nanosecond of time tm . After tm the ML intensity increases exponentially at a fast rate and then it decreases exponentially at a slow rate. The ML intensity increases with increasing concentration of Eu, attains an optimum value for 1 mole %. However there is no considerable change in tm. It is seen that the ML intensity increases with increasing impact velocity. The ML peak intensity increases with increasing load. The appearance of ML in Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ indicates that the ML in this material may not be due to the mechanical or electrostatic interaction between the bending segments of dislocations and filled hole traps , because there is no possibility of dislocations in nanoparticles . Since only one peaks observed in the ML intensity versus time curve, so it seems that capturing of carries by the shallow traps is not taking place in this phosphors. The time difference between excitation of two types of defect centres is extremely low . All the centres responsible for ML excitation are excited all most at the same time.
103 A CFD based study of turbulence energy dissipation in mixing vessel, Kumar Verma and Amit Keshav*
The distribution of rate of energy dissipation in the stirred vessel, stirred by a Rushton Impeller has been obtained from CFD predictions of the flow employing moving reference frame (MRF) approach and RANS based turbulence model (standard k- ?). In a stirred tank, flow around the rotating impeller blades interacts with the stationary baffles and generates a complex, three-dimensional, recirculating turbulent flow. The CFD simulations are performed in a 3D domain using commercial code FLUENT. The simulation is conducted to get normalized radial pumping capacity (NRPC) profile, turbulent kinetic energy and normalized turbulent dissipation rate. The numerical predictions are found to be within - 8.5% of error when compared with the experimental data. The present CFD result also indicates that a substantial amount of energy might be dissipated in the bulk of the flow and near the wall of baffles.
104 Comparison of Numerical Rate of Convergence of Bisection, Newton-Raphsons and Secant Methods, R. B. Srivastava*, Shalini Srivastava
A computer program in C language has been developed to calculate cube roots of numbers from 1 to 25 using bisection, Newton-Raphsons and secant methods. Numerical rate of convergence has been found out in each calculation. Average numerical rate of convergence of bisection, Newton-Raphson and secant methods have been found to be 2.488206405000, 19.105997600000 and 26.547447346241 respectively. It indicates that the numerical rate of convergence of bisection, Newton-Raphson and secant methods is in the order bisection method < Newton- Raphson method < secant Method. These results arte in accordance of theoretical results.
105 Treatment of rice mill effluent for pollution control by Electrocoagulation, Pooja Vaishnav Shrivastava* and Anupam Bala Soni
Rice milling is the process of removing the husk and part of the bran from paddy in order to produce edible rice. Parboiled rice production requires a larger amount of water. This water, if not properly treated, could give rise to water pollution. The limitations in the physic-chemical methods and biological methods make Electrocoagulation the favourable alternatives for the removal of pollutants from the industrial effluents. The maximum removal of COD (Chemical oxygen Demand), Oil and Greece, Turbidity and TSS (total suspended solids) has been considered in the present investigation. The process variables are pH, current density and inter space between electrodes. As a part of study this paper presents effect of pH on removal of COD, Oil and Greece, Turbidity and TSS.
106 Circuit arrangement for magnetic field generation, arrangement for magnetic field generation O. I. Olusola* and K. D. Adedayo
An electrical circuit that is capable of producing a magnetic field of different strength using inductors of different inductance value have been designed and developed. The circuitry includes an electromagnetic coil for generating a magnetic field in response to a direct current (DC) power applied to the terminals of the coil and a gated triac connected in series with the coil for controlling application of direct current (DC) electric power to the coil. A 555 timer circuit is connected in an astable mode to serve as a gating circuit that develops a sequence of gating pulses. These pulses have a substantially constant voltage that extends for specified time duration to continuously excite the coil with DC power during the length of each pulse from the output of the clock circuit. Incorporated inside the circuit is also a microcontroller with a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD); the LCD shows the value of the magnetic field generated when each of the iron core inductor is selected and activated via the press to make switches labeled S1.0 -to- S1.4.
107 An Overview of Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks, Ashigwuike, Evans Chinemezu1and Iloh, John Paul Izuchukwu2
A wireless ad-hoc network is a self-configuring network made up of mobile hosts which are connected by wireless links forming an arbitrary topology. Basically, a wireless sensor network consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors deployed to co-operatively monitor certain physical or environmental conditions such as temperature sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants etc [1]. Generally, this work presents an overview of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks (WASNs) detailing the basic goals and requirements for setting up such a network. The design approaches namely protocol-based and algorithmbased approaches for developing WASNs were also discussed. We also highlighted the various operating systems now available for WASNs. Example applications of wireless sensor networks were also presented.
108 Ground Water Quality Assessment of Babalgaon, District Latur, J G Mullaa, Syed Asifb, Syed Abedc, Vidya Pardhand
In the present paper we report the ground water quality of Babalgaon Dist. Latur, the water samples were collected from four sampling sites and their physico?chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, chloride, sulphate, temperature, turbidity, DO, TDS, COD etc. the water quality is found to be good in some cases but some of the parameters were above the permissible limit.
109 Determination of pesticide residues by multi residues method in water of Hussansagar and Mir Alam Lakes of Hyderabad, India, K.Narasimha Reddy, M.Aruna and S.Satyanarayana
The usage of toxic pesticides is harmful to the Human beings as well as aquatic and other ecosystem. Hence this study was conducted to validated analytical method for water and also determines the pesticide residue levels in lakes situated in the heart of the Hyderabad city. In this method organo chlorinated, organo phosphate pesticides synthetic pyrethroids and herbicides were analyzed on ECD and PFPD and good recoveries were obtained. Water samples collected during 2005 to 2007 from Hussain sagar and Mir Alam lakes detected with pesticides viz., HCH (0.00 4.21 ?gL-1), DDT (0.00 1.13 ?gL-1), Endosulfan (0.00 0.77 ?gL-1), heptachlor (0.00 0.128 ?gL-1), Dicofol (0.00 0-.124 ?gL-1), methyl parathion 0.00 0.43 ?gL-1), Malathion 0.00 3.121 ?gL-1), and chlorpyriphos 0.00 3.12 ?gL-1). The total residues were above Maximum Residues Levels (MRL is 0.5 ?gL-1).
110 Nitrate contamination in ground water samples of Gangapurcity town (Sawai Madhopur District) Rajasthan, Ranjana Agrawal
Ground water samples analysis of Gangapurcity town were collected during April 2008 to November 2008. 30 ground water samples were collected from different places of Gangapurcity town of Sawai Madhopur district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Pottassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. It was found that nitrate concentration was ranging from 5 to 300 mg/l. The concentration remains same throughout the period, irrespective of rain/flood period. The permissible limit by WHO of Nitrate is 40-50 mg/L. High Nitrate concentration may cause blue baby syndrome or methemoglobinemia1.
111 Plastic Waste Management Strategies for Indian Cities, Syeda Azeem Unnisa 1* and Bhupatthi Rao 2
Plastics have been used extensively in both food and water packaging because of their inherent properties such as low bulk densities and inertness that make them convenient carrier materials and low risk contaminants. Plastic bottles and sachets used to package iced water that is sold to people in transit points and in moving vehicles have become widespread in the Andhra Pradesh. However, the packaging revolution has not been correspondingly backed by appropriate plastic waste management policy, which has left many cities in India littered with plastic wastes; thus, creating disgusting visual nuisances and other public health problems. The paper discusses the experiences, challenges and prospects of plastic waste management in Andhra Pradesh and proposes a new model of fractional levy and polluter tax system to address this environmental eye sore. It is concluded that the current rate of environmental deterioration is likely to persist unless a long term remedial such as the polluter taxation system is carefully worked into plastic wastes management schemes in India.
112 Induced Electron Transfer in Pentaamminecobalt (III) Complexes of ?-Amino Acids by Mn(III)perchlorate in Micellar Medium, Subramanian Udhayavani
Oxidation of pentaamminecobalt (III) complexes of ?-amino acids by Mn(III)perchlorate in micellar medium yielding nearly 100% of carbonyl compounds are ultimate products. The decrease in UV-Visible absorbance at ?=502nm for Co(III) complex corresponds to nearly 100% of the initial absorbance. The synchronous C-C bond fission and electron transfer of Co(III) centre. In addition, we have determined the micelle concentration of the surfactant-cobalt (III) complex and studied the kinetics of the complex with Mn(III)perchlorate. It has been found the rate of oxidation of Co(III) complexes of unbound and bound moieties are enhanced more in the presence of CTAB when compare to the NaLS.
113 Kinetic Study of the Catalytic Effect of CTAB on the Oxidative Degradation of Methyl Alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin, Sanjay K Singh1*, H.D.Gupta1, S.S.Baghel2, Saras Tiwari3
The kinetic studies of the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) catalyzed oxidation of methyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA) has been carried out in aqueous acetic acid medium. The reaction is of the first order with respect to N-chlorosaccharin and fractional order with methyl alcohol. The rate of oxidation in the presence of CTAB is faster than in the absence of surfactant. The rate of oxidation increases with decrease in dielectric constant of the medium. The reactions are acid catalyzed and retarded by addition of saccharin. The value of rate constants observed at four different temperatures were utilized to calculate the activation parameter. The oxidation product is confirmed and a possible reaction path for their formation is proposed in CTAB layer. The applicability of the Menger-Portnoy model was tested to explain the observed micellar effects.
114 Inhibitive action of polyvinyl alcohol Zn (II) system in corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in Ground water, Manimaran N*1, Rajendran S2, 3, Manivannan M4 and R. Saranya5
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in ground water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss study. 98 % IE is obtained from the formulation consisting of 250 ppm PVA and 50 ppm Zn2+. It is found that the IE of PVA increases by the addition of Zn2+ ion. A synergistic effect exists between PVA and Zn2+. The mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied using polarization study. Also FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ PVA complex and Zn (OH)2. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study confirms the protection of carbon steel surface by strong adsorption of PVA. From the results of above studies a suitable mechanism for corrosion inhibition is proposed.
115 Eigen vector analysis of copper (ii) halides, Vahidul Hasan Chaudhary1, R. N. Verma1, P. P. Singh2
Eigen vector analysis of copper (II) halides has been made with the help of CAChe software. The analysis shows that the involvement of d orbitals in the formation of copper (II) iodide is 2.90 where as in copper (II) chloride and bromide, the contributions are 8.14 and 8.31 respectively. The order is CuI2 > CuCl2 > CuBr2. The reactivity of d orbitals of CuCl2 will accordingly be more.
116 Kinetics and mechanism of phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of citric acid by N-chlorosaccharin, Sanjay K. Singh*1, Harjeet Gujral2, Raman Deep Kaur3, Monika Arora3, Gurpreet Kaur4 and H. D. Gupta1
The kinetics of oxidation of citric acid (CA) with N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA) in the presence of phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has been measured at 293, 298, 303 and 308 K. The order with respect to NCSA was found to be unity while with CA and PTA was fractional. The effects of temperature, composition of solvent medium and concentration of added mineral acid on the rate of reaction were also studied. The mechanism for the catalysed oxidation is likely to proceed through the formation of a ternary complex between PTA, CA and NCSA which is being decomposed and gives product in slow rate-determining step.
117 Study on Color Removal of Basic Dye by Potato Husk as an Adsorbent, Pooja V Shrivastava
Water pollution due to release of industrial wastewater has already become a serious problem in almost every industry using dyes to color their product. The study describes degradation ability of Potato husk powder on basic dye (Methylene blue). Experimental investigations have been made for color removal of textile waste water containing dye using batch adsorption technique and potato husk as an adsorbent . The effect of pH, temperature and amount of salt added in solution was investigated.
118 Phase transfer catalysis: kinetics of acrylonitrile polymerization initiated by potassium peroxomonosulfate - cetylpyridinium chloride system, K. Mohammed Mustaque, S. Jayakumar and T.K. Shabeer*
Kinetics of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) assisted polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by potassium peroxomonosulfate (KHSO5) cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) system was investigated in ethyl acetate/water system at 60C under N2 atmosphere and unstirred condition. The effect of varying the concentrations of AN, KHSO5, CPC, H+, and ionic strength on Rp were studied. From the study, reaction orders with respect to AN, KHSO5 and CPC were found to be 1.5, 0.5 and 1. Thermodynamic parameters such as overall activation energy (Ea), entropy of activation (?S#), enthalpy of activation (?H#) and free energy of activation (?G#) were calculated by conducting the reaction at different temperatures in the range 50-60C. Rate of the reaction was found to be unaffected by a change in the acid strength and ionic strength of the reaction medium. To account for the experimental observations, the most probable mechanism has been proposed and the rate expression was derived from it.
119 Peptide alkaoloids of Zizyphusjoazeiro, SwetaSingh1, A.K. Pandey1, Abhimnaya Yadava2, Pratiksha Singh2 And Jagdish P. Singh2
Two cyclopeptide alkaloids, nummularine-k and Joazerine have been isolated from the root bark of Zizyphusjoazeiro and their structures were established by spectral evidences. This is the first report of these two compounds in Z. Joazeiro.Zoazerine, is a new 13- membered ring cyclopeptide alkaloid
120 QSAR study on non-benzodiazepine GABA receptor compounds using energy and topological Descriptors, Prabhat Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Pathak, P. P. Singh*
QSAR models of 29 derivatives of 7,12?dihydropyrido[3,2?b][5,4b] diindoles as non?BDZS compounds binding to GABA receptors have been developed using energy and topological descriptors heat of formation, valence connectivity index order 0, shape index order 1, solvent accessibility surface area, molar refractivity, Log P and molecular weight in different combinations. Best QSAR model possesses the value correlation coefficient 0.968504 and the value of cross?validation coefficient 0.936827. Descriptors used in the best QSAR model are heat of formation, valence connectivity index order 0, solvent accessibility surface area and Log P. Prediction of activity of non?benzodiazepine compounds can also be done with the help of single descriptor heat of formation because the QSAR model developed using heat of formation has the value of correlation coefficient 0.957198 and the crossvalidation coefficient 0.944832.
121 QSAR study on non-benzodiazepine GABA receptor compounds using energy and topological Descriptors, Prabhat Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Pathak, P. P. Singh*
QSAR models of 29 derivatives of 7,12?dihydropyrido[3,2?b][5,4b] diindoles as non?BDZS compounds binding to GABA receptors have been developed using energy and topological descriptors heat of formation, valence connectivity index order 0, shape index order 1, solvent accessibility surface area, molar refractivity, Log P and molecular weight in different combinations. Best QSAR model possesses the value correlation coefficient 0.968504 and the value of cross?validation coefficient 0.936827. Descriptors used in the best QSAR model are heat of formation, valence connectivity index order 0, solvent accessibility surface area and Log P. Prediction of activity of non?benzodiazepine compounds can also be done with the help of single descriptor heat of formation because the QSAR model developed using heat of formation has the value of correlation coefficient 0.957198 and the crossvalidation coefficient 0.944832.
122 A facile Microwave Induced synthesis of some novel 3- [4-(4-nitrophenoxy)-phenyl]-5-(substituted aryl)-2- pyrazoline-1-carboxaldehydes as potential antimicrobial agents, Priya Gothwal and Y. K. Srivastava*
In the present communication, a series of some novel 3-[4-(4-nitrophenoxy)-phenyl]-5-(substituted aryl)-2-pyrazoline-1-carboxaldehydes have been synthesized by the treatment of substituted 4-(4- nitrophenoxy) chalcones (1a-f) with hydrazine hydrate in hot formic acid under microwave irradiation in 80-85% yield with high purity. The newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by the spectral analysis and elemental data. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities.
123 A kinetic study on the oxidation of glycine by hexacyanoferrate(III) ions in presence of iridium nanoparticles, Anjali Goel and Sonia Sharma
Well dispersed colloidal iridium nanoparticles stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared successfully by reduction of the hexachloroiridic acid precursor. The synthesized iridium nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, TEM and XPS analysis. The catalysis by colloidal iridium nanoparticles was studied kinetically using the oxidation of glycine - hexacyanoferrate(III) reaction in alkaline medium. The colloidal iridium nanoparticles were found to be more active catalyst for oxidation of glycine. The catalytic system could be recycled and reused.
124 Quantum Mechanical Based Study of Coordinating Ability of Methylthioacetamide, P. P. Singh*, Priyanka Mishra and Jitendra Pratap Singh
It is well known fact that the bonding occurs at sulphur atom in thioamides. In order to prove this fact we have considered methylthioacetamide and calculated eigen values and eigen vectors using Cache software. With the help of eigen vectors, the concentrations of electrons on sulphur and nitrogen atoms of methylthioacetamide have been calculated. The sum of contributions of dorbitals of sulphur atom in the formation of molecular orbitals is smaller as compared to p-orbitals of nitrogen atom. This indicates that the bonding takes place at sulphur atom.
125 Pyrazoline-Piperazine merged Compounds: Synthesis, spectral analysis and antibacterial evaluation, Kokila Parmar*1, Jayendra Singh Vihol1, Yogesh Dabhi, 2and Viral Modi3
Ten new flurine-containing 2-[4-(4-flourophenyl) piparazine-1-yl-methyl]-3,5-substituted phenylpyrazoline (3a-j) have been synthesized in 80-85% yield by a condensation of various chalcones with hydrazine hydrate. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by UV, IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. The Compounds were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity.
126 Density, viscosity, surface tension, and refractive indices of ternary liquid mixtures, S. D. Deosarkar1*, H. G. Jahagirdar2, S. D. Wagh1 and P. P. Patil1
In present paper density (r), viscosity (h), surface tension (g) and refractive index (nD) of ternary liquid mixtures, viz. ethanol-water-acetone and acetone-dichloromethane-ethyl acetate have been determined for varying mole fractions of solvent components at 304 K. Molar refraction of these solutions was calculated from measured refractive indices. The results have been discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions and structural properties of ternary liquid mixtures.
127 The Comparative study in kinetic, thermodynamic and ionic strength: On the adsorption of Copper (II) by different low cost materials, Abdo Taher, Mazahar Farooqui and Maqdoom Farooqui*
The low cost adsorbent namely, a Cassia Siamea (CS), Albizia Labbeck (AL), Nerium Indicum (NI), Durauta Erecta (DE), and Potato Husk (PH) have been tested for the effectiveness on removal of copper (Cu (II)) by an adsorption technique. The various parameters such as contact time and temperature were applied for the study. The equilibrium was attained within 50 min, the adsorption was studied in the pH 5, adsorbate concentration 150 ppm and amount of adsorbent 0.2 gm. Adsorption was carried out at different temperature in the range of 293 to 333 . . It was observed that the adsorption increase with increasing in time. The kinetic data was fitted using both Pseudo first order model and second order model, Langmuir and Freundlich models were often used to describe equilibrium adsorption isotherms and the thermodynamic parameters, change in enthalpy (?H) (KJ/mol) and change in entropy (?S) (J/mol) which related to the Gibbs free energy (?G).
128 Induced electron transfer reaction of Cobalt (III) complexes by imidazolinium dichromate in the presence of surfactant medium, B.Mohammed Nawaz K.Subramani and A.Nazim Ahmed
The kinetics of one electron transfer route seems to be unavailable for IDC with Cobalt (III) bound and unbound complexes of ?-hydroxyacid in micellar medium, IDC oxidizes Cobalt(III) bound and unbound ?-hydroxyacids. It rules out the synchronousC-C bond fission and electron transfer to Cobalt (III) centre. Oxidation of above complexes increases with increase of temperature. With increase in micellar concentration an increase in the rate is observed. The added TTAB enhances the rate of oxidation of a reaction much more than NaLS. Similar trends has been observed in lactato and glycolato Co (III) complexes
129 Synthesis and spectral investigations of binuclear Schiff base metal complexes derived from 1, 5-diaminonaphthalene, Markandan Usharani, Ekamparam Akila and Rangappan Rajavel
A series of binuclear Schiff base metal complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) have been synthesized with Schiff base derived from 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, glyoxal/ biacetyl and 2-aminophenol.The structure of the ligands and its complexes were characterized through physico-chemical studies. The molar conductance value of bivalent metal complexes in DMF indicates the non-electrolytic in nature. In IR spectra, the comparison of shift in frequency of the complexes with the ligand reveals the coordination of donor atoms to the metal atom. The d-d transition of the metal complex provides information about the geometry of the complexes and the transitions are in good agreement for the proposed square pyramidal geometry for all the binuclear complexes. The ESR spectra provide further information to confirm the binuclear structure and the presence of magnetic interactions. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, Eschericia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia) activity by paper disc method, it result confirms the binuclear complexes are more potent than free ligands.
130 Synthesis and characterization of some substituted pentachloroethanesulfenamide, Ahcne BOUREGHDA1, Ferhat BOUCHOUL1 and Abdelkader BOUCHOUL *
In the present study substituted pentachloroethanesulfenamidewereprepared from pentachloroethanesulfenyle chloride and appropriate amines. As well the condensation of N-sulfenylpentachloroethanesulfenamide and N-thiosulfenylpentachloroethanesulfenamide afford thiobispentachloroethanesulfenamide. The synthesized compounds were analyzed and identified by the usual spectrometric methods: IR, UV-visible, NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The sterereo chemical characteristics were discussed and interpreted.
131 Synthesis of fluorine containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives as potential antifungal agents, Anil Kumar Mittal1, Dharm Veer Singh2, Satyaprakash Tripathi3*
The synthesis of a number of 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole derivatives have been described 2, 4-Dichloro-sfluorobenzoyl hydrazine (1) on reacting with aromatic acids in presence of phosphorus oxychloride affords 5,2-Disubstituted-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles or 2-Aroyl-5-(2,4-dichloro-5-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-adiazoles (2 a-i). Aroyl hydrazine on reacting with carbon disulphide under basic condition gives 5-(2, 4-Dichloro- 5-fluorophenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-thione (3). Oxadiazol-2-thiones (3) are regioselectively aminomethylated to give 3-(substituted methylamino)-5-(2, 4-dichloro-5-fluorphenyl)-1, 3, 4- oxadiazol-2-thiones (4 a-i). Further, compounds (3) undergoes regioselective alkylation on treating with alkyl / aroyl halides to give 2-Thioaryl-5-(2, 4-dichloro-5-fluorophenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoles (5 a-i). Antifungal activity has been compared with Dithane M-45. A commercial fungicide, for their fungitoxic action against Phytopthora infestance and Collectotricum falcatum, and the result correlated with their structural features.
132 Antimicrobial activity, Spectral studies and CMC determination of some Surfactant-Copper (II) complexes, K. Sasikala*1 and S. Arunachalam2
Some novel surfactant-copper(II) coordination complexes, [Cu(phen)2(C16H33NH2)](ClO4)2 (A) and [Cu(phen)2(C12H25NH2)](ClO4)2 (B (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized from the corresponding halogeno complex by ligand substitution method. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of these surfactant metal complexes in aqueous solution were obtained using conductivity method. The surfactantcopper (II) complexes were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against various microorganisms. The results were compared with the standard drugs, Ciprofloxacin and Nystatin respectively.
133 Synthesis and characterization studies of a bivalent metal chelate, Suman Malik1 and Jaishree Morey2*
The synthesis of a hetero-chelate of the type ML2.2H2O has been reported here. The metal complex of Co(II) Complex has been synthesized with 6-(difluoromethoxy)-2-[(3,4-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methylsulfinyl]-1H-benzo[d]imidazole(Pantoprazole). Pantoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) drug that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Proton pump inhibitors (or PPI) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. Conductometric titrations have suggested metal-ligand ratio of 1:2 for Co(II) complex. The ligand behaves as a bidentate with N, O donor atoms. Complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible and IR spectral studies.
134 QSAR Study of Thiobenzamides using Topological Descriptors, P. P. Singh1*, U. P. Singh2 and Dhruv Chandra Shukla2
MLR analysis of the four sets of thiobenzamides for the prediction of activity of the derivatives of thiobenzamides against MIC with M. Avium, M. Tuberculosis, M. fortuitum and M. kansasii have been done using the topological descriptors viz. shape index (basic kappa, order 1), shape index (basic kappa, order 2), shape index (basic kappa, order 3), connectivity index (order 0, standard), valence connectivity index (order 0, standard), solvent accessibility surface area, molar refractivity and Log p. Maximum number of descriptors used in MLR analysis is 4 and total number of MLR analysis done for each set is 160. Best QSAR models developed for the four sets have the value of regression coefficient greater than 0.7 indicating the reliability of the model.
135 Metal species vis--vis seed germination and early seedling growth responses in soybean, N.C. Aery* and Sunanda Sarkar
The effect of various doses of different zinc and cadmium species was studied on the seed germination behavior and early seedling growth of soybean. 100% germination could not be achieved at higher concentrations of both the metals. Different metal species affected the seed germination and seedling growth differently. The reasons for this differential behavior have been explored.
136 Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Cnidoscolous aconitifolius leave in laboratory rodent, Akinloye Olanrewaju Oyekunle and Aderayo Opeyemi Idowu
The increase in contraindications of most non?steroidal anti?inflammatory drugs has prompted the search for natural products with anti?inflammatory potentials, available and affordable. Antiinflammatory potentials of Methanolic Extract of Cnidoscolous Aconitifolius (MECA) following acute and chronic administration in laboratory rodents were investigated In both experimental procedures, the results showed a significant (p
137 Computation and modeling of the flux of gamma globulin molecules onto titanium surface, P. A. Ekwumemgbo1*, J. A. Kagbu1, A. J. Nok2 and K. I. Omoniyi1
Titanium (Ti) is widely employed for various biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility. Studies of ?-globulin adsorption onto Ti are important for the development of biocompatible devices. This work examines the rate of adsorption of ?-globulin onto Ti surface. The plot of ?- globulin adsorption onto Ti versus time shows that the initial ?-globulin adsorption increased linearly with time with the rate constant obtained 0.032min-1 while the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.9999. The experimental adsorption rate is limited by the availability of ?-globulin molecules at the adsorbing surface, resulting in a situation in which, most ?-globulin molecule that collides with the surface sticks to it. In order to predict the factors that determine the rate of adsorption, the flux of ?-globulin molecules onto Ti surface was computed by developing a model similar to implantation of Ti into the body for the transport-limited of ?-globulin adsorption onto Ti from flowing ?-globulin solution. It was deduced that the rate of this adsorption is determined by the wall shear rate, the diffusivity of ?-globulin and the bulk amount of ?-globulin solution. An adsorption model was developed in order to seek the factors that determine the intrinsic (qualitative) adsorption and desorption rate constants. The experimental adsorption data was likened to a simple ?-globulin adsorption model, which comprises of adsorption and desorption processes. The model incorporated the rate of diffusion through the boundary (unstirred) layer of constant thickness by solving for the Fick's law. It was deduced that the intrinsic adsorption and desorption rate constants of ?- globulin onto Ti surface.
138 In-vitro Antimalarial Evaluation of Novel Functionalized Chalcones, Kunwarvir Singh1, Amit Sahu2, Manisha3* and Lal Singh1
Novel chalcones have been synthesized by conventional method. They were evaluated for their invitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (NF-54). Of the 14 compounds synthesized, 3 compounds viz, 6f, 6g and 7g were found to be most potent and shown IC50 values in the range 2-9 ?g/mL.
139 Studies on protein profile of some medicinally important species of Apocyanaceae family using SDS-PAGE, A. John De Britto*, P. Benjamin Jeya Rathna Kumar and D.Herin Sheeba Gracelin
Present study was undertaken to analyze the protein profiles of some medicinally important species of Apocyanaceae family using SDS?PAGE. Total leaf proteins were extracted and separated on 10% polycrylamide gels using standard protocols. Protein fragments of various molecular weights were separated in all selected species. The molecular weight of the protein bands were calculated using standard curve method. Protein bands were scored for similarity index studies. The dendrogram was constructed based on this similarity index table using NTSYS? PC software.
140 Protective Effect of Curcumin on Cadmium Chloride Induced Epididymal Toxicity in Swiss Mice (Mus musculus), Preeti Singh1, Kanchan Deora2, Habiba Bano3,Priya Mogra4 Sudha Javeria5 and Sushil Barolia6
The monitoring of infertility and its control has become a worldwide issue of apprehension in order to retain fit population. Cadmium, a viable environmental toxicant hinders reproductive functioning which adversely influence the number of spermatozoa and complete organization of connective tissue in the epididymis, where as curcumin is known to be a strong protective herbal remedy which renders protection against numerous toxicants. Hence, in the present research work an effort has been made to evaluate the protective effect of curcumin (10mg/kg/day , for 15 days) prior treatment against a dose of 50mg/kg/animal/day for a day of cadmium chloride induced perturbations in the epididymis. Our results strongly suggest that cadmium intoxication leads to several histopathological alterations in the epididymis of adult male mice that are alleviated by the administration of curcumin.
141 Chemical characteristics of raw, processed and stored honey of indigenous giant bee apis dorsata F.and hive bee apis cerana indica, Balasubramanyam, M.V.1, Ramesha Iyyanahalli1 and Jayaram, K.M.2
Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected in and around Bangalore rural and urban districts and its chemical characteristics of total reducing sugars (TRS), non-reducing sugars (NRS), ash, acidity and pH in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The TRS of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 73.01% and 72.45% while NRS of processed honey of A. cerana and A.dorsata was 4.15% and 4.32% respectively. The ash content of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 1.53% and 1.47%, while acidity of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 0.471 and 0.452 respectively. Similarly, pH of A. dorsata and A.cerana processed honey was 4.12 and 3.92 respectively. The TRS, NRS and pH of raw honey was more than that of stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana. The ash and acidity of raw honey was less in stored honey than raw honey of both wild and apiary honeybee species. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of TRS and ash content of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p
142 Screening, isolation and identification of extracellular lipase producing bacteria from oil mill waste, Kalyana Chakravarthy Bonala, Lakshmi Narasu Mangamoori*
Lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from soil by employing enrichment culture techniques. Medium containing trybutryin agar was employed for isolation studies. Based on the radius of lypolytic halo, one strain which has shown maximum lipase activity was coded as K7 and was selected for further studies. The morphological, physiological and cultural characteristics of K7 were determined according to Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 16S rRNA analysis of the culture K7 also was carried out for phylogenetic analysis.
143 Effect of sulphur dioxide exposure on total red blood cell count and haemoglobin concentration of albino rat, Sanjeev Kumar Nigam* and Kavita Sharma
Total red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin concentration of albino rats, Rattusnorvegicus (Berkenhout) were studied after exposure to 30ppm and 60ppm sulphur dioxide gas to 10 and 20 days for 1 hour per day. A significant decrease in total RBC count has been reported, while very highly significant decrease in the haemoglobin concentration was observed in albino rats after exposure to 30ppm and 60ppm sulphur dioxide gas.
144 Fungal diseases of some Ethnobotanical plants from Gautala Sanctuary Kannad, Maharashtra, India, S.M.Pawar and K.V.Badar
An attempt has been made to highlight the rich fungal diversity of Gautala sanctuary of Kannad region, Dist.Aurangabad (M.S.), In present study twenty one ethnobotanical plants were found to be infected by fourteen fungal genera. Out of fourteen fungal genera isolated from infected hosts, eleven belongs to Deuteromycetes, seven to Ascomycetes and only four to Basidiomycets.
145 Relationship of soil chemical composition with the nutritive values of barley grain of Rajasthan and Haryana, R. K. Singh* and Rajendra Prasad Sharma#
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is widely known for their nutritional values. The main approach of the research work is to study their agronomical characteristics present in the different barley grains collected from different parts of the Rajasthan and Haryana province. The analysis of macro and micro-nutrients present in the barley grain shows the presence of the high concentration of Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (942.028 ppm and 5286.667 ppm respectively) with respect to soil Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) (261.50 ppm and 2360.00 ppm respectively) collected separately from Rajasthan and Haryana, whereas concentration of Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe) are lesser (624.139 ppm, 1141.421 ppm, and 1287.686 ppm respectively) with respect to soil (2267.00 ppm, 4383.00 ppm and 15678.00 ppm respectively).These results were analyzed at Arbro Pharmaceuticals Limited; Delhi using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Atomic absorption spectrometer-hydride generation (AAS-HG) by Fare lab, Gurgaon, Haryana, India .The results may be useful in the food nutritional chemistry for animal feed, human consumption and for Agro industry.
146 Antdiabetic activity of bambusa arundinaceae stem extracts on alloxan induced diabetic rats, Sravan Prasad Macharla1*, Venkateshwarlu Goli2, D.Santhosha3 and Ravinder Nath.A4
Aqueous ethanolic solvent extracts of Bambusa Arundinaceae stem (Bambsaceae) were tested for anti-diabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with standard. The results expressed that aqueous ethanolic extracts had shown significant protection and maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results of this comprehensive study reveal that Bambusa arundinaceaes s tem shown statistically significant Anti-Diabetic activity in comparison to the standard glibenclamide.
147 Solid-State Fermentation and Characterization of Amylase from a Thermophilic Aspergillus niger Isolated from Municipal Compost Soil, Swati Kumari, Sourav Bhattacharya* and Arijit Das
Screening of the six compost fungi for their ability to produce amylase using solid-state fermentation (SSF) revealed that Aspergillus niger was the best amylase producer. Among the several agronomic wastes, the highest yield of amylase from A. niger was obtained with rice bran. Soluble starch and peptone (1% w/w) when used as carbon and nitrogen supplements, respectively, enhanced the enzyme production. The optimum pH, temperature and incubation period for amylase production by the isolate were found to be 6.0, 30C and 120 h, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme following sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was found to be 55 kDa. The partially purified enzyme was optimally active at 70C and pH 5.0 and 9.0. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the A. niger isolated from the compost pile may act as a potent source for the industrial production of amylase. The enzyme being stable at elevated temperatures and under both acidic and alkaline pH can meet the requirements of food, beverage and detergent industries where often extremes of pH and temperatures are involved.
148 Microbial Consortium Treatment to Distillery Spent Wash and Press Mud Cake through Pit and Windrow System of Composting, Shrikumar V. Mahamuni1 and Ashok S. Patil2*
Experiment on disposal of spent wash (Vinasse) by composting with press mud cake (PMC) through microbial consortium treatment by pit and windrow system was conducted at Dnyaneshwar Sahkari Sakhar Karkhana (S.S.K.), Bhende, district Ahamednagar of Maharashtra, India. The compost prepared by windrow and pit methods from PMC and spent wash using microbial culture within 45 days ranged C: N ratio from 10.19:1 to 13.88:1 and 14.32:1 to 22.34:1, respectively. This indicated the effectiveness of microbial decomposing culture on production of good quality compost in a short period of time. Both the methods gave the higher nutritive manurial values after completion of process of composting. The compost obtained in various treatments by windrow method contained 1.52-3.7 % N, 0.9-3.54 % P2O5, 1.95-3.45 % K2O, and had pH range from 7.02-7.82. Similarly the compost obtained in various treatments by pit method contained 1.34-2.85 % N, 0.30-0.72 % P2O5, 2.20-4.72 % K2O, and had pH range from 7.40-8.16. Microbial consortium used in the present investigation included phosphate solubilizing fungi and Burkholderia species isolated from the sugarcane and sugar beet rhizosphere. Due to microbial process and aeration, both BOD and COD values were reduced substantially. Microbial population was higher in compost from windrow system as compared to in compost from pit method. On the basis of result obtained, it was concluded that windrow system of composting was better than pit method. Effluent utilization which poses environmental problem can be safely and effectively solved by this technology through microbial consortium treatment.
149 Topical Gel: A Novel approach for drug delivery, 1*Sudhir Bharadwaj , 2G.D.Gupta and 3V.K.Sharma
Topical drug administration is a localized drug delivery system anywhere in the body through ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal and skin as topical routes. Skin is one of the most readily accessible organs on human body for topical administration and is main route of topical drug delivery system. This review is concern with all detail information regarding rational approach to topical formulations, principles of topical permeation and basic components of topical drug delivery systems. Overall, the clinical evidence indicates that topical gel is a safe and effective treatment option for use in the management of skin related diseases.
150 Phosphate Solubilizing Activity of a Mangrove Isolate of Streptomyces badius from Muthupettai Mangrove, Tamil Nadu, India, Shilpi Bhardwaj1*, Sourav Bhattacharya2 and Arijit Das2
Due to the formation of complexes with cations, availability of soluble phosphorus to microbes and plants are limited in the mangrove ecosystems. In order to isolate potent phosphate-solubilizing actinomycetes, sediment samples were collected from three locations of the Muthupettai mangrove, Tamil Nadu, India and checked for the ability of the isolates to solubilize the insoluble tribasic calcium phosphate supplemented in Kusters agar medium. Of the total 9 phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes isolated, isolate MTZ-3 demonstrated highest phosphate solubilizing activity in the form of clear zone around the colonies and was selected for further studies. Different pH, temperatures and incubation period were studied to optimize the highest phosphate solubilization by the isolate. After 10 days of incubation at 28C and pH 8, MTZ-3 significantly reduced the insoluble phosphate supplemented in the Kusters broth and also demonstrated the highest phosphatase activity (1.14?g phenol/g/h). MTZ-3 isolate was identified as Streptomyces badius ATCC 19729 based on the molecular characterization study. The present study emphasizes on the fact that this native mangrove isolate, can be used confidently in solubilizing the insoluble phosphate in mangrove ecosystems and also in the reclamation of barren lands.
151 Study of Vessel Elements In the stem of Genus Cuphea, Woodfordia, Lawsonia, and Lagerstroemia. [Lythraceae], Anil A.Kshirsagar*1 and N.P.Vikos2
The vessel elements in four genera and nine species have been investigated. The vessel elements in the stem of Cuphea, Woodfordia, Lawsonia and Lagerstroemia exhibit variation in their length and breadth in the different species or in the plant of same species. The minimum length of vessel element was recorded in Cuphea ignea (285.6 ?m) and the maximum length of vessel element was recorded in Lagerstroemia microcarpa (714 ?m) while minimum diameter of vessels was recorded in Cuphea ignea (14.2 ?m) and maximum diameter of vessel element was recorded in Lagerstroemia reginae (71.4 ?m) The perforation plates are mostly simple, however in certain taxa both simple and scalariform perforation plates are occurs. The position of perforations are terminal sub-terminal, the tails are recorded in many taxa, and the lateral wall are pitted .The vestured pits are characteristic of family Lythraceae.
152 Varicose vein: recent complications in humans, Girish P. Laddha1, G.Vidyasagar1, Sunil R. Bavaskar2, Vikram Mahale2, Mahendra Rathod2
In daily life human being and their survival is more difficult. In normal life continuous circulation of blood to the each and every organ is possible with arteries and veins. These circulations are mean by the internal lumen diameter and their structure throughout the life. Different diet habits in the different peoples and regions and less physical exercise is the main cause of varicose vein problem. Varicose veins, commonly referred to as varicosities, represent enlarged collaterals (branches) of socalled saphenous venous system affected by a disease called superficial venous insufficiency of lower extremities. Varicosities, therefore, constitute not a disease, but a symptom of superficial venous insufficiency, coincidentally, by far not the most frequent symptom too. Heaviness, tiredness, swelling, pain, muscle cramps, difficulties walking and even standing are some of other symptoms of the above disease.Non-surgical treatments include sclerotherapy, elastic stockings, elevating the legs, and exercise. The traditional surgical treatment has been vein stripping to remove the affected veins. Newer, less invasive treatments which seal the main leaking vein on the thigh are available. Alternative techniques, such as ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser treatment, are available as well. Because most of the blood in the legs is returned by the deep veins, the superficial veins, which return only about 10 per cent of the total blood of the legs, can usually be removed or ablated without serious harm.
153 Numerical Accuracy of Runge-Kutta Fourth Order Method, R. B. Srivastava*and Vikas Kant Pandey
Set of ordinary differential equations with boundary conditions has been solved by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method by developing a computer program. Values of y at the points of the interval [0, 1] have been calculated by adopting the stepwise of 0.01 and have been compared with the exact values of y at these points. Minimum, maximum and percentage errors have been calculated for each differential equation. It has been observed that Runge-Kutta fourth order method is accurate up to seven digits after the decimal point in some cases. In the worst case, it is accurate up to two digits after the decimal point.
154 Magnetized bianchi type III anisotropic bulk viscous cosmological models with time dependent ? and variable magnetic permeability, Gajendra Pal Singh1, Atul Tyagi2 and *Barkha Rani Tripathi 3
We have investigated bulk viscous Bianchi type-III cosmological models with time dependent cosmological term and variable magnetic permeability. To get deterministic model, we have assumed that F23 is the only non- vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assume to be a simple power function of mass density (?=?0?m). The physical and geometrical implications of models are also discussed.
155 Numerical Accuracy of Runge-Kutta Fehlbergs Method, R. B. Srivastava*and Vikas Kant Pandey
Fifteen ordinary equations with boundary conditions have been solved with the help of Runge-Kutta Fehlbergs method and compared with the exact values. It has been observed that the Runge-Kutta Fehlbergs method is accurate up to 10 digits after the decimal point at some points. Average of maximum errors indicates that Runge-Kutta Fehlbergs method is at least accurate up to two digits after the decimal point. Average of maximum percentage errors at each point has been found to be 0.07261551465131.
156 Estimation of solar power generation in some Nigerian cities using artificial neural network, Ashigwuike .C. Evans
This study introduces neural network technique for estimating solar (photovoltaic) power generation. It dealt with the construction and training of an Artificial Neural Network to estimate the solar power generated from photovoltaic systems based on latitude of PV site, day of the year, cell efficiency and area of solar array. It describes in some detail the important attribute that this technique has which makes it particularly well suited for solving problems where conventional methods have limitations. The major goal of this project therefore was to assess the suitability or otherwise of the feed forward neural network for the estimation of solar generated power of a small isolated water pumping and street lighting power systems using data obtained from field of operation of PV power systems. The neural network was simulated using Artificial Neural Network module in MATLAB.
157 Dielectric constant and emissivity of dry and wet black soils at C-band microwave frequency, Vidya D. Ahire*, D. V. Ahire and P. R. Chaudhari
This study provides the experimental measurements of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of black soils having various percentages gravimetric Moisture Content (MC) at C-band microwave frequency, 5 GHz. Black soil samples were collected from the three different places located in north Maharashtra region (India). Measurements of complex dielectric constants of these soils have been carried out by using Waveguide cell method. We have used an automated C-band microwave set-up with PC-based slotted line control and data acquisition system. The dielectric constants and dielectric losses of these black soil samples are found increased with the corresponding increase in MC. Emissivity values are estimated by using emissivity model for vertical and horizontal polarizations show decrease with increase in MC / dielectric constant. Further, the data on the physical and chemical properties of these soils are also provided. Results of this study will be useful in designing passive sensors for microwave remote sensing. Such data are essential for the retrieval of soil moisture content from the remotely sensed satellite data. Possible applications of such studies in understanding soil science are outlined.
158 Dielectric and emissive properties of tree leaves at X- Band microwave frequencies, D. V. Ahire*, P. R. Chaudhari and Vidya D. Ahire
This study presents the experimental data of the measurements on complex dielectric constant of leaves from two tree species at X- band microwave frequencies (10.5 and 11.5 GHz). Leaves from two different tree species viz., Eucalyptus (Nilgiri) and Teak (Sag), have been used in these measurements. These measurements have been carried out by using Waveguide Cell Method. Initially, dielectric constants of freshly plucked leaves are measured. Then the gravimetric moisture content (wet basis) of the leaf sample was gradually reduced by drying it in a hot air oven at 50o to 60oC. Our results show that dielectric constant (?') for the leaves of Eucalyptus lie over a range 1.25 to 6.0 when their gravimetric MC (%) (wet basis) changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 70 % and for the leaves of Teak (Sag) lie over a range 1.29 to 5.4 when their gravimetric moisture content (wet basis) changed from 0 % to around 50 %. The corresponding values of dielectric loss (?'') for the leaves of both tree species are also found to increase with increase in their MC. Our results also show a little decrease in the values of complex dielectric constants for the leaves samples of both tree species as the frequency is increased from 10.5GHz to 11.5 GHz. Further, our results show decrease in emissivity with increase in MC /dielectric constant. These results on the dielectric constants and emissivities for tree leaves at microwave frequencies have potential applications in remote sensing and mobile communications.
159 Influence of slip and jump boundary conditions on MHD oscillatory flow of radiating fluid through a vertical porous channel, Rakesh Kumar
In the present paper, the effects of slip and jump boundary conditions on hydromagnetic oscillatory flow of an incompressible viscous fluid between two vertical parallel porous plates are investigated under the following conditions: (i) The fluid is electrically conducting (ii) Both the plates are subjected to the same constant injection and suction velocities respectively (iii) A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied in the direction normal to the plane of the plates (iv)The plates are kept at different temperatures which is high enough to induce the radiative heat transfer. By considering the fluid slip and temperature jump at the right plate of the channel, a closed form solution is obtained for the velocity and temperature profiles. The effects of the various parameters entering into the problem, on the velocity and the temperature are depicted graphically and on the skin friction is depicted in tabular form, and discussed in detail.
160 The characteristics, dielectric properties and surface morphology of calcium oxalate monohydrate single crystals grown in silica gel, M.Abdul salim
Pure single crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate were grown by gel technique using silica gel. Double diffusion technique is used for the growth of crystals. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern, FTIR spectrum and thermograms of grown crystals were recorded and analyzed. The crystal further subjected for the study of dielectric properties and surface morphology.
161 Effects of thickness on the structural and optical properties of thermally evaporated CdTe thin films, S.S.Patil * and P.H.Pawar
CdTe thin films of different thicknesses on glass substrates have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique at room temperature in vacuum (?10-5Torr). The selected samples were annealed at 573 K for 30 min. in vacuum (?10-5Torr).The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the annealed CdTe samples with five different thicknesses were recorded by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD patterns exhibits polycrystalline nature which suggests that these CdTe films are of zinc blende structure with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of cubic phase. The degree of such a preferred orientation was found to increase with film thickness. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (?) and strain (?) were calculated. The lattice parameter values obtained are a ? 6.47 and a ? 6.50 . The reflectance and transmittance spectra of these samples were recorded using double beam spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 2002700 nm. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient (?) and band gap are calculated from the transmission spectra. The possible optical transition in these films is found to be direct and allowed. By using the reflectance and transmittance data, the refractive indices (n) and extinction coefficients (k) have been evaluated and discussed graphically.
162 Estimation of Errors in Newtons Divided Difference Formula for Polynomial Interpolation of Inverse Trigonometrical Functions, V. P. Singh1, Satish Kumar1, R. B. Srivastava2*
We have taken three continuous functions sin-1 x, cos-1 x and tan-1 x defined in the interval [-1, 1] for polynomial interpolation and then obtained the polynomials equivalent to these functions with the help of Newtons divided difference formula. We have also calculated the exact values of the functions and the values obtained by interpolating polynomials at equally spaced points of the interval. Errors from exact values have also been reported. Minimum percentage error in the interpolation of tan-1 x has been observed. The order of percentage errors in the interpolation of sin-1 x, cos-1 x and tan-1 x using Newtons interpolation formula is tan-1 x < sin-1 x < cos-1 x.
163 Variation of dielectric constant of dry soils with their physical constituents and available nutrients At C-band Microwave Frequency, P. R. Chaudhari*, D. V. Ahire and Vidya D. Ahire
The objective of this paper was to study the variability of the dielectric constant of dry soils with their physical constituents and available nutrients. The soil samples were collected from 10 different locations of North Maharashtra region at the depth of 0 15 cm. The soils were found to be slightly alkaline, non-saline and moderately calcareous in nature. Soil samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties and for the status of available nutrients. The dielectric constant of dry soil samples was measured at C- band microwave frequency 4.5 GHz and its variations with physical constituents and nutrients of soil samples were presented. The results were analyzed statistically, which showed the strong significant correlation between dielectric constant and texture of the soil. Similarly significant correlation was observed between dielectric constant and available nutrients in the soil except nitrogen, phosphorus and manganese.
164 Determination and removal of Nitrate in Ground Water of western Rajasthan: with Special Reference to Barmer Region, Ruchi Mathur1, Ravi Sharma1, Arun Suthar1, Anju Sharma2, Shobha Sharma1* and Pradeep K. Sharma1
Nitrate in groundwater represent a widely distributed pollution concern. Nitrates are perhaps the most ubiqutious of all groundwater contaminants. Natural and man induced sources of nitrate in ground water are a result of water usage for irrigation, excessive application of commercial fertilizers or manure, and waste disposal practices associated with land application of sludge or waste water effluents , municipal or industrial landfills and septic tank systems . The key concern regarding usage of groundwater with excessive concentration of nitrate is related to human health effects, particularly with regard to infants. The major effects are associated with losses in oxygen transport capabilities in the blood.
165 Fluoride contamination in ground water samples and its effect on human body in Gangapurcity town (Sawai Madhopur District), Ranjana Agrawal
Samples of ground water were collected during April 2008 to November 2008 from Gangapurcity town of Rajasthan State. 30 ground water samples were collected from different places of Gangapurcity town of Sawai Madhopur district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Total Hardness, Sodium, Pottassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkalinity. It was found that fluoride concentration was ranging from 0.10 to 3.6 mg/l. The concentration remains same throughout the period, irrespective of rain/flood period. The permissible limit of Fluoride is 0.5-1.5 mg/L. High Fluoride concentration may cause dental, skeletal and non skeletal fluorosis.
166 Physico-chemical and microbiological studies of drinking water of Pali district, Rajasthan, A.K. Suthar, R. Sharma* R. Mathur and S. Sharma
In the present study physico?chemical and microbiological characteristics of the water of different sites were determined during June 2011. Pali district of Rajasthan. Pali is located at 2546?N latitude, 73.33E longitude. It has an average elevation of 214 metres (702 feet).3023' N latitude. Total dissolved solids, Total hardness, Fluoride, nitrate values were maximum on all the sites. The values of pH, conductivity, hardness, calcium, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand was high. These parameters were assessing to evaluate the quality of groundwater. This investigation shows that only pH & nitrates value lies within the permissible limit and rest of the parameters are beyond the permissible limit except few, which indicates that groundwater of this region is highly contaminated and thus it is necessary to test the water quality at a regular and definite time interval.
167 Diminution of Concentration of Fluorides by Bio adsorption using Cordia Africana in the waste waters around Aksum, Mohana Rao Abburi1, Kinethebeb Belay1, Divya Jyothi Munagala2, Soujanya Kaki3*, Alemayehu Dubale1and Osman Ahmed1.
All chemical elements of the earths crust occur in widely differing omnipresent concentrations, due to their different nuclear chemical formation and geochemical history. Due to various activities of the man in domestic field, agricultural sphere and industrial establishment, the environment around us consisting of soil, water and air gets polluted. Among the various types of pollution, water pollution is of vital concern. Chemical contaminants in the water pollution are broadly classified in to Organic and inorganic pollutants. In the Inorganic pollutants, the Fluoride contamination of water is intolerable. Usually the elevated lands contain huge minerals and raw materials of which NaF, NaSiF6, CaF2, CaSiF6, MgF2, ZnF2, AlF3, and CuF2, etc generate the concentrations of fluorides in drinking water and usage water. Industrial sectors like leather technology, Polymer technology, Synthetic pharmacy, pesticides, and textiles etc... Use more dyes and chemicals in which fluoride contamination profusely occur at distinguished quantities. In fact their chemical abundances AlF3, CaF2 generate less toxic when comparatively other complex compounds. The villages which are surrounded by the Aksum city of Ethiopia have been acknowledged as Fluoride contaminated areas and the people of these villages (Waredas) have been excruciating for the last 20 years vigorously by this fluorosis. Fluorosis is a social and endemic disease which occurs either dental or skeletal. Most of the people around Aksum are bearing Dental Fluorosis rather Skeletal Fluorosis. For this sensitive endemic, this paper has concentrated on investigation of fluoride trace quantities by in industrial waste waters by Bio adsorbents.
168 Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Vaigai River basin at Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, C.Balamurugan1* and M.S.Dheenadayalan2
Water sources available for drinking and other domestic purposes must possess high degree of purity, free from chemical contamination and microorganisms. The rapid growth of urban areas has further affected the water quality due to over exploitation of resources and improper waste disposal practices. The physicochemical status of ground water samples from ten major part of locality along Vaigai River in Madurai city was assessed. The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. The physicochemical parameter like, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+) magnesium (Mg2+ ), sodium (Na+),potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), fluoride (F-), nitrate (NO3-) sulphate (SO4 2-) and chemical oxygen demand(COD) of bore well water were determined. The results were compared with standards prescribed by WHO and BIS. The quality of water was not found suitable for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes, because of high concentration of total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and COD. It was found that the ground water was contaminated at few sampling sites namely Vandiyur, Viraganur and Silaiman while the sampling sites Thuvariman and Kochadai showed physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking and other purpose.
169 Environmental Water pollution: A Review of Physicochemical and Heavy metal Quality of Water and Soil, Sivakumar K.K1,*, Dheenadayalan M.S2, Balamurugan C.3, Kalaivani R2 Ramakrishnan D.2 and Leena Hebsi bai L.2
Water resource shortage and pollution has seriously threatened the survival and development of developing countries. Because of Indias specific economical and social circumstances, complete adoption of developed countries experience is unrealistic. At present, India needs to develop strategies and technologies in source water pollution control and industrial and municipal environmental remediation that embrace the countrys specific need to battle the water resource problem. This paper reviewed ecosystem pollution with particular reference to heavy metal in water and soil system endangered by mixed effluents of domestic as well as industries.
170 Ex situ Biodegradation of Phenol by Native Bacterial Flora Isolated from Industrial Effluent, Sourav Bhattacharya*, Arijit Das and P. Nalini
Phenol, a synthetically and naturally produced aromatic compound is one of the most widely used chemicals in the industrial processes. High solubility in water and the higher content in sewage make phenol a potential water pollutant. Due to its toxicity, phenol at higher levels reduces or even inhibits microbial population in effluents. A total of 28 bacterial forms were isolated from three industrial effluent samples of which, 3 isolates (A9, B5 and C3) showed considerable amount of growth and degradation potential at 200 mg/l concentration of phenol. Based on the 16S rDNA sequencing, A9, B5 and C3 were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034, Pseudomonas fluorescens MTCC 2421 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 9634. The effects of parameters such as auxiliary carbon sources, nitrogen sources, pH and temperature on the growth and aerobic degradation potential of the isolates were evaluated. For all the isolates, the optimum conditions for growth and phenol degradation were 30C, pH 7.0, and at glucose and peptone concentration of 0.25 g/l. Within 48 hrs, P. aeruginosa MTCC 1034, P. fluorescens MTCC 2421 and B. cereus ATCC 9634 degraded 76%, 83% and 74% of phenol, respectively. Thus, based on their potential to aerobically degrade phenol at a higher concentration these native microorganisms can be cost effectively used in the bioremediation of the polluted sites.
171 Seasonal analysis of Physico-Chemical parameters of water in Fish industrial area, Chinnamuttom, *P.A. Mary Helen, I.H. Belsha Jaya Edith, S. Jaya Sree and R. J. Shalini Jose
The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters water samples from fish industrial area in Chinnamuttom near Kanyakumari. Water samples were collected in three different seasons. Water samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD and anions analyzed were Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, No3 -, No2 -, So4 2-, Po4 2- , F- and Cl-. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.69 7.33, electrical conductivity 2573 - 3980micS/cm, F-, 0.2 0.6mg/L; No3 -, 4 10 mg/L; No2 -, 0.70 - 1.22 mg/L; The concentrations of most of the investigated parameters in the water sample from fish industrial area in Chinnamuttom river were exceeded the permissible limit of WHO and CPHEEO water quality guidelines.
172 Preliminary study on Ichthyofaunal diversity of a Eutrophic pond, Sasaram, Bihar, Pramod Kumar and Ashwani Wanganeo
The investigation conducted on a tropical eutrophic pond situated in Sasaram, Bihar revealed 31 fish species belonging to 5 different orders and 12 families. Out of total 31 species recorded from Salim Shah pond, 13 species belonged to family Cyprinidae; 3 species to Bagridae, 2 species each to Channidae, Paleomonidae, Clariidae, Siluridae, Notopteridae; and 1 specie each to Belonidae, Cobitidae, Heteropneustidae, Anabantidae and Mastacembelidae. The maximum species contribution was made by family Cyprinidae. All the limnological parameters indicate the higher trophic status of the pond which can be attributed to high anthropogenic pressure that is the major cause of continuous deteriorating the ecological conditions of the pond.
173 Assessment of noise pollution and population exposure in central areas of Morogoro municipality, Tanzania: Impact of use of portable fuel generators, Jovine S. Malago and Stelyus L. Mkoma*
The problem of power consumption in the world, and especially in developing countries, is an issue which still raises many questions. Tanzania and specifically Morogoro region is part of the affected population. This study aimed at assessing noise pollution and population expose in the central areas of Morogoro Municipality. Noise levels were measured by using digital sound level meter when there is use or no use of portable fuel generators. For each sampling point the average population exposed to noise was also estimated. The results show that the measured noise levels in all studied points ranged from 72 dBA to 88.8 dBA with a mean of 79.9 2.3 dBA when generators are in use and from 59 dBA to 76.6 dBA (mean of 67.3 2.5 dBA) when generators are not in use. The area around Saifee colour laboratory had high population exposed to noise level of 77.7 dBA (average 18 people/1 hr). The lowest noise was measured at Mt. Uluguru hotel (72 dBA) and highest at Wildrose hotel (88.8 dBA). The study concludes that use of portable fuel generators increased noise levels in central areas of Morogoro municipality in addition to other urban noise such as vehicle traffic. The observed noise is likely to have adverse health problem in a long term human exposure.
174 Physico-chemical characteristics of bore well water to assess water quality for drinking purpose in Omkarnagar region of Nagpur city (India), Nandkishor G. Telkapalliwar1 and Vidyadhar M. Shivankar2
A Systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of ground water samples of Omkarnagar region of Nagpur city. Bore well water samples were collected from Omkarnagar area of Nagpur city and analyzed for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, Chloride, total alkalinity, calcium and magnesium hardness, etc. In the present study TDS ranged from 532 mg/L to 658 mg/L which lies above the range in all the water samples suggested by WHO and Indian standards. Present study recommends that the top priority should be given to water quality monitoring and indigenous technologies should be adopted to make water fit for drinking after treatment.
175 ZnII, CdII and HgII complexes with N-(morpholinomethyl) phthalimide as a new Mannich base ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial studies, L. Muruganandam1*, K.Balasubramanian1, M. Ramesh2, and A. Sebastiyan3
The new Mannich base N-(morpholinomethyl)phthalimide(MMP) was prepared by the Mannich synthetic route of morpholine, formaldehyde and Phthalimide. The d10 transition metal complexes with this ligand were synthesized and have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, UV-Visible, IR and NMR spectral studies. The bidentate chelation of MMP, bonding through carbonyl oxygen of imide moiety and CNC of morpholine ring is suggested. Based on the IR and 1H NMR studies octahedral geometry is assigned for all the complexes. The ligand and complexes have been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.
176 Hydrotropes as effective reaction media for the synthesis of metoclopramide hydrochloride, Jagannath Kadam1*, Ajay Patil, Vijay Gangan, Manohar Lokhande2 and Vijay Bhawe
The paper describes the synthesis of Metoclopramide.HCl (have therapeutic use as Antiemetic drug used to combat nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy and post operative patients) using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations were studied.
177 Ion-Solvent and Ion-Ion Interactions of Toluene-4-Sulfonic Acid in Mixed Media, S. D. Deosarkar1* and M. L. Narwade2
Densities (r) and speeds of sound (u) of ternary mixtures of toluene-4-sulfonic acid in 70 % (v/v) acetonewater and 70% (v/v) ethanol-water mixtures for different concentrations of sulfonic acid were measured at 300 K. Apparent molar volume (fv) and adiabatic compressibility (Ks) of solutions were determined from the measured densities and sound velocities of solutions and solvent mixtures. The limiting infinite dilution apparent molar volume (f0 v) was evaluated from the Massons relation. Data has been discussed in terms of ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions.
178 Synthesis, characterization and Thermodynamic studies of some organometallic complexes of bidentate Schiff- bases having N- and S- donor system, Basavaraj M. Kalshetty1*, T.P.Giraddi1, R.T.Pattar1, Ramesh.S. Gani2and M.B.Kalashetti3.
The coordination complexes of metal ions like Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) with the Schiff base ligands LH2 have been synthesized at pH= 3-4, pH= 8-9 and pH= 10-11. The synthesized complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar mass, spectroscopic studies including IR, NMR-spectra and thermodynamic parameters. Hence, the study reveals that the parent compounds A.B.C involved the donor groups COOH, -OH, SH, and Nitrogen atom. The ligand LH2 in metal complexes (Scheme 3 and Scheme 7) behaves as a monobasic bidantate OO- donor at pH=3-4 , suggesting the non-involvement of Sulphur and Nitrogen atoms present in 4-Amino-3-ethyl-5-mercapto-Triazole (AEMT). At pH=8-9 the ligand LH2 behaves as a dibasic tridentate OOS- donor (Scheme 4) suggesting the non-involvement of Nitrogen atom of (AEMT) in the metal complex compounds, sulphur makes coordination with metal ion first rather than Nitrogen atom. Because, of its electronic configuration. At pH= 8-9 the ligand with Copper metal ion also behaves as a dibasic tridentate OOS- donor, suggesting non-involvement of Nitrogen atom (Scheme 5) in the complex compound. The ligand LH2 behaves as dibasic tetra dentate OOSN- donor at pH=10-11, suggesting the coordination of (AEMT) Nitrogen atom and sulphur atom to the metal ions in the complex compounds.
179 Synthesis of advance material thiophene-formaldehyde for high technology polymers, M. N. Narule
The present manuscript reported the synthesis of double alternate conjugation of Thiophene- Formaldehyde. The reaction is catalyzed by strong acids, weak acids, and organic acids and also by Lewis acids. Spectroscopic data revels that long chain polymer hold together not only by C-C bond, but also the electrons are delocalized in conjugation showing colored polymers.
180 Corrosion inhibition by Allium sativum (garlic) extract, K. Rajam1*, S. Rajendran2, 3, M. Manivannan4 and R. Saranya5
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of garlic (GE) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in well water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by mass loss method. The formulation consisting of 2 mL GE and 25 ppm Zn2+ offers 65% IE to carbon steel immersed in well water. Addition of malic acid (MA) increases IE of the GE Zn2+ system. The IE of GE-Zn2+ and GEZn2+- MA system decreases with increase in immersion period (IP) and it increases with increase in pH from 3 to 11. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls the anodic reaction predominantly. FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+- allicin complex and Zn (OH)2. The nature of the protective film formed on the metal surface has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
181 Novel s-triazineepoxy resin curing system and their material applications, J.A. Chaudhari1 and R.P. Patel2
Novel 2-(4-Phenyl-1-Piperazinylo)-4,6-bisarylhydrazino-1,3,5-triazine(3a-f) were synthesized by reaction of 2-(4-Phenyl-1-Piperazinylo)-4,6-dichloro -1,3,5-triazine with various phenyl hydrazine derivatives. All the synthesized (3a-f) derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectral studies. the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms. All these derivatives were employed as epoxy resin curing agent. Thus the curing of commercial epoxy resin namely diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F (DGEBF) was monitored on Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The glass-fibre reinforced composites based on DGEBF-(3a-f) systems were prepared and characterized by physical and mechanical methods.
182 Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of 4-Chlorophenol: A Comparative Study, A.S.Ghatbandhe*, H. G.Jahagirdar 1and M.K.N.Yenkie2
Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) one of the chlorophenols (CPs) onto bituminous coal based Filtrasorb-400 grade granular activated carbon and polymeric adsorbents were studied in aqueous solution in a batch system. Langmuir isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of 4-CP adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir equilibrium models of 4-CP. Adsorbent monolayer capacity Qo Langmuir constant b and adsorption rate constants ka were evaluated. Adsorption using GAC is very rapid in the first hour of contact where 60 - 70 % of the adsorbate is removed by GAC followed by a slow approach to equilibrium, whereas in case of polymeric adsorbents 50-60 % of the adsorbate is removed in the first 30 min which is then followed by a slow approach to equilibrium. Comparative adsorption capacity of different adsorbents used is observed to be in following order F 400 > XAD-4 > XAD-1180 > XAD-7HP
183 Estimation of m-Phenylene Diamine using sodium nitroprusside by photochemical method, Hardik Bhatt1*, Gayatri Prasad2, Vaibhav Bhatt3 and Ajay Sharma2
Determination of m-Phenylene Diamine using a newer, faster, inexpensive and convenient quantitative method by the photochemical exchange reaction of sodium nitroprusside has been investigated. Sodium nitroprusside is a photolabile complex and it undergoes photochemical ligand exchange reactions rapidly. Some recent efforts have been made to utilise such reactions for the estimation of some nitrogen containing anions and electron rich organic molecules. The progress of the reaction is observed spectrophotometrically. The effects of different parameters like pH, change of concentration of sodium nitroprusside, concentration of ligands, light intensity etc. on percentage error was investigated. The efforts were made to minimise the percentage error and some optimum conditions were obtained. Such reaction can be used for the determination of m-phenylene diamine in the range of millimoles to micromoles, hence it is important to know whether such estimations can be done successfully and that to with the desired accuracy.
