1 Performance Investigation of Solar Still Integrated to Solar Pond, Md. Irfan Ali, Bijo Joseph, R. Karthikeyan, and R. Yuvaraj
This paper presents the experimental studies done on a solar still integrated to the solar-pond. The solar still base was coated with granular activated carbon(GAC) for enhancing the evaporation rate. The solar-pond was used to pre-heat the inlet water supplied to solar still. 0.01m water depth was maintained in the solar still. Physical modelling of solar-pond was done in matlab to determine the optimum salinity level required for the bottom layer of solar-pond which is the heat storing zone. From the simulated results we found that 50g/Kg salinity is the optimal value that should be maintained at the bottom layer of the solar-pond.
2 A Novel Power System Stabilization Technique using Advanced Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach, V. Ravi and Dr.K. Duraiswamy
In order to deal with wide range of operating environment and disturbance, Power System Stabilizers (PSS) should be developed with appropriate stabilization signals. Recently, stabilizing control techniques for the multimachine power system with the help of intelligent methods have been developed. The main aim for the stability analysis of the power system is because of the importance of the power systems in the present world. Moreover, industries do not encourage the controller design if power system stability is not significant. In order to handle the above mentioned problems, intelligent approaches are used. The optimal sequential design for multi-machine power systems is very vital and many techniques are widely used to deal with control signals in power system. Most widely used optimization technique is Genetic Algorithm (GA). But, GA takes more time in optimization and lack in accuracy. To overcome the above mentioned issues, this paper uses Non-Dominated Ranked Genetic Algorithm (NRGA) for optimization. Simulation results suggest that the proposed stabilization approach is better when compared to the conventional techniques.
3 Designing of Lab View Based Electrical Capacitance Tomography System for the Imaging of Bone Using NI ELVIS and NI USB DAQ 6009, Bify Baby Abraham and G. Anitha
Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) is a method for the determination of the dielectric permittivity in the interior of the object based on exterior capacitance measurements. The principle is based on inter-electrode capacitance measurements which are done by placing electrodes around the dielectric medium which is generally made of PVC and the medium that is to be imaged is placed inside this PVC cylinder. As we know capacitance varies with respect to dielectric permittivity, area of the plates and distance between the plates. In this technique area and distance between the electrodes are kept constant, so the only parameter that influences the capacitance detected is the dielectric permittivity of the medium inside there by making this technique a suitable method for distinguishing substances of differing dielectric properties. . This technique has got several advantages such as low cost, rapid response, high robustness and no radiation hazard. Till now it is used in Oil Industries for detecting bubbles in the oil flow based on the difference in their dielectric permittivity. The aim of this paper is to apply this technique in medical application by modeling an ECT system that can be used for imaging of the bone, as human tissues shows a change in the dielectric properties, which will thereby open a new path in the field of medical imaging. The entire technique is implemented with the help of LabVIEW. Results obtained shows that this technique can be used for the imaging of bone.
4 Three Phase Active Conditioner for Harmonics Mitigation, P.M. Balasubramaniam and G. Gurusamy
The Shunt Active Power Filter is a very essential tool to remove harmonic currents and to reimburse reactive power for nonlinear loads. The fundamental standard of process of a Shunt Active Power Filter is to introduce an appropriate non-sinusoidal current (compensating current) into the system at the point of common coupling. This research work focuses on the time-domain approach for three-phase Shunt Active Power Filters through an effective algorithm. A fundamental outline and evaluation of the performance of existing improved algorithms for active power filters are presented. An enhanced approach based on time domain technique is proposed based on various complicated power quality problems and various compensation functions. It is observed that the proposed algorithm provides has shorter response time delay when compared with the conventional approaches. Therefore, the proposed approach can accurately attain various compensating current references.
5 Quadrature Sine Wave Signals Generated by Selection Topology and its Components, P. Arivazhagan and Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya
This paper presents how to generate high frequency quadrature sinewave signals by selection topology and its active and passive components. Also, presents how to choose the value of inductor by different ways followed by performance comparison of various VCO topologies. The overall performance is displayed by all-pMOS VCO in terms of supply voltage and tuning range. The performance comparison of all-pMOS LC-VCO using various capacitive loads is discussed. All-pMOS LC-VCO with MOS capacitor switched capacitor array (SCA) followed by divider using CML latch without fixed tail current source is used for generation of high linearity quadrature signals. A three 2.4/4.8 GHz CMOS Quadrature Voltage Controlled Oscillators (QVCO?s) tuned by a diode varactor, inversion-mode pMOS varactor and an accumulation-mode nMOS varactor, respectively. The performance comparison of different varactors QVCO is simulated in terms of frequency range, tuning range, harmonic distortion and power consumption. The overall performance is displayed by inversion mode pMOS varactor QVCO. However, all the performances of varactor QVCO?s are significantly closer with all-pMOS LC VCO compared with other VCO topologies like all-nMOS LC-VCO and complementary cross coupled LC-VCO, due to low dc impedance path between the varactor to ground terminal. It displayed the power consumption of all varactor QVCO?s are equal. The QVCO?s were implemented in a 0.18 ?m standard CMOS technology as the supply voltage is 1 V. The pre and post layout simulation results are compared in terms of tuning range, phase noise, power dissipation, and harmonic distortion, self oscillation frequency of divider and reference voltage of inversion mode pMOS varctor QVCO.
6 Automatic Gas Valve Control System using Arduino Hardware, T.K. Sethuramalingam and M. Karthighairasan
In this paper, the automatic gas valve control system is designed using arduino hardware. Arduino is an open hardware platform that provides a rapid prototype development. A servomotor is fitted to a gas valve. Four control positions are carried out by the module, two main positions are used to open or close the valve. The valve opens at 90? and closes to 0?. This library allows an Arduino board to control RC (hobby) servo motors. Servos have integrated gears and a shaft that can be precisely controlled.
7 Effect of Dimension & Material Composition on Transmission Coefficient and Tunneling Current of Double Quantum Barrier Structure with Band Nonparabolicity, Arpan Deyasi and Gourab Kumar Ghosh
Transmission coefficient, eigen states and tunneling current density of a potentially symmetric quantum double barrier structure has been numerically computed using transfer matrix technique for qualitative analysis of resonant tunneling probability when realistic band structure of higher band gap material is taken into account. GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs material composition is taken as an example for calculation, and thickness of the barrier and well regions are varied along with material compositions of AlxGa1-xAs to study the effect on electrical parameters; and also to observe the existence of quasi-bound states. Effective mass mismatch at junctions is considered following envelope function approximation, and conduction band discontinuity is taken into account for computational purpose. Under low biasing condition, negative differential regions (NDR) can be obtained which speaks in favor of tunneling current.
8 Logical Design of Quaternary Signed Digit Conversion Circuit and its Effectuation using Operational Amplifier, Tanay Chattopadhyay and Tamal Sarkar
In binary number system carry is a major problem in arithmetical operation. We have to suffer O(n) carry propagation delay in n-bit binary operation. To overcome this problem signed digit is required for carry free arithmetical operation. Further, literature reviews suggest that multi-valued logic (MVL) would be a better choice to address the problem of developing faster chips for performing faster computational operation. Quaternary Signed Digit (QSD) have a major contribution in higher radix (=4) carry free arithmetical operation. For digital implementation, the signed digit quaternary numbers are represented using 3-bit 2's compliment notation. In this paper, a simple and new technique of binary (2's compliment) to QSD conversion is proposed and described. Well-known operational amplifier (OPAMP) based digital to analog converter circuit is also given to verify the above technique.
9 Design of Chaotic and Hyperchaotic Time-Delayed Electronic Circuit, Tanmoy Banerjee, Debabrata Biswas and B.C. Sarkar
The present paper reports a first order nonlinear retarded type time-delayed chaotic and hyper chaotic electronic circuit. The proposed circuit has three distinct advantages over the existing time-delayed circuits. First, it has a nonlinearity that is expressed by closed form mathematical functions, which makes the analysis and design of the circuit easier. Second, the time-delay part of the proposed circuit is realized with an active All-Pass Filter (APF), in which no inductor is used, and the variation of delay is obtained simply by the variation of a resistor, which is more advantageous than to vary the inductor in LCL delay blocks that is widely used in all the time-delayed circuits existing in the literature. Third, the circuit shows hyperchaos even for a moderate time-delay. We describe the systematic design procedure of the circuit, and whenever necessary, the experimental results are corroborated by the numerical computations. We show that the circuit shows limit cycle oscillation, bifurcation scenario, chaotic and hyperchaotic oscillations.
10 Impact of Elliptical Cross-Section on Some Electrical Properties of Gate-All-Around MOSFETs, Shankaranand Jha, Ashok Kumar and Subindu Kuma
Silicon (Si) Gate-All-Around (GAA) MOSFETs offers full electrostatic control over the gate which makes them promising candidates for the next generation complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOS) devices. Due to variations in the growth condition, the cross-section of GAA MOSFETs is often elliptical instead of being perfectly circular. This elliptical cross section changes the effective diameter of the silicon core which in turn affects the electrical properties of the device. In this paper we analyze the impact of elliptical cross-section of multi-channel Si GAA MOSFET on some electrical properties such as threshold voltage, drain current, and so on. The dependence of such properties on doping concentration, thickness of the oxide (insulator), channel dimension and number of conducting channels are also presented.
11 Shape and Size Dependent Electronic Properties of GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Dots, Dharmendra Kumar, C.M.S. Negi, K. Saral Gupta and Jitendra Kumar
We have theoretically investigated the effect of shape anisotropy and size on electronic structure of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs). The quantum dot is modeled by anisotropic parabolic confinement potential in the plane perpendicular to the growth direction while the confinement along the growth direction is modeled as quantum well potential. The Luttinger Hamiltonian formulation has been used to account for the valence subband mixing. The electronic structure is calculated by numerical diagonalization of Luttinger Hamiltonian using the harmonic oscillator basis functions. The calculations for hole energies and transition energies have been carried out over wide range of size and shape of QDs. The results show that transition energy of QDs decreases with the height of QDs. Significant variation in the hole energy is observed with the change in anisotropy. We also observe that shape anisotropy and mixing have significant effect on the energy states.
12 An Artificial Intelligence Based Glucometer for Diabetic Patients using Urinal Analysis, S. Geetha and V. Lakshminarayanan
There are nearly about 50.8 million people in the world who have diabetes and maintaining the blood sugar level of diabetic patients is very important. The diabetic patient regularly monitor their glucose level by pricking the finger for taking blood samples 4-5 times a day and controls their sugar level by taking appropriate dosage of medicine. An artificial intelligence based image processing application has been developed, which non-invasively measures the glucose concentration present in the urine sample of a person and hence the equivalent blood glucose level of that person is inferred. Blood sugar level of a person from his/her urine sample has been monitored by noting the colour change of the test sample, when it is reacted with Benedict?s reagent. The colour change of the sample is identified with the help of the camera and displays the result in the form of hue (predominant colour) value. This measurement has become possible by training the neural network using the hue value as the input vector and the glucose value as the test vector. A linear relationship has been obtained successfully with an accuracy of about 96.93%.
13 Design and Implementation of Op-Amp Based Low-Power CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference with Minimum Supply oF 0.8-V, Arivazhagan P
A low power voltage source is generated by altering the device size in existing topology has been presented. Bandgap voltage reference is generated by combination of start-up, supply independent, operational amplifier (Op-amp) and bandgap core circuits which has been designed such that low sensitivity of temperature and supply variation. It has been designed with minimum supply of 0.8 V without use of low threshold device, and the maximum supply current is 35 ?A. It has been implemented in 180 nm standard digital CMOS Process. The circuit generates a reference voltage of 540 mV and has a temperature coefficient of 14 ppm /?C from ?40 ?C to 120 ?C. The generated reference voltage is independent of temperature and supply variations have been mathematically proved by analyzing the circuit design. Also, proper selection of on-chip passive components and its values has been chosen which is based on low noise. Comparing the pre and post layout simulation results has been presented.
14 Techniques of Power Phase-Noise Optimization of 2.4 / 4.8 GHz CMOS VCO with Switched Capacitor Array Using Bondwire Inductor, P. Arivazhagan
This paper presents theoretical analysis of the maximum operating frequency of proposed Source Degeneration (SD) and Conventional CML D-Latch are estimated. The approach is based on the voltage transfer function, which is derived from small signal model of the circuit. Design approach with pre and post layout simulation results have been presented in detail and compared the performance in terms of power consumption, self oscillation frequency, sensitivity and supply voltage. With example shows the, all pMOS Voltage Controlled Oscilaator (VCO) with MOS capacitor switched capacitor array (SCA) generates the high frequency sinewave reference signals fed in to both divider for to get quadrature (Q) sinewave signals. Off Chip Bondwire inductor is used instead of on chip spiral inductor in all-pMOS VCO as it have high quality factor. Also, it will neglect the variations of carrier frequency and it gives additional performance like phase noise, power consumption, area than using spiral inductor. Even if use spiral inductor in all-pMOS VCO, Bondwire inductor also presents due to low impedance path between drain and ground terminal. Various optimization techniques are implemented while designing a QVCO, which facilitates is used to achieve a low power low phase noise performance. Compared to other types of QVCO, the conventional QVCO shows good phase noise performance than normally achieved 6 dB phase noise improvement with carrier frequency. The simulated results shows about 5 dB, 4 dB, 4 dB and 4 dB of phase noise improvement at 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz and 3 MHz offset frequency from the 2.4 GHz carrier frequency. This combinational topology doesn?t consume additional power and area than others and shows with improved phase noise performance. The pre and post layout simulation results are compared of both proposed (SD) and conventional QVCO, which is designed in 180 nm CMOS technology as 1V.
15 Coupled Inductor Based Single Phase CUK Rectifier Module for Active Power Factor Correction, Jidhun K Murali and Arun Rajendran
Nowadays power supplies with active Power Factor Correction (PFC) techniques are becoming necessary for many types of electronic equipment to meet harmonic regulations and standards, such as the IEC 61000-3-2. Power Factor Correction shapes the input current of power supplies in such a way to maximize the real power available from the mains. This paper analyses the function of high quality CUK rectifier module as a power factor correcting device in continuous conduction mode. The converter is designed by utilizing the idea of integrated magnetics. The control scheme consists of an inductor current calculator and an output voltage loop. Both Experimental and Simulation results are presented.
16 Efficient Sensorless Speed Control Approach using Comparator with Zero Cross Detection for Brushless DC Motor, B. Tamilselvi and S. Mumtaj
Brushless DC Motor have used in various sectors like aerospace, manufacturing and home machines owing to its trouble-free construction. The exact information of the rotor position is necessary for better performance of brushless DC motors the need for the rotor angle information in BLDC has been fulfilled by make use of some form of rotor position sensor. In BLDC drives the position sensor contains drawbacks of high cost, electrical connections, mechanical position problems and disadvantage of being intrinsic source of irregularity. These restricted access results in several sensorless techniques in recent years. This paper provides sensorless speed control of Brushless DC motor using comparator with zero cross detection technique. This technique is based on the back EMF sensing and the commutation signals are generated by each zero crossing point of the terminal voltage. The gating signals are attained by switching sequence of BLDC motor and it is done by means of PI controller. The design analysis and simulation of the proposed system is done using MATLAB version 2010b and the simulation results of sensored and sensorless method is compared.
17 One of Two Conductors in Capacitor Substitute by Mercury , Mohammad Mehdi Masoumi and Soheila Naderinezhad
Each capacitor generally consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region, however a great changed happened in the modern capacitors but the principle has been remained the same as the first day designed. In this paper was attempted to show novel capacitor which one of the conductors was coated and covered with dielectric and sunk into another conductive liquid which supposed as conductor and it is mercury because of two important features, the first being conductive and second the liquidity. In this paper experimented by the lacquer coated wire and the aluminum plate submerged into mercury then in experiments mercury charged and discharged, as a result it was working as a capacitor. The experiments was done by following sets: a DC power supply (DF1730 SB5A), multimeter, an LC meter (A6243- HONEYTEK).the experiment results showed that mercury could appropriately substitute by one of two conductors in capacitors. In addition, the simulation will have higher capacity till one farad and more.
18 Overall Control Strategy of Grid Connected to Wind Farm Using FACTS, Qusay. Salem
Wind energy is attracting more attention from researchers and even utilities due to its benefits as a clean and abundant source of energy. In this paper a comprehensive and intensive study of a wind farm connected to the grid has been proposed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the system stability of a wind farm connected to medium voltage grid in different operating conditions and to investigate the behavior of the system when using a Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). A wind farm of 12 MW consisting of four wind turbines connected to medium voltage grid has been proposed. Wind turbines, transmission systems, transformers and grid models as well as SVC and STATCOM models are all developed in SimPowerSystems library in MATLAB / SIMULINK. It was observed from the simulation results that STATCOM and SVC support the system voltage and reactive power in case of healthy conditions. However, it was noticed that they considerably improve the system stability during and especially after severe disturbances.
19 Design of Nine Level Inverter Topology for Three Phase Induction Motor Drives, G. Sudhakar and S. Prabhakaran
A new approach of nine levels cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter is proposed for three phase induction motor drives. Multilevel inverter is used synthesize a nearby sinusoidal voltage from various levels of dc voltages and the proposed cascade H bridge inverter is used to reduce the number of switches. The proposed nine level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters require less number of components to obtain same number of voltage levels when compared to diode clamped and flying capacitor type methods. Due to that, the switching loss gets reduced as same like the harmonic distortion occurs in the motor drive gets reduced. Also, it generally regularizes the stair ?case voltage waveform from several dc sources which has reduced harmonic content. The operational principle and key waveforms are analyzed and the performance of the proposed multilevel inverter is evaluated from the simulation results.
20 Optimum Monochromatic Wavelengths for Solar Panel Testing and Conversion of Parameters to STC, R. Jayakrishnan and Dr. P. V. Shouri
Solar panels are one of the simplest devices to produce electricity from the sun. Even though the efficiency with which it harnesses energy from the sun is very less, its affordability and ease of use makes it a strong competitor in the renewable energy filed. The laboratory testing apparatus for these solar panels still makes use of halogen lamps for testing purposes. These equipments are costly, requires much electricity and the life expectancy is very less. Light Emitting Diode (LED) solar simulators are considered as the future of solar simulators due to their low cost and robustness. This work presents the various performance based experiments, viz., wavelength based, time based and irradiance based conducted on monocrystalline solar panels using LEDs of different wavelengths. The paper proposes suitable wavelengths for the testing purposes of solar panels in the light of obtained results. The mathematical conversion of electrical parameters like short circuit current and open circuit voltage to Standard Test Conditions (STC) are also done in this work.
21 A Grid Connected Three-Port Solar Micro Inverter, V. Rinsha, Jinu Mathew Varghese and Dr. M. Shahin
In the present scenario of increasing energy crisis Interest in ac module strategy for PV based microinverter has grown in recent years because of its improved energy harvest, improved system efficiency, lower installation costs, plug-N-play operation, and enhanced flexibility and modularity .Microinverters avoid the drastic reduction in power produced by PV panels due to shading effect. In this paper a three-port microinverter topology is being studied which is connected to single phase grid. The proposed topology is basically a flyback converter with an extra switch and diode. This arrangement allows the use of a low capacitance film capacitor, with long lifespan, as decoupling capacitor instead of E-caps, with short lifespan. Thus proposed three-port microinverter has longer lifespan.The operation principles and design considerations are explained in this paper. The MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation of the microinverter is also performed
22 Voltage Collapse Proximity Indicator based Placement and Sizing of Static VAR Compensator using BAT Algorithm to Improve Power System Performance, B.Venkateswara Rao and G.V.Nagesh Kumar
Power systems are becoming increasingly more complex due to the interconnection of regional system and deregulation of the overall electricity market. At present owing to the increase in power demand, power system has become more complex and heavily loaded, and is subjected to unstable or insecure operations. For secure operation, it is required to enhance the level of a security margin of the power system. In this paper sensitivity analysis based Voltage collapse proximity Indicator (VCPI) is proposed to select the optimal location of Static VAR Compensator (SVC). An Optimal Power Flow using BAT algorithm is carried out in order to find the optimal size of SVC which minimizes the total real power generation cost. Power System security is assessed using Line security index and voltage security index for IEEE 14 and IEEE 30-bus system using MATLAB Simulation. The results are presented and analyzed for BAT Algorithm based Optimal Power Flow without and with SVC and compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA).