1 Automatic Image Annotation and Retrieval using Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning, T. Sumathi, C. Lakshmi Devasena, R. Revathi, S. Priya and Dr.M. Hemalatha
Life insurance policies are valuable assets to mitigate the financial risk of untimely death. As such, every individual facing such a financial risk who can afford to pay for such a protection must seriously consider purchasing some life insurance. In the current Indian market, this choice is difficult on three counts: ? Inherent complexity due to uncertainty and long time horizons. ? The need to compare a plethora of different types of products from competing insurance companies. ? Most insurance policies bundle pure insurance with savings to offer composite products. ? There are two broad types of life insurance policies available in the Indian market: i. Traditional? products consisting of Term Insurance, Endowment and Whole Life Policies ii. ?Modern? products, which are unit-linked life insurance policies where the investment risks is borne by the policyholder. ? This paper is an attempt at a comparative evaluation of the Traditional Insurance Policies available in the Indian Market from a consumers? perspective: i. Which type of traditional insurance product should I buy? ii. Which insurance company?s product should I buy? iii. Is it better to save through insurance policies or through the widely available tax-advantaged Public Provident Fund (PPF)? ? We use an expected present value approach, data on mortality rates, currently prevailing premiums on insurance policies and interest rates- for the comparison within and across policy types. ? We conclude as follows: i. Shopping around will save a lot of money for an insurance buyer ii. Term insurance should be the primary choice for insurance protection iii. PPF is likely to be a better savings option than buying endowment or whole life policies.
2 Entrepreneurial Competency in SME'S, Dr.L. Vijay and V.K. Ajay
In recent times, SMEs especially in the emerging economies are struggling to navigate the current rough economic ocean. Debates are going on among scholars, practitioners and policy makers to identify a model to assist SMEs to sail smoothly through the stretch of hurdles. Reflecting on Gibb (2005)s contention pertaining to the significant role of SME entrepreneurs in managing their ventures, some insights into how to increase the odds of survival and success among SMEs could possibly be unearthed. In essence, calls to refocus on the key roles of the entrepreneurs open up rooms for further deliberation on the requisite competencies that can be ingrained to cushion the adverse economic impact among SMEs. Based on the Theory of Entrepreneurial Competency proposed by Bird (1995), this study posits that competency model could shed some light into ways to increase the likelihood of business survival and success especially in the context of a developing country.
3 Belt Slackness Detection for the Automobile System, C. Sathian, B. Kumar and C. Raju
General opinion for the cause of overheating in the engine is scarcity of water in the radiator which causes the engine to seize. Normally refilling the radiators would solve the problem but we have several proven cases where engines still seize due to loosening of belts. Though the current technology allows detection of engine temperature, there is no technique to detect this fault and to alert the driver. Our paper advocates a feasible solution for the above mentioned problem. A simple circuit with a potentiometer and LM3914 are employed to indicate any deviations in the tension or slackness in the belt. This also helps in preventing other serious consequences that can occur due to improper functioning of the timing belt which is used to drive the cam shaft in an overhead camshaft.
4 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Microstructure on Wear Behavior of Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloys, K.M. KenchiReddy and C.T. Jayadeva
Hardfacing is a low cost method of depositing wear resistant surfaces on metal components to extend service life. The prime requirement of a metal is to have good resistance to wear, corrosion and high temperature. A study has been carried out to investigate the relationship between abrasive wear resistance and microstructure of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloy. Two different commercial hardfacing electrodes were employed to investigate the effect of the microstructure. Results indicate that as hardness increases, the loss of wear decreases. Electrode-I has less wear as compared to electrode-II as the percentage of chromium, carbon and silicon is more in electrode-I. The abrasion tests were carried out in a dry sand?rubber wheel abrasion machine according to the procedure A of ASTM G65 standard. The factors such as, arc current, arc voltage, welding speed, electrode stick-out and preheat temperature, predominantly influence the weld quality.
5 Evaluation of Indian Rural Health Care Centre Programs: By the Application of Data Envelopment Analysis Technique, G.M. Satyanarayana, C.T. Jayadeva and H.V. Ramakrishna
India's achievements in the field of rural health care delivery have been less than satisfactory and that burden of diseases among the rural Indian population remains high. Recognizing the importance of rural health in the process of economic and social development and necessary architectural correction in the rural health care delivery system to improve the quality of life of the citizens, the government of India has resolved to launch the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Indian rural health policies and programs do not address significantly to improve the health status to the desired level due to lack of efficient evaluation system. This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate relative efficiency of rural health care programs. A typical statistical approach is characterized has a central tendency approach and it evaluates producers relative to an average producer. DEA is commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of a number of producers. In contrast, DEA compares each producer with only the "best" producers. The technique optimizes the relative efficiency ratio of current inputs over current outputs for each decision-making unit (DMU). The multiple inputs and outputs of heterogeneous rural health programs would be assessed simultaneously and helps to identify whether the programs are performing efficiently or inefficiently when compared to the other existing programs. In this paper, we have focused on the evaluation of programs with particular reference to Chikmagalur District, Karnataka, India.
6 Developmental Challenges for 21st Century, V. Vijay Anand Sriram
Preparing our self for changes and challenges will keep us active, alive, artistic and authoritative. The first step before preparation is discussion and initiation. This paper aims at analyzing various developmental changes faced by our country and aims a developing a practical approach to address this issues and aim at implementable solutions ,with prime focus on value based approach
7 Removal of Air Containing Tri Ethyl Amine (Tea) Using Vapor Phase Biofilter Packed With Wood Chips and Rice Husk, Bharath Gandu, K. Sandya, A. Gangagni Rao and Y.V. Swamy
Mixed bacterial strains named as AGR/IICT/1-5B was isolated from the active sludge of ETP of a polymerization industry. Strains AGR/IICT/1-5B was primarily identified as 3 gram positive and 2 gram negative bacteria. These strains were used for the abatement of TEA in bio filters. Experiments were conducted on biofilter having the working volume of 1.2 L. Microorganism was immobilized on mixture of wood chips and rice husk (1:1 v/v) which is used as the filter medium. The biofilter was operated at the following conditions; Temperature 30c, pH values in the range of 7.0 -7.6, Loading rate at 1-144 g m-3h-1, EBRT at 20-40 s, moisture content at 50-59%. Removal efficiency in the range of 90-95% was obtained during the study.
8 Prospecting the Future: Meeting the Challenges Posed by Climate Change, K.M. Valsamma
The world population is increasing at the rate of 10,000 per hour and by 31st of October, 2011 the sevenbillionth person will be born marking an extraordinary milestone in the history of the planet. The United Nation has predicted that by 2050 the population of this planet will be 9.3 billion. For a planet which is already strapped for resources, as Roger Martin the chair of the NGO population Matters wrote in the Guardian, the birth of the 7 billionth person is a sobering reminder of the planet's predicament. Echoing the same sentiment the TIME magazine has now come out with an article which states that the real victim of the over population will be the environment. All this boils down to the simple fact that the physical resource of the planet is finite. In the Limits to Growth Meadows et al had precisely underscored this finite nature of the Earth .They had also warned the world that we are about to reach an overshoot and collapse scenario. The figures in respect of the components of ambient concentration of green house gas as they existed before 1750 and during 2006 serves to compare and contrast not only the warming effect of CO2 but also the health hazards posed by particulate matter. As per the estimate of World Health Organization 800,000 people fall prey to premature death [1] due to the intake of polluted air containing, Particulate Matter of the size of 21 to 70 microgram per cubic meter.The abysmal air quality of the Indian cities is symptomatic of the environmental degradation, requiring corrective action by policy decisions at the level of the Govt. World Bank has characterized India's pollution induced warming as both growth related and poverty related. The impacts of climate are invasive. It is not merely confined to extended dry periods, increased frequency of heavy precipitation, or microbial population of the macro-environment. The specter of toxic Algae blooms ,and zoonotic diseases are in sight. Add to this worry of the toxic algal- blooms accumulated in the filter-feeder-bivalves, getting transferred to human beings. The review underpins that there is a need for putting in yeomans effort based on One health concept which stands for the health of humans, animals and the environment, because there is only one health in our entire ecosystem
9 A Comparative Study on Removal of Toluene by Batch Reactor using Different Fungal Culture Isolated from Municipal Sewage Water, S. Bhuvaneswari, A.G. Deepa Priya, A.R. Dhayananda Shakar, C.S. Sharath Kumar, M. Gopinath and R. Dhanasekar
The increasing rate of polluted gases in the atmosphere raises some of the major environmental and human health related problems that was recently suspected; hence the comparative study on removal of toluene by batch reactor using different fungal culture helps to minimize the toluene gas in the atmosphere. The comparative study on toluene removal was investigated by various parameters such as effect of different fungal culture with its characterization and effect of concentration. After startup the batch reactor was kept in a shaker with 150 rpm for five days with the synthetic effluent, prepared with Toluene concentration of about 1% was used for the entire study. The treated effluent was analyzed by GC-FID for Toluene degradation and was found to be 75% (the environmental conditions were maintained by pH 7 and 30oC ) by Penicillium sp. greater than the Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. A single cycle of two weeks provided degradation rate of about 92%. This provides further scope for experimentation which will be useful in developing the continuous removal of toluene by successive batch reactor or continues reactor.
10 Mathematical Modeling for the Design of Greenbelts for Air Pollution Control: An Engineering Perspective, Tasneem Abbasi, S.M. Tauseef, F.I. Khan, and S.A. Abbasi
If trees and smaller plants are viewed as if they are pollution control devices in the hands of environmental engineers, they can be perceived as biopumps, particulate traps, reactive absorbers of pollutants, and cooling towers. But whereas the usual engineering devices do not make a pretty sight and canot launch a thousand poems, trees and other vegetation can. Nor can the usual pollution control devices attract birds and other colourful fauna as trees do. From the environmental engineers perspective, the species of trees and shrubs can be scientifically chosen and planted in a pattern around a source of air pollutant, and in a manner so as to effectively reduce the pollution caused by that source. The entire system can be optimized to ensure maximum pollutant removal of target pollutants at minimum utilization of land and other costs. In this paper the work of this group on the design of greenbelts based on mathematical modeling has been summarized in the context of the global stat-of-the-art.
11 FEM Analysis of Effect of Rolling Parameters on Cold Rolling Process, K. Devarajan, K. Prakash Marimuthu and Dr. Ajith Ramesh
A FEM simulation study was carried out to investigate the influence of the rolling parameters on the rolling process. Using commercial FEM software, ABAQUS, a number of cases were studied. In this paper, a two-dimensional Elastic-plastic finite element model to simulate the cold rolling of thick strip with different roll angular velocity and roll diameter models is described. The angular velocity of the rigid rolls ranged from 30 to 480 revolutions per minute (r.p.m.) and the rigid roll diameter ranged from 100 to 300 mm. The initial feeding speed of the plate and friction was kept constant, thus causing a slip between the plate and the roll surfaces. The main interest of this study is to see whether the speed of the rolls and the diameter of the rolls have any influence on the contact pressure and the residual stress in cold rolling process. The roll speed is an easily controlled operational parameter which may be used to enhance the process and the quality of the final products by changing the roller diameter and see the effect of stress and contact pressure on the thick plates strip is new one.
12 Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide at Surface Oxidized Copper Electrodes, G. Keerthiga, B. Viswanathan, C. Alex Pulikottil and Raghuram Chetty
Carbon dioxide a common greenhouse gas is converted to value added products such as methane and ethane by electrochemical reduction at a surface oxidized copper electrode. The product yield and the relationships between the surface chemistry and reaction behavior were investigated. Ethane was observed as a dominant product at the surface oxidized Cu electrodes suggesting that Cu (I) species play a critical role in selectivity towards C2 species.
13 A Study on Customer Preference Towards Electronic Goods, Dr.S. Aravinth
The preference of customers is nothing but the required a product or commodity according to their expected features and attributes. In this regard the researcher is dealt with the housewife and taken them as respondents in the name of customer on their choices of purchasing electronic goods. In this fast moving world, the city life has much more advanced in many schedules. Without the adoption of electronic good one family could not be a competed one in the society. The family is always lead by the women, who shares the half of the burden of the leader for a family. In such a situation she preference more advanced and supporting commodities which fulfils her day to day works. The researcher has designed a framework or a task which is actually leads to find the significant relationship between the wife acceptance factor and the electronic goods [1]. This will also gives an opportunity to the retailers who actually deals with the electronic consumer goods, to know the exact behaviour of the family administrator on purchasing electronic commodities.
14 The Effect of Carbon Content in Martensite on the Strength of Dual Phase Steel, P.D. Sudersanan , Nagaraj Kori, S. Aprameyan and Dr.U.N. Kempaiah
The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of strength of dual phase steel with the percentage of carbon content in the martensite phase. The study is conducted on samples of dual phase steel prepared by intercritical annealing process with temperature varying from 730oC to 810oC. In this process both coarse and fine ferrite- martensite structures are produced with volume fraction of martensite varying from 48 to 69%. It has been observed from the investigation that both yield strength and tensile strength increased with increasing carbon content in the martensite phase of dual phase steel up to 0.195% and then decreased. The optimum values of strength are observed at 0.195 % of carbon
15 An Electrical Conductivity Method for Axial Gas and Solid Holdup Determination in Three Phase Fluidized Beds, B.S.V.S.R. Krishna
Fluidization is an operation in which solid particles are kept under suspension supported by the upward flow of liquid/gas phase. In classic fluidization the solids density are higher than the liquid, where as in Inverse fluidization the solids density are lower than that of continuous liquid phase. The phase holdup measurements in three phase classic/inverse fluidized beds are very important and difficult to measure. The phase holdups can be estimated with the help of pressure drop data and height of the bed/solids mass balance with an assumption of axial uniform solid holdup. In most of the fluidized bed operations, such as Catalytic fluidized bed and slurry bubble columns the solids holdup varies axially. Such type of systems, holdups estimation is very difficult. The present study is focused on electrical conductivity method to get directly the cross sectional liquid holdup and pressure drop to solve the above problem of axial solid holdup variation and can readily be obtained the cross sectional three phase holdups. The averaged normalized conductance and the liquid holdup are related with liquid conductivity with a power law mode of equation. The dependency of conductivity on liquid also varies with electrode size and non-conducting medium (gas/solid). The experimental results showed that the conductivity method developed in this work was convenient for use and had a good accuracy in a wide range of liquid holdup (0.4 to 1) in the Gas-Liquid?Solid three-phase fluidized bed systems. The effect of temperature on conductivity of liquid phase was also verified and successfully correlated
16 Experimental and Finite Element Analysis on Chip Formation Mechanism in Machining of Elastomers, Rajesh Nayak, Raviraj Shetty and Sawan Shetty
Computer simulation of metal cutting processes using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method are routinely practiced in today's industry. It is known from the theory of metal cutting that an examination of machined chips provides the cheapest and the most effective way of understanding the machining characteristics of a material. This paper discusses experimental work and finite element analysis to investigate the mechanism of chip formation during machining of Elastomer. Focus of this study is on understanding the influence of different cutting parameters on chip formation mechanism. From the experimental tests, it has been concluded that the morphology of rubber chips can be categorized into continuous ribbon-like chips with a smooth machined surface, segmented chips with a rough machined surface, and discontinuous chips with an even worse surface finish. Continuous ribbon-like chips are associated with a smooth surface finish, which occurs with large rake angle tools. Further from Finite Element Analysis it was observed that at lower rake angle, discontinuous chips are formed and Continuous ribbon-like chip occurs with large rake angle
17 Adsorptive Removal of Metal (Cu++, Co++ and NI++) Ions from Aqueou Solution Over Powdered Activated Carbon: A Kinetic and Equilibrium Study, G. Revathi
Water pollution is one of the most undesirable environmental problems in the world and it requires solutions. Textile industries produce a lot of wastewater, which contains a number of contaminants, including acidic or caustic dissolved solids, toxic compounds and many different dyes. Many of the heavy metals are hazardous and may affect aquatic life causing various diseases and disorders. The aim of the present work is to explore the possibility of using these carbonaceous materials as low-cost adsorbents. The removal of heavy metals from industrial effluents is a major priority before their discharge on environment. Developed processes require expensive and in many cases advanced technologies. Commercially activated carbon is more costly, such that cost of investment may not permit to use effectively. We report that the low cost carbon system, which were obtained from used up commercial batteries Nippo and BPL are used for the effective adsorption of heavy metal cations, Cu++, Ni++ and Co++, colouring metal ions also adsorb active low molecular weight organic compounds like phenols, carboxylic acid and phenyl acetic acid. Carbon dose required for maximum percentage of adsorption was found as 55.8, 50.5 and 54.2 in the case of Cu++, Ni++ and Co++ ions respectively per gram of isotherm constants after studying Langmuir and Freundlich method were determined. Plot of metal ion adsorbed in mg vs. equilibrium metal concentration are linear at low concentration and flat at higher concentration. This supports the Langmuir theory that the intermolecular forces between the sorbate and sorbent would not be significant beyond the first sorbed layer and that a portion of the sorbate molecules adheres, while the remainder renounce into the liquid phase. Under the kinetics, the plots of the concentration of metal ions i.e. log [1-u (t)] vs. contact time are linear, indicates that the sorption could be a first order reversible kinetics.
18 Modified Ratio Estimators for Population Mean Using Function of Quartiles of Auxiliary Variable, J. Subramani and G. Kumarapandiyan
The present paper deals with some new modified ratio estimators for estimation of population mean using the quartiles and its functions of the auxiliary variable. The bias and the mean squared error of the proposed estimators are obtained and are compared with some of the existing modified ratio estimators. As a result, we have observed that the proposed modified ratio estimators perform better than the existing modified ratio estimators. These are explained with the help of numerical examples.
19 Almost Unbiased Modified Linear Regression Estimators for Estimation of Population Mean, J. Subramani and G. Kumarapandiyan
The present paper deals with a class of modified linear regression type estimators which are almost unbiased. We have derived their variances together with the values for which the proposed class of estimators perform better than the usual linear regression estimator. The performances of these proposed estimators are also assessed for certain natural populations available in the literature. It is observed from the numerical comparisons that the proposed estimators perform better than the existing modified ratio type estimators.
20 The Effects of Welding Processes on Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Resistance for Hardfacing Deposits, K.M. KenchiReddy and C.T. Jayadeva
In this study, two different electrodes were used to examine the effect of microstructure and wear resistance for hardfacing deposits. Electrode-1 has less wear as compared to electrode-2 as the percentage of chromium, carbon and silicon is more in electrode-I. The factors such as, arc current, arc voltage, welding speed, electrode stick-out and preheat temperature predominantly influence the weld quality. The abrasion tests were conducted on a dry sand?rubber wheel abrasion machine as per ASTM G65 standard. Results revealed that as hardness increases, the loss of wear decreases. The wear surface results were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy results which indicates that the best abrasion resistance is obtained in microstructures composed of chromium carbide alloy.
21 Accidental Emission of Ammonia from Cold Storage and Ice Factory in Kolkata and its Remedial Action, Gargi Bhattercharjee, S. Bhattacharya, R.K. Gangopadhyay and S.K. Das
This paper describes the incidents of accidental release of ammonia in three different industrial establishments. Human and maintenance error are the main cause behind the all incidents. This paper identified the errors, suggested some general recommendations, some preventive measure to be taken for such accident and also for the emergency situation.
22 Importance of Life Skills Training for Corporate Sector, Sreehari Ravindranath, R. Joseph Thomas and Asna Shareef
Human resources with positive attitudes towards life and work and germane skills for advanced knowledge economy that are publicly responsible and accountable is becoming important in today's high momentum humanity. It is important that we mobilize skills such as personal management and people management skills which are necessary for adequate functioning which help us to steer our life towards more positive behavior and wellbeing. Specifically, life skills are termed as psycho social skills which empower individuals to flourish and prosper in competitive world and adapt to milieus in which we live in certain aspects such as behavioral, cognitive, social and intrapersonal. Corporate Life Skills training assists both individuals and small teams in your workplace to addressing issues affecting their work performance. This paper is conceptual papers which discuss the importance of Life skills training, which is an emerging concept in the corporate sector.
23 Exchange Rate Risk in the Foreign Exchange Market: A Challenge on Corporate Profitability, P. Sivarajadhanavel and Dr.S. Chandrakumaramangalam
Foreign exchange market is the largest traded market across the globe. In India, foreign exchange market opened for trade during the decade of 1970's and most of the transaction done through banks. Many companies in India emerged as a global player during this period, but they need to face the exchange rate risk of volatility in the global trade as the exchange rate against US dollar has raised five folds during this period. Importantly the risk exposure of Indian companies to its foreign trade has also increased dramatically. Conceptually the foreign exchange market faces risks of transaction exposure, translation exposure, and operating exposure which seems to be part of the exchange rate determination system. The hedging measures to be part of the risk management practices in the foreign exchange system across the global market. The exchange currency of US dollar is taken in the account of the foreign exchange market and its impact corporate profitability is being discussed with reference to information technology major Infosys. As exchange rate has challenged Indian corporate at many periods of interval, due to volatile movement of exchange rate directly impact on the corporate profitability. Infosys risk hedging being analyzed to know how it manages the exchange risk volatility and impact on corporate profitability is studied reference to information technology (IT) industry. The historical picture of the exchange rate of INR against major currencies like US dollar, Euro, Pound sterling, and Yen, surprised many corporate as it had direct impact on the corporate profit. This paper brings out the problem of exchange rate risk and its effect on corporate profitability on IT industry
24 Satisfaction Derived by the Customers on the Services Offered by the Foreign Sector Banks in Coimbatore District, Dr. S. Thinakaran and Dr.R. Vijayakumar
Customer satisfaction on various services is considered as an important parameter for the management of banks to prepare future strategy. Today, customers are more value oriented in their consumption of services because they have alternative choices. After the emergence of foreign banks in India, the banking sector in India has become more competitive and accurate. Foreign banks have brought latest technology and latest banking practices to India. Foreign Banks in India have brought prompt services to customers. Their contribution is significant in terms of making the Indian Banking system more competitive and efficient. Hence, the present study is a fact finding exercise to measure the level of satisfaction derived by the customers of foreign sector banks in Coimbatore district and to identify the factors that influence the same.
25 Assessing Adequacy of a Probability Distribution for Estimation of Design Flood, N. Vivekanandan
Estimation of design flood for a desired return period is of prime importance for safe design of hydraulic structures such as dams, spillways, bridges, culverts, urban drainage systems and flood plain zoning. Frequency analysis enables estimation of the probability of occurrence of a certain hydrological event of practical importance by fitting a probability distribution to one that is empirically obtained from recorded annual maximum discharge (AMD) data. This study deals with the fitting of Extreme Value Type-1, Gamma, 2-parameter Lognormal (LN2) and Log Pearson Type-3 (LP3) distributions to the AMD data; and examines the use of goodness-of-fit tests and diagnostic analysis in assessing the adequacy of suitable probability distribution for estimation of design flood. Results of the study showed that LN2 distribution is better suited for modelling flood data for Tapi at Burhanpur, Girna at Dapuri and Bori at Malkheda sites; and LP3 is the best for Purna at Lakhpuri.
26 A Study on Ground Water Quality Used for Irrigation in Prakasam District of A.P, India using Geographical Information Systems, Ch. Maruti Devi, Dr. Kiran Yarrakula and Dr.T. Usha Madhuri
The ground water samples collected from different mandals of prakasam district are analyzed in the laboratory for electrical conductivity (EC) , pH, cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+ and Mg2+) and anions (CO32- , HCO3-,Cl- and SO4-). The water samples are categorized as per criterion developed by Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, India. It has been found that, out of 55 Mandals, 35 Mandals have been found to be good in quality for irrigation at the district. Whereas 13 Mandals were found Saline (Marginally Saline (B1)-6, Saline (B2) - 2, High SAR Saline (B3) -5) and 7 Mandals are found as in Alkali category (Marginally Alkali (C1)-NIL, Alkali (C2)-3, Highly Alkali (C3)- 4). In general, these waters were of Ca-Na-Mg type with the dominance of HCO3 and CO3 in case of good quality waters. The poor water quality belonged to categories of B1, B2, B3, C1, C2 and C3, which are either having accumulation of salts (high EC) or high Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) or Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC). Thematic maps are generated on the basis of different categories of ground water samples using ARC GIS 9.3 software depicting the places of saline and alkali water in the district.
27 Evaluation of Stream Flow Network using Entropy Measures of Normal and Lognormal Distributions, N. Vivekanandan
Evaluation of stream flow network in any geographical region has utmost importance for planning, design and management of water resources so as to reduce chances of project failure and also to minimize the economic risk. Setting up and maintaining a streamflow network is an evolutionary process, which is need to be reviewed and upgraded periodically to arrive at the optimum network. This paper illustrates the use of entropy measures given by normal and log-normal distributions for evaluation of streamflow network with nine gauging stations of Krishna basin. The study shows that the Pondugala and Wadenapalli stations provided 100% redundant information, indicating possible discontinuation from the existing network of the basin. The paper presents the methodology adopted in evaluation of streamflow network and the results obtained thereof.
28 An Empirical Study on Teaching Professionals' Work-Life Balance in Higher Learning Institutions with Special Reference to Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, K.G. Senthilkumar, Dr.S. Chandrakumaramangalam and Dr.L. Manivannan
Many institutions of higher learning in India are swiftly integrating the advanced technology, mostly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into their teaching learning process. This changing paradigm is putting heavy pressure on teaching professionals and leading imbalance in their family life. As a result, the work life balance (WLB) is indispensable for teaching professionals to cope with the uncertain environment of teaching learning process. To address this issue, this paper reviews work-life balance in general and aims at bringing out the relationship between the demographical variables such as age, gender and the level of stress in balancing work and personal life of teaching professionals. This paper also tries to bring out the satisfaction level of teaching professionals in balancing the work and personal life. The results of the chi-square test illustrate that there is a close relationship between the demographical variables taken for the research and the level of stress in balancing work and personal life. It is divulged from this analysis that majorities (90%) of the respondents were not satisfied with their work life balance. In this fiercely competitive world, to be successful, it is momentous for any institutions to provide work-life balancing programs to their workforce to balance their work and personal life.
29 Improving HN Fuse Link Process & Product Quality using Six Sigma Methodology, Dr. Rajendra Takale and Swapnil Dere
This paper deals with manufacturing of five different types of fuses namely HN-000, HN-0, HN-1, HN-2, HN-3. Company had found that rejection of fuses of all types was more than 7%. This research paper is based on implementing Six Sigma methodologies at one of the suppliers of company to improve the process of manufacturing HN Fuse link. This paper also discusses the additional benefits achieved post implementation of Six sigma methodology like minimizing lead time, defects, rejections to name a few. Overall improvement in quality and raised the sigma level from 4.31 to 4.56.
30 A Reassessment of the Analysis Provisions for Bond and Anchorage Length of Deformed Reinforcing Bars in Tension, M.H. Mazumder, R.I. Gilbert and Z.T. Chang
Analysis and design provisions for the bond and anchorage length of deformed reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete elements are typically developed based on the assumption that the strain variations along the bar becomes approximately linear at or near the ultimate state of bond failure. Hence the assumption of the development of uniform bond stress along the anchorage length is used to calculate anchorage lengths of bars regardless of the variations in anchorage lengths or bar diameter. This paper describes an ongoing experimental research program in the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) at the University of New South Wales, Sydney aimed at assessing the effects of different structural factors on the anchorage requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the cases of end development and lapped splices of deformed bars in tension. While the fundamental assumption of uniform bond stress development could be justified for relatively shorter anchorage length, the study found that an increase in anchorage length and bar diameter leads to a reduction of average ultimate bond stress which might be due to the non-uniformity in the development of bond stress along the anchorage zone. It is shown in this paper that the variability in the development of bond stress due to variable anchorage lengths is associated with the variable degree of plastic deformation in the concrete?s tensile zone. This paper outlines the importance of these effects on the development of analysis and design guidelines for anchorage of reinforcement.
31 Dynamic Response Control of Base Isolated Plane Frame Structure Using Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers, Kiran K. Shetty, Krishnamoorthy, Gopinatha Nayak and Nivedita K. Ramesh
Dynamic response of a base isolated multi-storey plane frame structure with Multiple Tuned Mass Dampers (MTMD) subjected to harmonic ground excitation and Mexico earthquake excitations are studied. A four-storey plane frame structure having three degrees of freedom (two translations along x, y -axes and one rotation about z- axis) at each node, with MTMD on its base is considered for study. Comparison of response is made in terms of displacements and forces in order to investigate the effectiveness of the MTMD. The response of base isolated structure with MTMD is found to be less in comparison to the corresponding response without MTMD, implying that the MTMD is effective in reducing forces and displacements of the base isolated structure.
32 A Study on Static and Dynamic Behavior of Outrigger Structural System for Tall Buildings, Kiran Kamath, N. Divya, Asha U Rao
In the present paper an investigation has been performed to examine the behavior of various alternative 3D models using ETABS software for reinforced concrete structure with central core wall with outrigger and without outrigger by varying the relative flexural rigidity from 0.25 to 2.0 with step of 0.25. Also the position of outrigger has been varied along the height of the building by considering a parameter relative height of outrigger from 0.975 to 0.4. The parameters discussed in this paper include variation of bending moments, shear force, lateral deflection, peak acceleration of the core; inter-storey drifts for static and dynamic analysis for a 3-dimensional model for various values of relative rigidity and relative height. From the analysis of the results obtained it has been found that performance of the outrigger is most efficient for relative height of the outrigger equal to 0.5.
33 Delamination and First Ply Failure Study of Composite Conoidal Shells, Kaustav Bakshi and Dipankar Chakravorty
Interlaminar and intralaminar failure modes of composite conoidal shells are investigated in this paper using finite element as the mathematical tool. One of the prerequisites for confidently applying the composite shells in practical civil engineering is to have a comprehensive idea about the shell behavior under different loading conditions. The static bending and free vibration responses of laminated composite conoidal shells are now well known as a good number of technical papers have been published by different researchers. But for these materials which are weak in transverse shear failure may initiate at any inner lamina or interface and may remain undetected and unattended. Such latent damages may progress gradually and lead to a sudden total ply failure. Due to fabrication problems or overloading, delamination defect may occur and remain hidden within the lamina. Hence it is imperative to have knowledge of the first ply failure load and the load at which delamination initiates. To explore this area, in this paper, a simply supported shell is considered loaded by concentrated load. Lamination and the load position are varied to investigate the first ply failure characteristics of the composite shell. Well accepted failure theories like maximum stress, Hoffman, Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill are used in the current formulation to obtain failure loads. While obtaining the failure loads, each lamina is considered to be under plane stress condition i.e. no transverse stresses are considered to act on any lamina. Comparison of failure loads obtained from both the failure modes are also presented to get the minimum failure load which will govern the shell design
34 Geotechnical Properties of Problem Clay Stabilized with Crumb Rubber Powder, Purushotham G. Sarvade and Prashant R Shet
Mangalore tiles are a type of tiles native to the city of Mangalore, India. These are widely used as a roofing material throughout India, especially in coastal regions to drain off the rain water. But in recent times the tile industries have been facing problems due to non availability of good clay. The available clay for the manufacture of tile is lacking in desirable properties. The properties of the available clay have to be improved by some methods. It is proposed to use Crumb Rubber Powder (CRP) which is made from scrap and old tires is used as an additive to improve problem clay and study the effect of CRP on strength of problem clay after stabilization. The main objective of the investigation is to evaluate optimum CRP for stabilization of the clay from the view point of plasticity and strength characteristics. This paper reports the findings of experimental studies with regard to geotechnical properties (particle size, specific gravity, compaction characteristics, and unconfined compression strength (UCS) of both problem clay and stabilized clay, and to evaluate their suitability in tile industry. Also an investigation was carried out to study the effect of cement and lime on CRP stabilized clay. The investigation revealed that CRP altered the engineering properties of problem clay and 5% CRP has been chosen as the optimum CRP to get desired properties. The unconfined compressive strength was increased when the optimum mix (problem clay+5% of CRP) was blended with cement and lime.
35 Interaction Analysis of MAT Foundation and Space Frame for the Non Linear Behaviour of the Soil, Dr.D. Daniel Thangaraj and Dr.K. Ilamparuthi
Structural analysis is one of the most important aspects in structural design, since it gives an idea about the performance of the structure under load. Right from the beginning when the process of development started in the field of soil-structure interaction, an attempt has been made to bring sophistication in the theoretical methods of analysis. In the conventional analysis the stress-strain response of the soil is not considered. The equilibrium equations are satisfied but the compatibility is not considered. But in reality the soil, the foundation and the frame act together as a single compatible unit. The non-linear response of soil is considered for this analysis. The non-linear response of the soil is included in the analysis through multi linear isotropic (MISO) model and the parameters used in the parametric study are relative stiffness factors krs and ksb which are the function of the modulus of the soil, modulus of frame raft materials and geometric properties of the structural elements.
36 POE Framework for Assessing User Connectivity of Intelligent Buildings, Sutapa Das
In the last decade, the focus of building research has slowly shifted from sustainable building to Intelligent Building (IB) and both concepts are expected to merge in order to cater to the growing requirement for a better, productive and efficient environment comprising of functionality; safety-security; thermal, acoustical, indoor air-quality, visual comfort and building integrity etc - without consuming excessive energy. Many of these requirements are indicators of user satisfaction falling under the realm of IB and were beyond the scope of the preceding era of sustainable building research. With time, definition of IB has changed from purely technical to more humane - driven by fast-paced information and communication technology or ICT. Today's IB is primarily user-oriented and its success factor relies on its active interaction with occupants or user-connectivity. Hence, IB demands systematic evaluation of its performance by its users. Unfortunately, such feedback is not very structured in case of IB which differs significantly from its traditional counterpart. As a result, Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) - a highly acknowledged evaluation tool used by occupants of conventional building has been implemented in many IBs with certain level of compromise. To bridge this knowledge gap, this research proposes the conceptual POE framework exclusively designed for IB. After considering intelligent attributes and their influence on user-connectivity, the framework is planned which is suitable for indicative level POE study for lighting system (representative of a traditional system) and access control system (representative of a smart system). It was noted that in the first case, traditional POE is insufficient and needs to incorporate the intelligent features. In the second case, there is a conflict of interests of user-connectivity and system performance. As more buildings are adopting IB environment and more designers are considering seriously the notion of feedback, the proposed model can be beneficial for a knowledge-based paradigm shift of the building industry.
37 Creating Public Realm through Urban Renewal- Learning from the City of Arts and Sciences for the Indian Urban Scenario, Rukmini Mukherjee
In a rapidly developing nation like India, the prime aspect of growth is development of private projects to cater to the need for generating revenue. Land is developed for closed housing communities, industrial and IT parks and areas for the private sector. Even though, open spaces may be provided inside and along the developments, they are used by a restricted clientele, since the spaces are not open to all tiers of the society and for public use. As a result, even with the generation of enough open spaces, there is no realization of a public realm in most of the urban zones. Since there are several conflicting demands from different participatory bodies in a development project, the resolution of this conflict is not possible, but selection of the best solution is within the human abilities of the decision-making bodies. The City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia of Spain by architect Santiago Calatrava is a good example of providing urban space from an architectural project, with infrastructural planning and integration with the environment involving public participation and creating a successful public realm through celebrating modernity of structure-oriented bio mimicry architecture applied to the project area. The paper aims to study the effect of a government-initiated urban renewal project in the development of a degraded urban space and the urban design elements applied in the conceptual stage in order to realize an attractive public realm. The integrated approach towards the planning disciplines is encouraged in a plural society like India where all development aspects are fragmented, with a special emphasis on the creation of open spaces for public use for all tiers of the society.
38 Climate and Urban Design Responsive Modern Architecture in Existing Setting, Dr.Shivashish Bose
The major cities of India are going through huge metamorphosis under the impact of globalization, population increment, housing demand and tremendous financial investment in building industry. Rapid development of high-rise and four-five storied residential buildings are observed at every possible part of the city. In designing the city so, residential buildings are being built in quite standardized forms. Consideration for local climate, environment, urban context and overall harmony in many designs are missing. With technological advancements and new materials introduced for construction of architecture, it has become a complex system than of previous definitions about it. Now, especially commercial and public buildings take unusual forms in non-conventional materials and most of the buildings are designed as to be centrally air-conditioned consuming huge energy. On the contrary, there is worldly concern about global warming and climate change and environmental impact of buildings and environmental pollution and a quest for appropriate development that would be sustainable. To address that, on the one hand, an architect should follow the much-forgotten classical design approach based on nature, context, function, beauty and harmony and on the other hand, his architectural answer should be climate responsive, energy saving and sustainable. The three-storied residential building of Mr. Samar Banerjee in Kolkata designed by the author is one example of modern architecture that respects all and merges with the old existing urban setting though being distinct about self.
39 Influence of Powder and Paste on SCC Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate, S. Girish
The use of recycled concrete aggregate is an important issue for preserving the natural resources, protecting the environment, saving of energy and for sustainable development. In this study, a unique simple mixture proportioning method was successfully adopted for developing SCC based on the absolute volume concept, starting with a volume of paste with maximum aggregate size of 20 mm. The method involved very few trials with different types of aggregate that can be advantageously used in field practice. The volume of paste chosen was 0.38 to 0.43 fraction of the total mix. Natural crushed angular granite and recycled demolished concrete waste were used as aggregate for making SCC with fly ash as filler. SCC and vibrated normal concrete mixes were made for varying cement contents of 300 kg/m3 to 450kg/m3 and for a constant water content of 185 l/m3. Cubes of 150 mm size were cast and tested for compressive strength at different ages of 7, 28 and 60 days. The results indicate that higher paste content not only makes the mix more cohesive with better lubrication of aggregates, but also increases the slump flow (reduces yield stress) and compressive strength. The 28 day compressive strength of SCC with both natural and recycled concrete aggregate showed higher compressive strength than vibrated normal concrete and significant increase at later age, possibly due to pozzolanic activity of the filler material (fly ash). However, the compressive strength of SCC mixes with recycled concrete aggregate has a lower value, when compared with SCC mixes of natural crushed angular granite aggregate at the same age. The study clearly shows the importance of paste in SCC and the advantage of using recycled concrete aggregate with better performance than the vibrated normal concrete with natural crushed aggregate and can go a long way in conserving the natural resources by the use of recycled concrete aggregate for sustainable development.
40 Social Sustainability and Mixed Landuse, Case Study of Neighborhoods in Nagpur, India, Sarika Bahadure and Rajashree Kotharkar
Social sustainability focuses on the type of development that promotes social interaction and inclusion. It gives emphasis to inclusive community, social cohesions, quality of life, social equity and diversity. Segregated landuse has single land use and creates social impacts like social inequalities, exclusion, increased crime rate and physical and psychological problems. Mixed landuse development has multiple compatible land uses like residential, commercial, leisure, etc. within a closed proximity. These diverse uses tend to encourages walking thus enhancing visual and verbal interaction. This paper studies the significance of understanding the notion of mixed land use to achieve social sustainability. Various social parameters like accessibility, diversity, vitality, community cohesion, natural surveillance, safety, quality of life, sense of belonging and (anti)social behaviour has been studied in the context of mixed and segregated landuse areas. Supporting the literature review the study is further extended in six neighbourhoods with varying mix of residential, mix, commercial and other (open area/garden/institutional) land use for the city Nagpur, India. Accessibility, availability and quality of the amenities in the closed proximity and the age of the neighbourhood are the major decisive parameter that affects the social sustainability.
41 Determination of Bingham Parameters of Fresh Portland Cement Concrete Using Concrete Shear Box, S. Girish and B.S. Santhosh
The workability of fresh concrete should be characterized by its rheological properties based on material science approach to overcome the inadequacies of traditional empirical tests like slump test. Generally the rheological properties of fresh concrete are described by Bingham parameters in terms of two physical quantities, namely yield stress and plastic viscosity. Rheometers are used to find the two rheological parameters, which use high speed torque to shear the concrete and the stimulus provided during testing is dynamic. But, there is no concurrence in the measurement of rheological values by various rheometers. In this systematic study the Bingham parameters of normal concrete was found from using a specially fabricated new concrete shear box. The advantage of this test is the low shear rate applied on the specimen during testing which is similar to the condition the fresh concrete experiences in the field and the static condition of the test. The procedure is unique in that, after finding the peak shear stress, shear stress at zero normal stress and at zero displacement were found and finally finding the Bingham parameters. The water was varied from 160 to 190 l /m3 and cement content from 300 to 450 kg/m3. Different displacement rates (5 to 25 mm/min) and normal stresses (0.015 to 0.035 N/mm2) were used. Total number of tests considered was 324 and the mixes were prepared with and without Superplasticizer. The results show that the concrete shear box can be used as a new tool to measure the relative values of yield stress and plastic viscosity of fresh concrete effectively as a static test, with low shear rate. The values are higher but the trends are very similar to the studies using rheometers.
42 Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Open Ground Storey, J. Prakashvel, C. UmaRani, K. Muthumani, N. Gopalakrishnan
Open ground storey buildings have consistently shown poor performance during past earthquakes across the world. For example during 1999 Turkey, 1999 Taiwan and 2003 Algeria earthquakes, a significant number of them have collapsed. For instance, the city of Ahmedabad alone has about 25,000 five-storey buildings and about 1,500 eleven-storey buildings; majority of them have open ground storey. There are huge numbers of such buildings in urban areas of moderate to severe seismic zones of the country. The collapse of more than a hundred reinforced concrete frame buildings with in Ahmedabad (~225km away from epi-centre) during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake has emphasised that such buildings with open ground storey are extremely vulnerable under earthquake shaking. The presence of walls in upper storeys makes them much stiffer than the open ground storey. Still Multi storey reinforced concrete buildings are continuing to be built in India which has open ground storeys. These buildings are not designed as per the earthquake resistant design. It is imperative to know the behaviour of soft storey building to the seismic load for designing various retrofit strategies. Hence it is important to study and understand the response of such buildings and make such buildings earthquake resistant based on the study to prevent their collapse and to save the loss of life and property. Based on the above an attempt is made in this paper to assess the seismic performance of the soft storey reinforced concrete building by shake table test.
43 Study on Spatio- Economic Relationship of Industries in Greater Nagpur Area, Rashmi S. Waghmare
This paper is an attempt to address the spatio-economic relationship of the industries and the general theory and challenges relating to the industrial location. The existing industrial performance of the region, the top performing and lagging industries of the region along with the spatial analysis were ascertained, using tools like shift share analysis, location quotients and delineation tools such as land and economic suitability matrix. Nagpur is becoming one of the major nuclei for Industrial Growth in the State of Maharashtra and the country in a larger perspective. Thus, this paper tries to represents the regional industrial environment through proper industrial mix where the enterprises can make profit by determining spatial margin to profitability. It can be used as the foundation for enterprises to select locations and type of industries in the overall scope of industry allocation.
44 Mughal Seed in Modern Architectural Decoration, Rohita Sharma and Ila Gupta
Mughals are not required to any introduction. Their glory, living style, beautiful architecture with its unique decoration is known to all. Babur was the founder of Mughal dynasty. They made very attractive architecture in India. The architectural decorations reflect the taste, interest, living- standard style and customs of Mughals. These monuments are world famous for its beautiful wall decoration. The contemporary mural decoration has its roots in Mughal art. Inlay, painting and stucco decoration in Mughal era has a unique place in this content. Not only Indians but many foreigners are also impressed from this art. In present time this art has been used on the facade of modern architecture. Before Mughals, Indian architecture was colourless. This contribution goes to the Mughals who brought new techniques with beautiful colours in India. This paper is an attempt to find cultural and aesthetic values for using different techniques and motifs for wall decoration in contemporary period. The objective of the study is to have a better understanding of the influence of Mughal art culture on career, employment, livelihood and social innovation. Apart from the above objectives, this paper tries to find out the answer of several questions, like why do foreign delegates are attracted towards Mughal art and culture. Why do different hotels and restaurants want to resemble with Mughal art What is the social function of artistic and cultural creativity On the whole this paper is based on Mural decoration during Mughal era. By the end of this paper it will be clear that what type of mural decoration was used in Mughal era, its history, style, aesthetic pleasure, importance and impact on contemporary art and architecture. The study concludes that the mural decoration in present time has its root from Mughal (Persia).
45 DPIRS Framework for Sustainable Development of Coastal Areas, Rekha S. Nair, Dr. Alka Bharat and Manu G. Nair
Presently 21% of the world population lives within 30 kms of the coastal areas. Coastal zones are therefore of great importance as zones of settlement and play a vital role in the economic well-being of many nations. Indian mainland has a coastline of about 7517km ,with major economic activities and population (due to Migration or otherwise) concentrated in this area. This has resulted in enhanced demand for scarce resources threatening the physical and ecological balance of this entire region. This is mostly due to non-incorporation of inputs from the bottom stakeholders during the planning process and the absence of a holistic treatment in coastal zone management plan preparation. This mismanagement along with the change in climate has resulted in increasing vulnerability, which conspicuously demands a fresh approach towards management of coastal areas. This paper briefly describes the importance of sustainable development of the coastal zone by specifying challenges, the inadequacy of existing measures and suggests a DPSIR framework for improved coastal zone management. Also, a methodology for computing an index has been developed to monitor the sustainability of the region based on Factor analysis.
46 Experimental Study on Behavior of Steel and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Composites, Kavita S Kene, Vikrant S Vairagade and Satish Sathawane
Concrete is most widely used construction material in the world. Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is a concrete in which small and discontinuous fibers are dispersed uniformly. The fibers used in FRC may be of different materials like steel, G.I., carbon, glass, aramid, asbestos, polypropylene, jute etc. The addition of these fibers into concrete mass can dramatically increase the compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength of concrete. FRC has found many applications in civil engineering field. Based on the laboratory experiment on fiber reinforced concrete (FRC), cube and cylinders specimens have been designed with steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) containing fibers of 0% and 0.5% volume fraction of hook end Steel fibers of 53.85, 50 aspect ratio and alkali resistant glass fibers containing 0% and 0.25% by weight of cement of 12mm cut length were used without admixture. Comparing the result of FRC with plain M20 grade concrete, this paper validated the positive effect of different fibers with percentage increase in compression and splitting improvement of specimen at 7 and 28 days, analyzed the sensitivity of addition of fibers to concrete with different strength.
47 Investigation of Effect of Thermal Stresses on Damping and Thermal Expansion Behavior of Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites, B.V. Madhu, K. Pralhada Rao and D.P. Girish
The present investigation is based on the effect of thermal residual stresses on the both thermal expansion and damping behavior of Al/Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) processed by compo casting. Thermal expansion and damping properties have been studied experimentally as a function of temperature over a temperature range from room temperature to 400 C both in the heating and cooling cycles. Result shows the thermal expansion studies exhibited some residual strain, which increased with the increase in the weight % of the Al2O3. The damping capacity of both the composites and matrix alloy is found to increase with the increase in temperature during the heating cycle, whereas in the cooling cycle damping behavior exhibited maxima which became more pronounced with the increase in the weight percentage of the Al2O3. The damping maximum height decreases if the matrix strength is increased by increasing Al2O3. The appearance of the maxima may be linked with dislocation generation and motion as a result of plastic deformation of the matrix at the Al/Al2O3 interface. This phenomenon is attributed to the thermal stresses generated as a result of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the composite constituent phases.
48 Finite Element Analysis of Elastic Stresses around Holes in Plate Subjected to Uniform Tensile Loading, B. Mallikarjun, P. Dinesh, K.I. Parashivamurthy
The author reported stress analysis of infinite isotropic plate with a cylindrical circular hole and oblique hole. The present work deals with infinite isotropic plate under uniform tensile load. Three components of different material with different obliquity angle were used for analysis. These components having holes circular & oblique at angles 0, 30 and 60 degree are considered for study. The long twisted blades of gas turbine blade will be treated as infinite plate with oblique holes/cooling holes constituting a geometrically complex, three- dimensional body that is subjected to the action of systems centrifugal force. Stress concentration and stress field around oblique holes is a major challenge area in design of aerofoil in aerospace applications for safety because of their highly specialized applications in aerospace field under severe operating conditions. In design, Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) can be used as multiplication factor, and using that maximum stress can be predicted, thus it shows the stress field around local region. The experimental methods used are photo elastic and strain gauge techniques. When a infinite plate containing a cylindrical oblique hole is subjected to remotely applied uniform tensile load, the circumferential stresses along the boundary of the hole are produced which have been successfully used to predict stresses around holes. The resulting Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) obtained by Finite Element (FE) analysis are compared with experimentally obtained values. The results of FEA technique are in good agreement with experimental values, thus providing a means of analysing more effectively realistic Gas turbine blades. For analysis FEA software MSC/PATRAN, MSC/ NASTRAN-NX v7.0 has been used.
49 Tribological Properties of Aluminium 2024 Alloy Beryl Particulate MMC's, H.B. Bhaskar and Abdul sharief
Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) are emerging as the most versatile materials for advanced structural, automotive, aviation, aerospace, marine, defense applications and other related sectors because of their excellent combination of properties. In the present investigation, Al2024-Beryl composites were fabricated by liquid metallurgy route by varying Weight Percentage (wt. %) of reinforcement from 0 wt. % to 10 wt. % in steps of 2 wt. %. The dry sliding wear tests were conducted to examine the wear behavior of the Al2024 alloy and its composites. The sliding wear tests were conducted for various loads, speeds and sliding distances. The result reveals that wear rates of the composite is lower than that of the matrix alloy and friction coefficient was minimum when compared to monolithic alloy. The incorporation of beryl particles as reinforcement material in Al2024 alloy improves the tribological characteristics.
50 Development of Aluminum Foams by Different Methods and Evaluation of its Density by Archimedes Principle, B.U. Vinay and K.V. Sreenivas Rao
Methods for producing metal foams are many, but obtaining repeatability in the properties is very difficult. The main challenge posed by the metal foam is that obtaining homogeneous porosity. Although lot of problems involved in the development of metal foams, research people are attracted to the metal foams because of its attractive properties like acoustic damping, bomb mitigation, light weight etc. By considering the development of Aluminum foams as important aspect, some methods have been adopted and attempts have been made to produce metal foams at lower cost. The methods developed for the Aluminum foams were Aluminum foam production using NaCl crystal as a place holder in the Al melt, Aluminum foam production using NaCl crystal as a place holder in sand salt mold, Aluminum foam production using NaCl crystal as a place holder by simultaneous pouring concept.The problems associated in each process and its effect on the density and porosity of the foam were discussed.
51 Investigation of Chip Morphology and Tool Wear during Hard Machining of Hard Chrome Plated EN24 Substrate, K.N. Mohandas, C.S. Ramesh, K. Eshwara Prasad and N. Balashanmugam
Hard Chrome plated surfaces are used in automotive, aerospace and marine applications. The electroplated chrome surface has to undergo finishing processes before assembled for service. Improvements in the tool and coating technologies, varieties of tool options are available to machine surfaces with hardness more than 45HRc. The objective of this research is to find the influence of tool wear and the surface characteristics of the chrome surfaces. The wear characteristics of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PcBN) tool with different nose radius, tool angles are analyzed with varying machining parameters. The investigation helped choose the process as alternative to grinding for a specific length of cut. The chips produced by the hard turning were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis revealed that the chips produced were brittle in nature.
52 Qualification of DC Brush Motors used in Spacecraft Missions using Logistic Regression Model - An Analytical Approach, K. Shwetha, Dr.N.S. Narahari and Chandra Shekar Prasad
DC brush motor undergoes rigorous performance testing to predict the failures occurring. Acceptance test levels are set with margin expected flight/operations levels and qualification test levels are set above the expected operation levels to check for the survivability of DC brush motor in space. Performance testing is important to design and integration in a planned test process in which DC brush motor were tested under actual or simulated mission profile environments to disclose design deficiencies and to provide information on failure modes and mechanisms. Statistical models are helpful in this process. The Logistic Regression Model is the commonly used parametric statistical models and is one of the statistical techniques that are used for analyzing and predicting performance with binary outputs. The objective was to develop Logistic Regression Model and is designed to examine the categorization of dependent variables in the quantitative analysis for the performance of DC brush motor. The work carried out demonstrates the development of the Logistic Regression Model for performance prediction of the DC brush motors for deploying unfurlable antenna. The methodology includes performance test data and transforming the dependent variables into binary digits. And to estimate the probability of success of DC brush motor. The model developed is useful in the GO-NO-GO decision making with regard to the DC brush motors which is one of the critical components in the space module. This paper adds value to the decision making process through statistical validation using Logistic Regression Model. This Model helps the decision makers in qualifying the components based on performance tests. The Model developed shows the working condition of motor can said to be good since the model fit is good. The reliability performance of the DC brush motor in the working condition is significantly good.
53 Micro-Entrepreneurship: A Sustenance Tool in the Unserved Market, G. Magesh Kuttalam
Organisations living in the age of intensified competition make the entire organisation to involve and reinvent their strategies and tactics so as to retain or develop business. In spite of the efforts a large market (3/4th of the world population) remains unserved or underserved called as Bottom of Pyramid (BOP). Different experts estimate the size of BOP market as 3-5 trillion USD annually. This untapped potential attracts many of the contemporary marketers. Unfortunately a very few could succeed in their endeavour. Many corporations were unable to reach the set target and could not sustain their mission. The paper attempts to explore the challenges that were in the way to serve the unserved market. The paper ends suggesting that developing micro entrepreneurship pertaining to each village or settlement will help organisations to manoeuvre the challenges.
54 Evaluating Physical, Rheological and Chemical Properties of Modified Bitumen, Maninder Singh
In India, the methods for rheological characterization of bituminous binders are inadequate to characterize the bitumen. Hence a complete rheological study and characterization of bitumen using dynamic shear rheometer would be helpful. Also there is limited insight about the chemistry of modified bitumen. Modification of asphalt binders can serve several purposes. It can increase the overall performance of a binder by widening the range between the binder's high and low-temperature grades. In this paper VG30 bitumen and two polymers: Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) block copolymer and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) polymers were used as modifiers. SBS copolymers derive their strength and elasticity from physical and cross linking of molecules into three dimensional networks. Increasing the SBS content results in increased polymer swelling, which in turn produces increase in asphaltenes and reduction in maltene content resulting in harder and viscous matrix whereas EVA modifies bitumen by forming tough, three dimensional, rigid network to resist deformation. The change in physical properties such as penetration, softening point, penetration index and mass loss were studied and compared before and after modification. Rheological parameters such as complex modulus and phase angle before and after modification were studied by using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The results indicate that polymer modification leads to decrease in penetration value, and increase in softening point and rutting parameter (G*/Sin?). Modifiers used for bitumen modification are normally polymeric materials which have different structures such as atactic, isotactic and syndiotactic. These structures give characteristic features in spectroscopy analysis. Thus, Infra Red Spectroscopy techniques was employed in identifying the structure and functional groups present in polymeric materials.
55 Procedural Bio-Medical Waste Management - A Comparison with International Standards, Dr.B. Rajeswari
Though India has the state of art medical facilities on par with global standards for a comparatively cheaper cost with best knowledge, the bio-waste management protocols of many hospitals are far below the international standards. An effort was made to understand the bio-waste management procedures of big hospitals by making a critical analysis of bio waste generated. Biomedical waste includes syringes, live vaccines, laboratory samples, body parts, bodily fluids and waste, sharp needles, cultures and lancets. Based on the parameters of number of beds occupied and number of operations performed on any single day of the observation period of 30 days and comparing with the International Standards mentioned by World Health Organization, an analysis was made to understand whether the hospitals are following the quality parameters implemented by them. After 30 days of evaluation of biomedical waste management protocol at B.L Kapur hospital, New Delhi, it is found that the amount of hazardous bio-medical waste generated/bed/day exceeds the limit as per the international standards. For this study, the labeling component of the protocol for waste management for various departments was documented, to understand the protocol adopted. Through analysis it is concluded that to avoid hazardous effects, all major hospitals should seriously train their staff about the perilous effects of bio-waste and segregating and labeling them properly for disposal by launching a waste management protocol. It is also suggested that by recording the amount of general waste as well as bio-waste generated and conducting periodical surveillance of health care waste management practices, the hospitals can help the hospitals in protecting the environment. As it is an area of much concern, further studies can also be made to understand the impact of such negligible way of handling bio-medical wastes and the impact of such acts on the community.
56 Strategic Approach in Hiring, Developing and Retaining Employees in Manufacturing Organizations - An Overview of HR Function from the Business Perspective, C. Santhanamani and Dr.N. Panchanatham
Globalization has set the benchmark for the organizations in terms of productivity, quality, cost, delivery, safety, morale and environment. Any organization which is required to compete globally and to sustain in the market, has to invariably adhere to international standards so that the stability of the market share and the survival of the business will be ensured. All the functions are required to focus on critical parameters to meet the business objectives of the organization at the end of the day. The function of Human Resources also keeps its plate full pertaining to all the functional parameters which are critical to the business. The stand alone elements of HR function like Talent Acquisition, Performance Management System, Capability Development, Succession Planning and Employee Engagement are now very well connected, aligned and integrated with the overall of business objectives of the organization. Attrition is the key challenge for the HR function in the contemporary business environment which has got direct impact on the performance of the business both positively and negatively. Though HR takes various initiatives to reduce the percentage of attrition, developing the covers and bringing them on the board or replacing the vacant positions by formal recruitment method, be it critical or non critical, in the shortest possible turnaround time is a key performance indicator of HR function. In this context, this article attempts to explore that how attrition of critical positions is being managed strategically through a structured Succession Planning and the allied elements like Competency Assessment and Capability Development and also the unique method applied even to manage the attrition of junior level and operating level employees in the manufacturing industries.
57 Impact of High Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees Job Performance in Leather Goods Manufacturing Companies at Vellore District, M. Kaveri and Dr.G. Prabakaran
This study aims at exploring the impact of high performance HR practices on employees job performance. The study sought to establish the effect of job design, training and development, motivation, supervisory support, working environment and compensation on employees job performance in Leather goods manufacturing companies at Vellore district. The research design used was descriptive survey research design. Stratified proportionate random sampling was used. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed by using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis, chi-square and Friedman test was done to establish the relationship between various HRM practices and employees job performance. Data was presented in the form of tables. Based on the findings, job design, supervisory support and work environment are having a positive and significant relationship with employees job performance and training and development, motivation and compensation are not having a significant relationship with employees job performance. Conclusions as well as implications are discussed.
58 Towards Building Energy Efficiency for Developing Countries, Usman Aminu Umar, Mohd Faris Khamidi, Suleiman Aliyu Shika and Umar Musa
Buildings account for 42 percent of world energy consumption, therefore the rising trend of making buildings more energy efficient is smart business with assists to make local market jobs and added benefits to the environment, even though the main inspiration for energy efficiency initiatives always been energy cost savings, government incentives and improved public image were important. Increasing energy efficiency through measures such as building efficiency has the possibilities to gradual the development of energy demand in developing nations around the world by more than fifty percent by 2020. Building efficiency codes and standards are regulatory instruments that need a minimum amount of energy efficiency in buildings, appliances, equipment or lighting when they are properly designed, they might cost-effectively lower energy costs over each and every item's lifetime. Energy efficiency improvement targets are aims which can be established for a country or town. Setting a targeted for the whole geography can stimulate greater measures particularly if there is an organization accountable for achieving that target. Furthermore, governments can set efficiency enhancement goals for publicly owned properties to develop capacity and promote the building efficiency industry. This study reveals an overview of the development and present scenario of BEE summarizes its key issues, and proposed measures of improvement and options to enhance the building energy efficiencies systems for sustainable natural environment.
59 Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity Study of Ni- Doped BSCF Cathode for Low Temperature SOFCS, Suman Kumar Burnwal and P. Kistaiah
Nickel doped BSCF (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co1-xFe0.6NixO3-? (BSCFNi); x=0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) cathode materials were synthesized using sol-gel citrate method for low temperature (300-500oC) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) application. The nanopowders of BSCFNi were then calcinated at various temperatures in the range of 600-1000oC. The nanopowders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). A cubic perovskite structure was observed in the X-ray diffraction measurements. The average crystallite size of the nanopowder obtained varies between 40-60 nm. DSC result, measured in the temperature range of 200-600oC, shows no phase transition. Ionic conductivity of the BSCFNi for varying concentration of nickel was measured in the temperature range of 200 oC to 500 oC. An emphasis is made on the effect of Ni doping on these properties
60 Direct and Indirect Effects of Independents Variables on Return on the Total Assets of Composite Cotton Sector-An Analytical Study in Indian Textile Companies, A. Dharmaraj and Dr.S. Sivakumar
Textile industries in India are playing a vital role in the economy of the country. In recent years, it has also become an important factor for employment. It has made a remarkable impact in the economic growth of the nation through its growth and development in the past few years. This paper presents an analytical study of Indian textile industries. The direct and indirect impacts of independents variables on return on the total assets of composite cotton sector have been thoroughly analyzed. This study mainly focuses on the financial impact of the selected industries. This investigation gives a overall financial performance of the Indian textile industries.
61 A Study of Dynamically Adaptive Architecture in Web Based Applications, P. Malar and Dr.V. Thiagarasu
In recent years, the foremost of the progress area unit having issue to adapt the advanced policies and most of the approaches required customized workflow engines. This research work focuses on projecting a new changed Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework for imposing the advanced policies to dynamic workflows. The framework Model-Operations-View-Events (MOVE) is especially supported Model-View-Controller pattern that is employed to feature the dynamic sites. The controller element in MVC framework is spitted into 2 blocks namely Operations and Events owing to artifact too several codes into the controller in MVC pattern we tend to area unit going for improved MVC framework. The main aim is to style a progress processes as a template in abstract level. The progress language is employed to implement the logic and imposing any kind of policies. Additionally to the present we tend to area unit attending to value by suggests that of learning the confidentiality and it's used permits the application-specific adaptation work running instance
62 Design and Computational Studies on Plain Flaps, M. Senthil Kumar and K. Naveen Kumar
In this paper, Computational fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict accurately the incremental lift due to use of passive lift -augmentation device 'Flap'. In a 2-D wing, lift at a given angle of attack can be increased by increasing camber. In aircraft design, values of Maximum Lift Coefficient (CL max ) are used to determine the take-off and landing distances, on the assumption of usage of some type of lift- enhancing device. Passive lift enhancement device, such as a trailing edge plain flap, is relevant to most of the aircraft designs except Short Take Off and Landing (STOL) However, accurate analytical solutions to complex non linear equations of aerodynamics are a far cry and one has to depend largely on support from experimental results. It is here that CFD analysis makes the task simpler. Computational study of a typical plain flap with NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) 0012 airfoil is taken up to predict its influence on incrementing the lift during critical phases of flight at low speed. The flow analysis is done using CFD tool FLUENT 6.3 along with GAMBIT 2.2. Effect of Plain flaps on basic aerodynamic parameters such as CP, CL , CD are studied by analyzing the flow over an airfoil with plain flap. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with analytical solutions to establish the influence and relevance of flap as an effective high lift device.
63 Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Isotropic Plate Using Refined Plate Theory, I.I. Sayyad, S.B. Chikalthankar and V.M. Nandedkar
In this paper, Trigonometric shear deformation theory is applied for bending and free vibration analysis of thick plate. In this theory in plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness coordinate. It accounts for realistic variation of the transverse shear stress through the thickness and satisfies the shear stress free surface conditions at the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The theory obviates the need of shear correction factor like other higher order or equivalent shear deformation theories. Simply supported thick isotropic plate is considered for detail numerical study. Navier's solution technique is employed for the analytical solution. The results are obtained for displacements, stresses and natural bending mode frequencies and compared with those of other refined theories and exact solution from theory of elasticity.
64 Wear Studies on Polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) Composites: Taguchi Approach, Sonam M. Gujrathi, Prof. L.S. Dhamande and Prof. P.M. Patare
The present research work is aimed at developing a new material for industrial application. From literature review and surveying sugar factories from nearby area, it is found that conventional bearing material (Babbitt and bronze) leads to high wear rate as well as high coefficient of friction. Now a day's pure PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) is widely used as bearing material which is self lubricating and subjects to lower coefficient of friction, but problem with PTFE is that, it subjects to high wear rate, which can be reduced by adding suitable fillers. In this study, the effects of varying load, sliding distance, sliding velocity and filler content in PTFE are experimentally examined. A comparative analysis of three composites (PTFE, PTFE + 25% C and PTFE + 35% C) is presented showing how properties of PTFE can be improved by addition of filler content. A plan of experiment based on Taguchi technique, was performed to acquire data in controlled way. The results of experiments are presented in table which prove that the wear is strongly influenced by the composition of filler content. It was found that, by varying the different parameter like Load, Velocity and Sliding distance the PTFE containing 35% carbon percentage have the better wear performance.
65 Health Equity in Developing Countries: A Need for Effective and Responsive Public Service Delivery to Improve Access to Health Services, Rohini V Shinde
In developing countries, there exist health disparities, due to various social inequalities prevailing among several socially disadvantaged groups. The causes for such health disparities are multi dimensional. The paper, however, considers, 'The access to health' as one of the major social determinants of health, and discusses the problem of accessibility among various groups of society like children, women, urban poor and tribal populations. The paper further treats the mechanism of public service delivery as a mean to improve the access to health. Later, it moves on building a meaningful relation between the public services delivery and the Health equity. While doing so, the paper discusses the changing paradigm and various models of public service delivery in the context of changing socio-economic and political scenarios, and the way it could be changed or modified to assure fair and just distribution of health services, to all sections of society, according to their needs and requirements. The paper has reviewed the significant literature pertaining to the key concepts and has synthesized the relevant ones, in an order to build a discussion around public service delivery, enhanced access to health care and increasing health equity.
66 Design and FE Analysis of Anti-Slosh Baffles for Fourth Stage of PSLV, C. Bhavya, Sanya Maria Gomez and R. Krishnakumar
Polar Satellites Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the work horse of ISRO. It is used to launch 1000 kg satellites in polar orbits and upto 1600 kg satellites in low earth orbits. PSLV is a 4 stage vehicle weighing 315 tonnes. It uses liquid propulsion for second and fourth stages. The fourth stage propulsion tank is made up of Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V)(1335 mm dia). The configuration of tank is monocoque, with a common bulkhead to separate the fuel and oxidiser. The top compartment is used for fuel and bottom compartment is filled with oxidiser. Anti-slosh baffles (Ring Baffles) are used in both compartments to suppress slosh .Sloshing is a common phenomenon in partially filled liquid container. The rocket motor cases, filled with liquid propellants are left with an internal ullage volume (free volume) for the pressuring gas to stabilise. This creates a free surface of liquid. Sloshing is defined as the oscillation of the free surface of a liquid in a partially filled container due to external disturbances. Baffles are essentially "plates" fixed inside the container to arrest sloshing. The slosh waves, during the causes of travel, hits the plates breaks and dies out. This reduces the slosh forces on the walls of container. Presently the ring baffles are supported from top flange of tank for launching satellites up to 1200 kg. For this propellant loading is upto 2.5 t. Now a PS4 stage is reconfigured with 0.8 t loading to launch 500 kg satellites. In this tank the liquid levels are less. Hence ring baffles are supported from bottom flange of tank to reduce the total mass of the baffle system. So in this paper Structural design, Finite Element analysis and Modal Analysis are carried out.
67 Experimental Analysis of Jatropha Curcas Bio-Diesel for Optimum Blend Characteristics, N. Manikanda Prabu, Dr.S. Nallusamy and K. Thirumalai Rasu
Increasing the fuel demand brings us to find out the various alternative solutions. Out of the various research activities, bio-diesel from various oil seeds is the major activity, which decides the future energy sources. Our previous researchers concluded that Jatropha oil is to be an alternate fuel for Compression ignition (C.I) engines and it has closer characteristics of diesel fuel. Still this oil cannot be utilized directly because of its physical and chemical characteristics. This article relating the Jatropha oil's physical and chemical characteristics, production techniques, how it is treated as an alternate for diesel fuel, comparison characteristics of Jatropha oil with conventional diesel fuel, finally the suitability parameters for diesel engine. The required fuel properties of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, pour point, Cetane number, carbon residue and specific gravity were theoretically found. The various results with different blends of diesel and Jatropha oil (considering 0%, 10%, and 20%) on single cylinder direct injection engine were experimentally found. Based on this, the engine characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust temperature are calculated manually. And also the emission characteristics are plotted with various aspects. These results indicating the optimum blend, which can be suitable for using as alternate fuel in diesel engine.
68 The Psycho-Social Aspects of Non-Adherence in ART Therapy in HIV/AIDS and Social Work Intervention: A Case Study in Delhi, R. Seema Rani
HIV/AIDS, the epidemic is a major concern of public health since its impacts are devastating. Though the highly active antiretroviral therapy has significantly minimized the fast mortality rates among PLHIVs yet Non-adherence has occurred as one of the biggest challenge in the success of antiretroviral therapy because it declines its effectiveness. 95% adherence is hardly achieved and ensured. Factors causes non-adherence are many but hidden psycho-social aspects are yet to be studied intensely. More over the attached social stigma and discrimination may determine the success of the treatment. Psycho-social situation determines one?s ability to adhere to treatment. The social work profession is simply meant to meet the human rights of people with certain principles, values and approaches. The case study approach tends to deal with various behavior dynamics and social situations through regular interaction and coping strategies. This paper by case study presents how psycho-social situations make a person non-adherent and suggest the role of social worker in controlling and enabling the clients to be adherent.
69 A Review of Computational Studies of Temperature Separation Mechanism in Vortex Tube, H.R. Thakare, Y.R. Patil and A.D. Parekh
The Ranque Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) is a very simple device well known for its phenomenal temperature separation effect. With a single input of compressed gas, the tube simultaneously produces two different streams of gas-one being hotter and other being colder than input gas. Over the years, different theories have attempted to explain this effect without achieving any universal agreement. Small size of RHVT presents considerable difficulties towards predicting temperature, pressure and flow field inside it. This is where Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis comes to the aid of researchers. Many of researchers have attempted such analysis using turbulence models such as The Standard k-? model, RNG k-? model & Realizable k-? model, Large Eddy Simulation Technique (LES) etc. This paper attempts to present a review of such recent qualitative studies carried out on RHVT using CFD. Care has been taken to explore diversified parameters related to flow physics inside RHVT, instead of being monotonous one. This review is expected to help future researches in the related domain
70 Fixed Human Resource Norms in Indian Sub Centers - Does the Changing Times Necessitate Innovations?, Suchitra Lisam, Dilip Singh Mairembam, Anupama Hazarika, Prankul Goel, Roli Srivastava and Thiagarajan Sundararaman
This study was conducted to understand the existing workforce availability and need for differential staffing norms within diverse contexts of sub centers (SCs). This included documenting the emerging patterns of SCs, studying the existing staffing norms, and assessing the ranges, quantum of services, work-pattern and work-load of service providers. Multiple case studies were used to document the diverse contexts of SCs along with review of secondary data. In-depth interviews of 97 service providers including Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANM), Multi-purpose Worker Male (MPW-M) and Rural Health Practitioners (RHP) was conducted to assess the characteristics, work-pattern and work-load across 69 sub-centers in Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Kerala, Assam, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh (U.P) and Meghalaya. SCs across these states were differentiated into various types i.e. collocated in Primary Health Centers (PHC) or standalone, delivery huts or non-delivery huts and Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) clinics. While SCs in most states were providing minor symptomatic treatment, Antenatal Care (ANC), immunization services through outreach work, in few states, the focus had shifted from Maternal & Child Health Care services to detection of NCDs and adolescent health. This study found inter- and intra- state variations on workload, work pattern, staff deployment, Out Patient Department (OPD) attendance and areas of work of the staff deployed in SCs. Similarities and variations on workload and work pattern across SCs were observed across the state. Majority of SCs showed variations in terms of average number of villages, population served and geographical contexts across states. Assam SCs had heavy OPD attendance of upto 33 cases per day due to deployment of an additional mid level health worker in the form of RHPs while other states (i.e. Haryana, Chhattisgarh and U.P) had relatively low OPD attendance of upto 5 cases per day. While the Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) prescribed 2 ANMs and 1 MPW (M) at each SC, the study found that 37 SCs (53.6 percent) had only 1 staff in place as observed in 6 states except in Assam where 8 SCs had 1 RHP at each SC along with either 1 or 2 ANMs, out of total 15 SCs studied. Staffing pattern at SC did not consider the geographical, social and work characteristics of SC. Our study findings demonstrates that flexible staffing norms is necessary which should be based not only on caseloads, but certain factors i.e. population served, emerging characteristics of the SC and geographical accessibility should be considered for rational deployment of ANMs at SCs. Besides, skill building of staffs, deployment of secondth ANM and an additional health worker i.e. RHP are crucial for optimal delivery of assured services at SCs. It could be complemented by adoption of locally appropriate retention strategies for staffs.
71 HRD Climate Dimensions in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, Anil Kanamarlapudi and Dr. Ramadevi Vangapandu
In the present day fierce competitive environment, the forward looking organizations are giving utmost care to attract, develop and retain the best talent as people are considered to be the source of competitive advantage. In order to survive and thrive in the competitive environment, the organizations are keen to develop the competencies of the people and are giving importance to Human Resource Development (HRD). The main objective of the research paper is to study different dimensions of HRD climate in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE). The scope of the study is confined to 10 branches of CBE and the sample for the study constitutes 190 staff. The results of the study indicated that Collaboration among the employees of CBE is high followed by Trust and Openness and autonomy is considered to be the least. The study also revealed that there is significant difference in HRD dimensions - authenticity, autonomy, collaboration, confrontation and trust dimensions between the branches of CBE while F-value is insignificant for openness and pro-action dimensions indicating that openness and pro-action dimensions of HRD climate do not significantly differ between the branches of CBE.
72 Emerging Dimension in Management (Finance) - Corporate Debt Refinancing, A. Hema and Dr.G. Manokaran
Corporate Debt Refinancing (CDR) is a new and emerging concept in finance. The article help to learn more about debt refinancing, the survey made with European markets from Borrower and Lender on growth of debt for 3 years (2011 to 2013). Due to competitive environment, the firm undergo refinancing or restructuring of existing policy. The reason for refinancing is reduction of interest rates or the extension of the loan's terms. A study made in this paper to know more about debt refinancing a case issue with Essar Groups and Suzlon Energy Company. To maintain a corporate financial health and credit rating improvement create interest rate lower. Most of the Indian corporate decided to undergo the concept of refinancing makes a rupee loans with cheaper dollar credit. This paper discusses the risk element and crises in the financing market. A study reveals the how Essar group company refinancing of overseas loan for their survival in global market and Suzlon recast their debt for further operation. However, Refinancing debt is a difficult and expensive process, particularly for corporation. Debt Refinancing is a supportive element for a cash flow and firm need a sound asset management to implement this concept.
73 Performance Evaluation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) using CBN Tool during Hard Turning of AISI 4340 and its Comparison with Dry and Wet Turning, D.V. Lohar and C.R. Nanavaty
In order to increase the flexibility and ability to manufacture complex geometry, hard turning was introduced where the necessity of grinding operation can be eliminated. In hard turning rough machining, final grinding can be eliminated and raw material is supplied in the final heat treated condition. Hard turning can seriously be regarded as an alternative for grinding operations under certain circumstances. Generally hard turning requires large quantities of coolants and lubricants. The cost of associated with lubricants increases the total cost of production considerably. Conventional cutting fluid application fails to penetrate the chip-tool interface and thus cannot remove heat effectively. Considering cost and the stricter environmental laws are enforced, alternatives has been sought to minimize the use of cutting fluid in machining operations. Some of these are dry machining and machining with Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). Present work deals with the comparative performance of CBN tool in machining AISI4340 steel in conventional dry and wet turning with Minimum Quantity Lubrication by varying speed and feed, depth of cut. The experiments were conducted using standard L18 (2 1 x3 7) mixed orthogonal array. Statistical analysis was performed using MINITAB software for ANOVA analysis, mean effects and interaction plots.
74 Predicting the Bed Height in Expanded Bed Adsorption Column using R-Z Correlation, B.S.V.S.R. Krishna
Expanded Bed Adsorption (EBA) enables the protein recovery directly from cultivations of microorganisms or cells and preparations of disrupted cells, without the need for prior removal of suspended solids. The performance of an expanded bed is comparable to a packed bed/fluidized bed. To extend the EBA technology in industries, a better understanding of the expanded-bed behavior is necessary to maximize its efficient applications. In this work the steady state hydrodynamic behaviour of expanded beds particularly bed expansion/ average porosity was studied experimentally. Two models are used to predict the terminal velocity of particles: one is Stokes law and other one is Shiller and Naumann model. The experimental results are in close agreement with the predicted porosity of Stokes law followed by Richardson - Zaki equation than the other model.
75 Treatment of Synthetic Greywater Using 5% and 10% Garbage Enzyme Solution, Fazna Nazim and V. Meera
Garbage Enzyme is a complex solution produced by the fermentation of fresh kitchen waste (fruit and vegetable peel), sugar (brown sugar, jaggery or molasses) and water. Use of Garbage Enzyme is emerging as an effective method for treating greywater. When the treatment of synthetic greywater was done immediately after filtration of the Garbage Enzyme solution, the effluent standards were met after 27 days. The treatment time reduced to 5 days when it was treated 60 days after filtration of the enzyme solution. The enzyme solution is rich in organic content. The lower concentrations of 5% and 10% Garbage Enzymes were effective to treat synthetic greywater. Results showed that ammonia nitrogen and phosphates could be completely removed by using Garbage Enzyme solution. Further tests are required to study the removal mechanisms.
76 A Model for Effectual Collaborative Learning, Pankaj C Bhujbal, Dr. SunitaMahajan and Omprakash L. Mandge
The availability and popularity of advanced communication tools has led to widespread use of social media, web, and virtual communities among students. There is significant increase in expectations of students in entire process of learning driven by innovations in ICT. The changing face of ICT has brought about the fulfillment of knowledge communities and made an important impact on forms of Collaborative Learning. This paper presents a model for effective collaborative learning driven by innovative use of ICT and group collaboration. The model consists of major five steps: Formation of groups, Classroom activities for the group, Activities on social media, Weekly Activities, Group presentation. The study was conducted over a period of three months for Computer Networks class and the results show thorough preparation of subject and continuous monitoring of groups has resulted in better class participation, greater academic achievement and excellent student satisfaction. Successful groups were able to identify the skills they acquired -technical, behavioral and interpersonal skills which will help them to survive in a professional working environment. Not all groups derived benefits from the collaborative leaning environment. Issues related to individual motivation, openness to feedback and lack of generic skills led to their poor performance. The results of this study suggest that, the challenges in implementation of collaborative learning can be met by effective use of proposed guidelines in the model. This paper recommends further trials of model for different subjects and courses.
77 International Trade with Special Emphasis to FDI Issues in Africa, Shiferaw-Mitiku T
International trade results in an increase in efficiency and also allow countries to participate in a global economy, encouraging the opportunity of foreign direct investment (FDI). FDI plays an important role in bringing growth opportunities such as technology transfer, export development, job and skill creation in host countries. There are a number of factors come into play to determine the growth and development effect of FDI. In Africa FDI flow has grown dramatically as a major form of international capital transfer over the past three decades. However, there is a big difference among sub-regions of Africa on the pace of growth and investment share. Due to these, this study was necessary to assess some of the reputed practices of selected African countries FDI policies and their strategies. The study focused on members of Common Market for Eastern and South Africa (COMESA) Countries were selected. From which Ethiopia from Horn of Africa, Egypt from North Africa, Madagascar from Indian Ocean, Uganda from African Great Lakes, Zambia from Southern Africa and South Sudan from Central Africa were selected for discussion due to their high share in FDI inflow. Secondary data had been employed. The study found that Northern and Western sub-region of Africa exhibited the highest FDI inflow against the rest of African sub-regions. Majority of successful African countries in FDI inflow is mainly because, their focus is targeted on addressing on the major constraints of their county and providing priority and incentives to foreign investors to come up with solution to the existing economic, technological and managerial scenario. Accordingly, in order to exhibit substantial improvement in the share of FDI flow to Africa, recommendations and policy implications have been drown.
78 The Effect of Microstructure on 3 Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Hardfacing Alloys, K.M. KenchiReddy and C.T. Jayadeva
Hardfacing is one of the most useful and economic ways to improve the performance of components submitted to severe wear conditions. A study was made to compare the microstructure and abrasion resistance of hardfacing alloys reinforced with primary chromium carbides, the hardfacing alloys were deposited onto M.S. plate by SMAW process. Two different commercial hardfacing electrodes were employed to investigate the effect of the microstructure.The abrasion tests were carried out in a dry sand-rubber wheel abrasion machine according to the procedure A of ASTM G65 standard. Microstructure characterization and surface analysis were made using optical and scanning electron microscope. The result shows that the wear resistance is determined by the size, shape, distribution and chemical composition of the carbides, as well as by the matrix microstructure. The best abrasion resistance was obtained in microstructure composed of chromium carbide alloy. Hardfacing is a deposition of different metal over the parent metal to achieve required properties.
79 Continuance Intention to Use Facebook: A Study of Perceived Enjoyment and TAM , K. Praveena and Sam Thomas
The use of social networking sites has emerged rapidly as an ideal platform for social interaction. Different social networking sites are characterized according to their usage like business networking, entertainment and social interactions. Facebook, the most commonly used site for social interactions has the large number of users worldwide. This study aims to identify the continuance intention of using facebook, through an extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM is one of the most useful models used for predicting user acceptance. Perceived Enjoyment was added to the TAM variables to explain the continuance intention to use Facebook. A survey method was adopted and the sample constituted students of undergraduate and post graduate courses. The results reveal that the model explains 36% variation in the continuance intention to use Facebook. Perceived Enjoyment was seen to be a strong determinant of attitude towards using Facebook in this study.
80 Sliding Wear Behavior of Alumina/Tic Coated Steel Produced by Plasma Spray Technique, M. Mruthunjaya and K.I. Parashivamurthy
Carbide coatings exhibit good resistance to wear and has an increased hardness which increases the service life of equipments generally when the surfaces are exposed to critical atmosphere like in thermal power plants. The hard Alumina-Titanium carbide (Al2O3/TiC) carbide coating is developed on the steel by using thermal plasma spray technique. The composition of Al and TiC are varied in the ratio of 70/30, 65/35 and 60/40. Coated samples are analyzed using optical microscope, hardness test, sliding wear and corrosion test. Hard-faced samples are shows uniform distribution of Al2O3/TiC particles on the surface of steel. Surface hardness increases with increasing volume fraction of TiC. The coating of Al2O3/TiC with volume fraction of 30% TiC shows good corrosive resistance compared to other two coating specimens and coating with 40% of TiC has shows good wear resistance than the other two coatings.
81 Stochastic Model to Determine the Expected Time to Recruitment with Three Sources of Depletion of Manpower under Correlated Interarrival Times , R. Elangovan and R. Arulpavai
It is a common phenomenon that some personnel leave an organization after completing a certain period of services to that organization voluntarily or involuntarily due to death, retirement or termination. It usually happen that whenever the policy decisions regarding promotion and target of work or sales to be achieved are revised, then, there will be exit of personnel, which in other words called the attrition or wastage. In any organization like marketing, industrial, software, the depletion of manpower due to policy decisions is quite common. This results in manpower attrition and then recruitment becomes necessary. Frequent recruitment is not advisable due to the cost of the same. Hence recruitment is postponed till a point called the breakdown point of total depletion beyond which the normal activities cannot be continued due to shortage of manpower. This level of allowable manpower attrition is called threshold. In this paper a Stochastic model to determine expected time to recruitment with three sources of depletion of manpower attrition under correlated interarrival times has been derived. It provides the optimal solution because; it takes into consideration the cost of frequent recruitments, depletion of manpower and the cost of shortage of manpower. The Stochastic model discussed in the paper is not only applicable to industry as a whole but also in a wider context of other applicable areas.
82 Architecture and Adoption Model for Cloud in Higher Education: Indian Perspective, Vaishali Pardeshi
Cloud implementation is seen as a possible rescue measure to the financial crisis faced by higher education (HE) institutes due to the shrinking IT budgets and escalating IT needs. In this paper, architecture for implementing cloud in the HE institute involving various Deployment Models and Service Models is proposed. A five step framework based on Roger's Innovation-Diffusion model has been suggested for adopting cloud in HE institutes. For smoothing the migration from traditional system to cloud based system a five phase strategy is presented. Finally the challenges and benefits reaped by HE institute form cloud adoption are identified
83 'Harley Davidson' Success Speaks- Brand Image and Culture: An HR Perspective, Dr. Kishore Kumar Das and Aftab Ara
Technology is the cause of shift in HR to go beyond mere administrative support functions to fruitful strategies for success. HR strategies decide whether market share, sales, or profits would increase or not. The key result areas in people management shows shift from production and quantity to productivity and quality. Capability is measured in ideas generated by employees to be implemented, since productivity gained is of more prominence than capacity measured in man-hours lost, man-hours available, absenteeism, etc. Success achieved in business has its own challenges. William M. Harley in 1901, created his own blue-chip of the engine to fit in a bicycle. Since then his journey was transformed from a small business to a business tycoon as the manufacturer of Motorcycles along with genuine Harley-Davidson parts, accessories and collectibles. Harley-Davidson Inc became headquarter of his group of companies as Harley-Davidson Motor Company (HDMC) and Harley-Davidson Financial Services (HDFS) in USA after being founded in 1903. The company has a strategic position in marketplace with his valued customers who are extremely satisfied with the global standard image and brand. Even after having such huge success it faced challenges from lower priced competitors and was unable to expand into overseas markets. Accenture helped Harley-Davidson in improving its business strategies to meet the challenges at such troubled times. This study aims to find the popularity of its brand, image and culture of H-D which has helped in success of the Motorcycle Industry .It also aims to study the gaps in culture that needs to be improved. The purpose of the article is to study the case of H-D and recommend certain strategies to be brought by HR in bringing changes in the organization. The methodology of study is by collecting the primary and secondary data. Interviews of employees are conducted and on-line surveys were taken .The findings provide an opportunity for other well -to-do world class companies to have a look into their systems and recognize their deficit in strategies which is preventing them to move forward with speed in such a fast paced world of today
84 Frequency Based Demand Management System in Residential Context , Lekshmi R. R, Gowtham Krishna, Sudeepth Vadakkedath and Shankar Rajendran
Electric utilities are forced to adopt load shedding during peak periods due to increase in demand by fast growing industries. Under peak period, the proposed Frequency Based Demand Management System, switch off all the low priority loads, while operating the deferrable loads based on environmental condition. The system also manages the operation of storage unit between Demand Management (DM) and Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) mode. The proposed Demand Management System (DMS) manages all the controllable loads and storage unit of the consumer based on system and environmental condition, thereby maintaining the system frequency. The system gives more convenience to the consumers and also relieves the utility from the bottleneck
85 Influence of Span 20 Surfactant and Graphite Powder Added in Dielectric Fluid on EDM of Titanium Alloy, Murahari Kolli and Kumar Adepu
This paper describes an experimental study to evaluate the effect of Span20 surfactant and Graphite powder (additives) added to the dielectric fluid on the machining characteristics of the Titanium alloy using Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). Variation of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate with respect to the variation in discharge current is evaluated. Comparison is made between the performance characteristics of the Titanium alloy with and without additives added to the dielectric fluid in the machining process. Increase in Material Removal Rate (MRR) and decrease in Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and Surface Roughness (SR) were observed, when the material is machined with additives added in the dielectric fluid compared to the machining of the alloy without additives added in the dielectric fluid. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photograph observed that the recast layer thickness is low and on the machined upper surface less micro cracks and craters are formed. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis also indicates that some amounts of material were transferred from electrode to workpiece.
86 Effect of Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Copper, L. Suvarna Raju, Dr. Adepu Kumar and Dr. P. Indreswaraiah
Fusion welding of copper and its alloys tends to degrade the mechanical strength at the weld joint area due to high thermal diffusivity and high melting point. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is an excellent alternative for joining of these materials against fusion joining. FSW is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The main objective of this investigation is to use FSW for joining of 3 mm thick copper sheet using taper cylindrical tool pin profile. The defect free welds were obtained at a tool rotational speed of 900 rpm and traverse speed of 25, 31.5 and 40 mm/min respectively. Mechanical and microstructure analysis has been performed to evaluate the characteristics of friction stir welded copper. From the investigation it is found that the joints fabricated at a traverse speed of 40mm/min resulted in better mechanical properties compared to other traverse speeds. The tensile properties of all weld joints showed a relative correspondence to the variation of the hardness in the weld zone. The observed results were correlated with the microstructure and fracture features.
87 Defluoridation of Groundwater using Low Cost Adsorbent like Bagasse Dust, Aluminium Treated Bagasse Flyash, Bone Powder and Shell Powder, N. Gupta, V. Gupta, A.P. Singh and R. P. Singh
Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. The present study was undertaken for the determination of fluoride ions in drinking water in the Agra?s urban as well as rural region. Batch tests on groundwater samples from the different sites as St. John?s College Chemistry Department, Trans Yamuna, Gokulpura and Dareshi that contained 2.0, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.2 mg/l of fluoride respectively were conducted using bagasse dust (BD), bagasse flyash (BF), aluminium treated bagasse flyash (ABF), buffalo bone powder (BP) and clam shell powder (SP). The tests were also carried out with 1.9, 3.8, 4.75 and 9.50 mg/l NaF solutions. The work aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using these biomaterials for the removal of fluoride ions from groundwater to make it fit for drinking or industrial use. Defluoridation was in the order of SP > BP > ABF > BF > BD over a wide range of initial concentration 1-10 mg/l at sorbent dose range 1-20 g/l, pH 6.0, temperature 25?C, rpm 150 for 5 h. The sorption increased with increasing contact time and sorbent dose but the equilibrium was attained after 4 h for most of the sorbents. Groundwater samples showed 2 to 10% lower removal as compared to standard NaF solutions under similar conditions. The clam shell was found to be the best of all the fluoride removing agents studied here
88 Decision Making Model for Supplier Evaluation and Selection Using MCDM Methods, N.Harikannan, Vijay Jeyakumar, Mahalakshmi Nachiappan
Supplier selection is viewed as one of the most important responsibility of purchasing department in any supply chain process. Purchasing managers needs to periodically evaluate supplier performance in order to retain those suppliers who meet their requirements. For many reasons supplier selection has received a great deal of attention from practitioners and researchers. Industries strive to achieve either a minimum cost of production or a good quality product. Supplier selection is complex problem involving both qualitative and quantitative issues. A trade-off between these tangible and intangible factors is essential in selecting the best supplier. To select the best supplier there is a need to rank all the potential suppliers based on the performance measure given by them. This paper presents the combination of TOPSIS with ANN method for supplier selection and also gives the logical procedure for supplier selection using both qualitative and quantitative data. A case study for supplier evaluation and selection is also presented to demonstrate the application of proposed model
89 A Composite Surface Formation during Friction Surfacing for Aluminum Pipe Internally Coated With Zinc, Vootla Ashok Kumar and Pulla Sammaiah
Coating involves the application of a thin film of functional material to a substrate, such as paper, fabric, film, foil or sheet stock. Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. Coatings can be measured and tested for proper opacity and film thickness by using a draw down card. At the lower speed and lower forward time, the hardness is approximately equal but a slightly difference in hardness. The hardness increases with an increase in reverse time at high speed of the pipe and higher forward time but there is a difference in hardness at lower forward time and higher forward time. The thin film is formed during machining between aluminum and zinc. The hardness of the internal surface of the pipe varies with the speed of the pipe at the constant forward time and reverse time. This happens due to lower speed and at higher forward and lower reverses time results higher friction leads to more deposition. The coating thickness is increases with an increase in forward time at low speed and low reverse time. The coating thickness is higher at higher forward time and lower reverse time due to more amount of zinc deposition due to more axial compressive forces. The coating thickness is increases with an increase in forward time at the condition of higher pipe speed and at lower reverse time due to higher plastic deformation which results coarse grain structure. The coating thickness of the internal surface of the pipe varies with the speed of the pipe at the constant forward time and reverse time. This happens due to lower speed and at higher forward and lower reverses time results higher friction leads to more deposition. The study reveals it is a technique to improve the properties at the interface between aluminum and zinc
90 Influence of Welding Processes on Tensile Properties, Microstructure, and Hardness of Friction Stir Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloy, S. Ugender, Dr.A. Kumar and Dr.A. Somi Reddy
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was performed on 5-mm thick plates, machined from rolled AZ31B Magnesium alloy.The microstructure and defects formation were investigated by optical microscope. The mechanical properties were determined by tensile and hardness tests. Frictional heat and plastic flow during friction stir welding create the fine recrystallized grain (Stir Zone, SZ) and the elongated and recovered grain (Thermo-Mechanical Affected Zone, TMAZ) in the weld zone. Heat affected zone (HAZ), which can be identified only by hardness test due to no difference in grain structure compared with the base metal, is formed beside the weld zone. In this study, the effect of rotational speed on microstructure , hardness and mechanical properties of Friction stir welded Mg AZ31B alloy have been investigated. Friction stir welding (FSW) is carried out at different rotational speeds of 900 rpm, 1120 rpm, 1400 rpm and 1800 rpm with High speed steel (HSS) at a constant welding speed of 40 mm/min, tilt angle of 2.50 and axial force of 5 KN. It is observed that the joint fabricated using HSS tool material at a rotational speed of 1400 rpm obtained higher mechanical properties as compared to those of 900 rpm, 1120 rpm and 1800 rpm
91 Multi-Response Optimization of Manual Material Handling Tasks through Utility Concept , Jaswinder Singh, P. Kalra and R.S. Walia
In this work six Manual Material Handling (MMH) task parameters such as box size, Body Mass Index (BMI), frequency of lift, load lifted, vertical distance of lift, and asymmetric angle were chosen for multi response optimization of task parameters. Most of the existing approaches for multi response optimization of process parameters focus upon the subjective and practical knowledge available about the process. This is particularly true in case of Taguchi based optimization. however, this approach introduces some uncertainties and confusions in overall decision-making process. keeping in view these limitations, an approach based on a utility theory and Taguchi quality loss function (TQLF) has been applied to MMH tasks for simultaneous optimization of more than one response characteristics
92 Comparative Study of Electrode Wear Estimation in Wire EDM using Multiple Regression Analysis and Group Method Data Handling Technique for EN-8 and EN-19, G. Ugrasen, H.V. Ravindra, G.V. Naveen Prakash and D.L. Vinay
Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) is a specialized thermal machining process capable of accurately machining parts with varying hardness or complex shapes, which have sharp edges that are very difficult to be machined by the main stream machining processes. In WEDM a specific wire run-off speed is applied to compensate wear and avoid wire breakage. Since the workpiece generally stays stationary and short discharge durations are applied, the relative displacement between wire and workpiece during one single discharge is very small. This study outlines the development of model and its application to optimize WEDM machining parameters using the Taguchi's technique which is based on the robust design. Present study outlines the electrode wear estimation in the wire EDM. EN-8 and EN-19 was machined using different process parameters based on L'16 orthogonal array. Among different process parameters voltage and flush rate were kept constant. Parameters such as bed speed, current, pulse-on and pulse-off was varied. Molybdenum wire having diameter of 0.18 mm was used as an electrode. Electrode wear was measured using universal measuring machine. Estimation and comparison of electrode wear was done using multiple regression analysis and group method data handling technique. From the results it was observed that, measured electrode wear and estimated electrode wear correlates well with respect to MRA than GMDH
93 A Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Solar Air Heater Duct Provided with Inclined Circular Ribs as Artificial Roughness, Manish Kumar and Varun
This paper presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of solar air heater duct to estimate its thermo-hydraulic performance. On the inner side of absorber plate, inclined circular ribs are provided to create artificial roughness. The roughness parameters were studied in the present work are inclination angle (?) of ribs 45 and 60 and roughness height (e) 1mm and 2mm at a constant roughness pitch (p) of 20mm. Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 6000 to 15000 and constant heat flux (I) having a value of 1000W/m2 on absorber plate were used as operating parameter during the analysis. Renormalization group (RNG) k-? turbulence model is selected for the analysis from the different turbulence model after comparing the results of these models with empirical correlation results for smooth duct, as RNG k-? model results was found in good agreement. The effect of different roughness parameters has also been compared on the basis of overall enhancement ratio to obtain the optimum roughness parameters.
94 Improvement in Wear Properties of a Hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon Alloy with Manganese, Prabhkiran Kaur, D.K. Dwivedi, P.M. Pathak and Sunil Kumar
Improvement in wear properties of rare earth Cerium base hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy with Manganese modification has been reported in this paper. Wear studies were carried out on cast samples of hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy (Al-Si) with rare earth Cerium oxide (CeO2) and Manganese (Mn) modification. Final wear properties of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared with the values of author?s previous work on rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy and hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy. Rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modification in hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy reduced the wear rates as compared to rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy and hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy. A comparison of wear rates at same velocity, load and sliding distance was made between above three different conditions and it was observed that rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified alloy performed with least wear rates. Wear rates for rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy was 6.36 times lesser than wear rate of hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy and was 2.97 times lesser than rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy. Wear rates were also calculated for rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy at various velocities ranging from 0.2 m/s to 1.0 m/s at an equal interval of 0.2 m/s. It was noticed that minimum wear occurred at 1.0 m/s velocity and maximum at 0.2 m/s velocity. Further, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of worn surfaces and wear debris of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared at low velocity (0.2 m/s) and high velocity (1.0m/s) conditions at constant load (30 N) and sliding distance (500 m). It was observed that worn surface and wear debris of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy, showed mild oxidative wear irrespective of lower velocity
95 Microwave Drilling with Litz Wire using a Domestic Applicator, Nitin K. Lautre, Apurbba K. Sharma, Pradeep Kumar and Shantanu Das
The work presented in the paper shows a way to drill a blind hole on perspex material at 2.45 GHz frequency of microwaves using a domestic applicator of 700 W maximum powers. The approach was based on the approach was based on the application of a Litz wire coax as a monopole, to act like a drill bit with a heat source. The methodology involves no rotary but, single linear movement of tool inside a microwave applicator for drilling. A computer simulation on COMSOL for about 50 minute each run, was also used to show the heat distribution inside microwave applicator. The result of computer simulation helped to locate the optimized position of Litz wire inside the applicator for optimum heat generation. The experimental results show the feasibility of microwave drilling and limitations on perspex specimen in the used applicator. The work presented involves a new approach in the area of microwave drilling of materials on a customized domestic microwave setup
96 A Case Study: 5s Implementation in Ceramics Manufacturing Company, Vipulkumar C. Patel and Hemant Thakkar
The research work carried out to apply the 5S methodology of lean manufacturing to solve the problems of a ceramic industry in India with the aim to increase the efficiency of all processes and elimination of losses in the company. The objectives of the paper is to reduce the process wastes, smooth the process flow and maintain proper quality control, improve storage facilities, safety, security and process cost savings in a company through case study. Before and after picture are taken for the applying 5S methodology in a company. 5S implemented has been carried out in storage department and insulator department. After implementing of 5S in the storage department the space saving is 12.91% and also certain process wastes are reduced. In insulator department the workplace became efficient and effectiveness
97 A New Mathematical Model for Multi Product Location-Allocation Problem with Considering the Routes of Vehicles, Hany Seidgar, Sahar Tadayoni Rad and Hamed Fazlollahtabar
Facility location allocation (FLA), which has been proved to be a valuable method in siting service facility, is widely used in real life, such as emergency service systems, telecommunication net works, public services, etc.FLA provides a valuable method in deciding where to place facilities coupled with determining how to assign demand to the located facilities in order to utilize resources effectively. This paper presents a new mathematical model for locating and allocating in transportation system in which each production center can produces multi type of products. The objective is to minimize the total costs in the production and transportation systems such as: fixed cost of opening the production centers, total production cost and total transportation cost that are entered to system by vehicles
98 A Case Study: A Process FMEA Tool to Enhance Quality and Efficiency of Manufacturing Industry , Tejaskumar S. Parsana and Mihir T. Patel
The study has attempted to present an effective tool for solving the problem of manufacturing process quality by executing process FMEA with proposed process control practices. This paper aims to identify and eliminate current and potential problems from a manufacturing process of cylinder head in the company through the application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for improving the reliability of sub systems in order to ensure the quality which in turn enhances the bottom line of a manufacturing industry. Thus the various possible causes of failure and their effects along with the prevention are discussed in this work. Severity values, Occurrence number, Detection and Risk Priority Number (RPN) are some parameters, which need to be determined. Furthermore, some actions are proposed which require to be taken as quickly as possible to avoid potential risks which aid to improve efficiency and effectiveness of cylinder head manufacturing processes and increase the customer satisfaction. The prevention suggested in this paper can considerably decrease the loss to the industry in term of both money time and quality
99 Shock Model Approach to Determine the Expected Time to Recruitment using Two Parameter Type I Generalized Logistic Distribution, R. Elangovan and T. Ramani
Manpower is a term which means a group of person who has acquired some particular skill or expertisation to undertake a particular type of job. Manpower planning is an important aspect of human resource management based on mathematical and statistical modeling. Loss of manpower is unpredictable; a suitable requirement policy has to be designed to overcome this loss. Determination of expected time to recruitment, and the likely time at which the total manpower loss reaches a particular level called threshold is an important aspect. In this paper the expected time to recruitment and its variance are derived by assuming two parameter type I generalized logistic distribution using the concept of Shock model and cumulative damage process. The breakdown point at which the organization crosses the threshold level is also derived. The analytical results are substantiated with suitable numerical illustrations
100 Influence of Demographic Variable on Quality of Work Life: An Empirical Study, M.K. Mohammed Shafi and Dr.R. Sritharan
The management of those employees is the most important part of every manager's job. Particularly, it is the specialized responsibility of the Human Resource Department of the organisation to manage its employees. In the search of improved productivity, innovation and quality enhancement, organizations are alike to determining the contribution of quality of work life. The main objective of this paper is to assess the influence of quality of work life in software industry, Bangalore. Data were collected from 100 respondent through questionnaire survey method. ANOVA were performed to analyze the data
101 Impact of Occupational Stress on Quality Work Life among Railway Station Masters of Trichy Division, K.P. Mani, Dr.R. Sritharan and Dr.R. Gayatri
The impact of the stress on the quality work life of any personality is the hot key in the modern trend of hi fi technological world. This study aims to understand the impact of the occupational stress on the quality work life of the Railway Station Masters of Tamil Nadu. This study covers only 50 Railway Station Masters of Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out by the structured questionnaire of ShriSrivatsava for Occupational Stress and ShriSanthoshDhar for Quality work life and evaluated using "Convenience Sampling Method" and by deploying the percentage, correlation and 't' Test tools, the data was analysed. Indeed it has its own limitation in the form of accessing the employees, small quantum of respondents compared to huge station masters. The conclusion of the study isthe occupational stress of station masters has got sufficient impact on the quality work life of the station masters. The stress factors of Role overload, Role Conflict, Strenuous working condition and responsibility has got its own impact on the quality work life of the station masters, as they have not that much confident on stability, growth opportunities and satisfaction.
102 Autonomous Maintenance: A Case Study on Assela Malt Factory, Melesse Wakjira Workineh and Ananth Shalvapulle Iyengar
Purpose: M/S Assela Malt Factory (AMF) is the pioneer in malt supply to the breweries throughout the Ethiopia. The boiler plant faces machines failures, and rate of failures is increasing year after year, which affect the production cost. The important problems of the boiler plant are machine breakdown, machine idle, production loss, too much maintenance man hour, high maintenance expenses, and plant capacity loss. Objective of the research is productivity improvement through identification of problems in machines and the improvement of efficiency, employee?s attitude and culture of work.Quality in maintenance and the associated product quality is aimed to be enhanced by application of Autonomous Maintenance (AM) and set maintenance plan for the plant. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study proceeded with observation, data collection, related literature review; document analysis, interview, and giving training for the operators to embark upon 5S implementation at boiler house. A three steps approach for maintenance and improvement of the machine were implemented. First to set the cleaning procedure for the machine and work place, inspection and check for the cause of breakdown and initiate corrective action by maintenance, and final to assign the standard plan for maintenance. Findings and Originality/Value: This plan has resulted in remarkable improvements in maximum effectiveness of equipment, tidier workplace and morally boosted employees. This project was completed within 18 months and results of research are following conclusion. Breakdown was decreased about 46.38% per month. Average capacities were increased about 8.75% per month. Production capacities were increased about 4.85% per month. Machine idle was decreased about 8.01per month. Maintenance man-hours were decreased about 22.93% per month. Maintenance expense was decreased from begin start the project about 64.42%. Originality/Value: Ethiopian manufacturing industries needs a grass root level improvement. Implementation of 5S, TPM, and AM forms the basis for a clear path for growth and sustainability. The key success factors are identified and reported in this paper and a clear implementation steps are also provided for an Ethiopian process industry framework
103 Patterns of Phulkari:Then and now, Anu H. Gupta and Shalina Mehta
This study explores the patterns of embroidered textile craft of Punjab. Being embroidered by women in their leisure time, it is an important part of Punjabi culture. Phulkari has been so densely interwoven in the lives of women that these two seem inseparable. Learnt through the teachings and experience of the elders, a girl used to embroider her own world, dreams and aspirations onto a canvas of khaddar. The designs and motifs were innumerable. With the change in this form of textile, women still embroider it for economic gains. Womenfolk paints the geometrical motifs of phulkari using a needle and thread with an unlimited colour palette. This study reveals the patterns of the old phulkari versus the new one.
104 Textile Export Promotion in India-Salient Features, Dr.G. Yoganandan
Textiles are indispensable part of human civilization. By classifying cloth as one of the basic needs of an individual along with food and shelter, the humanity accepted its importance in the human life. In textiles, the fibres are the fundamental unit or building bloc of the yarn. A fibre is defined as any product capable of being woven or otherwise made into a fabric. Government of India has taken many export promotion measures in the past and also pursuing many schemes at this moment in order to promote textile exports from India. In November 2000, the government of India announced the New Textile Policy 2000 to facilitate the textile industry to attain and sustain a pre-eminent global standing in the manufacture and export of clothing. At this juncture, the government of India has to find innovative ways of promoting textile exports from India particularly, focusing on skill development and creating a congenial environment for new entrepreneurs to enter into this industry
105 Long Run Relationship between Capital Market and Banking Sector-A Cointegration on Federal Bank, A. Anjali and K.T. Thomachan
This paper examines the long run relationship between the capital market and banking sector. India has a large investment contribution in capital market. It is vital to the functioning of an economy. The object of the study is to analyze the long run relationship between the stock price of federal bank and composite price of capital market represented by NIFTY. The data used for the purpose is secondary source. An empirical investigation is carried out using daily data of ten years ranging from 1st January 2005 to 31th December 2014. The data used in the present study have been taken from the official website of National Stock Exchange. The major statistical tools used in the study are Unit Root Test, Granger Causality /Block Exogenity Test, Cointegration analysis, Impulse Response function and Error Variance decomposition using the software E-views. Applying the Dickey Fuller Tests to determine the stationality it has been found that both time series are non stationary. Johnsen Cointegration analysis shows that there is unidirectional movement between NIFTY and Federal Bank index. To further investigate the lead lag relationship between the two by Granger Causality /Block Exogenaty test and to identify the short run relationship impulse response function and variance decomposition is conducted. From the study it is conclude that the effect in the banking sector leads to the movement of banking sector but no vice versa
106 Growing Role of Bancassurance in Banking Sector, Rebeena Alavudeen and Dr. Sr. Rosa K.D
The growing global insurance industry has brought new channels of distribution into existence, leading to a new concept called Bancassurance. Nowadays banks have started increasing their business to securities and insurance and other sectors by adding new range of products. Bancassurance, one such concept, has gained recognition in the recent years. The growth of bancassurance depends on how well banks and insurance companies are able to conquer the operational challenges that are frequently thrown at them. Banks aims at a comprehensive Bancassurance Management with Core Banking platform ie; ease of premium payments using Auto Debit Cards, Net Banking, collection agencies etc. The present empirical based study was conducted with an objective to examine the recent trends of bancussurance and to analyse the marketing and distribution channel of insurance, its impact on insurers, customers and banking sector and also to examine the issues and problems of bancussurance. The study was based on both primary and secondary data. The area of study is confined only to selected banks of Trissur district .The collected data is analyzed and interpreted by applying various statistical tools and techniques. It is presented in the form of tables, pie diagram and bar diagrams .The research findings will be useful for all the three segments including banks, insurers and customers. The paper concludes that there is a bright future for bancassurance in the Indian insurance market
107 An Overview of India Capital Markets, B.K. Muhammed Juman and M.K. Irshad
In India, the history of capital markets dates back to the 18th century when East India Company securities traded the country. The present study is largely based on the available secondary data. The statistical data regarding growth of the capital markets was available from various websites. Capital markets help to channelize surplus funds into productive use. Generally, this market trades mostly in long-term securities. The important divisions of the capital market are stock market, bond market and primary, secondary markets. Primary markets deal with the trade of new issues of stocks and other securities, whereas secondary market deals with the exchange of existing or previously-issued securities. Our finding is that during the first and second five year plans, the Government emphasized on the development of agriculture and public undertakings. The Public sector undertaking was healthier than Private undertakings, but shares were not listed in the stock exchange. More over controller of Capital Issue (CCI) closely supervised everything. A number of investors were interested to invest their savings in debentures instead of company deposits. We conclude that Capital markets were not well organized and developed during the British rule. But in the present scenario, we find that Capital markets are well developed after the introduction of SEBI. Through provision of long term loans, the capital market brings about effective functioning of various sectors of the economy. A sound and efficient capital market is one of the most instrumental factors in the economic development of a nation.
108 Combating the Omnipresence of Corruption, K. Jeyamohan
Corruption is a global phenomenon and is omnipresent. Corruption has risen steadily and is now rampant in our society. In the words of Atifete Jahjaga, Democracy must be built through open societies that share information. When there is information, there is enlightenment. When there is enlightenment, there is debate. When there is debate, there are solutions. The problem arises when there is no sharing of power, no rule of law, no accountability and only then there is abuse, corruption, subjugation and indignation. From a detailed analysis on corruption, I came to know that Corruption in India affects all levels of the society but its in the administrative one that the biggest damage is done to the people and comes to exacerbate poverty. Not only does corruption in India worsen poverty, it also drags the whole countrys development down by stealing its resources that it causes serious impacts on our society through various means. Also our nation is responding very slowly to this developing issue as a result of lack of proper decision making at higher levels. Being a student of legal background I do have certain responsibilities towards my society that in my main paper I have covered various aspects on the impacts of corruption on our Indian economy along with various solutions to curb this growing evil. We can eliminate corruption if there is a joint effort. And if we do that will be our highest achievement as human beings.
109 Water-Related Architecture as an Identity Anchor of Chanderi-Madhya Pradesh, India, K. Shubhangi and D. Shireesh
Water is life, since time immemorial settlements have sprung up along water-edges and around water sources. Documentation displays records of these ancient step wells, some being as old as 300-500 year old are still in good condition structurally and to this date perform its original function of collecting and storing water for dry seasons. Majority of the wells are being used by the natives on a daily basis. Awe-inspiring stepwells found in the region of Chanderi town-Madhya Pradesh in India, have been designed for storing water for performing the function of water conservation giving rise to architectonic typologies from cultural to functional and recreational spaces. Distinct relation between water and building typologies are a unique architectural contribution of Indian Water Architecture to the world. This paper represents exemplaries of water structures of Chanderi having architectural and aesthetical significance
110 A comparative  Study on Quality of Nursing Profession  among the  Government and private hospitals   with special reference to   Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu  , M.Subhapriya 
The Human recourses management system and reward and compensation package of Government hospitals are mostly in positive manner to enhance the better quality services provided by nursing professions. But the lack of filling of vacancies of nursing staff members from time to time due to transfers and retirement of nurses, lack of re-fixation of the cadre strength on the base of extend of services needed from nurses to meet the increased numbers of patients in government hospital are the major problems or barriers in rendering the quality services to the patients. Another barrier is from the side of availability of medicines and tablets in time to the quality of nursing services. The supportive hospital climate, public relationship and infrastructures facilities are also affect the quality services of both government and private hospital nurses. The appointment of nurses without sufficient qualification and knowledge are the major issues in the consideration of quality of nursing professions in small level private hospital. The poor wage, prolong working hours are also adversely affect the quality of nursing professions. The numbers of government hospitals should be increased as per the present requirement in major cities of this district. The Government authorities should revise the nursing cadre strength from time to time. The supply of medicines should be done as per as requirement. The knowledge of medical insurance among the rural peoples who are living under poverty line should be created in order to avoid the dropouts of patients without curing their sick