184 Synthesis of RabeprazoleNa for Hydrotropes as a Reaction Media, Jagannath J Kadam1, Ajay Patil, K.George A 3, Vijay Bhawe and Manohar V Lokhande2
The paper describes the synthesis of RabeprazoleNa. It is used as an Antiulcerative agent. The molecules in the lattice are held together by intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the NH group of benzimidazole and sulfinyl oxygen atom. The synthesis of RabeprazoleNa. was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied.
185 Thermal behavior of Rubidium soaps, Satya Pal Singh Saroha*, Krishna N. Mehrotra
Rubidium Carboxylates, M (CXHYCOO) where M is metal and X = 9 ,11 and 17 and Y = 19, 23 and 35 were prepared by metathesis and were characterized. Fundamental characteristics like thermal properties of these carboxylates are studied and thermodynamic parameters associated with decomposition are calculated like thermal kinetic parameters, activated energy of decomposition, ?E, enthalpy of decomposition, ?H, entropy of decomposition, ?S, and free energy of decomposition, ?G .The value of rate constant for the soap caprate is found to be lower than stearate or laurate soaps. The energy of activation, ?E is the measure of the stability of the soaps. The values of entropy ?S, and that of free energy of decomposition reflect for the non spontaneous reaction .The soaps are quite stable for long range of temperature.
186 Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies in the Oxidative Regeneration of Carbonyl Compounds from Oximes by Imidazolium Fluorochromate, Amit Daiyaa, Shweta Vyasa, Anita Kotharia, P. Mishraa, S. Agarwalb and Vinita Sharma*a
The oxidative deoximination of several aldo- and keto-oximes by imidazolium fluorochromate (IFC), in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), exhibited a first order dependence on IFC. A Michaelis-Menten type kinetics was observed with respect to oximes. The oxidation of ketoximes is slower than that of aldoximes. The rates of oxidation of aldoximes correlated well in terms of Pavelich-Taft dual substituent-parameter equation. The low positive value of polar reaction constant indicated a nucleophilic attack by a chromate-oxygen on the carbon. The reaction is subject to steric hindrance by the alkyl groups. The reaction of acetaldoxime has been studied in nineteen different organic solvents. The solvent effect has been analysed by multiparametric equations. A mechanism involving the formation of a cyclic intermediate, in the rate-determining step is suggested.
187 Oxidative Kinetics of Chalcones by Chloramine-T, S. Parimala Vaijayanthi* and N. Mathiyalagan
The kinetic study of oxidation of chalcones by chloramine-T (sodium N-chloro paratoluenesulphonamide , CAT) has been studied in aqueous acetic acid in the presence of perchloric acid. The products of oxidation are the corresponding substituted benzoic acid and phenyl acetaldehyde. The reaction is carried out under pseudofirst order condition. The reaction is first order with respect to [CAT]. The order with respect to [chalcones] is zero. The decrease in dielectric constant of the medium increases the rate of the reaction. The effect of various parameters like HClO4, NaCl, and NaClO4 and ptoluenesulphonamide is also studied. By studying the effect of temperature on the reaction rate, the Arrhenius and thermodynamic activation parameters have been calculated. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is proposed.
188 Investigation of the Effect of Gauging Solution Density on Setting Characteristics and Soundness of Magnesium Oxychloride Cement (MOC), R. N. Yadav* and Priyanka Gupta
Magnesium oxychloride cement (MOC) has versatile cementing characteristics. The effect of density of magnesium chloride solution used for gauging magnesium oxide on the setting characteristics and soundness of magnesium oxychloride cement has been investigated. Standard consistency and setting times of cement pastes and Soundness of cement pastes has been investigated. It was observed that Setting time increases with density of gauging solution and Soundness increases with density of gauging solution within experimental limits.
189 Intermolecular Inter-ligand Interaction in Mixed Ligand Complexes of Lanthanoids (lII) Involving CDTA and Some O-N donor Amino Acids, Vivek Tiwari* and Rashmi Singhai**
The formnation constant studies on binary (log K) and mixed ligand complexes (log K) and stability quantifying parameters (log k and ?? log k) to examine the extra-stabilization due to inter-ligand interaction in Pr (lll) and Nd(lII) complexes involving cyclohexanediaminetetraaceticacid (CDTA ) as primary ligand and a-alanine (a-ala), valine (val) or leucine (leu) as secondary ligands have been undertaken to evaluate the possible occurrence of intramolecular inter-ligand interaction. Stability quantifying parameters (? log k and ?? log k) indicates significant inter-ligand interaction.
190 Synthesis and antifungal activity of 4-substituted aryl methyl-2-(4- acetylamino-3-bromophenyl)- 1, 3, 4-oxadiazolin-5-thiones and substituted- 1, 2, 4-triazolin-5-thiones, Rishi Pratap Singh1, Dharm Veer Singh2, C.R. Singh3*and Shailendra Singh4
Starting material 4-acetylamino-3-bromobenzoyl hydrazine (1) has been synthesized from easily available methyl-4-acetylamino-3-bromobenzoate and hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. Compound (1) react with KOH and CS2 gives 2-(4-acetylamino-3-bromophenyl)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazoline-5-thiones (2). Aminomethylation of (2) with formaldehyde and secondary amines in ethanol furnished Manich base (3a-e). Compound (1) was again treated with arylisothiocynate to get 4-arylthiosemicarbazide (4a-d) which underwent cyclization in the presence of NaOH to give corresponding triazolinthione (5a-d). Compound (5a-d) on aminomethylation with formaldehyde and secondary amine in ethanol to give aryl1-1, 2, 4-triazoline-5-thiones (6a-l). Antfungal activity has been compaired with Dithane M-45, a commercial fungicide, for their fungitoxic action against Phytophthora infestance and Collectotricum falcatum, and the result correlated with their structural features.
191 Production and evaluation of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum against Alternaria solani, Ravi Singh, Rakshita, Richa Khare*, JayaPandey, Monika and Smriti Khare
Metabolites are organic compounds that are used in, or created by, the chemical reactions happening in every cell of living organisms.In this we are studying about the production of secondsary metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum against Alternaria solani at 27oC and different time intervals.
192 Histopathological alterations in developing duodenum of Swiss mice, exposed to lead acetate, Ragini Sharma and Isha Barber
In the present investigation, Swiss albino mice aged 1, 2, and 3 weeks were studied for the effects of lead acetate on duodenum development. The major objective is focused on the histopathological alterations in duodenum due to lead intoxication. Inbred healthy pregnant females were selected and exposed with lead acetate, 16 mg/animal (533 mg/kg BW) during gestation and lactation through canula. At 1, 7, 14 and 21 day of birth, litters were sacrificed, and their gastrointestinal tracts were fixed. Duodenum was evaluated for the developmental changes and histopathological alterations. Our results suggest that early life exposure may induce changes that will become apparent much later in life. Pups from lead exposed mothers, resulted changes in their developing duodenum and these changes were age related. With the advancing age of pups, the magnitude of damage in developing duodenum was increased. It is concluded that lead is an important toxicant which cause marked changes in duodenal cell proliferation and differentiation during postnatal period.
193 Study on Flowering and other growth Behavior of Brinjal (Solanum melongena) var.BR 112 in Admiration to Effect of C.M.L. (Country Made Liquor), Seema Dwivedi1, Sanjeev Sharma2, Kapil Sharma2, Kunwarvir Singh2 * and Arun2
An Experiment was conducted to study the Flowering and other growth Behavior of Brinjal Solanum melongena var: BR112 with Country made Liquor (CML) under the environmental conditions. Seeds of Solanum melongena L cv BR112, were sown at the depth of 2.5cm, with different treatments i.e. S1 (control-without CML 36%V/V), S2 (Soil + Spray of CML (36%V/V) at the interval of 3 days, S3 (Soil + Spray of CML 36% V/V only at the time of Flowering. 2000 replicates of each treatment were used for the study. Total no. of germinated plants were counted from each set of all treatments at the interval period of 5 days after sowing and reported as emergence count. For flowering study, flowers were counted from all the treatments and other growth Behavior studied. Result revealed that CML treated batch showed maximum Flowering i.e. 29 flowers per plant were observed in S2 (CML treated) treatment which was more than control (S1 treatment that was 16 flowers per plant). And 20 flowers per plant were observed in S3 treatment (CML treated only at the time of Flowering), which was more than control (S1 treatment) after 42 days. After 42 days of growth plantlets also showed maximum plant height (45cm), width of leaves (6.5cm), length of leaves (7.5cm) in S2 treatment, which was more than S1 (control) and S3 treatment. And in S3 treatment after 42 days of growth plantlets also showed, plant height (38cm), width of leaves (6.4cm), length of leaves (6.7cm), which was more than S1 treatment. In S1 treatment (control) plant height (34 cm), width of leaves (5.9 cm), length of leaves (6.5 cm).
194 Studies on Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract collected from fertilizers affected two medicinal plants, S.P Kiran Kumari*, V.Sridevi1 and M.V.V Chandana Lakshmi
Herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavoring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security. In this respective work two medicinal plants Ocimum sanctum and Aloe barbadensis were selected and cultivated under the effect of two different kinds of fertilizers and the effect of fertilizers was determined basing upon the phytochemicals present in them when compared to control plant. The medicinal values of these plants were attributed by the presence of one or more of the detected metabolites and simultaneously the distinguishing was made between inorganic and organic fertilizer usage. The aqueous extracts of Ocimum sanctum and Aloe barbadensis were screened for secondary metabolites. The extracts were revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, protein, anthraquinones, and fatty acids. Whereas some phytochemicals where absent in fertilizer effected plants.
195 Discovery of Aurora Kinase: A inhibitors using virtual screening protocol, A.Jerad Suresh1*and D.Vinod1
Over expression of Aurora kinase A (AKA) in a variety of human cells induces chromosomal abnormalities during mitosis that triggers tumor initiation and progression. Thus AKA is an attractive target for cancer prevention. In this study an energy based pharmacophore model was generated based on protein-ligand interaction terms derived from Glide extra precision scoring function. The epharmacophore model along with receptor based excluded volumes was used for virtual screening. The hits were further processed by ADME & Lipinski rule of five to investigate drug likeness which gave final 992 molecules. These molecules were clustered into 50 clusters according to chemical diversity and one of cluster representative (CR36) along with its derivative was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro biological activity.
196 Biochemical and histological responses on the liver of adult wistar rats fed with varied level of cassava, F. B. Oyeyemi1*, S. A. Babajide2, T. K. Elelu3, W. A. Oyeyemi4 and O. A. Iyiola5,6
The biochemical and histological responses on liver of rats following feeding on unprocessed cassava was examined in this study. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four. Group A, which served as the control was fed with 30 grams of grower feed per day, while groups B, C and D were given 10 grams of unprocessed cassava and 20 grams of grower feed per day, 20 grams of unprocessed cassava and 10 grams of grower feed per day and 30 grams of unprocessed cassava per day respectively. After feeding for six weeks, the animal weight, liver histology, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. The result shows significant reduction in weight gain among groups B, C and D animals when compared with the control. Histological studies also revealed diffused hepatic degeneration of the liver in all treatments except the control; this damage is more evident in group D animals. There was a significant increase in ALP, AST, ALT and GGT activity in groups B, C and D when compared with the control group, the highest was observed in group D. Biochemical evidence of tissue injury in the liver was supported by histological findings of the liver which showed disturbance of normal hepatic cytoarchitecture on rats in groups B, C and D. It is concluded that feeding on unprocessed cassava is harmful to the liver.
197 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Antibiotics Effective Against Foodborne Pathogens Isolated from Kulfi, Bibhuti Bhushan Sahu1*, R. Usha1, Arijit Das2, Sourav Bhattacharya2 and M. Palaniswamy1
Kulfi is a very popular frozen dairy dessert from the Indian Subcontinent. It is available in a variety of flavors and relished by people all over the world. Since kulfi is prepared from ingredients such as milk and water, assessment of its bacteriological quality is necessary to prevent the risk of foodborne infections among the consumers. The present study was undertaken to isolate bacterial pathogens from kulfi sold in Bangalore, India, and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antibiotics effective against them. Eighteen kulfi samples, comprising of six different brands, were analyzed. Different bacterial pathogens were isolated and their biochemical characterization confirmed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus citreus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The occurrence of psychrotolerant ?-haemolytic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum was also detected in a kulfi sample. Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that the gram positive bacterial isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin and clindamycin, whereas, the gram negative forms were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin. In order to determine the MIC, antibiotic concentrations ranging from 0.025-250 ?g/ml were used. MIC values of ofloxacin and gentamicin against the gram positive bacteria and that of ciprofloxacin against the gram negative bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 1-5 ?g/ml. Higher MIC values observed in the case of some bacterial isolates including the psychrotolerant ?-haemolytic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum may be linked to their increased level of resistance to the tested antibiotics.
198 Screening of Antibiotic Producing Actinomycetes from Streams, J. A. Johnson1, T. Citarasu2, *P. A. Mary Helen3
Actinomycetes were isolated from the leaf litter sample from streams by serial dilution agar plating method. The antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes extract was tested against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against seven bacteria and five fungi. Then bioactive compounds were purified by silica gel column chromatography and it was identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Ten compounds such as 1H-Cyclopropa[a]naphthalene (11.199%), 2,4-Imidazolidinedione (12.238%), Diethylphthalate (13.494%), 1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid (23.825%), 10-Formamido-10,11- dihydro-2,3-dimethoxy (24.934%), Naphthalene (26.816%), 6-Methyl-1-pyridin-2-ylmethylene-1H,5H-f (27.334%), 1Beta,4Beta-Epoxy-6-Hydroxy-A-Homo-5,7,9 (29.227%), 1-Phenanthrenecarboxylic acid (29.943%), Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (33.193%) were identified. Cytotoxic activity of actinomycetes extract on A375 cell lines were analysed by Trypan Blue dye exclusion method. The DNA of actinomycetes was isolated and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using universal eubacterial 16S rRNA gene primers and it was phenotypically identified as Saccharothrix sp.
199 Influence of NaF on seed germination, membrane stability and some Biochemicals content in Vigna seedlings, B.R. Gadi*, Verma Pooja and Amra Ram
The effect of sodium fluoride (0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mM NaF) was studied on germination behaviour, membrane stability and some biochemical parameters in in-vitro grown seedlings of Vigna radiata L. After 7 days of treatment germination percentage, root length, shoot length, vigour index, percentage of chlorophyll stability index (CSI), membrane stability index (MSI) and soluble protein content were decreased in seedlings under fluoride stress. Sodium fluoride (NaF) treatment resulted in a significant enhancement of osmolytes such as proline and total soluble sugars content. Thus, the results of this experiment indicate that NaF disturbed the seed germination, seedling growth and membrane stability whereas, increased proline and carbohydrates in Vigna seedlings.
200 An Overview of Microbial Lipases, K.S.S.Rekha*, M.V.V.Chandana Lakshmi, V.Sridevi and M.Manasa
Lipases are the most pliable biocatalyst and bring about a wide range of bioconversion reactions, such as hydrolysis, interesterification, esterification, alcoholysis, acidolysis and aminolysis that play a key role in fat digestion by cleaving long-chain triglycerides into polar lipids and these Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3) catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long-chain fatty acid and they are ubiquitous enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to glycerols and free fatty acid. Lipases have been utilized for fat modification, fragrance development in dairy product and for the synthesis of personal care product, oil industry, dairy industry, pharmaceuticals and bakery industry and cosmetics. The most important microbial lipase-producing strains for submerged and solid-state fermentations are reviewed as well as the main substrates, including the use of agroindustrial residues. Current process techniques (batch, repeated-batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode) are discussed and the importance of lipase catalyzed fat splitting process, kinetics, deactivation kinetics, pre-purification and novel purification technologies.
201 Effect of Inorganic Salts and Surfactants on the Production of ?-Amylase by a Mangrove Isolate of Aspergillus flavus using Solid-State Fermentation, Shilpi Bhardwaj1*, Vedamurthy A.B.1, Sourav Bhattacharya2 and Arijit Das2
Filamentous fungi have been widely used for the production of amylases under solid-state fermentation, wherein certain cultural parameters may provide good growth of microorganisms and thereby better enzyme production. The effect of salts of certain metal ions on amylase production by the mangrove isolate of Aspergillus flavus was studied. The highest yield of amylase production was obtained by the addition of magnesium sulphate (0.1%) and calcium chloride (0.02%) respectively. Supplementation of the enzyme production medium with non ionic surfactants in general and Tween 80 in particular resulted in an enhanced secretion of the starch hydrolyzing proteins in the medium. Inoculum level is an important parameter for any fermentative operation. Optimum inoculum size was found to be 10% spore suspension, beyond which enzyme production was seriously affected. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the mangrove isolate of A. flavus may act as a potent strain for industrial production of ?-amylase using SSF.
202 The Evaluation of Combine Drug Action of Codeine as a Supplementary Drug with Biginelli Dihydropyrimidinone Compounds, Deepak M. Nagrik, bDamodar M.Ambhore,cShrikant S.Patil,bJanakiram B.Devhade
Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) were synthesized by the three component Biginelli reaction which includes the condensation of aldehyde, ?-ketoester and urea. Codeine was used as the supplementary drug in combination of the resultant Biginelli compounds for biological screening. Interesting results were obtained in accordance with the principle of Synergism. It was observed that, synthesized Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPMs) and the supplementary drug, Codeine worked together to produce results which were not independently obtainable
203 Toxicity Evaluation and Bioaccumulation of Copper in Selected Tissues of Fresh Water Crab, Barytelphusa guerini from Aurangabad Region, V. K. Mukke* and D N Chinte
Fresh water crabs are economically important because crabs are used as an alternative source of food by the people from Aurangabad region. Heavy metal and their salts containing effluents are directly discharged into the aquatic environment by many industries from Paithan and Aurangabad region. Heavy metal pollutants are a major problem in aquatic environment because of their toxicity, their persistency and tendency to accumulate in organisms and undergo food chain amplification. In the present investigation acute toxicity test was carried out to determine the LC50 values (lethal conc.) of copper sulphate by using static bioassay method. The LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs of exposure were recorded as 14.02, 13.56, 12.91 and 12.41 ppm respectively. In the present study the copper content in different body parts of fresh crab, B. guerini was studied. The copper content was found high in all the tissues as compared to control group. The observations in the present study showed marked variation. The highest concentration of copper encountered in gill. The order of metal accumulation in various tissues of the crab was gill> muscle> HP> ovary> Testis.
204 Acaustical Study of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions in Different Composition of Lactose at Varying Temperatures by Ultrasonic Technique, ShashiKant and Kamini Sharma
The ultrasonic velocity (U) and density (r) measurements have been carried out for sodium chloride in 2, 4 and 6 wt. % lactose at different temperatures i.e. 303.15K, 308.15K, 313.5K, 318.15K. These measurements have been performed to evaluate some important acoustical parameters like adiabatic compressibility (b), change (Db) and relative change in adiabatic compressibility (Db/bo), acoustic impedance (Z), intermolecular free length (Lf), Wadas constant (W), relative association (R.A.), relaxation time (?). The variation of these parameters with respect to the concentration of the solute has been explained on the basis of solute-solvent, solute-solute interactions.
205 Detection of Human Blood Sugar using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Technique, 1Jinan Fadhil Mahdi, 2S. N. Helambe, and 3Nazneen Akhter
Dielectric properties of liquids cover a vast area of interest for scientists from a variety of disciplines of science and technology including medical physics and bio sciences. Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) based method for determination of human blood sugar levels is presented. This method of detection of blood sugar based on dielectric properties works well and needs further refinements by designing different sample cells with impedance matching and improved waveform analysis techniques. The TDR based blood analysis system is capable of finding out the blood sugar level of blood samples just using one drop of blood in minutes. The blood sugar level of the sample is found to affect the peak voltage values of the reflected waveform from the TDR setup. The system is tested for its reproducibility and accuracy by conducting series of experiments. The resulting waveforms are analyzed manually and using computer program, from graphs using the TDR data file. There is excellent agreement between values of blood sugar levels determined using TDR based instrument and standard conventional techniques, this validates the instrumental setup and the measuring technique. The relation between the peak voltage value and the blood sugar level of the sample is presented and details discussed.
206 Development and Validation of A HPLC-UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of Aromatic Fungicide Residues in Red Chilli Followed by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion, Tentu. Parvathamma, A. Ramesh* and Tentu. Nageswara Rao
A simple, sensitive and inexpensive method was developed using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), together with high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic fungicide residues (Chlorothalonil and Biphenyl) in red chilli. The evaluated parameters included the type and amount of sorbent (silica gel, C18 and neutral alumina) and the nature of eluent (ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetonitrile).The best results were obtained using 1.0 g of red chilli sample, 1.0 g of C18 as sorbent and 20ml of ethyl acetate-dichloromethane (1:1, (v/v)).The method was validated using in red chilli samples spiked with fungicides at different concentration levels (0.03 and 0.3 ?g/mL). Average recoveries (using each concentration six replicates) ranged 90-98%, with relative standard deviations less than 2%, calibration solutions concentration in the range 0.01-2.0 ?g/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.01 ?g/mL and 0.03 ?g/mL respectively.
207 Suitable Vertical and Horizontal Shadow Angles for Shading Devices at Port Blair, India, Amita Maurya1, Usha Bajpai2
In this paper an analysis has been carried out using the design method based on solar path diagram for the suitable shadow angles required to protect the windows from direct entry of solar radiation for buildings in Port Blair. These results are concluded by drawing overheated periods on a stereographic sun path diagrams for Port Blair and possibility of shading and shading devices are estimated. The vertical shadow angle (e) and horizontal shadow angle (d) are thus obtained, which is required to choose suitable shading device for the openings
208 Negative ion mode mass spectrometry- an overview, Pavani Challamalla, Somsubhra Ghosh*, N. Parthiban, K. N. V Rao and David Banji.
Negative ion mode Mass spectrometry is the most comprehensive and versatile tool. Recent advances in negative ion mode mass spectrometry have improved sensitivity, identification and elucidation of organic and inorganic compounds. All compounds will not produce negative ions but many important compounds of environmental or biological interest can produce negative ions under the right conditions. For such compounds, negative ion mode mass spectrometry is more efficient, sensitive and selective than positive ion mass spectra. In this review, discuss the overall framework of the negative ion mode mass experiments into its key components, such as principle, ionization techniques, instrumentation, fragmentation and applications.
209 Frequency Distribution of Noise Due to Cutting Machines, K. B. Patange 1, Nazneen Akhter2, S. H. Behere3 and Yusuf H Shaikh4*
Urban activities of various kinds are contributing to sizable noise and it is becoming serious concern. The noise is found to have serious effects on quality of life, particularly with reference to health and psychology. In view of this, the study of noise assumed importance in recent times. In urban areas, most of the noise comes from traffic, heavy industry, construction activity and machinery. The noise resulting from traffic and similar activities is found to be prominent at lower frequencies. We studied the noise contributed by cutting machines mostly used during construction activity. The noise was recorded and data analyzed for frequency distribution and it was found that there is qualitative difference in the frequency distribution of noise as compared to noise due to other sources. The noise due to cutting machines is found to be spread over a wide range of frequencies in contrast to that due to other sources. It is known that the noise at higher frequencies is more annoying and has adverse effect both on health and psychology of the residents in nearby areas. Details of findings are presented.
210 Time Series Analysis of Kaprekars (Constant) Number, Yusuf H Shaikh1*, K. B. Patange 2, Nazneen Akhter 3 and S. H. Behere4
It is observed that Kaprekar discovered a constant which was named after him. The number of steps required to arrive at the Kaprekars number for all the four digit numbers change randomly. The Rescale Range Analysis of Sequence of these random numbers is carried out and interesting results are presented.
211 Study in Glycerol-Azure A-NaLS System: Solar energy conversion and storage by the use of photogalvanic cell, R.K.Gunsaria, S.S.Nadeem and Ram Narayan Meena*
Solar energy conversion and storage by use of photogalvanic cell was studied in Glycerol Azure ANaLS System. Photogalvanic effect was studied in photogalvanic cell consisting of Glycerol as a reductant, Azure A as photosensitizer and NaL as surfactant in aqueous solution. The photopotential and photocurrent generated were 855.0 mV and 250 ?A respectively. The observed power of the cell was 213.75?W at its power point. The conversion efficiency and fill factor was determined as 1.1826 and 0.4762 respectively. The cell performance was 63 min. in dark. A mechanism for the photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. The effect of different parameters (pH, diffusion length, electrode area, light intensity) on the electrical output of the cell were also been observed.
212 Vibrational studies of LiN2H5SO4 crystals, Azha.Periasamy1and S.Muruganand2
Vibrational assignments have been made for the lithium hydrazinium sulphate crystals. The crystals were grown using aqueous solution method. The grown crystals were characterized by FTIR and Raman spectra. The study of the crystals showed ferroelectric in nature at room temperature with a spontaneous polarization along c axis.
213 Dielectric and emissive behavior of red soils of North Maharashtra at X-band microwave frequency, Avinash.A.Patil*, D.V.Ahire and P.R.Chaudhari
The dielectric properties of red soil have been study with various percentage of moisture content. Microwave transmission line waveguide technique has been used for this purpose. The dielectric properties including dielectric constant (?) and dielectric loss (?) have been measured for the red soil samples collected from the three places located each in the Dhule (S1,S3) and Jalgaon (S2) districts of north Maharashtra region (India) at 9.2 GHz frequency of varied moisture content at X-band . The experimental observations shows that the dielectric constant of these red soil samples increased from about 2.69 to 19.5 for sample S1, 2.65 to 19.2 for sample S2 and 2.53 to 20.2 for sample S3, when its corresponding gravimetric MC changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 30 %. Estimations of emissivity ep(q) by using emissivity model for vertical and horizontal polarizations at various incident angles show decrease in emissivity with increase in MC / dielectric constant. Electrical a.c. conductivity is also reported. This data is very useful in designing passive sensors for microwave remote sensing.
214 Structural and Transport Properties of PbTe Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation, U. P. Khairnar1*, S. S. Behere2, and P. H. Pawar2
Thin films of lead telluride (PbTe) of thicknesses from 500 to 3000 have been prepared by physical evaporation technique, onto precleaned amorphous glass substrates at constant substrate temperature. The deposited samples were annealed and annealed samples were used for characterization. Resistivity of these samples was measured by four-probe technique as a function of thickness and temperature. Activation energy for charge transport have been evaluated and found in the range of 0.14 to 0.20 eV. Thermoelectric power has been measured and found to be positive indicating that the samples are p-type semiconducting material. Mobility variation with temperature has been estimated (evaluated) and co-related with scattering mechanism in the entire range of temperature studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that films are polycrystalline having cubic structure cell and lattice parameters are reported.
215 Effect of Substituents on the Photoluminescence Performance of Ir(III)Complexes: Synthesis and Photo Physical Properties, H.K. Dahule1 and S.J.Dhoble2
A series of substituted 2,4 diphenyl quinoline ligands namely (Cl-DPQ),(OMe DPQ),and M-DPQ) have synthesized. These compounds readily undergo cyclometalation with iridium trichloride and form iridium (III) dopants of the substituted 2,4 diphenyl quinoline ligands. Synthesized compounds emit red color in solid as well as in solution phase. The peak emission wavelength of the dopants (?max = 610-650 nm) can be tuned depending upon the electronic properties of the methoxy, chloronine and methyl substituents as well as their positions in the 2,4 diphenyl quinoline ring. These synthesized iridium complexes were characterized by 1HNMR, DTA/TGA, XRD, and FTIR . The molecular structure of M-DPQ,OMe-DPQ, Cl-DPQ Ir(M-DPQ)2(acac) ,Ir(OMe-DPQ)2(acac) and Ir(Cl-DPQ)2(acac) is confirmed by the FTIR spectra. The photo physical properties were studied by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence. The synthesized quinoline-based iridium complexes are promising candidates for efficient red emitters.
216 Study on physico-chemical characteristics of ground water of various villages around Raisar, Sushma Jain1 and Monika Agarwal2*
The ground water is considered to be the most ancient source of water. It is one of the major sources of drinking water in the village and rural area. Physico-chemical characteristics of water samples from 24 villages of district Bikaner were studied. The water quality parameters like colour, odour, pH, TDS, TH, EC, major ions like F-, NO3-, Cl-, SO4 2- ,Ca2+ and Mg2+ were studied. It is found that some water samples are non potable for drinking purpose due to high concentration of one parameter or other. The high value of these parameters may have health implications and therefore, needs attention.
217 An Assessment Study on the Quality of Industrial effluents in and around Vandiyur Lake, Madurai (Tamil Nadu) India, L. Leena Hebsibai1*, M.S Dheenadayalan1 and K.K. Sivakumar2
The industrial effluent samples from ten different stations near the industrial areas in and around Vandiyur Lake, Madurai were collected and analyzed for their pollution potential. The values obtained for different physico-chemical parameters were compared with standard values given by ISI/WHO. Variations in many physic-chemical parameters were observed for most of the samples when compared with standard values. The variation in the parameters such as Ph, EC, TDS for the premonsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were highly undesirable. The deterioration of the quality of the Vandiyur Lake water calls for some effective measures to be taken urgently to minimize the adverse impacts that may occur due to the contamination of ground water.
218 Limnology: A case study of highly polluted Laharpur reservoir, Bhopal, (M.P.) India, S. C. Pandey, Sadhna M. Singh*1, Subrata Pani2 and Aarti Malhosia3
Present paper embodies limnological investigation of Laharpur reservoir Bhopal, (M.P.) India which was carried for a period of one year 2009-2010.It was constructed in the South west of Bhopal city for the irrigation purpose. At the time of construction it was in the out of city but now, with the expansion of city it is in between the residential areas. Due to the developmental activities and occupancy in the city this reservoir is almost contaminated. Other than this it also receives city sewage, industrial wastes run-off and agricultural waste fields. This untreated water poses a serious threat to health of humans and animals so there is an urgent requirement for its study of extent of pollution which will help us in further management and conservation. Physico-chemical characteristics of Laharpur reservoir was studied for a period of 12 months from August 2009- July 2010. In view of above, an attempt was made to study certain limnological parameters such as Temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, Ca and Mg contents, total alkalinity, BOD, and COD etc. For examination of above all mentioned parameters American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association was made. Present research work concludes that Laharpur reservoir which was basically made for irrigation point of view is now highly polluted water body due to continuous discharge of municipal sewage.
219 Perchlorate Removal Methods and Effect of Environmental Factors on its Biodegradation, J.R Anoop Raj1* and L. Muruganandam2
There is a persistent emergence of human health and ecological assessment issues associated with perchlorate (ClO4-) and it is observed that even at extremely low concentration causes serious health implications on human being. It is used in rocket fuels, fireworks, explosives and other applications were an energetic oxidant is required. The existence of ClO4- as a contaminant in effluent water, ground water and drinking water is of particular concern and its unique physical and chemical properties makes challenging to treat. Hence there is an urge to develop technologies for perchlorate remediation in contaminated water or contaminated sites. This review deals with ClO4- removal methods and various environmental factors which affects on its degradation. This also summarizes the possible methods for the efficient removal of ClO4- and their feasibility study. The various bench scale studies on the removal of ClO4- in water and the effect of pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), acetate, nitrate, nitrite, molybdenum, sulphate, iron and rhenium on microbial degradation of ClO4- are also discussed. Improper disposal and usage of inefficient treatment techniques results in the bioaccumulation of ClO4- to the environment. Microbial mediated treatment is the most cost effective method in which the initial biomass level, influent perchlorate/acetate ratio, pH, presence of nitrate/nitrite, presence of oxygen scavengers like sulphide, salinity, presence of dissolved oxygen are the significant parameters on its degradation. Nevertheless, there is a need of integrated treatment approach that would create a passive remediation system at the contaminated site itself.
220 A Review on Adsorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution, Satya Vani Yadla1* V. Sridevi11 and M.V.V.Chandana Lakshmi1
Waste aqueous effluent containing heavy metals causes serious environmental problems. The most frequently applied adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal is activated carbon. However it is an expensive material. The use of alternative and perhaps cheaper adsorbents is attractive. Fly ash is a waste material which is formed as a result of burning in power plants, but has a potential to adsorb heavy metal ions. A number of theoretical models and equations are available for the purpose and the best fit of the experimental data to any of these models is interpreted as giving the appropriate kinetics for the adsorption process. This review gives some outlines of fundamental principles of adsorption and adsorption process.
221 Quality Status of Ground Water of District-Nagaur, Rajasthan, R. Sharma, A. K. Suthar, R. Mathur, S. Sharma
Ground water quality of 30 villages of Ladnu, Didvana, Degana, Merta, Tehsils,of Nagaur District, Rajasthan was analyzed to identify the nature of ground water. The ground water samples were collected in clean polyethylene one-liter cans and subjected for analysis in the laboratory. The parameters studied were pH, fluoride (F), chloride (Cl), total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca and Mg hardness and total hardness (TH). The results revealed that the values of pH were found to be ranging between 7.1-8.6, chloride content from 100-1220 mg/l and total hardness varied from 80-940 mg/l. The most important parameter fluoride was found to be 4.3-40 mg/l, which is more than the permissible limit in all the samples studied. TDS varied from1050-4431 mg/l. The data revealed that the ground water of these villages of nagaur district contain high fluoride concentration, which leads to dreaded disease called fluorosis; so ground water is not good for health.
222 Studies on the Potential of bacillus subtilis in the Biodegradation of Engine oil, Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru1*, Narasimhulu Korrapati2 and Bhanu Prakash M3
Oil and petroleum products are very toxic to the living organisms. Their detoxification efficiency indicates good potential for application in bioremediation of oil. Oil in soil is influenced to a great extent by microbial activity. Microorganisms have ability to degrade oil from a medium. To gain a better knowledge about oil biodegradation, it is essential to associate hydrocarbon degradation with specific organisms and metabolic processes. The removal of oil from aqueous solutions by using the bacterial culture was investigated. The growth of the B. subtilis culture was noticed by oil supplemented growth medium. In this study, B. subtilis was tested for oil degradation ability. The degradation of the oil was monitored over a 10 days period. The percentage of biodegradation of oil by B. subtilis was studied. These bacterial strains could utilize oil hydrocarbons as sole source of carbon and energy. After testing, it was found that B. subtilis had higher potential to degrade oil up to 71%. B. subtilis strain showed a significant reduction of oil levels at the end of experiment. The results revealed that the living biomass of the cultures were more efficient in degrade oil.
223 Tools and techniques for environment management in industries, Shruti Khare , Richa and Smriti
Environment is one of the major issues to save earth and human life. In this we have accounted the efforts of the business organizations to save environment. We have acknowledged the different business organization environment policies implemented to save environment. We studied the trend of Indian industries to save energy, awareness and approach to handle environment problems. We have also examined the impact of environment on human efficiency and the job trends in environment industries.
224 Sustainable groundwater use management in Ghana, Crentsil Kofi Bempah
In Ghana, groundwater development is seen as the only cost effective way of meeting dispersed and growing rural and urban demands. Whilethisrealization has underpinnedmost rural water supply initiatives in Ghana for some time, in the urban and metropolitan cities the realization is relatively new. The need to satisfy the basic water needs of some 12 million people neglected under old policies has given groundwater a new role. Against this background, the importance of groundwater, particularly in rural areas where the resource is typically the only perennial source of supply, cannot be overestimated. Currently, Ghanas groundwater governance regime does not provide the capacity to assure effective and sustainable resource regulation and allocation. To date, the management of groundwater is hampered by a variety of uncertainties, such as global climate change and socio-economic growth, as well as ineffective governance structures affecting resource use, regulation, protection and the implementation of alternative strategies needed to achieve sustainable management. This paper therefore addresses challenges and hurdles impeding sustainable and efficient groundwater use in Ghana, factors affecting groundwater supplies and use, methods that promote the wise use of groundwater supplies, need to determine strategies that promote groundwater sustainability. As a means to tackle these challenges, it has been assumed that the concept of pressing ahead with prescience and forethought into a future of sustainable water resources, by taking into account complex system linkages between hydrogeological, political, socioeconomic and environmental domains. Supporting principles must be developed to achieve institutional change in the political arena of groundwater management.
225 New Bio-Sorbents in the Removal of Chromium (VI) From Polluted Waters, O. Sree Devi and K. Ravindhranath*
Powders of leaves, stem/bark and their ashes of Datura metel, Cleome viscosa and Asparagus racemosus are found to have strong affinity towards Chromate at low pH values. The sorption characteristics of these bio-products in controlling the Chromium (VI) pollution in waste waters, are studied varying physicochemical parameters such as pH, sorption concentration and equilibration time. The conditions for maximum extraction of Chromium (VI) have been optimized. Ten fold excess of common cations present in natural waters viz., Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ have marginal affect on the % of extraction of Chromate while anions like SO4 2- and PO4 3- are found to be interfering to some extent but in no case, the extractability comes down below 80.0%. The applicability of procedures developed in this work are applied to diverse waste water samples collected in nine different places and the methodologies developed, have been found to be remarkably successful in removing the Chromate from industrial effluents and polluted lake samples.
226 Assessment of Ambient Atmospheric Concentration of Volatile Organic Compounds in Abuja-Nigeria, Abdullahi M. E, Okobia E. L. And S. M. Hassan
An assessment of the ambient air in Abuja have revealed the presence of various concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)/low explosive limit gases. In this study, ambient emission inventory of low explosive limit (LEL) gases such as methane were taken using BW Technology GasAlaert Microclip (gas detection instrument) from various sample points in Abuja municipal area council, Kuje and Dobi in Gwagwalada area council. The results show that high concentration of LEL were detected in Abuja municipal area council which can be attributed to increased population growth, increased production of gaseous wastes and increased number of industries. However, no LEL was detected in Kuje area council and with only emission of gases stable at (6.97%) from point P26 to P50 in Dobi, Gwagwalada area council which was due to decomposed refuse around the market and milling machines waste within settlements, in Dobi village.
227 Potentiometric Study of Menadione Complexes with Transition Metals in DMSO- Water and DMF-Water Medium, Milind N. Gaikwad*, Suresh T. Gaikwad, Anjali S. Rajbhoj
Vitamin K complexes with transition metals in 37.5% (v/v) DMSO- water and 28%(v/v) DMF- water medium The stability constants for the transition metals with menadione have been studied using pH-measurements in 37.5% (v/v) DMSO- water and 28%.(v/v) DMF- water medium. The values of proton- ligand stability constant and metal- ligand stability constants were calculated. The overall stability constants were determined and are quoted.
228 Synthesis, Structural Elucidation and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Novel Macrocyclic Complexes of Ni (II) Having thiaaza Potential Donors in 18-24 Membered Rings, Vivek G. Dave and Piyush J. Vyas*.
Macrocyclic complexes of Ni(II) having N2S2 potential donors in 18-24 membered rings, of the general formula: Ni(L1-5)X2, Where X=Cl-,CH3COO-,NO3- and L(1-5) is Macrocyclic ligands have been synthesized from the reaction of Nickel(II) salt, Dicarboxylic acids and p-aminothiophenol in 1:2:2 moler ratio in methanol. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, molecular weight determination, IR spectra, reflectance spectra, thermo gravimetric analysis and magnetic measurements. Molecular weight determination of these complexes indicates their monomeric nature. Octahedral structure has been proposed on the basis of Spectrul data, magnetic data, Reflectance spectra, and Magnetic measurements. Two sulphur atoms and two nitrogen atoms of the macrocyclic ring coordinate to the central nickel ion in the square planar form in unidentate behavior. Antimicrobial activities of these complexes have been studied by screening them against fungi, such as Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma harzianum, and bacteria, such as Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtili. Thise macrocyclic complexes were found to be more fungitoxic and antibacterial than bavestin and streptomycin taking as a standered.
229 Montmorillonite K-10 Catalysed Synthesis of 1-Aryl-3- Alkyl Substituted Indazoles, Hangirgekar S.P.*
A clean and simple method for the preparation of substituted indazoles was developed using the montmorillonite K-10 catalyzed reaction of 2-hydroxy acetophenone and hydrazine in methanol solvent. Good functional group compatibility was observed under mild reaction conditions and various substituted indazoles were obtained in moderate to excellent yield.
230 A Facile Route to the Synthesis of 8-[2-(3, 5- Dimethyl-4-Ethoxy Carbonyl Pyrrolyl) Hydrazine] Substituted Phenothiazines and their Biological Activity, M. N. Narule
A short facile synthesis of 8-[2-(3, 5-dimethyl-4-ethoxy carbonyl pyrrolyl) hydrazine] substituted phenothiazines (5a-j) from 2-arylamin benzal-2-(3?,5?-dimethyl-4?-ethoxy carbonyl pyrrole)hydrazines(4) in presence of sulphur and iodine.These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as well as for their antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger. The synthesized compounds are characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental and chemical properties
231 Quantitative Analysis of Quercetin in Pueraria Tuberosa by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Bharti Jain* and Rashmi Raghuvanshi
A simple, reproducible and efficient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and described for the quantitative determination of quercetin the root tuber powder of Pueraria tuberosa. The analysis was done at room temperature with a Promosil C18 column (250mm4.60mm i.d.,5?m particle size) as stationery phase at a wavelength of 267nm for detection and determination. The mobile phase consisted of water: acetonitrile : acetic acid (90:10:0.2 v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1ml/min.The quercetin content of 66.7% was found in the ethanolic extract of crude Pueraria tuberosa. The proposed method is precise, sensitive, reproducible and easy to perform which can be effectively used for detection, monitoring and quantification of the flavonoid quercetin in Pueraria tuberosa.
232 Synthesis and Fluorescence study of Novel4-{4-[(2 Z)-2- (2-hydroxybenzyli dene) hydrazine] benzyl}- 1, 3 oxazolid in-2-one, B. R. Thorata, Sudhir Sawant, Mustapha Mandewalea, Ramesh S. Yamgar and Ramdas G. Atramb
The pharmaceutical important 4-(4-hydrazinylbenzyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one hydrochloride (1) is condensed with salicylaldehyde (2) in methanol in presence of sodium methoxide forming schiff base 4-{4-[(2Z)-2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl]benzyl}-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (3). It is characterized by TLC, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The IR peak at 1781, 3318 and 3230 cm-1 is due to O-CO-NH, -CO-NH- and =N-NH- stretching vibrations. The new peak at 1616 cm-1 is due to C=N- (imino) group. The compound (3) is further subjected to fluorescence study. The Schiff base (3) shows excitation at 276 nm (? 9.203) and 400 nm (? 3.129) and mission at 413 nm (? 580) for excitation at 276 nm & 403 nm (? 234.58) and 403 nm (? 432.70) for the excitation at 400 nm.
233 Estimation of Thiosalicylic Acid Using Photochemical Exchange Reaction of Sodium Nitroprusside, Gautam Kishor Sharma1*, Gayatri Prasad2, T.R. Thapak3, Arpan Bhardwaj1 and D.S. Raghuwanshi1
A novel, rapid, faster and reliable quantitative method has been established for the determination of thiosalicylic acid using sodium nitroprusside as a spectroscopic probe. This method indicates that the sodium nitroprusside can react with the salicylic acid to form a colored product in the light reaction. Sodium nitroprusside is a photolabile complex and it undergoes photochemical ligand exchange reactions rapidly. The absorbance of the product is measured at the maximal absorption wavelength of 395.5 nm, and the amount of thiosalicylic acid can be calculated based on this absorbance by using calibration curve. The good linear relationship of the concentration of thiosalicylic acid versus absorbance is observed with a linear range of 1.48 x 10-4 9.50 x 10-4. The linear regression equation is A = 0.012x + 0.188, with the correlation coefficient of 0.998. The effects of different parameters like pH, change of concentration of sodium nitroprusside, concentration of ligands, light intensity etc. on percentage error were investigated. The efforts were made to minimize the percentage error and some optimum conditions were obtained. The progress of photochemical reaction for sample solution has been observed spectro-photochemically and the product was isolated and characterized. A tentative mechanism for this reaction has been proposed.
234 Preparation, Characterization, Antibacterial and DNA Binding Studies of Phenylenediamine Mixed Ligand Complex of Copper (II) Benzoate, Ramasubbu Rajakumar, Natarajan Raman* and Sankaran Rajeswari
A new phenylenediamine mixed ligand complex of copper (II) benzoate was prepared. It was characterized by conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurement, UV-Vis and IR spectral studies. Conductivity study concludes that the complex is a non-electrolyte. The remaining studies conclude the octahedral geometry around copper ion. The antibacterial activity of the title compound was compared with parent ligand and complex. DNA binding study was carried out with HS-DNA by absorption spectral technique. The binding constant was found to be 1.7 104.
235 Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Oxygen Containing Heterocyclic Compounds, Disha Tilala1*,Vishwa Dhinoja2, Hetal Pandya3 and Denish Karia3
Coumarins have attracted intense interest in recent years because of their diverse pharmacological applications which depends upon the substitution of coumarin. In recent work 4-hydroxy-2Hchromen- 2-one (I) have been prepared by phenol when treated with phosphorus oxychloride and zinc chloride. (I) on further reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and zinc chloride give 4-hydroxy-2- methylenepyrano [3, 2-c] chromen-5(2H)-one (II). Both (I) and (II) when substituted at position-3 are explored for many kinds of biological activity1,2. For this substitution, reaction of (II) has been carried out with acetic acid and phosphorus oxychloride to produce 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-methylenepyrano [3, 2-c] chromen-5(2H)-one (III). Reaction of (III) with ethyl acetate and pulverized sodium gives 4- hydroxy-3-(3-oxobutyanoyl) pyrano [3, 2-c] chromen-2, 5-dione (IV). Synthesized compounds have been characterized by UV, IR and NMR.
236 Synthesis and Biological Screening of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds, Tarunkumar M. Patel and *A.M Patel
4-(1H-naphtho[1,8-de] [1,2,3]triazin-1-ylsulfonyl)-N-arylidene aniline (2a-e) was synthesised by a facile condensation of aromatic aldehydes with 4-(1H-naphtho[1,8-de] [1,2,3] triazin-1-ylsulfonyl)aniline (1) in good yield. Cyclo condensation of compounds (2a-e) with Succinic anhydride yields 1-(4-(1H-naphtho[1,8- de][1,2,3]triazin-1-yl sulfonyl)phenyl)-5-oxo-2-arylpyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid (3a-e). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.
237 Excess Molar Enthalpies of mixing of sec- or tert-Butyl chloride with Aromatic hydrocarbons at the temperature 308.15 K, NaveenVerma*, Hari Om, Krishan Chander Singh
Excess molar enthalpies of mixing for sec- or tert-butyl chloride + benzene or toluene or o- or m- or pxylene have been determined experimentally as a function of mole fraction over the whole composition range at 308.15 K. were measured by a 2-drop calorimeter. The data have been analyzed qualitatively in terms of specific electron donor- acceptor type interactions and the interruption of the molecular order of the pure component in the mixture. The observed data of enthalpies of mixing for these binary mixtures are also analyzed in terms of Flory theory. The Flory theory gave poor agreement between experimental and calculated values.
238 Spectrophotometeric Determination of Zinc (II) in Food-Stuffs and Biological Samples with Tris-[2, 4, 6-(2-Hydroxy-4-Sulpho-1-Naphthylazo)] -S-Triazine, Trisodium Salt, Sapana Garg1, Devender Singh1, Sonia Verma2 and Pratap Singh Kadyan1*
Tris-[2,4,6-(2-hydroxy-4-sulpho-1-naphthylazo)]-s-triazine, tri sodium salt (THT) is proposed as a sensitive and selective reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of zinc(II). An addition of dilute solution of zinc ions to the aqueous solution of THT resulted to form water soluble dark brown complex in the pH range 5.5-7.4, absorbing maximum at 510 nm. The reaction between THT and zinc(II) is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. Beers law is valid over concentration range 0.0-1.45 ppm with molar absorptivity and Sandells sensitivity of 4.75X104 l. mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00145 ?g cm-2, respectively. The molar composition of the complex is 1:1 (M:L) as determined by Jobs method of continuous variation. The tolerance limits for interfering ions have been investigated. All variable have been studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The efficiency of the proposed method is shown by the successful determination of traces of zinc(II) in food stuffs and biological samples.
239 Purification of Chebulinic Acid from Terminalia Chebula Species by Column Chromatography, Surya Prakash DV, Sree Satya N and Meena Vangalapati
Terminalia chebula belongs to the family of Combretaceae. This is used in traditional medicine due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activities associated with the biologically active chemicals present in this plant. It contains various bio chemical components such as tannins, chebulinic acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, punicalagin, flavonoids etc. The dried fruits of Terminalia chebula is used to produced the dye. The appearance of dye powder is brown and the main colouring component is chebulinic acid. The objectives of this work were extraction of chebulinic acid from Terminalia chebula by Soxhlet extraction and purify the chebulinic acid by using Column chromatography. From the Soxhlet extraction the chebulinic acid concentration was 6.6 mg/ml and it was increased to 9.4 mg/ml from the Column chromatography. The purity of chebulinic acid was improved by Column chromatography.
240 Synthesis and Evaluation of Some New Ethoxy- Indole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents, B, M.Kalshetty1*, Ramesh S. Gani2, V.M. Chandrasekhar3 and M.B.Kalashetti4
The derivatives of indole show biological activities including herbicidal. The newly synthesized compounds methyl-ethoxy indole (Scheme 1), methyl ethoxy indole (Scheme 2) and indole- carboxylic acid ethyl ester (Scheme 3) are for their antibacterial, antifungal, anti inflammatory and analgesics activity. Thus the synthesized drugs are versatile applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The medical application in the treatment of wounds and tumors. Where the metal complex compounds of triazole, Indole is to impart strength, elasticity and impermeability of water. These drugs of selected metal ions in view of their potential applications in medicinal chemistry, Biotechnology and their structural variety. These drugs are the active component in number of biocides formulations, finding applications in such diverse area as fungicides.
241 Effect of Temperature on Redox Reactions of ?-Hydroxy Acids By Permonosulphuric Acid in Micellar Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study, P.Rajkumar a,b* and K.Subramanib
The Oxidation of mandelic acid, lactic acid and glycolic acid by Permonosulphuric acid at 60 0.2C in micellar medium has been attempted. The reaction is first order kinetics each in PMS and ?-hydroxy acids. The rate of electron transfer from ?-hydroxy acids to PMS increases with an increase in the concentration of micells and Temperature. It rules out the synchronous C-C bond fission and electron transfer to proton centre. With increase in micells concentration an increase in the rate is observed. The product and stoichiometry corresponds to the reaction of 1 mole of ?-hydroxy acids for about 1 mole of PMS. The added CTAB enhances the rate of oxidation of a reaction much more than NaLS.
242 Combinatorial Enumeration of Chiral and Achiral Graphs of [M.N] Paracyclophanes with A Binary Heteropolysubstitution, Robert M. NEMBA
An algorithm is given for combinatorial enumeration of any [m.n]-paracyclophane symbolized by the empirical formula 0 1 2 f2CjHq Xq Yq satisfying the conditions 2 i i=0 2j+8=?q and where q0 , q1 and q2 are respectively the number of hydrogen atoms and the degrees of heteropolysubstitution of binary type X and Y which represent non isomerisable substituents. The mathematical model based on the concept of the averaged weight of permutations controlling the chirality and the achirality fittingness of molecules, allows a fast an selective computation of the number of chiral and achiral stereo and position isomers of such polycyclic hydrocarbons having two phenyl rings tethered at para position by two carbon bridges of unequal lengths
243 Sensitive Spectrophotometric Determination of Hg (II) in Different Water Samples, Soil Samples and Liver Samples by using 2, 4-Dimethoxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (DMBHIH), K. Ramakrishna Reddy*, N. Devanna and K.B. Chandrasekhar
A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Hg (II) using newly synthesized Chromogenic reagent 2,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (DMBHIH). Hg(II) forms a Yellow coluored water-soluble complex with 2,4- Dimethoxybenzaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (DMBHIH) in the pH range 6.0-10.0. The complex shows maximum absorbance at ?max 390 nm and in the pH range 7.0-9.0. At ?max 390 nm the complex shows maximum absorbance while the reagent blank shows negligible absorbance. Hence, analytical studies are carried out at ?max 390 nm and at pH 8.0 (Phosphate buffer) against reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.5014-6.0177 mg/mL and the optimum concentration range obtained from ringbom plot is 1.0029-5.0147mg/mL of Hg(II). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity for the coloured solution was found to be 2.8x104 L mol-1cm-1 and 0.00571 ?g.cm-2 respectively. The interference effect of various diverse ions has been studied. The complex shows 1:1 [Hg(II) : DMBHIH] stoichiometry with stability constant 4.5653x106 obtained from jobs method. The standard deviation of the method in the determination of 1.00295?g ml-1 of Hg(II) is 0.001 and the Relative standard deviation is 1.30 %. First and second order derivative spectroscopic method is developed at ?max 450 nm and 465 nm respectively for the determination of Hg (II), which is more sensitive than the zero order method. The developed method has been used for the determination of Hg (II) in different water samples, soil samples and liver samples. The results are in good agreement with the certified values.
244 Kinetic Study of Phosphotungustic Acid Catalyzed Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol by N-Chlorosaccharin in Acetic Acid-Water Medium, H.D. Gupta1, S.K. Singh*1 and Santosh Kumar Singh2
Kinetic investigations in Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of benzyl alcohol by Nchlorosaccharin, (NCSA) in aqueous acetic acid have been studied. Oxidation kinetics of benzyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin in presence of Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) shows a first order dependence on NCSA and fractional order on benzyl alcohol and PTA. The variation of [H+] and [saccharin] (reaction product) have insignificant effect on reaction rate. Activation parameters for the reaction have been evaluated from Arrhenius plot by studying the reaction at different temperature. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained dat and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.
245 Effect of Salicylic Acid on Photosynthetic Pigments and Some Biochemical Content in Vigna Seedlings under Cadmium Stress, Verma Pooja, Amra Ram and B.R. Gadi*
The objective of present study was to investigate the possible mediatory role of salicylic acid (SA) under cadmium toxicity in seed germination, membrane stability and some biochemical content in in-vitro grown seedlings of Vigna radiata. Cadmium chloride treatments (CdCl2; 0.0, 25, 50 and 100?M) decreased seed germination, chlorophyll stability index (CSI), membrane stability index (MSI), photosynthetic pigments and soluble protein content, while increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde -MDA), proline and total soluble sugars content. SA (0.25mM) decreased the germination percentage of seeds, photosynthetic pigment and MDA content while increased soluble protein, proline and total soluble sugars content and percentage of CSI and MSI in V. radiata seedlings. Salicylic acid pretreatment decreased the toxic effect of cadmium manifested through lower lipid peroxidation by decrease in MDA content while increased the proline and sugars content and percentage of CSI and MSI. SA also increased the soluble protein content in CdCl2 treated seedlings. Present study shows that SA ameliorates the toxic effects of CdCl2 by increasing the CSI, MSI and proline content while decreasing the MDA content.
246 Study on Certain Fungal Diseases in Culturable and Non-Culturable Species of Fishes of Upper Lake, Bhopal, Rekha Chauhan
Fungal diseases of fresh water fishes are known to be problematic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the increasing aquatic fungal flora of the Upper Lake and the percentage of infection of various species in fishes. For this, investigation was carried out on fungal infected fishes from November 2011 to April 2012. A total number of 2066 fishes were examined. Out of them, about 287 fishes were found infected. The most affected species of fish were Clarias batrachus (24.6%). Total 13 species of fishes found infected from which 27 isolates have been found out, which belong to 8 genera and 14 species. Cultures were made on hempseeds, sesame and mustard seeds. Pure cultures were made on sabouraud dextrose agar, glucose yeast agar and potato dextrose agar. Identification of various species was done on the basis of their vegetative and reproductive characters. During investigation period, among all the eight genera, Achlya and Saprolegnia found most virulent. Maximum percentage of infected fishes fond in December (32.3%) followed by November (24.6%) and January (22.8%). Aspergillus niger and Fuzarium sp. were isolated first from fungal infected fishes of this region. To find out the pathogenecity of these species need further study.
247 Analytical Method Development and Validation of Lamivudin by Using Revers Phase HPLC, Manoranjan S*1, Sharada N1, Venkateswarlu G1, Sravan Prasad M2, Noorunnisa MD1 and Someshwar K1
A simple, validated and sensitive HPLC method have been developed for the estimation of lamivudin in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulations. Literature review reveals that analytical methods like ion exchange chromatography, thin layer ion exchange chromatography and U.V are quite expensive when compared to HPLC. Therefore the present study has been under taken in order to develop a new simple, rapid, efficient and reproducible RP-HPLC method for analysis of lamivudin. After the optimization of the HPLC method, validation of analytical method for the developed RP-HPLC method was done in accordance with ICH guidelines. The %RSD was calculated to be 0.71 and having the correlation co-efficient 0.9996. From the calibration curve constructed by plotting concentration Vs peak area, was found that there exist a linear relationship in the concentration range of 50-150% for lamivudin.
248 Germination Behavior of Some Kashmiri Paddy Cultivars, Nuzhat Quadir, Sajad A.Wani, *Bilal A. Bhat, **Towseef A. Wani and**Quraazah A.
The present study was aimed to investigate the germination behavior of some locally cultivated paddy varieties of Kashmir division viz., Shalimar Rice-1 (V1), Jehlum (V2) and Kohsar (V3). The paddy varieties were soaked in tap water at 250C for 24 hours. After soaking water was drained from each variety. The varieties were placed on wet cotton cloth in petriplates, covered with more wet cotton cloth and the petriplates closed with wrapping film. These petriplates were incubated at 350C for 3, 4 and 6 days. The varieties were solar dried to arrest germination followed by milling and pulverization to obtain flour. Physico-chemical analysis was carried out and the results revealed that there was gradual increase in Reducing sugars (%), Protein content (%), Moisture content (%), Embryo growth lengths (mm), Ash content (%) while as Milling rate, Bulk density (g/ml), fat content (%) decreased. Significant changes were observed in pasting properties determined from decrease in viscosity values (cp) (Peak viscosity, Hold viscosity, Final viscosity, Break down and Set back). Amongst the treatments and varieties, 6 day incubation period (T3) and Shalimar Rice-1 (V1), respectively gave the best results.
249 Population Dynamics of the Cestode Parasites from Marine Water Fish; Trygon Species, 1Chinte D. N. and 2Mukke V. K.
The present communication deals with the study of population dynamics of cestode parasites from the host Trygon sephen were collected from the different fish landing centers such as Rajiwada, Mirakarwada, and Bhagwati bander from Ratnagiri district for the period of 2000-2002. The percentage, incidence, intensity, density and index of infection of these parasites among the population of Trygon species is recorded along with influence of season on these values during study period on these values during study period.
250 Effect of Spirulina Impregenated Feed on the Fingerlings of Catla Catla, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav, Susan Manohar, and T.A. Quereshi
The influence of Spirulina impregnated feed on the growth of Indian major carp, Catla catla was investigated in a 60-day culture trial. Experimental diets were used in which Spirulina replaced fish meal protein from the standard diet at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels. There was a significant difference in the final weight attained by Catla at all levels of Spirulina incorporation as compared to the fish-meal-based control diet. However, the replacement of fish meal by 5% Spirulina resulted in significantly superior growth of Catla. The specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio recorded in Catla improved with higher levels of Spirulina inclusion in comparison to control feed. In general, fish fed with Spirulina diets had a significantly better feed conversion and growth. The study demonstrated the usefulness of Spirulina for partial or complete replacement of fish meal in the diets of culturable fishes which will also prove cost effective.
251 Antimicrobial screening and identification of Bioactive compounds present in marine sponge Zygomycale sp. collected from Kanyakumari coast, J.A. Johnson1, T. Citarasu2 and *W.A.Manjusha3
The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to investigate in vitro antimicrobial activity of marine sponge Zygomycale sp. collected from Kanyakumari coast (south east coast of India). The sponge extract was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens and four human fungal pathogens, and it revealed that, the extracts showed potent anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Sterptococcus pyogenes and it exhibited antifungal activity against all pathogenic test strains. The bioactive compound present in marine sponge was identified by GC-MS analysis and the compounds are Tetracontane,3,3,2,4-trimethyl, Tricozane, Decane,Dodecane,2,6,10-trimethyl ester, Trifluroacteicacid,n-octadecyl ester, Eicozane, Phenol,2,4-bis(1,1- dimetyl ethyl)-ester,Dibutyl phthalate. The results of present investigation revealed that, the endosymbiotic bacteria from the marine sponges are a potential source of novel antibiotic leads.
252 Lead Toxicity and infertility in Female Swiss Mice: A Review, Nazera Qureshi and Ragini Sharma*
Lead is one of the oldest known and most widely studied occupational and environmental toxicant. Lead is a metal, which has been associated with human activities from the past 6000 years. Today, lead is still used in batteries and some insecticides and is found in cigarette smoke. Sources of lead may be natural, as it is found in the earths crust and thus enters the food and water supply. Lead compounds are known to adversely affect the various mammalian systems. Reproductive toxicity, which can be defined as the adverse effect of chemicals, lead being one that can affect the gonadal structure and functions, can cause alterations in fertility and impaired gamete function. However reproductive toxicity is comparatively less expedited. The toxicant can also lead to induction of malformations in children, reduce chances of conception, may be embryocidal and cause still birth, or death of progeny. The toxic effects of lead on adult female reproduction are decreased fertility, the inability to sustain pregnancy and reduced pregnancy outcomes. There is a lack of information concerning whether environmental health effects are more or less prevalent or manifested differently in women compared to men. Previously, most research in the area of toxicology and environmental and occupational health involved male subjects. There is paucity of information about the direct actions of heavy metals on the female reproductive system, fertility and development. Unlike the testes, the ovary has not been as amenable to study; hence the present review aims to accomplish the lacuna by reviewing exposure and health effects of lead manifested in females.
253 Haematological Studies of Mercuric Chloride Affected Freshwater Catfish Clarias gariepinus Fed with Spirulina, J.D.Saroch, Humaira Nisar, Rekha Shrivastav, T. A. Qureshi and Susan Manohar
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Mercuric chloride on the haematological parameters in the freshwater catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Control, 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride and 5% Spirulina fed fishes exposed to 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride were used in the basic test for a period of 120 days. The fishes were sacrificed after an interval of 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days respectively and haematological tests were performed. A total of 30 fishes were used for each concentration as well as in the control. The treatment with mercuric chloride was found to inflict a drastic reduction in the total count of RBCs. The reduction was time dependent; as concentration of mercuric chloride increased, the RBC levels declined. Exposed fishes showed a significant increase in W.B.C count when compared to the control. Whereas the fishes exposed to mercuric chloride showed significant decrease in haemoglobin content and haematocrit level when compared to the control whereas Spirulina fed fishes showed a recovery in haematological profile of the fishes as compared to the fishes exposed to 0.1mg/l mercuric chloride.
254 Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Investigations on Fruit Extract of Nothapodytes Nimmoniana (J. Graham) Mabberly, 1Pooja Sharma, 2Priya S Thuluvath, and 3Ajay Sharma*
The present study was designed to investigate comparative anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (EFEN). N. nimmoniana contains camptothecin, an anticancer drug, regarded as one of the most promising drug of twenty first century. Anti-inflammatory activity of EFEN was performed by using carrageenan induced paw edema in rats. The extract showed dose-dependent inhibition of paw volume and the maximum percent inhibition was found at the dose of 200 mg/kg (75.79%). The EFEN was effective in both first and second phase of inflammation. Analgesic activity was evaluated for its central and peripheral pharmacological actions in rats and mice. It is expected that EFEN might suppress the formation of prostaglandins and bradykinin or antagonize the action of these substances and thus exerts its peripheral analgesic activity in Randall-Selitto assay and acetic acid induced writhing test. The EFEN significantly increased the reaction time in hot plate and tail flick test, suggesting its central analgesic activity.
255 A Study Showing the Ameliorative Potential of Trans- Resveratrol, ?- Lipoic Acid and Vitamin E on Endosulfan Induced Alterations in the ATPase in Olfactory Lobe of Male Swiss Albino Mice, Preeti Singh1* and Habiba Bano2
Brain is profoundly vulnerable to oxidative damage on exposure to certain hazardous substances. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a known, strong neurotoxin in animals as well as in mammals including human beings. The present study aimed to study hazardous impacts of endosulfan on olfactory system, which play a major role in analyzing and perceiving the sense of smell, choice of mate, food localization etc. ATPase, the biomarker of present investigation, is a sympathetic neurotransmitter involved in brain function, sensory perception, and nervous system control of muscles and organs. The deleterious effects caused by endosulfan have been linked to its ability in alterations of ATPase levels. Hence, there is an urgent need to establish a counter policy by means of food regime which can check oxidative stress caused as a result of environmental stressors. This study has been designed to employ antioxidants like resveratrol, alpha lipoic acid and vitamin E as potential therapeutic agents in counterbalancing negative health hazards of endosulfan on the normal functioning of brain. The study was divided into ten groups in which olive oil was given as a vehicle in control group, while endosulfan administered at 2.45 mg/kg/bodyweight/day for 15 days served as an experimental group. Other groups constituted of antioxidant treatment groups and antioxidants pre treatment groups exposed to endosulfan. Altered ATPase histoenzymological profile was observed in different layers of olfactory lobe in endosulfan intoxicated mice, while antioxidant pretreatment groups were able to render protection to some extent as compared to that of control. The findings of present study suggest the inherent potential of antioxidants against endosulfan induced neurotoxicity in the olfactory lobe of mice.
256 Effect of Orchidectomy and of Testosterone Administration upon Duodenal Ulceration Induced by Cysteamine, Ashokan Kannarath Valappil,
Duodenal ulcers were induced in adult and old male mice using cysteamine hydrochloride under various experimental conditions. Under these experimental conditions, orchidectomized adult and normal old male mice strikingly decreased sensitivity to ulcer induction while testosterone propionate administration to orchidectomized adult mice showed an increased sensitivity to ulcer induction. This change in ulcer sensitivity reflected from histological, histochemical and biochemical studies. The histological study was performed by using haematoxylene-eosin staining technique. The histochemistry of the duodenal region was studied by using periodic acid Schiff reaction (PAS) for glycoprotein. The biochemical study was performed to study various constituents of glycoprotein like hexose, fucose, sialic acid and the protein from Brunners gland. The result showed that ulcer severity was more in orchidectomized- cysteamine treated mice and old mice treated with cysteamine. The histological studies showed that orchidectomy decreased or did not show any change in the ulcer sensitivity considering Cryptus Lieburkuhn and Brunners glands. The same result reflected by differential intensity in the staining property of the Brunners gland. The biochemical study showed that the glycoprotein contents were reduced many times in orchidectomized-cysteamine treated-testosterone administered adult and old male mice. These findings prove that testosterone of booth exogenous and endogenous augment the ulcer pathogenesis in cysteamine induced ulcer in male mice.
257 Morpho-Anatomical Diversity of Leaves in Lagerstroemia L. [Lythraceae], Anil A.Kshirsagar and N.P.Vaikos
The anatomical studies of leaf in six species of Lagerstroemia are investigated. The anatomy of leaf is variable in all examined species. The leaves are dorsiventral and hypostomatic. The distribution of mechanical tissues is very interesting, which are in the form of collenchyma, sclerenchyma and vascular tissues. The mesophyll is made of palisade and spongy tissue. The palisade is one or three layered of unequal sized cells. Hypoderm is recorded in some species, hypoderm is either collenchymatous or parenchymatous.The midrib region is broad. The vascular bundle is an arc shaped; bicolateral and which is surrounded by patches of sclerenchyma.Trichomes are recorded in some species. The stomatal guard cells with outer ledges. The leaf anatomy can be employed for segregation of studied taxa.
258 Production of Protease through SSF by Bacillus Subtilis NCIM 2724, Meena Vangalapati*, Sree Satya Nandam, Surya Prakash D.V and Sumanjali Avanigadda
Production of protease employing the laboratory isolates of Bacillus sps. under solid state fermentation. The present study was designed for study of increasing the production of protease feasible at commercial level and an attempt has been made to optimize the different physico chemical parameters required for obtaining the maximum production of protease using Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus lincheniformis. Bacillus subtilis gives the maximum enzyme production by using papaya peel as the substrate with the optimized conditions of incubation time 24hr, temperature 300C, moisture content 40%w/v, and inoculum level of 0.8%w/v and with substrate concentration of 10g and pH 8.0, glucose concentration 2.0%w/v. The maximum production of protease enzyme considering all optimum conditions of various parameters was found to be 0.69 mg/ml.
259 Determination of Zinc and its association with Hormonal Alterations in Uterine Leiomyomas in Indian Women, Hemlata Bagla1*, Soumya Nair1, Rakesh Sinha2, Parul Shah2
Zinc (Zn) is vital for many biological functions and critical to tissue growth. In the present work, it was sought to investigate the impact of Zn in initiation and progression of uterine leiomyomas (UL) and its possible association with hormonal alterations that occur thereafter. The Zn levels in 148 uterine tissues which includes 98 leiomyoma samples (intramural and subserosol leiomyoma samples) and 50 control samples of premenopausal women aged 20-50 years were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method. The blood samples drawn from above subjects were analyzed by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) technology to estimate E2 level. The patient categorisation was done on BMI basis which showed a positive relationship with occurrence of disease. The results of analysed samples show significantly higher levels of Zn in the intramural leiomyoma tissues than subserosol leiomyoma and control samples. The statistical results obtained revealed that obese women showed higher Zn and E2 concentration than their counterparts. A positive correlation was found between the E2 level of the subjects and the Zn concentration in tissue samples. A case control study was conducted to further evaluate the sociodemographic data obtained from patients. The altering levels of Zn identified in the present work may suggest an independent, positive association with risk for clinically detected UL.
260 Evaluation of In-Vitro Antihelminthic Activity of Aconitum Heterophyllum, Aditya M. Pattewar*, Pandharkar T.M, Yerawar P.P. and Patawar V.A.
This study involves the evaluation and comparison of invitro anthelmintic activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of root of traditional medicinal plant Aconitum heterophyllum belongs to family Ranunculaceae against Pheritema postuma most commonly known as an Indian earthworm. Extraction was done by Soxhelation and Maceration for extraction of alcoholic and aqueous extract respectively. Various dilutions of extracts were prepared as in concentration range of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%, all dilutions were screened for in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Pheritema postuma; piperazine citrate was used as standard. The observations were recorded as time required for first three attacks of paralysis and time required for complete death of parasites. The results of study conclude that plant Aconitum heterophyllum possess good anthelmintic potential particularly at dose of 100%. Study can be further extended as to find out exact chemical constituent responsible for anthelmintic activity so as to improve potency of extract.
261 Optimization of Alkali Pretreatment Process Parameters for Sweet Sorghum Bagasse by Enzyme Hydrolysis Using Response Surface Methodology, Lavudi Saida1, Sandeep singh Dhaliwal 2, H.S.Oberoi 3 and M.Laxmi Narasu4
Pretreatment studies were done by using both acid and alkali on Sweet Soarghum Bagasse (SSB) and further enzyme hydrolysis was done with a blend of commercial enzymes such as Celluclast, Novozyme and pectinase mixtures as well as crude enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger from solid state fermentation. The preliminary results showed that alkali treated sweet sorghum bagasse yielded higher sugar levels than acid treated substrate. Hence alkali pretreatment optimization studies were performed by Response Surface Methodology (R.S.M) to maximize sugar levels. Alkali pretreatment parameters were evaluated, such as autoclave time (10-30 min), autoclave temperature (125-140 oC) and alkali concentration (1.5-4%) to maximize sugar levels. The process parameters such as autoclave temperature 125 oC, autoclave time 29 min and alkali concentration 3.88% was found optimal for enzyme hydrolysis. The final glucose concentration (64.5 g/L) obtained at the optimized conditions was significantly more than non-optimized conditions.
262 Insights into Binding of Potential Antitumor Quinoxaline Analogues against Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 Using Docking Studies, Arun Kumar V.A., Keshav Mohan
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) belongs to a family of protein kinases and CDK2 consideredas potential anti-cancer target among CDKs. A CDK2 inhibitor is a chemical that inhibits the function of CDKsand preventsover proliferation of cancer cells thus used to treat cancers. Quinoxaline and its derivatives are an important class of benzoheterocycles displaying a broad spectrum of biological activities which have made them privileged structures in pharmacologically active compounds. Modification in their structure has offered a high degree of diversity that has proven useful for the development of new therapeutic agents having improved potency and lesser toxicity. In the present work, attempts were made to identify leading quinoxaline moieties as candidate drugs against CDK2 by carrying out docking experiments with our in-house synthetic 46 analogues and assigning docking scores. Ten moieties with docking score -5 or above were zoomed in as candidate moieties. Structural features of the above quinoxaline analogues will be presented with a view to arrive at potential drug target for CDK2.
263 The Plackett-Burman Model - An Improved Alternative to Identify the Significant Factors Implied in Fungal Production of Glucose oxidase from potato, S. Pavan kumar*, C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao, S.Bhavani Charan Prasad
Glucose oxidase producing fungus was isolated from potato and grown on czapekdox agar media. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified by Bergys manual. Plackett-Burman designwas used to develop the culture medium to find the optium values of process variables (pH Temperature, fermentation time, carbon source, nitrogen source, salt concentration and inoculum size)for Glucose oxidase production. Maximum glucose oxidase activity was observed for glucose as carbon source, KH2PO4as salt, NaNO3 as nitrogen source at pH 6 and temperature at 30C.
264 Occurrence of Helminth Parasites of Freshwater Murrel, Channa punctatus (Bl.), Rumeet Kaur, Kamalesh Borana, Pinky Kaur*, Shivani Sharma and Rekha Chauhan
Present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of different helminth parasites of freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus (Bl.). Seventy five specimens of C. punctatus were examined for the occurrence of helminth parasites. Two species of digentic trematode (E. heterostomum and Clinostomum complanatum) and one species of acanthocephla (Pallisentis sp.) were recovered from different organs. According to their prevalence (%), E. heterostomum (28.0%) is dominant species followed by Pallisentis sp. (26.6%). While Clinostomum complanatum (20.0%) showed least prevalence.
265 Seasonal variation of some Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) in Tirunelveli region, the Southern coast of Tamil Nadu, John Peter Paul, J*. and Patric Raja, D.
A study on the distribution of seaweed resources in Tirunelveli region was carried out for a period of four years from January 2007 to December 2010 by making monthly collection of some Caulerpa species from intertidal and subtidal regions at four stations along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu namely Kootapuzhi, Perumanal, Idinthakarai and Koothankuzhi. The seaweed species were enumerated at random using a quadrate (0.5m2). A total of eight species of Caulerpa were collected in the study area such as Caulerpa crassifolia, Caulerpa latevirens, Caulerpa mexicana, Caulerpa parvula, Caulerpa peltata, Caulerpa racemosa, Caulerpa scalpelliformis and Caulerpa sertularioides. The frequency and density were calculated and all the Caulerpa species showed a similar pattern of seasonal variation. Among the seaweeds collected the highest frequency (67.50%) and density (6.07) were observed in Caulerpa scalpelliformis during summer season and the lowest frequency (13.75%) and density (0.61) were recorded in Caulerpa sertularioides during post-monsoon season. From the present study it was concluded that all the Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) exhibited the maximum frequency and density during the summer season followed by the declined trend was observed in the successive seasons. During the post-monsoon season the frequency and density of Caulerpa species (Chlorophyceae) was minimum in the selected region of south east coast of Tamil Nadu.
266 Correlative Remedial Effects of Spirulina and Vitamin E on the Histoarchitecture of Liver and Kidney of Mercuric Chloride Challenged Catfish Clarias gariepinus, Gagandeep Kaur, J.D.Saroch, Rekha Shrivastav and T. A. Qureshi.
Remedial potential of Spirulina and Vitamin E on the toxicated fish Clarias gariepinus was investigated in the present study. Fishes were procured from local fish markets of Bhopal. Anomalies were recorded in Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish fed with the basal diet, Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish along with the administration of 5% Spirulina in diet and Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 0.6ppm) toxicated fish along with the administration of Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate). Severe damages were observed in the histo-architecture of liver and kidneys of the exposed fish.Necrosis,vacuolization,eccentrically situated nuclei, destructed haemopoietic tissues have been observed.Remedial effect of Spirulina and Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate) revealed some signs of recovery in the haemopoietic tissues but Spirulina found to be comparatively much effective than Vitamin E (Tocopherol acetate).
267 Detection of Helicoverpa armigera Gut In- and Active Proteinases by In-gel Activation on Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis X-ray Film Contact Print Method, Vinod D. Parde*, Tewodros Aregai, Alemayehu Dubale, Mohana Rao Abburi and H. K. R. Prasad Saripalli
Protease inhibitors (PIs) play an important role in host plant resistance to insect pests. Therefore, the present studies were carried out plant and chemical protease inhibitor for inhibition of zymogen activation, and their biological activity against the pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hbner), the most important pest of agriculture and horticulture crops worldwide. The present studies indicated that H. armigera gut proteinases were synthesized in inactive isoforms, and get activated by trypsinlike proteinases. Nine proteinase bands were detected using in-gel activation on two-dimensional gel X-ray film contact print technique, and in addition to that in-gel activation method used for detection of pro-proteinase, however four activated proteinase detected when larvae fed on chemical inhibitors and three pro-proteinases bands detected on X-ray film when larvae fed on non-host plant protease inhibitors. Gelatin coating present on the X-ray film was used as a substrate to detect electrophoretically separated pro- and proteinases of H. armigera gut extract on SDS-PAGE and twodimensional gels. In gel activation method involved electrophoresis, followed by washing the gel with non-ionic detergent in case of SDS-PAGE, equilibration of the gel in trypsin (0.0001%) buffer, overlaying the gel on X-ray film, followed by washing the film with hot water to remove hydrolyzed gelatin, revealing activated pro-proteinase bands. This in-gel activation on two-dimensional gel X-ray film contact print technique is having significant application for the detection, identification and characterization of different proteolytic enzymes.
268 Comparative Esterase Isozyme Variability in two Tephritid Fruit Flies, Bactrocera Dorsalis and B. Tau, Md. Abdur Rashid*, Tarana Siddika, Rowshan Ara Begum and Reza Md. Shahjahan
Investigations were made on the comparative esterase variability of two tephritid fruit flies of economic importance (Bactrocera dorsalis and B. tau) using larvae, pupae and body parts from different age groups of adults of both sexes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, 7.5%) was employed for this purpose, the gels were stained on ?- and ?- napthyl acetates. Altogether six esterase bands (Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-5 and Est-6) were detected in both B. dorsalis and B. tau. A remarkable variation was observed in the expression of esterase isozymes in both species. Expression of these isozymes increased with age in general, i.e., 2nd-, 3rd-instar larvae, pupae to adult on ward. This enzyme expression was also found to be increased from anterior part of the body to the posterior, in both species. Cypermethrin and malathion killed adult samples showed less isozyme expression compared to those of non-treated ones.
269 Preparation and Characterization of Mn Doped NiCuZn ferrite., B. D. Ingalea, M. A. Barotea*
The ferrite composition [Ni0.25-xMn.xCu.2Zn0.55] Fe2O4 with values x= 0.00, 0.05, 0.1 were synthesized by auto combustion method. XRD analysis of prepared ferrite powder shows the cubic spinal structure. The crystallite size of prepared ferrite is varied from 22.3 to 39.3 nm the resultant powder were calcined at 650 0C/2hr and the pressed ferrite were sintered at 950 0C/4hr the initial permeability, dc resistivity were measured with frequency range 100Hz to 5MHz. The permeability is found to be increase up to x=0.1 and dc resistivity was decreased with Mn Substitution. The very high permeability in the composition x=0.1 was due to better densification and lower magnitostriction constant. The lattice parameter are also slightly increases from x=0 to=0.1. The composition is better than the NiCuZn based material. It is useful for Multilayer chip inductor.
270 Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer Using Plate Heat Exchanger, Jyoti K Javanjal and Madan Parande
A Plate Heat Exchangers is designed and fabricated. Experimental runs were conducted to study effect of parameters such as, properties of the fluid, flowrates, turbulence and temperature on the performance characteristics. The data presented is of industrial importance
271 A Theoretical Study of Alkali Doped Boron- Nitride (BN Fullerene) For Hydrogen Storage, V.K. Verma1, Deepak kumar2 & L.K.Mishra1
Using the theoretical formalism by N.S.Venkataramanan et.al1, we has studied the alkali doped Boron-nitride (BN) fullerene for hydrogen storage. Due to increase threats from global warming, hydrogen holds tremendous promise as a new and clean energy options .Hydrogen is a convenient, safe, versatile fuel source that can be easily converted to a desired form of energy without releasing harmful emission. However, no material was found to satisfy the desired goals and hence there is hunt for new materials that can store hydrogen reversibly at ambient condition. We have observed that doping of transition elements reduce the gravimetric density of hydrogen. In case of alkali doped BN (Boron-nitride) the charge is transferred from dopant to nanocage. The binding energies of hydrogen on these systems were found to be in the range of 0.1eV to 0.2eV which are ideal for the practical application in a reversible system. We obtained that the maximum hydrogen capacity of Li doped BN fullerene is 8.5wt %.
272 Comparative Study of Ternary Liquid Mixtures Containing Benzene and Substituted Benzene, Manoj Ku. Praharaj1 and Sarmistha Mishra2
The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the ternary mixture of benzene, chloro-benzene, nitro-benzene and pyridine with N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in cyclohexane at different temperature, frequencies and concentration. The experimental data have been used for a comparative study of the molecular interaction in the different mixtures using the parameters, molar volume, available volume, free volume, surface tension, Raos constant, Wadas constant, Vander walls constant and excess values of some parameters such as excess density, excess viscosity, excess velocity, excess free volume, excess Gibbs free energy and excess surface tension.
273 Study of Condensed Matter in Super Strong Magnetic Field and Estimation of Its Binding Energies and Exchange Energies, Brajesh Kr. Tiwary*, S. P. Tiwary**, and L. K. Mishra
Binding energies and exchange energies of hydrogen helium, carbon and oxygen matter were evaluated in a superstrong magnetic field. The evaluated is performed by theoretical formalism of Skjervold and ? stgaard using three adjustable parameter ?, R (a0), l(a0). Our theoretical results indicate that inclusion of exchange energies enhances the binding energies and this enhancement is more pronounced in lower value of z.
274 A theoretical Study of Heavy Electron Compounds and an evaluation of Frequency Dependent Effective mass m* and Optical Scattering Rate, *Jyotsana Jyot*, V. K. Verma** & L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of A. M. Awasthi et al. (1989 and 1993) we have presented a method of evaluation of frequency dependent optical scattering rate ?(?) and the effective mass m mb * (? ) of heavy electron compound CeAl3. Two plasmon frequency ?p (unrenormalised) and ?*p (renormalized) for some of the heavy compounds are also evaluated. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical workers.
275 Study of condensed Matter in super strong magnetic field and estimation of binding energies without including exchange energy term, Brajesh Kr. Tiwary*, S. P. Tiwary **and L. K. Mishra
Binding energies of Hydrozen, Helium, Carbon and Oxygen matter were evaluated without taking exchange energy term in a super strong magnetic field. The evaluation has been performed by theoretical formalism of Skjervold and ?stgaard using three adjustable parameter ?,R(a0), l(a0). Our results are in good agreement with these of the other workers.
276 Atomic Scale Simulation of Extended Defects Formation in Irradiated Materials Containing Impurities and Preexisting Dislocations, E Boucetta*1, A Amghar1 and H Idrissi-saba1.
The atomic scale simulation (ASS) of the diffusion and agglomeration of point defects under high energy irradiation 16-19 has been resumed to account for the influence of the impurities and pre-existing dislocations on the process of defects formation. Five types of reactions are assumed to take place: vacancy-interstitial recombination, interstitial-interstitial association to form a new extended defect, interstitial-extended defect reaction leading to growth of extended defects, interstitialimpurity reaction leading to the nucleation of the impurity, interstitial-pre-existing dislocation reaction leading to the growth of this letter. In the simulation only interstitials are mobile and extended defects are assumed to be dislocation loops in the (0,0,1) planes. The concentrations and the means radius of various defects produced were calculated and the variation induced in these concentrations by varying the concentrations of the impurities and pre-existing dislocations and radius of these latter were studied. The results are compared also with those performed with the Chemical Reaction Rate Theory (CRRT).
277 A Theoretical Study of Condensed Matter in Super Strong Magnetic field and an Evaluation of Cohesive Energies of Condensed Matter, L. P. Mishra* and L.K. Mishra
We have evaluated cohesive energies of hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon and Iron matter in the presence of super strong magnetic field. Our theoretical results indicate that cohesive energies increase with increase of magnetic field strength B. The increase is small for smaller value of z and becomes larger and larger for higher Z values. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
278 Thermo-Transport Properties of Copper Sulphate, as a Function of Mannitol Concentration in 0.01m Aqueous Sodium Chloride at Different Temperatures, S K Lomesh* and Munish Thakur
The density (?) and viscosity (?) has been measured for CuSO4.5H2Oin 0.01m aqueous NaCl and in 2, 4 and 6% Mannitol + 0.01m NaCl + water as multicomponent solvent systems, at temperatures T = (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure p = 0.1 MPa. The experimental data was further used to calculate various thermodynamic and transport properties of CuSO4.5H2Oincluding apparent molar volume , partial molar volume ( at infinite dilution, partial molar volume of transfer Jone Dole parameters A and B, temperature dependence of B coefficient dB/dT, activation free energy per mole for solvent (kj mol-1) and activation free energy per mole for solution (kj mol-1). The ionsolvent and ionion interactions in CuSO4.5H2Oin0.01m aqueous Na Clas well as different multi component solvent system have been discussed using these parameters
279 A Theoretical Study of Coherent To Incoherent Dynamical Behavior of Quantum Atomic Gases in Periodic Potentials, Mirtunjay Sharma and Lalit Kumar Mishra
In series of experiments in 1995, alkali atomic gases were cooled down to nK temperature and BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) was observed. Using the theoretical formalism developed by M.M.Cerimele etal (2004), we have studied the coherent to incoherent dynamical behavior of quantum atomic gases in periodic potentials. We have evaluated oscillation of condensate incoherent dynamics of the condensate and chaotic dynamics of the condensate. Our evaluated theoretical results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
280 Study on Dielectric Behaviour of Waxes in p-band region, M. Lakshmi Pravaa & Adeel Ahmeda*
A study on electric properties such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, electric conductivity, and the penetration depth is conducted in the p-band microwave frequency range, of 12.4 GHz to 18.0 GHz for the solid samples of bees wax (BW), paraffin wax (PW) & microcrystalline wax (MW). The transmission line technique using vector network analyzer (VNA) is employed in the study. The dielectric properties of different waxes in their normal condition and after heat treatment are investigated. The study reveals that the conductivity and dielectric loss decreases after heat treatment with respect to frequency.
281 Densities, Ultrasonic velocities and Excess properties of Binary mixture of 1, 4-Dioxane + 1-Butanol at Temperatures between (298.15 and 318.15) K, Anil Kumar K 1*, Srinivasu Ch 2 and Raju KTSS 3
Ultrasonic velocity and densities for 1,4-Dioxane with 1-Butanol are measured using an Anton - Paar DSA 5000 M densimeter at temperature range 298.15 -318.15 K at an interval of 5K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The measured values of u and ? are used to calculate adiabatic compressibility, Intermolecular free length, molar volume, Specific acoustic impedance and their excess parameters respectively. The results are discussed for the inter molecular interactions and finally, coefficients are calculated using Redlich- Kister equation.
282 A Theoretical Evaluation of Scattering Length for Two Coupled Square Well Potential as a Function of ??B for Atom-Molecule Coherence in Bose-Gases, Deepak Kumar*, J. P. Choudhary**, Ashok Kumar**&L.K. Mishra
Using the theoretical Formalism of Y. Ohashi and A. Griffin, Phys. Rev A67 (2003), we have evaluated the scattering length and effective range of an attractive square well potential for ultracold atomic gases. We have also evaluated the energy of the bound state Em. Our theoretical results show that for any potential with large positive scattering length has a bound state just below the continuum threshold of energy given by Em. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
283 A Theoretical Study of Ultrafast Quasi-Particle Relaxation Time in Normal Metals and Heavy- Fermion Materials, D. Prasad*, P.C. Sharma**, and L.K. Mishra
Ultrafast quasi-particle relaxation dynamics for normal metal and heavyfermion material have been studied. Using the theoretical model developed by K. H. Ahn et. al. (2004) which is based on Two- Temperature model (TTM) and coupled Boltzmann equation, an evaluation of relaxation time ? for LuAgCu4 metal and heavy-fermion YbAgCu4 have been performed. For normal metal at low temperature electron distribution gives temperature independent relaxation time where as TTM predicts ?~ T-3 behavior. For heavy-fermion material with peak DOS at EF, relaxation time shows ? ~ T-1 at low T. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
284 An Evaluation of Critical Temperature for Bose- Einstein Condensation of the Atom-Molecule Mixture at the Fixed Density, Indu Kumari Tiwari*, R. N. Jha** and L. K. Mishra
Using theoretical formalism of R. A. Duine and H. T. C. Stoof (Physics Reports, 2004) we have evaluated the critical temperature TC for Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) for the atom-molecule mixture at the fixed total density. The evaluation has been performed for positive and negative detuning. For positive detuning, we obtained TBEC =T0 and for negative detuning, we have TBEC =(2-5/3T0) where T0 is initial temperature. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
285 An evaluation of Temperature Dependent Energy Gap Parameter for Organic Superconductor, Afshan Suraiya*and L. K. Mishra
Using BCS- theory, we have evaluated the temperature dependent energy gapparameter ?(T) of organic superconductors having TC between 10K to 12K. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
286 A Theoretical Study of Imblanced D-Wave Super Fluids in BCS-BEC Crossover Regime, Tushar Kumar Mohanta*, V. K. Verma** and L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of J. Tempere etal.(Phys. Rev. 2008), we have studied the imbalanced d-wave super fluids in the BCS-BEC cross over regime. We have theoretically evaluated the critical temperature Tc and saddle-point critical temperature T* as a function of inverse scattering length for different values of d-wave scattering potential parameter k0 and k1. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
287 A Theoretical Study of Pressure-Induced Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior of D- and F-Electron Metals and Analysis of Electronic Specific Heat Data (C/T) and ?C/T as A Function of Log (T) for Two Non-Fermi-Liquid Compounds, S. R. Vittal1, Mirza Abbas Hussain2 and L. K. Mishra
Using the empirical formula based on multichannel Kondo model and Disorderinduced non-Fermi -liquid model, we have theoretically analyzed the data of (?C/T) and (C/T) results of two non-Fermi-liquid materials. Our theoretically analyzed results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
288 Managing the Quality of Drinking Water Using Plant Based Natural Coagulants, Siva.D, Santhiya.M, Swabna.V and Vasanthy Muthunarayanan*
Nitrate (NO3-N) pollution of water is a serious environmental problem, as NO3-N can contribute to the eutrophication of surface waters, and high levels may cause methaemoglobinaemia in formula-fed infants. Though the problem exists for a long time the awareness regarding the issue is lesser among the rural public of the developing country like India. This piece of work was designed to identify such places where there may be higher levels of Nitrate- Nitrogen. The drinking water samples were collected from different locations representing the eight directions in and around Trichy taluk of Trichy district of Tamilnadu (India). The physico-chemical parameters of the sampled water samples were measured. The Nitrate reduction from the aqueous solutions (solutions prepared in the laboratory) whose concentration ranges from 10 50 ppm of No3-N and drinking water was found to be possible with seeds of Strychnos potatorum. A maximum reduction (85% from 10 ppm solution after 24 hrs) was noticed with aqueous Nitrate solutions and drinking water (90% after 24 hrs) when treated with seeds of Strychnos Potatorum . This reduction can be contributed to the presence of phytochemicals, which might have antioxidant property. Thus the study helps us to understand the possibility of a treatment technology which could be practiced even in the rural area thereby paving a way to enjoy and ensure good healthy.
289 Distribution of Microorganisms in Water and Sediment along Abonnema Shoreline, Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria, S. David-Omiema1 and T. J. K. Ideriah2*
The distribution of microorganisms in the sediment and overlying water along the shoreline of Abonnema was studied. The results showed Total Heterotrophic count range of 1.8x103 3.4x103 unit/ml in water and 1.93x104 6.12x104 unit/ml in sediment; Petroleum Degrading bacteria count range of 13 unit/ml in water and 210 unit/ml in sediment and Total coliform count range of 1-2 unit/ml in water and none in the sediment. Faecal coliforms were absent in all the stations. The Heterotrophic Bacteria count was higher in the sediment than in the water but statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p
290 Environmental Impact Studies of Mullaiperiyar River Water in Theni District on Ground Water, D.Ramakrishnan1,*, M.S. Dheenadayalan1 and K.K. Sivakumar
Water quality reflects the collective influence of various physico-chemical and biological criteria of water. The monitoring of water quality of Mullaiperiyar River in Tamil Nadu was carried out for a period of two years from July 2010 to June 2012. The important physico-chemical and bacterial parameters were analyzed. To assess the quality of water at various sampling stations, along with River Mullaiperiyar the levels of various observed parameters have been compared with the relevant standards. The quality of the Mullaiperiyar river water was also undertaken for discussion. In many sampling stations, the quality of the river water examined was found not within the permissible limits for human consumption.
291 Evaluation of Road Run-off Water Quality in the Industrial areas of Greater Guwahati of Assam with respect to Major Anions, Yamin Hassan1, Mridul Buragohain2* and Hari Prasad Sarma3
Urbanization significantly impacts water environments with increased run-off and the degradation of water quality. A periodic investigation on the road runoff water quality in the industrial areas of greater Guwahati of Assam with respect to major anions was carried out between June, 2011 to May, 2012. The data obtained were within the standard the permissible limits of WHO except for a few samples which are having significant levels of nitrate-nitrogen and / or fluoride. Top priority should be given to frequent monitoring of the status of road run-off water.
292 Valorization of Jute Caddies for production of extra cellular endoxylanase by Penicillium janthinellum, Aditi Kundu and Rina Rani Ray*
Jute caddies is one of the important waste products generated from the processing of jute fibres in jute mills, which cause serious pollution problem in and around the mill locality. These waste caddies were collected and utilized in the fermentation medium for submerged cultivation of a strain of Penicillium janthinellum as sole carbon source for the production of extra cellular endo xylanase. The strain showed best enzyme production at pH 8.0 and at a temperature of 28C and at a concentration of 2% (w/v) jute caddies. Gelatin and Mn2+ could increase the enzyme production up to certain extent. The kinetics of the enzyme production and substrate utilization showed that highest endoxylanase production could be achieved at 48 hour of growth and jute caddy was degraded as sole carbon source very slowly up to 72 hours, after which the rate of utilization increased.
293 Effect of Haematococcus pluvialis on growth and pigmentation of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium dayanum (Handerson, 1893), Ashu Gupta, T. A. Qureshi, Susan Manohar, Pratibha Bagre and J. D. Saroch
Body colour of crustaceans is one of the important factors that affect their commercial value. To evaluate the effect of Haematococcus pluvialis on growth and pigmentations in Macrobrachium dayanum, a completely randomized experimental design was developed with 4 treatments and 3 replicates. Diets with different levels of Haematococcus pluvialis (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) were prepared. The formulated diet without Haematococcus pluvialis served as a control. The different diets were fed to the prawns, Macrobrachium dayanum for 90 days and water quality parameters were measured daily. At the end of the experiment, weight gain, Specific Growth Rate, and Food Conversion Ratio were calculated. The result shows that prawns fed with 4% of Haematococcus pluvialis achieved best performance in , weight gain, Specific Growth Rate, Food Conversion Ratio and pigmentation in Macrobrchium dayanum. While feed with 1% Haematococcus pluvialis showed lower growth, FCR and SGR and less pigmentation. This suggests that the total carotenoids content increased in prawns, with increase in the level of Haematococcus pluvialis supplemented.
294 Assessment of Potable Water Quality of Jaipur and Its Impact on Public Health, Preeti Srivastava and Nisha Jain
The present study deals with the evaluation of the drinking water quality in Jaipur city during the year 2010-11 by measuring the various physio-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, conductance, total hardness, alkalinity, dissolved O2, bicarbonates, magnesium, calcium, nitrate, chloride, fluoride, sodium, potassium. Drinking water suitability for domestic purposes was examined by WHO and BIS standards, which indicate the drinking water in few areas were not much suitable for drinking purpose. Thus it was observed that potable water quality has degraded with respect to few parameters.
295 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Study of Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Biosorbents from Wastewater, Satish Patila, Sameer Renukdasb and Naseema Patelb*
The capacity and mechanism of different agricultural residues as biosorbents in removing crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions was investigated with variation in parameters such as initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, agitation time, agitation speed, particle size of adsorbent and temperature. Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models were found to be best fitting with linear regression coefficient R2 ? 0.999. The monolayer (maximum) coverage capacities (qm) were also high between 333.333 and 500 mg/g. Lagergen pseudo -second order model best fits the kinetics of adsorption. It was observed that chemisorptions pseudo-second order kinetic model described the sorption process with high coefficients of determination (R2 ? 0.999) better than any other kinetic models. Intra particle diffusion plot showed boundary layer effect and larger intercepts indicates greater contribution of surface sorption in rate determining step. Adsorption was found to increase on increasing pH, increasing temperature, increasing agitation speed and decreasing particle size. Thermodynamics showed that the adsorption of CV on biosorbents was favourable and spontaneous, endothermic physical adsorption and increased disorder and randomness at the solid- solution interface of CV with biosorbents
296 Host Parasite Relationship: Sengasp. (Dollfus, 1934) In Association With Naturally Infected Freshwater Host Fish Channapunctatus (Bl.), Pinky Kaur1, Rekha Shrivastav2, T. A. Qureshi1, Susan Manohar1, J.D. Saroch1 and Shivani Sharma1
Present study was conducted to investigate the host-parasite relationship between the naturally infected freshwater murrel, Channapunctatus in association with a pseudophyllideacestode species, Senga sp. In all 175 specimens of Channapunctatus were examined, out of which 60 were found infected by pseudophyllideacestode, Senga sp. (Dollfus, 1934). A creamy white worm, measuring 36.2 48.0 mm in length and were recovered from the intestine. The site occupied by the parasite is preferentially the midgut and hindgut region of the intestine but in heavily infected fish the parasites occur throughout the entire length of the gut. The total prevalence (%), mean intensity and relative abundance were calculated to be 35.62 13.77, 2.68 1.08 and 1.07 0.60, respectively. The cestode exhibited a clear seasonality, with maximum prevalence during summer season of the year and moderate in winter season. Prevalence and mean intensity were higher in the larger host size groups than in the smaller one and female hosts were found more infected then males.
297 Radiation Exposure and Water Toxicity in Association with Samothraki Spa Workers' Cancer, E. Mpakas1, T. Constantinidis2, P. Christacopoulos1 and D. Kekos1
Studies of Workers of the Italian radioactive spas indicate the existence of radiation exposures similar to those observed for uranium miners9. A report of toxicological characteristics of the spa water samples taken from the region of Samothrace Island is presented here. Assessment and Significance of the toxicologically water quality of springs water and its exposure to two spa workers diseased by cancer. The water with radon possibly contributed to spa workers carcinogenesis.
298 Determination of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Brahmani River Water at Kansar, Jalda Area, Rourkela, Rati Kanta Bera* and Rifat Akbar
Physico-chemical parameters of river water Brahmani, at Kansar, Jalda area Rourkela, were determined to unearth the appropriateness of water for drinking purpose or domestic use. The physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride (Cl-) and tidy values were determined. Then, the Water Quality Index (WQI) was evaluated. Analysis of various parameters inferred that the water quality index of the river Brahmani is unfit for drinking.
299 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water from Kihara Division, Kiambu County, Kenya, J.G. Gichuki1* and J.M. Gichumbi2
Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since industrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Borehole water is the major source of water supply in Kihara division, Kiambu County. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameters of selected boreholes. Chemical parameters which were analyzed are Total Alkalinity, Chlorides, Nitrates and heavy metals. Physical parameters like pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Turbidity were also analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits set by WHO. The results revealed that some of the parameters were above WHO standard for drinking water, so there is need for strict monitoring to ensure quality water supply for human health. The analysis data of heavy metal elements concentration Fe, Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn were within the permissible limits except for Pb in B4 and B8.
300 Morphological Analysis of Fallout Dust in Windhoek, Namibia, Nnenesi Kgabi1*, Eva Shitaatala1& Christo Izaaks2
In this study, the morphological characteristics of fallout dust particles from three locations within Windhoek were determined using Olympus BX40 light microscope and the composition and possible sources of the dust were estimated. Single bucket fallout monitors were deployed following the American Society for Testing and Materials standard method for collection and analysis of dust fallout to determine the dust concentrations. The common particles in the Windhoek dust were successfully observed using a light microscope as cloudy and brownish spherical, brownish and black crystalline, black irregularly shaped, and clear (crystal-like) sharp-edged . Based on the photomicrographs produced, the possible sources of fallout dust in Windhoek North and Khomasdal were identified mainly as road/traffic dust and coal-burning activities, with some milling, grinding and abrading activities possibly from building construction activities; while the dust in the Oshandumbala area showed possible main contributions from the local coal-fired power plant, building materials and road/traffic dust. Minimum and maximum concentration levels of fallout dust were determined per sampling location as 618.3 and 3102.1 for Windhoek North; 498.9 and 2995.5 for Khomasdal; and 741.7 and 43966.1 mg/day/ m for Oshandumbala.
301 Comparative Study of Different Percentage of Natural Carotenoid Source Spirulina Platensis on Growth and Survival of Puntius Sophore, Pratibha Bagre*, Alka Parashar, Vipin Vyas, Smriti Bhargava and J. D. Saroch
India is sufficiently rich in having endemic ornamental fishes, Puntius sophore is one of them locallyknown as Pool barb or kharpati ,general live in still, shallow, marginal water of lakes and rivers .It issilver and golden with two black spots. In this study,I am trying to do the effect of dietary Supplementation of different rates 2,4, 6, 8, and 10% of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on growth,Survival and food conversion ratio in Puntius sophore was compared with a control diet. Fish fed 10%Spirulina performed better than those fed lower levels. There were significant differences in terms offood conversion ratio between groups (p
302 Study on the Establishment of Service Level Benchmarks (SLBs) and the Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in Implementing Strategies to provide Basic Urban Services, M.Nurul Hassan1, S.Vivek2 and Syeda Azeem Unnisa*3
Cities and towns are the core engines of growth for a country, and their progress entirely depends on the basic facilities they enjoy in meeting peoples requirements and keeping vicinities neat and clean without damaging the environment. Urban Local Bodies (ULB) are responsible for providing such basic facilities like water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and storm water drainage. But, the meager standards and discrepancies in the services provided by these bodies is the major concern; to combat this situation Government of India has not only launched several schemes to improve the service standards; also founded a Core Group and held a National Level Workshop to develop a draft handbook of Service Level Benchmarks with respect to basic municipal services related to water supply, sewage, solid waste management and storm water drainage and the Ministry of Urban Development has designed standardized indicators against each of these basic urban service that has to be adopted and met; to maintain uniformity and better performance. The Central Finance Commission provides funds to ULBs to meet the Service Level Benchmarks
303 Tryptophan as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Sea Water, S. Gowri 1*, J. Sathiyabama 1, S. Rajendran1, 2 and J. Angelin Thangakani 3
The inhibition efficiency of Tryptophan- Zn2+ system in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in sea water has been evaluated by weight loss and Poteniodyanamic polarization methods. The combined corrosion inhibition efficiency offered by 250 ppm of Tryptophan and 20ppm of Zn2+ was 79%. Results of weight loss method indicated inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration. A synergistic effect exists between Tryptophan- Zn2+. The corrosion inhibition was observed due to the formation of more stable and compact protective film on the metal surface. The surface morphology of the protective film on the metal surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.
304 Leachate Absorbing Raw Materials (LARM) to overcome Leachate, Obnoxious odor and Fly-menace during the Composting/Vermicomposting of Kitchen Refuse, Sunitha N. Seenappa and Seenappa C
Kitchen refuse is an array of discarded stuffs that originate in the kitchen of urban category and find disposal problems at large. With the mushrooming of multi-story apartments, the backyard space of yester years is nothing but a dream. Although sincere efforts are put in garbage clearance, yet cleanliness and accuracy are still lacking under Indian circumstances. Usefulness of kitchen refuse for composting was an old world scenario, where a backyard with an orchard, flower garden and kitchen garden was made use of for the thrown kitchen refuse. Presently many urbanites want to make the best use of kitchen refuse by converting it into utilizable manure from the point of view of ecofriendliness and create a pollution-free zone. Though a method already exists, the problem of leachate, smell and fly menace limits the technology of aerobic composting and vermicomposting. In the present paper a simple use of Leachate Absorbing Raw Material (LARM) either as cocopith, bagasse and or jute waste has solved the problem of leachate, fly menace or obnoxious odors at one go and result in complete aerobic compost /vermicompost. The study reveals that energy oriented engineering models are not mandatory and can be avoided. The simpler method of composting/vermicomposting could be by the use of LARM.
305 Assessment of Ground Water Quality of IIT Roorkee Campus, Bharti Saini1* and Pradeep Kumar1
This study consisted of the determination of the physiochemical properties such as pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, TDS, cations and anions of source water from six tube well samples in IIT Roorkee campus. The water quality analysis is based on the strata chart (aquifer and depth) of tube wells. A necessity was felt to assess the water quality from these tube wells and found that the water quality of tube well samples differs with each other and the water quality parameters is found to be acceptable in some samples but some of the parameters were observed above the permissible limit
306 Mechanistic Study of Phosphotungustic Acid Catalyzed Oxidation of P-Nitro Benzyl Alcohol by N-Chlorosaccharin in Aqueous Acetic Acid Medium. A Kinetic Study, H.D. Gupta1, S.K. Singh*1 and Santosh Kumar Singh2
Kinetic investigations in Keggin-type phosphotungstic acid catalyzed oxidation of p-nitro benzyl alcohol by N-chlorosaccharin, (NCSA) in aqueous acetic acid have been studied. Oxidation kinetics of p-nitro benzyl alcohol by chlorosaccharin in presence of Phosphotungstic acid (PTA) shows a first order dependence on NCSA and fractional order on p-nitrobenzyl alcohol and PTA. The variation of [H+] and [saccharin] (reaction product) have insignificant effect on reaction rate. Activation parameters for the reaction have been evaluated by studying the reaction at different temperature. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained kinetic data and a plausible mechanism has been proposed.
307 Synthesis and Characterization of2-[1H- benzimi - dazole-2yl-sulfanyl]-N-[(E) - (3-methylphenyl) methylidene] acetohydrazide, 1Ramesh Dhani
Many important biochemical compounds and drugs of natural origin contain heterocyclic ring structures. Among these e.g. Carbohydrates, essential amino acids, vitamins, alkaloids, glycosides etc. the presence of heterocyclic structures in such diverse types of compounds is strongly indicative of the diverse types of the pharmacological activity. Diversity of biological response profile has attracted considerable interest of several researchers across the globe to explore this skeleton for its assorted therapeutic significance. By using different synthetic methods new benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and further Melting points were determined by using Precision melting point apparatus in open capillaries and are uncorrected. The purity of the compounds was checked by TLC on silica gel G plates using n-Hexane, ethyl acetate (1:3) and methanol: chloroform (1:9) solvent system. The synthesized benzimidazole derivatives were characterized by IR spectral analysis. Benzimidazole is a lead nucleus for future developments to get effective compounds.
308 Heterobimetallic Complexes of Transition Metals - Synthesis and Characterization, Manimekalai Rakkiyasamy*, Kalpanadevi Kalimuthu and Sinduja Rangasamy
Two new heterobimetallic coordination complexes NiCo2 (N2H4)2L2 and CdCo21.5N2H4.L2.H2O [L= 2, 4, dichlorophenoxy acetate] have been synthesized by simple chemical technique and characterized by their elemental composition, FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA. Thermograms of both the complexes indicated their facile decomposition at relatively low temperature range 344C -591 C to give the corresponding stable metal oxides.
309 Synthesis and Biological Activity of the Mononuclear Iron (III) Complexes of a Schiff Base Ligand, S. Sujatha and K. Balasubramanian
The synthesis of four binuclear Iron (III) complexes of Schiffs base ligands of the saltrientype derived from 1,8-diamino,3,6diazaoctane-1,3-diamine,2- hydroxy propane and 2 equivalent of the appropriate 2-hydroxy naphthaldehyde and pyrrole 2-carboxylaldehyde derivative is reported. The complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, UV, IR, EPR, Mass spectral studies. The CV data of all the complexes in DMF exhibited quasi-reversible behavior, one electron redox waves at ?Ep = 249 mV and ?Ep = 305 mV. The complexes showed significant antibacterial activity against S aureus and P.aeruginosa
310 Effect of Different Dose of Chemical Fertilizers on Quality and Nutrient Content of Chrysanthemum Varieties, N. S. Joshi1* M. S. Dulawat1, D. M. Pathak1 and N. V. Patel2
A field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil of Horticultural Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during rabi season. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with twenty four treatments replicated three times. The treatment consisted of two varieties viz., IIHR-6 (V1), Shyamal (V2), three levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 N kg ha-1), two levels of phosphorus (100 and 150 kg P2O5 ha-1) and two levels of potash (100 and 150 kg K2O ha-1). Both the varieties significantly influenced quality parameters. Higher length of pedicel, vase life of cut flower and longevity of cut flower were recorded in variety Shyamal. While both varieties had non-significant effect on nutrient contents of vegetative and flowering part of the plant. While higher uptake of nitrogen was recorded in Shyamal. Effects of varieties were found to be non-significant with respect to availability of nutrients (N, P and K). Nitrogen at 300 kg ha-1 improved the length of pedicel and longevity of cut flower but lowered vase life of cut flower. This level of nitrogen significantly improved N, P and K contents of both parts, as well as uptake of nitrogen. P2 level of phosphorus had a significant impact on length of pedicel and increased the N content of leaves and P content of both parts, as well as uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, where as higher dose of phosphorus produced higher availability of phosphorus in the soil after completion of the experiment. Varying levels of potash failed to influence quality, nutrient content and uptake as well as availability of nutrients significantly during the experiment.
311 Solvent Extraction of Chromium (VI) From Aqueous Acid Solutions by Tetrabutyl Ammonium Iodide, A.V.L.N.S.H. Hari Haran * and D.Murali Krishna
This paper reports the studies on the solvent extraction behavior of Cr (VI) in different acid solutions using tetrabutyl ammonium iodide in benzene as extractant. The effect of important variables like nature of diluents, concentration of mineral acids, and variation of metal ion concentration and extractant variation is investigated. The extractions are nearly quantitative with hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric and perchloric acid & are partial from phosphoric and acetic acid systems. The extracted species are identified. The method has been applied for the determination of chromium in chrome alloys.
312 Kinetic Model for the Removal of Methyl Orange (Dye) From Aqueous Solution Using Avocado Pear (Persea Americana) Seed, A.K Asiagwu1, P.E Omuku2 & C.O Alisa3
The adsorptions kinetic removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solution using avocado pear (Persea Americana) seeds as the biomass was studied. Under various experimental conditions, as time increased the amount of the dyes adsorbed increased and the equilibrium was reached within 15-20min. Modification of the adsorbent by Nitric acid (HNO3) and hydroxylamine hydrochioride (NH2OH.HCl) enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the adsorbent. Adsorption parameters were modeled by Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherm equation and the corresponding constant values were determined. The kinetics of sorption was well correlated using the Pseudo-first order and Pseudo-second order to analyse the experimental data: the very high values of correlation coefficients (R2) obtained showed that these models fit the experimental data perfectly. Therefore avocado pear seed was found to be a good adsorbent for adsorptive decolorization of methyl orange (dye) from waste water.
313 Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel In Presence of THAM and Citrate Ions, J.Jeyasundari1*, Y.Brightson Arul Jacob1 and S.Rajendran2
The aim of this present work is to study the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in aqueous solution containing 60 ppm Cl- in the presence of 50ppmTris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane (THAM), 50 ppm of Zn2+ and 250 ppm of TSC solutions. Electrochemical, FTIR, UV spectral, SEM studies and weight loss study have been employed. THAM alone shows 52% IE was improved by Zn2+ and TSC. The synergistic effect of the inhibiting compound was calculated. Based on the above results a mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed. The surface morphology of the protective film on the metal surface was characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
314 Kinetics of Oxidation of Oxine by Isoquinolinium Bromochromate, M.Vellaisamy* and M.Hinduja
The kinetics of 8-hydroxy quinoline (oxine) by isoquinolinium bromochromate has been studied in 50% acetic acid-water (v/v) medium. The order of the reaction has been found to be one with respect to oxidant, second order with respect to substrate and zero order with respect to hydrogen ion concentration. Decreases in dielectric constant of the medium, increases the rate of the reaction.Increases in ionic strength has no effect on the reaction rate. The reaction does not induce the polymerization of acrylonitrile. Quinoline-5, 8-quinone has been identified as a product. From the kinetic data obtained, the activation parameters have been calculated and a possible mechanism has been proposed.
315 Studies of some Lanthanide (III) Perchlorate Complexes of Thiabendazole, S. K. Gupta*, V. K. Jain, Wishu Shrivastava and A. K. Sharma
A new series of lanthanide III perchlorate complexes of thiabendazole (TBZ) have been prepared in the non-aqueous medium. Newly synthesized complexes characterized by elemental analysis, molecular weight data, electrolytic conductance, magnetic moment and IR spectral data. On the basis of above studies the general compositions have been assigned to newly synthesized complexes Ln (ClO4)3 4TBZ (Where Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Tb or Ho). Thermal studies of some complexes have also been studied.
316 Synthesis and Fluoroscence Study of Chlorine Substitution on Anils, Bapu R Thorat, Shaukat Ali Shaikh, Ramdas G. Atram and Ramesh S. Yamgar
Salicylaldehyde (1) and 5-bromosalicyladehyde (2) was condensed with series of chloroanilines (3a-d) forming Schiff bases (anils, 4a-d, 5a-d) which are characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The absorption and emission spectra of final Schiff bases (4a-d, 5a-d) was recorded. The Schiff bases show maximum absorption at 400 nm and 800 nm. The emission spectra of 4a-d and 5a-d were recorded at 400 nm (as excitation wavelength). Chlorine substitution on anils shows blue shift in emission.
317 Calix[4]pyrroles as Sensors:A Review, Aparna Sharma1*, Sangeeta Obrai2 and Rakesh Kumar2
Molecules with specific binding sites serve as sensors. Calix[4]pyrrole is one such class, which holds a great promise in the fields of sensors, and their unique behaviour as sensors owe to its structural flexibility. Anion binding ability of calix[4]pyrrole has been modified in a variety of ways. Introduction of electron-releasing and electron-withdrawing groups at the meso- position or at ?-pyrrolic positions lead to calix[4]pyrrole with deep cavities and fixed walls which shows increased selectivity and modified binding effects. Strapping of calix[4]pyrrole is another way to modify its structural behaviour which is responsible for its binding behaviour. Choice of strap could play a profound role not only in increasing the intrinsic anion binding affinity of calix[4]pyrrole, but also in modulating the receptor anion stoichiometry, thereby modifying potentially the inherent anion binding selectivity. Calix[n]pyrroles with extended cavities have also been synthesized. Such as Calix[3]bipyrrole binds bromide substantially with high affinity than calix[4]pyrrole. Calix[4]pyrrole has also been used to produce anion sensors that can report the presence of anion by means of a colour change. The medium effect on the complexation of calix[4]pyrrole and anion has been investigated in various solvents. Calix[4]pyrrole has also been used to increase the ionic conductivity of solid polymer electrolyte by anion complexation of the metal salt. Calix[4]pyrrole has been used to obtain optical sensors using surface plasmon resonance technique. Composite films of cellulose acetate containing calix[4]pyrrole has also been reported which has potential usage in packaging, storage and preservation. In nut shell, cailx[4]pyrrole can be modified in a variety of ways to form versatile sensors which can be used in variety of ways in various areas.
318 Algorithm for Direct Combinatorial Enumeration of Chiral and Achiral Graphs of Homopolysubstituted Adamantane Derivatives, Robert Martin Nemba1*, Anguil Jean-Jacques2, Crislain Bissielou2 and Patouossa Issofa1
An Algorithm is given for direct combinatorial enumeration of distinct skeletons of homopolysubstituted adamantane derivatives having the empirical formula C10H16-qXq where X is a non isomerisable substituent and q the degree of substitution. The averaged weights of permutations controlling respectively the chirality and the achirality fittingness are calculated for the parent adamantane in Td symmetry and then converted into generalized formulas for computing (16 ) c A ,q and (16 ) ac A ,q which are the numbers of chiral and achiral skeletons for any adamantane molecule having a degree of homopolysubstitution 0 ? q ? 16.
319 Studies on Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Coordination Polymers, Purav Talaviya1 and J.A.Chaudhari2
Novel bis ligand namely 5,5'-(6-phenoxy-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl) bis(azanediyl) di quinolin-8-ol (PBDQ), was synthesized by condensation of 5-amino 8-hydroxy quinoline with 2,4-dichloro-6-phenoxy-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of a base catalyst. This ligand was characterized by Elemental analysis, IR, and 1H-NMR. Coordination polymers of this bisligand (PBDQ) were prepared with Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) metal ions. All of these coordination polymers were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectral and diffuse reflectance spectral studies. The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses. In addition, all of the coordination polymers have been characterized by their magnetic susceptibilities. The microbicidal activities of all the samples have been monitored against plant pathogens.
320 Inhibition of Corrosion of Stainless Steel by Sodium Tungstate Zn (II) System, P. Patric Raymond1*, A. Peter Pascal Regis1, S. Rajendran2, 3 and M. Manivannan4
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of sodium tungstate (ST) in controlling corrosion of stainless steel 410 in sea water in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. The formulation consists of 250 ppm of ST and 50 ppm of Zn2+ has 98% IE. It is found that the IE of ST increases by the addition of Zn2+. A synergistic effect exists between ST and Zn2+. Synergism has been confirmed by synergism parameter and F-test. The mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been studied using polarization study. Also FTIR spectra reveal that the protective film consists of Fe2+ - ST complex and Zn(OH)2. The nature of the protective film has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).
321 Correlations of Available Phosphorus and Potassium with Soil pH and Organic Matter Content at Different Soil Reactions Categories in Soils of Western Development Region, Nepal, S. Pandey1, K.B. Thapa2 and I.B.Oli3
In the year, 2011-2012 altogether 695 soil samples were taken from western development region of Nepal to analyze phosphorus, potassium, organic matter content and soil pH. From those samples, randomly 100 samples were selected in such a way that 25 samples were taken from each soil reaction classes (strongly acidic, slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline soils). For each soil reaction class, the mean of available phosphorus, available potassium, organic matter content and pH were calculated. In addition, the simple linear correlations between available phosphorus- organic matter, available potassium - organic matter, available phosphorus- pH, available potassium- pH and organic matter- pH were calculated for all the soil classes. The significance of the simple linear correlation was tested under 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance. The study revealed that the correlation of the available phosphorus to the organic matter content of the soil decreased in the order of neutral to slightly acidic to strongly acidic to alkaline soils. It is highly significant in neutral soils, while it is significant in slightly and strongly acidic soils. However, it is non- significant in alkaline soils. The correlation of available potassium to the organic matter content of the soil decreased in the order of neutral to slightly acidic to alkaline to strongly acidic soil. It is highly significant for neutral and significant for slightly acidic soils. However, it is non-significant for alkaline and strongly acidic soils. There is not any significant correlation of soil pH with available phosphorus and available potassium.
322 Efficient Synthesis and Evaluation of Some New s-Triazine Derivatives and Their Microbial Screening, Sarju N. Prajapati*, Shashikant D. Sutariya, Rakesh I. Patel1and Kokila A. Parmar
A new series of 2-(4-chlorophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazolyl)-5-thio-4-(morpholino)-6- (arylamino)-s-triazine have been synthesized. The novel compounds structure has been established on the basis of their substituted aryl amine derivatives. All the compounds were characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. These new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity.
323 Trihalomethanes in Tetova's Drinking Water, Durmishi H. Bujar1*, Daut Vezi2, Murtezan Ismaili3, Agim Shabani1 and Shemsedin Abduli1
The formation of carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THMs) in the process of water disinfection by chlorine has raised concerns in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. This study aims to determine the concentration of THMs in Tetova's drinking water during the summer season and compare it with the regulation in the Republic of Macedonia, the European Union, and the World Health Organization. To this end, we have used the UV-VIS spectrophotometric method based on Fujiwara's reaction. The THMs concentration measured in fifteen different locations in June, July and August 2011. The results indicate that the summer variation is below the critical values stipulated in the state, EU, and WHO regulations (seasonal average 24.75 12.33 ?g/L). This study is the first of its kind on THMs in the Republic of Macedonia.
324 Studies on L-Asparaginase Production by Using Staphylococcus Capitis, Udaya Paglla1, C.S.V.R.Rao and Satish Babu Rajulapati2*
L-Asparaginase is a therapeutic enzyme which is used in treatment of different types of cancers. Many bacteria are able to produce this enzyme but it has some side effects. If this enzyme is produced from microbe which is isolated from medicinal plants, side effects can be reduced. This paper presents the study on L-Asparaginase production by endophytic bacteria from Mentha Spicata. Four microbes were isolated and tested for enzyme production. One of these microbes shown positive results for L-Asparaginase production and it was identified as Staphylococcus capitis. Medium composition was optimized for the improvement of L-asparaginase activity by RSM (Response Surface Methodology). Effect of five process variables such as time, temperature, pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were studied on enzyme activity. The optimized process variables were found to be pH 6.2, temperature 25C, substrate concentration 0.5 g, time 6 days and inoculum size was 3 ml. It was observed that L-asparaginase activity was improved from 83 to 224 U/ml after optimization.
325 Occurrence of Collared Scops Owl Otus lettia In Mainpuri (U.P.) India, Amita Sarkar and Bhavna Upadhyay
The diversity of bird species is of special importance as it can create responsive and adaptive behaviors among the whole population of animals in our wild environment. The Collared Scops owl Otus lettia belongs to family strigidae .It is a partially migrant species; a resident breeder in South Asia from northern Pakistan, northern India and the eastern Himalayas to China. These birds winters in India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.. In this paper we describe the first report of our encounter with collared scoops owl Otus lettia in Manipuri region. Otus lettia is a very rarely seen species. Many species of Owl are at the verge of extinction, due to human activities. Conservation of Owl requires attention. Presence of collared scops owl Otus lettia was observed in this area in September 2011.
326 Differential Variability and Stability of Cocoa Clones to Varied Rootstock ages of Patch Budding, Adewale1, B. D., Nduka2, B. A., Adeigbe1, O. O. and Taiwo3 N.
The probability that Cocoa genotypes may exhibit different physiological variation when used as scion on the same clonal rootstock of different ages had necessitated the present investigation. Rootstocks were raised from open-pollinated pods of F3Amazon for the ages of one, two and three months. Budwoods from five genotypes were patch budded on the common rootstock of different ages. Growth and development of the budded materials were monitored for four months. The seedling length, girth and the number of leaves per plant of the rootstock at the three ages differed significantly (P ? 0.001). The oldest seedling had the highest significant (P ? 0.05) mean of twelve leaves; 36cm seedling length and 0.51cm stem girth. After budding, DAH, FW and LA exhibited significant (P ? 0.01) genotypic variation. The three ages differed significantly (P ? 0.001) for FW. The only variable with significant (P ? 0.05) clone by age interaction was PDM. Broadsense heritability was quite low (< 23%) in FW, DW and PDM; however, DAS, DAH and LA had 59, 71 and 85% respectively. With respect to PDM, the five clones performed differently in response to the three ages of the root stock. Shukla stability variance and Wricke ecovalence agreed and uniformly identified CRINTc-2 to be most stable genotype across the three ages at budding. The PDM performance of other genotypes is rootstock-age specific. The understanding of the interaction of clones with different rootstock ages in the patch budding or grafting protocols may greatly enhance wider production of cocoa clones.
327 Microbial Degradation of Vocs Using Microbes, A.G.Deepapriyaa, C.S.Sharath kumara, M.Gopinatha*, R.Dhanasekarb
Malodrant emission from Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) in the atmosphere raises major environmental issues. The revolutionary national and international environmental monitoring board has taken many rigorous steps to control the emission of VOCs. Many physico-chemical techniques are available for the destruction and recovery of VOCs. There is a growing tendency in the industries to develop a microbial degradation that favor the treatment of VOCs in contrast to other techniques on account of its long term stability and effective removal efficiency. This review presents an outline of various ballots of microbes available for microbial degradation and also focuses on continuous microbial degradation for future research aspects.
328 Anatomical Studies of Leaves in Some Species of Ammannia L. (Lythraceae), Anil A. Kshirsagar
The present investigation brings out the anatomical studies of leaves in four species of Ammannia L.belonging to family Lythraceae. The shape and size of leaf axis is variable. The leaves are dorsiventral and isobilateral.The stomata are confined to both the epidermis. Stomata are mostly anomocytic in species like A.baccifera sub species baccifera, A.baccifera sub species aegyptiaca and A. Multiflora while anisocytic in A.desertora.The mucilaginous cells are present among epidermal cells.The mesophyll tissue consist of spongy and palisade occurs at both the sides and one side. The vascular bundles are bicollateral, the central vascular strand is an arc shaped, and presence of calcium oxalate crystals in cortical tissues is significant character in leaves of Ammannia.
329 Antibacterial efficacy of Mokkathotapapada leaf extracts of Piper betel L. Cv. Kapoori, a local cultivar (Green gold of India), N.L. Swapna*1, K. Ammani2 and Harikrishna.R.P. Saripalli3
India is a treasure house of a wide variety of medicinal plants. Some species are found wild, while a number of species have been domesticated by the farmers. India is known to be the richest repository of medicinal plants amongst the ancient civilizations, About 8,000 herbal remedies have been codified in Ayurveda. The recorded medicinal plants in Rigveda (5000 BC) 67species, Yajurveda81 species, Atharvaveda (4500-2500 BC) 290 species, CharakSamhita (700 BC) and SushrutSamhita (200 BC) had described properties and uses of 1100 and 1270 species respectively, in compounding of drugs and these are still used in the classical formulations, in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. It has been estimated that in India, plant drugs constitute as much as 80% of the total drugs. India is the worlds 12th biodiversity centre with the presence of over 45000 different plant species. In India, drugs of herbal origin have been used in customary medicines such as Unani and Ayurveda. Traditional systems of medicine keep on to be widely practised on many accounts. Many of the green plants synthesizes and bottle a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and used as chemical feed stocks or as raw material for various scientific investigations. In accordance with this information, Piper betel L. (Green gold of India), which is commonly considered as a traditional medicinal plant, was taken for the study. Solvent extracts of Mokkathotapapada leaves of Piper betel L. Cv. Kapoori made in ether, chloroform, ethanol and methanol were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium diphtheria, Xanthomonas citrovorum, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. The ether extracts showed high activity against tested bacteria even at lowest concentrations. Among the solvent extracts, ether extracts of Mokkathotapapada of leaves of Piper betel L. Cv. Kapoori, exhibited high antibacterial activity compared with other solvent extracts.
330 Study of Lead Molecules for GP120 (HIV) receptors Using Cadd-An Insilico Approach, V.PrasannaTeja*, S.BhavaniCharan Prasad and C.S.V. RamachandraRao
Lead molecules preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into the cells are recognized as hopeful next-generation anti-HIV-1 drugs. It is highly desirable to develop a potent inhibitor blocking binding of glycoprotein CD4 of the cell with glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1, because the gp120-CD4 binding is the initial step of HIV-1 entry into the cells. It has been recently reported that Flavan-3-ols from green and black tea and marine natural products that feature polycyclic guanidine alkaloid motifs such as batzelladines are an inhibitor blocking of gp120-CD4 binding. For understanding the inhibitory mechanism, we have taken screening approach using gold 3.2 software docking system. Calculations have been performed in this study to predict the most favorable structures of gp120-flavan-3-ol, gp120-batzelladine binding complexes. The inhibitor binding positions and affinity were evaluated using both the scoring fitness functions- GoldScore and ChemScore. These compounds were analyzed with Lipinskis properties and ADMET properties using ACD labs.
331 The Effects of Ethanol Extract of Allium SativumLeaves on Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Alkaline Phosphatase in Albino Rats, Oko, M.O.*1, Anyim, C.2, Nworie, O.2, Agah, M.V.2 and Okoli, C.S.
The effects of ethanol extract of Allium sativumon aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in albino rats were investigated by spectrophotometeric methods. Sixteen albino rats were divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D) of four animals in each group. Ethanol extract of Allium sativum was administered through oral intubation at the doses of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 0mg/kg to the animals in groups A, B, C, and D respectively for fourteen days. Blood samples were collected of the fifteenth day following the last day of administration. The aspartate aminotransferase activities (?/l) recorded 0.750.03, 0.930.06, 1.380.05 and 0.730.02 for the animals in groups A, B, C and D respectively with corresponding alanine aminotransferase activities (?/l) as 0.450.03, 0.760.02, 1.350.04 and 8.510.02. The alkaline phosphatase activities also recorded 13.340.12, 14.640.11, 19.210.07 and 8.510.03 respectively. There were significant (P
332 The Impact of Lifestyle Variables and Dietary Patterns on Non-Communicable Diseases, Afoakwah A. Newlove1, 4 *Amoabeng A. Hannah2, Engmann N. Felix1, 3 and Adomako Charles4
Diet and nutrition are important factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health throughout the entire life course. Their role as determinants of chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is well established and they occupy a prominent position in the prevention of diseases. Presently, chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension are the leading killers in developed countries and are increasing wildly in developing nations. Factors such as underestimation of the effectiveness of interventions, long delay in achieving measurable impact, institutional inertia and inadequate resources have constrained progress in the prevention of chronic diseases. Besides, promoting healthy diets and healthy lifestyles to reduce the global burden of non-communicable diseases requires a multi-sectoral approach involving various relevant sectors in societies. The purpose of this review is to discuss extensively, lifestyle patterns and health and dietary habits and its associated risk.
333 In vitro studies on anti-cancer activity of anti-cancerous compound producing marine bacteria against on cancer cells by MTT assay, V.S.L.Mithun * and C.S.V.Rama Chandra Rao
Extracts from microorganisms have served as a valuable source of diverse molecules in many drug discoveries. Identification of microbial strains having promising biological activities and purifying the bio-molecules which are responsible for the biological activities, have led to the discovery of many bioactive molecules. Extracts of bacteria in vitro tested on various cancer cell lines. The lyophilized bacterial extract powder was dissolved in various chemical solvents like Methanol, Chloroform and Ethyl acetate. From them cytotoxic assays was performed with the extracts were screened on HCT 15 and MES- SA cancer cell lines to study the cytotoxic potential. Where the Ethyl acetate showed the viability when compared to other solvents. The Ethyl acetate extract of isolate showed promising results by MTT assay and Trypan blue staining.
334 Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Ischemic Stroke, P.Vijay Amruth Raj and C.S.V.Rama Chandra Rao
Stroke or cerebral infarction is a condition that arises due to the obstruction in the flow of blood (ischemic stroke) or due to rupture in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). This results in lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells causing their failure to perform the metabolic function. Stroke is the third largest killer in the World. The total damage arising from stroke depends on the area of the brain affected and the amount of blood obstructed to the brain. In the present study we aimed to study the single nucleotide polymorphism in phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) SNP56 genes and LPL gene. 25 patients and 25 healthy individuals blood samples were collected and DNA was isolated. The presence of PDE4D SNP56 gene was determined by PCR-Sequencing methods and LPL gene polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Same numbers of patient and control samples were used to estimate the nitric oxide levels and uric acid levels. The results indicate that the PDE4D SNP56 gene and LPL gene polymorphism is significantly associated with stroke in the study population. The serum nitric oxide and uric acid levels were found to be significantly increased in patients as compared to controls.
335 Isolation, Characterization of Lipase Producing Bacteria from Crude Rice Bran Oil and Optimization studies by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), B. Sumanjelin*, C.S.V. Ramachandra Rao, R. Satish Babu,
Lipases are enzymes that can be secreted by several micro organisms, making interesting the biodiversity exploration for searching new microorganisms able to produce these enzymes. Many agro-industrial residues can be used as potential substrates for production of enzymes. Lipolytic bacteria were isolated from crude rice bran oil and grown on tributyrin media containing 1 %( w/w) olive oil. The isolate showing maximum activity was identified by ABIS online method. RSM (response surface methodology) was used to develop the culture medium for Lipase production and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize process variables (temperature, pH, salts, incubation period, inducers, carbon sources and nitrogen sources). Peak lipase activity was observed for beef extract as nitrogen source, olive oil as inducer, starch as carbon source at pH 7.0 and temperature at 25C.
336 Isolation, Screening and Molecular Characterization of Chromium Reducing Cr (VI) Pseudomonas Species, R.Jayalakshmi*and C.S.V. Rama Chandra Rao
Microorganisms are known for their ability to metabolize a variety of chemical compounds, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids and other environmental pollutants. These capabilities make them useful for application as bioremediation agents. Heavy metals found in wastewaters are harmful to the environment and their effects on biological system are very severe. An efficient and economic treatment for their removal and reuse needs to be developed. Microbial metal bioremediation is an efficient strategy due to its low cost, high efficiency and ecofriendly nature. Recently advances have been made in understanding metal-microbe interaction and their application for metal detoxification. Microorganisms in soil are sensitive to the high concentrations of heavy metals like zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium, mercury and silver. Chromium is a toxic heavy metal, which primarily exists in two inorganic forms, Cr (VI) and Cr (III). Chromate [Cr (VI)] is a serious environmental pollutant. The current study aimed to isolate the bacteria which have the potential capacity to reduce the chromium levels. Chromium contaminated soil was collected and analyzed. From the collected soil samples the bacterial isolates were screened and characterized by using the 16s rRNA based PCR amplification. Biochemical tests were performed for the microorganisms isolated from the effluent. As per the present study the isolated Pseudomonas sp was found to reduce 99 % of chromium from the medium in 21 hours.
337 Isolation, Screening and Molecular Characterization of Chromium Reducing Cr (VI) Pseudomonas Species, R.Jayalakshmi*and C.S.V. Rama Chandra Rao
Microorganisms are known for their ability to metabolize a variety of chemical compounds, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids and other environmental pollutants. These capabilities make them useful for application as bioremediation agents. Heavy metals found in wastewaters are harmful to the environment and their effects on biological system are very severe. An efficient and economic treatment for their removal and reuse needs to be developed. Microbial metal bioremediation is an efficient strategy due to its low cost, high efficiency and ecofriendly nature. Recently advances have been made in understanding metal-microbe interaction and their application for metal detoxification. Microorganisms in soil are sensitive to the high concentrations of heavy metals like zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium, mercury and silver. Chromium is a toxic heavy metal, which primarily exists in two inorganic forms, Cr (VI) and Cr (III). Chromate [Cr (VI)] is a serious environmental pollutant. The current study aimed to isolate the bacteria which have the potential capacity to reduce the chromium levels. Chromium contaminated soil was collected and analyzed. From the collected soil samples the bacterial isolates were screened and characterized by using the 16s rRNA based PCR amplification. Biochemical tests were performed for the microorganisms isolated from the effluent. As per the present study the isolated Pseudomonas sp was found to reduce 99 % of chromium from the medium in 21 hours.
338 Toxicity of Cypermethrin and Malathion on Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Their Effect on Esterase Isozymes, Md. Hasan Iqbal, Md. Abdur Rashid*, Rowshan Ara Begum and Reza Md. Shahjahan
Experiments were conducted to study the toxicity and esterase isozyme pattern in rice weevil (Sitophilusoryzae), a major pest of the stored rice. Bioassay was conducted with cypermethrin and malathion against the adult weevils and LC50 was found to be 110.30 ppm and 12.19 ppm respectively at 24 hours of exposure. Malathion was found to be much more toxic to S. oryzae than that of cypermethrin. In general, the mortality increased with an increased dose and with the time of exposure. Altogether, four esterase bands (Est-11.36 ,Est- 20.99, Est-30.45 and Est-40.24) were detected on 7.5% polyacrylamide gels with ? naphthyl acetate as substrate. Changes of esterase isozyme due to cypermethrin and malathion treatment was also observed. Est-1 was appeared only in the cypermethrin treated dead samples of 3-9 days of exposure, which was found highly intense after 5 days and the intensity gradually decreased afterwards. Esterase activity in malathion killed samples decreased with the increase of exposure period and with dose concentrations in general, however, fluctuation in esterase activity was found in cypermethrin killed samples.
339 Studies on the Production of L-Asparaginase by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 using Agro-Residues under Mixed Substrate Solid State Fermentation, J.V. Suresh* and K. Jaya Raju
L-asparaginase has been used as anti tumour agent for the effective treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and as food processing aid to reduce the formation of acrylamide during frying of starchy foods at high temperature. L-asparaginase production under solid state fermentation was carried out by Aspergillus terreus MTCC 1782 using locally available agricultural residues. Among different agricultural materials (sesame oil cake, coconut oil cake, ground nut oil cake, wheat bran, rice bran, black gram husk, green gram husk) screened ,sesame oil cake (SOC) and black gram husk (BH) were selected and these two were mixed in different ratios for obtaining maximum enzyme activity . Out of ten combinations tested the ratio of 7:3 of SOC and BH supported maximum L-asparaginase production. The maximum yield (163.34 U/gds) of L-asparaginase by A.terreus was obtained using SOC and BH mixture of 60% initial moisture content, initial pH 7.0, supplemented with maltose (1.5%), ammonium sulphate (2.0%), and magnesium sulphate (0.1% w/v), inoculated with 1.5ml of 120h old fungal culture and incubated at 32OC for 120h. Both physico-chemical and nutritional parameters had played a significant role in the production of the enzyme L-asparaginase. Medium with optimized conditions and supplementation gave a maximum asparaginase activity of 163.34 U/gds which is above 2.4 fold and 10.2 fold increase in yield than that with medium of sesame oil cake (68.49 U/gds) and black gram husk (15.95 U/gds) alone.
340 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Eri Silkworm by RAPD, M Shivashankar1, N Chandan1* and G S Nagananda2
Non-mulberry Erisilkworm, Samia cynthia ricini is an commercial exploitation of Vanya silk. To enhance the productivity and quality of silk fibers many attempts have been made through genetic manipulation. Since the information on the genetic basis, phenotypic variability and genetic diversity within populations of Eri silkworm is scanty, an attempt had been made to understand the genetic diversity among six populations viz., Yellow plain (YP), Yellow spotted (YS), Yellow Zebra (YZ), Blue Green Plain (BGP), Blue Green Spotted (BGS) and Blue Green Zebra (BGZ) by using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. Out of 20 RAPD primers screened, 18 primers generated good amplification of which 64 were polymorphic. RAPD profile generated for selected accessions with morphological dissimilarity showed 12% of polymorphism with primers ES-6, ES-8, ES-9 and ES-15. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) was generated to construct the dendogram. Jaccards similarity coefficients range (0.1 to 0.66) with maximum & minimum similarity noticed between Asc-05/Asc-06 and Asc-01/Asc-02. The range of similarity 0.1 to 0.66 indicated low genetic diversity in eri silkworm germplasm, which would be due to restricted environmental acclimatization.
341 Study on Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Bilawali Tank in Indore (M.P.), Renu Jain*, Preeti Choudhary and N. K. Dhakad
Present paper deals with the variety and abundance of fish in Bilawali Tank. The result of present observation reveals the occurrence of 21 species belonging to 16 genera, 3 orders and 9 families. The family Cyprinidae found dominant with 11 species.Among fish species recorded in the water of tank, Family Cyprinidae was most dominant constituting 52.40% followed by Bagridae and Ophiocephalidae constituting 9.52% and Siluridae, Saccobranchidae, Clariidae, Gobiidae, Centropomidae and Cichlidae constituting 4.76% of the total fish species. Fish diversity was assessed by calculating the various diversity indices such as Shannon Weaver diversity index (H), Simpsons Dominance index (D), Simpsons index of diversity (1- D), Evenness index (J).
342 Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Chilika Lake- The Southern Sector, S. Mishra1*, B. C. Jha2 and A. K. Das2
Chilika lake designated Ramsar site of international importance is situated in the humid tropical climatic zone of Odisha, on the east coast of India. It has both marine and freshwater ecological stands being a lagoon. The lagoon has four distinct ecological stands based on salinity profile viz. southern zone, central zone, northern zone, and outer channel. The information on the fish faunal diversity of the southern sector of Chilika Lake, which is the relatively deeper and stabilized with least fluctuations in salinity levels, remains to be scanty. It is in this context that the present study was conceived and undertaken over the period 2010-2011. Fish samples were collected from four selected sampling stations viz. Samal, Taltala, Birds Island and Palur Canal Outfall during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. A total of 26 fish species belonging to 22 genera, 18 families and 6 orders were collected and documented. The Fish fauna of this sector was dominated by the order Perciformes (57.69 %) with 15 species followed by Siluriformes (15.38 %) with 04 species, Cyprinodontiformes (11.53%) with 3 species, Clupeiformes (7.69%) with 02 species, Pleuronectiformes and Tetradontiformes (3.84%) with 01 species each. The fishes were categorized as mullets, air breathing fishes, cat fishes, ornamental fishes, thread fin fishes and bloch.
343 Biology of Onion Thrips, Thrips Tabaci (Lind.) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) On Onion Allium Cepa (Linnaeus), N. V. Patel1*, D. M. Pathak1, N. S. Joshi2 and M. R. Siddhapara2
Study on biology of Thrips tabaci (Lind.) on onion showed that the thrips laid singly minute, kidney shape and translucent white in colour inside the leaf tissues with its pointed ovipositor. The average incubation period varied from 4.52 0.51 days. The Larvae passed through two instars. The average larval period varied from 5 to 7 days with an average of 5.93 1.00 days while pre-pupal and pupal period were 1.96 0.76 and 3.56 0.50 days, respectively. The average preoviposition, oviposition and post- oviposition period were 3.43 1.10, 22.98 5.58 and 3.51 1.10 days, respectively. The average fecundity of female was 56.63 11.73 eggs during entire life spam. The average longevity of adult was 27.97 6.01 days. Total life cycle lasted for 38 to 62 days with an average of 49.66 5.79 days.
344 Screening, Isolation and Identification of Extracellular Lipase Producing Bacteria Bacillus Tequilensis Nrrl B-41771, Kalyana Chakravrthy Bonala and Lakshmi NarasuMangamoori *
The present paper reports the isolation and identification of lipase producing bacterial organism from oil mill waste. The bacterial isolate has been identified as Bacillus tequilensis NRRL B-41771. Maximal lipase production was detected during the early stationary phase of growth curve i.e at 48 h of growth. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded at a pH of 7.0 and temperature of 34oC.
345 A Review on Mevasatin- An Anticholesterol Drug, N Harsha1, S Subbarao2, V Sridevi2*, MVVChandana Lakshmi and T Kanthikiran
Hypercholesterolemia is considered an importantrisk factor in coronary artery disease. Thus the possibilityof controlling de novo synthesis of endogenouscholesterol, which is nearly two-thirds of total body cholesterol,represents an effective way of lowering plasmacholesterol levels. Statins, fungal secondary metabolites,selectively inhibit hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase, the first enzyme in cholesterolbiosynthesis. The mechanism involved in controllingplasma cholesterol levels is the reversible inhibition ofHMG-CoA reductase by statins, related to the structuralsimilarity of the acid form of the statins to HMGCoA, the natural substrate of the enzymatic reaction. Currentlythere are five statins in clinical use. Lovastatin and pravastatinmevastatin are natural statins of fungal origin. This review deals with the chemistry, mechanism for hmg-coareductase inhibition, biosynthesis and biotransformation, production and applications of mevastatin.
346 Fishes of Gandhisagar Reservoir in Madhya Pradesh, Ridhi1, B. C. Jha1, A. Parashar2, A. K. Das1 and A. K. Bose1
Gandhisagar reservoir of Madhya Pradesh was constructed on the river Chambal. Extensive survey, would, however be essential to map the fish diversity of Gandhisagar reservoir as the data is scanty on this aspect. The present study was conducted during April 2009 to December 2011 selecting three stations: viz. Kanwala Ghandhisagar and Rampura. Fish samples were collected through repeated surveys of the landing sites, besides conducting experimental nettings and market surveys. During the present study a total of 72 species of fishes belonging to 9 orders, 20 families and 43genera have been recorded from Gandhisagar reservoir. The indepth survey and analysis revealed that Order Cypriformes (59.72%) was dominant by 43 species which was followed by Siluriformes (18.05%) with 13 species; Order Perciformes (12.5%) was represented by 9 species and Order Cyprinodontiformes (2.7%) was represented by 2 species. Order Beloniformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes ,Osteoglossiformes and Synbranchiformes were also represented by each of one species (1.3%). The species belongs to Cypriniformes such as Lepidocephalichthys guntea, Puntius amphibius, Puntius conchonius, Puntius chola, Puntius gelius, Puntius sophore, Puntius ticto, Danio devario, Danio aequipinatus and Rasbora daniconius are potential ornamental species that can be exploited for commercial purpose. The status of fish species in the reservoir suggests that 66.6% with 48 species are Least Concern (LC), 23.6% with 17 species are Not Evaluated (NE), 5.5% with 4 species are Near Threatened (NT) where as 1.38% with one fish species are represented as Vulnerable (Vu), Data Deficient (DD) and Endangered (En) in each categories.
347 Circomoncobothrium Jadhavi A New Species Found In Clarious Batraehus At Shivpur Tq. Nalegaon Dist. Latur., Ashiwin R. Shinde
he cestode parasites found in plenty of the vertebrates, like fishes, amphibians, reptiles birds and mammals. Parasitic diseases are among the major public health problems of tropical countries including India. The worm under discussion is having the scolex large triangular narrow anteriorly broad posteriorly, having two bothria, rostellam medium, armed, the rostellar hooks 32 in mumber arrange in single circle, stout, slightly curved mature proglottids medium in size, squash in shape broader than long testes 250- 254 (252) on number, small to medium oval arranged in a single field, overy large distinctly bilobed dumb-bell shaped, situated near the posterior margin of the segments, vitellaria follicular, small around in 1-2 rows on each side.
348 Fishes of the Middle Stretch of River Tawa, Madhya Pradesh, India, A.K. Bose1*, B. C. Jha1, V. R. Suresh1, A. K. Das1, A. Parasar2 and Ridhi1
Ichthyofaunal documentation is regarded as one of the major issues of enabling sustainable use of natural resources and play a vital role in analyzing status of fish species (threatened, endangered, dominant, abundance etc). River Tawa, an important river in central India, supports rich fish diversity, a major source of livelihood and food. Unfortunately, systematic study of fish diversity in R. Tawa has been neglected and the information on these aspects is scanty, either very old and not been updated for decade. With this in view, the study was conducted. This contribution focuses on the diversity of fish, their human use and conservation status in middle stretch of the river. The present study revealed that 57 fish species belonging to 35 genera, 13 families and 06 orders have so far been identified. Besides this, the river supports 25 ornamental fish with (43.85%), and 17 aquacultural fish with (29.82%). In addition to the above, trophic structure indicated dominance of herbivore with 19 fish species (33.33%) followed by carnivore 15 species (26.31%) and omnivore with 16 species (28.07%) while 4 species (7.01%) was not evaluated. As per red list of threatened species, 4 species belonging to near threatened (NT) category and 1 belonging to vulnerable category. The fish species were also divided into different groups like major carps, catfishes, murrels, eels, feather back etc. To save this diversity and to a sustainable fishery practice in the country, proper documentation leading to fish diversity information system is an urgent need of the present day.
349 Evaluation of Lead Uptake Potential of Maize (Zea Mays) Seedling Grown in Contaminated Soil, Usman O.A. Shuaibu
Major sources of lead include frequent use of alkyl lead fuel additives, lead in paints, disposal of discarded batteries, burning of garbage and painted wood, weathering of lead containing paints on building. Lead is a potential environmental hazard which needs to be removed from soil-water environment using environmentally friendly (eco-friendly), safe, cheap and non - convectional method (Phytoremediation). Phytoremediation is a novel, cost effective and eco - friendly `green` remediation technology for environmental cleanup. In the present research uptake of lead by Maize (Zea mays) seedling growing in varying levels of lead metal (as lead nitrate, PbNO3) contaminated soil was evaluated. The different levels of lead metal used were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50?g/g for soil samples X, A, B, C and D, respectively. Soil sample X serves as control. The experiment was conducted for a period of 42days. Lead uptake by Maize (Zea mays) seedling was high at initial concentrations (5 and 10?g/g) of lead metal but gradually decreases as the lead metal concentration in soil increases. The lead content in the plant tissue and soil were quantified using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. The result reveals that most of the lead was located in the roots and small amount was translocated to shoots when exposed to 50?g/g concentration of lead. At the end of the experiment (i.e. 42days) the plant was found to have potential to uptake toxic metals like lead from concentration ranging from 5 to 50?g/g. Thus Maize (Zea mays) is a suitable plant for phytoremediation operation.
350 Evaluation of Lead Uptake Potential of Maize (Zea Mays) Seedling Grown in Contaminated Soil, Usman O.A. Shuaibu
Major sources of lead include frequent use of alkyl lead fuel additives, lead in paints, disposal of discarded batteries, burning of garbage and painted wood, weathering of lead containing paints on building. Lead is a potential environmental hazard which needs to be removed from soil-water environment using environmentally friendly (eco-friendly), safe, cheap and non - convectional method (Phytoremediation). Phytoremediation is a novel, cost effective and eco - friendly `green` remediation technology for environmental cleanup. In the present research uptake of lead by Maize (Zea mays) seedling growing in varying levels of lead metal (as lead nitrate, PbNO3) contaminated soil was evaluated. The different levels of lead metal used were 0, 5, 10, 20 and 50?g/g for soil samples X, A, B, C and D, respectively. Soil sample X serves as control. The experiment was conducted for a period of 42days. Lead uptake by Maize (Zea mays) seedling was high at initial concentrations (5 and 10?g/g) of lead metal but gradually decreases as the lead metal concentration in soil increases. The lead content in the plant tissue and soil were quantified using Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. The result reveals that most of the lead was located in the roots and small amount was translocated to shoots when exposed to 50?g/g concentration of lead. At the end of the experiment (i.e. 42days) the plant was found to have potential to uptake toxic metals like lead from concentration ranging from 5 to 50?g/g. Thus Maize (Zea mays) is a suitable plant for phytoremediation operation.
351 Utilization of Withania Somnfera (L.)Dunal To Control Seed Borne Fungus Alteraria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler, A. C. Dhole, M. K. Gurme*
The plant Withaniasomnifera (L.)Dunal play an important role to control the growth of seed borne fungus Aternariaalternata (Fr.) Keissler.The leaf extract of Withaniasomnifera (L.) Dunal is most effective, shows more fungitoxic property. The leaf extract can be used to control alternaria alternate (Fr.) Keissler. As the concentration of leaf extract increases linear growth of dominant fungi decreases. The leaf extract of Withaniasomnifera (L.) Dunal also reduces percentage of seed mycoflora and increases seed germination percentage. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth of fungus alternaria alternate (Fr.) Keillser was observed in 5% leaf extract of Withaniasomnifera (L.) Dunal.
352 Comparison of Numerical Efficiencies of Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan Elimination Methods in Finding the Inverses of Matrices, R. B. Srivastava*and Vinod Kumar
Inverses of matrices have been found out using Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan elimination methods with the help of developed computer program. Numbers of operations involved in the determination of inverses of matrices have also been computed. Numerical efficiencies of Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan elimination methods have been found to be 2.547511 and 2.392344 which indicates that the Gaussian elimination method is approximately 1.051 times faster than the Gauss-Jordan elimination method
353 Comparison of Numerical Efficiencies of Gaussian Elimination and Gauss-Jordan Elimination methods for the Solutions of linear Simultaneous Equations, R. B. Srivastava* and Vinod Kumar
Twenty linear simultaneous equations have been solved with the help of Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan elimination methods using computer program developed in C++ programming language. Numbers of operations involved in the solutions of in the solution of linear simultaneous equations have also been calculated. The efficiencies of Gaussian and Gauss-Jordan elimination methods have been found to be 14.072614 and 9.292816 respectively which indicates that Gaussian elimination method is approximately 1.514354 times faster than Gauss-Jordan elimination method.
354 Development of Glass Dispersed Electrolyte and Electrode for Solid State SO2 Gas Sensor, Ajay Lad
Electrochemical SO2 gas sensor fabricated using Ag+-glass dispersed Ag2SO4as an electrolyte. A sensor was prepared by depositing a thin layer of ferroelectric dispersed composite as an auxiliary phase. Modified the working electrode improves the sensor response due to presence of large number triple point (gas, Pt, electrolyte interface). The sensor was found responding to various test gas concentrations, showing Nernstian behavior (two-electron reaction) in limited range of gas partial pressure.
355 Narrow-Band 1D Photonic Crystal Based Omni-Directional Mirror at 1550nm for Optical Fiber Communication, Sanjeev Sharma*1, Rajendra Kumar1, Kh.S. Singh2, Vipin Kumar2 and M.P.Srinivasa Rao3
Omni-directional reflection (ODR) property of one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) structures consisting of alternate layers of Germanium (Ge), and zinc sulfide (ZnS) has been investigated. The existence of total Omnidirectional reflection band gap in 1D-PC is predicted theoretically. Reflectivity of one dimensional periodic structure for TE and TM-modes at deferent angles of incidence has been calculated by using Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). It is found that the mirror designed with these materials has a ODR range which covers the window of 1550 nm used in optical communications.
356 Study on acoustical paramters in binary liquid mixture containing aniline and anisole at diffrent tempratures, Sreedevi Y1, Srinivasu Ch1, Fakruddin Sk2*and Narendra K2
Density (r),Ultrasonic velocity (u), and viscosity (h) values have been measured in the binary liquid mixtures containing aniline and anisoleat different temperatures over the entire range of composition This data have been used to determine the ultrasonic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (b), free length (Lf), free volume (Vf) and internal pressure (p). The results obtained here are used to explain the molecular interaction between the components of the mixture.
357 Propagation of Rayleigh Waves in a Non-Homogeneous Granular Media, Rajneesh Kakar*1 and Shikha Kakar2
The present paper describes the influence of non-homogeneity of the material medium on the propagation of surface waves in a granular half-space overlain by a different granular layer. The wave velocity equation has been obtained in the form of ninth order determinantal expression and is in well agreement with the corresponding classical result, when non-homogeneity is absent.
358 Synthesis and Study of Substitution Effect of Halogen on Photophysical Properties of Anils, Bapu R Thorat, Priyanka Patel, Ramesh S Yamgar and Ramdas G Atram
Salicylaldehyde (1) and 5-bromosalicyladehyde (2) was condensed with series of haloanilines (3a-e) forming Schiff bases (anils, 4a-e, 5a-e) which are characterised by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The absorption and emission spectra of final Schiff bases (4a-e, 5a-e) was recorded. The Schiff base shows maximum absorption at 400 nm and 800 nm. The emission spectra of 4a-e and 5a-e were recorded at 400 nm (as excitation wavelength). The halogen substitution on anils shows blue shift in emission.
359 Physicochemical Properties of Soybean Oil and Their Blends with Vegetable oils for the Evaluation of Lubrication Properties, Kailas M. Talkit*1, D.T.Mahajan2, V.H.Masand3
In these study vegetable oils like soybean oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil was purchased from local super market. The physicochemical properties like viscosity, acid value, saponification value, iodine value of four different vegetable oils and there blends in 10:90 to 90:10 proportion were studied. From this study, it was found that viscosity of soybean coconut oil blend in proportion 90:10, soybean oil sesame oil blend in proportion 10:90 and soybean oil sesame oil blend in proportion 20:80 was found to be higher than other blends. Also acid value of same blends lower than other blends; hence from this study its conclude that, the above blends are use as a alternative to petroleum based lubricants in industries.
360 Thermoelastic Surface Waves Propagation in Non-Homogeneous Viscoelastic Media of Higher Order, Rajneesh Kakar*1 and Shikha Kakar2
The propagation of surface waves in a non-homogeneous, isotropic, thermo-viscoelastic medium of higher order including time rate of strain has been discussed in this study. The problem has been solved analytically using linear inhomogeneity and the exact solution of velocity equations has been obtained for Stoneley, Rayleigh and Love type surface wave. In fact, these equations are in agreement with the corresponding classical results when the medium is free from viscosity, temperature and inhomogeneity.
361 Effect of Thickness on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Chemically Grown Cd0.825pb0.175s Thin Films, M. A. Barote1*, A. A. Yadav2 and E. U. Masumdar2
Thin films of Cd0.825Pb0.175S with different thicknesses have been deposited onto amorphous glass substrates using simple and low-cost chemical bath deposition technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as-deposited films shows polycrystalline nature. Energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDAX) confirms the sulphur deficit films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that, the deposited films are well adherent and grains are uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. The studies on optical properties show that the direct band gap value decreases from 2.13 eV to 1.72 eV as thickness varied from 1.22 ?m to 2.75 ?m The electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements have been carried out in 300-500 K temperature range. The activation energy is found to be thickness dependent and it varies in the range of 0.127-0.168 eV at low temperature range and 0.421-0.514 eV at higher temperature. Semiconductor behavior has been observed from the electrical conductivity measurements. The thermoelectric power measurements reveal that films exhibit n-type conductivity.
362 Optical Identification of Polyaniline Doped with Mn and Fe, 1Pushpendra Singh,2 Kapil Sirohi, 3Jitendra Singh, 1Pradeep Kumar and 1Sachin Gill
Polyaniline is one of the oldest of conducting polymers and amongst the various conducting polymers Pani has rapidly become the subject of considerable interest for physicists, chemists and material scientist. In this paper, we have carried out the optical properties of polyaniline doped with Fe and Mn at 30% and 50percentage Concentration. The reflection spectra of Polyaniline doped with Fe and Mn was measured at room temperature in the wavelength range of 300-800nm.
363 Effect of solution molarity on the structural and opto-electric properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis, E. U. Masumdar1 and M. A. Barote2*
The present work deals with the preparation of zinc oxide thin films (ZnO) by the spray pyrolysis method. The starting solution was zinc acetate. Effect of solution molarity on film properties was investigated. All films deposited were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction for structural characterizations, weight difference density method for thickness measurement, UVVIS transmission spectrophotometer for optical properties and the two probe conductivity measurements for electrical characterization. The X- ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the films deposited are polycrystalline with preferential orientation along (002) plane. The optical study showed that films are highly transparent in the visible region with an average transmission of about ~85%. The optical band gap decreased from 3.25 eV to 3.02 eV, on increase in molar concentration from 0.1 M to 0.75 M. As the solution molarity increases, the electrical conductivity increases, reaches to a maximum value of 3.2210?1 ( -cm)-1, for as-grown films at 0.5 M.
364 Study of Azoxy-Based Liquid Crystals (p-azoxyanisole, p-azoxyphenetole, ethyl-p-azoxybenzoate, ethylp- azoxycinnamate and n-octyl-p-azoxycinnamate) Based on Frontier Orbital Densities, Rajendra Prasad Tewari, Gayasuddin Khan*, Alok Shukla and K. D. P. Shukla
Computational study of electronic structure of some of azoxybenzene-based liquid crystals belonging to nematic class: p-azoxyanisole, p-azoxyphenetole, ethyl-pazoxybenzoate, ethyl-p-azoxycinnamate and n-octyl-p-azoxycinnamate have been studied. In order to obtain more information on the reactivity of above molecules towards nucleophile and electrophile, we performed semiempirical(AM1, PM3 and PM5) and density functional theory (DFT) based calculation to evaluate the negative and positive charge distribution in all the cases.p-azoxyanisole is treated as reference compound (RC) then the study shows that replacement of -OCH3 group of RC by - OC2H5 group decreases the ?HOMO, while successive addition of COOC2H5, CH=CH-COOC2H5 and CH=CH-COOC8H17 groups increase the ?HOMO, respectively. The replacement of -OCH3 group of RC by CH=CH-COOC8H1 group increase the ?LUMO, while successive addition of OC2H5, COOC2H5 and CH=CH-COOC2H5 groups decrease the ?LUMO, respectively. The study shows that DFT based calculations provide better result than the semiempirical based calculations.
365 Propagation of Rayleigh Waves in Non-Homogeneous Orthotropic Elastic Media under the Influence of Gravity, Compression, Rotation and Magnetic Field, Rajneesh Kakar*1, Shikha Kakar2
The influence of the gravity, rotation and magnetic field on the propagation of Rayleigh waves in a prestressed inhomogeneous, orthotropic elastic solid medium has been discussed. The method of separation of variable is used to find the frequency equations of the surface waves. The obtained dispersion equations are in agreement with the classical results when gravity, rotation, magnetic field, non-homogeneity and initial stress are neglected. The effect of various inhomogeneities on Rayleigh waves have also been represented graphically.
366 Effects of Various Inhomogeneities on Torsional Surface Waves Propagating in a Viscoelastic Medium, Rajneesh Kakar*1, Shikha Kakar2, Kanwaljeet Kaur3and Kishan Chand Gupta3
The possibilities of propagation of torsional surface waves in a non-homogeneous isotropic crustal layer lying over a viscoelastic mantle have been studied. Rigidity and density of the viscoelastic medium are inhomogeneous and assumed to vary exponentially with depth. The method of separation of variables has been used to find the dispersion equation for the torsional surface waves. The effects of various non-homogeneities on the phase velocity of torsional surface waves have shown graphically.
367 Studies on Correlation of Electrical Properties of Red Soils with Their Physical and Chemical Parameters, Avinash. A. Patil* and D.V.Ahire*
A study of the micronutrient status of red soils of North Maharashtra and Konkan areas was made at six different locations. The objective of the experiment was to study the status of macro and micronutrients and their correlation with various physiochemical properties. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-20cm and analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Manganese. The dielectric constant of these samples is also measured at X-band microwave frequency (10.5GHz) using waveguide cell method at TE10 mode. The textural analysis as %sand, %silt and %clay of six red soil samples and their correlation with dielectric constant and electrical conductivity are also reported. The textures of these samples are sandy loam, sandy clay loam, loam and sandy. The values of pH indicated that some of the soils are alkaline and some are acidic in nature. The soil analysis indicated that some of the samples have moderate amount of nitrogen, phosphorus (S1-S6) and found to be deficient in phosphorus. All samples were containing moderate amount of available micronutrients.
368 Study of Dielectric Constant and Dielectric Loss of some Igneous Rocks at Frequencies in X - band under Ambient Atmospheric Conditions, P. R. Chaudhari and D. V. Ahire
Microwave remote sensing of rock requires the study of dielectric parameters like dielectric constant and dielectric loss of rocks. In this paper dielectric constant of five igneous rock samples Rhyolite, Granite, Tholeiite Basalt, Dolerite Dyke, Basalt Ferro have been measured at three microwave frequencies 9.32 GHz, 9.72 GHz and 10.25 GHz of Xband by using waveguide cell method, under ambient atmospheric conditions. Dielectric loss was then calculated from dielectric constant for all rock samples. The result shows that the dielectric constant of igneous rocks under ambient atmospheric conditions decreases with increase in frequency. Loss factor for basic rock samples are greater than that for acidic rock samples at a fixed frequency.
369 Non-Edible Oils of Assam as Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production: A Review, Sanjay Basumatary
Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), is an alternative and renewable fuel for diesel engines. The demand for biodiesel is increasing worldwide because of the limited reserves of fossil fuels, increasing prices of crude oils and environmental concerns. As the demand for edible vegetable oils has increased tremendously in recent years, it is impossible to use these oils for biodiesel production. Moreover, these oils could be more expensive to use as fuel. So, use of alternative biodiesel feedstocks like non-edible vegetable oils should be given prime importance for the production of biodiesel. Assam (8950/ E to 9610/ E and 2430/ N to 2810/ N) is one of the richest biodiversity zones in NE region of India. In the forests of North East India particularly in Assam, a large variety of non-edible oilseed bearing trees and shrub species are available for use as a biodiesel. In this paper, an attempt is being taken to review on some non-edible oils found particularly in Assam viz. yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana), koroch (Pongamia glabra), terminalia (Terminalia belerica) and nahar (Mesua ferrea) as feedstocks for biodiesel industries.
370 Indigenous State-of-The-Art Technology Development for Distillery Effluents: An organic biochemical reagent for productive soils by means of Aerobic Sponge Method Vermitechnology (ASMV), N.S. Sunitha and C.Seenappa
Distilleries in India face a problem by the State and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)s directions of zero-effluent discharge. The work encompasses the conversion of liquidstate distillery effluents into solid-state-vermicompost by the creation of aerobic sponge beds of estimated quantities of biosolids of pressmud and cocopith keeping in mind the SPCB (state) and CPCB (central) Rules and regulationsIn the current research paper, an efficient use of distillery effluents with biosolids of pressmud and cocopith has been made use of in the indigenous state-of-the-art ASMV technology based on natures simple laws of evaporation techniques by creating natural vent processes without any mechanical aerators in the Phase I operation through estimated quantities of biosolids and calculated levels of distillery effluents. In Phase II operative processes a simple stabilization process with water for 2-3 weeks was carried out and followed by vermiprocesses has been shown thro ASMV technology making way to cottage industry within the distillery premises and the same has been illustrated as here
371 Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Some Selected Villages of Nagar Valley Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, Sartaj Ali*, Abid Hussain, Azhar Hussain, Amjad Ali and Muhammad Saeed Awan
Water and life are two sides of the same coin, since water sustains all life processes. The quality of water is of vital concern for mankind since it is directly linked with human health and environmental protection. Due to its outstanding significance to the consumer its parameters must follow the permissible limits set by international water regulating agencies. The present study was therefore undertaken to assess the quality of drinking water in some villages of Nagar valley. Some physical, biological and chemical parameters were examined from tap, channel and tank water. Among the tested characteristics, temperature values fluctuated between 12.1013.50 C, electric conductivity values ranged from 199.10-588.00?s/cm, turbidity values differed from 0.200.38 NTU, pH values varied between 7.00-7.93, total alkalinity values ranged between 57.00102.33 mg/l, total dissolved solids ranged from 118357 mg/l, calcium hardness contents fluctuated between 4.6616.66 mg/l,cynuric acid level varied between 35.3352 mg/l. Similarly, total coliform count ranged from 47.25 54.00 cfu/ml while the investigated samples were free from faecal contamination. All the inspected characteristics were within the approved standards set by WHO and EPA.
372 Evaluation of Heavy Metals in some selected Waste Dumpsites in Gboko Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria, B. A. Anhwange and K. Asemave
Heavy metals were determined fromwaste dumpsites in Gboko metropolis, Benue state, Nigeria. The mean pH values of the soil samples were found to be 8.13 and 8.23 for Gboko west(GW) and Gboko east (GE) respectively. The analysis of heavy metals indicate that samples from Gboko west show mean concentrations (mg/kg) of heavy metals as;Pb (1.302), Ni (0.345), Cr (0.308), Al (0.282), Cd (0.370), and As (0.049). Samples from Gboko east indicate mean levels of heavy metals as follows;(0.876 mg kg-1), (0.152 mg kg-1), (0.342 mg kg-1), (0.486 mg kg-1), (0.295 mg kg-1), and(0.239 mg kg-1) for Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cd, andAs respectively. In Nutshell, Pb Ni, and Cd were found to be relatively higher in Gboko west than Gboko east. On the other hand, the levels of Cr, Al, and As were higher in Gboko east than Gboko west. All the heavy Metals were within the WHO acceptable limits except Cd and Cr which were slightly above these limits in some dumpsites; samples K, L in Gboko west and M, O in Gboko east. Although Heavy metal concentrations in theserefuse dumpsites of Gboko metropolis may not appear to pose a very serious environmental problem at the moment, continuous accumulation of these metals in Gboko metropolis may result into some health threat to human and the environment in future.
373 Evaluation of Water Quality Used For Drinking and Swimming Purposes in Ishiagu Community, Ebonyi State, Anyim C.*1, Nwuzo, A.C. 1, Nworie, O1., Oko, M.O.2 and Agah, M.V. 1
Evaluation of water quality used for drinking and swimming purposes in Ishiagu community, Ebonyi were carried out on streams and rivers used for drinking and swimming purposes. The results obtained were compared with WHO and EPA standards for drinking and recreational water. Ikwoh stream did not comply with turbidity standard, while Ivo river and Iyodu stream did not also comply with the Mg2+ standard, all others water sources were within the standards set for PH, colour, total solids, total dissolved solids, acidity, total hardness, Ca2+ hardness, chloride and Iron. None of the water samples complied with bacteriological standards as Total coliform counts generally exceeded 1,600 MPN/ml, and pathogen count such as Salmonella- Shigella counts and Vibrio cholera counts also very high. The presence of pathogens in water for drinking and swimming purposes is of public health concern; hence there is a need for thorough treatment of streams and rivers, and focus on the elimination of coliform bacteria so as to prevent an epidemic of water related diseases.
374 Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Wastewater of Various Regions of Bikaner City, Rajasthan, VikasModasiya*1, DaulalBohra 2 and C.K.Bahura
Water quality monitoring facilitates evaluation of nature and extent of pollution and effectiveness of pollution control measures, water quality trends and prioritisation of pollution control efforts. These qualities which make water so useful also make it easy for water to be polluted, or made dirty with things that are dangerous or harmful. Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the present study analysis of physicochemical parameters like transparency, pH, bicarbonate, carbonate, total alkalinity, salinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, silica and phosphate of sewage water samples of different regions of Bikaner city were conducted.
375 Impact of Areal and Demographic Changes on Urban Growth of Srinagar City, Wani Rashid A
The world population is predicted to grow from 6.9 billion in 2010 to 8.3 billion in 2030 and to 9.1 billion in 2050(UNDESA, 2009a) and 68% of these 9 billion people will reside in urban settings (UNDESA, 2009b). The detection and analysis of land use changes using remotely sensed data and GIS in the urban environment is an important issue in planning. Within the last four decades the proportion of people living in urban centres has considerably increases. The present study was conducted to analyze the expansion, pace and direction of the Srinagar city from 1971 to 2001. The population of the city increased from 122,618 in 1901 to 971357 in 2001. Srinagar had an area of 12.8 Km in 1901, which increased 278.1 Km in 2001, transforming its nearby agricultural land and other marshy land into social-urban use. For the sustainable utilization of the land resources, it is highly imperative to know location, extent and characteristics of the various land uses. Haphazard and unplanned growth of Srinagar city is the result of increasing population growth and density, transmigration from rural to urban areas, economic opportunities, agriculture land capture etc. Hence, an attempt has made in the present study to monitor the growth of Srinagar city for proper planning. The growth of the city has mainly occurred along the road corridors.
376 Water Quality Evaluation in Some Groundwater Samples along the Budhi Gandak Belt of Kanti Block in Muzaffarpur District during Post-Monsoon Season, 2012, S. Mumtazuddin1*, A. K. Azad1, Rahila Firdaus and Amrita Kumari
We report here the quality of water samples from bored tube wells at different sites along the Budhi Gandak belt of Kanti block from Akharaghat to Kanti in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state during post-monsoon season of 2012 with respect to parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS, DO, total hardness, alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and chloride as well as heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Fe and As . TDS of some samples exceeded the maximum permissible limit of WHO. Significantly, iron was found much above the maximum permissible limit of WHO in almost all the samples, whereas arsenic contamination was also noted at many sites, which at some of these even much exceeded the maximum permissible limit of WHO. Arsenic contamination in the groundwater of this area is a serious concern for human health.
377 Performance of Multipurpose Tree Species on Saline Soil Environment for Fodder Production, Renu Dhupper
Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress influencing plant productivity worldwide. Acacia nilotica and Prosopis cineraria are one of the most important multipurpose tree species in the arid and salt prone areas of Rajasthan. A field experiment conducted during summer season of 2003 and 2004 to study the seedling growth behaviour of A. nilotica and P. cineraria on the saline soil of different treatment levels. The aim was to test the hypothesis that A.nilotica and P cineraria being a halophytic species showed different salt tolerance responses. Application of medium salt level 4d Sm-1 resulted in the maximum growth of the species. A. nilotica had the highest biomass, response breadth over the P. cineraria. Thus rehabilitation of arid soils with the above recommended tree species using the available saline waters , would not only render these abandoned soils to be productive but would also ensure conservation and improvement for long range ecological security on these lands. Our results revealed that salt tolerant species could be conveniently screened by a salt tolerance index at the threshold salinity over its preceding salinity level.
378 Feeding habits of various fishes in some tropical water bodies of Bhopal with special reference to Phytoplankton, Ashwani Wanganeo, Imran Abdullah Bhat and Pramod Kumar
Present study has been conducted on some water bodies of Bhopal city to assess the feeding preference of some selected fishes towards different classes of phytoplankton. A significant feeding preference for phytoplankton has been documented based on their gut contents of fishes. All the fishes documented maximum feeding preference towards the Chlorophyceae, which can possibly be attributed to the qualitative predominance of these autotrophic phyla in all the water bodies. During the present study, 91 phytoplankton species were identified from three selected water bodies. 66 phytoplankton species were encountered from Lower basin of Bhoj wetland, 65 species from Upper basin of Bhoj wetland while only 40 phytoplankton species were recorded from Shahpura wetland. A marked variation in the physico-chemical characteristics indicates the higher trophic status (Eutrophic) of Lower basin of Bhoj wetland and Shahpura wetland in comparison to Upper basin of Bhoj wetland.
379 Physico-Chemical Status of Wular Lake in Kashmir, Rumysa Khaliq*, Sharique A. Ali, Tariq Zafar, Mohd.Farooq, Bilal A. and Pinky Kaur
Present study was conducted to study the physico-chemical status of Wular Lake in Kashmir. Thirteen different parameters including temperature, total dissolved solids, hydrogen-ion concentration, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, chloride, calcium hardness and total hardness were work out under present investigation. The surface water samples from Wular Lake were collected from five sampling sites (namely Watlab, Astingu, Lakreshpur, Gurur and Ningli) in the early hours for every month during the study period (February 2011 January 2012). The physico-chemical parameters of Wular Lake studied included the atmospheric temperature (recorded between 31C to 7C), water transparency values were (ranged from 0.9 m to 0.1 m), hydrogen ion concentration (ranged between 8.7 to7.1), alkalinity (varies from 224 mg/l to53mg/l), dissolved oxygen (varied from 10.8 mg/l to 2.7 mg/l), chloride (ranged between 33 mg/l to 14 mg/l), calcium hardness (ranged between 54mg/l to 23 mg/l) and magnesium content (ranged from 37.1 mg/l to 15 mg/l).
380 Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact of Participatory Watershed Management Programme: A Case Study of Sundarwadi Watershed in Maharashtra, Aher Satish B1 and Pawar Janardhan R2
Participatory integrated watershed management programme approach demonstrated on Sundarwadi Watershed at Paithan in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State result a change in land use pattern in favor of environmental improvement. Consequently, ground water table depth, economic problems, migration of native people, poverty and water scarcity from the watershed has decreased and agricultural output has increased significantly. The present study reveals that environmental payoff and economic returns from watershed management project at Sundarwadi are attractive to lead further sustainable development in the area. Non Government Organization implemented this project during 2006 to 2009 as per the guidelines of Government of India.
381 Water Quality Status of Parashari River in GanjBasoda Town, Vidisha, (M.P.), Jyoti Raghuwanshi and Subhash C. Pandey
An attempt has been made to evaluate pollution status of Parashari River in Ganj Basoda town. Structural and functional attributes of water, which may be categorized as physical, chemical and biological have are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the water quality. During the course of study various parameters like DO, BOD, COD, pH, Turbidity and Alkalinity etc were observed. In the present study it was found that physico- chemical characteristics of a few of the river water samples crossed the maximum permissible limit, due to heavy mixing of effluent waste and domestic sewage it was noticed that the physico-chemical parameters indicates balance of the river was disturbed. The study concluded that due to discharge of untreated sewage into the river, the water quality of river has been severely deterioted and the potable nature of water is being lost. Reducing domestic wastewater discharged into the river is the way to make the better water quality of the Parashari River. The present observation shows that the sampling stations, which were receiving less municipal and domestic wastes, comparatively less polluted. The physico-chemical assessment is clearly indicating that Parashari river require proper attention for improvement of river water quality in GanjBasoda town.
382 Management of Nickel Contaminated Soil and Water Through the use of Carbon Nano Particles, Gopal Rathor 1, Tapan Adhikari 2 and Neelam Chopra
A laboratory experiment was conduct to determine the effect of Carbon Nano Particle (CNP) for the management of nickel pollutant in soil and water. Usage of carbon in nanoparticle form seems quite efficient. It has been found that Ni concentration is reduced to 75-92% in the nickel polluted soil when the soil is treated with carbon nanoparticle (250mg/10gm of soil) while nickel decontamination in water was reduced to 99.6% after treatment of carbon nanoparticle (500mg/20 ml of polluted water).It was also seen that rate of nickel decontamination increases with the increase in Ni concentration. Ni contamination also decreases the pH of water but when carbon nanoparticle is applied, it not only decontaminates water but also maintains the pH of water to normal level.
383 Carbon Nanotube Based Nanocomposites and their Applications- A Review, Rakesh Kumar, Sangeeta Obrai, Amanpreet Singh and Aparna Sharma
Nanocomposites are the new class of composite materials like polymer based nanocompositespresent new class of composites materials such as particle filled polymers in which at least one dimensions of the dispersed particles lies in the nano-range. Now a days most frequently used nano fillers is carbon nanotube, either multiwall or single walled. The discoveries of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have initiated researches in many different areas and in which one of the most fascinating applications of CNT is the polymer/CNT nanocomposites. High surface area of the nanotube increases the adhesion between the dispersed fillers and the matrix to obtain high performance resulting composites.Carbon Nanotube CNTs have attracted too much interest as new nanomaterials due to their unique shape and properties such as superconductivity, light weight, high stiffness and axial strength. Because of their high mechanical strength CNTs are being considered as nano-scale fibers to enhance the performance of polymer nanocomposite materials. High mechanical, electrical and thermal property of CNTs make them ideal candidate as fillers in light weight polymer composite. Due to CNTs unusual properties they can be used in the electronic device manufacturing, electrode materials preparations and reinforcement of various composites. Nanocomposites reinforced with carbon nanotubes having extraordinary specific stiffness and strength which represent various opportunity for application in the 21st century. In this paper preparation of nano-tubes, characterization and their applications have been included.
384 Quantum Chemical Studies On Reactivity of Some Amino Acids towards Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Attack with Iron, P. A. Ekwumemgbo*, N. O. Eddy and K. I. Omoniyi
Semiemperical and density functional methods (DFT) have been used to predict the reactivity of some amino acids (alanine, glycine and leucine) towards electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks with iron (Fe). Both methods revealed that the reactivity of the three amino acids studied decreases in the order leucine> alanine > glycine. The sites for nucleophilic attack are the carbon atom (C-7), the nitrogen atom (N- 5) and the nitrogen atom (N-5) for leucine, alanine and glycine respectively, while the sites for electrophilic attack are the carboxyl functional group for leucine, alanine and glycine respectively. Molecular orbital diagrams have been used to represent the information obtained from DFT study. The results obtained from the study indicated that DFT and quantum chemical principles can be used to predict the reactivity of leucine, alanine and glycine towards electrophilic and neuclophilic attacks.
385 Computation and Modeling of the Flux of Gamma Globulin Molecules onto Titanium Surface, P. A. Ekwumemgbo1*,J. A. Kagbu1, A. J. Nok2 and K. I. Omoniyi1
Titanium (Ti) is widely employed for various biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility. Studies of ?-globulin adsorption onto Ti are important for the development of biocompatible devices. This work examines the rate of adsorption of ?- globulin onto Ti surface. The plot of ?-globulinadsorption onto Ti versus time shows that the initial ?-globulinadsorption increased linearly with time with the rate constant obtained 0.032min-1 while the correlation coefficient (R2)is 0.9999. The experimental adsorption rate is limited by the availability of ?-globulin molecules at the adsorbing surface, resulting in a situation in which, most ?-globulin molecule that collides with the surface sticks to it. In order to predict the factors that determine the rate of adsorption, the flux of ?-globulin molecules onto Ti surface was computed by developing a model similar to implantation of Ti into the body for the transport-limited of ?-globulin adsorption onto Ti from flowing ?-globulin solution. It was deduced that the rate of this adsorption is determined by the wall shear rate, the diffusivity of ?-globulin and the bulk amount of ?- globulin solution. An adsorption model was developed in order to seek the factors that determine the intrinsic (qualitative) adsorption and desorption rate constants. The experimental adsorption data was likened to a simple ?-globulin adsorption model, which comprises of adsorption and desorption processes. The model incorporated the rate of diffusion through the boundary (unstirred) layer of constant thickness by solving for the Fick's law. It was deduced that the intrinsic adsorption and desorption rate constants of ?- globulin could be defined as (empirical) exponential functions of the amount of ?-globulin onto Ti surface.
386 Estimation of Cystiene Using Sodium Nitroprusside by a Newer Photochemical Method, 1Shailendra Singh Rathore, Ravi Sharma2, Devendra Kadam3 and Ajay Sharma1*
A newer fast, convenient and inexpensive quantitative method for the determination of Cystiene using photochemical exchange reaction of sodium nitroprusside has been investigated. Sodium nitroprusside is a photolabile complex and it undergoes photochemical ligand exchange reactions rapidly. Some recent efforts have been made to utilise such reactions for the estimation of some sulphur containing anions and electron rich organic molecules. The progress of the reaction is observed spectrophotometrically. The effects of different parameters like pH, change of concentration of sodium nitroprusside, concentration of ligands, light intensity etc. on percentage error was investigated. The efforts were made to minimise the percentage error and some optimum conditions were obtained. Such reaction can be used for the determination of Cystiene in the range of millimoles to micromoles, hence it is important to know whether such estimations can be done successfully and that to with the desired accuracy.
387 Synthesis and antimicrobial study of novel 2, 3-diydro -4- (naphtho [2, 1-b] furan -2yl)-2-substitued [1, 5] benzothiazepines, Sanjeevan Gaikwad*1, Venkat Suryawanshi2, Kishan Lohar1.
A series of novel substituted benzothiazepines derivatives were prepared from chalcone (2a-f) which was prepared from the reaction of 2-acetyl napthofuran (1) with 4-substituted aromatic aldehydes by ClaisenSchmidt condensation reaction. Substituted chalcones (2a-f) was treated with 2-aminothiophenol and piperidine in presence of ethanol to give the corresponding benzothiazepine derivatives (3a-f). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by their IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral analyses. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.
388 Review on modification of sulphated polysaccharide with special reference to chlorophycean seaweeds, Ajay Sharma1, Hardik Bhatt2 and Gayatri Prasad1,2*
Modification of polysaccharides including the sulphated ones with special reference to chlorophycean seaweeds, commonly known as green seaweeds.. Polysaccharides have been proposed as the first biopolymers to have formed on earth1 Active research on the modification of the basic polysaccharide are under way in various labs to explore the possibility of application in newer fields such as in physicochemical, biochemical, biomedical and industrial applications Horton2; Aspinall3; Kotechkov4; Fang et al.5; Mormann and Michel6; Jerez et al.7). There are several reviews and research articles in the literature on the sulphated polysaccharides (Percival and McDowell8; Siddhanta and Shanmugam9; Siddhanta and Sai Krishna Murthy10; Siddhanta et al.11; Siddhanta et al.12; Shanmugam and Mody13) of which some are on chlorophycean seaweed polysaccharides (Siddhanta and Shanmugam9; Siddhanta et al.10; Lahaye et al.14; Lahaye et al.15). Modification of polysaccharides can also be done by chemical or physical means.
389 Physico - Chemical Characteristics of Dye Effluent & Ground Water Samples in Karur District, Tamil Nadu, India, T. Marimuthu1*, S.Rajendran2,3 , M. Manivannan4, R. Nagalakshmi5 and N. Karthiga6
Chemical Characteristic of the ground water quality at Chinnandankovil in Karur City, Tamil Nadu, India was carried out during September to November 2008. Two water samples from dye effluent industry and Eight Bore well water samples representing study area were collected and almost of all the samples values were within the permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) prescribed for drinking water standards pH 7.72 to 9.2, total dissolved solids (TDS) 310 to 6850 mg/L , Electrical conductivity (EC) 361 to 9800 micro mho/cm, phenolphthalein alkalinity (PA) range 20 to 130 mg/L, Totalalkalinity (TA) 127 to 730 mg/L, Total hardness (TH) 113 to 934 mg/L, chloride 37 to 3375 mg/L, Ca 27 to 192 mg/L, Mg 11 - 143 mg/L, Na 336 to 846 mg/L, K 18.4 to 30.1 mg /L, Fe 0.11 to 2.28 mg/L, free ammonia 0.47 0.57 mg/L, Nitrite 0.01 0.54 mg /L, Nitrate 1 14 mg /L, Sulphate 10- 247 mg /L, Fluoride 0.0 - 2.2 mg/L, Phosphate 0.02 to 0.28 mg /L, Tidys test (as O mg/L) 0.4 78 mg /L, dissolved oxygen (DO) 2.8 to 4.1 mg/L, biological oxygen demand (BOD) 81 to 234 mg/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 216 to 700 mg/L. However further it will need proper monitoring of the ground water quality in the study area.
390 Solar Desalination Using Zinc Oxide as Photocatalyst, Manisha Sindal1, Narendra Singh2 and Ajay Sharma1*
Water and energy are two of the most important topics on the international environment and development agenda. The social and economic health of the modern world depends on sustainable supply of both energy and water. Many areas worldwide that suffer from fresh water shortage are increasingly dependent on desalination as a highly reliable and non-conventional source of fresh water. So, desalination market has greatly expanded in recent decades and expected to continue in the coming years. The integration of renewable energy resources in desalination and water purification is becoming increasingly attractive. This is justified by the fact that areas of fresh water shortages have plenty of solar energy and these technologies have low operating and maintenance costs. The present paper contains the effect of photocatalyst like zinc oxide (ZnO), on the rate of production of distilled water and its quality was made and it was found that the rate of production of desalinated water increased to a remarkable extent. A comparative study of different parameters like pH, conductivity, concentration anions and cations, etc. was made between raw water and desalinated water under these condition.
391 Phase Transfer Catalysed Synthesis of Mixed Carboxylic- Sulphonic Anhydrides, Rajendra Mathur
Mixed carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides have long been used for various synthetic applications. Synthesis of these mixed anhydrides can be brought about by combination of various simple organic reactions. However, conventional multistep organic synthesis as is commonly known to involve cumbersome recovery and purification processes. Moreover, use of different nature of substrate-reagents involves either heterogeneous reaction system or to use an appropriate solvent which is often responsible for very slow reaction progress. The study here reports phase transfer catalysts (PTC), well established catalysts to facilitate multi0phase reactions.
392 Phase Transfer Catalysed Synthesis of Mixed Carboxylic- Sulphonic Anhydrides, Rajendra Mathur
Mixed carboxylic-sulphonic anhydrides have long been used for various synthetic applications. Synthesis of these mixed anhydrides can be brought about by combination of various simple organic reactions. However, conventional multistep organic synthesis as is commonly known to involve cumbersome recovery and purification processes. Moreover, use of different nature of substrate-reagents involves either heterogeneous reaction system or to use an appropriate solvent which is often responsible for very slow reaction progress. The study here reports phase transfer catalysts (PTC), well established catalysts to facilitate multi0phase reactions.
393 Evaluation of Selenium in Soils of Kogi State - Nigeria, 1A.D. Oklo, 2R. ShaAto & 1K. Asemave
Samples of Soils of Lower Benue river Basin Development Authority Project sites of Kogi States were obtained and their selenium status determined using UV Spectrophotometric method at 520 nm wavelengths. From the results, the range of the concentrations of selenium of these locations were; 0.071 0.904, 0.074 0.295, 0.011 0.172 for locations A, B and C respectively. On average the results were; 0.172, 0.131, 0.085 representing A, B and C respectively. Sample no. 9 of Oguma (A) location has high concentration of selenium (Se) that portends toxicity because it has concentration exceeding the standard level of 0.5mg/kg. And the rest were below the deficiency threshold of 0.15mg/kg in Lower Benue project sites in Oguma (Bassa L.G.A.), Kogi State. All the samples in Ejule Ojebe location (B) were deficient in selenium except samples no. 1, 2 and 4. Lower Benue project sites in Kogi State, Ofarachi (Idah L.G.A.) location (C) have concentrations of selenium lower than the 0.15mg/kg except sample no. 3. In a nutshell, these soil samples analyzed indicated low levels of Se. This will have direct link to the bioavailability of selenium in the area.
394 Nature and effect of dye sensitizer in solar energy conversion and storage in Photogalvanic Cell: Brilliant Green - Ascorbic acid - ALES System, Syed Shadaab Nadeem*, R.K. Gunsaria and Ram Narayan Meena
Solar energy conversion through Photogalvanic effect and its storage by using photogalvanic cell was studied in Brilliant Green - Ascorbic acid - ALES System. The ascorbic acid as a reductant, Brilliant Green as dye sensitizer and Ammonium Lauryl Ether Sulphate as surfactant in aqueous solution. The photopotential and photocurrent generated were 611.0 mV and 720.0 ?A respectively. The observed power of the cell was 262.40 ?W at its power point. The conversion efficiency and fill factor was determined as 2.52% and 0.29 respectively. The cell performance was 180.0 min. in dark. A mechanism for the Photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. The effects of different parameters on the electrical output of the cell and current-voltage (i- V) characteristics of the cell were studied.
395 BF3- Etherate Mediated Cyclization Reaction of Cholecalceferol, Sultanat* and M.Mushfiq
We have investigated the cyclisation behaviour of sterols such as cholecalciferol (1), cholecalciferol acetate (2) and cholecalciferol chloride (3) with BF3 etherate using Diels- Alder reaction which provides direct access to the cyclized derivatives 4-6 in good to excellent yield. It presents a novel intramolecular reaction catalysed by boron trifluoride etherate and broadens the scope of application.The easy work-up, higher yields and shorter reaction time is the advantages of the method presented here.
396 Cyclopeptide Alkaloids of Zizyphus Rugosa, Jagdish P. Singh, Siddarth Raghubanshi and AbhimanyuYadava
Threecyclopeptidealkaloids,Nummularine-M, Nummularine-N and Rugosanine- C has been isolated from the root bark Zizyphusrugosa and their structures were established by spectral avidences. This is the first report of Nummularine-M and Nummularine-N in Z.rugosa. Rugosanine-C is a new 14-membered cyclopeptide alkaloid.
397 Adsorption and Inhibitive Efficacy of Tamanu Oil Extract on Brass (Cu-40Zn) in acid media, P. Deepa Rani and S. Selvaraj
The inhibitive efficacy of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil on brass (Cu- 40Zn) in 1N Hydrochloric acid environment is carried out by using mass loss measurements. Experiments are performed by varying immersion period, inhibitor concentration and temperature. The value of corrosion rate is significantly reduced in addition of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil in acid media and compared with those in the inhibitor free solution. The inhibition efficiency is increased with increase of inhibitor concentration but decreased with rise in temperature and exposure time. Corrosion inhibition may be due to the spontaneous physical adsorption of the main active plant constituents on the surface of brass. Experimental data fitted with the Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. The corrosion product on the metal surface in the presence and absence of inhibitor is analysed by UV and FTIR spectral studies. The active complex formed on the metal surface in the presence of inhibitor is also confirmed by XRD studies.
398 Synthesis and Study of Complexation reaction of a newly synthesized Ligand ((E)-1-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4- phenylthiosemicabazide) with some Transition Metal Ions in Acetonitrile Solution, Naser Samadi*and Marzie Ahari Salmasi
The synthesis and Complexation properties of a new substituted coumarin derivetive, towards certain transition metal ions, (M, where M = Ni, cd, Zn, Cu) in acetonitrile has been reported in this work. The stoichiometries of complexes were determined using UV- Visible spectroscopy studies. The stability constants of complexes were influenced by parameters such as the type of metal, ligand, counter ion or solvent. The formation constants of the complexes were determined for the synthesized ligand with several metallic cations, in acetonitrile solution by UV - Visible spectrometry.
399 Charge Transfer Complexes of Recently Synthesized Mixed AzaThia Crown Ether and Pyridine Based Mixed AzaThia Crown Ether with Iodine and DDQ in Chloroform Solution, Naser Samadia*and Mahsa Rahimi Sadrb
The interaction of two recently synthesized mixed azathia crown ether 1,7- dithia10-aza-12-crown-4, and pyridine based mixed azathia crown ether with iodine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) have been examined in chloroform. Thermodynamics of these reactions are studied spectrophotometrically, and the formation of both 1:1 and 2:1 ([L]/[I2]) and [L]/[DDQ] complexes with iodine and DDQ was established. The complex formation constants Kf were determined by computer fitting of the absorbance-mol ratios data. Formation of the CT complexes of macrocycles with iodine and DDQ was confirmed by NMR and IR spectroscopies.
400 Effect of Chaotropic Agents on Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria, 1Ananda Vardhan Hebbani, 1Roopasri Ranganatha, 1Radhika Karal Nair, 1Divya Puttaswamappa, and 2John Barnabas
Inorganic and organic chaotropic agents were analyzed for their effects on pathogenic bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 a Gram positive species and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 a Gram negative species, with an objective to understand these effects on the variable membrane configurations and permeability properties that exists among their cell walls and membranes respectively. The studies revealed the extent of bacterial lysis that amplified with rise in concentrations of chaotropic agents, in a time dependent mode. Furthermore, findings proved that, the inorganic chaotropic agents had shown a higher efficacy against Gram-positive species while the organic chaotropic agents demonstrated a higher efficacy against Gramnegative species. The findings revealed, specific type of chaotropic agents affects specific Gram nature of bacteria. This paves way for dimensional understanding of the susceptibility of biological membranes towards specific chaotropic agents.
401 Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Levocetirizine and Ambroxol in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form, Jyostna S.Patil*, Chandan R. Rane, Radhika D.Ingale
Three methods for simultaneous estimation of Levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEVC) and Ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) in combined solid dosage forms have been developed. The methods employ the application of simultaneous equation, the absorbance ratio (Q-analysis) and Area under curve methods. All these methods utilize 0.1M HCl as a solvent. LEVC shows maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 231 nm and AMB at 245 nm, where the linearity ranges for LEVC and AMB were 3-30 ?g/ ml and 5-50 ?g/ ml, respectively. Determination of ratio of absorbance at 245nm, the maximum absorption of AMB and isobestic wavelength 239 nm, the linearity ranges for LEVC and AMB were 5- 50 ?g / ml and 5- 50 ?g / ml, respectively. The third method depends on the application of area under the curve at selected wavelength range, 228-234 nm and 242-248 nm for LEVC and AMB, respectively. The linearity ranges for LEVC and AMB were 3-30 ?g/ ml and 5-50 ?g/ ml .The procedures were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both the drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and in commercial capsule preparation. The accuracy of the methods was assessed by recovery studies and was found to be 99.64% 0.00522 and 99.25% 0.02006 for the simultaneous equation method, 99.38% 0.00363 and 99.28% 0.01886 for the graphical absorbance ratio method and 99.61% 0.06262 and 99.81% 0.01191 for the area under curve method, for LEVC and AMB respectively.
402 Investigation of Inter polymer Complexation between Carbopol 974 P and Different Grades of Polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Effects on Swelling Properties, Adhesion Strength and Release Rate, Jyostna S.Patil*, Chandan R.Rane, Yashvant Chikte
The main purpose of this work was to investigate interpolymer complexation between carbopol 974P and different grades of polyvinylpyrrolidone (K25,K30,K90,VA/S-630)by studying their water retaining capacity, apparent density, conductivity, pH, FTIR, swelling properties, adhesion strength and release rate.Interpolymer complexation obtained between CP and all PVP grades but most expressively with PVP K90, maximum amount of fresh and dried CP-PVP K90 complex obtained at a weight ratio of 1:1.the water retaining capacity of all CP-PVP K90 complexes were above 90%. Increased in CP concentration caused decreased in pH with increase in conductivity for all CP-PVP complexes and apparent density of the CP-PVP K90 filtrate was lowest.IR spectrum of the CP-PVP K90 complex is similar to that of PVP K90. Means CP has interacted with PVP K90.disc of physical mixture of CP-PVP K90 swelled progressively and reached after 18-25 hr. Adhesion strength was correlated with concentration of CP. Nevertheless, adhesion strength of CP-PVP K90 complex was lower than the physical mixture of the pure polymers. Interpolymer complexation was most conspicuous between CP and PVP K90.
403 Cold Resistance in Wheat and its Related Species, Dan Peng1, Yue Jiang1, Ying Yi1, Feng-Zhen Li2, Li-Ping Bai1, Xiao-Gang Ma3, Hui Ma1, Ming Zhong1, Zhi-Fu Guo1*
The low-temperature as one of abiotic stresses is important factor to affect wheat acreage and production. Wheat adaptation to environmental stresses is dependent upon the activation of cascades of molecular networks involved in stress perception, signal transduction and the expression of specific cold stress-related genes.Wheat and its related species have cold stress-specific adaptive responses as well as responses which protect the wheat and its related species from cold environmental stress.In this review, we first introducethe physiological and biaochemical changes of wheat and its related species in low-temperature, and then we expound their responses for cytobiology in cold stress. Finally, the genes regulated cold resistance are described and discussed for the function and the mechanism in wheat and related species.
404 Preparation of Rotavirus Culture and Quantification assays for the Vaccine Production and its role in Vaccination, M. Padmavathi
When a new disease arises to health threat the scientists, doctors and health workers recognized the need for a new way to prevent the disease. The organism or toxin that causes damage to health or illness they pursue a number of approaches to develop a vaccine. One such organism is Rotavirus which infects human health especially young children and a pathogen of livestock that cause acute gastroenteritis. Millions of people become severely ill due to this pathogen. Rotavirus vaccine helps to prevent this illness. The present study describes the isolation, preparation of the Rotavirus culture and quantified by different assays and the role of Rotavirus vaccine helps to treat the infections for saving lives of children in future.
405 Endo-Parasitic Helminths of Two Dominating Species of Family Clariidae, Hitender Singh1, Pinky Kaur*, Rekha Shrivastav2, Kamlesh Borana1, Susan Manohar1 and T. A. Qureshi1
Present study conducted to investigate the parasitic load in two dominant species of Clariidae, namely Clarias batrachus and Clarias gariepinus. Out of 20 specimens of C. batrachus were examined, 8 were found infected with helminth parasites. Whereas, four out of 22 specimens of C. gariepinus found infected. The maximum prevalence (40 percentage) showed by C. batrachus while 18.18 percentage was shown by C. gariepinus. As maximum number of parasites recovered from C. batrachus. Between both species, the maximum intensity of 1.125 and 1.0 was recorded by C. batrachus and C. gariepinus, respectively. The recorded values of relative abundance are 0.45 and 0.181 for C. batrachus and C. gariepinus, respectively. Cestodes showed maximum prevalence as it occurs in both the host fishes.
406 Heterogeneity in Honeybees Populations of India Reveled by RAPD Analysis, M.Shivashankar1, N.M.Guruprasad2, 3 and N.Chandan1*
Honeybees are agricultural, ecological and economically important insect. Honeybees produce honey and are an important pollinator of agricultural crops. In the present investigation, an attempt had been made to understand the genetic diversity in different Indian population of honeybee by using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. The four Indian honeybee population viz., Apis florae, A.cerana, A.dorsata and A.mellilferagenerated 124 distinct bands, out of which 84 bands (67.7%) were polymorphic and 60 bands (48.3%) were monomorphic respectively. Further, a dendogram generated by UPGMA method, which divides the colonies into two groups according to their origin. These results clearly indicated evidence of genetic diversity in the selected Indian honeybee populations.This study expands the scope for further studyof microevolution and several fitness benefits on honeybee for commercial exploitation.
407 The Prevalence of ? Thalassemia in the Department of Pediatric, Regional Hospital of Vlore. 2007 -2011, Vitori Hasani, Emirjona Kiaj. Rudina erizaj, Sonila Golemi, and Emiljana Coraj
Thalassemia is a group of inherited diseases, which characterized by a genetic defect of haemoglobin synthesis. Thalassemia is a recensive autosomal disease and to appear its signs to a child, both parents must be carriers of this disease. Our aim is to be determined the number of patients with ? major/ intermedia/ minor Thalassemia for the patients of paediatric age in order to be programmed effective prevention programs. The objective of this research paper is to be determined the number of patients with ? major/ intermedia/ minor Thalassemia for the patients of paediatric age.
408 Application of exogenous proline to improve the seawater tolerance among Egyptian and Saudi wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during early growth stages., Omar Abdel-Hakeem Almaghrabi1 and EhabMohamed Rabei Metwali1&2*
An experiment was conducted to assess the ameliorative effect of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, on growth of four Egyptian genotypes (Masr1, Sakha93, Sed12, Giza168) and other four Saudi genotypes (Madini, Yamanei, kassemi, Taboki) growing under salinity stress. One week old seedling were subjected to different concentrations of diluted seawater at (3000 and 6000 ppm) supplied or not with exogenous proline at 2.00 mM and 4.00 mM. Partitioning of leaf area, water amount, degree of leaf succulence, degree of leaf sclerophyll and shoot distribution were investigated. All traits, except degree of leaf sclerophyll, decreased with salt stress in all genotypes, and the decreases being more pronounced in Sed12 and Taboki, while Sakha9, Masr1 and Madini were less effective. Applied of proline at higher level (4.00mM) was found to more effective to ameliorate the adverse effect of seawater at both levels (3000 and 6000 ppm) than lower level of proline (2.00mM) at the same levels of seawater treatments. In contrast leaf area, water amount, degree of leaf sclerophyll can use as selectable parameters to distinguish among tolerant and sensitive genotypes under seawater stress.
409 Optimization of process parameters for sensory evaluation of idly preparation by Guargums as stablizer, E.Krishnaprabakaran and T.Viruthagiri
The present work is focused on the sensory quality of idly produced by guar gum. The parameters like: pH (4-6), temperature (10-500C), fermentation time (0-12 hrs) and guar gum (0-0.2%) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The design contains a total of 31 experimental runs involving replications of the central points in a randomized factorial design and organized. Data obtained from RSM on idly batter preparation were subjected to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. Sensory analysis for color, taste, aroma and texture in the idly batter preparation were performed. The optimum parameters compositions for the best sensory score of the four outputs were: pH 4.54 temperature 30.60C Fermentation time12.4hrs and guar gum 0.09% idly batter preparation under the optimum conditions was subjected to evaluation of sensory values and the results were compared with the RSM predictions.
410 Fisheries Resources of Kashmir: A case study of River Jhelum, Ajmair Singh Sodhi, J.D.Saroch and Jyoti Verma
The Kashmir is world famous for its scenic beauty and charm. It is blessed with the loftiest mountains, lush green meadows and rich aquatic resources. The water resources of Kashmir include Indias largest fresh water Wular lake, world famous Dal lake, mighty river Jhelum, besides innumerable streams and springs. The valley of Kashmir has a total water spread area of about 32765.3 hectares which constitutes about 2% of the total area of Kashmir. The River Jhelum is considered as the life line of the Kashmir. Its origin is from a spring known as Verinag at the foot of Pir Panjal range in the south Kashmir and travels a distance of about 724 km before merging into Chenab River in Pakistan. It passes through the major districts of Kashmir valley before crossing line of control (LOC) and entering into POK (Pakistan occupied Kashmir). River Jhelum has dozen of tributaries distributed in both India and Pakistan. River Jhelum harbors different varieties of fish that include Trout, Schizothorax, Mahseer and Carps. The river Jhelum has been a source of livelihood for many fishermen living in the vicinity of river Jhelum. Due to different anthropogenic activities, the fish production of river Jhelum has taken a declining trend and demands the immediate conservational measures. In the present paper the authors gives an account of the features along river Jhelum, its fish fauna, fishing activities, fish catch and composition.
411 Analysis of Household Demand for Beef in Owerri Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria, C. O. A. Ugwumba1* and J. A. L. Effiong2
This study examined household demand for beef in Owerri Metropolis of Imo State, Nigeria. Purposive, multistage and random sampling techniques were used to select 200 household heads as respondents. Data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and analyzed by means of multiple regression. Findings showed that product price, household heads disposable income, family size, age of household head, and price of iced fish, a close substitute for beef, statistically and significantly influenced the demand for beef. Demand for beef was price inelastic, implying that consumers were reluctant to forgo the consumption of beef. Estimated income elasticity coefficient was positive and between zero and one, making beef a normal good here. Price cross elasticity coefficient between beef and iced fish was positive and significant, suggesting that the consumers perceived iced fish as a close substitute for beef. Curtailing frequent and piecemeal removal of petroleum products subsidies to stop sudden hikes of products prices, hence prices of food items, is suggested. Periodic wage reviews to mitigate rising household budgets due to inflationary trends would stabilize the demand for beef and sustain its consumption.
412 Histological changes in the testis of air-breathing fish, Heteropnuestes fossilis (Bloch) following Cadmium chloride exposure, Shivani Sharma1, Vipin Vyas2 , Sadhna Tamot3 and Susan Manhor1
The present study was carried out to evaluate the sub-lethal effect of Cadmium chloride in the testis of the air-breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis which were kept in aqueous solution of Cadmium chloride of two sub-lethal concentrations of 6mg/l and 9mg/l for 15, 30 and 45 days. The histo-pathological effect of Cadmium chloride in testis is characterized by regression after 15 days of 6mg/l exposure and spermatozoa in the lobules showed cytolysis after 30 days. After 45 days the seminiferous tubules get vacuolated and dilated. In 9mg/l concentration after 15 days, the components of testicular architecture disorganized and germinal epithelium was disrupted, whereas seminiferous tubules get vacuolated after 30 days and after 45 days extensive damage to germinal epithelium, necrotic cells, connective tissues and atrophic and prominent vacoulation was recorded.
413 Bioactive molecules and their Anti-oxidant activity of Agaricus bisporus, J.Sankara Rao1*, K.Ravi Kumar1, Venkat Kartheek Vale 1, Prithvi Prasad Yarlagadda2, S.Vijaya Saradhi, 2
White button mushroom (species Agaricus bisporus), cultivation increased throughout the world during the last few decades. Its popularity increased due to its ease of cultivation, high yield potential and high nutritional value. Mycochemical analysis of Agaricus bisporus extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, tannins, steroidal glycosides and carbohydrates. Ethanolic extracts of the mushrooms, screened for possible antioxidant activity by four complementary test systems, namely DPPH free radical scavenging, ?- carotene/linoleic acid systems, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid concentration revealed antioxidant activity in Agaricus bisporus. The species are edible and can be used as dietary intake for immune enhancement due to their anti-oxidant activity.
414 An Insilico Investigation on Serpinc1 from Homo Sapiens, Maheswara Reddy Mallu*, Srinivasa Reddy Ronda and Sandeep Vemula
The SERPINC1 gene belongs to a family of genes called SERPIN (serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitors). The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and a member of the serpin superfamily. This protein inhibits thrombin as well as other activated serine proteases of the coagulation system, and it regulates the blood coagulation cascade. This is an attempt to know the molecular information of SERPINC1 gene & its coded protein molecule like composition, primers, peptide coded by gene, protein structure and the posttranslational modifications. The exploration of SERPINC1 gene reveals that, the SERPINC1 is a 1599 base pair pyramidine rich sequence with a molecular weight of 971.839 KDa (dsDNA). It has seven ORFs & 8 restriction sites for cloning. The primary structure is stable and slightly acidic in nature. Secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, alpha helix beta sheet and betaturn. The gene contains both left & right primers and a Hybridoligo probe. Posttranslational modification studies predicted 28 phosphorylation sites (for Serine, Threonine & Tyrosine), 4 net NGlycosylation sites in the encoded protein of SERPINC1.
415 Deriving safe concentration and no observed effective concentration to Arsenic from Penaeus monodon, J.S.I Rajkumar
The post-larval stages of Penaeus monodon was exposed to arsenic in acute toxicity test to study the toxic effects on mortality and to derive the safe concentration and no observed effective concentration to protect juveniles from arsenic pollution. The 96-hour LC50 value was 1.13mg/l, safe concentration was 11.3?g/l and no observed effect concentration was 2.3?g/l. The concentration derived from the study would definitely provide a safety environment against arsenic pollution. Keeping in mind the less use age of animals in the laboratory for toxicity testing, the software used in the present study will have a better dealing in predicting the safe concentration and no observed effect concentration for easy propagation of juvenile marine organisms in the wild and estuarine as specific
416 Causative Factors of Pediatric Obesity and Interventions to Combat Obesity Among School Children at Madurai, Tamilnadu, G.G. Kavitha Shree, S. Parvathi and J.Pushpa
In a study the prevalence of overweight was 84 per cent and obesity was 16 per cent in the selected children. It found that prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in girls when compared to boys. The study reveals that there was a significant relation between body mass index of the children and body mass index of their mothers. The findings indicated that majority of the children belonged to high family income group. There was a significant and positive relationship between Body Mass Index, Waist Hip Ratio and Waist circumference in the selected children. It found that one per cent increase in waist hip ratio would contribute 34.6 per cent of BMI in children and one-centimeter increase in waist circumference would increase 0.11 per cent BMI in children. Regarding eating habits of the selected children, 88 per cent of the children were non-vegetarians. Majority of the children (94.7%) preferred to take food outside. It found that children preferred to take foods in fast food restaurants and foods on wheel. About 85.3 per cent of the children were taking snack foods, 68 per cent of the children were consuming beverages and ice creams and 69.3 per cent of the children were taking bakery products while eating out. Majority (60%) of the children informed that they were taking snacks twice in a day. It found that children take fried foods(81.3%), bakery products (73.3%), sweets (66.7%) fast food items (89.3%) and softened beverages (56%) daily. It found that only 13.3 per cent of the children were taking raw vegetables and fruits daily. It was found that 69.3 per cent of the children preferred to share snacks from friends and 82 per cent of the children preferred snacks advertised through medias. Majority of the children (89.3%) were taking snacks while watching television. Majority (50.7%) of the children were spending 2-3 hours and 49.3 per cent of the children were spending 4-5 hours in watching television, computers and playing video games. It observed that 81.3 per cent of the children were not doing any exercises. There was a significant (t-7.22) retention in knowledge after 15 days in children. The results indicated that the parents had significant (t-25.05) gain in knowledge and significant retention (t-2.76) in knowledge after 15 days to the exposure of education programme through the developed compact disc.
417 In Vitro Callus Induction from Stem Explants of Cissus Quadrangularis L. (Hadjod), * Teware Kalpana 1. Singh Pratibha 2 and Mehta Rakesh 3
Stem explant of Cissus quadrangularis L., belongs to vitaceae family were cultured on MS media supplemented with 2,4D, NAA, IBA. Callus formation on the surface of stems on high and low concentrations of NAA alone and combined with BAP, stimulated the callus induction. However, concentrations of IBA used here, inhibited Shoot induction. Induced Callus is used for the study of secondary metabolite. Within 90 to 120 days of the culture it showed growth up to 90 %. Aim of this study is to enhance the phytochemical after applying tissue culture technique.
418 Determination of DPPH free radical scavenging oxidation effects of methanolic leaf extracts of some Indian medicinal plant species., Ashokkumar R* and M. Ramaswamy
The objective is to determine the hydrogen donating radical scavenging potential of methanolic leaf extracts of 4 selected medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis (Family: Euphorbiaceae), Senna auriculata (Family: Caesalpiniaceae) Solanum torvum (Family: Solanaceae). The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. The concentrations of 15?l to75?l of methanol leaf extracts of Phyllanthus amarus, Senna auriculata, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and Solanum torvum showed strong inhibitory activity ranges (against DPPH) such as 26%-73%, 18%-55%, 23%-71% and 23%-51% respectively which indicated strong free radical scavenging (hydrogen donating) potential of the methanol extracts. Based on the observed the IC50 values, it was concluded that the P.amarus showed highest scavenging potential (0.045?g/ml) followed by P. maderaspatensis (0.05?g/ml), S.auriculata (0.067?g/ml) and lowest potential by S.torvum (0.073?g/ml).
419 Comparative study on the antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of four selected Indian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium restrictum, Ashokkumar R* and M. Ramaswamy
The antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of four selected medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus amarus Schumach&Thonn, Senna auriculata(L.)Roxb. (?Cassia auriculata L), Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L, and Solanum torvum Sw. were studied against four microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium restrictum. A perusal of results on the antimicrobial effects of leaf extracts of the four plants (prepared in 4 different solvents) indicated that the magnitude of antimicrobial effects was higher in ME extracts followed by EA and CF whereas the least antimicrobial activity was observed in PE extract.
420 The Effect on Male Reproductive Function and Fertility, In the Ethanolic Extract of Parkinsonia Aculeata, Priyanka Sharma*, Radhey Kant Sharma and Vipin Kumar Singh
To evaluate the effect on male reproductive function and fertility, in the ethanolic extract of Parkinsonia aculeata was administered orally. The body weight remain unaffected but the weight of reproductive organs were decreased significantly after the treatment, significant suppression of cauda epididymal, sperm count and motility was observed. Fertility was decreased in this by 70%. The testicular cell population i.e. primary spermatocytes (preleptotene, pachytene) and secondary spermatocytes were significantly reduced by 61.34%, 76.20% and 80.69%, respectively. A significantly decline was noticed in seminiferous tubular diameter.
421 Body weight and length in neonates of Swiss mice exposed to lead and vitamins, Ragini Sharma, Khushbu Panwar*and Isha Barber
The major concern about lead exposure during pregnancy lies in the possibility of adverse effects on the development of fetus. The present study was accomplished to evaluate the lead toxicity on body weight and length in lead exposed pups after birth during neonatal period. Mice neonates during developmental period from birth to 21st day of weaning on specific days viz. 1, 7, 14 and 21st day were examined to record the changes in body weights and crown to rump length. Lead acetate was administered via oral gavaging at 266 mg/kg/bodyweight, 533 mg/kg/bodyweight and 1066 mg/kg/bodyweight to pregnant Swiss mice from 10th day of gestation to 21st day of lactation. Correspondingly vitamin C and vitamin E were administered at 166 mg/kg/bodyweight and 133 mg/kg/bodyweight alone and in combination with lead. Lead suppresses the body weights and crown to rump length of neonates significantly in all experimental groups. Interestingly significant increase was detected in body weights and crown to rump length in vitamin C and E treated neonates. However the antioxidants treatment along with lead did not balanced the altered growth status of neonates at different postnatal stages during neonatal life.
422 A new species of genus Cyana Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Lithosiinae) from India, Jagbir Singh Kirti1, Rahul Joshi2,* & Navneet Singh3
A new species, Cyana pseudoeffracta sp. nov. is described from Meghalaya (India). In addition to, external genitalic structures of three other species viz., C. quadrinotata (Walker), C. bellissima (Moore) and C. harterti (Elwes) are described. An updated checklist of Indian species of Cyana Walker is also given.
423 Status of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Lassi, 1Y.D. Deshmukh ,3Shraddha Bajaj, 2A.L. Shirfule and 1Supriya Beedkar
Storage studies were carried out for lactic count of Lassi stored at 37 20C and 7 10C. At storage temperature 37 20C, the Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count found in decreasing order at 8th day in control sample, whereas the thermised lassi (L65) was observed to cause about four log cycle reduction in LAB, while the survivor of Lactic bacteria where still lower in Lassi subjected to thermization at higher temperature (L70), The product stored at 7 1c, the control sample found about 1.7 log cycle reduction compared to initial count on 15th day of storage and then tended to increase marginally up to 30th, whereas LAB count found slight increase after 15th days onwards till 35th day for the L70 product.
424 Effects of stocking density on hematological parameters, growth and survival rate of Caspian Roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) larvae, Sohrab Ahmadivand1*, Soheil Eagderi2, Mohammad Reza Imanpour3
Hematological parameters and growth performance are considered as indicators to determine the response of fish to different environmental conditions. Stocking density in aquaculture is one of the important stressors that can effect on these indicators. This study was conducted to determine the impact of different stocking density on the hematological parameters, growth performance and survival rate of Caspian Roach larvae as well as to determine its appropriate stocking density. In total, 540Caspian Roach larvae with average weight of 0.3270.02 g were introduced to 30 liter tanks in stocking density of 1, 2 and 3 larvae per liter with three replicates. The experiment was carried out in completely random design. Results showed significant differences in growth performance including weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate between the three treatments (P0.05). Based on the result of this study optimum stocking density of one larva per liter is suggested.
425 Comparison of microscopic, macromorphological and aflatoxin producing capabilities of Aspergillus species associated with rhizosphere of groundnut (A. hypogaea L.), Manjusha Chakranarayan*and Anita Pati
The role of laboratory in the identification has gained greater attention as the incidence of fungal infection is increased. The objective of the study was to isolate the aflatoxin producing Aspergillus species from the rhizosphere of groundnut. Identification of the Aspergillus species was done on the basis of morphological methods including; microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. Ten standard species of Aspergillus namely A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, A. repens, A. fumigatus, A. kanagawaensis, A. ochraceus, A. sydowi, A. terreus and A. nidulans and were isolated and characterized. Rapid detection of aflatoxin production was carried out by using coconut agar medium. The colonies were detected under long-wave UV light by the blue-green fluorescence on the reverse side after 2 to 5 days of growth. Further the aflatoxin production capacity was screened using thin layer chromatographic technique. Depending upon the intensity of bands on TLC plates A. flavus and A. parasiticus were found to be highly aflatoxigenic and produce aflatoxin B1 on Richard liquid medium in the range of 966.66-266.66 ?g/kg respectively. Quantitation of aflatoxin was done by using quantitative TLC, which was based on the comparison of the fluorescent intensity of the sample spot with standard spot. While all the other species are non-aflatoxigenic strains.
426 Dependence of Emissive Properties on Incident Angles for Tree Leaves Studied At Microwave Frequencies, D. V. Ahire* and P. R. Chaudhari
Experimental results on the complex dielectric constant of tree leaves at Xband microwave frequencies (9.3, 10.5 and 11.2 GHZ) are reported. Leaves from two tree species viz., Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Acacia indica (Babool), have been used in these measurements. Our results indicate that dielectric constant (?') for the leaves of Azadirachta indica lie over a range 1.25 to 7.0 when their gravimetric MC (%) (wet basis) changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 65 % and for the leaves of Acacia indica lie over a range 1.25 to 7.6 when their gravimetric moisture content (wet basis) changed from 0 % (oven dry) to around 72 %. The corresponding values of dielectric loss (?'') for the leaves of both tree species are also found to increase with increase in their MC. Further, the estimations of emissivity at different incident angles are made from the experimentally measured values of dielectric constants of these tree leaves by using emissivity model for vertical and horizontal polarizations. It is concluded that the emissivity of tree leaves decreases with increasing MC / dielectric constants for both vertical and horizontal polarizations. For same values of MC (%), the emissivity for leaves of both the tree species increases for vertical polarization as the angle of incidence is increased whereas for horizontal polarization, its value decreases with increase in angle of incidence. These results on the complex dielectric constants and emissivities for tree leaves at microwave frequencies have potential applications in remote sensing and mobile and other communications at GHz range.
427 Estimation of the Scattering Coefficient and Emissivity of Red Soils at X- And C Band Microwave Frequencies, Avinash Patil, D. V. Ahire* and P. R. Chaudhari
The soil is characterized by its physical constituents like sand, silt and clay. The electrical parameters that are important for soil are its dielectric constant, emissivity and scattering coefficient. The dielectric constant of wet soil mainly depends on amount of water present in it. In the present study, measurements of dielectric constant of red soil samples are made by using automated microwave set-up operating at X-band (9.2 GHz) and C-band (5.1 GHz) frequencies. These red soil samples are collected from two different locations situated in the North Maharashtra and Konkan areas of Maharashtra (India). The scattering coefficient is estimated using perturbation model for slightly rough surface for both (VV and HH) polarization and for different angles of incidence. The values of estimated scattering coefficient are related to constituents of the soil. Measured values of dielectric constant are also used to estimate emissivity by using emissivity model. It is found that the emissivity decreases with increase in angle of incidence of dry red soil. The possible uses of this study in the design of passive and active remote sensors are discussed.
428 On The Existence of Affine Motions in Kaehlerian Bi-Recurrent Spaces, U.S. Negi and Kailash Gairola
Takano and Imai (1972) have studied some types of affine motion in Birecurrent spaces; Singh (1971-72) has studied Kaehlerian recurrent and Ricci-recurrent spaces of second order. Further, Singh (1984) has studied the existence of affine motion in Kaehlerian recurrent spaces. In the present paper, the authors have defined and studied the existence of affine motion in Kaehlerian Bi-recurrent spaces and several theorems have been investigated.
429 Synthesis and Electroluminescence of Manganese Activated ZnSe/PVA Nanocomposite, Nitendra Kumar Gautam1, 2, Sahid Shamim Naik1, R.K. Kuraria2, S.R. Kuraria2 and M. Ramrakhiani1
Mn doped ZnSe nanoparticles in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix were prepared by single step solution method. All the ZnSe:Mn/PVA film samples were prepared by changing PVA loading. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique was used to characterize the final product. It was found by absorption spectra that the absorption edge was shifted towards lower wavelengths with increasing loading of PVA in ZnSe:Mn/PVA nanocomposite. PVA acts as a capping agent so when there was increase in PVA loading the particles were capped and hence smaller ZnSe:Mn nanoparticles were obtained. For Electroluminescence (EL) study of ZnSe:Mn/PVA films were deposited onto the conducting glass plates and EL cells were prepared by using aluminum foil as an electrode and conducting glass plate itself acted as second electrode. The EL brightness of the cell with different PVA loading was recorded at various frequencies. EL started at threshold voltage and then EL brightness increased with the applied voltage. At any particular voltage higher brightness was obtained for smaller particle size and higher frequency. It was observed that there was linear relation between current and voltage for all samples. It was found that samples having smaller particle size shows better EL and impedance was also lower for them.
430 Electrical Conductivity and Dielectric Constant as Predictors of Chemical Properties and available Nutrients in the Soil, P. R. Chaudhari*and D. V. Ahire
The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical parameters and status of available total primary macronutrients (N+ P+ K), total secondary macronutrients (Ca+Mg) and total micronutrients (Cu+ Fe+ Mn+ Zn) in the soil from its electrical conductivity and dielectric constant. We have collected 8 samples (depth 0 - 15 cm) from different locations in North Maharashtra region. The soils were categorized as loamy sand, sandy loam and clay loam. The soils were analyzed for the chemical properties like organic carbon (OC) content, CaCO3, pH and for status of available nutrients. A pH and Electrical Conductivity of soil samples were measured by Soil Testing Kit. The dielectric constant was measured at C - band microwave frequency 4.5 GHz by using waveguide cell method. The statistical analysis of result shows high degree positive correlation of electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of soil samples with organic carbon (OC) content and available nutrients in soil samples while negative correlation with CaCO3 and pH of soil samples. Regression equations are obtained to evaluate chemical properties and status of available nutrients from electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of soil.
431 A Study on Bhageerath and Bhageerath-H Software Tools, Ch. Lakshmi Padma1*, Sreedhara R. Voleti2, A. Ranganadha Reddy1, R.K.Kishore1
Generally, to know the structure of a protein X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques are followed but in some cases such as Family B GPCRs these techniques are always not successful. So, we opt for the homology modeling techniques. There are many softwares available in the market which are both free for access and to be paid for their usage, two of those free softwares available in the market are Bhageerath and Bhageerath-H. Study of these two softwares was presented in the paper. Computational tools of SCHRDINGER software were used for molecular dynamics studies.
432 Emissivity and scattering coefficient of tree leaves at 9.5 GHz frequency, D. V. Ahire
This study presents the experimental results on the dielectric constant of leaves of two tree species at X- band microwave frequencies 9.5 GHz. Leaves from two different tree species viz., Acacia indica (Babool) and Eucalyptus (Nilgiri) have been used in these measurements. Dielectric constants of these tree leaves have been measured by using Waveguide Cell Method. These values of dielectric constants are used to estimate the emissivity and scattering coefficient of leaves of Babool and Nilgiri having different percentage Moisture Contents (MC %) at various incident angles. Estimations of emissivity are made by using emissivity model and scattering coefficient by perturbation Model. For both, vertical and horizontal polarizations, at constant value of incident angle, emissivity of tree leaves is found to decrease significantly with increase in the values of its MC (%) while their scattering coefficient increases significantly with increase in the values of its MC (%) over the range studied. The results on the dielectric constant, emissivity and scattering coefficient for tree leaves at microwave frequency have potential applications in remote sensing of forest and in mobile communications.
433 Study of dielectric properties for Uttarakhand soils at C-band frequency, D. V. Ahire
Performances of the most of sensors used in microwave remote sensing of soils depend on their dielectric properties determined at frequencies in GHz range. The most important parameter needed for this purpose is complex dielectric constant of soil sample. This study presents experimental results on the variation of dielectric constant (?'), dielectric loss (?''), a. c. conductivity and relaxation time of six different soil samples with gravimetric moisture content at 5.3 GHz frequency. For all the six soil samples, the dielectric constant (?') and dielectric loss (?'') in general, are found to increase with increase in percentage gravimetric Moisture Content (MC %). Further, our results give high degree positive and high degree negative statistical correlation coefficient for a. c. conductivity (?) and relaxation time (?) respectively with MC (%) for all the six soil samples studied.
434 Growth of metal oxide thin films by Pulsed laser deposition- Perspectives of Pulsed laser ablation mechanism, M. C. Rao
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. Pulsed operation of laser refers to any laser not classified as continuous wave, so that the optical power appears in pulses of some duration at some repetition rate. This encompasses a wide range of technologies addressing a number of different motivations. Pulsed laser deposition is a growth technique in which photonic energy is coupled to the bulk starting material via electronic processes. PLD has normally been done with either solid state or excimer lasers producing milli joule to joule pulse energies with 10 kHz to 10 Hz repetition rates, respectively. Solid state batteries using solid-electrolyte have attractive advantages compared to conventional liquid-electrolyte batteries such as lead-acid batteries or nickel-cadmium cells. PLD is a successful thin film deposition method for the preparation of epitaxial oxide films on different single crystalline substrates. The advantage of PLD is the stoichiometric transfer of complex target materials to the substrate, which can be maintained at a high temperature in a reactive atmosphere. Many new devices may be formed using such high quality single crystalline oxide thin films. This paper deals with the detailed technological aspects of PLD, deposition of different thin films using PLD and the advantages of this method.
435 Investigation of adulteration in milk samples by Linear and Mass Attenuation Coefficient by nuclear technique, Chaudhari L.M. and Girase S. B.*
The linear and mass attenuation coefficient plays an important role in agriculture, industry, science & technology, basic quality, medicines and forensics etc. Milk contains considerable amounts of constituents. For healthy nation, we need quality of food & milk. However, some antisocial elements have been adding some adulterants like water, urea, lactose powder etc. in milk sample. In the present work, we measured the linear and mass attenuation coefficient of adulterate milk sample with urea by using gamma source Na-22 at energy 511 keV and 1280 keV. The experimental values are in good arrangement and then validate absorption low.
436 NO2 - Ion in KI Crystal and its Motional States, S. S. Khatri
A number of small ions or dipolar impurities in alkali halide single crystals in low concentrations occupy substitutional positions with discrete orientations in the lattice. The tunneling motions of NO2 - ion in KI are quite complex as compared to other alkali halide hosts. A systematic study of different orientational motions of ions in solids leads to better understanding of the properties of solids containing molecular impurities.
437 An evaluation of energy gap parameters and chemical potential of BCS- BEC Crossover regime, Rajiv Kumar* and L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of C. Regal etal PRL (2004), we have studied the BCS-BEC crossover regime. We have evaluated the value of energy gap parameter and chemical potential for the crossover as a function of dimensionless parameters |KF as|-1 from BCS-theory. Our theoretical result indicates the crossover occurs in the very small region of the parameter -1< |KF as|-1
438 Wave Propagation in Compressed Materials with Reinforcement in Preferred Direction Subjected to Gravity and Initial Compression, Rajneesh Kakar*1, Manisha Gupta2, Mahinder Singh Saroa2, Kishan Chand Gupta3
The purpose of this paper is to investigate analytically the influence of gravity field, initial compression and fiber-reinforcement on surface waves (Love, Stoneley and Rayleigh) in composite materials with fiber-reinforcement in a preferred direction, normal to the direction of propagation of surface waves. The problem is being analyzed through wave propagation technique by harmonic sinusoidal motion and using Helmholtz theory of potentials for displacement vector field to study surface waves i.e. Love, Stoneley and Rayleigh waves in the neighbourhood of the interface of two semi infinite media. In the absence of gravity, initial compression and fiber-reinforcement parameters, results derived completely match with similar classical formulations. Application of harmonic analysis converts role of time factor into the frequency which has an important aspect for nondestructive dynamic testing mechanism. Inferences and analytical observations drawn show wide range of applications in industrial materials just as textile and paper industries as many of them deal composite materials with fibrous reinforcement.
439 A theoretical study and evaluation of temperature dependent mean energies of excitation of Bose-Einstein Condensates, Rajkishore Prasad1* & L. K. Mishra2
We have studied the dynamics of the collective excitation for a partially condensed harmonic trapped quasi two-dimensional bosonic gas. Using the gapless second-order theory we have evaluated the excitation energy. Our evaluated results for temperature dependent mean-energies show that the Kohn theorem is quite accurately satisfied for temperature T
440 Measurement of photon attenuation coefficient of soil samples at energy 360 keV, Chaudhari L. M* and Raje D. V.
The attenuation coefficient is an important role in agriculture research as well as in industry, forensic sciences etc. We measured the linear and mass attenuation coefficients of soil samples. The attenuation coefficient usually depends upon the energy of radiations and nature of the material. The result represented in graphical forms. This confirms the interaction of gamma radiations with soil sample of various components.
441 Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves in Twisted Triangular Waveguide with Higher Order Perturbation Terms, P. R. Chaudhari
The twisted waveguides of various cross sections are very useful in building a waveguide system and are required in many communication applications, especially in satellite communications. While designing twisted waveguides it is necessary to take care about exact position of axis and angle of twisting for proper distribution of electric and magnetic fields. So that electromagnetic waves can propagate through waveguide in the desired manner. The problem of propagation of dominant TE mode in twisted waveguide of right isosceles triangular cross-section is analyzed up to sixth order perturbation terms. The helical coordinate system is used for mathematical formulation of the problem and perturbation technique is used in obtaining the solution. The contribution of higher order terms cannot be neglected for accuracy of results. The information about the percentage contribution of higher order terms is worked out. This is useful in deciding the number of terms to be included for the expected accuracy and fixing the position of axis of twist of waveguide for propagation of electromagnetic waves without loss. It is shown that the propagation of electromagnetic waves through twisted triangular waveguide is dependent on angle of twist and on its frequency. Twisting of waveguide also affects the cutoff frequency of electromagnetic wave propagating through it.
442 Evaluation of Ground Water and Tap Water Quality in the Villages Surrounding Chuka Town, Kenya, OmbakaO1*, Gichumbi, J.M1 and Kibara, D2
This study was carried out to assess the groundwater and tap water quality of the villages around Chuka Town. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters were examined during wet and dry season. The results showed that pH, turbidity, fluoride, phosphorous, Fe, Mn, Pb, MPN of coliform organisms were above recommended levels by WHO, while the levels of the other parameters investigated were within the required levels by WHO. This reveals that people using these water sources are at a potential risk of contracting diseases. Hence a strong prevention measures are required to save the ground water and tap water from contamination.
443 Biodiesel-Renewable Fuel, Environmental Implications and Its Handling, M.Sakunthala1, V.Sridevi2*, K.Vijay kumar3 and K.Rani4
Several attempts have been made by researchers across the globe to counter the effects of the growing information related to the finite nature of the present fossil fuel reserve and the associated hazards. Biofuel has gained global popularity in this respect as a biomass based fuels that have been tipped as a timely candidate. This review strictly focuses on biodiesel of all biomass derived biofuel. Biofuel production from renewable sources is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum based fuels and a viable means for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters), which is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol, has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali-catalysis gives high levels of conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short reaction times. This process has therefore been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production in a number of countries.
444 Citric acid production from agronomic waste using Aspergillus niger isolated from decayed fruit., Sukesh K, * Jayasuni J.S, Gokul C.N and Anu V
Citric acid is one of the most commonly used organic acids in food and pharmaceutical industries. Citric acid worldwide demand is about 6.08105 ton per year. Aspergillus niger a filamentous fungus remained the organism of choice for citric acid production. In the present study citric acid production from different agronomic waste such as grapes, orange, apple, vegetable, tapioca, coconut husk was carried out using Aspergillus niger isolated from decayed fruit. Characterization of the fermentative organism was made by macroscopic and microscopic examination. On lacto phenol cotton blue staining the Aspergillus niger appeared as branched hyphae with conidial spores. Citric acid production was performed by solid state fermentation and estimated on 5th, 7th and 9th days of fermentation. Highest levels of citric acid production was noticed on 9th day of fermentation by all the six substratum than the 7th and 5th days of fermentation. Among the six substratums used higher levels of citric acid production was noticed against decayed fruit waste such as grape, orange and apple but it was low with vegetable, tapioca and coconut husk.
445 Studies on Changes in Atmospheric Microbes of Dargah and Nearby Areas during Urs Fair, Pranay Chaturvedi and Rashmi Mathur
The present study aimed at evaluating the air Microflora on the premises of Dargah and nearby areas during urs fair. This research conducted with the use of Colony Counter. The analysis revealed that during the fair, increase in human activity results in pollution of soil, water and air. This enhances the growth of microbes during the fair. Serratia and V.cholera was reported as least abundant bacteria. The highest count of the studied microorganisms was determined at Site III Kamani Gate, located between the Jhalara and Andarkot. The concentration of microorganisms was recorded before (in Sept.) during (in Oct.) and after the fair (in Nov.).The studies showed that most of the bacterial and fungal species were common between the months, but some additional species reported in the air samples of October and November.
446 Response of chrysanthemum varieties to different levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash, N. S. Joshi1, A. V. Barad2 and D. M. Pathak1
A field experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous soil of Horticultural Instructional Farm, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh during rabi season 2003-04 and 2004-05. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with twenty four treatments replicated three times. The treatments consisted of two varieties viz., IIHR-6 (V1) and Shyamal (V2), three levels of nitrogen (100, 200 and 300 N kg ha-1), two levels of phosphorus (100 and 150 P2O5 kg ha-1) and two levels of potash (100 and 150 K2O kg ha-1). Both the varieties significantly influenced growth and flowering parameters in which, plant height, number of branches per plant and leaf area were observed higher in the variety IIHR-6 during both the years and in pooled results, whereas higher fresh and fry weight of plant, weight of 10 flowers, flowering span and dry weight of flowers were recorded in the variety Shyamal. The later variety also took more days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Application of nitrogen at 300 kg ha-1 recorded significantly highest plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of plant, flowering span, total fresh and dry weight of flower, weight of 10 flowers and diameter of flower during the year 2003-04, 2004-05 and in pooled data This dose (300 N kg ha-1) also took less days for first flower bud initiation and first flower open. Phosphorus also played a significant role in improving all of these attributes at higher level except, leaf area, fresh weight of plant, number of days taken for first flower open and flowering span. Effect of potash was failed to influence all of
447 Waste Minimization in the Chemical Process Industries-A Review, L Nageswara Rao & G.Prabhakar*
he use of non-renewable resources for fuel and feedstock (e.g. gas and soil), through the release of pollutants from various factories during production stage, to the disposal of ultimate final products that contain hazardous waste, each stage of the lifecycle of a product produced by the chemicals industry can have more negative impacts on man and environment. Now days as everyones attention are directed towards the chemical process industry, nowadays, a way of monitoring the environmental impact of its chemical processes and products is required. Chemical industry has the challenge of monitoring and reducing its emission to air, water and soil. Until recently, environmental solutions were in the form of end-of-pipe pollution control strategies, i.e., chemical, biological and physical treatment of terminal streams. The result has been waste treatment solutions that reduced the toxicity and volume of undesirable pollutants in industrial discharges. Although these pollution control strategies have resulted in reducing more negative environmental consequences of chemical processes, they focused on the symptoms and not on the root of the environmental problems. Therefore, at the end, they lacked costeffectiveness and sustainability. Increased scientific knowledge and public awareness over the effects of industrial activities on the environment and health has led chemical process industries to start implementing waste minimization programs, the Industrial Ecology concept, cleaner technologies and using tools such as green chemistry principles in order to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. In this paper mainly focusing on various techniques for the minimization of waste from process industries.
448 A Review on Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater by Rice Husk as an Adsorbent, K. Srinivas Raju1*and S.V. Naidu2
The use of agricultural waste has been widely investigated as a replacement for current costly methods of removing heavy metals from water and wastewater. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. In this review, rice husks have been compiled to treat the heavy metals as Cd, Cu, Hg, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni.
449 Effect of different in situ water harvesting techniques and low cost mulching in custarad apple, N. D. Polara1, R. S. Chovatia1, D. V. Delvadia1 and N. S. Joshi2 *andM. S.
The experiment was conducted on medium black soil of Saurashtra region of Gujarat under rainfed condition to find out the effect of different in situ water harvesting techniques and low cost mulching in custard apple on ten farmers field with four treatments in Randomized block design and each farmers was considered as replication. The result revealed that growth and yield parameters was found significantly highest in Circular basin with 5 % slop and mulching with locally available materials treatment as compared to other treatments. Nitrogen and poshphorus content of soil was also showed hifhest in same treatment but K content was not influenced significantly by differrent treatments. Soil moisture content at different soil depth was also found highest in above treatments.
450 Effect of sugarcane waste on soil properties of coal fly ash affected land in cultivation of Solanum melongena, Krishna Rani1, Punjwani Jaywanti2 and Kalpana S.3
Naya kheda is one of the coal fly ash affected land areas around Kota city due to spread of thin layer of CFA from Kota Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS). The productivity and fertility of land is badly affected for number of local crops. A great amount of elements (C,N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) get into the soil. Therefore, in view of improvement of fertility or amelioration of surface soil of the area physicochemical studies have been carried out with surface soil of the area and different composts prepared by mixing sugarcane waste (SCW) with this surface soil in different proportions. Sugarcane waste was used to add with organic part and to alter physicochemical properties of the surface soil. Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of different proportions of sugarcane waste on soil properties in cultivation of Solanum melongena. According to the best results obtained from the pot experiments, field experiments were also carried out. A significant increase in growth, rate of growth and quality of produce was observed on cultivation of Solanum melongena in surface soil amended with 50% (v/v) sugarcane waste. In other words, sugarcane waste worked as best ameliorating material in 50% (v/v) proportion with CFA affected surface soil after conversion into compost. In amended soils an increase in the content of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and improvement in physical properties was observed.
451 Electrochemical Reduction Behavior and Analysis of Aldicarb Sulfone, M.Pushpalathaa,P.Chenna Rohini Kumara, K. Balajia, C.Sridevib and C.Suresh Reddy*a
Electrochemical reduction behaviour of Aldicarb Sulfone has been carried out, by employing d.c. polarography, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse polarography (DPP) in the supporting electrolytes of the pH ranging from 2.0 to 12.0. Differential pulse polarography has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Aldicarb Sulfonein various environmental samples using standard addition method. The nature of electrode process was studied, the number of electrons was evaluated and the reduction mechanism was proposed. Kinetic parameters such as transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous forward rate constant are evaluated and reported. Quantitative determination was carried out in the concentration range 1.1510-5 M to 2.2010-8 M using a differential pulse polarographic method with a lower detection limit of 1.810-8 M.
452 Synthesis and Characterization of Layered Double Hydroxides, B. Pethe, J.D. Mahale, T.R. Lawankar and D.T. Mahajan*
Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) of like Mg (II) Al-NO3 and Zn(II) Al-NO3 have been prepared by co-precipitation method. They have been characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, TG-DTG and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray analysis shows that both the cations (M2+ and M3+) were located in same layer and only carbonates and water are in interlayer. 1H-NMR studies revealed that water and carbonates are perpendicular to the layer. TGA analysis indicates formation of stable Mg-Al and Zn-Al metal oxides at 750C. Various stoichiometric conditions have also been used for the synthesis of compounds.
453 A new analytical method development and validation for estimation of ciproflaxacin and metronidazole byiso absorption method by using UV spectrophotometer, Natesh.G*1, MD.Azeez2, Manoranjan Sabat2, Goli.Venkatehwarlu2, Nazia Begum2 and A.Srivani2
A simple, validated and sensitive UV method has been developed for the estimation of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Literature review reveals that analytical methods like ion exchange chromatography, thin layer ion exchange chromatography are quite expensive comparative UV method .therefore present study has been under taken to develop an efficient UV method like Q- absorbance for the analysis of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. After optimization of UV method, estimation and validation of method were done according to ICH guidelines. % RSD is found to be 0.601 and correlation coefficient were found to be 0.997 for metronidazole and 0.994 for forciprofloxacin .the?max of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole are determined as 279nm and 313nm. From the overlay spectra the iso -absorptive point is obtained as 290nm .for estimation 279nm and 290nm are considered for calculation . from the standard graph it was revealed that the beer, s limit for both drugs follow the concentration range of 2-10?g/ml. this procedure was applied successfully for analysisof ciprofloxacin and metronidazole without prior separation and without interference of excipients.
454 Synthesis and Physicochemical Studies of Benzimidazole and 2-Methyl Benzimidazole Derivatives, Falguni Karia, Jagdish Movaliya and Shipra Baluja*
Some new benzimidazoline and methyl benzimidazolines have been synthesized. Further, physicochemical properties such as conductance, density and refractive index of these synthesized compounds have been studied in methanol and chloroform over a wide range of concentration at 298.15 K.
455 Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity of Pyrazolines, M.L.Leuva1,V.M.Barot1 and Vikesh Agrawal2
Title compounds 2-pyrazoline have been prepared by reaction of 1-(4- methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(substituted-phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one(1a-e)which on treatment with hydrazine hydrate in presence of propionicacid to give 1-[3-(4- methyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-(substituted-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrazol-1-yl]propan - 1-one (2 a-e).The structural assignment of the compounds was based on elements analysis and IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity to gram-positive and gramnegative bacterial strains and antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds have been compared with standard drugs like Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Griseofulvin. Purity of synthesized compounds have been checked by TLC.
456 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Pyrimidin-2-Thiones, M.L.Leuva1,V.M.Barot1 and Vikesh Agrawal2
Title compounds 2-pyrazoline have been prepared by reaction of 1-(4- methyl-2, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(substituted-phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one(1a-e)which on treatment with hydrazine hydrate in presence of propionicacid to give 4-(2,5- dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylphenyl)-6-substitutedphenylpyrimidine- 2(1H)-thione (2a-e). The structural assignment of the compounds was based on elements analysis and IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antimicrobial activity to gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains and antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds have been compared with standard drugs like Amoxycillin, Ciprofloxecine and Griseofulvin. Purity of synthesized compounds have been checked by TLC.
457 Novel Spiro Oxazoles Containing Triazolothiadiazines, Thiadiazines and Thiazines - Synthesis, Characterization and Biological evaluation, Vijay V. Dabholkar*, Abhishek Karekar, N. B. Shinde & Prem Naik
Abstract:A mixture of compound (1) and Glycine were refluxed in presence of acidic medium to yield compound (2) which further under bromination to give compound (3) Which on further treatment with Substituted 2-aminothiophenols, Substituted Thiocarbohydrazones and Substituted triazoles yields the respective benzothiazines, Thiadiazines, triazolo-thiadiazines, derivative(4a-6c). The structures of the products were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Representative samples were screened for their anti-microbial activity against gramnegative bacteria E.coli and B.Substilus and gram-positive bacteria S. aureus, and S.typhi.
458 Comparative Study Of S-Substituted Triazinothiocarbamides In 60%, 70% And 80% Dioxane Water Mixture, Dipak T. Tayade1 and Ashwini M. Kshirsagar2*
In last four decades, S-triazine and thiocarbamide group containing drug create their own identity in the drug, pharmaceutical and medicinal sciences. The Interferometric measurements of recently synthesized drug have been carried out for solutions of 1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl)-S-triazino-3-phenylthiocarbamide (L1) and 1-(4- hydroxy-6-methyl)-S-triazino-3-methylthiocarbamide (L2) at various concentrations. Hence, density and sound velocity of biologically important substituted triazinothiocarbamides were measured at 30C in 60%, 70% and 80% dioxane-water mixture. The result obtained during this investigation directly through light on the dipole association of compound, intermolecular attraction between solute and solvent, dielectric constant of medium, polarizability and mutual compensation of dipoles, various acoustic/ thermodynamic parameters and useful for drug absorption, transmission, stability, activity and effect of these on drugs which is base of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of any drug. Taking all these things into consideration this research work was carried out.
459 Chromitite and the associated ultramafics of minor and Trace elements from South India at Tekuru and Kondapalli by PIXE technique, D.V.L.Sirisha
Multi-elemental analysis of samples is of great importance in research and mineral prospecting. Samples at regular depth intervals from south Indian mineral deposits . namely Tekuru Chromite deposit on the banks of River Godavari in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh are collected and accurate elemental analysis is performed on these samples. The amount of chromium was determined variable from 12.78% to 31.88% and iron percentage varies from 6.40% to 24.45% in the chromitites studied. The present work confirms the validity of non-destructive PIXE technique with reference to the study of chromite.
460 Chemistry of Novel Biphnyltetrazolo-Triazole Derivatives- Their Synthesis and Microbial Evaluation, Vijay V. Dabholkar*, Navnath B. Shinde, Abhishek Karekar & Prem Naik
N-(triphenylmethyl)-5-(4'-bromoethylbiphenyl-2-yl)tetrazole reacted with ethyl piprazin -1-carboxylet to obtained (1), which on further treatment with chlorosulphonic acid to Triphenyl group & yield (2) ,this compound then treated with hydrazine hydrate to give hydrazine derivative (3) which was then treated with active methyl group , corbondisulphite, ethylchloroformet, aromatic cyno compound to yielded the respective pyrazole ,Oxadiazole,indazole&triazole. The structures of the synthesized compounds confirmed by Physico-chemical test and spectral techniques, representative samples screened for their antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram-negative bacteria.
461 Synthesis, Structural Elucidation and Anti Microbial Screening of S-Triazinyl Substituted Aryl Amine Derivatives, Mahyavanshi Jyotindra B* and Parmar Kokila A.
A series of ten 2, 4, 6-trisubstituted s-triazines was synthesized with 4-Hydoxy benzonitrile, morpholine and different substituted arylamine derivatives and the entire product were characterized by conventional and instrumental methods. The title compound was then examined for their in vitro microbial activity against gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria and 2 fungal species. Structure of final compound was affirmed by IR,1H NMR,Mass Spectra and followed by elemental analysis.
462 Waste Coal Fly Ash Utilized For Removal of Sulphur Dye from Textile Waste Water: Kinetics and Equilibrium Study, Chavan S. K*. and Paul S. A.
A coal fly ash as an adsorbent used for removal of sulphur dye from textile wastewater. The coal fly ash required for present study collected from Bhusaval Thermal Power Plant district Jalgaon. The adsorption studies performed as a function of different concentration of dye solution, contact time, pH and different adsorbent dosages. The kinetics of the adsorption process follows the pseudo second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherm models. The suitability of the data in different model of isotherm is determined from correlation coefficient (R2) value and maximum adsorption capacity values. The values of maximum adsorption capacity correlation coefficient (R2) for CAF was found to be 38.46 mg/g and close to one by using Langmuir model indicating that given adsorption isotherm best described by Langmuir model as compared to Freundlich and Tempkin model . The results showed that coal-fly ash a solid waste disposal from Thermal Power Plant can used as effective low cost adsorbent for removal of sulphur dye from textile wastewater.
463 Synthesis and Biological Studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) Complexes with ONNO Donor Coumarin Schiff Bases, Sangamesh A. Patil1*, ChetanT.P1, and Prema S. Badami2
The Schiff bases and their complexes of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) have been synthesized from 6-formyl-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin with o-phenylene diamine/ethylenediamine. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes structurally characterized based on IR, NMR, UV-visible, ESR, magnetic, thermal, and mass and ESI-MS studies. The complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO and their molar conductance values indicate that complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Elemental analysis reveals ML.2H2O [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] stoichiometry, where L stands for a doubly deprotonated ligand. The spectroscopic studies suggest the octahedral geometry. In which the lingands co-ordinates through azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen via deprotonation. Thermal studies suggest co-ordination of water molecule to the metal ion. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against the bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auregenosa, klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal activity against the fungal species, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. The anthelmintic activity of the synthesized compounds carried out using an adult Indian earthworm, Pheretima posthuma, due to its anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasite of human beings.
464 Synthesis and antimicrobial screening of some new N1-citralidene hydrazido quinolin- 2(1H)-one derivatives, Pravina B. Piste*1, Shubhangi M. Kanase1, Surekha B. Shevale1 and Maruti S. Kanase2
Synthesis of desired compound involved carbethoxymethylation of 4- methyl quinolin-2(1H)-ones (III a-c) to form N1-carbethoxy methyl quinolin-2(1H)- ones (IVa-c) followed by hydrazine hydrate affords the corresponding N1-acetyl hydrazido 4-methyl-quinolin-2(1H)-ones (Va-c). The reaction of (Va-c) with citral yields corresponding N1-citralidene acetyl hydrazido-4-methyl quinolin-2(1H)-ones (VIa-c). The structure of the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of IR, NMR and Mass studies. The synthesized compounds (Va-c) and (VIa-c) have been screened for their antimicrobial activities and found to possess significant antimicrobial activities.
465 Synthesis Characterization and Microbial Screening of 2-(4-Chlorophenyl-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazolyl)-5-thio-4- (Cyclohexylamino)-6-(arylamino)-S-triazine, Kokila A. Parmar*, Sarju N. Prajapati and Chetan J. Vasava
A new series of 2-(4-Chlorophenyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazolyl)-5-thio-4- (Cyclohexylamino)-6-(arylamino)-S-triazine have been synthesized. The novel compounds structure has established based on their substituted aryl amine derivatives. All the compounds were characterized by FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. These new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity.
466 Spectroscopic characterization and thermal studies of bioactive nickel (II) and palladium (II) complexes with Schiff base ligands, Anant Prakash and Monika Agarwal
The new series of nickel (II) and palladium (II) complexes with different bidentate Schiff base ligands have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic as well as thermal studies. An infrared spectrum indicates coordination of metal ions through azomethine nitrogen and acetate/nitrate ions. The presence of water molecule(s) in the complexes has been supported by TG/DTA studies. Mass spectrum explains the successive degradation of the molecular species in solution and justifies ML complexes. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal data using Coats and Redfern method, which confirm first order kinetics. The bio-efficacy of the complexes has been examined against the growth of bacteria in vitro to evaluate their anti-microbial potential. Molecular structure of the complexes has been optimized by MM2 calculations and suggests an octahedral/ square planar geometry.
467 Organic Solar Cell- The Future Energy Resource, Manish Kaushik*a and Bharat Kaushikb
The limited supply of todays main energy sources (oil, coal, uranium) will force us eventually to replace most of the currently used power plants with renewable energy sources. According to recent predictions, the inevitable permanent decline in the global oil production rate is expected to start within the next 10-20 years. The new category of renewable energy resource is Organic solar cell. Considerably less effort and production energy is necessary if organic semiconductors are used because of simpler processing at much lower temperatures (20-200 oC) than the inorganic cells. Another interesting alternative to inorganic cells is given by the semiconducting polymers, which combine the opto-electronic properties of conventional semiconductors with the excellent mechanical and processing properties of polymeric i.e. plasticmaterials. These can be processed from solution at room-temperature onto e.g. flexible substrates using simple and therefore cheaper deposition methods like spin or blade coating. The advantage of polymeric photovoltaic cells when compared to electro-chemical cells is predominantly the absence of a liquid electrolyte, which generates problems with sealing against air, but also the prospect of even cheaper production using large area devices and the use of flexible substrates. Possible applications may range from small disposable solar cells to power smart plastic (credit, debit, phone or other) cards which can display for example, the remaining amount, to photo-detectors in large area scanners or medical imaging and solar power applications on uneven surfaces.
468 Some aspects of bee attractants on Pumpkin, K .V.Jayaramappa * and V. Sivaram2
Honeybeesand flowering plants are interdependent and a good example for mutualism and co-evolution. The use of bee attractants, Bee-Q and Fruit Boost in the pollination on target crop was evaluated. The bee visitations on Pumpkin flowers were made for two weeks followed by estimation of yield. The different concentrations of Bee-Q and Fruit boost was evaluated to understand the honeybee visitation pattern of target crop for improving pollination efficiency. The observations indicate that, Bee-Q at 12.5 g/l and Fruit boost at 0.5 ml/l of Pumpkin plots attracted higher number of bee foragers than the control plots. In addition, the plots sprayed with bee attractants enhanced the yield and diameter of fruit. The present research work suggests that the bee attractants increase marginal percentage of bee visitation, yield and diameter of fruit on Pumpkin.
469 Habit and Habitat of Sarus Crane Grus antigone antigone,and Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in Mainpuri( Uttar Pradesh), India, Amita Sarkar, Bhavna Upadhyay, Abhinav Chauhan , Archana Sharma and Prashant Mishra
District Mainpuri lies about 125 Km from Agra (U.P.).It has many wetlands ,thus, it is a good habitat for many wetland birds.Saman bird sanctuary is situated in Mainpuri; which provides good habitat for birds. Five study sites were selected in Mainpuri;Markandeshwar ,Bhamwat canal ,Sauj ,Saman bird sanctuary and Krithua. Presence of Sarus crane Grus antigone antigone (cited vulnerable as IUCN Red list) and Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus (qualifies as endangered) is being reported in these areas.In this field report we describe the different type of behaviour and facts about Sarus crane and Egyptian vulture during our trips to Mainpuri between February 2011 to September 2011.Our field report also shows the decline of Sarus crane and Egyptian vulture in northern India.
470 Neutralization of Hepatitis C through a Synthetic Peptide Potent Vaccine by Structural Designing of Disease Causing Strain Hepc1 (Isolate 1), T. Karishma*, M. Lakshmi Bhavani , S, Vamsi Krishna, M. Padmavathi
Hepatitis C virus (isolate 1) strain is a virus which has a genomic configuration of RNA by causing a disease in humans as Hepatitis C. Hep C is very dangerous and there is no vaccine yet discovered. This Hep C is passed through contaminated blood i.e. only blood is the mode of transmission for this virus which occurs due to sexual contact. This virus transcribes number of proteins which are responsible for various attributes it contains 3 structural and 7- non structural gene among which core protein E1, E2 and p7 are structural proteins and p23, p70, p8, p27, p56/58, p68 are non structural forms. By using all these proteins this Hep C virus causing all sorts of liver diseases, but still there is no specific vaccine for this disease. These resulting impairments of liver functions cause the disabilities associated with Hepatitis. The present study summarizes recent advances in understanding of biology of Hepatitis, clinical features of this disease and current diagnostic criteria and new approaches to treat the infection and immune mediated complications. The main objective of this project is to design the development of vaccine against hepatitis by Reverse Vaccinology Approach. Hepatitis c virus (isolate1) is the only viral strain that is causing liver chronic i.e. chronic disorders more globally with 4 different proteins. After screening all the proteins it was found out that the protein sequences with less identity was chosen. Antigen determinant was found out from particular protein sequence to find the epitope prediction through
471 Cellulase Sources in the Eudrilid Earthworm, Eudrilus Eugeniae, 1Aladesida, A.A., 2Owa, S.O., 1Dedeke, G.A., 3Osho, B.A. and 4Adewoyin, O.A.
Earthworms have been known to breakdown leaf litter to release the nutrients laden in the leaves. Their ability to breakdown leaf litter implies that they have a source of cellulose. The present work looked at these sources to establish if they were exogenous or endogenous in origin. Earthworm samples of the species Eudriluseugeniaewere fed with tissue paper as cellulose source. The resulting faecal droppings were subjected to various carbohydrate tests to confirm the final products. Some of the worms were defaunated by treating with antibiotics to ensure the cellulose source was exogenous. Survival tests were also carried out on the faunated and defaunated earthworms. The results showed by Molisch's test the presence of carbohydrate in both fresh and egested tissue paper; while Benedict test and Barfoed's test indicate that the ingested tissue paper was digested to monosaccharide level. Seliwanoff's test also confirmed that the breakdown product was the monosaccharide fructose. Result of the survival test showed a significantly higher survival rate in the faunated than the defaunated earthworms. The results also showed that cellulose is of both exogenous and endogenous source to the earthworms. It is thus proposed that in plant litter treatments introduction of earthworms should be encouraged above merely introducing microbes as the gut of the worms is here shown to support microbial activity.
472 Exposure of Microflora Present in Various Habitants and its Drug Designing Studies, K. Ramya*, D. Sivareddy and M. Padmavathi
The Micro flora isolated from the clinical samples like infectious blood and Buccal samples from different habitants and confirmed through different biochemical characterizations. The blood samples collected by intravenal puncture and the buccal samples are collected by using the buccal swabs from mouth. In Biochemical characterization of the microbes, different biochemical tests like glucose fermentation tests, starch hydrolysis tests, citrate tests etc are done for confirmation of bacteria. Among all the microorganisms Bacillus anthraces is the most common and dangerous which causes Anthrax. Casp1 is the responsible protein to cause this anthrax disease. In the present study a potent inhibitor was designed to inhibit the activity of Casp1 protein through drug designing. Keywords: Blood and Buccal samples, biochemical tests, Anthrax, CASP1, Softwares, 3V6M, docking studies.
473 Molecular Mining of M.paratuberculosis Using Systems Biology Approach, M. Padmavathi
Molecular mining studies of tuberculosis focused a number of molecular techniques in assessing the strains. This can be done by testing the genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. These methods are used to control the tuberculosis. For example molecular techniques added accuracy, consistency, completeness and precision in explaining the dynamics transmission. In addition there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains such as M. paratuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters or lineages may differ in virulence, pathogenesis and epidemiologic characteristics all of which may significantly impact TB control. In the present study the current molecular tools and its approaches used to better understanding the epidemiology of tuberculosis.
474 Recent Advances in Banana Improvement through Biotechnological Approaches, Babita, H.S. Rattanpal* and Kishore Kumar Thakur
Bananas and plantains (Musa spp.) are the most important tropical fruit crops. The major constraints to banana and plantain production are fungal diseases (black Sigatoka and Fusarium wilt), pests (banana weevil and nematodes) and viruses. The development of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective approach in controlling diseases and pests. The development of tissue-culture techniques has ensured production of cleans (pest and disease-free) planting material and also establishes faster, grow more vigorously, have a shorter production cycle and produce higher yield. Tissue culture is an excellent mechanism for promoting banana conservation and germplasm distribution since most cultivars are seedless. Embryo rescue, involving the excision and culture of developing zygotes, represents the technology that most easily assists conventional breeding. Several molecularmarker techniques have been applied to banana, including genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), polymorphisms based on the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), microsatellite DNA, RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR). Agro bacterium-mediated transformation offers several advantages over direct gene transfer methodologies like particle bombardment, electroporation and marker-assisted selection has become a reliable method to improve disease resistance in Musa. It can therefore be concluded that biotechnology has great potential for the
475 Floral Diversity of Bhitarkanika, East Coast of India and its potential uses, Durga Prasad Behera1* and Lakshman Nayak2
Bhitarkanika is one of the spectacular National Park of India endowed with largest biodiversity of mangrove species and their associates. There are about 71 species of mangrove with their associates found in Bhitarkanika. In present observation a total of 28 families of 59 species mangrove with their associated flora was observed out of which the family Rhizophoraceae occurs in highest number ( 16.95%) followed by Leguminosae (8.47%) and families like Plumbaginaceae, Cyperaceae, Avicenniaceae contributing ( 5.08%) each having 24 species together representing 40.66% of total species. Rest 35 species of different families contributing 59.32% of abundance in study area. The local communities inhabited the mangrove areas along with their periphery depends in mangrove forest for their day today requirements such as food, fodder, timber , fuel, medicine etc. This paper provide field information on potential uses of mangrove and their associated flora during study period .The flower and fruit bearing seasons of some of the mangrove associated flora were recorded with the help of local people.
476 Effect of Growth Promoters on Broiler Birds under Experimental Supplementation in Feed, T. Hrangkhawl1, S.K. Mukhopadhayay1*, S. Ganguly2 and D. Niyogi3
The present study conducted to study the effect of mannan oligosaccharide and dietary organic acid supplements on body weight of broiler birds. The present investigation showed better growth performance in combination with organic acid salts in terms of body weight. It was found that mean villus length increased significantly (P
477 Studies on Antimicrobial Properties of Vegetable, Fruit & Spice Peels and Shells, Suvro Saha, ^Uma Ghosh and *John Barnabas
The current study examines the extraction and assay of antimicrobial metabolites from peels and shells of vegetables, fruits and spices. Peels and shells are primarily discarded into environment as agro waste, nevertheless in our studies we initiate that these may well be explored for therapeutics, which could be economic, eco-friendly, presumed not to cause side effects as they originate from a natural source and therefore also benefit the waste management. Peels and shells were dried, powdered, followed by extraction with solvents such as acetone, methanol, hot water and cold water. Our findings report the antimicrobial effect of ten peels and shells against six species of bacteria and three species of fungi. The significance of our work also goes to show that all peels and shells except for the orange peels were probably the earliest investigation of this sort to survey such wastes for antimicrobial properties. Our findings demonstrate that, maximum antibacterial and antifungal action were experiential to be found by cold-water extraction of jackfruit against Proteus vulgaris and Aspergillus niger respectively
478 Studies on Prevalence and Seasonal Variations of Culex quinquefasciatus in Punjab, Jagbir Singh Kirti & Simarjit Kaur*
Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a cosmopolitan in its existence and found throughout the world. It is a domestic mosquito often associated with unhygienic conditions and species breeds in stagnant water with high organic content. It frequently enters houses and other human dwellings and bites frequently humans in urban, semi- urban and village areas. An entomological survey was carried out to document prevalence and seasonal distribution of quinquefasciatus for the first time in the state of Punjab. The present species was prevalent during all seasons showing peaks in spring and winter. It is noticed that the minimum temperature was found to be correlated with PMHD (per man hour density) whereas other climatic parameters like temperature (maximum), humidity and rainfall were inversely correlated with PMHD. The results will help in implementing and designing effective vector control strategies.
479 Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histoarchitecture of Kidney of a Freshwater Catfish, Channa punctatus, *Nasrul Amin, Susan Manohar, Kamlesh Borana, T. A. Qureshi and Salma khan
The present study conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium chloride induced histological alterations in the kidney of a freshwater catfish, Channa punctatus. The fishes exposed to 3mg/l (96 h LC50) and 5 mg (96 h LC50) of cadmium chloride for a period of 15 and 45 days. The most common changes in the kidney of fish exposed cadmium chloride were characterized by loosening of haemopoietic tissue, uriniferous tubules have lost their original appearance, vacuolated cytoplasm, degeneration in the epithelial cells of renal tubule, narrowing of the tubular lumen and damaged glomeruli.
480 Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histoarchitecture of Liver of a Freshwater Catfish, Channa punctatus, Nasrul Amin, Susan Manohar , T.A Qureshi and Salma Khan
The availability of adequate water supply in terms of both quantity and quality is essential for human existence. However, our exploitation of water resources to fulfill the growing need of man has exerted tremendous pressure, thereby deteriorating its quality substantially. Hence, conservation of water has become of utmost importance. The water pollution is thus no longer considered to be an aesthetic problem, but a serious economic and public health problem as well1.Unfortunately, raw or inadequately treated sewage of millions of people still flow into our lakes and rivers, creating several kinds of disorders2. The release of discharge of large number of pollutants, especially heavy metals and pesticides, pose a threat to human life3. Pollution of aquatic environment by heavy metals is an extremely important and serious problem and has attracted the attention of the scientists all over the world. Industrial, agriculture and communal wastewater containing alarming high levels of heavy metals including cadmium (Cd) compounds enter into different water reservoirs without their priortreatment. This has resulted in higher concentrations of heavy metal residues in many fish culture ponds in different parts of India4. Cadmium is a non-biodegradable heavy metal and is toxic to aquatic organisms at a low concentration in culture system5. Major sources of this toxicant include NiCd and AgCd batteries manufacturing plants, sewage sludge and lead mining and processing units. Phosphate fertilizers also contain high level of cadmium, and therefore, run-off from agricultural land can also pollute the aquatic environment6. Its bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential via food web pose serious public health risk to fish consumers7.
481 Occurrence of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizas (VAM) in Medicinal Plants of Marathwada Region of Maharashtra, India, U. N. Bhale
An investigation has been made about the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi colonization on some medicinal plants. Ten medicinal plants belonging to different families growing in various part of Marathwada region in Maharashtra, India were studied for their AM association. The maximum percent of root colonization was found in Eucalyptus globulous (96%) and minimum in Glossocardia bosvallea (8%). Hyphal colonization was found in all tested plants while vesicles were found in Tribulis terrestris, Commiphora whitti , Adathoda zeylanica, Eucalyptus globulous,Calotropis procera and Hygrophila schulli. Hundred grams of soil showed an average of 349 spores in Hygrophila schulli which was maximum while minimum in Commiphora whitti (30).Twenty two AM fungal species were reported from rhizosphere soil. Glomus is the most dominant AM fungus followed by Acaulospora,Gigaspora, Sclerocystis and Entrophospora.
482 Identification, Characterization, Optimization Studies and Applications of Protease Enzyme from Bacillus lichenifirmis, M. Padmavathi
Proteases are essential constituents of all forms of life on earth including prokaryotes, fungi, plants and animals. Proteases are highly exploited enzymes in food, leather, detergent, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, waste management and silver recovery. Protease enzyme is produced from a number of microbes. One of the bacteria is Bacillus lichemiformis which produces a higher amount of protease enzyme and the activity of enzyme. By using RSM optimizing studies, this species can produce the higher amount of protease enzyme in presence of glucose and nitrogen sources 0.0.987 U/ml.
483 An Investigation on the Indigenous Method of Fish Drying in Bandipora District of Kashmir Valley, T. H. Bhat*, Rizwana, M. H. Balkhi and Bilal Ahmad Bhat
The study conducted in district Bandipora that is one of the major fish producing districts of Kashmir valley. Sun drying of fish adopted by all the fishers of this district and contributes significantly to their income. The conventional method employed in drying of fishes is unscientific and can cause serious health hazards. Quality assurance of processed fish is of utmost concern that has greater implications from health point of view. In this backdrop, the present study conducted to investigate and report the traditional method of fish drying.
484 Comparative Ecophysiological Study of Tapinanthus Bangwensis, [Engl. And R. Krause] Danser (African Mistletoe) On Two Host Plants, O. Jacob Oyetunji*1 and D. E. Edagbo2
Some ecophysiological aspects of African mistletoe, Tapinanthus bangwensis, [Engl. and R. Krause] Danser on two hosts were investigated. The leaf mineral nutrient analysis, total reducing sugar content and chlorophyll content of the mistletoe and the hosts were estimated. The characteristic feature observed was that the Na concentration was similar in the mistletoe and its Citrus species host while it was significantly higher in Irvingia species. The Ca, Mg, P, N and chlorophyll were more in the hosts relative to the mistletoe. Also, the relative water content estimation carried out showed a high percentage level in which the hosts had slightly higher rates than the mistletoe at the period of rainy season but a contrary result was obtained in the dry season when the mistletoe maintained higher water content than the hosts. Based on the results achieved in this study, it can be asserted that mistletoe thrives on its hosts relative to the available nutrients, water content and to a slight extent on the host photosynthate; while the extent to which mistletoe can affect the host is dependent on how much of the resource is diverted by the parasite and also the overall supply available to the host. Key words: Mistletoe, Host, Mineral
485 Diversity of Cyanobacteria in the paddy fields of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, Danaboyina Krishna Sai Babu. and *Sivakumar, K.
The present investigations carried out on some paddy fields of Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh (India) to study the biodiversity of Cyanobacteria from July 2010-June2011. Cyanobecteria are the most important nitrogen-fixing organisms because of their autotrophic nutrition and flourish in rice fields and known to sustain the fertility of this ecosystem. The rice ecosystem allows Cyanobecteria to function properly, selectively and effectively. Thirty-six species of cyanobecteria recorded. The present investigation carried out the diversity of nitrogen fixing Cyanobacterial communities of Guntur rice fields, Andhra Pradesh, India at Tenali mandal site water and soil samples taken, samples were analysed for taxonomic enumeration. Thirty-six species recorded. Most of them were from the orders of Nostocales, Chroococcales and Stigonematales.
486 Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Evaluation of Ji-otor and Ntubiri-ikpa Traditional Foods of Ikwerre Ethnic National in Nigeria, Amadi B. A.1 Duru M. K. C2*and Nwachukwu M.I3
Nutritional and anti-nutritional evaluation of Ji-otor and Ntubiriikpa traditional foods of Ikwerre ethnic national in South-Southern, Nigeria was carried out. Ji-otor and Ntubiri-ikpa were prepared with crops grown and processed within the locality. Results obtained revealed that both samples are high in moisture content when compared to those of other traditional foods, and could contribute carbohydrates as well as ash significantly to human nutrition. Their antinutrients were low to affect the nutrients in food hence, as foods of plant origin; these anti-nutrients may impact health benefits to the studied foods.
487 Study the Spirulina as a Potential Antidiabatic, Priti Kumari1, Shaheda Khanam1, Manish Chandra Varma2, Pritam Kumar3, Reena Chouhan3 and Asutosh Kumar Pandey*3
In the sub-acute study, repeated administration (once a day for 28 days) of the SPIRULINA. Acts significantly (P < 0.001) reduction in the blood glucose level as compared with control group. Maximum reduction in blood glucose level was observed (233.616.539, 174.321.215 and 85.653.881 mg/dl respectively) on 35th day in the diabetic mice treated with SPIRULINA (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg). Body weight of control treated (30.640.366, 30.680.358, 29.990.272, 29.720.29, and 29.410.306 and 29.190.324 gram respectively) and SPIRULINA treated (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) diabetic mice weight increased during study period
488 Studies on Drying Characteristics of Prawn and Fish, D.Kamalakar, L.Nageswara Rao, K.Siva Prasada Rao and M.Venkateswara Rao
Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, fungi (such as yeasts), and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. Food preservation can also include processes which inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut, which can occur during food preparation. Main objectives of the study are to know the drying character of prawn and fish and the effect of temperature on drying rate.
489 A Review on Biologically Active Constituents from Grape Pomace, J. S. Kothawade, A. S. Dhake and N. V. Shinde
Pomace is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing juice or oil. Pomace contains various chemical constituents like Rutin, Resveratrol, Catechin, Epicatechin, Gallic acid, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Tartaric acid, Chlorogenic acid, Anthocyanins. These constituents are shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. The total Phenolic content, the total flavonol content and total anthocyanins content investigated by RP-HPLC, ESI-MS of grape pomace obtained from vinification of grape varieties (mainly Vitis vinifera) widely produced in various countries was investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. This review encompasses biological activity possessed by various chemical constituents who is isolate or derives from grape pomace and their applications.
490 Synthesis and in-vitro Biological Evaluation of a Novel Series of 4-(Substituted)-5-Methyl-2-Phenyl-1, 2-Dihydro-3H-Pyrazol-3-One as Antioxidant, Shweta S. Bule*, M. R. Kumbhare, P.R. Dighe,
A novel series of 4-(substituted)- 5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,2- dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one (5a-n) were synthesized by reacting various substituted R-NH2 with 5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one in the presence of formaldehyde. Structures of all new synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of spectral data (IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR). The title compounds were screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity. Among the 7 prepared compounds, Compounds 5a , 5b, 5c exhibited significant antioxidant activity in model of 1,1-diphenyl- 2- picryl hydrazyl , Nitric Oxide , Hydrogen peroxide and were compared with Ascorbic acid as a standard drug.
491 Indigenous Methods of Conservation of Seeds and Other Propagules for Use in Subsequent Planting Seasons in Otukpa District of Benue State, Nigeria, D. E. Edagbo*, T. I. Borokini, D. A. Ighere and C. Michael
The methods of conservation being employed by the rural farmers in Otukpa District of Benue State in Nigeria were the focus of this study. Eleven rural communities were randomly selected and 8 rural farmers were interviewed in each community. Questionnaires were deployed to elicit the methods of conservation generally practiced and other associated activities including the underlying factors propelling the conservation mission. Generally, the farmers subjected their seeds to drying in sunlight and different traditional pre-treatment before storage while the roots and tubers were buried in the soil using appropriate method. It was observed at the end of the study that the rural farmers were truly custodians of the natural resources in their domain and not poachers and that basically their indigenous knowledge and traditional methods of conservation were handed down to them from succeeding generations. By and large, the rural farmers have proved to be of inestimable asset to the sustainable use of plant genetic resources in our fast depleting ecosystem. It is therefore necessary to build a synergy between the rural farmers and scientists so that indigenous knowledge and modern sciences are integrated to showcase innovation and pragmatic agricultural practices.
492 Climate Change Adaptation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 1: Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Extent of Biozyme Usage in Production of Potato Tubers, 1 B. K. Karanja, 1,2 D. K. Isutsa* and 1 J. N. Aguyoh
A survey was conducted using a structured interview of 234 potato growers. A total of 60.2% of the respondents interviewed were men. Out of 84 respondents aged 26-40- years-old, 75 knew Biozyme. Most respondents (85.5%) had primary school education adequate in accessing information. There was a significant relationship between education level and awareness of Biozyme. A total of 82.1%, 79.5% and 80.8% respondents were involved in farming in Likia, Sururu and Mau-Narok locations, respectively. Most farmers with less than 2.5 acres farm size were aware that Biozyme could enhance productivity through intensified usage. Farmers were aware that application of Biozyme on potato plants increases tuber size and hastens physiological maturity. There was a significant relationship between gender, age, education and farming experience with awareness of Biozyme and its usage. The homogenous locations did not affect awareness of Biozyme. Majority of the growers (68.8%) reported applying Biozyme and 64% of the farmers reported harvesting their potatoes early to fetch premium returns. However, 41% of the farmers reported a loss of 11-20% during delayed marketing or storage. A total of 71% of the farmers were not aware of proper postharvest handling of potato tubers to reduce yield loss during storage. Storage losses were not a matter of concern by most farmers, although they could be higher than 20%. Therefore, farmers should be educated and sensitized by agricultural extension officers on proper agrochemical usage, potato tuber postharvest losses, curing and storage conditions.
493 Climate Change Adaptation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) 2: Influence of Biozyme Rate on Potato Growth and Development, B. K. Karanja, 1,2 D. K. Isutsa* and 1 J. N. Aguyoh
Potato is an important food crop worldwide. Growers adopt potato production due its short growing season and poor soils tolerance. They use agrochemicals to improve growth under unreliable rainfall. Biozyme foliar feed is widely used to hasten maturity and enhance yields of crops. It is said to be a storehouse of hormones and nutrients that improve crop health. It contains major hormones along with primary and secondary nutrients. This study determined if Biozyme could overcome deficit rainfall and enhance potato growth to adapt to climate change. The arrangement was split plots in randomized complete block design replicated three times and repeated once. Main plots were assigned to potato cultivar (Tigoni and Asante) and subplots to Biozyme rate (0, 125, 250, 500 and 750 ml/ha). Each subplot was planted with 28 tubers spaced at 30 cm x 70 cm in four rows. A distance of 1 m separated plots. Plant growth in height, stem diameter and aboveground biomass increased with increase in Biozyme rate. The 750 ml/ha rate increased height by 41%, stem diameter by 55.34%, chlorophyll by 19.45 spads, flowers by 21.86%, as compared to the control rate (0 ml/ha), but was not significantly different from 500 ml/ha rate. Increased height, leaf area index, chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass is good as it enhances photosynthate synthesis and translocation to edible tubers. Thus, foliar-feeding potato plants with at most 500 ml/ha Biozyme is recommended for hastening growth in regions with deficit rainfall.
494 Taxonomic Studies on Type Species of Genus Tarika Moore (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) from India, Jagbir Singh Kirti and Rahul Joshi
A taxonomic feature of type species, Tarika varana (Moore), has been described. Genus Tarika Moore has been recharacterised by incorporating female genitalic features of the type species. The female genitalia of the type species have been illustrated for the first time.
495 Level of Significance of Various Physical and Chemical Parameters of Soils through Electrical Conductivity, Nima P. Golhar1* and P.R .Chaudhari 2
In present study Physical and Chemical properties of soils and their relationship with electrical conductivity were studied. The soil samples were collected at a depth 20 cm from five different locations of ChalisgaonTehasil region. The soil samples were analyzed for pH, Electrical conductivity, organic carbon, Calcium Carbonate, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Copper, Calcium, Magnesium, Bulk density and texture. Electrical Conductivity had high degree positive correlation with silt content and negative significant correlation with sand content. Bulk density showed positive significant correlation with sand content and negative significant correlation with clay content of soil. Sand content of soil had higher effect on Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Bulk Density of soils. Electrical conductivity had positive significant correlation with organic carbon, Phosphorous, Potassium, Manganese and Copper.
496 An Evaluation of Condensate fraction (N0/N) as a function of (T / Tc 0) for interacting and non-interacting models, Amrendra Kumar * and L.K. Mishra
Condensate fraction of BEC (N0/N) as a function of (T /Tc 0) were evaluated using non-interacting and interacting models for two different traps and compared with scaling parameter h. Our results indicate that two very different configuration can give rise the same thermodynamic behavior of the condensate corresponding to the scaling parameter h.The evaluation were performed using theoretical formalism developed by F. Dalfavo. et al. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with the other theoretical workers.
497 Study of attenuation coefficient of wet and dry wood of Jambul (Syzygiumcumini) at different gamma ray energies, Chaudhari L.M. and Yadav Niteshkumar Krishnakant
The linear and mass attenuation coefficient plays an important role in a agriculture, industry, science & technology, basic quality, medicines and forensics etc. We studied the attenuation coefficient of wet and dry wood of Jambul (Syzygiumcumini) by using different gamma ray energies. The results are in the graphical form and it valid the gamma absorption law.
498 An Evaluation of Visibility of Ramsy Fringes as a Function of Magnetic Field Strength using Feshbach Resonance, Gajendra Prasad Gadker* and L. K. Mishra.
Using the theoretical formalism of K. Goral etal.(2006), we have evaluated the visibility of Ramsy fringes as a function of magnetic field strength Bevolve (G) . We have also evaluated the natural frequency and two-body loss rate constant K2 as a function of same magnetic field strength. Our theoretically evaluated results are in satisfactorily agreement with the experimental data and with other theoretical workers.
499 Measurement of Attenuation Coefficient of Glucose Solution, Chaudhari L.M. and Rathod S.Z.
We measured the linear and mass attenuation coefficient of glucose solution at different concentrations with varying the path length using gamma ray energy 360 keV. The experimental values are in good arrangement and validate absorption law.
500 Short-Term Temporal Wind Speed Variability: Case Study of Dubbo Village, Ashenafi Abebe1, Gelana Amente2* and Getachew Abebe3
In this study, short-term temporal variability of wind speed measurement was conducted. Data for day and nighttime wind speeds were collected at 30 minutes intervals for two weeks at Dubbo site. The data were analyzed - statistically by comparing the Weibull parameters. Comparison of daytime and nighttime wind speeds indicated higher average daytime wind speed than that of the night time with the average exceeding the 24 hour average by nearly 20%. Comparison of daytime wind speeds of five data points with 24-hour data points exhibited identical averages with errors of less than 5%.
501 A Theoretical Study of Bose Liquid Using Various Semi Empirical Potentials, Uday Narain Singh * and L. K. Mishra
We have studied the various semi empirical potentials for interaction of helium atoms in real space and theoretically evaluated the Bogolyubov quasi particle spectrum in Bose liquid. On comparing with inelastic neutron scattering experiments, our theoretical results are in good match with the experimental data. Keywords: Semi empirical potential, quasi particle spectrum, Bose liquid, inelastic neutron scattering experiments, super fluid state.
502 An Evaluation of Collective Mode of One-dimensional Fermi Gas., Shrawan Kumar* and L.K. Mishra
Collective mode of one- dimensional Fermi gas has been evaluated over the whole coupling regime from weak coupling (high density) to strong coupling (low density).The evaluation has been performed using theoretical model of Alam and Schuck taking attractive ? interaction potential under RPA approximation at zero temperature. We observe that in the weak-coupling limit particle-hole RPA approaches to low momenta and the collective mode in the strong coupling limit reproduces the Bogoliubov mode for the weakly interacting bosons. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
503 Effect of He-Ne Laser Radiation on Viscometric Behavior of Human Blood, Shikha Rathore1* and Basharath Ali 2
Laser-tissue interaction provides important information about the characteristics and behavior of biological tissues and living cells. Low intensity laser radiations are widely used in clinical practice since last 3 decades. The irradiation of blood is considered as the most efficient method for the bio stimulation of biological cells or living tissues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Low Level Laser Radiation (LLLR) on viscometric behavior of human blood. Coefficient of viscosity and size of erythrocytes are measured to understand the rheology of blood. These rheological measurements in clinical studies are generally concerned with the individual components of blood (erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets and plasma) which collectively influence blood viscosity. Therefore, it is appropriate to measure the viscosity at three different levels- tissue level (whole blood), cellular level (erythrocytes) and molecular level (plasma). To understand the viscometric behavior of whole blood a systematic study has been done. A significant change in the coefficient of viscosity and size of erythrocytes is observed with effect of laser radiation.
504 Algorithm for Direct Combinatorial Enumeration of Chiral and Achiral graphs of Homopolysubstituted Diamantane derivatives, Robert Martin Nembaa*, Alphonse Emadak and Christiane. E. Nemba
An Algorithm is given for direct combinationatorial enumeration of distinct skeletons of homopolysubstituted diamantane derivatives having the empirical formula 14 20-q q C H X where X is a non isomerisable ligand and q the degree of substitution. The averaged weights of permutations controlling respectively the chirality and the achirality fittingness are calculated for the parent diamantane in D3d symmetry and then converted into generalized formulas for computing ( ) c A 20,q and ( ) ac A 20,q which are the numbers of chiral and achiral skeletons for any diamantane molecule having a degree of homopolysubstitution 0 q 20 .
505 Composting Of Sewage Sludge Based On Different C/N Ratios, Ashish Kumar Nayak and Ajay S. Kalamdhad*
Sewage sludge is an unavoidable by-product of wastewater treatment processes; its disposal is generally costly or easy to contaminate the environment. Being rich in micro-and macronutrients, composting of sewage sludge is one of the important disposal alternatives. Nutrients balance plays a vital role in the composting process which is expressed as, carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of C/N ratios (15, 20, 25, and 30) with control on the agitated pile composting of sewage sludge during 30 days. It was observed that C/N 30 produced the best compost, showed highest temperature profile, higher loss in EC value, TOC, CO2 evolution, OUR, BOD, COD and higher gain in total nitrogen and phosphorus, implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized; and a Solvita maturity index of 8 indicated that the compost was stable and ready for usage as a soil conditioner. On analyzing the results by ANOVA, the physico-chemical, biological and stability parameters varied significantly during the 30 days composting process. Therefore, it can be suggested that the pile composting of sewage sludge at C/N 30 can produce more stable compost after 30 days, while, C/N 15, 20, 25 and control poses least stable.
506 Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Oil and Natural Gas Operations in Tanzania, Enock Chambile1* and Kwigema Malishee2
Tanzania is among developing countries striving to combat the global warming through encouraging the initiatives on switching to natural gas from fuel oil operations. The study was conducted to assess the dynamic changes on greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission shares to provide data to inform effective climate change mitigation strategies from oil and natural gas operations. The most three influential and long-lived greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were studied. The assessment was done to all imported oil types and natural gas generated from Songosongo gas project. The developed global warming potential revealed that CO2 emissions contained the largest share of 96% followed by N2O (4%) and CH4 (about 0%). Although there was a decrease in the amount of imported fuel oils and natural gas in 2008, the N2O emissions increased significantly from the base year 2007. However, the national GWP developed from year 1999 had the largest share of CO2 (61%), followed by CH4 (38%) and N2O (1%). Therefore, the study revealed the dynamic changes on Global Warming Potential (GWP) toward increasing shares of CO2 and N2O, especially if the modern natural gas economy will overlay the current agricultural economy.
507 Fractionation of Phosphorus in the Sediments of Kerala Coast, Manju. P. Nair and Sujatha C.H*.
This study gives the first report on the biogeochemical cycling and bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in the coastal sediments of Kerala along with the spatial changes of different P fractions in the sites. Sediments were collected from four prominent areas of Kerala Coast. Five major fractions of P were analyzed: ironbound P (FeP), calcium-bound P (CaP), acid- soluble P (AcidP), alkali-soluble P (AlkaliP) and residual fraction (RP). The ecological and geochemical transformation of P limits the cycling of P in the coastal sediments of the study area which reveals it as a limiting nutrient for the biological production. The Ca and Fe bound fractions were diminished in Cape and Trivandrum inferring that these inorganic P-fractions were readily available for plant growth in the site. But at Kollam and Cochin these fractions were comparatively high showing the nonavailable nature of P.
508 Concentration of Organo Chlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the Godavari River of East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh, David Wilson N1, Nageswara Rao I 2, Narasimha Reddy K3
This study reports the concentration levels and distribution pattern of the persistent pesticides residues in soil sediments of the Godavari river at Kotipalli and Dangeru basins collected seasonally over a period of one year. The soil sediment were collected from four different seasons i.e Pre-Monsoon, Onset- Monsoon, Monsoon and Post-Monsoon and analyzed for their pesticide profile. The study has shown the presence of organochlorine pesticides in the soil sediment of River Godavari at Kotipalli and Dangeru in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. We used Liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC-ECD for the determination of these compounds. Among the various pesticides analyzed, high concentration of DDT, Transchlordane, Cis-chlordane, Endosulfan,PP-DDE, Endo- Sulfansulfate and Endrinketone were observed in two basins of the river. The concentration of DDT in soil sediment was quite high which might be due to slow degradation of DDT in soil i.e. 75 100% in 4-30 years. The present study was first attempt to identify and quantify some selected pesticides in soil sediment of the river Godavari.
509 Determination of Fluoride in some areas of Srikakulam District in Andhra Pradesh, J.V.S.K.V.Kalyani1, A.V.L.N.S.H.Hariharan1 * and T.Siva Rao2
Analysis of well and bore well water samples for fluoride from fifteen sampling stations of Srikakulam district (Rural area) for a period of one year( 2012) during different seasons has been carried out.. The analysis of different parameters namely- temperature, pH and fluoride were carried out as per standard methods. The results were compared with the values stipulated by Indian standards for drinking water . It was found that the fluoride content of all the samples obtained was well below the permissible limits except one sampling station.
510 Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environment (Indore), Asutosh Kumar Pandey*
The atmospheric deposition of seven heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, and Cu,) at Indore. Based on the traffic density and preliminary air quality data, the city was categorized into four different zones namely, heavy traffic zone (Zone I), commercial zone (Zone II), residential zone (Zone III) and suburban zone (Zone IV). Three sampling stations were selected in each zone. Zone I include Bhawarkua Road, A.B road and Siaganj railway station area. Zone II is characterized by the city centre including Rajwada, Jawaher Marg and Sapna Sangeeta Road. R.N.T. Marg, Subhash Marg and M.G. Road areas have been included in Zone III and Ranjeet Hanuman Road, Bijasen Road and Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Campus represent Zone IV. Particulate samples were collected from all the 12 urban and suburban locations of Indore using deposition collectors and metal concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of heavy metals deposition rates, different zones considered in this study can be ranked in decreasing order as heavy traffic zone> commercial zone> residential zone> sub urban areas. Distributions of air borne heavy metals were correlated with meteorological variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity.
511 Fertility status of soils of Western Development Region, Nepal and comparison of macronutrients and soil reactions at different soil organic matter levels, S. Pandey*, K.B. Thapa** and I.B.Oli***
The soil sampling was done to collect 569 soil samples from Western Developmental Region, Nepal. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and soil pH were analyzed in the soil laboratory. After the analysis, the soil samples were classified according to organic matter level in the soil. Among those samples, 63 were high, 250 were medium and 256 were low in organic matter content. The plant nutrient status and the soil reaction of those samples were classified as the classification given by Pradhan. The number of the samples that falls in different categories were calculated and tabulated. Likewise, the average of soil pH, organic matter content, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were also calculated. The number of soil reaction mostly falls under acidic group, while most of the soil samples fall under low nutrient status (N, P and K). The average of the nutrients was higher in the higher organic matter containing soils than in the lower organic matter containing soils.
512 Seasonally Varying Limnology of a Tropical Irrigation Reservoir: Barna Reservoir, Arun Kumar Namdeo, Pradeep Shrivastava and Sarita Sinha*
Limnological assessment of Barna reservoir was done during January 2009 to December 2009 with the object to develop an idea about the ecological health of it. Sampling was carried out at predefined sampling stations and certain parameters were analyzed following the standard methods. The results make known the scenario of Barna reservoir as various natural and man made factors like weathering of rocks, climatic effect and use of fertilizers in agriculture, change in land use and other activities happening in catchment area posing a serious threat to its limnology.
513 Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination due to Overburden Leachate in Groundwater of Coal Mining Area, Avantika Chandra1* and M. K. Jain2
Groundwater contamination with heavy metals released from mining activities is a worldwide environmental problem. The leachate generated from mine waste Overburden dumps may have the potential to pollute the surrounding water resources. This study conducted to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations in the groundwater of coal mining area. Groundwater samples analyzed based on their heavy metal concentrations such as Co, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb. Subsequently, statistical methods employed to identify the controlling factors affecting the heavy metal constituents of the groundwater. Finally, the results were compared with the Drinking Water Quality Standard of the World Health Organization (WHO), India Standard for Drinking Water Specification (IS: 10500) and United States Environmental Protection Act (USEPA). The results of the present study indicate that, the concentration of Mn and Fe showed their presence in groundwater samples above the desirable limit recommended for the drinking water Quality Standards. Concentrations of other metals in most cases e found well within the threshold values. Concentration of Mn in the groundwater samples varied from
514 Heavy Metal analysis in Soil Samples of Heavy traffic zones of Hyderabad, A.P, Smita Asthana1, D. Sirisha2 and N. Gandhi2
The presences of heavy metals in the soil sediments are analyzed with respect to the pb. Lead in the soil sediments results mainly from the dry and wet deposition of atmospheric pb, particularly close to emission sources. The soil samples collected from the Mettuguda traffic signal area, Sitafalmandi signal area, parking area of Sitafalmandi and near railway tract of Sitafalmandi uppal and Tarnaka. The sampling areas of traffic signals were those along major through fare within the city have high traffic density and the regular routes of cars, buses, trucks, cycles, passage jeep and other motorized vehicles.
515 Physicochemical Characterization and Chlorination of Drilling Water Consumed In Brazzaville-Congo, Timolon Andzi Barh1* and Fulbert Bouaka2
The chlorination is a method of disinfection widely answered in the water treatment. This treatment aims at eliminating the pathogenic microorganisms, the bacteria, the viruses and the parasites as well as the majority of the less resistant germs. It is the means to supply a water drinkable. The purpose of our work is to check the quality of drillings waters consumed in Brazzaville (CONGO), by the determination of the physicochemical characteristics, in first stage, then breakpoint in the second stage, to determine the optimal dose of chlorine necessary for the disinfection of these waters.
516 Contributions of Automobile Mechanic Sites to Heavy Metals in Soil: A Case Study of North Bank Mechanic Village Makurdi, Benue State, Central Nigeria, Aloysius A. Pam *, Rufus ShaAto 1 and John O.Offem2
The distribution of six heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cd) in soil around North Bank automobile mechanic site in Benue State, North Central Nigeria were studied using AAS. Results of the analysis revealed that majority of heavy metal concentrations (mgkg-1 ) of the samples were above background levels and threshold limits recommended for soils in some countries. The results indicate the following levels Cu, (24.6mgkg-1), Pb (123 mgkg-1), Zn (42.7 mgkg-1), Mn (92.0mgkg-1), Ni (8.44mgkg-1) and Cd (0.60 mgkg-1) with a distribution pattern in the order: Pb>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cd. Factors which influence the mobility of metals in soils were determined such as pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, moisture content and soil texture. Geoaccumulation index values of the metals in soils under study showed that the environment is highly polluted with Pb and Cu, and to a lesser degree with Ni. Both Cd and Mn showed moderate pollution status while the soil remains unpolluted with Zn.
517 Physico-Chemical Quality Assessment of the Drinking Water in the Summer Season in Tetova, Durmishi H. Bujar1*, Arianit A. Reka1, Murtezan Ismaili2 and Agim Shabani1
Water is the most essential product that is consumed by humans, which must be prevented from deterioration in quality. The quality of drinking water becomes even more important as water borne diseases spread through water. For this purpose, we assess the quality of drinking water in the city of Tetova with some physico-chemical parameters, which have a significant role in determining the portability of drinking water. The obtained results were compared with Macedonian standards as well as with those set by the WHO and the EU. In this research, parameters such as temperature, pH, EC, TRAE, TDS, COD, TOC, DOC, nitrates and chlorides were found to be within the permissible limits, while turbidity and residual chlorine in some cases were found to be below ore above the recommended limit. Finally, the Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) developed by Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmentfor fifteen sample points is calculated. It has been found that drinking water in the 2011summer season was of an Excellent category (average value of DWQI = 95.26) and suitable for drinking. We recommend that the relevant municipal authorities make regular and proper amount disinfection of drinking water, as there is no compromise that can be made when it comes to the drinking water.
518 Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial studies of n'-(1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene)-2-oxo-2hchromene- 3-carbohydrazideand its metal complexes, K. Siddappa* and Mallikarjun Kote
A new complexes of the type ML and ML [where M=Cu (II), Co (II), and Ni(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) M=Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)]. L=N'-(1-(5-bromo-2- hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide (HL) Schiff base have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Visible and ESR data. The studies indicate the HL acts as doubly Monodentate Bridge for metal ions and form mononuclear complexes. The complexes Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes are found to be octahedral, where as Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes are four coordinated with tetrahedral geometry. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity.
519 Synthesis And Characterization of Cr(III) And Cu(II) Complexes of HexaazabipyH2, Sulekh Chandra1*, Rajavally Prem2 and Smriti Raizada3
A novel hexadentate nitrogen donor [N6] macrocyclic ligand, ie. Hexa azabipyH2 (L) has been synthesized. Cr(III) and Cu(II) complexes of this ligand have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, 1H NMR (ligand), IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. On the basis of molar conductance the Cr(III) complexes may be formulated as Cr(L)X3 and Cu(II) complexes may be formulated as Cu(L)X2, where X= Cl-, Br-, NO3 -, and CH3COO-. On the basis of IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been designated to Cr(III) and tetragonal for Cu(II) complexes.
520 On The Dipole Moment of Polar Molecules, Ruchitha Goonatilake and Raghuvarun Reddy Mutyala
In this experiment, the dipole moments of 1,2- and 1,3- dichlorobenzene were explored. This was done indirectly, by measuring the frequency to obtain the dielectric constant, and the index of refraction. The dipole moment of both molecules was determined using these values, through Hegestrands and Guggenheims methods. The values obtained from Hegestrands method were 2.77 D for 1, 2-dichlorobenzene and 1.89 D for 1, 3-dichlorobenzene. From Guggenheims method, the values of 0.21 D and 0.14 D were obtained for 1, 2- and 1, 3-dichlorobenzne, respectively. The dipole moment was found to decrease as the substituents been farther apart supporting the predictions. In addition, the data indicated that the experiment was performed with moderate success depicting its general trend.
521 2'-Hydroxy-4'-Butoxychalcone Oxime [HBCO] as a spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of Fe(III) ion in medicinal sample "Fefol"., Nilesh G. Limbachiya1and K. K. Desai2
The ligand 2'-Hydroxy-4'-butoxychalcone oxime (HBCO) was developed as a new analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric analysis of Fe (III) ion. In the pH range of 2.0 to 4.5 this reagent forms 70% aqueous ethanol soluble purple colored complex with Fe (III). Job's method of continuous variation and Yoe and Jone's mole ratio method revealed the stoichiometry of the complex to be 1:1 [M:L]. The obeyence of Beer's law was studied and the molar absorptivity was calculated. The reagent has been used to determine iron in medicinal sample "Fefol".
522 JCBPAT Research article 2438 J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci. Sec. A; Aug. 2013-Oct.2013; Vol.3, No.4; 2438-2445. Acoustical Studies of Some Benzo[d]thiazole Derivatives in 1, 4-Dioxane and N, NDimethylformamide At 303.15 K, Shipra Baluja*, Rahul Talaviya and Kapil Bhesaniya
The acoustical parameters of some synthesized benzo[d]thiazole derivatives have been studied from ultrasonic velocity and density measurements at different concentrations in 1,4-dioxane and N,N-dimethylformamide at 303.15 K. From these experimental data, some acoustical and apparent properties were evaluated. The results provide useful information about compound-compound and compound-solvent interactions and are of significant help in understanding the behavior of synthesized compounds in solutions.
523 Studies on Chalcone Derivatives Antioxidant and Stability Constant, R. Ravichandran, M. Rajendran*, D. Devapiriam
The drug cis-platin development has raised new issues like metal complexes in biochemistry. The modeling of their biochemical properties involves the accurate determination of thermodynamically data, like stability constants. The chalcone 2-hydroxychalcone and 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone have been synthesized and characterized with FT-IR,1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques. By using UV visible spectroscopy method the mole fraction ratio for Copper, Nickel and Zinc with 2-hydroxychalcone and 2-hydroxy-3,4- dimethoxychalcone complexes were determined and it was found to be 1:1. The stability constants of this complex have been determined by Jobs method. The stability constant (Kf) of Copper, Zinc and Nickel with 2-hydroxychalcone complexes in acetate buffer pH = 4.4 were determined to be 8.8 x 105 , 1.34 x 105 and 5.6 x 105 respectively. The Kf of Copper, Zinc and Nickel with 2-hydroxy-3,4- dimethoxychalcone were determined at the same pH and that the values are 5.2 x 105 , 5.4 x 104 and 2.5 x 104 respectively. Antioxidant activity of these chalcones was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals scavenging methods, which showed that the antioxidant activity of 2-hydroxychalcone has higher value than the 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone. Semi-empirical study results shows that2-hydroxychalcone have higher dipole moment than 2-hydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone.
524 Ultrasonic Studies of Some Alkali Metal Chlorides in Aqueous Citric Acid at Different Temperatures, Shashi Kant and Manish Kumar
The density (?) and sound velocity (u) has been measured for LiCl, NaCl and KCl in 0.01 mol kg-1 aqueous citric acid solution at four different temperatures T =((303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K).These parameters were then used to obtain different acoustic functions such as adiabatic compressibility (?), intermolecular free length (Lf),specific acousticimpedance (Z), solvation number(SN) and molar compressibility(W). The ion- solvent and ion-ion interactions in the system have been discussed using these parameters. The effect of LiCl, NaCl and KCl on these interactions as well as on the solvent structure has also been discussed.
525 A Comparative Study of Antimicrobial and DNA Clevage Activity of Metal(II) Complexes of Coumarin Derivatives, Disha Tilala1*, Manish Solanki2, Denish Karia3
New transition metal complexes of the composition, M[L(H2O)]2, where M= Fe(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cu(II); L= ligands prepared from 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-8- methylpyrano[3,2-c]chromene-2,5-dione(LI) and 4-hydroxy-8-methyl-3-(3-oxobutyanoyl) pyrano [3,2-c]chromen-2,5-dione (LII), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyser, conductivity measurement, IR, UV-Vis. and 1H-NMR spectral techniques. The low conductance data provide evidence for the non-ionic nature of the complexes. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their complexes have been studied by screening the compounds against the bacteria E. coli and B. megaterium and also the fungi C. albicans and A. niger. The data indicate that most of the metal complexes have higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. The DNA cleavage experiments, performed using gel electrophoresis with the corresponding metal complexes in the presence of H2O2 showed good results.
526 Oxidation of Zinc Complex (II) Derived from 8-Hydroxy Quinoline and Salicylaldehyde in Acid Medium: A Kinetic Study, Sayyed Hussain1, Takale Surendra1, Wankhede D. N.2
The kinetic of oxidation of Zinc Complex (II) derived from 8-hydroxy quinoline and salicylaldehyde by potassium permanganate has been studied in the presence of acidic medium. The reaction is first order with respect to KMnO4 as well as Metal complex concentration. The reaction rate has been determined at different temperature and different thermodynamic parameters have been calculated which shows that the reaction rate increases with increase in temperature. With increase in the concentration of acid the reaction rate increase. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.
527 2'-Hydroxy-4'-Butoxychalcone Oxime [HBCO] as a Gravimetric and Spectrophotometric Reagent for the Determination of Pd(II)., Nilesh G. Limbachiya1 and K. K. Desai2
The ligand 2'-Hydroxy-4'-butoxychalcone oxime (HBCO) was developed as a gravimetric and spectrophotometric reagent for the determination of Pd(II) ion. In the pH range of 2.0 to 5.0 this reagent forms 70% ethanol soluble yellow colored complex with Pd(II). Job's method of continuous variation and Yoe and Jone's mole ratio method revealed the stoichiometry of the complex to be 1:2 [M:L].The obeyence of Beer's law was studied and the molar absorptivity was calculated.
528 Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some ?,?-Unsaturated Cyclohexanone and Their Pyrazoline, Isoxazolines Derivatives, A. Wasi1, Bhupendra Kumar Sharma2 , Ashish Kumar Gupta3 and Kumud Intodia1
Condensation of cyclohexanone with substituted benzaldehyde in presence of neutral alumina under microwave irradiation affords substituted ?,?? unsaturated cyclohexanone in quantitative yields. Which undergoes cyclization with hydrazines (Phenylhydrazine,2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine, semicarbazide and thiosemicarbazide) to afford a series of novel 7-(substituted benzylidene)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2- (substituted)-3, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7-hexahydro-2H-indazole derivatives. Some new 7- (substituted benzylidene)-3-(substituted phenyl)-3, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7-hexahydrobenzo[c] isoxazole derivatives were also synthesized in quantitative yields by cyclococondensation of substituted ?, ?? unsaturated cyclohexanone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride under microwave irradiation. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by their analytical and spectral data. All the synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Almost all compounds have shown excellent activity against some Multi Drug Resistant bacteria.
529 Synthesis and in Vitro Antibactarial and Anti Fungal Activity of Trisubstituted S-Triazines, Anil Rathavi*, Maharshi Shukla, 1M. K. Thakor
Ten compounds have been synthesized in a series of [1, 3, 5] triazine analogues which, in addition to 9-ethyl-9H carbazol-3-amine, contain morpholine and different Amines as well as piperidine substituents on the C-6 position of s-triazine ring. The title compounds were then evaluated for their in vitro microbial activity against 2 gram Ve bacteria (E.coli, P. aeruginosa), 2 gram +Ve bacteria (S. aerues, B. subtilis) and 2 fungal species (C. albicans and A. niger). The most of the synthesized compounds have shown promising antimicrobial activity. All the final compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of IR, 1H NMR, and other elemental analysis.
530 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Azetidin-2-one Containing Acetyl Pyrazoline Derivatives, Shailesh H.Shah*1, Niraj Shah3, Pankaj S.Patel2
Pyrazolines are very important Nitrogen containing five member heterocyclic chemical compounds and various methods have been worked out for their synthesis. A new series of 4-(4-Chloro phenyl)-3-chloro-1-{4-[5-(Substituted phenyl)-1-acetyl-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-3-yl]phenyl}azetidin-2-one are synthesized by reacting 3-chloro-1-{4-[5-(Substituted phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-pyrazol-3-yl]phenyl}-4- (4-Chloro phenyl)azetidin-2-one (0.001M) with Acetic Acid in presence of Pyridine. All these compounds were characterized by means of their IR, 1H NMR, Spectroscopic data and pharmaceutical analysis. All the compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal biological activities by broth dilution method
531 Polyethylene Glycol: Support as a Catalyst in the Synthesis of Novel Thiophene Chalcones, Asha Lavania *, Manju Yadav, Kiran Dasary and Anita V K Anand
Chalcones with Excellent yields and purity were obtained in short time duration in the presence of Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) which acted as a soluble polymer support and catalyst at low temperature. In present work, a series of novel chalcones (a-h) were prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation, by the reaction of 2-acetyl-5-chloro thiophene with different aromatic aldehydes in the presence of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, ethanol and PEG 400 used as a catalyst at room temperature. The structures of the various synthesized compounds are assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1 HNMR and mass spectral data.
532 Kinetic Study of Tungstophosphoric Acid Catalyzed Oxidative Degradation of Butane-2,3-Diol by N-Chlorosaccharin, S.K. Singh*1,H.D. Gupta1, Gurpreet Kaur2, Parampreet Kaur1 and , Ratan Kaur1
The kinetics of oxidation of butane-2,3-ol by N-chlorosaccharin (NCSA)in presence of tungstophosphoric acid has been studied. The reaction follows identical kinetic being first order in each, NCSA, butane-2,3-diol, tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) and H+ concentration. The reaction is TPA and acid catalyzed. A negative effect of acetic acid is observed. Various thermodynamic parameters have been computed. Stoichiometric study revealed 1:1 mole ratio. On the basis of thermodynamic parameters and stoichiometry a plausible mechanism has been proposed and rate law has been derived.
533 Studies on Co-Ordination Polymers of 5, 5-(6-(4- Chlorophenoxy)-1, 3, 5-Triazine-2, 4-Diyl)Bis (Azanediyl)Bis(2-Hydroxybenzoic Acid), Kiran R.Chaudhari1 and J.A.Chaudhari2
Co-ordination polymers of novel bis ligand namely 5,5'-(6-(4- chlorophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(2-hydroxybenzoic acid)(CSL- 2) have been prepared with various metal complexes viz Zn+2, Cu+2, Ni+2, Co+2 and Mn+2. The novel bis bidentate ligand (CSL-2) is synthesized by condensation of 5-amino salicylic acid with 2,4-dichloro-6- (4-chlorophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine in presence of base catalyst. All these co-ordination polymers and parent ligand are characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and diffuse reflectance spectral studies for their structure determination.The thermal stability was evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses(TGA). In addition, all of the coordination polymers have been characterized by their magnetic susceptibilities. The microbicidal activities of all the samples have been monitored against plant pathogens.
534 Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Simulated Concrete Pore Solution in Presence of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose, Shanthi T*1 and S. Rajendran S2
Corrosion resistance of mild steel in simulated concrete pore solution (SCPS) Prepared in well water in the absence and presence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and Zn2+has been evaluated by weight loss method. It is observed that when CMC is added the corrosion inhibition efficiency (IE) increases. As the concentration of CMC increases, inhibition efficiency decreases. 50 ppm of CMC has 98 % IE . 100 ppm of CMC shows 95% IE. When 50 ppm of Zn2+is added to the above system , both system shows 90% and 80% IE.The mechanistic aspects of corrosion inhibition have been investigated by polarization study and AC impedance spectra. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study confirms the protection of mild steel surface by strong adsorption of CMC.
535 Efficient acylation of phenols and amines under solvent free and catalyst free conditions, Deepa Panhekar a*, Ashok Kalambe b and Shridhar Satputeb
Catalyst free and solvent free acylation of phenols and amines using acetic anhydride under microwave irradiation is reported. The acetate is obtained in high yield after a short reaction time compared to conventional method.
536 Production and optimization of L-Glutaminase (EC.3.5.1.2) by serratia marcescens using wheat bran under statistical designs, Production and optimization of L-Glutaminase (EC.3.5.1.2) by serratia marcescens using wheat bran under statistical designs
L-Glutaminase majorly produced by micro organism including bacteria, yeast and fungi. L-Glutaminase mainly catalyzes the hydrolysis of ?-amido bond of L-Glutamine. In this report, Optimization of the culture medium for L-Glutaminase production using serratia marcescens was carried out. The optimization of L-Glutaminase production using Wheat bran as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of ten nutrients for their influence with Wheat bran on L-Glutaminase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. The basal medium contained Peptone 30 g/L, Manganous sulphate 0.7 g/L, K2HPO4 0.7 g/L, NaCl 9 g/L was selected based on their higher influence on L-Glutaminase production. After medium components optimization, the Temperature, pH, Time, composition of the Wheat bran, and Inoculum size was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The predicted optimum levels are as follows: Temperature 28.43 0C, pH 6.07, Time 67.96 h, wheat bran 26 g/L and Inoculum size 1.30 %. This medium components and parameters were projected theoretically to produce an L-Glutaminase activity of 2299.96 IU/ml. Theused methodology was validated using this optimized media components and parameters; the L-Glutaminase activity 2285 IU/ml was obtained.
537 Weight Variation and Its Effect on Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Total Protein Concentration in the Brain Regions and Hypophyses of Pigs in the Tropics, 1Amata, I.A and 2D.O. Adejumo
In an experiment to determine the effects of variations in weight on the acetycholinesterase (AChE) activity and total protein concentration in the brain regions and hypophyses of pigs commercially reared in the tropics, a total of 80 pigs were sorted into 8 body weight categories with 10 pigs in each body weight category. The pigs were sacrificed and their brain regions and hypophyses assayed for AChE activity and for total protein concentration. The body weight categories were 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80, 81-90 and 91-100kg. Bothe sexes were equally represented in each category. Acetylcholinesterase activity was highest in the amygdala, hippocamus and mid-brain of pigs within the 41-70kg weight categories and lowest in the cerebral cortex of pigs within the 31-40kg weight category although the differences were not significant (P>0.05). Variations in mean Specific Acetylcholinesterase (SAChE) activity and in mean concentration of total proteins with pig body weight and brain regions/hypophyses were highly significant (P
538 Estimation of the Type and Quantity of Sugar in Milk, Ajit V Pandya, Dhigesh Joshi, Sheban Vora and Ajay Vishwakarma
Sugar/Carbohydrate is widely present in all the living substances hence it is called the staff of life. It is present as a storage form in all the fruits, vegetables in its various forms and quantities. It was determined through a series of experiments performed on a selected sample of cow milk as the research material and the results revealed that it contained mainly one sugar: Lactose. The lactose gives milk its sweet taste and contributes approximately 40% of whole cow's milk's calories. Lactose is a disaccharide composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. The quantity of sugar was estimated to the value of 4.7 gm in 100gm of milk. The values obtained are within the range. Milk contains Lactose, Casein protein, fat and fat soluble vitamins. Under certain conditions, the sugar content of the milk may vary such as degree of freshness and contamination of milk, type of animal from which the milk is obtained, time of milching the cow or any other animal and the methods used during milching It is recommended to consume milk regularly and in large quantities in order to fulfill the nutritional requirements of the body.
539 Evaluation of Beneficial Effects of Medicago Sativa (Alfalfa) In Iron-Overload Conditions, Rinal Patel*and Pravin Tirgar
In medicine, iron overload indicates accumulation of iron in body from any cause. The most important causes are thalassemia, hereditary haemochromatosis (HHC) and transfusional iron overload, which can result from repeated blood transfusion. Aim of present study is to investigate in-vivo iron chelating potential and beneficial effects of Medicago sativa in iron overload and its complications. Iron chelating and organo protective activity of methanolic (250 mg/kg) and water (500 mg/kg) extracts of Medicago sativa along with standard drug desferoxamine were assessed against irondextran induced iron overload models in Wistar rats which results in condition of chronic iron overload found in thalassemia patients. At the end of 15 and 30 days of in-vivo trial, serum iron and ferritin , urine and fecal iron levels including complications on vital organ by histopathological study and test for biomarkers were (SGPT, SGOT, Serum creatinine, creatine kinase) were estimated to measure organo protective effects. There were significant decreased in serum iron, ferritin were observed compared to iron overloaded rats. These beneficial effects were observed because methanol and water extracts of M. sativa increased excretion of iron in urine and fecal due to iron chelation property of extract. Organo-protective effects on liver, heart and kidney of both extracts of M. sativa in iron overloaded rats were confirmed by histopathological study and reduction in various markers like SGPT, SGOT, creatinine, creatinine kinase levels. Data of our study confirmed that methanol and water extracts of Medicago sativa have significant iron chelating activity and organo-protective effects in iron overload conditions which is very beneficial in management of iron overload disorders like thalassemia, haemochromatosis like conditions.
540 Analysis of Ascorbic Acid Contents in White Guava and Red Guava, Ajit V Pandya and Dave Nidhi K
Ascorbic Acid is essential for all the living cells. An Important source of Ascorbic Acid is Guava fruit. Crops with additional healthpromoting and nutritional benefits, such as White and Red Guava, are increasingly gaining momentum both for health professionals and consumers. This Guava fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, carbohydrates etc. The result revealed difference in that ascorbic acid content of Red and White Guava The comparative analysis revealed that Red Guava content rich ascorbic acid than White Guava.
541 Bacterial Contamination of Personal Mobile Phones in Iraq, Husam Sabah Auhim
The high prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from mobile phones was attributed to the poor hygienic and sanitary practices. In general the rate of bacterial contamination of personal mobile phones was 82.5%, in personal mobile phones for male the rate of bacterial contamination was 85% while in personal mobile phones for female was 80%. Generally the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence were Staphylococcus aureus (45%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (27.5%) Bacillus spp. (52.5%) and Esherichia coli (12.5%), in personal mobile phones for male the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence were Staphylococcus aureus (50%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (25%), Bacillus spp. (50%) and Esherichia coli (25%), while in personal mobile phones for female were Staphylococcus aureus (40%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (30%), Bacillus spp. (55%) Esherichia coli (0.0 %). the result showed that there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the microorganisms isolated and their percentage frequency of occurrence between personal mobile phones for male and female. The research findings indicate that staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus spp. are the main bacterial isolates frequently associated with personal mobile phones.
542 Physical Characteristics of Raw, Processed And Stored Honey Of Indigenous Giant Bee Apis Dorsata F. And Hive Bee Apis Cerana Indica In And Around Bangalore Rural And Urban Districts, Balasubramanyam, M.V.
Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected in and around Bangalore rural and urban districts and its physical characteristics of refractive index, optical density, viscosity and surface tension in raw, processed and stored honey were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. All the four physical characteristics tested in three grades of honey samples exhibited quantitative variations. The refractive index of A. dorsata and A.cerana raw honey was 1.47 and 1.48 respectively. Similarly optical density of processed honey of A. cerana and A.dorsata was 0.61 and 0.64 respectively. . The viscosity of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 76.82 poise and 78.94 poise respectively. Further, surface tension of A. dorsata and A.cerana stored honey was 102.31 dynes/cms and 104.13 dynes/cms respectively. The refractive index of A.dorsata raw honey was less than that of stored honey of A.dorsata. The optical density of processed honey of A.dorsata was more than of processed honey of A. cerana. Viscosity and surface tension of processed honey was less than raw and stored honey in A.dorsata and A.cerana. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of viscosity and surface tension of raw, processed and stored honey of A.dorsata and A.cerana was significant at p
543 Biochemical and Molecular Characterization and Diagnosis of Mastitis: A Review, Subhasree Patnaik1, Arun Prasad1, Subha Ganguly2*, Madhurendra Bachan3, Dimdim Gangmei4 and Ravuri Halley Gora5
Mastitis is one of the most economically important diseases of dairy industries around the world producing great economic loss to farmers. It occurs in clinical and sub-clinical forms. Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology.
544 Heavy Metal Accumulation in Certain Marine Edible Fishes along the Gulf of Manner in Kilakarai, Taminadu, India, M. Anand*1 and P. Kumarasamy*2
Contamination of heavy metals, namely, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Ferric and Zinc were evaluated in the selected edible marine fishes of Dussumieria acuta, Tenualosa ilisha and Sardinella longiceps at Gulf of Mannar region in Kilakarai collected during the January 2012. The selected three marine edible fishes accumulated varying the quantities of different heavy metals. The selected fishes were carefully dissected for determination of heavy metals. The level of heavy metals was determined using ELICOs SL- 176 double beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The distribution of heavy metals in selected fishes analyzed was in the order of magnitude as by Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni and Zn. The result shows the Zinc concentration were the maximum levels followed by the Cd>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co. It is revealed that the heavy metal concentrations in the selected marine edible fishes are below the threshold level associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. The bio-concentration factors revealed that the fishes have accumulated heavy metals along the food chain rather than from the water column and sediment.
545 Mastitis, an Infection of Cattle Udder: A Review, Subhasree Patnaik1, Arun Prasad1and Subha Ganguly2*
Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology1. It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects quality and quantity of milk2. Mastitis is usually caused by bacteria that invade the udder, multiply and produce toxins which are harmful to the mammary gland3. It remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world producing great economic loss to farmers. There are two forms of mastitis viz., clinical mastitis (CM) and Sub clinical mastitis (SCM).
546 Rhizospheric Bacteria with the Potential for Biological Control of Parthenium hysterophorus, Vishwas Shankar Patil
Partenium hysterophorus is a serious weed of the country. Parthenium weed decreases the primary agricultural production and also causes health problems in humans and animals. The use of microorganisms as a biological agent for weed control is a recent approach and is gaining importance. Deleterious rhizospheric bacteria have potential to suppress plant growth. Rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from seedlings and mature plants of Parthenium hysterophorus. Rhizobacterial isolates were tested to inhibit the growth of target weed species and crop plants under laboratory conditions. Three bacterial isolates were found to be promising and were further tested on weed and crop plants under glasshouse conditions.
547 Recommendation of flaA and flaB as housekeeping genes in detection of Helicobacter pylori, Masome Madhi1, Farkhonde Poursina1, Sharare Moghim1 , Farzad khademi1 Peiman Adibi2 .Jamshid Faghr1 , Hussein Fazeli1 ,Bahram Nasr Esfahani1,
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has unipolar flagella made up of FlaA and FlaB proteins encoded by flaA and flaB genes. These regions are conserved and can be found in all strains of H. pylori. In this study based on bioinformatics methods, flaA and flaB nucleotide sequences of forty H.pylori complete genomes were extracted from NCBI databank and aligned with MEGA4 software. Based on conserved regions of flaA and flaB genes, 6 primer pairs were designed by AlleleID6 software. The designed primers were compared with glmM primers. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed with six primer pairs, twenty clinical samples and H. pylori 26695 as positive control. Primer Blast showed that three pairs of our designed primers were able to detect all 40 standard strains while glmM primers used in many papers were not capable of detecting all 40 standard strains of H. pylori. Although, few missense and some silent mutations, in comparison with H. pylori26695, were identified in flaA and flaB genes in this study, there was more semblance between them and other standard strains. So, it would be better to use these
548 A Histochemical Study of Neurosecretory Cells in the Adult Spodoptera Litura (F.), M M Shaikh1, J D Shaikh1 and Vidya Pradhan2
The present paper describe the histochemical study of neurosecretoy cells in the adult Spodoptera litura which are collected from caster plant. In the present insect Spodoptera litura the neurosecretory cells are present in medium, lateral and posterior part of protocerebrum of second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth instars larvae and pupal stage.
549 Invitro culture of Stevia rebaudiana var Bertoni, Patil, N.M.
The effect of different plant growth regulators on explants was studied by In vitro culture technique in Stevia rebaudiana var Bertoni, an important medicinal, zerocalorie value, sweet tasting and antidiabetic herb. For effective shoot initiation, nodal segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoogs (MS) medium supplemented with varying plant growth regulator combinations. The control was compared with the medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and BAP for shoot induction and 2, 4-D and IAA for callus induction. The best results were obtained from MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA at the concentrations of 2.0 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l for shoot initiation and 2.5mg/l and 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D and IAA for callus induction respectively. Further study on development of plantlets invitro and their hardening are in progress.
550 Fish Diversity in two Tributaries of River Narmada, Central India., Vipin Vyas and Kripal Singh Vishwakarma
In the present study on Sip and Jamner River tributaries of River Narmada in Central India, between May 2011 and April 2012. The fish composition comprised 34 species of fishes belonging to 17 genera, 8 families and 3 orders were identified. A total of 427 and 112 individuals were caught from Sip and Jamner stations, respectively. The most abundant group of fish was the Cypriniforimes. The dominant species, Rasbora daniconius consisted 30.08%of the population. Fisheries resources are on the decline in India due to over exploitation and inadequate management of her inland waters. For sustainability of these resources, an adequate knowledge of species composition, diversity and relative abundance of her water bodies must be understood and vigorously pursued.
551 Seasonal Variation of Physicochemical Parameters of Selected Floodplain Wetlands of West Bengal, Golam Ziauddin, S. K. Chakraborty, A. K. Jaiswar and Utpal Bhaumik1
The meandering nature of the river Ganga in its lower course in West Bengal has given rise to a large number of floodplain wetlands, mostly open-type of ox-bow lakes, mainly in the districts of Burdwan, Nadia and North 24 Parganas. Floodplain wetlands are considered among the most productive ecosystems and play a very important role in socio-economic condition of the region as they are used for commercial fishery. Realizing the importance of such wetlands and paucity of literature on the physicochemical characteristics of this ecosystem, investigations were carried out in Kole beel, an ox-bow lake formed near Somra bazar in Hooghly district, during the period 2011-2012. An investigation was carried out in two floodplain wetlands with open (Kole) and closed (Suguna) system. Seasonal fluctuations in water column were conspicuous and mostly dependent on the replenishment resources and volume. Studies were undertaken to assess the general physico-chemical condition of water during this period. The lake is infested with dense growth of aquatic vegetation belonging to the submerged, floating and emergent types, providing diverse habitats for different faunal communities. It is alkaline in nature with the pH varying between 7.5-8.4. The dissolved oxygen content and Secchi Disc transparency values reflect the pristine condition of the water. The water was moderately hard and the nutrients were present only in trace amounts.
552 Influence of CaCl2 on Physico-chemical, Sensory and Microbial Quality of Apricot cv. Habi at Ambient Storage, Sartaj Ali*1, Tariq Masud2, Talat Mahmood2, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi3 and Amjed Ali1
Apricot is a highly perishable fruit of immense nutritional and health promoting potentials. However, short storage life of the fruit hampers its distant marketing. The present investigation was undertaken to assess some affordable postharvest techniques to extend shelf life of apricot. Local apricot variety cv. Habi was treated with various concentrations of calcium chloride (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) packed in corrugated cartons along with potassium permanganate dipped sponge cubes as ethylene scavengers. Postharvest quality traits as fruit firmness, weight loss, TSS, sugars, sensory characteristics and microbial load were recorded at 2 day intervals during ambient storage. Minimum losses in firmness and fruit weight, while maximum retention of total sugars and sensory attributes were obtained for 3 and 2% CaCl2 treated samples. The results of microbial study demonstrated lower microbial loads for 4% CaCl2 concentration followed by 3% during ambient storage. The overall results revealed that treated fruits with 3% concentration significantly maintained freshness and quality attributes up to 12 days. In conclusion, it may be recommended that 3% calcium chloride dip for three minutes may be applied as a postharvest treatment in improving storage life of apricot for distant marketing of the perishable commodity.
553 Floristic Analysis of Manendragarh Flora District-Koria (Chhattisgarh) INDIA, Mantosh Kumar Sinha1* and Deepima Sinha2
Koria district in Chhattisgarh lies between 22 58' and 23 51' North Latitude and 8159' and 82 45' East Longitude and has a forest area of 81.23%. Average rainfall is 121.36 cm. and annual mean temperature is 24C.The district is dominated by Upper Gondwana rocks which are rich in deposition of coal. The district has a sizeable tribal population using enormous range of plants for their basic needs, sustenance and livelihood. The district has very rich plant diversity, including medicinal plants. Some plants species are on the verge of extinction. Keeping these points in view the present investigation was planned to enumerated floristic analysis of the medicinal plants observed in the wild conditions reveals that there are 284 genera and 364 species distributed in 93 families of seed plants. Three genera and four species of pteridophytes were also observed. Analysis also shows that there are 235 genera and 304 spp. representing dicot plants and 49 genera and 60 spp. representing monocots. The familywise Dicot/Monocot Ratio was 6.75; whereas, generawise D:M ratio was 4.79. At species level it was found to be 5.06. The generic coefficient was found to be 78.021.
554 Assessment of the Risk Factors of Oral Candidiasis among Commercial Sex Workers in Ijebu Ode Local Government Area of Ogun Satate, Nigeria, Quadri J.A1, Ojure M.A2 and Mosobalaje F.K3
Small amount of candida fungus are present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people and are normally kept in check by other bacteria and microorganisms in the body. However, certain factors such as low immunity, oral sex, long term and long term antibiotic therapy, can disturb the delicate balance, causing the fungus candida to grow out of control, causing thrush. This research was carried out to assess the risk factors of oral candidacies among commercial sex workers in Ijebu-Ode area of Ogun state. Purposive sampling method was used to select the areas for the study while simple randomly sampling was used to select the fifty (50) commercial sex workers. Questionnaire was administered and analyzed using chi-square test at 0.05 level of significance. The finding shows that 48% of the subjects were at different time on long term antibiotics therapy while 40% do practice oral sex which is one of the major risk factors of oral candidiasis; it also showed that 40% commercial sex workers had STI (sexually transmitted infection) at different times. It appeared from the result that 44% of commercial sex workers have experienced oral candidiasis. Two of the three hypotheses were accepted. The outcome of the research shows that there is need for more education on the risk factors of oral candidiasis among commercial sex workers and teenagers, so that the menace of this deadly disease can reduced if not totally eradicated.
555 Studies on the production of Neutral Protease by Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 using Lablab purpureus seed powder under solid state fermentation, D. Siva Rama Prasad1* and K. Jaya Raju2
Among all the enzymes proteases have significant role. Proteases are the enzymes which causes the breakdown of proteins. In view of wider applications of these proteases, in the present study the production of neutral protease using Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 carried out under solid state fermentation. Various substrate powders (Lablab purpureus seeds, Diascoria alata, Tamarind seeds, Water melon peel, papaya peel ) were screened for the maximum yield of enzyme and it was found that Lablab purpureus seed powder has more potential to serve as a substrate for neutral protease production by the fungal strain Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215. Various physico-chemical fermentation parameters were studied and optimized for the production of highly active neutral protease. The parameters optimized are fermentation time (4 days), fermentation temperature (400C), optimum pH (7), initial moisture content (160%), inoculums age (4 days old) and inoculums volume (1ml). The effect of supplements like carbon source lactose (1%) and nitrogen source casein (0.5%) were studied and maximum yield obtained is 258.57 U/gds. The proteases have wider applications in the field of food, pharmaceuticals and leather industries etc.
556 Treatment Strategies against Female Reproductive Lead Toxicity: A Review, Ragini Sharma and Khushbu Panwar*
Environmental endocrine disruptors have been at the heart of discussion about chemicals and their effects on fertility, but the focus on the heavy metals and the role of antioxidants during developing stages has been largely overlooked. Lead induced oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of lead poisoning by disrupting the delicate pro oxidant or antioxidant balance that exists within mammalian cells. The role of chelating agents in lead poisoning is controversial. Most of the chelating agents tend to have adverse side effects and the benefits are transitory. The chelating agents cannot be used during developing stages as this period is highly sensitive to these agents and chelators have concomitant and injurious side effects on development. The assumption of oxidative stress as a mechanism in lead toxicity suggests that antioxidants or vitamins might play a role in treatment of lead induced toxicity. In the present review methods of screening for sub-clinical lead poisoning along with dietary treatment and prevention are discussed.
557 Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of banana juice produced and consumed in Bweramana (Rwanda), Claver Fatakanwa1* and Lopord Dufitumukiza2
Banana juice and other derivatives foods of banana are of most important to Rwandan peoples. Although such highly preferred, if banana juice is not well processed and preserved it may lead to different diseases. The aim of this study is the biological and physico-chemical analyses of banana juice produced and consumed in Bweramana sector of Rwanda. Samples were analyzed for yeasts and molds which were found to be of 9.0x101 cfu/mL; total mesophilic aerobic flora with 2.0x104 cfu/mL which was found to exhibit the very high value. Interestingly, salmonella and shigella the same as Escherchia coli were absent. Fecal coliforms and RAS (anaerobic) were both of them found with a low value;
558 Estimation of Food and Feeding Habit of an Endangered Fish Mahseer (Tor tor) in Culture Pond at Powerkheda Fish Farm, Central India, Jyoti Sharma1*, Alka Parashar1 and R.K. Garg2
The present investigation is undertaken to analyze the food and feeding habit of an endangered mahseer T. tor (a state fish of Madhya Pradesh) under pond conditions at the fish farm of fisheries federation, Powerkheda, Hoshangabad, India. Gut analysis showed that plant matter formed the main component of the gut contents and constituted about 45.31 % of the total food consumed, while insects constituted 22.65 %, molluscs 8.70%, algae 15.59%, and debris 3.59 %. The percentage of artificial feed was 4.762 %. However, the relative gut length (RGL) ranged from 0.421-2.112 and gastro-somatic index (GaSI) ranged from 1.39-3.66 % indicating their omnivorous tendency. The present study shows that, by providing different environmental condition to T. tor it accepts wide range of food available which suggest that, it can be cultured in various conditions that is important for its conservation and protection. The study provides important information on feeding index, index of preponderance, diet preference and feeding strategies which could be useful for aquaculture enhancement of this potential species for conservation significance.
559 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Lantana camara Linn, Richa Sharma1, Rashmi Shrivastava,1 Jyotsna Mishra,2 and Sunil Dubey2
Lantana camara is a significant weed which is a low erect or subscandent, vigorous shrub with stout recurved prickles and a strong odour of black currents. The plant is spread widely in all over Madhya Pradesh state of India. Successive extracts from the whole plants of Lantana camara Linn (Verbanaceae) were used for their phytochemical screening. Hence, the present study describes the preliminary phytochemical screening and percentage yields of the various extracts like methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and distilled water isolated from the whole plant of Lantana camara Linn.
560 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn, Rashmi Shrivastava,1 Richa Sharma1, Jyotsna Mishra,2 and Sunil Dubey2
Phytochemical are secondary metabolites found in one or more parts of the plants for their defense. Keeping this view in mind the present study was carried out in Euphorbia thymifolia (Linn.) plants collected from Vidisha (M.P.), India. The extracts obtained in ethanol by soxhletion gave the percentage yield (7.4%) and its phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, carbohydrates, glycosides, triterpenes, tannins, steroids and the absence of saponins and proteins.
561 Preparation and Characterization of Mn Doped NiCuZn ferrite., B. D. Ingalea, M. A. Barotea*
The ferrite composition [Ni0.25-xMn.xCu.2Zn0.55] Fe2O4 with values x= 0.00, 0.05, 0.1 were synthesized by auto combustion method. XRD analysis of prepared ferrite powder shows the cubic spinal structure. The crystallite size of prepared ferrite is varied from 22.3 to 39.3 nm the resultant powder were calcined at 650 0C/2hr and the pressed ferrite were sintered at 950 0C/4hr the initial permeability, dc resistivity were measured with frequency range 100Hz to 5MHz. The permeability is found to be increase up to x=0.1 and dc resistivity was decreased with Mn Substitution. The very high permeability in the composition x=0.1 was due to better densification and lower magnitostriction constant. The lattice parameter are also slightly increases from x=0 to=0.1. The composition is better than the NiCuZn based material. It is useful for Multilayer chip inductor.
562 Experimental Studies on Heat Transfer Using Plate Heat Exchanger, Jyoti K Javanjal and Madan Parande
A Plate Heat Exchangers is designed and fabricated. Experimental runs were conducted to study effect of parameters such as, properties of the fluid, flowrates, turbulence and temperature on the performance characteristics. The data presented is of industrial importance
563 A Theoretical Study of Alkali Doped Boron- Nitride (BN Fullerene) For Hydrogen Storage, V.K. Verma1, Deepak kumar2 & L.K.Mishra1
Using the theoretical formalism by N.S.Venkataramanan et.al1, we has studied the alkali doped Boron-nitride (BN) fullerene for hydrogen storage. Due to increase threats from global warming, hydrogen holds tremendous promise as a new and clean energy options .Hydrogen is a convenient, safe, versatile fuel source that can be easily converted to a desired form of energy without releasing harmful emission. However, no material was found to satisfy the desired goals and hence there is hunt for new materials that can store hydrogen reversibly at ambient condition. We have observed that doping of transition elements reduce the gravimetric density of hydrogen. In case of alkali doped BN (Boron-nitride) the charge is transferred from dopant to nanocage. The binding energies of hydrogen on these systems were found to be in the range of 0.1eV to 0.2eV which are ideal for the practical application in a reversible system. We obtained that the maximum hydrogen capacity of Li doped BN fullerene is 8.5wt %.
564 Comparative Study of Ternary Liquid Mixtures Containing Benzene and Substituted Benzene, Manoj Ku. Praharaj1 and Sarmistha Mishra2
The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for the ternary mixture of benzene, chloro-benzene, nitro-benzene and pyridine with N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in cyclohexane at different temperature, frequencies and concentration. The experimental data have been used for a comparative study of the molecular interaction in the different mixtures using the parameters, molar volume, available volume, free volume, surface tension, Raos constant, Wadas constant, Vander walls constant and excess values of some parameters such as excess density, excess viscosity, excess velocity, excess free volume, excess Gibbs free energy and excess surface tension.
565 Study of Condensed Matter in Super Strong Magnetic Field and Estimation of Its Binding Energies and Exchange Energies, Brajesh Kr. Tiwary*, S. P. Tiwary**, and L. K. Mishra
Binding energies and exchange energies of hydrogen helium, carbon and oxygen matter were evaluated in a superstrong magnetic field. The evaluated is performed by theoretical formalism of Skjervold and ? stgaard using three adjustable parameter ?, R (a0), l(a0). Our theoretical results indicate that inclusion of exchange energies enhances the binding energies and this enhancement is more pronounced in lower value of z.
566 A theoretical Study of Heavy Electron Compounds and an evaluation of Frequency Dependent Effective mass m* and Optical Scattering Rate, *Jyotsana Jyot*, V. K. Verma** & L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of A. M. Awasthi et al. (1989 and 1993) we have presented a method of evaluation of frequency dependent optical scattering rate ?(?) and the effective mass m mb * (? ) of heavy electron compound CeAl3. Two plasmon frequency ?p (unrenormalised) and ?*p (renormalized) for some of the heavy compounds are also evaluated. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical workers.
567 Study of condensed Matter in super strong magnetic field and estimation of binding energies without including exchange energy term, Brajesh Kr. Tiwary*, S. P. Tiwary **and L. K. Mishra
Binding energies of Hydrozen, Helium, Carbon and Oxygen matter were evaluated without taking exchange energy term in a super strong magnetic field. The evaluation has been performed by theoretical formalism of Skjervold and ?stgaard using three adjustable parameter ?,R(a0), l(a0). Our results are in good agreement with these of the other workers.
568 Atomic Scale Simulation of Extended Defects Formation in Irradiated Materials Containing Impurities and Preexisting Dislocations, E Boucetta*1, A Amghar1 and H Idrissi-saba1.
The atomic scale simulation (ASS) of the diffusion and agglomeration of point defects under high energy irradiation 16-19 has been resumed to account for the influence of the impurities and pre-existing dislocations on the process of defects formation. Five types of reactions are assumed to take place: vacancy-interstitial recombination, interstitial-interstitial association to form a new extended defect, interstitial-extended defect reaction leading to growth of extended defects, interstitialimpurity reaction leading to the nucleation of the impurity, interstitial-pre-existing dislocation reaction leading to the growth of this letter. In the simulation only interstitials are mobile and extended defects are assumed to be dislocation loops in the (0,0,1) planes. The concentrations and the means radius of various defects produced were calculated and the variation induced in these concentrations by varying the concentrations of the impurities and pre-existing dislocations and radius of these latter were studied. The results are compared also with those performed with the Chemical Reaction Rate Theory (CRRT).
569 A Theoretical Study of Condensed Matter in Super Strong Magnetic field and an Evaluation of Cohesive Energies of Condensed Matter, L. P. Mishra* and L.K. Mishra
We have evaluated cohesive energies of hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen, silicon and Iron matter in the presence of super strong magnetic field. Our theoretical results indicate that cohesive energies increase with increase of magnetic field strength B. The increase is small for smaller value of z and becomes larger and larger for higher Z values. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
570 Thermo-Transport Properties of Copper Sulphate, as a Function of Mannitol Concentration in 0.01m Aqueous Sodium Chloride at Different Temperatures, S K Lomesh* and Munish Thakur
The density (?) and viscosity (?) has been measured for CuSO4.5H2Oin 0.01m aqueous NaCl and in 2, 4 and 6% Mannitol + 0.01m NaCl + water as multicomponent solvent systems, at temperatures T = (303.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure p = 0.1 MPa. The experimental data was further used to calculate various thermodynamic and transport properties of CuSO4.5H2Oincluding apparent molar volume , partial molar volume ( at infinite dilution, partial molar volume of transfer Jone Dole parameters A and B, temperature dependence of B coefficient dB/dT, activation free energy per mole for solvent (kj mol-1) and activation free energy per mole for solution (kj mol-1). The ionsolvent and ionion interactions in CuSO4.5H2Oin0.01m aqueous Na Clas well as different multi component solvent system have been discussed using these parameters.
571 A Theoretical Study of Coherent To Incoherent Dynamical Behavior of Quantum Atomic Gases in Periodic Potentials, Mirtunjay Sharma and Lalit Kumar Mishra
In series of experiments in 1995, alkali atomic gases were cooled down to nK temperature and BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation) was observed. Using the theoretical formalism developed by M.M.Cerimele etal (2004), we have studied the coherent to incoherent dynamical behavior of quantum atomic gases in periodic potentials. We have evaluated oscillation of condensate incoherent dynamics of the condensate and chaotic dynamics of the condensate. Our evaluated theoretical results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
572 Study on Dielectric Behaviour of Waxes in p-band region, M. Lakshmi Pravaa & Adeel Ahmeda*
A study on electric properties such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, electric conductivity, and the penetration depth is conducted in the p-band microwave frequency range, of 12.4 GHz to 18.0 GHz for the solid samples of bees wax (BW), paraffin wax (PW) & microcrystalline wax (MW). The transmission line technique using vector network analyzer (VNA) is employed in the study. The dielectric properties of different waxes in their normal condition and after heat treatment are investigated. The study reveals that the conductivity and dielectric loss decreases after heat treatment with respect to frequency.
573 Densities, Ultrasonic velocities and Excess properties of Binary mixture of 1, 4-Dioxane + 1-Butanol at Temperatures between (298.15 and 318.15) K, Anil Kumar K 1*, Srinivasu Ch 2 and Raju KTSS 3
Ultrasonic velocity and densities for 1,4-Dioxane with 1-Butanol are measured using an Anton - Paar DSA 5000 M densimeter at temperature range 298.15 -318.15 K at an interval of 5K and atmospheric pressure over the whole concentration range. The measured values of u and ? are used to calculate adiabatic compressibility, Intermolecular free length, molar volume, Specific acoustic impedance and their excess parameters respectively. The results are discussed for the inter molecular interactions and finally, coefficients are calculated using Redlich- Kister equation.
574 A Theoretical Evaluation of Scattering Length for Two Coupled Square Well Potential as a Function of ??B for Atom-Molecule Coherence in Bose-Gases, Deepak Kumar*, J. P. Choudhary**, Ashok Kumar**&L.K. Mishra
Using the theoretical Formalism of Y. Ohashi and A. Griffin, Phys. Rev A67 (2003), we have evaluated the scattering length and effective range of an attractive square well potential for ultracold atomic gases. We have also evaluated the energy of the bound state Em. Our theoretical results show that for any potential with large positive scattering length has a bound state just below the continuum threshold of energy given by Em. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
575 A Theoretical Study of Ultrafast Quasi-Particle Relaxation Time in Normal Metals and Heavy- Fermion Materials, D. Prasad*, P.C. Sharma**, and L.K. Mishra
Ultrafast quasi-particle relaxation dynamics for normal metal and heavyfermion material have been studied. Using the theoretical model developed by K. H. Ahn et. al. (2004) which is based on Two- Temperature model (TTM) and coupled Boltzmann equation, an evaluation of relaxation time ? for LuAgCu4 metal and heavy-fermion YbAgCu4 have been performed. For normal metal at low temperature electron distribution gives temperature independent relaxation time where as TTM predicts ?~ T-3 behavior. For heavy-fermion material with peak DOS at EF, relaxation time shows ? ~ T-1 at low T. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
576 An Evaluation of Critical Temperature for Bose- Einstein Condensation of the Atom-Molecule Mixture at the Fixed Density, Indu Kumari Tiwari*, R. N. Jha** and L. K. Mishra
Using theoretical formalism of R. A. Duine and H. T. C. Stoof (Physics Reports, 2004) we have evaluated the critical temperature TC for Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) for the atom-molecule mixture at the fixed total density. The evaluation has been performed for positive and negative detuning. For positive detuning, we obtained TBEC =T0 and for negative detuning, we have TBEC =(2-5/3T0) where T0 is initial temperature. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
577 An evaluation of Temperature Dependent Energy Gap Parameter for Organic Superconductor, Afshan Suraiya*and L. K. Mishra
Using BCS- theory, we have evaluated the temperature dependent energy gapparameter ?(T) of organic superconductors having TC between 10K to 12K. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
578 A Theoretical Study of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior of D- and F-Electron Metals and Analysis of C/T as a Function of T for U0.6 Th 0.4Pd2Al3 and U (Pt0.94 Pd0.06)3, Ashok Kumar Singh*, Baliram Singh**and L. K. Mishra
Ashok Kumar Singh*, Baliram Singh**and L. K. Mishra
579 A Theoretical Study of Imblanced D-Wave Super Fluids in BCS-BEC Crossover Regime, Tushar Kumar Mohanta*, V. K. Verma** and L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of J. Tempere etal.(Phys. Rev. 2008), we have studied the imbalanced d-wave super fluids in the BCS-BEC cross over regime. We have theoretically evaluated the critical temperature Tc and saddle-point critical temperature T* as a function of inverse scattering length for different values of d-wave scattering potential parameter k0 and k1. Our theoretically evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
580 A Theoretical Study of Pressure-Induced Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior of D- and F-Electron Metals and Analysis of Electronic Specific Heat Data (C/T) and ?C/T as A Function of Log (T) for Two Non-Fermi-Liquid Compounds, S. R. Vittal1, Mirza Abbas Hussain2 and L. K. Mishra
Using the empirical formula based on multichannel Kondo model and Disorderinduced non-Fermi -liquid model, we have theoretically analyzed the data of (?C/T) and (C/T) results of two non-Fermi-liquid materials. Our theoretically analyzed results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
581 Microbial Evaluation of Njaba River and its Effect on Body Weight of Rats Following Consumption, 1Nwachukwu M. I; *2Duru M.K.C; 3Odika P. C; and 4Udujih G.O
The microbial evaluation of Njaba River and its effect on body weight following consumption was investigated using rats. Water samples were drawn from tributary, confluence, upstream and downstream points of the river and evaluated. Bacteria isolated and identified using morphological characteristics revealed microbial species such as Chromobacteria species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Staphylococcus epidermides, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella species, and Shigella species in the water samples. Prevalence of the bacterial isolates followed the order downstream > upstream > confluence > tributary. Water from Njaba River also affected body weight of test rats significantly (p < 0.05) against the control following consumption. This study has revealed the microbial evaluation of Njaba River and its effect on body weight of rats following consumption.
582 PBAT-PLA Blends Buried In Simulated Soil: Characterization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Raman Spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction, PBAT-PLA Blends Buried In Simulated Soil: Characterization by Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Raman Spectroscopy and Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction
In this work we have investigated the microscopical changes associated with the partial biodegradation in simulated soil (16 weeks) of poly (butylene adipateco- terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blends by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Wide Angle XRay Diffraction (WAXD). The DSC curves revealed a loss of crystallinity specially in the PLA domains. The FT-Raman spectra showed a relative intensity reduction of the band associated with the carbonyl stretch, due to the hydrolysis of the bond upon ageing. The WAXD curves depicted the peaks associated with the planes of both PBAT and PLA, confirming that there is no significant interaction on the crystallization of these domains in the blend.
583 A Laboratory Studies on Conversion of Biomass into Energy Source Using Effective Microorganism, Santhosh.P
Biomass generation, treatment and disposal are both economic and environmental problem of concern for the urban communities, especially in fast population exploding countries like India. Biomass is the constitution of all plants, broken branches, Residues of agriculture wastes like rice husk, straw, leaves, sugar cane, etc., forest leaves, broken branches, wood chipping, timber mill residues, water hyacinth, algae, dropping of birds, animals, industrial wastes from food processing, sugar industries, slaughter house, meat packing plants, tanneries, etc., municipal wastes solid waste, sewage treatment plant sludge, etc., The present study deals the sources, treatment and strategies for future management of biomass. In this study a detailed analysis of the quantification, characterization and leachate analysis of the biomass from C.I.T campus and developed a procedure for conversion of compost from biomass using simple and inexpensive equipment of the type commonly available in the urban and rural households. Further, a lab scale biomass reactor and produce vermicompost using earthworm has developed and performance analysis of biomass were analysed. During the study, necessary convention techniques and analysis of the wastes had been undertaken. Similarly, the model prototype of the reactor and performance were evolved with necessary recommendations incorporated in the study.
584 Summer Water Crises of Ujjain City, Parag Dalal
Water is an essential need for every living organism. Ujjain is a beautiful city situated in the middle of India surrounded by river Kshipra from three sides making itself the lifeline of the city. In summer season whole of the river is dried up and also Gambhir dam {main drinking water source of the city} goes up to ventilation also giving the local public a huge problem of water scarcity.
585 Comparative thermal degradation of biodegradable and oxo-degradable polymeric blends used in shopping bags in Brazil, Joao de Arajo Jr.1*, Dulce Magalhes2, Nara A. de Oliveira2, Jivaldo R. Matos2 and Hlio Wiebeck
In the present study, a blend of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) PBAT and poly(lactic acid) PLA used for biodegradable shopping plastic bags was investigated, together with control samples of polyethylene containing prooxidant catalysts (called Oxo-degradable in the market). Samples were weighed and buried in simulated soil for three months, and then studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry, including a non-isothermal Kinetic Analysis. Even though there was no significant mass loss in the ageing period, the activation energies for the thermal decomposition processes were significantly reduced for the biodegradable samples after the degradation in simulated soil, but not for the oxo-degradable ones.
586 Optimization of Functional properties in laundry Soap of Bleached Palm Oil-Palm-Palm Kernel Oil-Groundnut Oil Composite with The Simplex Centroid Mixture Design, Essien, N.B, 2Udofia, P. G. and 1Jonathan, E. M.
The Simplex Centroid Mixture design of the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum proportions of bleached palm oil, palm kernel oil and groundnut oil in composite oil that would produce laundry soap with the optimum cleansing efficiency. Optimization analysis of the data showed that 0.200, 0.169, and 0.631 proportions of palm oil, palm kernel oil, and groundnut oil respectively, produced 44.491, 0.149, 2.209, and 7.726 of lather stability, acid free alkali, chloride and pH respectively at 68.70% desirability. Based on the results, less of the palm kernel oil should be present in the composite oil to produce the model soap.
587 Analyses of IPCCs Warming Calculation Results, Antero Ollila
Some researchers have noticed that the warming calculations of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are not always based on the atmospheres, which use the global average values. CO2 effect of 26% in greenhouse phenomenon is based on the modified U.S. Standard Atmosphere 1976 (USST 76 atmosphere) containing only 50% of water in comparison to the true value. The calculations prove that the warming of 0.76 C can be achieved if the USST 76 atmospheric model is applied and constant relative humidity (RH) assumed. The analysis also reveals that IPCCs scenario presentation contains choices, which make the warming results looking higher than they should be. All the climate sensitivity values above 1.7 C conflict with the explanation given by IPCC for the 1750 - 2005 periods. The global warming potential (GWP) values of CH4 and N2O are applicable only for small concentration changes and in higher concentrations these greenhouse (GH) gases are even weaker than CO2. The ultimate worst case scenario is the release of methane from the methane clathrates on the ocean floor. The calculations show that the release would cause 2.1 C temperature increase, which is only 68% of the CO2 warming effect. The spectral analysis show that in the prevailing atmospheric conditions the warming potency of methane is about 14% from the potency of CO2, and the same of N2O is about 17%. The effect of water in the same conditions is 15.2 times greater than that of CO2.
588 Fluoride Contamination in a Hard Rock Terrain: A Case Study of Purulia District, West Bengal, India, Sharad Chakrabarti* and Susnata Ray
Symptoms of high fluoride is evidenced in the groundwater of Purulia district of West Bengal, India for quite some time. Hydro-geochemical survey was carried out to find out the level and extent of affectation in the different blocks of Purulia district. It is observed that the sub-surface hydro-geoenvironment of Purulia is highly contaminated with this deadly poison. Out of 10704 tube wells surveyed in the 17 blocks of Purulia, 797 sources are detected having fluoride above the desirable limit of 1 mg/l. Down-the-hole rock drilling were performed in 19 different locations in the three worst affected blocks of Purulia, namely Purulia-I, Purulia-II and Hura. Nearly 70% of the drill-hole water samples collected from the different depth zones is found to bear fluoride above 1 mg/l. An attempt was made to identify the sources and causes of such fluoride enrichment in Purulia groundwater. High fluoride is derived from fluoride rich minerals such as apatite, fluorite, hornblende and biotite which are present in the country rocks dominated by granite gneisses and hornblende-biotite gneiss. Intensive and prolonged semi-arid climate, long term withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation, alkaline nature of sub-surface circulating water, long residence time of water in fractured aquifers, and low chances of dilution are favourable for fluoride enrichment in the Purulia region.
589 A Comprehensive Geochemical Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water, Sarala Thambavani D1* and Uma Mageswari T.S.R 2
A comprehensive groundwater heavy metal contamination in groundwater study was conducted in Batlagundu, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu aiming to investigate the impacts of urbanization on the aqueous distributions of these elements. Groundwater samples were collected in highly urbanized spaces in the area and analyzed for heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Fe. The results were compared with BIS and WHO standards. The concentrations of Zn were within the desirable limit at all the sampling sites. Other metals such as Fe, Cd, Cu and Pb exceed the limits. It is a well-known fact that the heavy metal ions are potentially toxic to human health and could be quite detrimental for human life. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the groundwater samples were positively correlated with each other. This study keep scores the value of multivariate statistical analysis for evaluation and interpretation of the data with a view to stimulate better policy outcomes and decision-making that positively impact water quality and thus prospectively diminishes the pollution caused by hazardous toxic elements in environment. Correlation coefficient between the heavy metals was calculated with a help of a programming tool SAP-ABAP.
590 Impact of Biologically Modified Coal Fly Ash with Water Hyacinth in Cultivation of Coriandrum sativum L., Jaywanti Punjwani*1, Krishna Rani2, K.K. Gupta3 and Kalpana S.4
Few pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effect of levels of coal fly ash (CFA) a byproduct of Kota Super Thermal Power Station, on physicochemical properties of soil and the yield parameters of Coriandrum sativum L.(Coriander).The objective of the experiment was to study changes in physicochemical properties during biomodification between the constituents of soil & CFA to obtain upgraded quality of soil, more suitable for cultivation of Coriandrum sativum L. Physicochemical studies have been carried out for different composts obtained by successive replacement of CFA for soil (loam) in constituents of original and reference compost . Water Hyacinth (Species of Eichornea of family Pontederaceae) was used as a part of organic manure. Physiochemical analysis was conducted after the harvest of Coriandrum sativum L. Increase in rate of growth and improvement in quality of produce was observed with the increase in percentage of CFA. This study of graded level of CFA amended soils revealed an increase in the content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu. Best results in terms of plant growth, maturation period, quality and quantity of produce were obtained with composts containing 50% (v/v) of CFA of total volume.
591 Atmospheric Levels of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM): A Case Study in Selected Sites of Hyderabad City, P. Sekhar
Atmospheric level of particulates especially PM2.5 causes severe health implications in urbanized cites across the globe and it is estimated that nearly 2 million people are being affected every year by this deadly pollutant. In the present study, it is aimed at finding out the atmospheric levels of PM2.5, PM4 and PM10 in selected sites in Hyderabad city and correlation studies were also carried out. Results indicated that all the types of PMs exceeded their standard levels. PM2.5 levels were found to be in the range 50-204?g/m3with high levels recorded at Patney center. PM4 levels were found to be in the order of 86-336 ?g/m3 being highest at Bowenpally junction. The levels of PM10 were found to in between 28-150 ?g/m3. Air quality status in terms of Cumulative air pollution index (APIcu) was classified as Hazardous in all the study sites.
592 Formation of Transition Metal Complexes Carrying MedicinalDrugs: Thermodynamic Study, ShailendrasinghVirendrasinghThakur, Mazahar Farooqui2and SahebraoD. Naikwade3
Stability constant of Isoniazidand Imipramine Hydrochloridedrugs with transition metal ions Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd have been determined by using a pH metric titration technique in 20% (v/v) ethanol-water mixture at three different temperatures (25 C, 35 Cand 45 C) and at an ionic strength of 0.1M NaClO4. The method of Calvin and Bjerrum as adopted by Irving and Rossotti has been employed to determine metal-ligand stability constant logK values. It is observed that transition metal ion forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy change (?G), entropy change (?S) and enthalpy change (?H) associated with the complexation reactions were calculated. The formations of metal complexes were found to be spontaneous, exothermic in nature and favorable at lower temperature.
593 Synthesis and Potentiometry Determination of Stability Constant of Binary Complex of Tetrapeptide TFA.Ala- Phe-Pro-Leu-OH with D-Block Transition Metals, Sanjay N. Aher a, b,*, Supriya S. Aher b, S. D. Rathod a.
Tetrapeptide TFA. Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-OH synthesized by using Solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Proton-ligand formation constant (pK) of tetrapeptide have been evaluated by potentiometry measurements using Calvin-Bjerrum titration technique as used by Irving and Rossotti. The binary complex of Ni (II), Mn (II), and Fe (II) with tetra peptide are examined at varying temperature and ionic strength conditions in aqueous media. The stability of tetrapeptide metal complex with dblock transition metals follow the Irving-Williams order and shows inverse trend with varying temperature and ionic strength conditions.
594 Performance of the Photogalvanic Cell for Solar Energy Conversion and Storage in Tween 60 Thioflavine T Ascorbic Acid System, K.R. Genwa* and C.P. Sagar
The photogalvanic effect of Thioflavine T dye was proposed in H-cell consisting Tween 60Thioflavine TAscorbic acid system. The maximum Photopotential of 934.0 mV with 90.0 ?A of photocurrent was generated in cell. The experiments were performed in different pH conditions and dye concentrations. The system was found to generate maximum potential at pH 10.69. Photoreaction mechanism and effect of other factors were observed in detail. It is finally viewed that conversion based photogalvanic cell system has an additive advantage of low cost and good storage performance which makes this cost effective.
595 Potentiometry and Spectrophotometry Studies of Binary Complex of Tripeptide TFA.Leu-Ala-Phe- OH with Cu (II)., Sanjay N. Aher,a,b,*, Supriya S. Aher b, S. D. Rathod a.
Tripeptide TFA.Leu-Ala-Phe-OH synthesized by using conventional solution phase peptide synthesis strategies. The proton and Cu (II) solution equilibrium investigation of tripeptide binary complex are studied by potentiometric and spectrophotometric measurements in aqueous media. Measurements were carried out at varying temperature and ionic strength conditions. Potentiometric studies performed by using Calvin-Bjerrum titration technique as used by Irving and Rossotti while spectrophotometric measurements performed to determine conditional stability constant (Log Kcond) by Jobs continuous variation method at pH 5.5. Both potentiometric and spectrophotometric data evaluation shows inverse trend with varying temperature and ionic strength conditions on the proton and Cu (II) binary complex stabilities in aqueous media.
596 Synthesis and Spectral Study, Theoretical Evaluation of new Binuclear Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) Metal Complexes Derived From Pyrane-2-one and its Biological ActivitySynthesis and Spectral Study, Theoretical Evaluation of new Binuclear Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) Metal Complexes Derived From Pyrane-2-one and its Biological Activity, Omar Hamad al-obaidi
The new acyclic Schiff base ligand[L]:3,3'-(1E,1'E)-1,1'-(2,2'-azanediylbis (ethane-2,1-diyl)bis(azan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis (ethan-1-yl-1-ylidene) bis(4-hydroxy-6- methyl-2H-pyran-2-one) derived from condensation of one mole diethylenediamine triamine(dien)with two moles of dehydroacetic acid have behaved tetra dentate dibasic chelating agent with all metal ions understudy. Three bimetallic acyclic polydentate complexes [M2L2]Cl4 ,M=Ni(II), Mn(II) and Cu(II) have been prepared and fully characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis., micro-elemental analysis , as well as the magnetic moments of solid complexes and the measurements of molar conductance in DMSO solution helped us in investigate the chemical structure of bimetallic models. From the results obtained by different techniques, it was found that the proposed structures of the prepared complexes have tetrahedral structure. A theoretical treatment of the formation of complexes in the gas phase was studied; this was done using the HYPERCHEM-6 program for the Molecular mechanics and Semi-empirical calculations. The synthesized compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity by cup plate diffusion method. The results indicate the enhanced activity of metal complexes over the parent ligands.
597 Antioxidant and Metal Chelation Efficiency of Chalcone Derivatives, *M. Rajendran and M. Thiruppathi Devi
Several chalcone derivatives have found pharmaceutical uses. During heavy metal stress phenolic compounds can act as metal chelators and on the other hand phenolics can directly scavenge molecular species of active oxygen. The antioxidant activity of chalcone was believed to increase due to electron donating substituent in the ring para position. Two chalcones have been synthesised by condensing 2-hydroxyacetophenone with different aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized chalcones such as 2-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (4MeC) and (2-hydroxy-4-chlorochalcone (4ClC) can be used as antioxidant and chelating agent. The formation constants of chalcones of transition metal ions have been studied by using Jobs method. The chelating potential of the complexation of chalcones with Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The comparison of binding efficiency of the two chalcones 4MeC and 4ClC with various divalent metal ions reveals the fact that 4MeC has an increasing binding towards metals than the 4ClC. The antioxidant activity of these chalcones has been tested by adopting DPPH assay. It has been found that the 4MeC have higher antioxidant activity and metal chelation property than 4ClC. We have studied the properties of two chalcones, 4MeC and 4ClC, using semiempirical method using Parametric Model 3 (PM3) method and to understand the fundamental differences between the two molecules. The computed ionization potential and electron affinity showed that chalcones have a low molecular hardness and thus have a property to dissociate its phenolic OH and the resulting charge undergoes delocalization throughout the structure. When the substituent group attached at the fourth position ofchalcone was changed from electron donating group (EDG) to electron withdrawing group (EWG), the O-H BDE increased.
598 A Novel Approach to Fabrication of ZnO Bulk and Nanostructures, M. C. Raoa*, K. Ravindranadha and T. Rose Maryb
Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nanoscale size dependent properties are often observed. Thus, the properties of materials generally change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the percentage of atoms at the surface of a material starts to become significant. ZnO is actually a wide band gap semiconductor of the II-VI semiconductor group. Because of its unique properties and versatile applications, it is used in transparent electronics, ultraviolet light emitters, piezoelectric devices and chemical sensors. There are various methods of synthesis of ZnO either in the form of bulk nanocrystal or in the thin film form, including bulk growth, substrate growth, chemical vapour deposition, sputtering and chemical route. The properties form the basis for motivation of device miniaturization; large effort has been focused on the fabrication, characterization and device applications of ZnO nanomaterials.
599 Determination of copper in various environmental samples using 4-dimethyl amino benzyl thiourea following solid phase extraction, L. Ramesh Babu & K.Kiran*
The author successfully synthesized 4-dimethyl amino benzyl thiourea and it gives a yellow colored complex with copper metal solution in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer of pH 5.5. Maximum absorption is found at 390 nm. Various factors such as pH, reagent concentration and choice of the solvent, foreign ions effects were studied. This method is successfully applied for the determination of copper in various environmental samples.
600 Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Determination of Atenolol and Amlodipine Besylate in Tablets, Milind Ubale1, Sayyed Husain2 and Vilas Chaudhri3.
A reverse phase method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Atenolol and Amlodipine Besylate in Tablets. The Quantification was carried out using RP stainless steel column ODS C18 250 x 4.6 x 5 ? L1 packing in Isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 0.03 M Potassium buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50. pH 3.4 adjusted with ortho-phosphoric acid. Solution degassed before use. Flow rate maintained at 1.0 ml/minute and the detection wavelength was set at 237 nm. The linearity was found to be in the range of 16-22 ?g/ml for Atenolol and 8 to 12 ?g/ml for Amlodipine Besylate .The proposed method was found to be simple, precise, accurate, and reproducible for the estimation of Atenolol and Amlodipine Besylate.
601 Kinetics and Mechanism of the Formation of 5-Chlorosalicylidene-P-Toluidine, Bhausaheb K.Magar1*, Anil S. Kirdant2 and Trimbak K. Chondhekar3
The second order reaction rate constant for the reaction of 5- Chlorosalicylaldehyde with p-toluidine have been reported in ethanol at temperature range 303 to 318 k .The rate of reaction is first order with respect to 5- Chlorosalicylaldehyde and p-toluidine. The rate of reaction increases with increases in temperature. The thermodynamic parameters are used to explain the nature of reaction. Suitable reaction mechanism has been suggested for the formation of the Schiff base. From the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction various thermodynamic parameter have been evaluated.
602 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation in Solanum Tuberosum L., Cultivated on Artificially Fed Medium, Renu Tyagi1 and Kalpana S.2
Solanum tuberosum L. is grown worldwide along with India and used as a major part of food in various forms. Uptake of heavy metals by Solanum tuberosum L. is of immense importance because of toxic nature of most metals when their concentration exceeds permissible Limits. Present investigation is carried out to assess the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe and Cu heavy metals in potato. For the purpose chosen variety of Solanum tuberosum L. is cultivated in five sets of different artificially contaminated soil, keeping all other condition controlled. The obtained tubers and corresponding soil were processed for heavy metal determination using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Correlation matrix has shown that most of the metal concentration in the tubers and the contaminated soil samples are significantly correlated.
603 Synthesis and In Vitro Antibacterial and Anti Fungal Activity of Trisubstituted S-Triazines, *Anil Rathavi, Maharshi Shukla and 1M.K.Thakor
Ten compounds have been synthesized in a series of [1, 3, 5] triazine analogues which, in addition to 9-ethyl-9H carbazol-3-amine, contain different Amines. The title compounds were then evaluated for their in vitro microbial activity against two gram Ve bacteria (E.coli, P.aeruginosa), two gram +Ve bacteria (S. aerues, B. subtilis) and two fungal species (C. albicans and. Niger). The most of the synthesized compounds have shown promising antimicrobial activity. All the final compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of IR, 1H NMR, and other elemental analysis.
604 Redox Reactions of Cobalt (III) Complexes of ?-Hydroxy Acids by Nicotinium Dichromate in Surfactants, A.Nazim Ahmed, Mansur Ahmed, N.Sakthi Guru
The kinetics of one electron transfer mode seems to be unavailable for NDC with Cobalt (III) bound and unbound complexes of ?-hydroxyacids in surfactant medium, NDC oxidizes Cobalt (III) bound and unbound ?- hydroxyacids. It rules out the synchronous C-C bond fission and electron transfer to Cobalt (III) centre. Oxidation of above complexes increases with increase in temperature. The increase in the rate is observed with increase in the concentration of the surfactant. The added Cetylpyridinium chromate enhances the rate of oxidation of a reaction much more than ALS. Similar trends has been observed in lactato, glycolato and mandelatoCo (III) complexes
605 Synthesis, Characterization, Invitro and Insilico Drug Activity of Mixed Ligand Copper (II) Complexes, G.Valli and S.Gayathri
Copper(II) metal complexes can be derived from O-benzoyl benzoic acid and thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone schiffbase and mixed ligand Copper(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized in the light of UV, IR, and ESR spectral studies. The synthesized Copper(II) metal complexes have been screened for their invitro antimicrobial activities by zone of inhibition method against Escherichia coli. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Klebsilla Pneumoniae, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis and also by insilico approach using Hex4.2 Software and PASS online software. The antimicrobial screening showed that [O-benzoylbenzoicacidato] [Salicylaldehydato] Copper (II) possessed higher activity towards S.Aureus and P.Aeroginosa. The docking score value of Cu (II) complexes showed that [O benzoylbenzoicacidato] [Salicylaldehydato phenyl hydrazonato] Copper (II) possesses highest drug likness property against E.Coli, S.Aureus and S.Epidermis. PASS prediction showed the following activities like Maillard reaction inhibitor activity (94.1%), Phosphatase inhibitor, 3-Hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase inhibitor, Glucose oxidase inhibitor, Interferon alpha agonist and Monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH) inhibitor activities greater than 80%. Erythropoietin and antiviral (Arbovirus) activities were observed to be greater than 65%.
606 Inhibition Effect of Imidazole on Mild Steel in Binary Acid Mixture of (HNO3+HCl), K. B. Patel* and H. K. Kadiya1
The corrosion inhibition of Imidazole on Mild Steel in (HNO3 +HCl) binary acid mixture was studied by weight loss, Temperature effect methods and polarization techniques. Corrosion rate increases with increase in concentration of mix acid. The inhibition efficiency of Imidazole increased as the concentration of Imidazole Increased. The inhibitor is found to be an excellent corrosion inhibitor from the results obtained. The adsorption of inhibitor on Mild Steel surface has been found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action depends on the chemical structure, concentration of the inhibitor and concentration of the corrosive medium. The values of activation energy (Ea), free energy of activation (?Gads), Heat of adsorption (Qads), enthalpy of adsorption (?H0ads) and entropy of adsorption (?S0ads) were calculated. Corrosion rate increases while I. E. decreases with rise in temperature.The corrosion inhibition of Imidazole on Mild Steel in (HNO3 +HCl) binary acid mixture was studied by weight loss, Temperature effect methods and polarization techniques. Corrosion rate increases with increase in concentration of mix acid. The inhibition efficiency of Imidazole increased as the concentration of Imidazole Increased. The inhibitor is found to be an excellent corrosion inhibitor from the results obtained. The adsorption of inhibitor on Mild Steel surface has been found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The inhibition action depends on the chemical structure, concentration of the inhibitor and concentration of the corrosive medium. The values of activation energy (Ea), free energy of activation (?Gads), Heat of adsorption (Qads), enthalpy of adsorption (?H0ads) and entropy of adsorption (?S0ads) were calculated. Corrosion rate increases while I. E. decreases with rise in temperature.
607 Optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction followed by HPLC-DAD determination of Cr (III) and Co (II) based on the complexation reaction with morpholin -4-carodithioate, A.Chehrehghania, N. Samadia* , M. R. Vardast
In this study, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was used for preconcentration of Cr (III) and Co (II) cations in water samples. Morpholin -4- carodithioate (MDTC) was used as chelating agent prior to extraction. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was used for quantification of the analytes after preconcentration. The effects of extraction, nature and volume of disperser solvent, pH value of sample solution, extraction time and extraction temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graphs were linear in the range of (10-4000?g L-1) and (5-4000 ?gL-1) with detection limits of 3 ?g L-1 and 3 ?g L -1 for Co(II) and Cr(III) respectively. Recoveries and enrichment factures for Cobalt and Chromium were obtained (90%, 63.69) and (84%, 58.42), respectively. The DLLMEHPLC-DAD method was successfully applied to the analysis of Cr (III) and Co (II) in aqueous samples.
608 Ethyl Paraben Derivatives as Future Potential Drug, Vijay D. Gangan1*, Ruchi S. Dubey1, Chaitaly T. Chakraborty1, Amod V. Tamhankar2, Jagannath J. Kadam3 and Ajaykumar C. Singh4
Parabens are class of chemicals widely used as preservatives in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. They are effective preservatives in many types of formulae. These compounds and their salts are used primarily for their bacterial and fungicidal properties. They are also used as food additives. Their analogues viz. ethers and hybrid / fused molecules also possess various biological activities which prompted us to synthesize analogues for their future application as bioactive molecules. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by 1HNMR and mass spectral data and screened for their potential antibacterial activity against Gram+ ve and Gram ve cultures. A Few of them are showing promising antibacterial activity.
609 Methyl Caffeate Ether Derivatives as Future Potential Drug, Methyl Caffeate Ether Derivatives as Future Potential Drug
Methyl (E)-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) prop-2-enoate were treated with various alkyl halides in presence of K2CO3 and acetone to obtain their ether derivatives. Further methyl and ethyl ethers were also obtained using DMS and DES respectively. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR and Mass Spectroscopy. All the compounds give satisfactory elemental analysis. One of them shows promising Antibacterial activity.
610 Late Planting of Wheat Varieties vs. Climate Change Adaption: Prospects for Resilient Varieties and Features, Orjeta Jaupaj1, Ilirjana Stamo2, Vladimir Malo4, Nikoll? Bardhi3, Aranit Shkurti5, Af?rdita Laska1
The issue of building resilience to the climate change has already become a concern for the worldwide research activities. Nevertheless, one of the major apprehensions should be related to ensuring food security for the public at large. Actually, Albania is expected to cope with an increase of extreme climatic events caused by hard and intense precipitations mainly occurring during autumn months. Therefore, such events are likely to threaten the planting process of wheat culture in the western part of Albanian territory, which happens to be prone to constant floods when such events occur. This study aims at evaluating the resilience of three wheat varieties, i.e., LB7, DxM and STF4 against their late planting. To serve this purpose, 1000 plants for each variety have been sown in two different periods consisting of normal and late planting time. In the anthesis stage of crops, the concentration of photosynthetic pigment occurring in flag leafs as well as their surface area has been analyzed in each plot. Besides, the number of kernels in the spike and their weight has been evaluated at the end of the vegetative period.Based on the given results, conclusions have been drawn regarding the varieties which ought to be planted if flood events occur in Albania. Moreover, considerations have been made regarding the features which ought to be improved in the following research aiming at better adaption of the crops to the changing climatic conditions.
611 Bacterial Flora Associated with Intestine of Tropical Estuarine Fish Species, C.N. Ariole1* and N. A. Kanu2
The intestinal microflora of three fish species (Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Liza falcipinnis) from three rivers (Bonny River, New Calabar River and Sombriero River) in the brackish water zone of the Nigerian Coast was investigated. Populations of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria present in the digestive tracts of fish species and in rivers were estimated using spread plate method. The total heterotrophic, proteolytic, amylolytic, hydrocarbon-degrading and total coliform bacteria in the digestive system of fish were abundant and ranged from 6.60 to 6.88logcfu/g, 5.38 to 5.53logcfu/g, 5.3 to 5.61logcfu/g, 5.68 to 5.95cfu/g and 5.20 to 5.70logcfu/g respectively. The counts varied among fish species and were higher than in water. The culturable bacterial genera in the digestive tract of fish were identified as Aeromonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Vibrio, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus and Enterobacter. The results indicate that intestinal bacteria possess enzymatic activity that may be beneficial for the fish. The presence of opportunistic pathogens may predispose the fish to bacterial epizootics especially if populations are stressed by environmental contaminants.
612 Isolation of Protease Producing Bacteria from Soil and Genomic Library Construction of Protease Gene, Amandeep Kaur 1, Seema Ahuja2 * and Geetika Sharma3
Six soil samples were collected from various areas of Chandigarh and Kharar, out of which 3 were waste soil samples and 3 garden soil samples. In all, 16 isolates from the garden soil and the waste soils were processed for the isolation of bacterial species. Bacillus was selected as the major producer of proteases. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of this genera was found to be 45C and 7 respectively by Well Assay Method. Gram staining and microbial study of microorganisms was done to determine the species. The screened microbial colonies revealed the protease producing species of Bacillus. A genomic DNA library was constructed and screened to obtain the corresponding protease gene. It is revealed from the present study that this protease shows high activity on skimmed milk plates by generating a clear zone of hydrolysis.
613 Toxicity of the pesticide Dimethoate 30% EC on the Carbohydrate content of the Fresh water fish, Labeo rohita, Binukumari.S and Vasanthi.J*
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pesticide Dimethoate 30% EC of the fresh water fish, Labeo rohita for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The 10 healthy fishes were exposed to different concentration of pesticide to calculate the LC50 value. The LC50 value is 0.398 ppm. Compared with the control group, a significant decrease of carbohydrate was ascertained in the experimental group.The above results of examinations of the carbohydrate content indicate a marked neurotoxic effect of Dimethoate in fishes.
614 Effectiveness of Modern Newborn Care on Physiological Parameters of Neonates, Mrs. Umarani. J* and Shilpa G.S
Despite health improvements over the last thirty years, lives continue to be lost due to early childhood diseases, inadequate newborn care and childbirth-related causes. The present study aims to stabilize the physiological parameters and to decrease the neonatal mortality with the implementation of modern newborn care which includes kangaroo mother care, exclusive breast feeding with eye contact, rooming-in and interaction/communication to the newborn by the mother. Quasi experimental two group pretest post test design was adopted. Totally 60 neonates were selected for the study. The intervention was administered to the neonates of experimental group and the routine care was given to the control group for 4 days. The results revealed that there is a significant difference in the weight and the temperature of the newborn between experimental and control group at P
615 Analysis of Ligand Molecule of Nef Protein of HIV-1, *Diksha Gautam, Mohammed Yaseen1 and Kusum Lata Sharma2
Nef stands for "Negative Factor. It is a accessory protein responsible for the infection in the host, survival and replication. Nef localize primarily to the cytoplasm but also partially to the Plasma Membrane of the host cell so to stop its function a ligand molecule or drug molecule is required. In this work we find out some drug molecule which can stops the Nef action according to their lowest energy. By comparing result on the basis of dock score we find out that Crambescidin 826 having -193.101, Integracin A having -181.87, cytosporic acid having -177.722 lowest energy, so on the basis of their dock score among all CRAMBESCIDIN 826 is the best drug molecule having lowest energy.
616 Biogenic Production of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Acalypha Indica, D. Gnanasangeetha and D. SaralaThambavani
Zinc oxide nanoparticles have fascinated meticulous research interest because of its significant applications in the field of medicine, pigment electronics, spintronics and piezoelectricity. The biogenic invention of zinc oxide nanoparticle is a better option due to ecofriendliness. Aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha indica were used to synthesis zinc oxide nanoparticles not only in the laboratory scale, but also in their natural environs. This green synthesis approach shows that the environmentally benign and renewable aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha indica can be used as a stabilizing agent for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The fashioned nanoparticles ranged in dimension of about 100-200nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) entrenched that the formed nanoparticles are zinc oxide nano cubes.
617 Evaluation of Enzymatic Activity during Vegetative Growth and Fruiting of Pleurotus HK 37 on Agave sisalana Saline Solid Waste, Mutemi Muthangya1*, Anthony M. Mshandete2, Suhaila O. Hashim3, Mzee J. Amana3, Amelia K. Kivaisi2
Mushroom cultivation is an effective method for the production of nutritional food in addition to offering a holistic approach to agro waste management by utilization of the abundant lignocellulosic waste including sisal leaf decortications waste (SLDW). Production of 1 kg of mushrooms generates 5 kg of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). Alternative means of disposal of the resulting SMS is production of extracellular enzymes generated by mushrooms during their growth and development. In this study, Pleurotus HK 37 was studied for its ability to produce laccase manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and xylanase on SLDW under solid-state fermentation. Laccase activities reached the highest values of 27.3 U/ml when the substrate was fully colonised. The activity then declined with each subsequent harvest to 15.0 U/ml. MnP assay had two peaks of 8.9 U/ml and 8.0 U/ml on full colonisation and during the 3rd flush, while LiP and xylanase activities had highest recorded activities of 0.34 U/ml and 0.28 U/ml, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate the potential utilization of sisal leaf decortications waste as raw materials for simultaneous production of edible mushrooms and extracellular enzymes from a commercial fungus, Pleurotus HK 37, which is a potential biotechnological application.
618 Study of the Cytotoxicity Effect of New Cr (III), Co (II), Fe (III), and Cu (II) Complexes of Chalcone on Cancer (Cell Line Hep-2) and Antimicrobial Activity, Omar H. Al-Obaidi
A new series of Cr(III) , Co(II), Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes with the chalcone ligand were studied on the growth of Hep-2 (Human hepatocellular ademocarcinoma ),which is the human larynx cancer cell Line by using in vitro system and compared with anticancer drug cisplatin (cis-pt) as appositive control. The cancer cells were treated with different concentration and cis-pt after 72 hr. exposure time. The cytotoxic activity was tested by inhibition rate as parameter. The results showed significant differences (p
619 Alterations in Antioxidant Enzymes Levels Following Sub Chronic Exposure of Sodium Arsenite in Female Rats, Madhuri Mehta and S. S. Hundal
The present work was undertaken to assess the sub chronic effect of sodium arsenite on antioxidative potential of lungs, brain and spleen of female albino rats. Forty eight female rats were divided in to 4 groups consisting of 12 animals each. Group I animals received distilled water throughout the experiment and served as control. Group II, III and IV animals received sodium arsenite at the doses of 10?g/L, 30?g/L and 50?g/L dissolved in distilled water ad libitum for 60 days. Half of the animals from each group were sacrificed after 30 days of sodium arsenite exposure and remaining half after 60 days under mild anaesthesia. Lungs, spleen and brain were collected, weighed, minced and homogenized for the estimation of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), a marker for oxidative stress. A significant decline in the activity of SOD, CAT, GST and GSH in all tissues at different time periods (30 and 60 days) has been detected while the levels of LPO were found to increase significantly in treated animals as compared to control. In conclusion, we may infer that exposure to sodium arsenite decreased the antioxidative potential of lungs, spleen and brain, making them susceptible for various diseases due to generation of oxidative stress.
620 Determination of Changes in Antioxidant Status in Hypertension-Induced Congestive Heart Failure Patients, Oladunjoye Z. M1, Akinosun M.O2, Ojure M.A3, Quadri J.A4, Aborishade M .V5
Congestive heart failure is a common end point of many abnormal cardiac conditions. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked with oxidative stress which provides the strongest evidence for the protective role of antioxidants. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables which are good sources of antioxidants has been associated with lower coronary risk. Specifically, there is evidence of reduced coronary risk in population with high blood levels of the antioxidants nutrients, Vitamin C and E. Change in the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), Vitamin A,E, C levels and antioxidant trace metals (Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese) were studied in the plasma of sixty one (61) participants comprising thirty (30) hypertensive subjects without heart failure (HTN) eleven hypertension induced congestive heart failure subjects (CHF)and twenty (20) non hypertensive apparently healthy individuals (Control) using spectrophotometric method, HPLC and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques respectively. The age of the subjects ranged between 30 and 79 years. In CHF group, there was significant lower mean plasma levels of TAS and Vitamin C in congestive heart failure compared with controls (p=0.04, p=0.04 respectively). Other parameters were not statistically different. Similarly, HTN group had significantly lower level of TAS compared with controls (p=0.01). On the contrary, Vitamin E level was significantly high in hypertension group (p=0.00). Other antioxidant parameters compared; Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Selenium, Zinc, Copper and Congestive heart failure is a common end point of many abnormal cardiac conditions. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked with oxidative stress which provides the strongest evidence for the protective role of antioxidants. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables which are good sources of antioxidants has been associated with lower coronary risk. Specifically, there is evidence of reduced coronary risk in population with high blood levels of the antioxidants nutrients, Vitamin C and E. Change in the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), Vitamin A,E, C levels and antioxidant trace metals (Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese) were studied in the plasma of sixty one (61) participants comprising thirty (30) hypertensive subjects without heart failure (HTN) eleven hypertension induced congestive heart failure subjects (CHF)and twenty (20) non hypertensive apparently healthy individuals (Control) using spectrophotometric method, HPLC and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques respectively. The age of the subjects ranged between 30 and 79 years. In CHF group, there was significant lower mean plasma levels of TAS and Vitamin C in congestive heart failure compared with controls (p=0.04, p=0.04 respectively). Other parameters were not statistically different. Similarly, HTN group had significantly lower level of TAS compared with controls (p=0.01). On the contrary, Vitamin E level was significantly high in hypertension group (p=0.00). Other antioxidant parameters compared; Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Selenium, Zinc, Copper andCongestive heart failure is a common end point of many abnormal cardiac conditions. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked with oxidative stress which provides the strongest evidence for the protective role of antioxidants. A high consumption of fruit and vegetables which are good sources of antioxidants has been associated with lower coronary risk. Specifically, there is evidence of reduced coronary risk in population with high blood levels of the antioxidants nutrients, Vitamin C and E. Change in the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), Vitamin A,E, C levels and antioxidant trace metals (Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese) were studied in the plasma of sixty one (61) participants comprising thirty (30) hypertensive subjects without heart failure (HTN) eleven hypertension induced congestive heart failure subjects (CHF)and twenty (20) non hypertensive apparently healthy individuals (Control) using spectrophotometric method, HPLC and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques respectively. The age of the subjects ranged between 30 and 79 years. In CHF group, there was significant lower mean plasma levels of TAS and Vitamin C in congestive heart failure compared with controls (p=0.04, p=0.04 respectively). Other parameters were not statistically different. Similarly, HTN group had significantly lower level of TAS compared with controls (p=0.01). On the contrary, Vitamin E level was significantly high in hypertension group (p=0.00). Other antioxidant parameters compared; Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Selenium, Zinc, Copper andManganese were statistically not significant. Plasma levels of vitamin C was significantly lower in HTN compared with CHF (p=0.049). No significant difference was observed in other parameters. Significant negative correlation between BMI and TAS, (r = -0.47, p
621 Studies on Prevalence of Anemia in Growing Children at Age Group of 5-17 Years, Shivani Awasthi1, Rashmi Arnold2, Arti Saxena3, Rashmi Pandey4, Snehlata Pandey4 and Seema Tiwari5*
Due to deficiency of protein, the synthesis of hemoglobin is reduced. The RBCs are macrocytic and hypo chronic. Anemia is due to RBC destruction is increased due to intra vascular causes metabolic defects. Childhood and teenagers go spurts of rapid growth, which requires a great deal of iron.A balance diet with adequate amount of iron is important at these times. Pernicious Anemia is due to atrophy of the gastric mucosa because of autoimmune destruction of parietal cells. The gastric atrophy results in decreased production of intrinsic factor and poor absorption of vitamin B12 which is the maturation Factor for RBC. Before knowing the cause of this anemia, it was very difficult to treat the patients and the disease was considered to be fatal. Synthesis of hemoglobin begins in the proerythroblasts and continues even into the reticulocyte stage of the red cell. Therefore, when reticulocyte leave the bone marrow and pass into blood stream, they continue form minute quantities of hemoglobin for another day of so until they become Mature erythrocytes. The present investigation involves the prospects of prevalence of anemia in growing children at age group of 5-14.
622 Medicinal potential of Commiphora sponthulata, Hugonia casteneifolia and Raphidiocystis chrysocoma indigenous to Tanzania, Sylvester Leonard Lyantagaye
Herbal medicines constitute a potentially important resource for new and safe drugs for the management of microbial infections and other diseases. This study aimed at examining whether or not crude plant extracts of Hugonia casteneifolia, Commiphora sponthulata and Raphidiocystis chrysocoma have antimicrobial activities on some pathogenic bacterial isolated from sick domesticated animals. Agar diffusion technique was used to determine the inhibition of microbial growth and broth dilution technique was used to determine MIC and MBC. The study has shown that R. chrysocoma extract is very potent against Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, H. casteneifolia is potent against S. agalactiae and S. aureus, and C. sponthulata extract is potent against Salmonella gallinarum only. All the three plant extracts are non-cytotoxic. This is the first scientific evaluation of the veterinary medicinal potential of the H casteneifolia, C. sponthulata and R. chrysocoma from Tanzania, providing the baseline for further investigations towards discovering new drugs.
623 Biochemical Characterizations of Some Pathogenic Bacteria of Bhojwet Land, Bhopal (M.P.), Madhulika Singh
Biochemical characterization is based on enzymatic reaction of bacteria whether they possess enzyme or not since each enzyme is protein which is coded by a gene that is why provided a better knowledge of bacterial diversity. In our study biochemical characterization of each isolate was done to evaluate the inter relationship between various group of organism.
624 Phytochemical Studies of Hyptis Suaveolens (L.) Poit, T. Rose Marya, K. Anushaa, K.V. Mallaiahb, K. Ravindranadhc, M.C. Raoc*
Hyptis suaveolens belonging to Lamiaceae family is native of Tropical American region. In the present study acetone leaf extract of wild Hyptis suaveolens was analysed by GC-MS.20. Different compounds were identified in crude extract and 11 compounds were isolated from aqueous extract. Of these compounds AllylOctadecanoate and Octadec-9- Enoic Acid were in major amounts. These results indicate that these compounds may be responsible for the antimicrobial and insecticidal activities.
625 A Study on Biochemical and Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Pratibha Rani Dwivedi1, Stuti shriwastava1, Seema Tiwari1*, Rashmi Arnold2, Arti Saxena3 and Umesh Pandey3
TB is most common opportunistic disease that affects people infected with HIV. As HIV debilitates the immune system, vulnerability to TB is increased. Recently, new multi drug-resist strains of tuberculosis (MDR-TB) have developed and are spreading. A multidrug resistance strain is defined as M. tuberculosis resistant to ionized and rifampin with or without resistant to other drugs. This has resulted is many case of magically treatable, and often fatal diseases. Inadequate therapy is the most common means by which resistant bacteria are acquired and patients who have previously undergone therapy should be presumed to harbor MDR-TB, until proved otherwise. The objective of this study was to estimate the level of certain pathologically important isozyme (eg LDH) in cases (TB patients) and controls and to standardize the PCR based identification method for mycobacterial strains in DNA samples extracted from sputum specimen.
626 Isolation and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bacteria from Upper Lake, Bhopal, Madhulika Singh
Bacteria are natural and vital member of all aquatic communities, and are the foundation of lake and stream ecology without them the natural water worlds would not be possible. The basic objective of the project was to improve the water quality as well as to increase the storage capacity of these lakes. The project activities involved both preventive and curative measures like increasing the storage capacity of the lake through de-silting, control of weed through de-weeding, prevention of pollution in the lake through diversion and treatment of sewage, catchment area protection through creation of buffer zone etc. The implementation of these activities resulted in increasing the water holding capacity of Upper Lake by four percent. The lake water sample (n = 5) were collected from 5 different.
627 A Review on Lung Diseases in Special Reference to Asthma and its Impact, Stuti Shrivastava1, Pratibha Rani Dwivedi1, Seema Tiwari1*, Rashmi Arnald2, Arti Saxena3 and Snehlata Pandey4
The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located in the chest on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. In addition to their function in respiration, the lungs also alter the pH of blood by facilitating alterations in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme. It may serve as a layer of soft, shock- absorbent protection for the heart, which the lungs flank and nearly enclose. Immunoglobulin-A is secreted in the bronchial secretion and protects against respiratory infections.
628 Ecological Studies of Natural Populations of Cosmos caudatus, H. B. K. With Special Reference to Pollination, Seed Behavior and Biomass Distribution, 1Rashmi Arnold, 2*Seema Tiwari, 3Arti Saxena 4R. M. Mishra, 5Pranjali Anand and 5Rashmi Pandey
Under different density dependent mortality situations and degree of intraspecific competition an organism is under positive selection to allocate a greater protection of its resources to reproductive or vegetative parts. Populations with density dependent regulation i.e., those which are better able to tolerate competition will be selectivity favored to allocate a greater proportion of resources to vegetative activities. The theoretical Notion Related with this problem is R and K selection. Keeping all this in view the studies were planned to investigate energy allocation situated and ecological strategies within species cosmos caudatus, H.B.K. the species exhibit a determinate growth as the apical meristems are converted into flower recepticles.
629 Investigations on Minor Constituents of Indigenous Apis Dorsata F. and Apis Cerana Indica Honey of Shimoga District, Karnataka, Balasubramanyam, M.V.,
Multifloral honey of indigenous giant honeybee A. dorsata (wild) and Indian hivebee, A. cerana indica (apiary) were collected from Shimoga, Karnataka and its minor constituents like minerals, vitamins and proteins were determined during February 2011 to March 2012. The potassium content of honey of A.dorsata was 70.12 ppm while honey of A.cerana had 68.50ppm. The potassium content of honey of A.dorsata was highest (70.12 ppm), and honey of A. cerana was least (68.50ppm). The chromium content of honey of A.dorsata was maximum (0.027ppm) while, honey of A.cerana was minimum (0.025ppm). The thiamine (B1) content of honey of A.dorsata was 0.09 ? gms., while honey of A.cerana was highest of 0.08 ? gms. The pyridoxine (B6) content of honey of A.dorsata was maximum of 1.80 ? gms. and minimum of 1.44 ? gms. from A cerana honey. The protein content of honey of A.dorsata was highest (0.67%) and least (0.59%) from honey of A.cerana. The potassium of honey from all two honeybee species was statistically significant at 1 % (p
630 Potential of Agaricus Bisporus for Bioremediation of Different Heavy Metals, Deepika Chauhan and Chandrakala Suhalka
Bioremediation means to reduce heavy metals or toxic substances with the help of biological organism. Agaricus bisporus was noted potent for heavy metals bioremediation. Present study was conducted in aspects of change in biomass with the increasing concentrations of different heavy metals in spam of Agaricus bisporus. It was observed that maximum biomass was in control that was 0.0736 gm and minimum biomass in 100 ppm concentration of PbSO4 that was 0.0048. In AAS (Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer) analysis maximum concentration of absorbed heavy metal in 100 ppm concentration of PbSO4 i.e. 17.209 and minimum was in 25 ppm concentration of CuSO4 0.572.
631 Primary Production of Phytoplanktons in Oligomesotrohic Freshwater Body Harsi Reservoir and Their Potential Ecological Significance, V.P. Shrotriy1*, R.K. Garg2 and D.N. Saksena3
Rates of solar energy flow through the producer-consumer populations of the Harsi reservoir (25470 to 25480 N and 79520 to 77 550 E) were studied. Total 60 common primary producers (phytoplanktons) were identified in the reservoir with highest number of species (35) representing Chlorophyceae with 58.33% as dominant group and 02 species of Dinophyceae with 3.33 as scares group. The average gross primary productivity was recorded similar as 134.82154.94 and 138.35176.27 mg Cm3h-1, though net primary productivity as 87.9497.44 and 80.53107.30 mg C m3 h-1 during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Correspondingly, respiration rate was 47.5557.50 and 58.3768.96 mgCm3h-1 during study periods. The NP: GP was exceeding 0.5, NP: RR was more than 1 and % of respiration was less than 40%, which clearly indicated pytoplanktonic primary productivity was quite high without any definite seasonal pattern and good amount of organic production is available for its transfer to next trophic levels. Hence, the reservoir has a good potential for fish yield, however, additional measures are also recommended to prevent excessive environment of trophic status, development of phytoplanktonic bloom and macrophytes and run-off of organic waste.
632 Quantification of the Size of Quadrat for Sampling in Evergreen Forest of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary; Kerala, South India, M.A.Suraj1, Manoj.K1 and Balasubramanian K2
An attempt has been made to quantify the size of the quadrat in evergreen forest of the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary. From the study it was found that the size of quadrat required for the ecological or phytosociological study in evergreen patches of Karian Shola in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is 1500 m2 (38.73m x 38.73 m).
633 Palm Oil Inclusion in the Diets of Rabbits fed Cholesterol and its Effect on the Peroxidation of Lipids and the Activity of Glutathione Peroxidase, I.A. Amata1 and D.O. Adejumo2
Palm oil inclusion (5%) in a cholesterol based diet (5%) was studied to determine its effect on the peroxidation of lipids and on the activity of glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of rabbits. Enriched membrane fractions were used to measure lipid peroxidation in vitro using thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Measurements of conjugated diene levels were also carried out. Palm oil supplementation significantly (P
634 Role of Different Enzymes in Nectar to Honey Transformations in Indigenous Rockbee, ApisDorsata F., Balasubramanyam, M.V.
Enzymes form integral part and play decisive role in biological metabolism and systems. The present studies delve on the role of enzymes viz., invertase, amylase, glucose oxidase and catalase in nectar-honey transformation during May 2011 to April 2012. Five stages in formation honey from nectar comprises floral nectar (fn), honey crop of foragers (hf), honey crop of house bees (hh), unsealed honey cells (uh) and sealed honey cells (sh). Invertase in fn and sh cells was minimum of (0.00ml) and maximum of (42.40 ml) respectively. Similarly amylase in the fn was least (0.00ml) and highest in sh (16.01 ml). Glucose oxidase in fn and sh cells was minimum of (0.00ml) and maximum of (6.68 ml) respectively. Correspondingly, catalase in the fn was least (0.00ml) and highest in sh (4.96 ml). The analysis of variance of invertase and amylase was significant at 1 % level (p
635 The Effect of Different Chemical Treatments and Salt Stresson the Germination Potential of Tavernieracuneifolia (Roth) Ali seeds, Poonam S. Mangalorkar*, Karan G. Rana, Rahul D. Parikh and Padamnabhi S. Nagar
Tavernieracuneifoliais an ethnobotanically important traditional medicinal plant of Semi-Arid region of India belonging to the family of Fabaceae. As the plant is ecologically identified as glycophyte the seeds were treated with various salts. Effect of various salts (KCl, MgCl2, NaCl, Na2CO3, MgSO4,) on the germination of T. cuneifolia seed was studied. Germination decreased with increase in salinity. The inhibition of germination by salt solution was in the order of NaCl> MgCl2> MgSO4>KCl. Non-germinated seeds under various salt treatments when transferred to distilled water recovered completely, indicating little ionic effect of salinity on seed germination and viability. Germination rate was highest in those seeds which were treated with concentrated sulphuric acid with the germination percentage to be 80.
636 Overestimation of Hemoglobin Due to Paraproteins in Myeloma: A Case Report, Deepak Nayak M.1, Indira Shastry K. 2, Asha Patil 3, Ravindra Prabhu4
Paraproteins have been shown to interfere with a number of clinical laboratory tests due to their precipitating quality. We describe herein a patient diagnosed with multiple myeloma, for which the automated cyanmethemoglobin method displayed a falsely elevated hemoglobin level. The calculated hematocrit agreed with a spun hematocrit, suggesting that the hemoglobin concentration was being overestimated by the automated counter. The plasma turbidity and the increased IgM levels, confirmed the presence of paraproteins which caused the discrepancy. This case aims to highlight some of the lesser known, rare causes of preanalytical errors concerning hemoglobin estimation by autoanalyzers.
637 Withania somnifera: A Wild Plant Effective in Treatment of Various Types of Cancer, Monika Kumari
Withania somnifera L. Dunal (WS), an Indian plant commonly known as ashwagandha has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of arthritis, tumors, tuberculosis, chronic liver diseases and for immune-modulatory effects. Main plant part of WS with pharmacological importance is basically rooted. Biological active compounds especially steroidal lactones (withanolides, withaferins), are thought to be responsible for much of its pharmacological activities. These are found effective against many types of cancer specially the most common cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer. The effects of WS extracts have been demonstrated in vitro on human cancer cell lines, and in vivo on mice, but still there have been no human trials and it is not brought in market to cure cancer patients. This article focuses on researches done using WS extracts and its bioactive compounds on most common types of cancer.
638 A Theoretical Study of Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior and Quantum Criticality in U-Based F-Electron Systems, Suryawanshi Rajendra Vittal 1, Mirza Abbas Hussian2 and L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of M.B. Maple etal (Physica B 2006) and W. Montfrooij etal (Phys. Rev B 2006), we have theoretically analyzed the non-Fermi-liquid compounds Sc1-xUxPd3, URu2-xRexSi2 and Ce(Ru1-xFex)2 Ge2. Using the empirical formulas and varying the critical exponent, we have evaluated its various parameters such as specific heat, magnetic susceptibility etc. of the non-Fermi liquid compounds. Our theoretically evaluated results are in satisfactorily agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
639 A Theoretical Study of two Dimensional Liquid 4He and Evaluation of Ground State Energy as a Function of Densities Using two Potentials, Dinesh Kumar1 and Lalit Kumar Mishra2
The ground state energy of two-dimensional liquid He4 was calculated as a function of densities using two potentials namely Lenard-Jones potential and Aziz potential. We have taken help of the theoretical formalism of Chung-In-Um etal (JLTP, 1997) in this evaluation On comparing our theoretically evaluated results with GFMC calculation, it was observed that results obtained in the case of Aziz potential is very close to GFMC calculation.
640 Peristaltic Transport of Couple Stress Fluids in A Uniform and Non-Uniform Annulus through Porous Media, V. P. Rathod1 and Asha. S. K2
The Problem of peristaltic transport of a couple stress fluids through porous media in a gap between coaxial tubes where the outer tube is non-uniform with sinusoidal wave travelling down its wall and the inner tube is rigid. The relation between the pressure gradient, friction force on the inner and outer tube are obtained in terms of couple stress parameter. The numerical solution of pressure gradient, outer and inner friction force and flow rate are shown graphically.
641 Expanding and Non-shearing Bianchi Type - III String Cosmological Models with Bulk Viscosity, Sapna Shrimali1, Varun Humad2 and Dhirendra Chhajed3
We have investigated expanding and non-shearing locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi Type - III string cosmological models with Bulk Viscosity. To obtain a determinate model, an equation of state ? = k? is assumed. Some physical of the model are also discussed.
642 An Evaluation of Energy per Particle, Specific Heat and Entropy of BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensate) As a Function of (T/Tc 0), Shreevant Raman1 and Lalit Kumar Mishra2
Using the theoretical formalism of F. Dalfavo etal (Rev. Mod. Phys, 1999), we have evaluated energy per particle, specific heat and entropy of trapped Bose gas. Results were compared with the results of ideal Bose gas as a function of (T/Tc 0). We have also evaluated energy per particle using an interaction parameter ?. For ? =0.4, our theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
643 A Theoretical Study of Quasi-Two Dimensional Condensate (BEC) and Evaluation of Its Parameters, Shreevant Raman1 and Lalit Kumar Mishra2
In this paper, we have studied the physical properties of quasi-two dimensional BEC condensate and using the theoretical formalism of G. Hechenblaikner etal( Phys. RevA71(2004)) evaluated the chemical potential of the condensate. In this evaluation, we have taken two model potentials namely hybrid Variational potential and Gaussian Variational potential. Our evaluated results for both potentials are very similar in magnitude and trends. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with other theoretical workers.
644 On Yoneda Lemma in the Category L-FCyc, Souriar Sebastian1, Alexander Mendez2 & Divya Mary Daise.S3
The authors have introduced the category L-FCyc whose objects are L-fuzzy subgroups of finite cyclic groups and morphisms are L-fuzzy homomorphisms,and discussed some properties of it. In this paper, we explain how the Yoneda Lemma in general category theory works in the fuzzy context by restating and verifying it in LFCyc.
645 A Theoretical Study on Shallow Donor Impurity in Triple Quantum Well Structures Under External Fields, Tajendra Kaur1, Ashok Kumar Sinha2 and L. K. Mishra3
Using theoretical formalism of A. Large etal [Semicond. Sci. Technol. 2002], we have studied the shallow donor impurity in triple quantum well structures. Our theoretically evaluated result for intra-donor transition energy (cm-1) and intra-donor magneto-absorption coefficients (arb. U) are in good agreement with the experimental data.
646 Development of ZnO Nanoparticles for Clinical Applications, M.C. Raoa* K. Ravindranadha and T. Rose Maryb
Nanomaterials have a great many medical applications which are growing rapidly to lead the wide scale production and application of engineered nanoparticles. Extension of nano engineering to the formation of fibers, sheets and volume-filling materials such as gels, networks and scaffolds as well as other none medical products such as cosmetics, sunscreens and food products are increasing. However, extensive usage of them may cause unwanted damages and toxicity to the living cells due to the increased surface reactivity of nanoparticles. The properties of many conventional materials will be changed when they are in nanoparticle form. This is typically because nanoparticles have a greater surface area per weight than larger particles which make them to be more reactive to some other molecules. In recent years ZnO nanoparticles have been used in different industrial sectors such as medicine, cosmetic materials and concrete, anti bacterial, textile and automotive industries. ZnO is currently being investigated as an antibacterial agent in both microscale and nanoscale formulations. Results have indicated that ZnO nanoparticles show antibacterial activity apparently greater than microparticles.
647 A New method for solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System, Subramanian Radhakrishnan1*and Pandurangan Gajivaradhan2
In this paper we intend to solve the fully fuzzy linear system of the form where is a m x n fuzzy matrices consisting of arbitrary fuzzy numbers, the unknown vector is a vector consisting of n arbitrary fuzzy numbers and the constant are vectors consisting of m arbitrary fuzzy numbers, by converting it into a crisp linear system and solving it by any one of the classical methods as well as QR decomposition method. The proposed method gives the non negative solution of fully fuzzy linear system.
648 Harmful Effects on Human Body Tissues Due to Electromagnetic Waves of Radio Broadcasting at Frequency 1566 kHz, Arvind Kumar1*, Vijay Kumar2 and P. P. Pathak3
The medium frequency waves are used for amplitude modulation (AM) broadcasting in the frequency range 535 kHz 1705 kHz. The broadcasting stations are situated in public living environment. In this manuscript the studies are taken for the health effects in general public due to electromagnetic radiation at frequency of 1566 kHz. The people who are living near the AM broadcasting antenna may affected by this electromagnetic energy. So the penetrated electric fields and specific absorption rate (SAR) are calculated inside human body tissues using their electrical conductivity. The penetrated electric fields and SAR inside the selected tissues are calculated at 100 m and 150 m distances from antenna and the calculated values inside tissues at various depths are compared with the given permissible limit by the international agencies such as international commission for non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP), world health organization (WHO) etc. The results suggested that electromagnetic wave (EMW) of 1566 kHz frequency are harmful for the tissue life of the human body at various distances from the broadcasting antenna.
649 Biometric identification of person using ECG signal, Nikita Verma1*and Manish Rana2
Biomedical signals make it possible to offer secure and flexible authentication system. Biomedical signal are acquired by a sensor, transducer, electrode, and is converted to proportional voltage or current for processing or storage. ECG is traditionally acquired for clinical diagnosis of cardiac function but recently ECG signals are used in personal identification. Methodologies include preprocessing, feature extraction, classification. Pre-processing includes removal of noise from ECG signal. Feature extraction includes extracting various features from these ECG signals which can be further used for identification. Classification is the final step to compare extracted features with the one stored in data base.
650 The Inhibition Effect of Cosmetic Argan Oil toward Copper Corrosion in Phosphoric Acid Containing Chloride, F. Mounir1, S. El Issami1, Lh. Bazzi3, A. Chihab Eddine4, M. Belkhaouda1, L. Bammou2, R. Salghi2, O. Jbara5 and L. Bazzi1*.
The effect of addition of cosmetic argan oil (CAO) on the corrosion of copper in 2 M H3PO4 and NaCl 0.3 M has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitor content to attain 98% for CAO at 7g/L. Inhibition efficiency E (%) obtained from the various methods is in good agreement. The temperature effect on the corrosion behaviour of copper in (2 M H3PO4+ 0.3 M NaCl) was studied by potentiodynamic technique in the range from 298 to 323 K. The associated activation energy has been determined.
651 Type-II Generalized Half-Logistic Distribution - An Economic Reliability Test Plan, 1K.Rosaiah*, 1R.R.L.Kantam and 2V.Rama Krishna
The type-II generalized half-logistic distribution is considered as a probability model for the lifetime of the product. A test plan to determine the termination time of the experiment for a given sample size, producers risk and termination number is constructed. The comparison of the present test plan over similar plans exists in the literature is established with respect to the experimental time.
652 Improving Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using LiMn2O4 Cathodes, M. C. Rao*
The performance of current energy conversion and storage technologies falls short of requirements for the efficient use of electrical energy in transportation, commercial and residential applications. Materials have always played a critical role in energy production, conversion and storage and today there are even greater challenges to overcome if materials are to meet these higher performance demands. Improvements in the capacity of modern lithium batteries continue to be made possible by enhanced electronic conductivities and ionic diffusivities in anode and cathode materials. Fundamentally, such improvements present a materials science and manufacturing challenge: cathodes in these battery cells are normally comprised of metal oxides of relatively low electronic conductivity and separator/electrolyte compositions must be tuned to readily admit ions, while simultaneously forming safe, impenetrable and electronically insulating barriers. Lithium ion battery is one of the popular power sources for electronic devices. Although various cathode materials have been studied for lithium ion battery, spinel type LiMn2O4 is more attractive than any other materials due to its low cost, low toxic and high rate. Recently, researches and developments on spinel type LiMn2O4 have been carried out to improve its electrochemical performance.
653 CZTS Nanocrystals for New Generation Photovoltaic Devices, M. C. Raoa*, K. Ravindranadha, T. Srikumara, G.V. Ramanab, Y. Hanumantha Raob and T. Rose Maryc
Metal chalcogenide nonmaterial has interesting properties that differ from their bulk counterparts. These properties depend not only on the material of the nanoparticles but also on the size and shape of the particle as well. Spherical semiconducting metal chalcogenide nanoparticles have tunable band gaps that are dependent on the radius of the nanoparticles due to quantum confinement effects. Knowing that complex nanostructures can have advantages over simpler nanoparticles, the goal is to find simple ways to make complex nanostructures. The earth abundant chalcogenides of copper, zinc and tin make up an important class of materials toward creating low cost and sustainable thin film solar cells, with the properties of a direct band gap with a large absorption coefficient. Recently, earth abundant Cu2ZnSn(SeS)4 (CZTSeS) nanocrystals are being considered as ideal absorber materials for thin film solar cells because of a large absorption coefficient, a tunable direct band gap ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 eV and high power conversion efficiency as high as 7.2%. Oxides are ubiquitous on earth and the crust and mantle are composed very largely of oxides. All of the chemical elements apart from the lighter noble gases form compounds with oxygen and so the exploration of the structures and properties of synthetic oxides dominates much of solid-state and materials chemistry and solid-state physics. Lead chalcogenides share many physical and chemical properties in common. They are isostructural, i.e. have the same crystal structure. They can be prepared and doped by similar methods. Some lead chalcogenide alloys such as lead telluride and lead selenide are established as good thermoelectric.
654 Dynamics between Clear, Cloudy and All-Sky Conditions: Cloud Forcing Effects, Antero Ollila
The author has analyzed the dynamics of atmospheric changes between allsky, clear and cloudy sky conditions. The basis of analyses is the calculation of flux values at the balance states. The analyses depend essentially on the time constants of basic processes, which can be analyzed separately. Two time constants are based on the former research results, and three time constants have been developed and estimated in this study. The basic processes in dynamic analyses have been the very rapid changes in cloudiness and cloud temperatures, the rapid change in upward atmospheric long wave radiation caused by solar insolation change, the slow change in temperature of the land and sea, and the transient change in the atmosphere temperature. This transient atmospheric process has an essential role in explaining why the surface temperature increases when at the same time the cloud forcing decreases. The dynamic simulations reveal that in all cases, two rapid changes in the atmosphere can bring the outgoing long wave radiation at the top of the atmosphere almost exactly (a difference of 0% to 0.3%) to the observed pseudo-balance values of clear and cloudy skies. Pseudo-balance values for clear and cloudy skies are not very time-sensitive because the values stay within 1 W/m2 from one day to 13 days. According to the true energy balance values, the slightly nonlinear cloud forcing would be -0.56 Wm-2 per 1% increase in cloudiness and -0.1 C per 1% increase in cloudiness over the normal cloudiness range variation from 60% to 70%. According tothis study, the commonly used cloud forcing in the units of W/m2 yields effects that are about 40% too low for the long-term cloudiness changes. Cloudiness changes could alone explain the global warming.
655 An Evaluation of Super Fluid Density, Quasi-Particle Contribution and Fluctuation Contribution as a Function of (T/Tc) for Bcs-Bec Crossover Regime, Santosh Kumar1, Amit Kumar1, Navin Kumar2 and Lalit Kumar Mishra2
We have studied the BCS- BEC cross over regime by evaluating the energy gap parameter and the chemical potential for the cross- over as a function of dimensional parameter. Our theoretical results indicate that cross-over occurs in the very small regions of the parameter. We have evaluated the ratio of super fluid density to the total density(?s/?) as a function of (T/Tc) for three limits BCS, Pseudo gap and BEC. These results are quite useful in the study of dynamical properties of BCS-BEC crossover region at finite temperature.
656 Influence of Sodium Meta Vanadate on the Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel Immersed in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution Prepared in Well Water, M.Pandiarajan1*, S.Rajendran1, 2, R.Joseph Rathish3and R.Saravanan2
The inhibition efficiency (IE) of sodium Meta vanadate -Zn2+system in controlling corrosion of mild steel immersed in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution SCPS prepared in well water has been evaluated by weight loss method.The formulation consisting of 100 ppm of NaVO3 and 50 ppm of Zn2+ provides 94% of IE. Polarization study confirms the formation of a protective film on the metal surface .The inhibitor system function as mixed type of inhibitor. AC impedance spectra revealed that a protective film is formed on the metal surface. The reactions are diffusion controlled process.
657 A Theoretical Estimation of Binding Energy of Hydrogenic Impurities in Quantum Well in the Presence of Titled Magnetic Field, Tajinder Kaur1, A. K. Sinha2 and L. K. Mishra3
Using the theoretical formalism of E. Kasapoglu etal (Solid State Communication,2003), we have theoretically evaluated the variation of binding energy of the ground state for a donor at the centre of GaAs quantum well as a function of well width keeping title angle constant and also as a function of title angle keeping well width constant. We have taken four different magnetic fields in this evaluation. We observe that title angle is good tunable parameter providing a change on the impurity binding energy for small width. Our evaluated results are in good agreement with the experimental data and also with the other theoretical workers. This study will help to understand the experimental data of the donor impurities in GaAs quantum well under the applied external titled magnetic field.
658 An Improved Iterative Method Based on Cubic Spline Functionsfor Solving Nonlinear Equations, Azizul Hasan1, R.B.Srivastava2, N.Ahmad3
One new iterative method for solving nonlinear functions has been presented using a new quadrature rule based on cubic spline functions. This method has been found more efficient than Newton Raphson method.
659 A Study of Anthropometric Somatotype of Mentally Challenged Children in Chhattisgarh, India, Shilpa Inchulkar1 and Reeta Venugopal2
Purpose: This study focused on evaluation of somatotype characteristics of mentally challenged children in Chhattisgarh, India. Methods & Materials: Ex-post facto design was used. Purposive Sampling method was used to select 35 trainable and educable mentally challenged children (male) without any multiple disabilities from special schools for the mentally challenged children in Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The age of the children was between 14 - 16 years. Each subject was somatotyped by the Heath- Carter Anthropometric Method. Data were analyzed with mean, standard deviation.Majority of participants have predominantly mesomorphic endomorph characteristics.Mentally challenged children in Raipur, Chhattisgarh were mesomorphic endomorph in their somatotype characteristics.
660 On Lie Derivative and Affine Motion in a V -Recurrent * n F Equipped with Semi Symmetric Connection Coefficients, M. S. Arora* and S. B. Misra**
E. T. Davies1 has considered the generalisation of the Lie-derivatives to Finsler space Fn and its application to the theory of subspaces. By considering an infinitesimal transformation H. Rund2 and K. Yano3 have defined the Lie-derivatives of an arbitrary vector X i (x, x&) and the symmetric connection parameter *i ( , ) jk G x x& .In this paper, we have studied the Lie-derivatives of covariant and contravariant vectors in a Finsler space equipped with semi-symmetric connection as has been introduced by Mehar and Patel4 and have generalised the results thus obtained for tensor fields of various orders. The Liederivatives of semi-symmetric connection parameter have been discussed and an attempt has been made to obtain the commutation formulae involving the Lie-derivatives.
661 Corrosion behavior of nickel-Chromium alloy in artificial sweat in presence of D-glucose, S.M. Lydia Christy
This paper deals with the corrosion behavior of metals in the presence of biological media such as sweat. Human sweat comes in contact with a number of consumer products. This results in a variety of undesirable effects such as corrosion and malfunction. The nature and strength of the passive film and the mechanism of its formation are explained based on detailed studies conducted under experimental conditions. Corrosion behaviour of three metals, namely, Aluminium, copper and nickel-chromium alloy in artificial sweat (the ISO standard ISO 3160-2) in presence of D-glucose has been studied by polarization study The study reveals that the decreasing order of corrosion resistance is Ni-Cr > copper > aluminium.
662 Nanomaterials and Its Application- A Review, R. P. Ugwekar1,G. P. Lakhawat 2*
In the field of technologies, nanotechnology plays a great role. Nanotechnology made our lives easier, faster, smarter, and very convenient in the field of pleasure. Nanotechnology is a very vast field in which the matter is of great concern in the nanometer scale. Nanotechnology in the simple language can be defined as the study of matter in around the size of 1-100 nm. These nanotechnologies that we see in our daily life are mainly comprised of the nanoparticles of various sizes under 100 nm and these nanoparticles refer to the nanomaterials and the nanobiomaterials which are of great use to the human kind. Many industries around the world are showing their interest presently to this field of nanotechnology and it provides an important transformation to that industry as well as to the human beings working there as its provides a great opportunity for the unemployed talented people to work under this technology. There are certain disadvantages too for these nanotechnologies because being so small in size, one cannot judge the presence of these materials in the surrounding and hence it may enter into the human body and can cause severe damages but even then we cannot say them as harmful invention. All solid nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity can be used as additives of nanofluids. These nanoparticles that have been usually used in the nanofluids include: metallic particles (Cu, Al, Fe, Au, Ag, etc.), and nonmetallic particles (Al2O3, CuO, Fe3O4, TiO2, SiC, carbon nanotube, etc.).
663 A Theoretical Study of Fermi-Bose Mixtures near Broad Interspecies Resonances, Puran Shaw1, V. K. Verma2 and L. K. Mishra
Using the theoretical formalism of S. Mohammad (arXiv: 1003.3096v1 (2010)), we have theoretically studied Fermi-Bose mixtures near broad interspecies resonances. Using Variational method, we have evaluated energy of the molecule, WB as a function of scattering length [KFabf]-1 for different mass ratio, critical scattering length [KFa(1)]-1 as a function of (mB/mF), pair-breaking energy ? in the unit of (?F R) and pair chemical potential ?(?F R) as a function of scattering length [KFabf]-1 for 40K- 87Rb.Our evaluated theoretical results are in good agreement with other theoretical workers.
664 Higher Order Recurrent Finsler Spaces with Berwalds Curvature Tensor Field, Bindhyachal Misra, S. B. Misra, Kaushal Srivastava, R. B. Srivastava
In the present communication we have derived Bianchi and Veblen identities along with few more related results in a recurrent and generalised 3-recurrent Finsler space with Berwalds curvature tensor field.
665 The potentialities of some process intensifying techniques for improvement of inherent safety in chemical processing, Misbahu L. Mohammed
Chemical industries are continuously faced with increasing challenges of safety requirements in plant design and operation. Consequently, more and more attention has been focused on developing greener, safer and efficient chemical processes employing process intensifying methodologies and equipment. While engineered safety devices can be added on to a plant as risk mitigation measures, safety is most reliably ensured by developing inherently safer techniques. This paper reviewed some of the process intensification approaches that could be utilized by chemical industries to improve inherent safety in plant design and operation protocols. Although the potentials of the techniques described in this review for intensification of chemical processing have already been proven in the laboratories, however their application on the industrial scale still presents a difficult challenge.
666 Management of Water Quality: A Case Study of Bhopal City, Amit Dubey*, Suman Malik and Avinash Bajpai
Water is the key element for life. Life began and is sustained by water. The need of water for human does not end on drinking water, but humans need water for irrigation, industrial and other uses as well. Therefore, dependable source of water has been the epicenter of human settlements since their beginning. However due to indiscriminate use, the precious water sources holding usable water are constantly shrinking. The demand of water is on a constant rise and the supply is constantly shrinking. This deficit in demand and supply of water is on a constant rise in most of the cities across the globe. The only sustainable solution to this very challenging problem seems to be the management of the water quality of existing water resources. Bhopal, the city of lakes ironically faces severe water crisis especially during the dry months of the year. Most of the water bodies present in and around the city holds sufficient water, though the quality of the water in them renders these waters unusable. The present paper deals with the management of water quality of water bodies present in the city of Bhopal so as to ensure their optimum utilization.
667 Physicochemical Analysis of Water Quality of Shahpura Lake Bhopal In Reference To Scenedesmus Obliquus and Monoraphidium Minutum Algae, Shalini Shivhare1, Pushpendran Singh2 , Archna Tiwari2, A.K.Mishra1 and A.K.S. Bhadoria3
n the present study, physicochemical parameters viz. temperature, turbidity, pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids, Phosphate, Chloride, Sulphate, Total alkalinity, Total Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Calcium hardness and Magnesium hardness of water of Shahpura Lake (Bhopal) were analyzed in relation to the growth of algae viz. Scenedesmus obliquus, Monoraphidium minutum. During the study, it was noticed that both the algae have shown excellent growth in the water. Moreover, when CO2 concentration got increase in the water. Both the algae grown much better in fresh water and can be use to decrease CO2 concentration in the environment and can be a viable option to solve the problem of global warming. Moreover, production of algae can be a good source of Bio diesel production because of high oil content in it.
668 Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Kalasapadu, Porumamilla Mandals, Kadapa, Y.S.R District, India, V.Sunitha, B.Muralidhara Reddy, J.Abdullah Khan, R.Siddi Raju, B.Sesha Reddy and Ch.Stalin Richardson
Groundwater constitutes an important source of water for drinking, agriculture and industrial production. The use of groundwater has increased significantly in the last decades due to its widespread occurrence and overall good quality. A total of 28 drinking water samples collected from different locations of Kalasapadu, Porumamilla Mandals, Kadapa District Andhra Pradesh, and India were analysed for water quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride, bicarbonates, calcium, magnesium and chloride. The results obtained were found to exceed the permissible limits. It is observed that most of the groundwater is alkaline in nature. The Total Dissolved Solids of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 510 mg/l to 1698 mg/l. The Total hardness of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 70 to 290 mg/l. Groundwater of the study area is very hard. The calcium concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 10 mg/l to 88 mg/l. The Mg concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 11 mg/l to 89 mg/l. The chloride concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 21.3 to 146 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The bicarbonate concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 97.6 mg/l to 239 mg/l during pre-monsoon period. The fluoride concentration of the groundwater in the study area is ranging from 0.399 mg/l to 2.88 mg/l during premonsoon period. Low concentration of fluoride (0.399 mg/l) is observed in Yellayapalli village and high concentration of fluoride (2.88 mg/l) is observed in the village Pondugarupalli. Dental and skeletal fluorosis and deformation of bones in children as well as adults were observed in the study area indicating the health impact of fluoride in groundwater. Probable sources of fluoride are weathering and leaching of fluoride bearingminerals under the alkaline environment. Proper defluoridation techniques have to be followed to monitor fluoride contamination.
669 Correlations between Abiotic and Biotic Variables of Stream Ban- Ganga, Katra, Reasi, (J&K), Arti Sharma and Vipulab Sharma*
Present research paper deals with the correlations between abiotic (Physical and chemical) and biotic (macro-benthic invertebrates) variables of Ban- Ganga, which is a religiously celebrated stream. Both variables were studied and Pearsons correlation r was drawn between them. The conclusion drawn from the chemical analyses was in good accordance to the result obtained from biological parameters. It was found that physico-chemical parameters were important in structuring the stream macro benthic invertebrate communities because they determined whether organisms could colonize and persist in the stream habitats. Thus, the invertebrates are useful as bio indicators to the health of the aquatic ecosystem, complementing water quality analysis.
670 Tanzania Palm Oil Industry: Auditing and Characterization of Oil Palm Wastes Potential Bioresource for Valorization, Stella Gilbert Temu, Anthony Manoni Mshandete and and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi
Valorization, the combination of conversion processes of biomass into valuable biobased products, is a basis of bioeconomy, which is emerging globally. Tanzania has a huge potential in biomass production potential for valorization currently hardly or inefficiently used resulting into environmental pollution problems and bioresource wastage. A waste audit case study was conducted for palm oil extraction wastes generated by smallholder farmers in Kigoma Tanzania to evaluate their potential for valorization by integrating quantitative with qualitative methods and laboratory analysis. Results showed that annual generation of fresh oil palmpost-harvest wastes was estimated at 100,250 tones and palm oil processing wastes was estimated at 132,709 tons of solid waste and 1.54 x 108m3 of wastewater. The wastewater was high strength with a total chemical oxygen demand of 50,000 mg/l and biological oxygen demand of 40,000 mg/l. The chemical composition profile (mg/l) of the wastewater included 5.93 phosphorous, 6.9 phosphate, 4.3 ammonia, 13.59 nitrate, 18.4 organic nitrogen, a pH of 3.78 and a conductivity of 1.6 Mv. Percent nitrogen contents of the solid waste fractions including palm fronts, palm press fibers, palm kernels, empty fruit bunches and palm kernel cake ranged between 0.5-0.8 and their phosphorus content ranged between 0.12- 0.34 mg/100g. In conclusion, on the basis of the established characteristics, palm oil wastes represent amongst renewable biological resource,which can be transformed into food, feed, bio-based products and bio-energy via innovative and efficient bioconversion technologies in an integrated and sustainable manner. An innovative approach for theutilization of the waste for integrated production of edible mushrooms and biogas was proposed.
671 Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Bacterial Strains Isolated from Waste Water, Sankar Narayan Sinha* and Dipak Paul
Heavy metal pollution for the last few decades is spreading throughout the world along with rapid industrialization. A large number of bacteria and their products can be highly efficient bio-accumulators of different forms of metals. The present study deals with isolation, enumeration and characterization of heavy metal tolerant bacteria isolated from the metal factory effluent. The three potential metal tolerating isolates were morphologically, physiologically and biochemically characterized. All isolates were found to be Gram positive cocci demonstrating physiological characteristics primarily indicative of the genus Aerococcus, though it needs further characterization. The study indicated the potentiality of the isolate GM1 to tolerate and accumulate significance amount of lead, which is indicative of use of this strain for bioremediation of lead pollution in the river Ganga in those metal contaminated area.
672 Biovalorization of Banana waste:Auditing and improvement of bio-methane production by fungal pre-treatment, Emmanuel Elijah Salyeem1, Anthony Manoni Mshandete2*and Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi2
Bananas is an important staple food and cash crop in Tanzania, which generates huge waste quantities, currently underutilized and discarded causing detrimental impact to the environment. However, representsun-tapped bio-resource for bio-valorization into valuable bio-products. A waste audit case study was conducted for four common cultivars, Mshare-Kahuti, Mbwailuma (Matoke), Kisukari-Mshare and Kimalindiat Horticulture Research and Training Institute, Tengeru, Arusha, Tanzania. Wastes quantities generated annually from one hectare were estimated at 57, 99, 64 and 125 tons/year for Mshare-Kahuti, Mbwailuma (Matoke), Kisukari-Mshare and Kimalindi, respectively. Methane yield of various wastes fresh fractions of Mshare-Kahuti (for cooking) and Kisukari-Mshare (for desserts) were investigated in batch anaerobic bioreactors (BAB). The highest methane yields for Mshare-Kahutiof 0.273 and Kisukari- Mshare of 0.255m3CH4/kg of volatile solids (VS) added were recorded from corm and peels banana waste fractions, respectively. The effect of solid state-fermentation pretreatment of banana wastes with Pleurotus sapidus (P 969) at 10% (wet wt bases) for 7, 14 and 21 incubation days on the extent of methane yield was also investigated in BAB. Maximum methane yields for Mshare-Kahuti and Kisukari-Mshare were 0.96and0.99m3CH4/kg VS added, respectively recorded at 21days incubation period. Maximum methane yield represented an increment of 77-631% for Kisukari-Mshare and Mshare- Kahuti, respectively, which was significant at (p
673 Levels of Heavy Metals in Two Rivers of Tamilnadu for Predicting Pollution Loads, P.S. Krishnamoorthy1 and K. Nagarajan*
River Cauvery, a perennial river in India is the lifeline of people of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu for irrigation and drinking. River Palar is a minor river of South India flowing through the state of Karnataka, Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. The waters of both the rivers is being extensively harness from their banks for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. The river water of the study area was grossly polluted in respect to heavy metal pollutants estimation and is mainly attributed to the high amount of raw industrial effluents that enters into the river, however the river water metal quality was below the permissible limits set by BIS 2004-05 and suitable for drinking purposes but the metals detected in the surface water but is very dangerous to the bottom dwelling organisms because of metals safely get deposited into the undisturbed bottom, which require continuous monitoring, adequate sanitary measures and metal removing process if the water is to be used for drinking purposes. When compared to River Palar, Cauvery was attained maximum amount of metals but River Palar water couldnt take from surface running water.
674 Phytoremediation of Sugar Industry Effluent Using Typha angustata and Phragmites australis through Constructed Wetland, Patel Pratik and Dharaiya Nishith
Constructed Wetlands (CW) are engineered wastewater treatment systems filled with porous media and planted with emergent wetland plants. The aim of this study was to analyze the phytoremoval effectiveness by Typha angustata and Phragmites australis to treat Sugar industry effluent in CW systems as vertical flow subsurface treatment. Local wetland soil CW showed significant improvement in all parameters. Phragmites australis gave 98.84% reduction in COD and 99.69% BOD whereas ammonical Nitrogen and organic Nitrogen was totally removed from the effluent. Treatment using Typha angustata reduces COD 76.90% and 89.21% BOD while NH3-N and organic Nitrogen were reduced 89.42% and 78.57% respectively. The results were also statistically verified using one way ANOVA and 2 tailed t-test Analysis. The study shows that sugar industry effluents treated in vertical flow subsurface wetland with Phragmites australis gives best reduction in all the parameters of water with retention time of 7 HRT.
675 Studies on Caffeine Content in Various Tea Samples: A Case Study from Kerala, Neenu Treasa Thomas1, Anju George1, Jiby John Mathew1, Sajesh kumar N. K1 and Prem Jose Vazhacharickal1*
Caffeine popularly used in used in beverages and drugs where too much usages leads to health problems. The caffeine content among tea varies widely from the type of the tea as well as method of preparation. The objective of the study was to determine the caffeine content among five different types of tea including the two different brands. The samples includes sample 1 (organic black tea), sample 2 (green tea), sample 3 (Kanan Devan tea), sample 4 (vanilla tea) and sample 5 (Lipton tea).The caffeine content was determined using lead acetate and the subsequent extraction with ether. The moisture content ranged from 6.5 0.3 to 7.5 0.6 among various samples. Sample 4 has the highest ash content (7.1 0.3) while sample 3 possess least (5.5 0.6) among all samples. The organic black tea samples contain less amount of caffeine. The highest amount of caffeine was observed in sample 3 which has a concentration of 0.05 0.008. The present in vitro investigation results shows organic tea has the least caffeine content. The study also pinpoints the indication of caffeine content in tea packets for the better selection of the products for the consumers.
676 Seasonal Changes on Heavy Metal Contamination in the Water Samples of Selected Temple Tanks in Kanyakumari District, South India, 1P. Maria Pushpam*, 2 V. Umayoru Bhagan and 3 G. Immanuel
The objective of the present study is to reveal the seasonal variation on heavy metal contamination in the water samples of selected temple tanks of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, South India. To get the extent of heavy metal contamination, water samples were periodically collected from ten different temple tanks every month for a period of one year (January 2009 to December 2009). The collected water samples were immediately acid digested in the laboratory and the concentration of the heavy metals such as iron, copper, zinc, manganese and lead were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The data obtained in every month were pooled and presented as seasonal data viz., premonsoon, South-West monsoon and North-East monsoon. The maximum mean concentration of iron (0.463ppm), copper (0.105ppm) and lead (0.221ppm) were observed during premonsoon season. But zinc (0.026ppm) and manganese (0.091ppm) exhibited their maximum value during North-East monsoon season. All the trace metals possess concentration above the permissible limit of IS: 10500 1991 and WHO, except zinc and manganese during the study period. The concentration of the metals followed with the sequence: iron > lead > copper > manganese > zinc.
677 Development of Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Cu (II) Ion using Ethambutol Hydrochloride Drug as an Analytical Reagent, B. K. Magare1, A.R. Mehetre2, B. K. Magar3, V.N. Bhosale4*
A simple, selective and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed to determine micro concentration of copper from different samples by using ethambutol hydrochloride drug as an analytical reagent. The complex is stable up to 48 hrs. The absorption is maximum at 625 nm and 9.28 pH. Beers law is obeyed in the range of (8.0- 40.0) 10-5 M. The molar absorptivity and Sandells sensitivity values were 1.875x102L/mol-1cm-1 and 1.4162?g/cm-2 respectively.
678 Synthesis of Closantel as Effective Reaction Media for Hydrotropes, Jagannath J. Kadam1, K.George A2, R.S.Dhamnaskar3 and Manohar V Lokhande
The paper describes the synthesis of Closantel. . It is used as an anthelmintic i.e. an agent that destroys or causes the expulsion of parasitic intestinal worms so it is used as Anti-worm drug. The synthesis of Closantel was carried out using four different hydrotropes. The effect of various hydrotropes on yield, rate constant and activation energy at various temperatures and concentrations are studied.
679 Transition Metal Complexes using pH metric study, Ayesha Durrani & Megha Jadhav
pH-metric study has been used for simultaneous equilibrium of metal ion with different ligands such Leucine, cystein, glycine & tyrosine. P-amino benzoic acid is used as a primary ligand where as other are used as secondary ligand in ternary complexes. The ionic strength was maintained i.e. 1.0m NaClO4 and complex formation was observed. The results were computed using SCOGS software program.
680 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies of Mixed Ligand Complexes of Zn (II) and Mn (II) With SalicylaldehydeIsonicotinic Acid Hydrazone and Hetercyclic Base, *Bharti Jain, 1Meena Verma & **Suman Malik
The mixed ligand complexes of Zn (II) and Mn (II) with schiff base derived fromisonicotinic acid hydrazideandheterocylic base pyridine have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, magnetic moment, Conductance and thermogravimetric analysis. The complexes are colored and stable in air, having the general formula M (L) B.X [metal: Ligand: base.H2O]. The thermal behavior of complexes show that the hydrated complexes lose molecule of water first, followed by decomposition of ligand molecules in subsequent steps. The ligand and its complexes have also been tested for their antimicrobial behavior against various microorganisms and all complexes show a good activity.
681 Influence of Al3+ on Corrosion Inhibition of Trisodium Citrate, N.Vijaya1, A. Peter Pascal Regis2, S. Rajendran3,4, M. Pandiarajan4*
The inhibition efficiency of trisodium citrate (TSC) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in well water in the absence of Al3+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. In presence of Al3+ Corrosion inhibition efficiency of TSC increases. A synergistic effect in observed between TSC and Al3+. This effect is more pronounced in presence of 50 ppm of Al3+ than in presence of 25 ppm of Al3+ .This is supported by synergism parameter values. Polarization study reveals that TSC-Al3+ system control the cathodic reaction predominantly. It also indicates that formation of a protective film on a metal surface. The protective film has been analysed by FTIR spectra. FTIR spectra reveal that the protection film consists of Fe2+ - TSC complex, Al3+ -TSC complex and Al (OH) 3.
682 Experimental Study on Recovery of Copper from Electronic Waste by Electrolytic Process, Arensen Aier1, D.Prabhakaran2 and T.Kannadasan3
As we know the growth of electronic waste (e-waste) is growing enormously day by day in todays world. Several studies are undergone for the recovery of various metals and non-metals through different process. Here in this paper a case study of recovery of copper from waste electronic waste (PCBs) has been done by using an electrolytic process. Where in two major steps involved i.e. dissolution of metals and recovery of copper by electro deposition. With the help of laboratory setup reactor waste PCBs were crushed, reduced in size through some preliminary treatment and was allowed to react with Conc. Nitric acid and water with a certain proportion. Where in this for dissolution process graphite rod was used as anode and a stainless steel plate was used as cathode. Dissolution was done for certain period of time and feed was taken out, dried and weighed to see the amount of metal dissolved in the solution. Next for the copper recovery the cathode electrode was replaced by a copper plate and copper recovery by electro deposition was preceded. At several intervals the copper plate was taken out and weighed to see the amount of copper deposited. In this way copper is recovered and ensures eco-friendly during the experiment, convenient and recover the metal values almost quantitatively.
683 Corrosion Inhibition and Biocidal Activity of Carbon Steel in Neutral Aqueous Medium, B. Balanaga Karthik*1, P. Selvakumar2 and C.Thangavelu3
Weight-loss method, FT-IR were used to study inhibition efficiency in presence and absence of Zn2+ using {diethylenetriamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid)}(DTPMP) as corrosion inhibitor for Carbon steel in 60 ppm Cl-. The weight-loss method gives about the idea of corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency. The blank system that is 60 ppm Cl- gives high corrosion. If 60 ppm Cl- + 25 ppm TSC + 50 ppm DTPMP with 10 ppm of Zn2+ used as the inhibitor, which gives the maximum inhibition efficiency of 87%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows that the protective film formed on the metal surface. The influence of immersion period and pH has been studied. As the immersion period increases the inhibition efficiency decreases by the continuous attack of chloride ion. pH influence the inhibition efficiency of inhibitor, as the pH increases the inhibition efficiency also increases and corrosion rate decreases. Biocide used for this study is N-Cetyl- N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), which gives the 100% Biocidal efficiency. As the concentration of biocide increases the inhibition efficiency also increases and also it reduces the concentration of Zn2+ used for the formulation. The suitable mechanism was proposed to the corrosion inhibition for the above said inhibitor formulation.
684 Corrosion Inhibition Study of Stainless Steel in DTPMP SG by Acidic Environment, P. Selvakumar1,*, B. Balanaga Karthik2, and C. Thangavelu3
Gravimetric method is used to study the temperature effects on stainless steel corrosion in 0.5M H2SO4 solutions in the absence and presence of diethylenetriaminepenta (methylene phosphonic acid) (DTPMP) and sodium gluconate (SG). The combined inhibition efficiency offers 200 ppm DTPMP and 100 ppm SG is 91%. The synergistic effect of the inhibiting compound is calculated. The negative values of (?Gads) in the acid media ensure the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the stainless steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm and occurs spontaneously. The thermodynamic parameters of activation energy are calculated. These thermodynamic parameters show strong interaction between inhibitor molecules and stainless steel surface.
685 Synthesis Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Bis-Azo Dye Containing Coordination Polymers, Hemang M. Shukla
Novel bis ligand namely 2,2'-(4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(diazene-2,1-diyl))bis(4,1- phenylene))bis(azanediyl)bis(oxomethylene)dibenzoic acid(EDAL) has been prepared and characterized. The coordination polymers based on this bis ligand with transition metal ions like Cu+2,Co+2,Ni+2,Mn+2and Zn+2 were prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, infrared spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic measurements and thermogravimetric analyses. All the coordination polymers are insoluble in acetone, ethanol, chloroform, methanol, benzene, DMF and DMSO. All the novel synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.
686 Metal Complexes of First Generation Sulfonylurea Antidiabetic Drug Chlorpropamide: Synthesis, Structural and Biological Evaluation., Shruti S. Sarwade1*, W.N. Jadhav1 and B.C. Khade1
Novel complexes of Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II) with chlorpropamide [4- chloro-N-(propylcarbamoyl) benzene sulfonamide], have been synthesized and characterized using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy, melting point, elemental analysis and conductivity measurements. From the elemental analyses data, the complexes are proposed to have the general formula [(C10H13ClN2O3S)2 Cl2 M], M=Mn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal complexes are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that chlorpropamide is co-ordinated to the metal ions in neutral bidentate manner with sulfonyl oxygen and enolic oxygen. From the magnetic data and electronic spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. Antibacterial screening of the complexes were found to have varied degree of inhibitory effect against the bacteria.
687 A Review of Computer Software for Innovative Chemical Structure Drawing and Spectra Prediction, Manish Kaushik
In recent years there has been an increasing research emphasis on complex macromolecular systems. These include polymers and coordination compounds with precise control of structures, multicomponent systems with higher degrees of organization, they involved in confined environments, nanochemistry and nanostructures, biopolymers and bio-inspired chemistry. Successful Spectroscopic studies of these complexes require judicious applications of existing techniques and development of new or improved strategies and methodologies. In this article various Chemical drawing and Spectra prediction computer software are compared and analyzed for their role in research in complex macromolecular systems. We have compared various software like Accelrys (Symyx) Draw, ChemDraw (ChemBioDraw), DrawIt, ChemSketch, ChemDoodle, Chemistry 4-D Draw, MarvinSketch and MestreNova NMR Predict.
688 Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic- Anoxic Condition II. The Role of Solution Composition and Ageing, D.E. Egirani1, J.E. Andrews2, A.R. Baker2
This study investigates Hg (II) removal onto binary mixed mineral sorbents injected with iron sulfide under sulfidic-anoxic condition relevant to mercury contaminated water impacted environment. Batch mode studies at room temperature investigated the effects of solution composition and ageing. Variability in Hg(II) sorption exist over the range of pH investigated, exhibiting linear sorption for iron sulfide and some of the mixed mineral systems, Also, changes in Hg(II) sorption as particle concentration (Cp) increased exist, with iron sulfide and some mixed mineral systems exhibiting a linear decrease in Hg(II) sorption as Cp increases. All single and mixed mineral systems exhibit a near linear decrease in Hg(II) sorption over the range of residence time investigated .Hg(II) step-wise sorption probably indicates reaction phases attributed to outer sphere, inner sphere complexation and intra-particle diffusion.
689 Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Iron Sulfide under Sulfidic- Anoxic Conditions 1: Reactivity and Removal Kinetics, D.E. Egirani1, J.E. Andrews2, A.R. Baker2
This study investigates the reactivity and removal kinetics of mercury on single and mixed mineral systems from aqueous solution, injected with iron sulfide under sulfidicanoxic condition. The sorbents used were iron sulfide, kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, and their mixtures. The effects of, proton coefficient, and sorption kinetics were studied in batch mode at room temperature (23 2 ?C). Reactivity studies reveal that proton coefficient of single mineral systems are greater than one, thus indicating that the presence of thiol (?S-H) and hydroxyl (?Me-OH) functional groups and reactive sites enhances high level of protonation during the reaction process. Kinetic studies demonstrate two- phase reactions attributed to outer sphere complexation and inner sphere complexation. Differences exist in sorption kinetics between the single and mixed mineral phases and may be attributed to differences in the BET surface area of these mineral systems. Differences between actual and theoretical sorption is complex over time, thus exhibiting differential reaction pattern for the mixed mineral systems.
690 Characterization of Electronic Spectral Parameters of Er (III) ion with Therapeutically Important Ligands in DMSO Solvent, Annu Bajaj1*, Sushma Jain2, Samata Jain3, Ramesh Dedar4
Er(III) systems with therauptically important ligands viz. Ascorbic Acid, Nicotinic Acid, Niacinamide, Dapsone, Neomycin Sulphate, para Amino benzoic were prepared on doped model pattern in DMSO solvent and examined for metal- Ligand interaction on the basis of electronic spectral parameters, (oscillator strength (P),Judd- Ofelt parameters (T2, T4, T6, T4/ T6), Nephelauxetic Ratio (?), Bonding Parameter (b1/2), Sinhas covalency parameter (?%), Covalency angular overlap parameter( ?).The change in symmetry around Er(III) ion and M-L interaction are discussed.
691 Optimization and Characterization of Proteases Produced by Different Species of Aspergillus in Special Reference to pH: A Review, Seema Tiwari1, Sunil Tiwari2, Rashmi Arnold3, Arti Saxena4, Sunil K. Pandey5 and Neeti Mishra6
pH is the most important factor, which markedly influences the enzyme activity. Enzymes are affected by changes in pH. Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity of enzymes. The pH optimum of the acidic protease enzyme was determined using buffer solutions of different pH using the following buffers at 0.5 M concentration: acetate (pH 4-6), phosphate (pH 7.5, 8.5) and Tris-HCl (pH 10). The present study was undertaken to describe the optimization and characterization of proteases produced by different species of Aspergillus in special reference to pH.
692 Prevalence of LBW and Macrosomic Newborns in the Neonatal Ward of Vlora Hospital, Ela Peto1*,Emirjona Kiaj1, Xheladin eka2, Emiljana Coraj3, Vasilika Prifti1
Birth weight of the newborn has a great impact on their health. There are many maternal factors that contribute in it. To evaluate the prevalence of macrosomic newborns and LBW, to distribute them according to demographic maternal factors during January - December 2013.This is a cross sectional study realized in the neonatal ward of Vlora hospital. This study included 652 newborns. We used a self-administered questionnaire based on clinical charts. The study included 652 newborns, 85.3% of them were 2500 3999 grams, 4% were < 2500 grams and 10.7% were ? 4000 grams. With the increase of the mothers age over 30 years old, we noticed that the number of macrosomic newborns increased, while the percentage of LBW stayed the same. The pre-gestational BMI affects the increase of the macrosomic newborns. With parity increase, we notice a decrease in LBW newborns, and an increase of the macrosomic newborns. Parity is an important factor that affects the weight of the newborn. When the parity increases, so does the number of macrosomic newborns, the number of newborns with LBW decreases. Overweight and obese mothers have a higher tendency to have macrosomic newborns. The gestational age is another important factor on the birth weight, gestational age increases, LBW newborn decrease, macrosomic increase. Macrosomic newborns are mainly males, LBW are mostly females.
693 Adsorption of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bacterial Alginate, Husam Sabah Auhim
Bacterial strain H 8, which produces high amount of extracellular polysaccharide alginate, was isolated from soil, and identified as strain of Azotobacter chrococcum by its biochemical /physiological characteristics, alginate was extracted, partially purified and used as adsorbent. Analysis of alginate by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) show that the -OH groups present in bacterial alginate are clearly seen at 3433.06 cm-1, the peaks attributed to the -CH3 groups present at 2916.17 cm-1,and some distinct peaks such as carboxyl group showed strong absorption bands at 1604.66 cm-1, 1411.80 cm-1 and 1303.79 cm-1. Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto bacterial alginate was investigated with the variation in the parameters of contact time, temperature, pH and the amounts of adsorbent. Alginate has a high affinity and binding capacity for lead (II) ions, best adsorption level occurred after 30 min of treatment. Addition 50 mL of 1% alginate to 50 mL of solution containing lead (II) ions at 35C, alkaline pH (10) was more suitable for lead (II) ions adsorption than neutral or acidic pH, and the lead (II) ions in the original solution can be removed completely by bacterial alginate, the removal ratio for lead (II) ions was 100 %.
694 Radiation Doses to Patients Undergoing Some Selected X-Ray Diagnostic Procedures, Nworgu O. D.1 and Bamidele L.2
The level of dose and its distributions in adult patients undergoing seven selected common types of x-ray examination in two public hospitals in Nigeria were investigated using exposure parameters. A total of 224 patients were included in this investigation. The ages of the patients involved were from 18 years to 75 years, while their average weights ranged from 67kg to 73kg. Mean, median, first and third quartiles, and maximum to minimum ratio of Entrance Surface Doses (ESDs) are determined. The results show that for each of the examinations, the individual ESD values were found to be comparable with those from similar studies in Ghana, Sudan and in Nigeria. When compared with established international reference doses, the mean ESDs were found to be below the reference values, except in chest AP and pelvis AP where the ESDs of 0.47mGy and 12.0mGy were recorded. The value of ESD obtained was validated by direct measurement using thermo luminescent dosimeter (TLD). The difference between the calculated and the measured radiation dose was quite small.
695 Effects of Seasons, Host Age, Size and Sex on Monogenetic Trematode, Hamatopeduncularia indicus of Host Fish, Arius jella, Akhter Ali Siddiqui
A total number of 220 Arius jella were examined for parasitic infection. The effect of some factors, on the incidence of parasitic infection on the host fish is carried out. The result of this study showed that, more than sixty percent of the examined host fishes were infected. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than male. The large sized fishes were more subjected to parasitic infection than smaller ones. A definite seasonal effect is noted, the summer found to be season of severe infection of fishes, where the percentage of infection was obviously higher than other seasons. The average prevalence (%), mean intensity and relative abundance were calculated to be 44.22, 2.26, and 0.88, respectively. The above results and their reasons corroborated with the findings of earlier researchers.
696 Proximate Composition and Effect of Solvent on the Distribution and Concentration of Active Chemical Components of Piper Guineense Seed Using GCMS, 1Udofia, P. G., 2Essien N., 3Ukpe, R. A. and 2Robert, A. N.
The proximate and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) studies of 50:50acetone/DEE, acetone and DEE extracts of Piper guineense seed were carried out. The result showed 0.80% moisture, ash, 1.37%, crude protein, 10.77%, crude fibre, 9.81% and carbohydrate 79.61% from the plant material. Binary solvent of acetone/DEE showed 21 spectral lines, followed by acetone with 19 while DEE showed 18 molecules. Concentrations of the molecules even when all were present in chromatograms of the three solvent systems were different, but the retention times were slightly different in some cases. Most molecules in the three solvents were present in isomers of the original compound. Therefore different extracts showed different extraction coefficient in their ability to extract secondary metabolites from Piper guineense seed.
697 HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors: Update and Perspectives, Pritam N. Dube*
HIV replication requires the insertion of the viral genome inside the nuclear genome of infected cells through a recombination process catalyzed by the virus-encoded enzyme, integrase. HIV integrase has recently been recognized as a reachable antiviral target following the promising results of integrase inhibitors in clinical trials. The present review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the cellular mechanisms of HIV integration and the sites of actions of inhibitors. It also provides an extensive list of the known mutations that have been characterized for HIV-1 integrase with their impact on integrase activity, viral replication and response to anti-integrase drugs. Novel rational approaches for inhibiting HIV integration are also discussed, as well as the two integrase inhibitors in clinical trials and other selected inhibitors in development.
698 An Ethno-Medico-Botanical Study of Honnali Taluk, T. Vasantha Naik
A survey on medicinal plants, used for the treatment of disease has been conducted in different remote areas of Honnali Taluk, Davangere district of Karnataka. Different people of the district orally use paste of some locally available plant species for the treatment of number of diseases. But the selection of plant species as well as parts has been found to be variable from one person to another.
699 Ethnobotanical Remedies for Gastro-Intestinal Problems from Honnali Taluk, Davanagere District Karnataka, India, T. Vasantha Naik
The present paper deals with ethno-medical information on 12 flowering plant species commonly used by women and men of Honnali Taluk and it is very common among aged people. The cause of disease, its symptoms, and plant organs utilized and methods of preparation of remedies are provided. The information data on ethno-botanical plants were collected through the dialogue and arranging meeting with local knowledgeable people of the villages. The ethno-medicinal data was gathered from local elder and the tribal men, Vaidhyas.
700 Genetic Pollution Biodiversity Traditional Concerns, M. C. Rao*
Plant invasions arising from agricultural, forestry and other activities are becoming of increasing concern worldwide. Such invasions have traditionally been viewed as plants dispersing by seed beyond their intended area of use and becoming weeds. With regard to the potential harmfulness of the GMO there is a violent debate between those who believe that the advantages for medicine and for society are greater than the possible effects on the environment and those who state that too little is known to be able to use them and that the environment will feel the effect of the genetic pollution of the natural species with numerous consequences: the involuntary transmission of resistance to herbicides in infesting plants, the evolution of more resistant parasites, the increased use of herbicides, the disappearance of species of insects and as a consequence the loss of biodiversity. This bacterium that lives in the soil produces a protein that becomes toxic only in the insects intestine and causes its death. The protein is not toxic for humans nor for other animals, in fact, before the invention of these sophisticated techniques in genetic engineering, was it used as a natural insecticide, particularly in Canada to protect the forests from insect attacks. In this way it is possible to eradicate all the infesting plants without the need for further treatments with products that are extremely harmful for man and the environment.
701 Studies on Length-Weight Relationship and Ponderal Index of Cyprinus Carpio in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa (M.P.), Vima Patel, **S.N. Shukla and Shally Patel
The paper deals with the Length-weight relationship and ponderal index of Cyprinus Carpio in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa (M.P), during the period July 2011 to June 2012. The investigation is the length-weight and condition factor of six hundred and nineteen adult Cyprinus Carpio fishes in Govindgarh Lake, Rewa were investigated. The value of regression coefficient for the length-weight relationship was calculated to be 2.8372. This suggests that the growth forms in the entire specimen sampled because are very close to 3 hence, it can be said that undertaken fishes were followed to be cube law. Similar strong positive (P < 0.001) correlation coefficient r = 0.99 was found during the present study.This suggests that the two variables (Length & Weight) are highly correlated. In the present study maximum value of ponderal index were found during summer season. The high value during summer season may be attributed to active metabolic activities, sufficient availability of food, and maturity time of gonads and preparatory period of pre-spawning.
702 Potential of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato in Increasing Vitamin A Dietary Intake in Up to 60-Month-Old Children in Laikipia, Kenya, JedidahWanjiku Kiharason1, 2*, and DorcasKhasungu Isutsa2
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a significant nutritional problem globally, since about 33% pre-school children dont get enough vitamin A in diets. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) that is rich in beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, can sustainably alleviate VAD. The OFSP has shown stable yields in many environments, and is popular among children. Consumption of OFSP can have a similar effect as Vitamin A capsules; it provides sustainable, cost-effective source of vitamin A to resource-poor families. This study performed cross-sectional questioning of 227 mothers of 25-60-month-old children to assess sweetpotato production and consumption in Laikipia District of Kenya. Assessment of night blindness followed the WHO recommended procedure, dietary intake of vitamin A estimation used a 24-hour recall by mothers, and worm infestation used interview of mothers. Results showed that 42% households grew and consumed sweet potatoes, with the majority (82.7%) dealing with the white-fleshed variety; 24.2% children had consumed sweet potatoes in the last 7 days; 3% had consumed adequately. Consumption did not depend on size of land for growing sweet potatoes, and maternal literacy did not affect vitamin A intake. Children (69%) consumed less than recommended vitamin A. Night blindness was absent due to uptake of vitamin A supplements during polio immunization campaign. Worm infestation was low (15% children) due to deworming before vitamin A capsules administration. Intake of 100 g of OFSP could provide at least a weeks requirement of vitamin A, consideringstorage of extra intake of beta-carotene in the body, while production and consumption of OFSP constitutes a sustainable source of vitamin A.
703 Defensive Role of Antioxidant Enzymes Peroxidase, Esterase and Catalase in Beauveria Species under Abiotic Stress Stimuli, Padmini Palem P.C* and Padmaja.V1
Beauveria isolates which manifested endurance to a set of abiotic stress stimuli were selected for understanding the changes in antioxidant enzymatic profiles under in vitro conditions. Three antioxidant enzymes i.e., peroxidase, esterase and catalase profiles were evaluated by native PAGE method. Stress induced alterations in expression of isozymes were recorded in selected isolates when compared with corresponding isozyme profiles of positive and negative controls. Results of the present study furnish evidence for defensive role of above mentioned enzymes against deleterious effects of stress induced by abiotic stimuli in entomopathogenic fungal isolates of Beauveria
704 Chemical Characterization of Some Fish Sold in Lome (Togo), Tomkouani Kodom*, Etchri Amouzou, Phint Nambo, Gbandi Djaneye-Boundjou, L. Moctar Bawa
Fish is the most eaten sea food in Togo. Its bad conservation is a risk for the health of the consumer. The aim of this study is to determine the chemical quality of fish sold in Lom. Biogenic amines such as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA) and Histamine were analysed in different fish sampled in Lom (Togo). TVB-N and TMA were determined by extraction with trichloroacetic acid and perchloric acid. Extraction with perchloric acid gives high yield in the case of shark, smoked and salted fish. However, trimethylamine (11.2 to 103.4 mg/100 g) is the most common compound. Histamine was determined by the colorimetric method after extraction with distilled water. In all scombrod fish (Mackerel) sampled in nine big markets of Lom, histamine content was higher than 50 mg/100 g of dried fish, a standard established by FDA (USA). This study clearly suggests a certain degree of decomposition of most fish sold under aerobic conditions in Lom markets probably due to poor hygienic practices.
705 Utilization of Water Resources and Fishing Patterns in Kashmir Valley A Case Study, Imtiyaz Qayoom*, Asifa Wali, M. H. Balkhi and Bilal Ahamad Bhat
Kashmir valley is home for number of water bodies wherein variety of fishes and serve food to a large number of people in the region. Moreover, the aquacultural practices adopted at government and private levels have boosted the fish production to meet the demand of protein in the valley. Jammu and Kashmir State has achieved the record annual fish production of 19.9 thousand tonnes annually out of which Kashmir province contributes more than 80%. In this paper, growth pattern of three different fish species viz. Trout, Mirror carp and Country fish in Kashmir province of J&K was assessed using fish production data from 1956-57 to 2011-12. Forecasting of fish production has been also made on the basis of best fitted statistical models. It is observed that Kashmir province has shown a continuous growth rate of 4.2% in fish production since 1956-57. Cubic model was found to be the best fitted model for all the species. However, when future fish production of the valley was taken into consideration, the statistical models indicated that overall fish production of the valley is showing a decreasing trend. Moreover, it is the matter of concern that we are yet unable to meet the target of 70,000 thousand tonne consumption of fish required to meet the demand of protein in the region despite the increasing trend shown by the annual fish production data
706 Utilization of Microbial Bioassays for Screening the Possible Toxicity in Regularly Used Food Dyes, Ruchika Atri,* A. Singh, N. Mathur, A. Verma
Food additives are the substances that are intentionally added to modify visual appearance, taste, texture, processing or the storage life of food. Today, food colorants as additives are randomly used in many foods. However, their use in food is still controversial. The great bulk of artificial colorings used in food are synthetic dyes. For decades synthetic food dyes have been suspected of being toxic or carcinogenic and many have been banned. However, most of the food colors are still being used which are either not safe or are being used in quantities exceeding the statutory limits. The present study aimed to investigate the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of four frequently used food dyes by utilizing Salmonella mutagenicity assay /Ames assay (Prokaryotic assay) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay (eukaryotic bioassay). The main emphasis of the present study was utilization of microbial bioassays as simple, rapid and practical toxicity tests for pre-screening of large numbers of food additives. Result of this study show that among the four food dyes tested two were found to be significantly genotoxic even at lower doses. When cytoxicity in these food dyes was measured using Sachharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay similar results were obtained. The significance of the data is discussed with respect to other information on mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of the food colors.
707 Diurnal Time Budget and Activity Pattern of Indian Sarus Crane (Grus Antigone Antigone) in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan, India, Mohammed Yaseen*, Rashmi Saxena1, Sunil Dubey2 and Neha Dashora3
The Indian Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone) is a globally threatened bird and kept under vulnerable category by IUCN. The time-activity budgets of the Sarus cranes were recorded in Modia Mahadev Dam, in Chittaurgarh District, Southern Rajasthan. Foraging, loafing, standing and miscellaneous activities constituted major part of the time budget throughout the study period (daily, monthly and annually). Most of the activity time was allocated to foraging and loafing throughout the year, except for July and August months when duration of different activities was reduced in order to allocate maximum possible time for nest formation which was more imperative than other routine activities. Standing being comfort behaviour varied significantly over the months. Resting did not vary significantly over the months but showed a relative increase and decrease along with the change in temperature through different seasons. Some occasional observations also revealed that juveniles being physically weaker needed more time for resting. Vigilance was more prominently performed by parents after the hatching of eggs until the attainment of fledging stage of their brood. The well-established pairs showed more tendency towards unison calls and displays compared to the unbounded pairs or unpaired individuals of the flock. Account of activities was not significantly different between male and female Cranes in summerseason (t= 0.28, df= 12, P=0.77), monsoon season (t= 0.00, df= 14, P=0.99) and winter season (t= 0.07, df= 12, P=0.94).
708 Growth and biological production of polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) by bacillus megaterium MTCC 8075, R. Muralidharan* and K.V.Radha
In this study, a two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the production of Poly-?- hydroxy Butyrate (PHB) using Bacillus megaterium MTCC 8075. The culture conditions for PHB production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 9763 were optimized with different carbon, Nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and Incubation time. PHB production was attained in the presence of glucose as carbon source with a yield of 55.0 mg PHB/g cell weight and peptone as nitrogen source with a yield of 17.2mg/g cell weight. The optimum pH was found to be 7. A maximum yield of 35.46mg PHB/g cell weight corresponding to a temperature of 35C was obtained and at an incubation time of 72 hours (52.2mg/g cell weight). PHB was characterized using Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy.