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Journal of Research in Education and Society

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1 EFFECTS OF TWO TEACHING METHODS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE PERFORMANCE IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA , Abdulhamid, A.
This study determined the effect of two teaching methods on students’ performance in agricultural science in secondary schools in Bauchi metropolis. The pre-test-post-test control group quasi-experimental design was employed. Three schools in the metropolis were randomly selected and one class each was selected from the three schools. All the students from three intact senior secondary II classes were used. A 20 item multiple choice achievement test was administered to the two treatment groups before and after the treatment and the scores so obtained were analyzed by mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings revealed that though both teaching methods have significant effect on students’ performance in agricultural science, the demonstration method was found to be more effective than the discussion method. Consequently, it was recommended among others that curriculum developers should incorporate teaching methods that support the teacher to know exactly where and how to begin each lesson.
2 ADULT EDUCATION AND INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE CONTEXT OF NIGERIA'S VISION 20-2020 , Adekola, G
This study adopted literature review to examine the place of adult education in the industrialisation and industrial development of Nigeria. It discussed the role of the industry in the education of the adults. The paper concluded that if Nigeria would attain her ambition of becoming one of the world's twenty biggest economies by the year 2020, the industrial sector needs to pay attention to the important role adult education plays in the process of industrial development. The adult educators also need to refocus their programmes for better performance in the industrialization and industrial development of Nigeria.
3 EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND INQUIRY APPROACHES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BIOLOGY ON SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Oghenevwede, O. E.
This study focused on the effects of discovery and inquiry approaches in teaching and learning of biology on students' performance. Four null hypotheses were formulated. The study employed a quasi-experiment design. One research instrument namely Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used for data collection. The data collected was analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The major findings of the study indicated that; discovery method was more effective and superior to the inquiry method in teaching biology; the level of retention was higher in students taught with discovery method than students taught with inquiry method. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the discovery method was superior and more effective than the inquiry method. Therefore science teachers should consistently make use of the discovery approach in teaching biology.
4 THE EFFICACY OF “VIDEO TEACHER” IN INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY PROCESS AND STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN CALABAR, NIGERIA , Egbula, F. U.
This study attempted to investigate and compare the learning achievements of students receiving instructional message through the channels of classroom teacher and the video TV. The study was adapted from two theoretical constructions: the channel effect theory and perception theory effect of message delivery. These theoretical abstractions provided clues to the understanding of the contributions of channel type and differential perception effects in the delivery of the message variable. One research question was posed to help provide the basis of generating data for analysis. Two groups of students received exposure, one from classroom teacher and the other from video TV channel of instructional message delivery. The post exposure test scores received by the two groups were used to compare the learning achievements differences between the two groups. It was found that the video TV channel produced students with higher learning achievements than the classroom teacher.
5 SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION IN A MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY AS NIGERIA: A CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS , Ireyefoju, J. and Ireyefoju, J. (Jnr)
This paper was an attempt to introduce multicultural education through social studies education in a multicultural society. Through conceptual analysis, this it examined how reflective thinking as a necessary logical condition can stimulate the learner to developing the right values and attitudes that can enable him cope with the challenges of living in a multicultural society. In doing this, this paper examined the theories of pluralism, the notions of multiculturalism, social studies and the teaching and learning of multicultural education. It was concluded that multicultural education should be incorporated at all levels of Nigeria education, so that the learner can understand that the issue of multiculturalism in the Nigerian state can be solved through education.
6 ADULT INSTRUCTORS' PREFERENCE BETWEEN PEDAGOGICAL AND ANDRAGOGICAL TEACHING METHODOLOGIES IN SELECTED ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Ibeh, A. E.
The Study investigated instructors’ preference between pedagogical and andragogical teaching methodologies in selected adult education programmes in Rivers State. Two hundred instructors drawn from four types of adult education programmes operating in Rivers State, Nigeria were required to rate on a five point scale the extent to which instructors prefer pedagogical and andragogical instruction using a twenty five item questionnaire tagged "Instructor Preference for Pedagogy and Andragogy Questionnaire (IPPQ)". The results of the study using the one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in the preference for pedagogy across the four programmes but significant difference in the preference for andragogy. Consequently, instructional environment in all adult education programmes in Nigeria while being devoid of authoritarianism should embrace compromise teaching methodology that integrates some principles of andragogy into the principles of pedagogy.
7 TEACHERS’ BIAS IN ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN SELECTED SCHOOLS’ SUBJECTS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Abe, T. O.
This study adopted ex-post-facto research design to investigate teachers’ bias in assessment process in selected secondary schools’ subjects. Cluster sampling technique was adopted to select ten schools from the three senatorial districts and simple random technique to select 500 students per subject making a total of 50 students per school. The research questions raised were analyzed using regression model of statistical moderation coefficient of skewness, Pearson-product-moment correlation statistical technique and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result confirmed the existence of teachers’ bias in the assessment process in mathematics, English language and biology with prevalent errors of leniency and severity. Based on this, the study recommended the need for standard statistical moderation of school based assessment scores that would minimize the errors of leniency and severity in the assessment process which will ascertain quality control of teacher assessment scores in Nigeria secondary schools.
8 STOCK UTILISATION STUDY BASED ON USE OF CALL MARK IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES , Aziagba, P. C. and Akpan, U. H.
The assessment of use of library stock in university libraries based on class mark is hereby reported. It is aimed at showing that quest for balanced knowledge does not leave gap in resource development. The report shows that faculties' use of resources spread through all class marks. The books used in these libraries for a period of six months were classified and used for these analyses. They were taken from the shelves by the users and before re-shelving the class mark groups were recorded. While chart one shows the spread of the use, it was noticed that books from some call mark groups were not used at the period of this survey. Also it was possible to track records of frequently used materials which could be keyed into the data base preferentially.
9 UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION AS A BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA , Nwankwo, O. C.
This study adopted literature review to evaluate Universal Basic education as a basis for sustainable development in Nigeria. The review revealed that education for national development should not be construed as merely the acquisition of literacy or other skills or the preparation of individuals for employment market but for Universal Basic Education to be relevant to sustainable development, it must be seen as a vision that seeks to balance human and economic well-being with cultural traditions and respect for available natural and human resources. Based on this, it was recommended among others that the entire education programme and practice be re-oriented to address sustainability.
10 GENDER AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF COLLEGE PHYSICS STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS/COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION, FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECHNICAL) OMOKU, NIGERIA , Alao, A. A. and Abubakar, R. B.
This paper focused on gender enrolment gap and academic performance of college Physics students. A sample of eighteen female and eighteen male students were purposively selected as sample from the department of Physics/Computer science education of Federal college of Education (Technical), Omoku in Rivers state in the 2007/2008 academic session. The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the sample was analysed using mean, standard deviation and percentages. Four hypotheses formulated were tested using t-test. It was revealed that there was no statistical significant difference in academic performance between female and male students. Based on this, it was recommended that teachers in the department of Physics/Computer should still improve on their pedagogy skills so as to be able to impact on the students, stressing the importance of Physics in Technology, giving them the necessary motivation to learn especially in their introductory courses.
11 FIBER OPTIC NETWORKING IN EDUCATION: A PANACEA FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA , Rafindadi, S. M.
This paper tackled the issue of fiber optic network and its implications to education and national development, through improvement of health facilities, creation of job opportunities for many Nigerians in communication and transportation industries and brining about efficiencies in banking network system. Nigeria is blessed with abundant human and environmental resources that could be tapped for national development, but the scattered environmental resources are left untapped and leave majority Nigerians with poverty and underdevelopment. With the current issue of global education of Fiber Optic network system, Nigeria will be able to actualize its vision of development in the year 2020.
12 UNETHICAL USAGE OF STATISTICAL TOOLS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION RESEARCHES: THE WAY OUT , Boris, O. O. and Ilugbusi, O. O.
This paper critically examined the technicalities involved in choosing and using the appropriate statistical techniques accurately in integrated Science research. The choice of statistics to use in any integrated science research is dictated by the design and type of data to be collected. Hence any research endeavour has to incorporate the statistical method to be used right from the on set. Efforts are then made to identify the conditions for the selection of statistics, as well as the scale to be employed in making such selections. These were then used to design the strategy for the choice of appropriate statistics techniques to use in integrated science research.
13 THE IMPACT OF LIBRARY STUDIES COURSE ON KOGI STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDENTS, ANKPA, NIGERIA , Ogwu, M. F.
The study was to determine the impact of introduction to library studies course on the students' use of the library and how the librarians/library officers see such programme. A reliable and validated 13 item questionnaire of the yes/no type was administered on 2640 students and 8 librarians/ library officers in the Kogi State College of Education, Ankpa. Results show that students have not derived much benefit from the introduction to library studies course and the librarians have also criticized the programme for improper coordination and the inadequacy of time for the programme. It is therefore recommended that the introduction to library studies course should stand on its own. That is it should be dissociated from the general studies in education and conducted by the library department. It should be four credit earning and taught for two semesters in NCE one. With the improvement in academic and professional librarians, this should be reliable.
14 GENDER AND TEACHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Patrick, O.
The paper examines the effect of gender on teacher education. It is evident from the data collected that access to teacher education, professional growth and school policies are of major concern. 438 respondents all teachers at various levels of our educational system were randomly selected from 10 states in Nigeria: 5 states from the North and 5 states from the south. A questionnaire containing 20 items on equal access to teacher education, equality in professional growth and school policies which may discriminate against male or female in teacher education was drawn. These items were drawn in line with the research questions. The data collected were analysed using the mean, Standard Deviation and Simple percentage methods. The study revealed that male and female do not have equal access to teacher education, there is disparity in terms of professional growth and there are no school policies discriminating against gender in teacher education. The study recommends that male and female should be given equal opportunity for teacher education, special considerations should be put in place for professional growth among female and school policies must be gender friendly.
15 PARENTAL AND PEER GROUP INFLUENCE AS CORRELATES OF CAREER CHOICE IN HUMANITIES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA , Alika, I. H.
This study was designed to investigate if parents and peer groups of school students have any influence in the choice of a career among secondary school students. The relationship between the two primary factors (parental and peer group influence) and career choice was determined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Three research instruments were used. They are: the students occupational clusters preference scale (OCPS), peer pressure assessment scale (PPAS) and the parental influence assessment inventory (PIA). The population of the study comprises students in senior secondary school two (SS2). Result showed that there was no significant relationship between parental and peer group influence on career choice in humanities among secondary school students. It is recommended that counselors should work directly with parents and peers, especially as regards career development with a view to enhancing the positive aspects; this may eventually improve the career development prospects of our future workers.
16 CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (CPD) FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN KENYA: POLICIES, TRENDS AND PRACTICES , Gathara, P. M.
The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the policies, trends and practices that influence secondary school teachers' participation in Continuing Professional Development (CPD). It adopted a vertical case mixed approach which involved analysis of macro and micro aspects that were dealt with the qualitative data. Desk review of documents that dealt with the national policies on CPD in Kenya and the channels that were used was explored. Out of the twelve schools in Kirinyaga district involved in the survey, six secondary schools were subjected to in-depth case study. The data collected were analyzed qualitatively. The study found that there were government policies that supported CPD in Kenya; and revealed a variety of providers and channels that were used in CPD programmes. In the light of the findings, provision of support at the secondary school levels so that teachers would participate and complete CPD programmes were admist others recommended.
17 TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS AND STUDENTS' ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION BASED PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA , Uwaifo, V. O.
The study adopted literature review to assess teaching effectiveness and students' academic achievement in Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) based programmes in Nigeria. It discouraged stipulating a specific period for evaluation. The paper also discussed the techniques for developing evaluation, instruments and techniques for reporting evaluation findings and stressed that evaluation in vocational and technical subjects should be a continuous process. Applying caution on the choice and use of evaluation procedures was therefore plausible.
18 THE RELEVANCE OF SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL STABILITY IN NIGERIA , Nwankwo, O. C.
The primary aim of this study was to assess the relevance of sustainable environmental education for national stability in Nigeria. The need for greater awareness across-the-board, that is, the citizenry, industry, State and Federal Environmental Protection Agency was explored. From the review, the objective of environmental education programme was seen as the twin need to erase prevalent false notions pertaining to the environment while instilling and inspiring a greater sense of respect for the biosphere in our quest for development. It was observed that such education will enable all from the grassroots, through the relevant agencies to the leaders to understand the stakes, the urgent need for action, and the necessary steps that must be taken towards sustainable national environmental protection. On this note, it was noted that environmental education, though indispensable yet invaluable must be implemented together with other environmental measures for effective national stability in Nigeria.
19 COMPARATIVE TRADITIONS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES , Egbula, F. U.
The existing body of literature on research methods indicates that investigators persist with three methodological traditions. Either one is in the Humanities, Social Sciences or Science. This study examined the nature of each of the existing three research traditions and how they differ in their methodological approaches. The literature on research methods describes how the investigators in the humanities tradition depend heavily on the documentary methodology in their search for truth. In contrast, reports indicate that social science investigators lean heavily on the survey approach to establish evidence from their work. And for the scientist, there have been reported cases of heavy reliance on experimental methodology. This study was deducted from the theory of inter-subjectivity. This construction facilitated the understanding of the common ground on which the investigators from the three research traditions operate in their search for truth. Thus, researchers in all three traditions emphasize the significance of "validity" for which the inter-subjectivity theory provides a backbone. In order to analyze the tradition of each research design, the approaches of the historian, social scientist, and the natural and/or physical scientist were used as case studies. The conclusions arrived at in this study were based on the objective analyses of these case studies.
20 STUDENTS' PERCEPTION AND UTILIZATION OF SERIAL MATERIALS IN THE POLYTECHNIC IBADAN LIBRARY, NIGERIA , Hameed, A. B. and Osunrinade, O. A.
A survey research, which focused on students' perception and utilization of serial materials in the polytechnic library, Ibadan was conducted. All the students in the polytechnic of Ibadan constituted the population of the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. A questionnaire dealing with students' perception and utilization of serial materials was administered on 500 students of the polytechnic. Data collected were analyzed mainly with frequency counts and simple percentage. Findings of the study indicate that polytechnic students make use of serial materials occasionally. Majority of the students are fairly satisfied with the serial materials that are available in the library. The paper concluded that the serial materials should be easily accessible to the students so that they will be well disposed towards their usage.
21 SCHOOL LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT AND ATTAINMENT OF THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION OBJECTIVES IN NIGERIA , Ogwu, M. F.
This study adopted literature review to examine school library development and the attainment of the Universal Basic Education objectives in Nigeria. Among the findings is that for school libraries to attain their objectives there must be set standards to serve as guidelines for management. Some of these guidelines are contained in some important policy documents on education management at local and international levels. Conclusively, it was recommended that government at all levels as well as management of privately owned institutions of learning are urged to invest substantial amount in the development of school libraries and facilities nationwide.
22 SEXUALITY EDUCATION PRACTICES AMONG PARENTS OF STUDENTS IN ENUGU EDUCATION ZONE, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA , Ursula, C. E. N. and Nwobodo-Ani, N.
The purpose of this study was to find out the sexuality education practices of parents of young students in Enugu Education Zone. Four research questions guided the study. Data were collected from two hundred and twenty six parents from six secondary schools out of the twenty nine secondary schools in the three local government areas that make up Enugu Education Zone. The data were analysed using frequency and percentages. The study found out among others that most parents are passive, with regard to the sexuality education of their children. Most of them also believe that sexuality education should be taught only to adolescents. One of the major educational implications of this result was that between pre-school age and school age (before adolescence) children would have created their own mythological ideas about human sexuality. And this is a sure recipe for numerous sexual health problems.
23 FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS , Popoola, F. R. and Olarewaju, R. R.
This study investigated the factors that are responsible for poor performance of students in mathematics. A random sample of 109 students from Best Start College Mango Kaduna was used. The research instrument was a reliable and validated 20 items likert type questionnaire which was administered on 109 secondary school students to obtain responses on the factors that are responsible for poor performance of students in mathematics. The responses were analyzed using ttest statistic. At 0.05 significant level and 38 degree of freedom , the calculated tvalue was 0.469 and the t-critical was 2.021. Since t critical was significant the null hypothesis was retained. Thus, there was no significant difference among the respondents concerning the factors that are responsible for poor performance of students in mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools. One of the recommendations made was the need for efficient and effective teachers who are professionally and academically qualified to promote mathematics learning in schools.
24 STOCHASTIC AND DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS OF VOCATIONAL TEACHERS' ATTRITION AND RETENTION IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Abdulhamid, A. and Bawa, B.
This survey on Stochastic and diagnostic analysis of vocational teachers attrition and retention in Adamawa State was conducted to find out the factors contributing to vocational teachers attrition and retention, and the strategies for curtailing the attrition. All the vocational teachers in Adamawa State technical colleges and other government secondary schools constituted the study's population. A sample of fifty six vocational education teachers was randomly selected from the three education zones in the State. With the help of three research questions, data were collected using well structured questionnaire and analyzed using a statistical mean rating. The results indicated among others that vocational teachers' attrition was as a result of neglect of teaching profession and poor salary structure. The major proposition was that government should address the issue of neglect of teaching profession, improve the salary structure, facilitate and encourage professional development and provide incentives and regular in-service training to all vocational teachers.
25 PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION LIBRARIES IN EDO AND DELTA STATES OF NIGERIA , Matilda E. Amadasu
This study adopted the survey research design to assess the procurement, organization and use of unpublished projects emanating from selected colleges of Education Libraries in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Colleges of Education Agbor, Warri and Igueben were purposively selected for the study. Secondary sources were used as necessary literature support while questionnaire was used to provide the core data. The data were analysed using simple percentage. Findings revealed that some college libraries are yet to apply professional methods of document handling in management of student's projects in addition to inadequacies in accommodation, facilities and staff. The restricted access practiced in these libraries perpetrated lecturers mechandazation of their personal copies and also could not prevent theft and mutilation of these materials. Among other recommendations, lecturers who make merchandize of their copies should be seriously sanctioned.
26 TEACHERS' ASSESSMENT OF THE DIFFICULTY LEVELS OF TOPICS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM IN DELTA CENTRAL SENATORIAL DISTRICT, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Onoshakpokaiye, E. O.
This study which adopted the descriptive research design examined teachers' difficulty levels of teaching some topics in the primary school mathematics curriculum in Delta Central Senatorial District. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection; and analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The results revealed among others that some teachers find it difficult to teach some topics in mathematics thereby making it difficult for the pupils to learn. Therefore, government should make sure primary school teachers handle only their areas of specialization.
27 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC SCHOOL BUILDINGS (SDBSB) IN SULTANATE OF OMAN: CHALLENGES AND THE WAY-OUT , Wajeha Thabit Al-Ani
This study aimed at investigating the performance of basic school staff members' in order to ensure sustainable development of basic school building SDBSB in the Sultanate of Oman. A descriptive research design was adopted to collect data from a random sample of 623 basic school staff members using questionnaire which included 47-items covering six SDBSB domains: facilities and services, security and health, classes and equipments, building maintenance, administrative offices, and school building location. Among others, the results indicated that the school facilities and services domain had the highest mean as compared to other domains. Consequently, the study recommended amidst others the conduct of workshops for school staff members on how to direct school building, facilities and equipments effectively and efficiently.
28 MEDIATED MICRO-TEACHING AS A REALISTICALLY EFFICIENT MODE OF TEACHING PRACTICE , Babalola, B. K.
The major aim of this paper was to critically review mediated micro teaching as a realistically efficient mode of teaching practice. It further defined the mode of micro-teaching with the use of video-recording and play-back which serves as a registered mirror to the student teacher. It was realized that if micro-teaching is properly planned exercised, recorded and same evaluated, it would have better training, assessment and impact on teaching styles than any other method of assessing teaching-practice and teacher-preparation.Therefore, it was recommended among others that mediated micro-teaching should be adopted in all colleges of education and other teachers’ training institutions in Nigeria.
29 CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS: RESOLVING THE LESSON PLAN/NOTE CONTROVERSY IN LESSON PREPARATION , Okwuedei, C. A.
The aphorism that "the secret to success in any endeavour is planning" cannot be disputed in teaching. Teachers should therefore, endeavour to address a huge range of issues as they go out to prepare their lessons. This is because planning for presentation is a sine qua non for good teaching. In response to these ideals, the paper gave conceptual clarifications of the terms curriculum and curriculum implementation. It also aimed at resolving the purported confusion and controversy over the unfortunate problem of the "how" of planning by clarifying the differences between the lesson plan and lesson note and justified why both terms should be used synonymously. The study revealed that lesson plan is derived from a teaching unit or scheme of work that extends over one single lesson. The lesson note, in specific terms, is a plan for teaching a single class period. It also disclosed that the essential features of a good lesson plan/note are the same. Therefore,workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers, especially newly recruited teachers, to sensitize them on the daily teaching plan in their planning endeavours.
30 TRAVAILS OF THE POLYTECHNIC ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGIST IN NIGERIA , Waziri S. Gumau and Osunkunle, A.
This paper discussed the travails of Polytechnic Architectural Technologist in Nigeria which starts from the difficulties in securing admission, registration protocols, securing of accommodation, and others. It assessed the rigors within the residency period for National Diploma and Higher National Diploma programmes, the additional one year compulsory Industrial training as well as the pre and post National Youth Service Corps experiences. Data were mainly from the secondary source. The study revealed that in the whole of the North-East Geo-political zone, only Federal Polytechnic Bauchi was qualified to run National Diploma and Higher National Diploma in Architectural Technology and hence making admission very difficult for even the qualified students who want to study the course. Based on the above, it was recommended among others that the construction industry, Nigerian Institute of Architects and the various Polytechnics running Architectural Technology programmes should collaborate with relevant authorities in order to shorten the period of the tutelage (training) of an Architectural Technologist right from the onset.
31 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION: A VITAL FORCE FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AMONG NCE. GRADUATES IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Ayeni, O. G. and Adesua, V. O.
The primary aim of this survey was to examine the role of Entrepreneurship Education as a vital force in poverty alleviation among graduates of Nigerian Certificate in Education (N. C. E.) in Ekiti State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty N.C.E graduates were randomly selected and administered questionniare. Data were analysed using simple percentage. Two research questions guided the study. The results revealed that the acquisition and practice of Entrepreneurship skills can help to alleviate poverty in Ekiti State. It was recommended that Entrepreneurship skills should be encouraged among N.C. E graduates; this will bring about self-employment and act as a vital force in poverty alleviation.
32 THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS: A CHALLENGE TO CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIA , Susanna T. Udoka
Nigeria, like any other country in transition is faced with a lot of economic challenges. The situation is aggravated by the current global economic crisis. There is an urgent need for the Government to promote the educational sector in order to overcome the present limitations. It is the opinion of this paper that for a meaningful national development to occur technical and vocational education technology must be taken seriously at all levels. The study was based on a review of related literature which was aimed at highlighting the obvious implications of the global economic crisis on the curriculum implementation in technical and vocational education technology. Findings revealed that the implementation would meet some challenges due to inadequacies in the Nigerian educational system. The paper concluded that the implementation policy requires some human and physical resources for it to succeed.
33 BOOK PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES AND LIBRARY STAFF AWARENESS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Okpokwasili, N. P. and Uwuma Sokari
The awareness of library staff in academic libraries in Rivers State about the principles underlying book preservation techniques has been investigated. The survey covered four hundred library staff from three universities, one polytechnic, and one College of Education in Rivers State were investigated. Precisely, the study covers five academic libraries namely; Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State University of Education, Port Harcourt, Rivers State Polytechnics, Bori and Federal College of Education (Technical), Omoku, Rivers State. Library Staff in these Institutions were randomly selected for the study. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen questions was used to obtain data for the study. A grand mean of 2.38 reflects a low level awareness of library staff about the principles. A t-value of 2.14 against critical value of 1.65 at 0.05 level of significances and 398 degrees of freedom reflected a significant difference in the level of awareness between the professional and non-professional library staff under study. Training and retraining of library staff are among recommendations were made.
34 GENDER DIFFERENCES AS DETERMINANT OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE BASED COURSES IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Ogunseemi, O. Emmanuel and Daramola, M. Adesola
According to several measures, girls lag behind boys in science education. They also enroll in fewer terms, do not perform as well on tests, and demonstrate less interest in science and science related courses as they progress through school. The above formed the basis for this study which looked into gender differences as determinants of academic achievements in science based courses in colleges of education, Ikere-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria. This study comprised of six integrated science combinations of part three students of school of science, College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti. Out of which two hundred and forty students were selected to form the subject of the study. The two instruments used for gathering information for the study were science achievement test and science attitudinal scale. The question raised was tested with the use of t-test analysis and it was concluded that there was significant difference in the achievements of male and female students when exposed to different activities while there was no significant difference in the achievements of male and female students when they are exposed to the same activity in science.
35 REPOSITIONING LIBRARIES IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: POLICY, CULTURE AND ETHICS , Mathias F. Ogwu
Of greater relevance to education is the source of information in any citadel of leaning. This review x-rayed the possiblities of repositioning libraries in colleges of education for national development, taking into consideration issues policy, culture and ethics . It was observed that the Library is central to the provision of all types of information resources that empowers societies to produce highly resourceful people to impact positively on the society thus enhancing national development. Based on the issues unveiled by the study, it was concluded that there cannot be any meaningful development without well-thought out policies in social, political, cultural and ethical spheres of a nation. Libraries provide the linkage of being the national repository of these resources, and deserve special attention from the political and intellectual leadership.
36 TOWARDS A MORE SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL CURRICULUM OF HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA , Dauda Ali; Sanusi Waziri Gumau and Ajufoh M. O.
The role of higher education in creating a more environmentally sustainable future is irrefutable. However, since the inception of sustainability in 1989 through the world commission on environment and development (Usman, Dauda and Shitufa, 2008), there has not been any clear evidence of definite framework in training the architectural educators to be environmentally literate in Nigeria. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study to examined the level of awareness and training background of Architectural educators on sustainability and sustainability content in studio project and related courses. Questionnaire formed the basic instrument for data collection while the data obtained were analyzed using frequency count and percentage. The study find out that the level of awareness on sustainability issues among educators was low. Based on the findings, the study, recommended the introduction of sustainability in our curriculum, organization of more training programmes related to sustainability and revision of existing curricula to inculcate sustainability awareness in the minds of future Architects.
37 STUDENTS USE OF UNIVERSITY LIBRARY: A STUDY OF FATIU ADEMOLA AKESODE LIBRARY, LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO, LAGOS, NIGERIA , Akalumhe, K. O.
This study was a survey of the mode of use of Fatiu Ademola Akesode Library by students of the institution. A well structured questionnaire which was the major instrument of data collection was administered on 1500 library users. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentage. The results of the study revealed that majority of the  users consult library textbooks that have bearing with their disciplines as well as consult the library catalogues before proceeding to the shelves among others.
38 THE USE OF THE INTERNET AMONG ACADEMIC STAFF OF DELTA STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Oghuvwu, Victor
The study investigated the use of the internet amongst the academic staff of the Colleges of Education in Delta State. The survey technique was adopted for this study. The sampling technique used was the proportion stratified sampling design. Therefore the sample was stratified into three groups. COE Agbor, COE Warri and COE Mosogar. Sample selected was106 representing 20% of the total academic staff in the college. The data for the survey was collected between November and December, 2009 through the use of structured questionnaire which was administered on 106 lecturers of Delta State Colleges of Education. Results showed that lecturers make use of educational databases and search engine in locating information. They also make use of electronic mail, the worldwide web in conducting research and teaching. Based on the various findings of this study, there is need for establishment of the ICT department in the library and the employment of skilled manpower into the department among other things.
39 THE STATUS OF USER EDUCATION AT FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (TECHNICAL) LIBRARY, OMOKU, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Uwuma Sokari and Nonyelum P. Okpkwasili
The study was conducted to examine the user education programme of Federal College of Education (Technical) Library, Omoku Rivers State. A total of two hundred staff and students of the institution were involved in the study. Stratified, proportionate, and simple random sampling techniques were used to determine the sample size of the respondents. Data collected for the study with the help of a structured questionnaire were analyzed using simple percentage. The result showed that the user education program adopted in the college library was effective and has helped benefiting students tremendously to explore and exploit the library resources independently and more effectively. However, it was showed that the user education approaches used was not all embracing as it caters for first year NCE students, 2nd year NCE students and 3rd year students alone, leaving the Pre-NCE students and staff unattended to. The study therefore, concluded that, in order to impact the desired skills to all categories of users, the user education approaches should be redesign to make it all embracing an d accommodate the interest of all members of the academic community which it serves.
40 MANAGEMENT OF AVAILABLE INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BORNO STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Mohammed, A. Siqqid and Grema Ali Dapshima
The main purpose of this study was to examine management of available infrastructural facilities and students' academic achievement in Borno State Colleges of Education. The survey research design was employed for the study, covering an accessible population of 487 academic staff. The sample size of the study was 195 academic staff randomly selected from the population. These are academic staff from three Colleges of Education with sample sizes of 67, 76 and 52 respectively. Also results of students' academic achievement for the period of five years (2004/2005 - 2008/ 2009 academic sessions) was used in five courses; Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics and Integrated Science. The data collected through questionnaire and documentary evidence of results were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was established as 0.92 and this was considered high enough to accept the homogeneity of the instrument. The study revealed that there was fairly adequate management of available infrastructural facilities in the colleges and there is significant relationship between management of available infrastructural facilities and students' academic achievement. Based on these findings, it was recommended, among other things that the Borno state Government should improve it management/provision of infrastructural facilities in these colleges of education.
41 THE INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS' ATTITUDE ON STUDENTS’ LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS , Onoshakpokaiye E. Odiri
It is very clear that teachers' way of thinking and beliefs guide his/her behaviour in decision making both inside and outside the classroom. In order to carryout the teaching task effectively and efficiently teachers are guided by certain principles of teaching and learning which have great implications for teachings. Teachers are a vital force in educational effectiveness of the classroom instructional level. This review work therefore was preoccupied with assessing the influence of teachers' attitude on students' learning of mathematics in Nigerian secondary schools. It was revealed that students draw from their teachers' disposition to form their own attitude which eventually influence their learning outcomes; attitude of teachers towards their students must be positive so as to carry them along. Consequently, it was recommended that seminars/workshops on positive teachers' disposition while teaching should be addressed by education stakeholders as important and urgent.
42 LIBRARIANSHIP: A PIVOT OF FUNCTIONAL EDUCATION FOR SUSTAINABLE HEALTHY AND SAFE ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT IN NIGERIA , Akpokurerie, O. Azino and Idoko, Florence A.
There is no doubt that education and librarianship has created a horse and a rider relationship, because with a well equipped library, researchers can do wonders in their diverse fields of endeavour. Libraries all over the world are central point for a functional education, which eventually create a safe environment for education with the relevant materials acquire which gives room for proper usage by library users. This survey examined librarianship as a pivot of functional education for sustainable healthy and safe academic environment in Nigeria. It also focused on the need for government to equip libraries in the education sectors. Data for the study were gotten through a self structured questionnaire sent to 160 respondents through random sampling technique. Personal interview was also used to generate data for the study. Only about 4% of the questionnaire was not retrieved. Frequency counts and simple percentage were used in analyzing the data. The findings of the study revealed among other things that majority of the respondents are of the view that libraries in view of their role in the educational system are meeting with the standard of education, which has placed them as a ladder towards good education. The inclusion of librarianship studies in the educational curriculum to give a vast knowledge of the utilization of libraries to scholars was recommended amidst others
43 TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM CONTENT: A MULTIMEDIA APPROACH , Alade, Ibiwumi A.
This paper examined the use of multimedia approach for a better teaching and learning of technical education curriculum content. Relevant theories as applicable to multimedia usage are also discussed. The application of multimedia approach for teaching a unit on wood work joints in technical education at the university level is thereafter presented as a guide for users' adaptation in various disciplines.
44 FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Rowell E. Ubogu
One of the major problems now facing higher education in Nigeria is the problem of under-funding. This is not surprising considering the fact that in the recent times, government revenues have reduced sharply, while the national economy itself is in total chaos. The government, which statutorily bears the costs of higher education in the country, now faces tight budget constraints due to the collapse of the oil market, and the need to meet heavy and raising debt service obligations. This paper attempts to examine the past and present trend of funding higher education in Nigeria, the effects of inadequate funding and possible sources of funding. To sustain higher education in the country, it was suggested among others that all stakeholders - parents and guardians, the society in general, the private sector and non-governmental agencies must become involved in the financing education in the country.
45 SCHOOL-BASED APPROACHES TO SKILL IDENTIFICATION MODELS IN INTRODUCTORY TECHNOLOGY UNDER THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) SYSTEM IN NIGERIA , Uwaifo, V. O.
The achievement of self-reliance by any nation depends to some extent on the availability of trained skilled labour force which is a means of making people to be good workers so as to be better performers in their own interest and that of the larger society. Introductory technology under the universal basic education (UBE) was structured to assist learners to develop interest in technology. The aim is that at the end of junior secondary school, technological ignorance will be reduced and solid foundation laid for students' entrance into a vocation of their choice. It was then expected that through effective teaching and learning of the course the pupils would acquire technological skills, and Nigeria by now would have been selfreliant like most other developed nations. Today, it is very obvious that the contrary seems to be the case. In order to further strengthen the teaching and learning of the subject, this paper analysis the present teaching pattern with the prevailing structure and suggested approaches to skill identification in school-based career that should be adopted and integrated with the UBE system of education, as a way of creating academic and vocational awareness in Nigeria youths and making the programme much more meaningful not only to the learners but to the citizenry at large.
46 INTEGRATING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION (TVE) CURRICULUM: A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE SELF-RELIANCE OF NIGERIAN YOUTH , Elebe, Micah I.
With the high rate of unemployment among Nigerian youths, this review examined the need to integrate Entrepreneurship Education in Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) curriculum, to enhance the managerial skill of Nigerian youths in their quest to set up their own businesses after graduation. To achieve this, the study among other things examined TVE in the context of the National Policy on Education (NPE), Entrepreneurship Education and the rationale for it integration. It was revealed from the study that for every Nigerian youth to acquire basic technical and vocational skills and translate them into sustainable self employment, entrepreneurship education should be given immediate attention by all stakeholders. Consequently, the study concluded with recommendations that Entrepreneurship Education should be made mandatory to all Technical and vocational education students at all levels with proper funding by government and also with materials and financial support from other agencies like Educational Tax Fund (ETF) and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
47 THE INCLUSION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN NIGERIAN POLICE RECRUITS TRAINING PROGRAMME: AGENDA FOR POLICE PERSONNEL PROSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTIVE POLICING , Okoiye, O. E.
Nigerian Police officers face unique challenges in the regulation of anger, resentment, and stress. These chronic emotional hazards tragically affect the high rates of murder, extra-judicial killings, domestic violence, and alcoholism among police officers. In addition to the obvious stresses and risks of police work, a less visible burden on officers comes from the tension between the opposite socialization of the paramilitary structure of the police versus the demands of ordinary citizens. In dealing with citizens, the rules of rank are far less clear. The result is mounting militarized resentment and anger against citizens. However, with Emotional Intelligence training, officers could learn to: understand and respectfully cope with the anger of non-offending citizens, recognize the earliest and most subtle signs of aggression in citizens, respond (not react) to the anger of suspects and uncooperative citizens, while regulating their own anger for maximum performance with minimum threat to lives. This paper therefore, examines the impact emotional intelligence training in police recruits educational training programmes could have on their professional development and effective policing in Nigeria.
48 CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT PRACTICES IN KWARA STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS, NIGERIA , Mary O. Esere and Adeyemi I. Idowu
One of the functions of a school is the certification of the individual learner under its embrace. This qualitative study evaluates continuous assessment practices in selected Secondary Schools in Kwara State Nigeria. The sample consists of 500 stratified randomly selected teachers from ten randomly selected schools within Ilorin metropolis. Data collection was through interviews and focus group discussion which centred around the teachers' continuous assessment practices based on the four basic attributes (systematic, comprehensive, cumulative and guidance-oriented) that characterise continuous assessment. Results show that the continuous assessment practices of most of the teachers were faulty and deviated markedly from policy guidelines. It is recommended, that in-service training be organised for secondary school teachers in Nigeria, to educate them more on continuous assessment guidelines as spelt out in National Policy on Education for the attainment of the overall educational goals.
49 COGNITIVE COACHING: A TOOL FOR BOOSTING STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE , Ige, T. A. and Arowolo Jacob Gbemiga
As part of the sustained efforts by science educators at improving learners' academic achievement, this paper examined the effectiveness of Cognitive coaching as a conceptual change strategy in teaching and learning of Basic Science. 154 male and female students from 4 intact classes taken from 4 randomly selected junior secondary schools in Kwara state, Nigeria, participated in the study. 2 students randomly selected from each treatment group were made to participate in a video recorded debriefing protocol. One research question was answered while three hypotheses were tested. Three instruments were developed and validated to track students conceptual change process in the study. These include: Self-Concept Inventory, Basic Science Cognitive Achievement Test and a Basic Science Conceptual Change Debriefing Protocol. Results revealed an improvement in conceptual understanding of selected concepts in the Cognitive coaching group over those in the Conventional group. It was recommended that students should be encouraged by their teachers to develop confidence in themselves since their participation in Cognitive coaching will enable them to communicate their thoughts in simple correct language of discussion. It will also encourage them to take control of their learning therefore resulting in improved performance.
50 APPRAISAL OF THE EXTENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AMONG STUDENTS IN MUBI METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Musa K. A. Waila and Nuhu H. Tini
Environmental education has become a major concern in recent times. Tremendous effort has been made at global, national and local levels to raise awareness among the populace on the importance of environmental process, problem and protection. Most of the studies on the importance of environmental education conclude that its impact is yet to be felt significantly in Nigerian schools. The present survey investigated the level of environmental education among Senior Secondary three (SSIII) students in Mubi town. Data were collected on students' familiarity with manenvironment relationships, environmental problems and effects, and the factors militating against adequate environmental education among students. The method used to gather information included field observation, questionnaire administration and oral interview. The questionnaire administrated was collated manually. Tables were used to summarize the frequency and percentage of the variables. It was revealed among others that adequate environmental education is hampered by scarcity of trained teachers, lack of elaborate curriculum on environmental education, inadequate programme communication and lack of organization. These findings formed the basis of the research recommendation for the promotion of environmental education in Mubi metropolis for enhanced healthy environmental conditions.
51 PRE-SCHOOL TEACHERS' KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS USE OF VISUAL MEDIA IN INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY IN KIBWEZI DISTRICT, KENYA , Mwololo, J. N.; Barbara G Koech; Nyakwara Begi and Mutweleli, S. M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-school teachers' knowledge and attitude towards use of visual media in instructional delivery. Descriptive research design and survey technique were used. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. It was found that trained pre-school teachers used instructional visual media more than the untrained pre-school teachers. There was no significant difference between trained and untrained pre-school teachers' knowledge and attitude. The relationship between pre-school teachers' knowledge and use of instructional delivery visual media was not significant, but the relationship between pre-school teachers' attitude towards visual media in instruction and use were positive and significant in Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, Music and Movement and Art and Craft and specifically the overall. It was concluded that pre-school teacher training was important and preschool teachers need to be motivated to continue using instructional visual media.
52 THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Uwaifo, V. O.
Technical education deals with the training of technical personnel for the purposes of initiating, facilitating and implementing the technological development of a nation and also to create the basic awareness of technological literacy to our youths. In Nigeria, the training of technical personnel has witnessed formidable challenges ranging from poor funding to inadequate facilities both quantitatively and qualitatively, nonavailability of adequate human capacity, brain drain and poor staff training and retention profiles. Others include weak university/industry partnership, defective curricula, traditional approach to teaching, poorly equipped laboratories, poor monitoring of standards for the training of prospective technologists and an inadequate ICT environment. This study critically examined technical education and its challenges in Nigeria in the 21st century. It was concluded that a comprehensive reform towards technical education and a deliberate attempt to uplift the programme was the only panacea to a technological enderado in Nigeria.
53 THE USE OF SCHOOL LIBRARY RESOURCES IN OGUN STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A STUDY OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IJEBU NORTH L. G. A., NIGERIA , Olusola Adebamowo
The study examined the use of school library resources in Ogun State Secondary Schools. The Population of the study consisted of selected Secondary Schools in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State. Out of the 240 copies of questionnaire administered, 200 were returned representing 87% and analyzed using simple percentage. The finding shows inadequacy of library resources, lack of space, unqualified library personnel and ineffective use of school library resources by students of the surveyed schools. The study recommended the provision of adequate accommodation, provision of audio-visual materials in school libraries, recruitment of qualified staff to man school libraries among others.
54 FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS’ USE OF GAMES AS A STRATEGY FOR PEDAGOGY OF PRIMARY SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS , Aina, A. J.; Okusaga, T. O.; Babajide, G. A. and Ogundipe, T . C.
This study investigates the effectiveness of games as technique for teaching and learning of primary science in schools and the role play by library services. Game, when carefully employed and executed serves as an integral part of teaching method and measure of effectiveness of instruction. Research has shown that educational games can have positive influence on student learning and motivation. The success of a game played in an instruction class depends on the type of game selected, the development of learning outcomes, and the flexibility of library in providing library unit that is equipped with multimedia equipment where learners can interact. The study was restricted to 600 male and female respondents' teachers in Ojo Local Educational District of Lagos State. Data were collected through 18 item questionnaire. The three generated hypotheses for the study were rejected, while the results revealed that significant difference exists between factors influencing teachers' choice of game, its usefulness and problems hindering the effectiveness of game(s) for teaching and learning process of primary science in schools. Conclusion and recommendation were also proffered.
55 RATING OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATORS ON THE PROSPECT OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN CASSAVA PRODUCTION AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS AQUISITION IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Akpomedaye J. F. O.
The main focus of this paper was to examine agricultural education as a tool for entrepreneurial skills training for sustainable cassava production in Delta State. Four research questions were raised as the design was expost-facto using survey technique. The study population comprised the 23 lecturers from Agricultural Science Unit of the department of vocational education, Delta State University, Abraka; Agricultural education department, College of education, Warri; and Agricultural education department, College of education, Agbor. This population was used for the study without sampling. The questionnaire was used to collect data after subjecting it to validation and reliability tests with adequate indices obtained. Data was analysed using tabulations and percentages. The results showed that agricultural education has played many roles in entrepreneurial skills training for crop production such as provision of skills for proper agricultural education of the youths among others. Among the recommendations is the provision of modern and adequate facilities, equipment, tools and implements at the higher level of agricultural education.
56 THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE ON IMPROVING COGNITION, COMPREHENSION AND ACHIEVEMENT OF SELECTED CHEMISTRY STUDENTS IN STEM EDUCATION , Omole, C. O. and Oloyede, O. I.
The main purpose of the study was to determine the effect of previous experience on student's cognition, comprehension and achievement on STEM Education, by using some selected content areas in chemistry as the area of focus. RCSQIE . Two research questions were investigated and four null hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. A quasi experimental design (Non equivalent control group design) was employed of which two Schools was picked for the study from Jos north local government area of plateau state. Two groups consisting of fourty students each from intact classrooms were used for the study of which one was used for the control group and the other was used as the experimental group. The target population was SSS II students. Three instruments were used for the data collection and a treatment was administered only to the experimental group. Both groups were handled by research assistants. The instruments were validated and a reliability value of 0.89 was established by the kunder Richardson formula. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and the control groups post test results, which goes to show that RCSQIE as an instructional strategy had a positive impact in improving the cognitive levels and achievement of the students which could prove useful in aiding STEM education. Among the recommendations made was that teachers should go an extra mile to encourage students to read ahead, ask questions and form notes on their own to improve comprehension.
57 FINANCING EDUCATION IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY: THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES , Odufowokan B. A.
The provision of education to the Nigerian citizenry has adopted the social demand approach. This has contributed significantly to massive expansion of the system without a corresponding increase in funding. Hence, increasing budgetary allocation has always fell short of the expected turnaround revolution in education in the area of economic growth, skilled manpower needed for development and equal educational opportunity for all. This review presented as its main focus an alternative ways of financing education vis-a-vis means of funding in the 21st century. The main source of data was the secondary source. The study revealed that one of the major factors that has contributed to the problems in the education sector is the escalating cost of financing education which has placed the government in serious dilemma. Consequently, government as a matter of urgency should implement the suggested 26 percent allocation to education.
58 DEVELOPING CAUSAL MODEL OF SOME PSYCHO-ACADEMIC AND SCHOOL VARIABLES FOR MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , Eme U. Joseph and Iniubong E. Ansa
This research work was designed to develop a causal model of some psychoacademic and school variables as they interact with students' performance in Mathematics. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. This expost facto research employed stratified random sampling technique in selecting a total of 853 (407 males and 446 females) from 20 secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State. The study made use of two researcher developed and standardized instruments namely - 40-item Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) and a Student Psycho-academic Information Questionnaire (SPAIQ). Data generated from these instruments were analyzed using the path analysis technique. Result of the findings generated a model with fourteen significant path ways which could be used to explain students' performance in Mathematics. The most meaningful causal model as well as direct and indirect effects of the psycho academic and school variables on students' performances in Mathematics were to be established. Furthermore, school location, school proprietorship, attitude towards Mathematics and study habit was found to have a direct and significant causal effect on Mathematics performance. It was recommended that a similar research should be carried out on the other compulsory subjects - Integrated Science and Social Studies at the Junior Secondary School level
59 THE ROLE OF LIBRARY IN PROMOTING READING HABITS AMONG NIGERIANS , Aina, A. J.; Okusaga, T. O.; Taiwo, Adebowale and Ogundipe, T .C.
Reading stimulates imagination, encourages quick learning, widens views, expands horizons and, helps learning about different people and places. It encourages imagination and curiosity. Reading equally enhances acquisition of skills for handling complex ideas or issues. It appears the present and future generations in Nigeria are at risk of going straight from an oral to a digital culture, skipping over the writing and reading culture in the process. Library, being the nerve centre of any academic institution, is charged with such responsibility of making information available in different formats - digital, pictorial, audio-visual and in book form and promote effective library services - that will encourage reading culture among students. This paper examines the poor reading habits among the present day Nigerians, especially children and youth. It also considers the important role of the library towards inculcating permanent literacy through reading and, suggests what concerned stakeholders could do to promote reading culture in Nigeria.
60 COMPLEXITIES AND CONTRADICTIONS IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY IN UGANDA , Benson Okello
The hope for better life after school is dashed into pieces when one comes out of an institution of higher learning and only to find out that actually he or she does not have job market requirements. Those individuals should be gotten hold of before they become alienated by teaching them basic vocational skills in secondary schools to carve their failure in the labor market. This survey presented the complexities and contradictions in vocational education in Uganda. Data for the study were gotten through the use of structured questionnaire and personal interview and analysed using simple percentage. Major finding which were drawn from data collected from 100 randomly sampled students of Kyambogo University, Uganda revealed that students join technical course because they have no school fees for secondary school education. As a result of the above, the study advocated that apprenticeships should be promoted so that people can get trained from the work places.
61 STUDENTS' GENDER AND NUMERICAL PROFICIENCY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICS IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA , Funke Susan Apata
This study investigated the influence of students' gender on numerical proficiency in secondary school physics in kwara state. Eighty one coeducational secondary schools were selected using purposive sampling technique. Numerical Proficiency Test comprised of questions in practical physics and physics theory was administered to secondary school III physics students in each of the schools. The test lasted for 2hr 40min. sampled students of 405 males and 405 females were involved. Data collected were subjected to t-test. Two null hypotheses formed were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results show that males had higher numerical proficiency than their female counterparts in physics theory. Similar trend was observed for physics practical. It was concluded that male students perform better than the female students in numerical proficiency in secondary school physics.
62 LIBRARY POLICIES AND OVERDUE MATERIALS IN DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC LIBRARIES, NIGERIA , Nina-okpousung, M. O.
This study reported library policies and overdue materials in polytechnic libraries in Delta State which are located at Ogwashi-uku, Ozoro and OtefeOghara. Questionnaire, observation and interview were used for data collection. Simple percentage was used for data analysis, on the sample of three hundred registered library users which consisted of one hundred and fifty male and one hundred and fifty female users this was to ascertain if gender difference has any contributing effect. The study revealed that factors such as low fines, insufficient copies of relevant materials, insufficient library opening hours among others as responsible for users negative attitude towards overdue policies. The study concluded that library staff and Librarians enforce library policies without fear of favour and in fairness and that library orientation be made compulsory for users to be registered
63 CAUSAL FACTORS OF LOW LEVEL READING STANDARDS IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN SOUTH AFRICA , Ndileleni Mudzielwana
Education experts and academics alike agree that the ability to read is necessary for effective communication, solving of practical life problems, and critical for the well being of an individual. The purpose of the current study is to empirically investigate, evaluate and understand the factors responsible for low level of reading standards in the foundation phase among South African primary school learners. The study utilized a combination of theoretical frameworks and qualitative techniques to explore teachers' perception and understanding of causal factors related to low level of reading standards. The findings of the study would identify some of the key factors affecting low level of reading ability among learners and provide possible intervention strategies to address them.
64 ACHIEVEMENTS IN SUBJECTS METHODOLOGY AS CORRELATES OF COLLEGE OF EDUCATION STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN TEACHING PRACTICE , Ajogbeje, O. J.
This study adopted the ex-post facto research design to examine the achievement in subject methodology as correlates of student's performance in teaching practice. Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting 125 students in 2005/2006 academic session and 162 students in 2006/2007 academic session from nine mathematics combinations from Schools of Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences and Education in College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti. Data were collected through an inventory and analyzed using correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Major findings showed that a significant relationship existed between mathematics methodology, problem solving and average performance of students in teaching practice; principles and methods of teaching in education while mathematics methodology and problem solving significantly predicted average performance of students in teaching practice grades in 2005/2006, 2006/2007 and in both sessions. Principles and methods of teaching education exhibited negative predictive strength on average students' performance in teaching practice in 2005 / 2006 session. The implication of this study is that lecturers should concretize their approaches to the teaching of the course so that, positive contribution could be made to the student's performance in teaching practice grade at the college level.
65 KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF SAFE MOTHERHOOD INITIATIVE AMONG CHILDBEARING MOTHERS ATTENDING MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH (MCH) CLINICS IN NSUKKA HEALTH DISTRICT , Igbokwe, C. C. and Adama, G. N.
The purpose of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and practice of safe motherhood initiative among childbearing mothers (CBMs) attending MCH clinics in Nsukka Health District. Specifically, the study determined the CBMs level of knowledge of various components of safe motherhood initiative (SMI) and the prenatal care practices among CBMs in Nsukka health district. The study utilized a survey design while, data were collected using self- designed childbearing mother knowledge and practices of safe motherhood questionnaire (CMKPSQ). The 363 CBMs that participated in the studywere randomly selected in the study area. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, t-test and chi-square statistical tools. Results showed that while some CBMs practiced prenatal care, others had high knowledge of SMI. The two null hypotheses tested revealed that age has no statistical significant influence on CBMs and the knowledge of SMI and age at pregnancy had no significance influence on CBMs practice of SMI components. The study advocated that health education programmes should be intensified at the grass-root level to increase and promote the utilization of MCH services among CBMs.
66 PRESERVATION OF INFORMATION SOURCES IN POLYTECHNIC LIBRARIES IN SOUTH EAST STATES OF NIGERIA , Catherine Ogbodo
This study was aimed at examining the preservation of information sources in polytechnic libraries in South Eastern States of Nigeria. The entire population of 33 academic libraries was used for the study. A questionnaire was used to gather data and the results showed among others that there were problems of preservation of information sources in polytechnic libraries in Nigeria. These polytechnic libraries use ineffective methods to combat the problems of preservation. It was recommended that adoption of digital technology in preservation among others could help these libraries preserve their materials effectively.
67 APPROACHES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS  , Avwiri, E. Hannah
This study reviewed the current approach to chemistry teaching in Nigerian secondary schools. The method by which the teacher presents his materials to students and the work ahead of them affect their interest and attitude towards the subject. Chemistry is a subject that is needed by all areas of medicine, engineering and other science subjects. For it successful study, the approaches to it teaching become crucial, faulty teaching can hinder or create a dislike for chemistry by the students. The study highlighted some of the ways the teaching of chemistry can be effective in Nigerian secondary schools. The adjustment of students, matching curricular offering with levels of mental development, motivations and some appropriate methods of teaching chemistry was looked into in the study. The researcher concluded that when the students are put into consideration and appropriate methods are used then the teaching of chemistry can be effective in our Nigeria schools.
68 APPLICABILITY OF REGRESSION MODEL IN MODERATING INTERNAL ASSESSMENT SCORES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Abe, T. O.
This study investigated regression model of statistical moderation of internal assessment scores. This is an ex-post-facto research design in which there was no treatment and manipulation of subject instead it involved the collection of data from records. Cluster sampling technique was adopted to select five hundred students that were made up of fifty students each from ten secondary schools. The hypothesis formulated for the study was analyzed using Pearson-product-moment correlation statistical technique. The results revealed that Regression model does not utter the strength of relationships among the internal assessment scores in Mathematics, English language and Biology and at the same time there were significant relationships among the internal assessment scores in the three subjects before and after the statistical moderation by regression model. Based on this finding, the study recommended that regression model should not be used as a means of moderating internal assessment scores because it does not utter the strength of relationship as expected in order to ascertain the quality control of teachers' assessment scores in Nigerian Secondary Schools.
69 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HIV AND AIDS IN AFRICA: THE ROLE OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PRACTICES  , Dorathy I. Achalu
The HIV and AIDS epidemic continues to be a major public health problem worldwide especially in Africa. Research shows that sub-Saharan Africa is the hardest hit region of the world accounting for about 95% of people living with AIDS. Also, research shows that women are more vulnerable to HIV infection than men with women accounting for about 57% of adults living with HIV in Africa. Gender has a powerful influence on sexual health and plays a significant role in the transmission of HIV infection in Africa. This paper examines role of gender stereotypes and inequality as well as other socio-cultural, socio-economic and biological factors contributing to the gender differences in the HIV and AIDS epidemics in Africa.
70 INTERNET FILTERING IN THE PUBLIC LIBRARY: CENSORSHIP OR CUSTOMER SERVICE  , Adeyemi Johnson Adetunji and Eghe-ohenmwen Aghama
Internet access makes accessible to all diverse kinds of information on the computer screen including those that some people classify as not appropriate in a public place like library. The question that faces Librarians is whether to filter the internet in the library in order to remove those materials considered to be harmful or illegal or to say no to filter in order to preserve their traditional role of making information available to the public without reservation. To restrict access to some information is censorship and that is violation of fundamental right of people to information. This review looked at internet filtering in the public library. It explored into the rationale behind filtering, problems with the use of blocking or filtering software in libraries; and what library can do to promote access to the Internet and the steps the library can undertake in order to mitigate risk of exposure to inappropriate information to its customers and itself.
71 PRINCIPALS' SUPERVISORY APTITUDE OF TEACHERS' WORK PERFORMANCE IN DELTA STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS, NIGERIA  , Nakpodia, E. D.
This study investigated the degree to which the work performance of teachers in secondary schools in Delta State depends on the aptitude of school principals to maintain and enforce adequate supervision. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested with Pearson correlation methods. The population of teachers used is 8,705 and 491 principals out of which 300 teachers equals 3.4% and 30 principals equals 6.1% were sampled using random sampling techniques. A total of 330 respondents were sampled and served with questionnaires. Two hypotheses were tested. The results show that teachers performance in secondary schools is significantly dependent on the aptitude of the principals to effectively conduct adequate and valuable supervision which validates the importance of discipline, recordkeeping and teaching aids. The study recommends that school principals should routinely adopt reasonable supervisory behaviour to enhance teachers' task in the classrooms.
72 INFRASTRUCTURAL INNOVATIONS AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS SUBJECTS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA  , Onasote, A. O.; Adeniyi, M. A. and Aderibigbe, N. A.
This study compared infrastructural innovations in Junior and Senior Secondary Schools as a panacea for effective teaching in Ogun State. It investigated the type of infrastructure that was available in Ogun State Secondary Schools in the past and the current innovations so far made. Equally, it examined the activities of the State and the Local Government in the provision of infrastructure. Descriptive survey method and questionnaire were adopted for the purpose of the study. The analysis of the result using simple percentage showed among others that there was no record pertaining to infrastructural provision to secondary schools in Ogun State prior 2003. However, from 2003 up to 2009, records revealed that appreciable infrastructural facilities were provided to both junior and senior secondary schools in the State. This notwithstanding, it was concluded that the infrastructural and institutional materials available for teaching and learning in post primary schools in the study area were grossly inadequate and where they were available, may not convey standard and quality message. It is plausible therefore for the State government through the Ministry of Education to make adequate provision of infrastructural facilities to enhance effective teaching and learning.
73 USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN TEACHING OF SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS  , Avwiri, E. H.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a "magic bullet" that has changed many aspect of the teaching of science subjects in school. It has become a conveyor belt in fields such as Medicine, Engineering, Chemistry, Agriculture, Biology and others within the past two decades. The use of ICT in teaching of science has significantly changed methods of teaching in Nigerian schools. ICT is used as a catalyst for rethinking, teaching practice as well as developing the quality of teachers. Science is a service-oriented activity. This study looked at the uses of ICTs in the teaching of science in Nigerian schools. Knowing very well, that present-day teaching of science challenges cannot be met with traditional approaches alone. It is high time therefore ICT is considered an important contribution to the solution of the problems in teaching of science subjects in our schools. Teaching approaches using contemporary ICTs facilites provide great opportunities for constructive teaching through their support for resource-base, student-context and to practice. It is concluded that there is the need for adequate provision and accessibility of ICT facilities such as computers and the internet to all science school to enhance quality teaching of science subject in school as well as ensure that appropriate machinery to ensure that facilities do not leave any negative impact on the students are put in place.
74 FACTORS INFLUENCING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE STUDY OF PHYSICS IN IMENTI SOUTH DISTRICT, KENYA  , Mbaabu, F. N.; Gatumu, H. N. and Kinai, T.
The study was conducted in January and February 2011. It aimed at investigating the factors that were considered to influence students' attitude towards the study of Physics in secondary schools in Imenti South District, Kenya. The factors under consideration were perceived adequacy of physics laboratory equipment, perceived teacher competence, the influence of calculations in the physics curriculum and sex differences in students' attitude. The study sample consisted of 120 students. These were drawn from four secondary schools sampled through stratified random technique. Descriptive survey design was used. Two instruments were used for data collection. These were a students' questionnaire and a laboratory equipment checklist. The questionnaire was administered to the students at one sitting in each of the schools. The observation checklist was filled by the laboratory assistant in each of the schools. Each of the independent variables had its items scored separately. A single attitude score was thus obtained for each attitudinal object per student. The research findings revealed that students have a positive attitude towards physics, perceive the physics' teachers as competent and they perceive the physics laboratories as well equipped. It was recommended among others that teachers teaching physics and mathematics should work in consultation with each other so as to help the students in appreciating the role of mathematics in physics and girls should be helped to interact with ladies who have excelled in physics so as to boost their attitude towards physics.
75 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) NEEDS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN DELTA STATE: A CASE FOR HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT , Iyeke, Patrick Okoh
This study determined the ICT needs of secondary school teachers in Delta State. The descriptive survey design was adopted. A total number of three hundred and sixty four (364) teachers randomly selected from thirty five secondary schools from the three (3) Senatorial Districts of Delta State were used for the study. A self-constructed questionnaire "Information and Communication Needs of Teachers' Questionnaire" (ICT-NOTQ) with a reliability index of 0.76 was used to obtain data for the study. The t-test statistical analysis was used to analyze the data collected and the results revealed that most teachers in Delta State have not been adequately trained in the use of ICT in classroom. It was also discovered that most schools in Delta State do not have computers for instructional purposes. The schools are not also connected to the sources of power supply. In the light of the above, it was recommended that the government should ensure the retraining of all serving teachers to make them ICT compliant. Also adequate ICT facilities should be provided in all the post-primary educational institutions.
76 COMPARING LABORATORY APPROACH (LABA) AND CONVENTIONAL APPROACH (CONA) OF TEACHING AREA OF PLANE SHAPES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Ojo, O. A.
In recent time, views have been expressed on the notion that some methods are better and more effective than others for students understanding of mathematics. While some schools of taught contended that one teaching style is not inherently better than any other but some teachers can be more effective in teaching one way than another. The focus of this study therefore was to compare Laboratory Approach (LABA) and the Conventional Approach (CONA) of Teaching Area of Plane Shapes in Junior Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A sample of 400 Junior Secondary School II students consisting of 200 males and 200 females were randomly selected for the study. Student's t-test statistic was used to analyzed the data collected at = 0.05 level of significant. The result of the finding showed that there was significant difference between the mean scores in favor of Laboratory Method. It was on the bases of the findings of this study that it was recommended to both the teachers and the students to employ laboratory approach in finding area of plane and solid shapes for the attainment of maximum benefit and efficiency so as to achieve the objectives of mathematics lessons.
77 SECURITY OF INFORMATION SOURCES IN LIBRARIES OF GOVERNMENT OWNED POLYTECHNICS IN SOUTH EAST STATES OF NIGERIA , Ogbodo, C. I.
This study investigated the security of information sources in polytechnic libraries in South East States. This was with the aim of finding out the problems and methods of securing information sources, constraints to security of information sources and strategies for improvement. Four objectives and research questions were formulated to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The entire population was studied. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire tagged security of information sources in Polytechnic Libraries (SISPL) in South East States. Thirty three copies of the questionnaire were distributed and all were recovered. Frequency tables, simple percentages and mean were used to analyse data collected for the study. The result obtained revealed that: the problems of security are theft, mutilation and overdue. The libraries studied did not adopt electronic security method rather they used manual methods to secure their libraries. They had many constraints and they have adopted many strategies for improvement. Based on the findings, it was recommended that a combination of both manual and electronic methods can make the securing of information sources more effective.
78 EQUALIZING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIAN IN THE 21ST CENTURY  , Musa, C. N.
The issue of equalizing educational opportunities is a vexed one worldwide. It is even more serious now with the global economic belt-tightening which has many implications for educational practice. This study examined the various dimensions of providing educational service to all citizens on equal basis. First it identified the prevailing inequalities, pointing out the respective implications of such inequalities. Then the factors which militate against Nigeria's declared equalitarian objectives are identified as social, geopolitical, economic and religious. It was recommended among others solutions that very radical reforms in our educational practices in order to ensure equal educational opportunity for all Nigerians in the 21st century.
79 EFFECTIVENESS OF COGNITIVE AND GROUP BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES IN MANAGING EXAMINATION ANXIETY AMONG ACADEMICALLY-AT-RISK SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA  , Okoiye, Ojaga Emmanuel and Ajibola Falaye
This study investigated the effectiveness of Cognitive and Group Behaviour Therapies in managing examination anxiety among academically-at-risk secondary school students in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted an experimental research design. 180 participants from six secondary schools in three local government areas in Ibadan. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The two treatment groups were exposed to ten weeks training in Cognitive and Group Behaviour Therapies, while participants in the control group received no training. Two validated instruments: Examination Anxiety Scale and Student Academic Self-Efficacy Scale were used. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance and t-test. The findings revealed that there was a significant main effect of treatment on the ability of academically-at-riskstudents to manage examination anxiety. Also, self-efficacy was found to have a significant effect on the examination anxiety of academically-at-risk-student participants. It was concluded that cognitive behaviour and Group therapies were effective in managing examination anxiety among academically-at-risk-students. Therefore, it was recommended among others that the school counseling psychologists can adopt the two interventions therapies to manage examination anxiety among academically-at-risk-students.
80 CRITICAL STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL ROLE OF ISLAM TO SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT , Adeleke, R. S.
Interplay or relationship between Islam and the societal development must be accorded significant recognition by the present generation. Through its social development, Islam is contextually defined as not only a religion or collection of rituals, but also a complete comprehensive way of life. It was revealed to cater for the relationship between man and God as well as man and the development of his environment. Islam transcends the spiritual sphere and permeates a spectrum of human endeavours. It has made indelible contributions to the educational, cultural, social, welfare and political development of mankind individually and generally.
81 MATHEMATICS EDUCATION AS PANACEA FOR GLOBAL SOCIETAL CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA , Abe, T. O. and Egbon, F. O.
This study examined the various definition of Mathematics education, the past, present and future trends in Mathematics Education. The environmental challenges such as economic environment, political environment, social environment are also considred while Mathematics education as a panacea for global environment challenges is discussed along side the usage of Mathematics in medicine, politics, population census, health care delivery system, experimental Biology and for a better understanding of epidemiology patterns and disease control. Suggestions were made on how mathematics could be applied to environmental issues in order to obtain optimality in every option of solutions.
82 STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF AN EFFECTIVE TEACHER IN DELTA STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL, DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, ABRAKA, NIGERIA , Nakpodia, E. D.
This study was designed to determine students' perception of an effective teacher. All students of the Delta State University Secondary School, Abraka constitute the population. A sample of three hundred students was randomly selected for the study. The instrument for the study was a researcher-developed questionnaire titled "Students' Perception of Effective Teachers' Questionnaire (SPETQ)". Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the null hypothesis. Results showed that students have correct perception of teacher's qualities that relate the effectiveness, and male and female students do not differ in their perception of an effective teacher.
83 IMMINENT COLLAPSE OF THE NIGERIA FOURTH (4TH) REPUBLIC: A REALISTIC ASSESSMENT OF MAJOR SIGNPOSTS , Tunde Ajayi
The first civilian republic was officially inaugurated in 1959 and lasted eight years before the advent of the military. The second civilian administration barely survived for four years, 1970-1983, the third republic was aborted in the throes of delivery, under General Babangida in 1993, two years after the process started from below. This fourth republic started in 1999 and has recorded many novel firsts: the first civilian administration to last more than ten years; the first to witness three successful civilian successions at the federal level, the first to transfer power from one region to another peacefully. In spite of these firsts, the clamour for total overhaul or drastic return to the past is getting louder. These calls are not emanating from the known military apologists. This development should not be taken for granted as the issue deserves proper understanding and placement. The continued survival of democracy, despites its shortcomings, appears to have guaranteed Nigeria smooth passage and respectability in the committee of sovereign states. The black man should not be seen as incapable of running and maintaining a system which other nations in the third world had successfully run for over fifty years with noticeable gains and societal transformation. There is the need to study the underlying grounds for the sudden romantic appeal of the past and to understand the social adjustments needed to stem the slide from the mundane to the dangerous precipice.
84 FAMILY FACTORS, SELF-ESTEEM AND PEER INVOLVEMENT AS PREDICTORS OF DYSCALCULIA AMONG STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES IN IKEJA, LAGOS STATE OF NIGERIA , Okoiye, Ojaga Emmanuel and Asamaigo Esse Elizabeth
This study investigated family factors, self-esteem and peer involvement as predictors of dyscalculia among students' with learning disabilities in Ikeja Lagos State Nigeria. Using the descriptive survey research design, three research questions were raised and three hypotheses were tested. Data were collected from three hundred secondary school students in SSS11 expressing dyscalculia with learning disabilities in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State Nigeria using their cumulative cognitive score of three consecutive examination records and three validated instruments. Analysis of data was done using the multiple regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The results revealed that self-esteem, peer-involvement and family factor made a joint contribution on dyscalculia among students' with learning disabilities. The findings also revealed that peer involvement has significant relationship with the problem of dyscalculia among students' with learning disabilities. However, self-esteem and family factor did not have significant relationship with the problem of dyscalculia among students' with learning disabilities. The findings have implications for the academic development and aspirations of students expressing dyscalculia with learning disabilities. Thus, it is recommended that they should be given considerable support, attention and care by family members, the society and significant as others as to give them sense of belonging and purpose in life. Through this measure, they could easily self-rediscover themselves, their potentials and ability to succeed in not only their academic task, but also in other life challenges.
85 REPOSITIONING BUSINESS EDUCATION AND PRACTICE IN NIGERIA , Bitrus Fulani Kwajaffa and Yakubu Salisu
Business eduxation, like any other field of study has its own guiding principles/ concept and procedures. This conceptual framework however, was not indigenous to Africa or Nigeria but rather was imported mostly from Britain and the United States of America. Therefore, there is need to constantly evaluate how these principles/concepts suit our local situation. However, the various institutions of business administration and management studies lagged behind in responding appropriately to the quality and types of management needed by the nation. The identified indicators of the tag are what this paper critically examined.
86 INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL BACKGROUND ON MOTIVATION IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING: THE CASE STUDY OF TWO SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PORT HARCOURT MUNICIPALITY, NIGERIA , Ogbonna Anyanwu; Nneoma Ugorji and Golden Ekpo
This study aimed at examining the influence of social background on motivation in second language learning with special focus on two secondary schools, Akpor Grammar School and the University of Port Harcourt Demonstration Secondary School both in Port Harcourt municipality, Nigeria. The population used for this study covers all the Senior Secondary Three (SS3) students of both Akpor Grammar School and the University of Port Harcourt Demonstration Secondary School. The selection of this sample population was by random. The research instrument used for the generation of data was structuced questionnaire. Our findings indeed reveal that motivation is very crucial in second language learning and that one's social background plays a very significant role to enhance his motivation in learning a second language. The Learning of a second language can be greatly enhanced by the right and adequate kind of motivation and motivation itself can be affected by factors such as age, personal interest, teaching method, learning situation and availability of learning materials, status, sex, etc.
87 ATTITUDE OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS TOWARDS THE USE OF PUNISHMENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KALOLENI DISTRICT OF COAST PROVINCE, KENYA , Mbaka, J. G.; Gatumu, H. N. and Tumuti, S.
This study was carried out in 14 secondary schools in Kaloleni District. A descriptive approach was employed. Data were collected through the questionnaires designed for the teachers and students. The target population consisted of 215 teachers and about 5600 students in 14 secondary schools. A sample of 42 teachers and 206 students were proportionately selected in the sampled schools. There were four hypotheses, which were tested through inferential statistics of Chi Square and Point Bi-Serial Coefficient. Frequency and simple percentage were employed to the establish attitude of students and teachers towards punishment in secondary schools in Kaloleni District. The study found out amidst others that students and teachers actually felt that punishment was important in helping maintain discipline in secondary schools. Hence it was proposed among many things that teachers should be impressed upon to be fair when punishing students and must accompany it with explanation or rationale for the punishment.
88 ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AS A STRATEGY FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA , Ahmed, J. A.; Ajayi, J. K. and Olakunle, M. K.
Education is a crucial catalyst and instrument for a country socio- economic development in its entire ramification as well as bases for entrepreneurships development which in turn result in peace and National development through an effective educational system. This paper examined the concept of entrepreneurship, highlights the roles of tertiary institutions in entrepreneurship development, suggest strategies for re-designing the Nigerian tertiary institution for peace, entrepreneurship and National development.
89 VERBAL TECHNICAL PRESENTATION SKILL IMPROVEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR ARCHITECTS IN NIGERIA , Kabiru Sani Daroda
This study examined the adequacy of verbal proficiency of both architects in practice and architecture graduates in terms of technical presentation; a requirement that has become critical in the competitive world of architectural practice. In this regard, a survey was carried out which involved issuance of structured questionnaires to architecture graduates and architects in practice. To guide the study, research questions were designed to obtain responses which helped to ascertain the efficacy of current training and policy practices and how they test the verbal presentation skills of architects in Nigeria. The study revealed a consensus among educators, graduate architects and architects in practice that adjustments are required in schools of architecture and professional monitoring bodies to see that the training regime included as a matter of necessity, subjects and measures that require that proficiency in verbal presentation techniques. A major review is required of the training curricular of universities and polytechnics to include the teaching of technical speaking skills for architecture and allied professions.
90 IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON NIGERIAN TERTIARY EDUCATION: PROCEEDS AND PROMISES , Okumoku-Evroro, Oniovosa and Eloho Goodluck Okeno
The promises of e-learning for transforming tertiary education and thereby advancing the knowledge economy have rested on three arguments: E-learning could expand and widen access to tertiary education and training; improve the quality of education; and reduce its cost. The study evaluated these three promises with the sparse existing data and evidence and concluded that the reality has not been up to the promises so far in terms of pedagogic innovation, while it has already significantly improved the overall learning (and teaching) experience. Reflecting on the ways that would help develop e-learning further, the study identified the development and investment model as the way forward.
91 PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF INFORMATION MATERIALS IN SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN NIGERIA , Adeleke, O.; Aina, A. J. and Lateef, E. B.
This study was carried out to investigate as its major aim the conservation and preservation practices at Chevron Texaco Nigeria Limited, and the Nigerian Conservation Foundation (NCF), Lagos. A descriptive research design was used for the study. A total population of 60 was considered for the study. Questionnaire, interview and personal observations were the major instruments used for data collection. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages. The study established that the major factor responsible for the deterioration of information materials in these organizations is the poor handling of information materials. Space was observed to be the major problem confronting effective preservation and conservation of information materials. Although this problem was partially solved by transferring documents awaiting retention to the archive. It was therefore recommended among others that there should be training programmes for information handlers/users, and improvement in the storage environment should also be given to priority paramount.
92 TEACHER QUALITIES AND SCHOOL FACTORS AS CORRELATES OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Borisade, F. T.
This study aimed at investigating the effects of teacher qualities and school factors on the academic performance of secondary school students in mathematics. A purposive random sampling technique was used to select 150 teachers from 75 secondary schools in Ekiti State. May/June, 2011 WAEC result and a constructed questionnaire were used to obtain information on these factors. Three hypotheses were raised and tested at 0.05 level of significant using a t-test statistical analysis. The results showed a no significant different in the academic performance of students in mathematics from either urban or rural areas. And from those schools established before 1980 and those after 1980; the results were the same for those taught by mathematics teacher specialists and the non-specialist. These results showed that students in the rural areas performed likely as those in urban areas, and those taught by the non-specialist were at par with those taught by specialist and that year of establishment of a school did not have much effect on the students academic performance. Government is therefore advised to make facilities available for all schools irrespective of their location or year of establishment. Workshops, seminars and conferences should be organized for all mathematics teachers without using any selective approach.
93 INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN UPATA CLAN, EKPEYE COMMUNITY OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Aziagba, P. C. and Okede, G. W.
This study dealt on fresh cassava farmers in Ekpeye land of Rivers State, Nigeria. This study adopted a survey research design which cluster sampling technique was used to select 984 respondents on random basis from four clusters. Structured questionnaire was design for the collection of data. Three categories of farmers were identified in the study. They are peasants, commercial and cooperative farmers. The peasant farmers are mainly old and retiring group with little needs and information. The commercial farmers are individual prospective farmers. The cooperative farmers are those who agreed to contribute their efforts, money and resources for a common goal and objective. They are anxious to getting information about how, what and where to go for more knowledge and assistance. It was also observed that the farmers desiring information from colleagues, extension workers, agricultural institutions, news media and banks in order to sustain, organize and expand their efforts in profit making. It is the position of this study that if cassava farmers are given more information, they will surely do better. In this case, they should be given more education as this would benefit them.
94 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS' UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE AND ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN IKERE-EKITI, NIGERIA , Ajogbeje, O. J.
The study investigated the relationship between students' understanding of mathematical language and their achievement in mathematics. 450 senior secondary two (SS II) students (200 males and 250 females) were randomly selected from five secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State for the study. Data collection was done using Mathematical Language Reading Ability and Understanding Test (MLRAUT) and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). Product Moment Correlation coefficient and the corresponding t-test of significance were used in analyzing the data. Results obtained show that there is significant relationship between students' understanding of mathematical language and their academic achievement in mathematics. Consequently, it was recommended among others that government should employ more qualified mathematics teachers and send them on inservice training and development programmes. This will enable them to update their knowledge on how best they can use mathematical language to enhance the teaching and learning of junior secondary school mathematics in Ekiti State.
95 MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT LIBRARY STAFF PERFORMANCE IN BENSON IDAHOSA UNIVERSITY, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE, NIGERIA , Idiegbeyan-Ose, Jerome and Idahosa, Mary
This paper discussed motivational factors that affect library staff performance in Benson Idahosa University. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Structured questionnaire was designed and administered to Library Staff of Benson Idahosa University, Benin City in Edo State, Nigeria. Twenty- two copies of the questionnaire administered were all returned and found useful for analysis. The findings revealed that inner satisfaction on the job, careful placement on the job, payment of allowance and over time work compensation of staff and timely promotion are all the factors that motivate library staff to perform better and improve their productivity. Frequency count and simple percentage methods were used in analyzing the data. It was recommended among others that the organization should ensure that staff welfare is taken care of. Staff should be encouraged for in-service training. In addition, management should adopt participative style of management whereby the staff are involved in decision making process.
96 CODING AND ENCODING DIFFICULTIES IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY NOMENCLATURE AMONG FIRST YEAR DIPLOMA STUDENTS IN ABUBAKAR TATARI ALI POLYTECHNIC, BAUCHI, NIGERIA , Omole, C.
The aim of this survey was to highlight the difficulties of coding and encoding in organic chemistry nomenclature among first year Diploma students of Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria. The study adopted convenience sampling method to draw 30 students who have just completed their senior secondary school programmes from various secondary schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was the major instrument for data collection while simple percentage was adopted for the analysis. The study revealed the fact that the organic chemistry was taught to the students towards the end of their chemistry course, thereby giving them little or no time to master the subject. Hence, it was recommended among others that organic chemistry should be introduced earlier preferably; about the second term of senior secondary school one to run concurrent with the inorganic aspect of chemistry.
97 THE PLIGHT OF WIDOWS IN NIGERIA: THE PARADOX FOR TRADITIONAL COUNSELLING OF THE BEREAVED , Ushe, M. U.
Historical studies have shown that widowhood in pre-Christian and Islamic periods was a natural phenomenon which carry with it the risk of conjugal bereavement due to the death of one spouse. However, the situation changed immediately the society started subjecting widows into various tortures and mistreatment (especially from the 1970s), leading to distrust amongst families and eventually violence amongst the people. This study, therefore examined the plight of widows in Nigeria as a paradox for traditional counseling of the bereaved in Pre-Colonial times and the Nigerian situations today.
98 EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE, COMPETITIVE AND INDIVIDUALISTIC INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS MATHEMATICS IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA , Olojo, O. J.
The study investigated effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic instructional strategies on senior school students' attitudes towards Mathematics in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design of the pretest and posttest control group type. The sample consisted of 400 senior secondary school two students who were selected from eight secondary schools in Ondo State using purposive random sampling technique. Two research instruments were developed for the study. The instruments were Pre - Test Mathematics Attitude Scale (PMAS) and Post - test Mathematics Attitude Scale (MAS). The reliability coefficients of the instruments were 0.85 and 0.89 respectively. The two null hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Post - Hoc analysis of the form Sheffe test was carried out to determine the point at significance existed. The result showed that there was a significant difference in the attitude of students when exposed to mathematical concepts using cooperative, competitive, individualistic and conventional instructional strategies. It was also found that individualistic, competitive, cooperative and conventional learning strategies (in that order) have the potency of effecting better attitude in students when exposed to mathematical concepts. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that teachers should make individualistic learning strategy a fundamental part of their instructions.
99 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS' PERFORMANCE IN MICROTEACHING AND TEACHING PRACTICE IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, IKERE-EKITI, NIGERIA , Afemikhe, O. A. and Egbon F. O.
This study examined the performance of students' in teaching practice exercise in 2003/2004 academic sessions when students were compelled to teach their subject major and 2004/2005 academic session when students were made to teach any subject made available to them during the exercise. The study further investigated the relationships between teaching practice and micro-teaching in the above academic sessions. A purposively drawn sample of sixteen combinations of subject areas from the school of science in the College of Education, Ikere - Ekiti where 282 students were selected in 2003/2004 academic session. The findings of this study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microteaching and teaching practice scores in 2003/2004 academic session as a positive relationship is been established between micro teaching and teaching practice scores in 2004/2005 academic session. By implication, students should be regularly sensitized on the benefits of micro-teaching so that they could take it very serious.
100 FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN DELTA STATE TEACHERS’ TRAINING COLLEGES , Joel Okogu
The study investigated the factors affecting the effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum in Teachers' Training Colleges inDelta State. Three research questions and related hypotheses were raised to guide the study. The design used for the study was descriptive survey. Questionnaire was used to generate data for the study. The data were analyzed using Pearson Moment Correlation and Regression Analysis. The factors affecting effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum in Delta State Teachers Training Colleges stemed from inappropriate use of teaching methods, inability of social studies teachers to implement the curriculum adequately to the understanding of the students and teachers' inability to use good constructive questions during teaching and learning process in the classroom. The continued and persistent presence of these factors affected negatively the quality of academic standard of Social studies education in the colleges. For these reasons, it was recommended that good constructive questions to facilitate teaching and learning should be practised and used by the teachers. Also, Social Studies teachers should display professional competence to be effective in the school system.
101 PERCEPTION OF LIBRARY USERS ON THE SERVICES RENDERED BY LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, OJO, NIGERIA , Bello, A. S.
This study examined users perception of LASU Library resources. It adopted a survey method and utilized a questionnaire, complemented with mostly none open-ended questions to generate data, which were analysed using (SPSS) Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings revealed that more users prefer to use print materials than e-resources because of the inadequacy of the eresources. It was therefore recommended additional e-resources and adequate funding of the library to cater for the provision of essential library resources so as to effectively provide the range of services entrusted in it and satisfaction to the library users.
102 KNOWLEDGE AND INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT: THE COMPETITIVE EDGE IN TODAY'S GLOBAL ECONOMY , Akaso, A. A.
This study examined the agility, absorptive and resilience capabilities of organizations in accelerating their abilities to create, transfer, and deploy knowledge in order to meet organizational current and future performance capacity. The report deployed a descriptive research method. The research finding revealed that management of organizational change is a challenging one that firms must study continually in order to identify the skills set and needed to cope with today's ever-accelerating pace; and that speed, flexibility, adaptability to change are among the greatest concerns of firms in the new economy. It also indicated that organizations that are able to deploy Knowledge Management (KM) to meet current and future performance capacity are those organizations that build the right kinds of change management capacity into their operating systems. The study conclude that superior change-management practices that build an organization's adaptive capacity by considering the individual employees, team, organization, and industry, will support sustainable high performance now and in the future.
103 COUNSELLING STRATEGIES AGAINST TERRORISM IN NIGERIA , Iwok, J. C.
This study aimed at investigating the appropriateness of some counselling strategies against terrorism in Akwa Ibom State. A sample of 120 Guidance Counsellors was drawn from Akwa Ibom State Chapter of the Counselling Association of Nigeria. The design of the study was ex-post-facto. Two hypotheses were raised as guide to the study. A structured questionnaire entitled Counselling Terrorism (COT) was designed and used for data collection. The instrument was subjected to various processes of validation. The internal consistency of the instrument was established through pilot testing and it yielded a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.82. Data raised were analyzed using simple percentage and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result showed that parent training in child management is the promising family intervention strategy. It was recommended that there should be training in behaviour modification strategies which include the use of rewards, punishment and communication skills.
104 UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION: PANACEA FOR ILLITERACY AND POVERTY IN NIGERIA , Oloruntoyin, S. T. and Olanloye, D. O.
Acute poverty and low literacy level in Nigeria are major impediments to development as vast majority of the people in the country do not have access to literacy, to acquire necessary knowledge and skills that will enable them to tackle their socio-economic problems. This study aimed at reviewing the relationship between illiteracy, poverty and Universal Basic Education in Nigeria. Basic achievement of Universal Basic Education and the associated problems were identified. The paper also analyzed the strategies for eradicating illiteracy and poverty in Nigeria through basic education, and was of the opinion that the government should prioritize basic education as the foundation on which illiteracy and poverty can be eliminated.
105 FUNDING PATTERN TO PUBLIC PRIMARY EDUCATION IN OYO STATE: IMPLICATIONS FOR BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA , Oloruntoyin, S. T.
This study investigated the funding patterns to public primary education in Oyo State of Nigeria between 1990-2004. The study adopted the descriptive research design using ex-post facto type. All the primary schools in Oyo State as at year 2004 were used for the study. Given the focus of the study, the data utilized was mainly secondary in nature. Data collection template was designed and taken to the State's ministries of finance and education for input. Data were also sourced from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) most current edition of statistical bulletin. Data were analysed using percentages, mean values and multiple regression. Findings revealed that for the entire period (1990-2004), the State had a low percentage point change in absolute spending. The study therefore concluded that the present level of funding educational development in the primary schools in Oyo State was well below what was required to enable her citizens benefit from the worldwide trends towards reduced illiteracy, poverty and improved living conditions. There is therefore the need for a re-orientation on resource allocation to primary education based on the necessary parameters namely: students' enrolment, number of staff, inflation and cost of education by the State.
106 INFLUENCE OF LIBRARY INSTRUCTION COURSE ON STUDENTS’ ACCESS AND UTILIZATION OF LIBRARY RESOURCES IN ABUBAKAR TAFAWA BALEWA UNIVERSITY, BAUCHI, NIGERIA , Aliyu, U. F.
The purpose of this study was to find out the impact of Library Instruction course (GNS 201: Library and Information Science) on the students ability to use the ATBU university library effectively to access their information needs. The population of the research was students of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi. Simple random sampling technique was used to obtain a sample of 300 students. The research instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The result of the research indicated that, 73 or 26.45% were able to use catalogues to access library materials. This means that, about, 76.08% or 210 of the respondents attached considerable importance to the GNS 201 course offered by the university. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that the university administration should review the syllabus of the GNS 201 (Library and Information Science) course. The review is intended to reflect the current changes in library operations (application of ICT facilities in library operations). This will offer the students the opportunity to familiarize themselves with innovations and current applications of technology to library activities.
107 SECURITY LAPSES AND LOSS OF LIBRARY MATERIALS IN DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, ABRAKA, NIGERIA , Emojorho, D.
Loss of library materials have been of great concern to Librarians or Information Managers right from the onset. This study investigated the lapses and loss of library materials in Delta State University, Abraka. A descriptive research design of the ex-post facto was adopted in the study. The main instrument used for collecting data was the questionnaire. From the target population of the university students and staff, a total number of 150 were sampled however 148 respondents completed their questionnaire. The study showed the various forms of security lapses which resulted to loss of materials in the library. Based on the findings, it was recommended that proper orientation on how to effectively use library services should be organized regularly for all library staff and users.
108 KNOWLEDGE OF PRE-MARITAL GENETIC SCREENING AMONG STUDENTS OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNICS IN NIGERIA , Odelola, J. O.; Adisa, O. and Akintaro, O. A.
This study investigated the knowledge of pre-marital genetic screening among students of Osun State Polytechnics. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self developed and structured questionnaire in four likert-scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and simple percentage was used to analyse the demographic data, while the parametric statistics of t-test set at 0.05 alpha level was used to test the hypothesis. A total number of one thousand, one hundred and sixty-five (1,165) Higher National Diploma students served as respondents for the study. Multistage sampling technique was used in three stages, namely: purposive sampling technique was used to select the schools; stratified sampling technique was used to select the faculties, while proportionate sample of 25% was selected from each stratum. Two research questions were asked and a comprehensive hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The value for difference in knowledge due to gender was obtained. Based on this, it was concluded that male students of Osun State Polytechnics have more knowledge of pre-marital genetic screening than their female counterparts. The study therefore recommended among other things that social expectations of individuals and communities should be assessed properly before setting programme goals.
109 INHIBITORS TO RECREATIONAL SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG ACADEMIC STAFF IN OSUN STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ILA-ORANGUN, NIGERIA , Adisa Olawumi and Oloyede, A. O.
This study investigated the inhibitors to recreational sport participation among academic staff in Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun, Nigeria. The population for the study consisted of all academic staff of Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun out of which a total of 157 respondents were selected through purposive and maximum variation sampling technique from 5 schools that were randomly selected. Three hypotheses on the effect of participation in recreational sports on Health Status were tested, and all were found significant after subjecting them to chi-square analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings of this study it was concluded that job demand, lack of motivation and erroneous belief are some of the inhibitors to recreational sport participation among academic staff in Osun State College of Education, Ila-Orangun. It was therefore recommended that the college management should carry out a comprehensive auditing of the academic staff work load with the aim of reducing it.
110 QUALITY ASSURANCE IN RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA , Oloruntoyin, S. T.
This study examined the issue of quality in rural primary schools in Nigeria. Quality was linked to both individual and national development and thus necessary to consider an approach that supports the practice of quality assurance in a holistic rather than individualistic oriented method. Quality assurance system should be seen as a process of enhancing and promoting collaboration and participation for institutional development. This entails a shift to a more pragmatic approach that encourages the involvement of everybody in the drive towards ensuring quality in Nigerian rural primary schools. Therefore, governments and policy makers need to put in place strategies that will serve to improve the condition of teacher and teaching in order to improve student achievement across rural schools in Nigeria.
111 PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE OF JUNIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Okwelle, A. A. and Wali, G. I.
This study investigated the psychological factors that influencing the academic performance of students in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSSCE) in Integrated Science in Rivers State, Nigeria. The Survey Research Design (SRD) method was adopted. A total of 240 students in junior secondary schools were selected randomly for the study through Stratified Random Sample (SRS) from eight (8) Junior Secondary schools in the state. Five research questions were formulated to guide the study and Likert scale was used to obtain data for the study. Data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation, and a standard reference mean of 2.50 for a 4-point rating scale was adopted for the purpose of decision making. Analysis of data showed that the psychological problems that affect academic performance of students in JSSCE in integrated science in the state include, stress, phobia, depression, inferiority complex and delinquency. It is recommended that parents should consciously show love and care for their children to ensure good upbringing and prevent phobic tendencies. School principals and teachers are urged to instill strict discipline on students to avoid truancy and other acts of delinquency. Government should engage qualified counsellors in schools who in conjunction with the teachers would evolve positive ways of managing stress, depression and interiority complex among students in Junior Secondary schools.
112 INTEGRATING ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS ACQUISITION IN THE UNIVERSITY CURRICULUM FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT , Emaikwu, S. O.
One of the weaknesses of the Nigeria's education system is its failure to prepare graduates for self-employment and business entrepreneurship. The system encourages the graduates to follow the tradition of job seeking. The general notion is that a good job is a government job, and not a job in the private sector. In Nigeria currently the economic environment has changed drastically so much so that the public sector is diminishing in job creation and economic liberalization is taking place to the extent that public enterprises are being privatized thus making the private sector an engine of economic growth. This article evaluates the introduction of entrepreneurship skills acquisition in the university curriculum. The article gives inputs on entrepreneurship skills acquisition by supporting its integration into the curriculum of universities as a panacea for self reliance. Besides extolling the benefits derivable from entrepreneurship education, the article equally points out the likely impediments of this innovative educational practice. Various affirmative action programmes for smooth implementation of entrepreneurship education in the university curriculum were adduced.
113 AWARENESS OF OPEN ACCESS SCHOLARLY PUBLICATION AMONG LECTURERS IN UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA , Emojorho, D.; Oghenetega Ivwighregweta and Onoriode, K. O.
This study investigated the awareness of Open Access Scholarly Publication among Lecturers in the University of Benin in Edo State, Nigeria. Six research questions were raised. The descriptive research design was employed for the study. The population for the study consists of the lecturers of the University of Benin in Edo State. A sample of 70 lectures were randomly selected in the University of Benin Main Library. The structured questionnaire entitled Open Access and Scholarly Publishing Questionnaire (OASPQ) was the instrument used for data collection. Frequency count and simple percentage were used to analyze the data. The study found that the lecturers of the University of Benin were aware of open access scholarly publication and that the main channel through which they became aware was through their colleagues. Increased impact and free online access are some of the advantages of open access to the respondents. However, unstable power supply and unavailability of internet facilities were some of the constraints encountered. Provision of constant power supply and the establishment of institutional repositories were some of the strategies suggested to enhance Open Access for scholarly publications. It therefore recommends that constant power supply and establishment of institutional repositories should be provided by the University management so as to enhance open access of scholarly publishing to the development of scholarship among its lecturers.
114 THE INFLUENCE OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE ON THE MEASUREMENT OF STUDENTS' ABILITY IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES , Emaikwu, S. O.
The purpose of this work was to assess the influence of examination malpractices on the measurement of students’ ability in Nigerian universities. The design of this research was survey. A sample of 300 students and 100 lecturers randomly selected from four universities in North Central Nigeria was used in this study. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher. It was affirmed that examination malpractice is caused by undue emphasis on paper qualification, fear of failure and inadequate preparation among other factors. The results also indicated that the major types of examination malpractice being perpetuated in Nigerian universities are bringing in foreign materials, collusion by students to cheat in examination and continuous assessment malpractice by lecturers. It was revealed that examination malpractice could lead to lack of confidence in our educational products, results in half-baked graduates, discouragement of hardwork and reduces the standard of education. The study maintains that the calamity of examination malpractice is not just the havoc it is wrecking in the educational system but the gradual indoctrination of youths into the culture of fraud. It therefore recommends that laws on examination malpractice should be implemented and that guidance and counseling services should be adequately provided in universities to minimize the incidence of examination malpractice.
115 9-3-4 SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN NIGERIA: VERIFICATION FOR ITS ACCOMMODATION OF KANURI CULTURE IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN AREA OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA , Sule, M. N. and Bawa, A. G.
This research work on "9-3-4 School Curriculum and the National Policy on Education in Nigeria was carried out to verify its accommodation of Kanuri culture in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area of Borno State. The study is descriptive and ethnographic in nature and was intended to describe the nature of the phenomenon of discrepancy between school curriculum, National Policy on Education (NPE) and Kanuri culture. The purpose of the study is to study the relationship between 9-3-4 school curriculum, National Policy on Education (NPE) and Kanuri Culture. A sample of 137 respondents was randomly selected from 18 primary schools in Maiduguri Metropolitan area of Borno State. The selection was based on systematic sampling of 36 primary schools in the area. However, the study used a structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was administered on Kanuri Teachers/Educators and Kanuri Education Administrators in the 18 selected primary schools. The data obtained were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The study revealed that there was disconnect between the school curriculum, National Policy on Education (NPE) and the Kanuri Culture which was the basis of resisting modern knowledge in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area of Borno State. The study recommends that the government should find means or possibility of blending all the Nigerian cultures into the education policy. This is to be done through cultural pluralism as our educational goal because Nigeria is a pluralistic, multi-cultural society in which each ethnic or religious group contributes to the larger society within the context of its own unique cultural traditions.
116 THE ROLE OF CHRISTIAN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN RESOLVING POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN THE NORTHERN STATES OF NIGERIA , Ushe, M. U.
This paper discusses the role of religious education in resolving political violence in Nigeria, with focus on Northern States from 1951 to 2003. The paper also reviews political violence in Nigeria, and examine the role of religious education in combating political violence in Nigeria. The study employed inter-disciplinary method in the gathering of information. Findings from the research revealed that political violence is pervasive in Nigeria, especially Northern States. The paper recommends among others, that Christian religious education should be encouraged to debunk the persistent religious and political violence in Nigeria.
117 ABUSE OF LIBRARY MATERIALS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES: A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE POLYTECHNIC LIBRARY, OGWASHI-UKU, NIGERIA , Anyaobi, G. and Akpoma, O.
This study reports the findings on the study on abuse of library materials in Delta State Polytechnic Library, Ogwashi-Uku. Systematic sampling technique was employed. Questionnaire was used for data collection. Simple percentage was used for data analysis, on the sample of ND 2 students of the department of business administration. Population of 200 students were randomly selected. The study revealed that factors such as selfishness was one of the factors responsible for the abuse of library materials. This was followed by inadequate number of multiple copies of library materials, high cost of photocopying and fear that one may not find the material at the next visit. It is recommended that efforts should be made to provide multiple copies of materials as well as adequate facilities for photocopying.
118 HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG FARMERS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF KHANA AND GOKHANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS, OF RIVERS STATE , Kina, V. K.
The development of appropriate health and safety interventions for farmers and agricultural workers is important world-wide but data on present practices show that attitude to safety practice are lacking in Khana and Gokhana Local Government Areas. A representative sampling of 120 farmers was surveyed on health and safety practices, risk assessment and control measures, in relations to farming business using structured questionnaire and in-depth interview. Findings demonstrated that farmers in the areas have low awareness of assessment of risk hazards associated with farming. Based on this, the study suggests supportive strategies through orientation, awareness campaign, training and workshops to enable individual farmers accept basic health and safety practices to improve their health.
119 TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: A MEANS TO SELF-EMPLOYMENT AND THE REALIZATION OF NIGERIA VISION 20-20-20 , Mshelia, A.G. and Abbas, L.
The importance of technical and vocational education to the economic development of Nigeria was reviewed in this study. Some areas where Nigerians can acquire vocational and technical skills include institutions of learning, NDE, and some centres/programmes that have been put in place by Government at all levels to encourage the acquisition of technical and vocational education. Factors such as poor policy implementation, funding, fraudulent practices, mismanagement of funds, politics in policy formulation and/or implementation, and lack of trainers militate against the success of most, if not all of such programmes. It was further observed that if the Federal Government's emphasis on self employment, and the vision 20-20-20 dream must be realized, then technical and vocational education must be given proper attention. Hence, establishment of more technical and vocational institutions, adequate funding of federal government programmes, and good incentives for technical and vocational teachers were among the recommendations.
120 KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF PREGNANT WOMEN TOWARDS ANTENATAL SERVICES IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA , Igbokwe, C. C.
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal services in Nsukka LGA of Enugu State. This study adopted the descriptive survey design. Specifically, five objectives with five corresponding research questions were formulated to guide the study. A multistage sampling technique of balloting without replacement was used to select 259 pregnant women in Nsukka LGA of Enugu State. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analysis was done using simple percentage and mean responses. Results showed that pregnant women had moderate level of knowledge of concept of antenatal services. Pregnant women from urban area had high level of knowledge of the concept of antenatal services while their counterpart from the rural setting had moderate level of knowledge. Also, it was realized that pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education had positive attitude while those with no formal and primary education had negative attitude to antenatal services, and pregnant women from both urban and rural settings had positive attitude. Based on the findings, the study recommends among other that all health educators and other health professionals should adopt better educational strategies to improve the knowledge and utilization of antenatal services among pregnant women.
121 LEADERSHIP RELATED VARIABLES INFLUENCING JOB PERFORMANCE OF STAFF IN DELTA STATE POLYTECHNICS LIBRARIES, NIGERIA , Anyaobi, G.; Nina-okpousung, M. O. and Akpoma, O.
This study investigated the leadership related variables influencing job performance of staff in Delta State Polytechnics Libraries. The research employed a descriptive survey design. The population of this study consists of all the polytechnics library workers in Delta State; which include professionals, Paraprofessional and non-professionals. The population consists of seventy-five library workers. The instrument used for collecting data for this study was questionnaire entitled "leadership related variables influencing job performance questionnaire" (LRFIJPQ). Simple percentage was used for data analysis. The research revealed among others that participative and democratic leadership styles has more positive influence on staff performance. Hence, it is plausible to encourage among library leaders to adopt participatory and democratic leadership style in the management of library staff in their various institutions as this would enhance their staff performance.
122 THE ROLE OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES ON THE ATTAINMENT OF THE HEALTH MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA , Emojorho, D. and Ukpebor, O. C.
This study surveyed the roles of Public libraries in the attainment of the health aspect of the Millennium Development Goals in the South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It also identified the health-information needs of the community and information services rendered by the publiclibraries. The role of public libraries in the attainment of this aspect of theMDGs has been a daunting task for public libraries as a result of government negligence. The method adopted for the study is the survey design in which structured questionnaire was designed and used as data collection instrument. The target population was public library staff/users in the south-south part of Nigeria. The result showed that public libraries have played significant role towards the attainment of health-MDGs and library users make significant demand for all categories of health information especially in the area of maternal and childcare. However, majority of the public libraries have no Internet services. The findings revealed the imperativeness for all other relevant agencies to key into the health-MDGs especially in assisting the Public Libraries. It brought to the awareness of users, the use of public libraries in supporting local and international policies and for the provision of information services for library users.It is on this account that there should be more attention from government and individuals on development of the public libraries in Nigeria.
123 AN ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS USE OF COMPUTER FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA , Ogundipe, T. C.
This study adopted the survey design to assess teachers' use of computer for instructional delivery in public secondary schools in Lagos state. Purposive sampling technique was used to draw the sample for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage. Findings revealed that availability of computer and internet facilities, competency level of teachers on computer utilization for instruction was very low and inadequate to cope with the recent trend, while teachers has a very good attitude to computer and internet utilization. It is therefore recommended that government and educational managers should invest more on human resource development, provision of computer system and other resources that cannot be improvised locally.
124 ELECTRONIC LEARNING AND ITS RELEVANCE TO EFFECTIVE LEARNING IN NIGERIA , Yaro, A. S.
It has been ascertained that the school environment in Africa and most other developing countries are deficient of /and lack basic necessities and only a handful of schools located in urban centers are connected internationally via the Internet. The classrooms are mostly deficient and impoverished in terms of basic facilities and amenities required for effective teaching and learning. There is also a high pupil-teacher ratio in the urban classroom in our school systems. Based on these, this study looked at the electronic-learning and its relevance to effective learning in the emerging world. E-learning offers a more effective learning experience, since the learner participates in the learning process and receives individual attention, even when the instructor and the learner are at different locations. This participation in learning is by itself a positive learning experience. The atmosphere provided by e-learning allows more effective interaction between the students and the instructor. Therefore, it can be as effective as the traditional classroom learning environment where the space, seating, etc, could be inadequate. It is therefore plausible that continuing professional development (CPD which sustains the teacher on the job through exposure to professional renewal programs because it is through the CPD that the knowledge and skills of existing teachers are sustained and refined to meet the challenge of the modern realities of their job be given it rightful place in the academic system.
125 GSM TECHNOLOGY AND E-CHEATING IN THE NIGERIAN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS: A CASE OF AKWA IBOM STATE POLYTECHNIC, IKOT OSURUA IN IKOT EKPENE, NIGERIA , Jimmy, G. O.
As important as the GSM technology is, it has a negative effect in the educational sector and this negative effect is of great concern. Most higher institutions in Nigeria and other countries of the world are waging war against examination malpractice. Yet the perpetrators or the cheats tend to device new methods to continue their game through cell-phones technology and computers. Described as E-cheating the cell phone technology is providing students a smart way to beat the best effort of stakeholders to stamp out the menace. This research aimed primarily at examining the GSM technology and E-cheating in the Nigerian educational system. It also examined the various ways in which cell phones are employed to cheat in examinations and research works. The study therefore concluded that cheating is a monster that deprives a student's self-confidence and natural sense of fulfillment. With this inclination, the study advocates among others that maintaining a manageable class size and putting a stop to carrying cell phone to examination halls as some of the ways of stemming out e-cheating among students.
126 CAUSAL FACTORS OF LOW READING STANDARDS OF THE FOUNDATION PHASE LEARNERS IN VHEMBE DISTRICT, LIMPOPO PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA , Mudzielwana, N. P.
This study was carried out while observing teaching practice where the matter of reading was addressed, and subsequent focus group discussions with teachers to explore the possible reasons for low reading standards among learners, a concern of the Limpopo Department of Education (LDE) as well. Teachers were also asked what improvements they could suggest to address the problem of low reading levels amongst the learners. Teachers themselves attribute low reading standards to the combined effects of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS), the Foundations for Learning Campaign (FFLC), the inappropriate use of methodology in the teaching of reading, the multi-grade teaching approach, and multilingualism. Various recommendations are made for interventions, such as tailor-made training programs to enable teachers to understand OBE principles and the reading framework, university training for reading specialists to train other teachers, the use of a multi-method approach to allow teachers to use methods they are already familiar with, ensuring adequate backup reading materials, encouraging the construction of meaning from texts rather than just the decoding of print-all without neglecting learner diversity which may need to take into account multi-level abilities and multilingualism in schools short of resources.
127 ELECTRONIC LEARNING AND THE CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITAL AGE FOR LIBRARY SERVICES IN NIGERIA , Ogundipe, T. C.
This study gives an insight into e-learning and library services as well as the challenges posed in this digital age. It highlights the need and benefit, for library services and advocates the establishment of e-library unit and proposes for information librarian to manage e-library resources. It is hoped that when the challenges of e-learning initiatives for library services are met, it will increase access, improve services, establish shearing partners with patrons, distance and widely dispersed e-learners and with other institutions in the world. In conclusion, there is need for the institutions to investigate alternative and independent means of access to information highway or internet for teaching learning and research purposes through such means as satellite communications, training and re-training of information librarians. In line with the above challenges, it is therefore recommended that all academic libraries in Nigeria must provide lecturers and student's access to the e-library data bases (internet), and to ensure that information from the database flow from Nigerian institutions to the global database for accessing through the internet.
128 JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM-SOLVING AND INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA , Ajogbeje, O. J.
The study was aimed at establishing the relationship between the achievement of junior secondary school students in mathematical problem solving and their achievement in intellectual ability test using factor analysis. The study population consisted of all the students in Junior Secondary Schools (JSS) in Ondo State. Out of this population, a sample of 206 students were randomly selected from three senatorial districts of the State. Seven evaluation tests (six on intellectual abilities and one on mathematical problem solving) were administered on the sample. The findings of the study showed that a significant relationship existed between mathematical problem solving and intellectual abilities (verbal, induction and numerical abilities) of the students. Thus, teachers should provide avenue for students to improve their intellectual abilities of verbal, induction, numerical, retention and other abilities. This could be done by enriching the learning environment, provide different instructional materials and activities in the classroom.
129 RELIGIOUS FANATICISM AND CIVIL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A PARADIGM FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT , Ushe, M. U.
This study discussed religious fanaticism and civil education in Nigeria as a paradigm for national development. The study utilized existing literature and participant observation method for gathering of information. Findings from the research revealed that religious fanaticism is endemic and pervasive in Nigeria. Hence, it was recommended among others that for Nigeria to achieve its national development, civil education must be introduced to restore the lost image of the nation.
130 ROLES AND PROBLEMS OF DATA COLLECTION FOR STUDENTS’ EVALUATION AT THE JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA , Borisade F. T.
This paper examined the roles and problems of data collection for student evaluation. They following areas are discussed. Meaning of data collection, roles of data collection for student evaluation, types of data collection viz-a-viz their roles in an evaluation process. Problem of data collection as it affects evaluation during teaching and learning process were also examined.
131 INFORMATION LITERACY EDUCATION: A PATHWAY FOR ENHANCING STUDENTS' PERFORMANCE IN THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES , Umar, A. A.
Developing lifelong learners is one of the central missions of university education. These need to be increasingly reflected in the description of graduate qualities, attributes or capabilities within and outside the academic environment. Information literacy education is an approach of teaching students to learn and acquire knowledge and skills to search relevant, reputable and the most needed information for academic, research or decision making. This study is a review of the concepts, importance and implication of information literacy education on university students. Practical experience of contemporaries over non productive nature of postgraduate students in research and the roles of university towards promoting teaching, learning and research was discussed. The study revealed that information literacy plays a crucial role improving students achievements as it bridges the gap between the traditional ways of instruction in which students are passive learners and the contemporary ways of instruction delivery.Finally, it recommended among other things that libraries and faculties should engage in active participation in exhibition and frequent information literacy awareness campaign with emphasis on the use of e-resources as well as introducing them to other related paper-based resources.
132 Digital-divide as a Challenge to Libraries and Librarians in Nigerian Universities: A Case Study of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi , Abubakar, U. A.
Digital-Divide is a barrier posing a challenge to libraries and librarians in the Nigerian Universities. It is characterized by inability and lack of essential access to digital information and infrastructure, differences in opportunities and inequality of access to available digital facilities. A sample of 20 professional librarians from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University library, Bauchi was used for this study and the design for the study was a survey. The instrument for data collection was interview, observation and structured questionnaire. Data collected for the studywere analyzed using percentage and frequency count. The result shows that, computers, Internet connectivity and other related ICT facilities were available in the library but not utilized. Meanwhile, only 15% of the professional librarians attended ICT related training in library applications. It was observed that the library is still operating on manual library system and services. Thus, this study recommends among others that workshops and on the job training on the use and application of modern technology in library systems and services should be organized at intervals for the university librarians. Personal computers should be disbursed to Librarians working in the University Libraries at a subsidized rate and be motivated to use them. The university regulatory body should also mandate the universities to utilize the virtual library driver shared to them.
133 Effects of Peer Tutoring Instructional Method on the Academic Achievement in Biology among Secondary School Students in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria , Jibrin, A. G. and Zayum, S. D.
The study investigated the effect of peer tutoring instructional method on the academic achievement in Biology among secondary school students in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria. The design for the study was pretest and posttest experimental control group design. All the 60 senior secondary schools within Zaria metropolis constituted the population of the study. Two senior secondary schools were randomly selected and made into experimental and control groups. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was prepared by the researcher and validated by Two senior lecturers from education department, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and a reliability coefficient r=0.67 was arrived at. Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was administered to the students by the researcher. Data collected were analysed using t-test statistics. The results indicated that students taught biology using peer tutoring instructional method achieved higher than those taught using expository method. It was recommended that, teachers need to diversify their method of teaching biology such as peer tutoring as it will assist in higher academic achievement of learners.
134 The Competences of Information and Communication Technology Users among Students of Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku, Nigeria , Aniogbolu, A. C. and Nwabudike A. A.
This study examined primarily the competences in the usage of ICT infrastructure in academic institutions with particular focus on the students of the Delta State Polytechnic, Ogwashi-Uku. A total of 250 students were randomly surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency counts. The study revealed that students lack the needed skills for the use of information systems and calls for an intensive training for student on information systems in order to ensure the proper utilization of information and communication technology facilities in academic institutions in Nigeria.
135 Genesis of Selected Mathematical Notations , Abe, T. O.
This study examined the meaning and purpose of notation, historical development of the operational symbols such as addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. Also, the Relational Symbols of Variables (unknown Quantities) and their powers, Euler and Leibnitz as great notation builders were discussed. It was concluded that, the creation of notations and their uses in mathematics has made mathematics to be not only international Language of Science but also has been employed to solve human, scientific, technological, social and political problems.
136 Students' Performances in Physics Theory and Calculation Questions at Federal College of Education Zaria, Nigeria , Sa'adatu, A. M.
The study aimed comparatively the performances of physics students in theory and calculation questions. The sample for the study consisted of 100 students randomly drawn from consecutive five-year physics students of the Federal College of Education, Zaria. Statistical percentage and average were used to analyse the data obtained from the calculation and theory questions gotten from the scripts of the sampled students. The study revealed that students performed better in theory than in calculation questions as well as male students performing better in calculation than their females counterparts. In addition, the knowledge of language of instruction as well as sound background in mathematics aided the understanding of physics generally. Carrer counsellors are encouraged not to seize effort in counselling the female students in particular to ensure that they level up with their male counterparts in the aspect of calculations which is not limited to physics only.
137 Teaching Information Literacy Skills in Nigerian Universities: Whose Responsibility? , Abubakar, U. A. and Isyaku, A. A.
Information literacy is an important programme in the development of effective teaching, learning and research in a university. It is considered to be the survival skill of any information society. It is receiving an increasing academic attention all over the world and as it was found to be an effective means for addressing issues of social, cultural and economical importance. This is a theoretical study. To that effect, this study examined the concept of information literacy and the processes involved in teaching it at the university level of education in Nigeria. It briefly discussed and pinpoints the parties to be responsible for teaching the skill in the university. Methods and skills needed in teaching were also discussed. Conclusively, that librarians and faculty should engage in collaborative teaching strategy in teaching the concepts. They should also acquaint themselves with the available models for teaching it.
138 Counselling Strategies for Handling Inappropriate Communication Patterns among Workers in the Nigerian Tertiary Institutions , Olakojo, O. A.
Communication is a daily routine for every man irrespective of age, religion, status, beliefs and opinion. It involves the transmission of message(s) from one person to another or group of people. Meaningful and purposeful communication can be realized through verbal (use of words, vocabulary, tone and vocalization) and non-verbal cues (physical environment, movement and body position and paralanguage). Communication is found to be very important in aiding good interpersonal relationship among academic and non-academic staff in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Thus, inappropriate communication patterns will have serious consequences in their relationships. In this paper therefore, the researcher posits that one counseling theory, Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) when employed can assist Academic and Non-Academic Staff in handling inappropriate communication pattern thereby strengthening their good interpersonal relationships. The researcher therefore made certain recommendations based on the findings in handling Inappropriate Communication Patterns among Academic and Non-Academics Staff workers in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions.
139 The Role of Library Education in National Development , Akomolafe, A. M.
Library education is as important to the whole education process as the library itself. Libraries and Librarians play very significant roles in knowledge assessment which is relevant to both education and nation building. This review was to examine the importance of library education, emphasizing the role of the librarian in managing the library as an information storehouse, thereby providing access to knowledge for development. It is revealed that the Library is a repository for the world's knowledge and that these materials are made available for human development and best managed by professionally trained librarians. Librarians play significant role in human capital development and it is the professional training that makes the individual librarians. The use of ICT infrastructure provides the library with limitless access to information which provides vast range of knowledge to support education and national development. This study therefore recommends among others that the library school curriculum should be reviewed to include training in the use of ICT and government at all levels should partner with librarians in their quest to revive reading culture in Nigeria.
140 Accessibility and Suitability of Public Library Services among the Agencies of Government to Users of Information in Nigeria: A Case Study of Bauchi State Library Board , Isyaku, A. A.
Public libraries are established to serve the educational, informational and recreational needs of user community without discrimination. This study adopted a descriptive survey as its research design. The purpose was to evaluate accessibility and suitability of public library services in Bauchi, with special reference to the state library board. It tries to find out why users fail to utilize the libraries regularly, and if they use the libraries at all, what reasons do they have for using the libraries. Random sampling technique was employed to select 100 respondents from the library. Findings revealed that majority of the library users are students followed by teachers, while small proportion of the users are civil servants and other member of the public. Finally, it was recommended among other things that capacity building program should be introduce for librarians to enable them update their knowledge of library promotion for effective utilization; children's library resources should also be improved.
141 Supervision and Productivity in Academic Libraries: Focus on the University of Ghana Library System (UGLS) , Opoku, Daniel
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of supervision of nonprofessional library staff in the University of Ghana Library System (UGLS) on their job performance and productivity. The research design for this study was the survey method, using both questionnaire and interview as instruments for data collection. As a result of the smallness of the population, the entire 109 libraty staff comprising 22 professionals and 87 para-professionals were sampled. Simple percentage was used for data analysis. A time-use study was also conducted during which the activities and services of the staff were repeatedly observed. Respondents showed a clear personal interest in supervision and productivity, and readily provided relevant information. A direct relationship was observed between supportive supervision and productivity. Effective and supportive supervision could help maximize staff output in the University of Ghana Library System (UGLS).
142 Participation of Government and Non-governmental Organizations in Readership Promotion towards Educational Improvement in Bauchi State, Nigeria , Yahaya M. S. and Babayo S. A.
This study was conducted to explore Bauchi State Secondary School Students' performance at NECO and WAEC, in relationship to their reading behaviours and participation of the stakeholders in readership promotion. The Study was based on observations and interactions of Young Readers Society (YRS) in Bauchi with stakeholders. Data concerning WAEC and NECO, result of Senior School Certificate Examination were directly obtained from their web site on the Internet, written information obtained from directors of school services and examinations respectively of Bauchi State Ministry of Education, and correspondences between the YRS and officials of the concerned Government and non Governmental ministries and parastatals as well as individuals. The data were analysed using simple percentage. The findings revealed that reading materials are scarce in the primary/secondary schools, while in majority of them, libraries were either not functional or do not even exist. Beside, the students' reading attitude was generally poor. Hence, it was considered necessary for government at all levels to set aside a reasonable amount of money out of the budget to enable them assist literary associations form and sustain, editors club in schools and execution of other readership promotion campaign.
143 Student-Lecturer Variables and Low Performance of Students' in Genetics: A Case Study of Course in Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo State, Nigeria , Akinnubi, R. T.; Oketayo, O. O.; Akinwande, D. D. and Ifedayo, O. A.
This study examined the causes of students' low performance in genetics as a course in Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo. A total of 100 students was drawn using stratified random sampling technique from different levels in the Department of Biology. The reliability estimate through test-retest method was 0.86. The results confirm that the performance of students in other biological courses was better than genetics courses. However, it was observed among others that the causes of students' low performance in genetics as a course in Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo is as a result of abstractive presentation of lessons, verbose terminologies and lack of simplification of concepts. It was therefore concluded that enough time should be allocated for practicals than thoeries in genetics to enable the students’ gain courage and better understanding, which can improve the low performance of students in genetics courses, especially in institutions of higher learning.
144 The Effect of Instruction in Metacognitive SelfAssessment Strategy on Chemistry Self-efficacy and Achievement of Senior Secondary School Students in Rivers State, Nigeria , Nbina, J. B.
This study adopted the quasi-experimental research design to examine the effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy on senior secondary school students' Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. It also explored the interaction effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy and gender in Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. The study was guided by five research questions and four hypotheses. A non-equivalent control group pretest and posttest design involving one treatment and one control group was adopted. A total of 192 Senior Secondary II students from Port Harcourt Education zone were used for the study. The Self Assessment Instructional Programme (SAIP) was developed, validated and used for the study. Three instruments: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT), Self Assessment Scale (SAS) and Chemistry Self-efficacy Scale (CSS) were adopted, validated and used for data collection. The results suggested that instruction in the metacognitive self assessment strategy improved the students' chemistry achievement and self-efficacy. The study also revealed that both male and female students benefited from the self assessment instruction and as such both gender can explore the skills in self assessment to enhance their Chemistry self achievement and self-efficacy. Therefore, classroom teachers should be equipped with self assessment strategy skills so that in the teaching learning process, they would be able to transfer these skills to the students who need them to pursue their learning purposefully and independently.
145 Attitude of Teachers-in-training to Teaching Profession in the Nigerian Tertiary Institutions , Ogunlade, J. O. and Makinde, V. I.
This study was a survey of the attitude of teachers-in-training to teaching profession in the Nigerian tertiary institutions taking College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti and the Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti as a case study. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of intending teaching personnel and their dispositions to the teaching profession. The participants were stratified into two and random sample was used to draw one hundred students in the College of Education, Ikere Ekiti and fifty students in the Faculty of Education, Ekiti State University. A set of validated questionnaire entitled: Attitude of Teachers-in-Training to Teaching Profession [ATTTP] was used to measure their attitude to job roles in the teaching profession. Simple percentage and t-test statistics were sued in analyzing the data obtained for the study. Findings revealed among others a deep negative attitude and non committance of the teachers-in-training towards teaching profession. To revert this unacceptable development, the culture of discipline, integrity, hardwork and dedication should be entrenched at the training level of teachers-in-training. Also, government and other stakeholders in education must ensure that they improve upon the welfare of teachers so that other people will be interest in joining the profession.
146 Qualities of Academic Librarians and their Relationship with Library Users , Abdulaziz Hamza
Librarianship is a dynamic profession which faces new changes and challenges. The shift from traditional means of disseminating information to the application of Information and Communication Technology facilities, and the challenges of managing the manpower in order to get the best result out of them cannot be over emphasized. This study is a review of the qualities of academiclibrarians and their relationship with library users. Librarians need to exhibit some qualities so as to enhance good relationship with both staff and users, they most stand up to embrace these changes and face the challenges ahead. The study highlighted that the key aspect of the librarians work is facilitating and supporting learning by teaching information retrieval skills to students and staff. Therefore, a broad understanding of all aspects of librarianship from reference work to technical services as well as experiences in teaching and web development are also important in building and sustaining good relationship with library users in the academic system.
147 Educational Management Information System in Nigeria: Challenges and the Way Forward , Salako, C. T.
Educational Management Information System (EMIS) is an education database that aims at ensuring timely, accurate and appropriate education data and information for decision making. It is a global concept for educational management that encompasses the application of modern information and communication technology in collection, collation, storage and analysis of education data. The government has a clear understanding of what role EMIS plays in future planning activities, both at the federal and state levels. Despite the good intention of government, it is difficult to establish accurate quantitative targets for future plans due to lack of adequate base-line information. This paper discussed the challenges of Educational Management Information System (EMIS) in Nigeria and the way forward. It was found out these challenges include inadequate funding, inability to integrate data and data systems, inadequate development of skills in data use at all levels, inability to capture expenditure and budget data in EMIS and inability to develop student-record based EMIS. Therefore, it was recommended that adequate funding should be provided for EMIS development, data should be integrated into the data system, skills in data use should be developed at all levels, budget data and capturing of expenditure should be encouraged, and finally, student-record based for EMIS should be developed.
148 Gender Balance in the Light of Culture and Scripture , Umahi, G. A.
Considering the ever-changing nature of the word gender, descriptively and syntactically, care and caution should be the watchwords as we interrogate it and in the conclusions we arrive at. In the light of the above, this review employed the historical and biblical method of inquiry in the quest for arriving at something authentic and concrete concerning gender. It shall trace the historical usages of the word and juxtapose it with current concepts as well as examine especially if the 'genderless' status currently accorded some hitherto masculine and feminine nouns squares with scriptural declaration. This is very critical given the fact that while we may allow human appellative concepts to constantly change; God's declarations do not necessarily have to follow that pattern. This study revealed that in synopsis, all the ideas behind gender and sex points to the fact that gender is basically cultural while sex is biological. In the light of the findings of this study, it was concluded that men should learn to recognise the role of women in the society and thus manifest the critical balance which is found in culture and scripture.
149 Preparedness of Cataloguing Section for Library Automation in Academic Libraries in Lagos State, Nigeria , Yusuf, K. F.
The survey examined the extent to which the Cataloguing sections of Academic Libraries in Nigeria are prepared for automation of their operations. The effects of automation on cataloguing practice in particular, as well as the problem of Library automation systems were discussed. The study indicated that despite the positive effects of automation on cataloging especially on efficiency and effectiveness of their operations, there are still some problems associated with automation of cataloguing section, which include attitudes of personnel (Librarians and System Analyst/Programmers), poor planning, lack of enough staff and facilities among others. Consequently, it was recommended among others that management of academic institutions should collaborate with appropriate agencies to provide necessary and relevant facilities such as inverters to carter for the epileptic state of power supply in Nigeria.
150 Total Quality Management in Academic Libraries: The Perception and Expectations of Graduate Students of The University of Ghana, Legon , Daniel Opoku
This study focused on the perception and expectations of graduate students on Total Quality Management (TQM) in academic libraries with special reference to the University of Ghana Central Library (The Balme Library). The main theme of the study is the analysis of data in relation to service excellence, service effectiveness, service efficiency and continuous improvement in the Balme Library. This study used the quantitative survey method to generate data from 200 respondents out of the 450 total graduate population and the responses were analyzed using Krukal Wallis One-Way ANOVA (non-parametric) model to test the differences in perception and expectations of postgraduate users of the library. The study found out that in practical terms TQM is not being applied as a management technique in the Balme Library. It therefore concludes that the importance of TQM is not centered around postgraduate students' perception and expectations only, but also in anticipating and exceeding the demands of a fast changing environment of service delivery especially the academic libraries.
151 Examination Malpractices and Students’ Poor Performance in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations in Nigeria , Boris, O. O. and Awodun, A. .O.
This study adopts the theoretical research design to review issues in examination malpractices as they influence students' poor performance in Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations in Nigeria. The result of the study reveals among others that Examination malpractices have long graduated from the normal 'giraffe' at neighbours' work, using key points notes, textbooks, copying on sheets of papers referred to as 'micro-chips', or copying on desks also known as 'desktop publishing', to a more advanced and more organized system of buying question papers from examination bodies or corrupt bank officials entrusted with the safe-keeping of the examination question papers. Examination malpractices in Nigeria have attained a frightening proportion, they are sophisticated and institutionalized. Efforts by government administrations and stakeholders in the educational sector to curtail the ugly trend have not yielded any good result. As a tool of discipline to curtail the ugly trend of examination malpractices among others, the penalties for culprits should be made to cover all categories of offenders, be it the candidate, teacher, lecturer, school administrator, parents or guardian. In addition, the remuneration for examination supervisors and invigilators should be reviewed upwards and such remuneration should be promptly paid to prevent them from being tempted to get involved in the rather lucrative 'business’ of examination malpractices.
152 Evaluation Techniques as Component of Teachers’ Competencies for the Teaching of Social Studies in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions , Okogu, J. O.
This study aimed at appraising Evaluation Techniques as Component of Teachers Competencies for the Teaching of Social Studies in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. The theoretical framework of the study is hinged on the aims and objectives of Nigeria social studies education. The aims and objectives are condensed into three broad areas informational learning, Skills learning, attitudes and values learning that are relevant to Nigerian students' intellectual development and upbringing. Evaluation techniques have relationship with teachers' competencies for teaching in schools. It is the means through which teaching is evaluated on the side of the teachers and learning on the side of the students. They are employed in schools by teachers in evaluating the students. These techniques include questioning, field trip, note-taking, continuous assessment, teacher made tests among others. The tools are useful for the proper and accurate placement of students. They help to determine the cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (attitude) domain of learning among students, most especially, in our tertiary institutions of learning. Conclusion was made based on the usefulness of evaluation techniques as it relates to teachers competencies for teaching in Nigerian schools.
153 Utilization of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) at the Lagos State Polytechnic Library in Nigeria , Yusuf, K. F.
This paper aimed at presenting the results of a survey conducted to determine the effective use of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) at the library of Lagos State Polytechnic Ikorodu. The study adopted survey research design. Four hundred copies of the structured questionnaire were distributed randomly to staff and students of the Polytechnic in Ikorodu campus for the 2011/2012 academic session. Out of the four hundred copies of questionnaire distributed 91.14% of the respondents identified the use of OPAC while 8.86% signified that they don't use the OPAC to access Library collections. The data collated were analyzed using frequency distribution table and simple percentage. Some of the problems observed from the study in the use of OPAC at the library include: lack of awareness amongst the library users community, lack of instruction in the use of software package, shortage of terminals, instability of electricity supply among others. Hence, the study recommends among others, the need for continuous instructions for library users on how to search information materials within the library using the OPAC.
154 Relative Effectiveness of Two Summary-skill Techniques on Secondary School Students' Achievement in Summary Writing in Ibadan Metropolis , Ayanniyi, M. A.
This aim of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of two summaryskill techniques on secondary school students' achievement in summary writing. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, control group quasi-experimental design. The instrument used was Students' Achievement Test in Summary adapted from West African Examinations Council (WAEC). Three hypotheses were tested at 0.5 alpha level. Data were analysed using means, standard deviation and ANCOVA. There is significant main effect of treatment on achievement in summary, but there is no significant effect of gender on students' achievement in summary. On the other hand, the interaction effect of treatment and gender on students' achievement in summary is not also significant. Students have been found performing very poorly in summary writing. This happens because teachers have not been teaching it appropriately. Summary-skill techniques are very effective in the teaching of summary. Teachers of English Language in secondary schools should make use of summary-skill techniques in the teaching of summary.
155 Effects of Cooperative Learning and Contingency Contracting on Mathematics Achievement of Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Delta State, Nigeria , Asamaigo, E. E. and Okoiye, O. E.
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique on mathematics achievement of pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Delta State, Nigeria using the pretest, posttest, control group quasi-experimental research design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90 participants from three public primary schools in three local government areas of Delta State. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique. Two instruments used were: Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale and Woodcock-Johnson III Mathematics Fluency Achievement Tests Scale. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and MCA. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and accompanying learning difficulties in mathematics experience considerable degree of helplessness as a result of their inability to successfully solve mathematical problems. It is observed that while, Co-operative learning strategy is more effective in improving mathematics competence skills of pupils with ADHD than contingency contracting technique, Co-operative learning strategy and contingency contracting technique are effective in improving mathematics achievement of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers of pupils with ADHD and accompanying learning difficulties in mathematics should adopt the two strategies to reinforce positive attitude to teaching learning situation of these children.
156 Imperatives of Developing Arabic Language as a second Language at the Pre-Primary school Level in Nigeria , Adeyemi, K. A.
The aim of this study is to establish the relationship between Arabic Language and Literacy at the pre-primary school level in Nigeria. It focuses on how the goalof the National Policy on Education in Nigeria will be achieved through literacy in Arabic language. There are many evidences on the need to learn Arabic as a second language. Apart from being an international language, it is important for Nigerians to learn it along side English language since the two major religions in Nigeria use English and Arabic languages respectively. It will also enable Nigerian diplomats in the Arabic nations as well as Arab embassies in Nigeria to competently represent the interests of both Nigeria and the Arab world especially to correct the misconceptions between Nigeria and the Arab world in the local media. This can be carried out by training the children on how to read, write and understand Arabic language during pre-primary school period.
157 Educational Quality Improvement in Nigeria: Interventions, Challenges and the Way Forward , Odiba, A. I.
The focus of this paper is on Educational quality improvement in Nigeria. Education in this paper has been described as a process of learning that helps, in the provision of suitable skills, training for economic, social, cultural and political responsibilities, transmission and transformation of social, economic and cultural structures from generation to generation. Some of the areas in our educational system that seek intervention include private sector development and curriculum change among others. Funding, poses a major challenge to our educational system apart from institutional unrest. It is suggested among others that the Nigerian educational system should be properly funded. By both the government and private sectors.
158 Eliminating Terrorism and Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria , Akinlade, M. T. and Ibitoye, M. O.
This study examines the concept and nature of democracy and terrorism. It also looks into the psychology, tactics and logic of terrorism. The characteristics of terrorist groups are examined with particular attention to their domestic variants like the Nigeria Boko Haram sect and their activities in recent times. This study delves into the relationship between religion and terrorism. The study examines the problems democracies face in countering terrorism which are complicated by the need to preserve individual freedoms while, also protecting national security. John Locks theory of consent is employed to illuminate the study. This study conclusively remarks that total restructuring of the federation is now more urgent than ever. Hence, the restructuring should entail fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy in terms of Law and State Policing but the armed forces should continue to be a federal concern.
159 Entrepreneurship Education: Panacea for Self-reliance and Job Creation in Nigeria , Beetseh, K. and Ahima, S. E.
The present situation in Nigeria poses serious threats and challenges to both government and well meaning citizens. The problems facing the country centre on high rate of poverty; youth and graduate unemployment; over-dependence on foreign goods and technology; low economic growth and development; among others. The objective of this study is to emphasize the need and importance of entrepreneurship education which serve as Panacea for Self-reliance and Job Creation in Nigeria. This study, therefore, argues that entrepreneurship education will equip the students with the skills to be self-reliant. It also adopts psychological theories of the Refugee and Schumpeter effects as its frame work of analysis. The study recommends among others that educational programmes at all levels of education should be made relevant to provide the youths the needed entrepreneurial skills to function effectively in Society.
160 Relevance and Analysis of the Terminologies as Specialized Registers at Tshivenda Male Initiation Schools in South Africa , Musehane, N. M.
In the Tshivenda male initiation schools, there are terminologies that initiates are expected to use to express themselves. Failure to use appropriate language is regarded as insubordination and is punishable. This study aims at analyzing different terminologies used in the initiation schools. This will help enhance language and terminology development in Tshivenda. Data were collected using the qualitative method. The data and expressions from people who stage these initiation schools were subjected to sociological theories. In addition, terminologies were interpreted to find the correct meanings, as the language that is used at initiation schools was largely figurative in nature.
161 The Relative Effectiveness of Guided Discovery and Demonstration Teaching Methods on Achievement of Chemistry Students of Different levels of Scientific Literacy , Nbina, J. B.
The study was conducted to assess the relative effectiveness of guided discovery and demonstration teaching methods on achievement of chemistry students of different levels of scientific literacy. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated and tested respectively. Two instruments, namely: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Scientific Literacy Test (SLT) were used for data collection. A quasi-experimental design was adopted. Results indicate that the guided discovery method was significantly superior to the demonstration teaching method in enhancing cognitive achievement in chemistry for all levels of scientific literacy students. For the guided discovery and demonstration teaching methods, the higher the scientific literacy levels, the higher the achievement of students in chemistry. It was recommended that: the government should encourage science teachers to use guided discovery method by providing needed conducive environment for teaching and learning with adequate instructional materials; in service training of science teachers on how to use guided discovery is needed since most of such innovative teaching method; and science teachers should no longer be contented with teaching for acquisition of knowledge alone but should also teach for inculcation of scientific literacy.
162 Assessment of Secondary School Teachers Information Needs in Kogi State, Nigeria , Orebiyi, A. O.
This study adopted the survey research design. The aim was to establish the extent to which the information needs of secondary school teachers in Kogi State, Nigeria was met by the Kogi State Teaching Service Commission (TSC). The population of the study comprises 4890 teachers of Kogi State Teaching Service Commission (TSC). Structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 400 respondents. Data were subjected to frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation. For the inferential analysis, t-test was used. Results found information received in four of the five areas of information needs as adequate (employment situation in TSC, task, job performance and benefits). Only information on in-service training fell short of the 2.5 mean decision point for acceptance. Also, information expected by the teachers was above the 2.5 mean decision point (employment in TSC with a mean of 3.17; task3.35; performance 3.32; in-service training 3.10 and benefits 3.24). Analysis of t-test shows significant differences between information received and information expected in all the five variables investigated. The study observed a wide disparity between information received and expected in all the five areas of needs, resulting in information underload. However, it is recommended among other things that management should provide adequate information to the teachers for optimum performance and high morale.
163 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Accompanying Learning Difficulties Experienced in Solving Mathematical Problems among Primary School Pupils in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria , Asamaigo, E. E.
This study investigates the accompanying learning difficulties experienced in solving Mathematical problems among Primary School Pupils in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria as result of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim is to evaluate the effects of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique on mathematics achievement of pupils with ADHD in Warri, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest, post-test, control group quasiexperimental research design with a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial matrix. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90 participants, three public primary schools and three local government areas in Warri. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique. Two instruments used were: Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale and Woodcock-Johnson III Mathematics Fluency Achievement Tests Scale. Four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance and data analysed using Analysis of Covariance and MCA. The result of the study reveals the fact that mathematics achievement of pupils with ADHD could be fostered to enhance better academic accomplishment with the use of these intervention programmes. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers of pupils with ADHD and accompanying learning difficulties in mathematics should adopt the two strategies to reinforce positive attitude to teaching learning situation of these children.
164 A Profession of many Faces: The Application and Relevance of Prayer to Social Work Counseling in Botswana , Maripe, K.
The relevance and application of prayer to Social Work counseling is the basis of a holistic and multi-dimensional approach to social problems. Practice must not only consider its importance but its application in work with clients. If social work which is a profession of many faces does not equip practitioners to appreciate and value the spiritual expression of individuals, groups, and communities, it would have failed to address problems in an integrated manner. Although there are common principles and values used in prayer and social work counseling such as confidentiality, client self-determination, and self awareness, the author acknowledges that there are social work practitioners who do not embrace spirituality and would consider prayer as irrelevant to their work. This paper intends to demonstrate benefits of prayer in social work intervention with individuals, groups, communities and nations, particularly in the African context. It asserts that prayer is rooted in various traditional communities, religious groups, and features in national ceremonies like Independence celebrations, judicial legal year opening, and Kgotla meetings.
165 Perceived Recreational Activities Influencing the Health Status of Students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria , Ibhafidon, A.; Onuzulike, N. M. and Oparah, J. S.
The study focused on perceived recreational activities influencing the health status of students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. A self developed and validated questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.84 was used as research instrument. The data were analysed with percentages and binomial test. Five hundred students of Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria served as sample for the study. The results of the study showed that play (0.6100), swimming (0.6220), exercise (0.7460), Relaxation (0.8180) and excursion (0.5960) were significantly positive. This therefore showed that students perceived them as recreational activities influencing their health status. Part of the recommendations was that the government and school authorities should continue to encourage play, exercise, relaxation, swimming and excursion among students by providing the necessary facilities within the school environment.
166 School Community Relations as Panacea for Community Involvement in Secondary Schools Development in Nigeria , Nakpodia, E. D.
This paper deals with school community relations as panacea for community involvement in secondary schools development in Nigeria. The school as a social organization is an integral and almost inseparable part of the community in which it is located. The full values of education can only be realized by a close co-operation between the school and community, yet the area has often received little attention in development of secondary schools in terms of school management, curriculum development, financial and disciplinary matters. In a nutshell, conclusion was drawn that there should be a growing interest in secondary school development by community involvement through a school - community symbiotic relationship. When the issue of community involvement in schools is placed in focus, the usual effort that cooperation rather than antagonism should characterize it. Hence, this paper emphasized the involvement of community in the development of education, which refers to switching from the usual practice of schools´ relations with parents in the running of schools to the full involvement of parents and the community in the development of the schools. It was therefore, recommended that schools and community should have cordial relationship in the development and use of secondary schools in the country by community involvement in terms of enlightenment programmes, social amenities, infrastructure facilities and finance.
167 Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction and Librarians' Performance , Ogungbeni, J.; Ogungbo, W. and Yahaya, J.
This paper investigates how moods or feelings of librarians can contribute to the effective discharge of their traditional roles in the library system. Maslow's theory of human needs, concept of job satisfaction, and emotional intelligence are explained. Relationship between job satisfaction and job performance, correlation between emotional intelligence and job performance of librarians are reviewed. The paper established the fact that library contributes immensely to the literary growth and overall development of anyone that uses its collections. Therefore, librarians are not machines their psychological needs and feelings are to be catered for in order to enhance their optimal productivity. The paper postulates some factors that could contribute to the job satisfaction of librarians and shows how their emotions could relatively be managed so as to enhance their productivity.
168 Quality Leadership Development and Improvement in The Management of Secondary Schools in Nigeria , Anho, R. O.
This paper dealt with quality leadership development and improvement in effective management of secondary schools in Nigeria. Quality education is transformative so also quality leadership of school administrators. It was seen that our educational system is performing poorly because of its national value which one tends to impact to our students. On this basis, one of the characteristics of effective management in Nigerian schools is quality leadership development involving democratic values. Quality education is bedeviling in the country due to lack of quality leadership development and improvement, and since education is a basic instrument for social and overall development. The need to redeem the crisis in our educational system therefore, is through quality education and quality leadership by ensuring discipline, supply of infrastructures, ensuring that students behave well and adequate use of human resources management or manpower planning.
169 Democratising Local Government Administration: Flaws or Reforms Efforts in Nigeria , Babalola, O. E. and Akinlade, M. T.
Local government authorities are set up by legal instrument on the basis of tradition homogenous areas or ethnic groups. In Nigeria today, it is an important integral part of federalism, which should not be undermined. It must be accorded a position of relevance in the democratic dispensation. This paper therefore intends to bring into focus the evolution of local government administration in Nigeria, the various reforms that local government system had passed through and the current position of the local government system in the present democratic setting. However, the effects of undermine and misplacement of priority by the local government under the present dispensation will also be examined. Suggestions are made on how to remedy the flaws and poor performance of the local government system in this present democratic dispensation; the undue interferences of the state government on the local government democratic process and financial matters must be stopped; local government system must be recognized as the third tier of government in Nigeria federation, therefore they should be made to enjoying the autonomy; while the operators of this system must not loose focus on the constitutional expectations of the system.
170 Approaches to the Problems of Discipline in Nigerian Secondary Schools , Akpokiniovo, C.
Discipline is a way of ensuring conformity to rules and regulations in relation to obedience to set standards by someone in authority. This paper deals with the problems of discipline in Nigerian schools which has been associated with punishment of varying degrees of severity. The purpose of it is not to see discipline as punishment but as a control measure, a way of learning. Today, to some extent, indiscipline has eaten deep into our children in schools as a result which may be due to lack of parental control, value orientation, school management and the wholesale acceptance of the European frame of reference among others. The descriptive method is therefore employed so that discipline should be seen as a necessity for social life and a standard for morality while punishment as a means for instilling such discipline. The management and the personal approaches to behaviour control were also looked at. Therefore, suggestions were made as to how the classroom teacher can in the light of the preceding analysis; promote the spirit of discipline in Nigerian schools.
171 A Review of the Role and Problems of Personnel Training and the Success of Academic Libraries in Nigeria , Obi, R. C.
Personnel training is seen as a necessary tonic for effective and efficient services by the Academic library personnel, because with training, it enables the personnel to acquire and posses the necessary skills, to acquire and posses the necessary skills, capabilities, and attitude needed for efficient performance of their duties. This review examines the importance of personnel training in academic libraries. The study highlights that such factors like lack of finance, lack of staff. Lukewarm attitude of staff, little attachment of library personnel to training militates against effective establishment of training programmes. The study recommends that enough funds should be provided by the government, and also that personnel on their own should go for training especially on computer technology.
172 Learning Arabic as a Second Language and its Importance in Nigeria , Adeyemi, K. A.
It is the belief of some Nigerians, especially the Christians that Arabic Language belongs to the Islamic religion alone, and whoever learns it is believed to be a Muslim. Documents written in Arabic, irrespective of the writer's faith or religion, the contents and subject matters are termed Islamic. Hence, the apprehension they have for it. However, the reason behind this perception is multi-faceted. Most glaring and conspicuous among them are: (a) Biased mind and wrong impression they have about Islam, and (b) Majority of Arabic learners in their environments are Muslims, hence the negative attitude they have for the language. This paper seeks to erase these negative perception and prejudices, highlights the need to learn Arabic language as a second language and re-examine its importance to our contemporary society. It is observed that Arabic as a living language has served as a source of sciences as noted that some words in Arabic still remain in the books of Science and Mathematics. Therefore, it is recommended among others the government should put more efforts in removing the barriers to study this language and to make it compulsory at the primary and secondary school levels in the school curriculum.
173 The Required Teaching Methods: A Test of Teachers Competencies in Teaching Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools , Okogu, J. O.
This review is on choosing the required teaching methods: a test of teachers competencies in teaching Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary Schools. For effective and efficient impartation of the knowledge of Social Studies to its learners, the required methods have to be adopted by the teacher. Social Studies is interdisciplinary in nature and content. From the study, it was observed that we have general and conventional methods of teaching such as lecture method but some subjects require specific methods for their teaching to enhance the internalization of the objectives. This study stresses the importance of using discussion method, problem solving method and questioning method of teaching because of the interdisciplinary composition of social studies. The study reveals that when the above mentioned teaching methods are used for teaching social studies in the Nigerian Secondary schools, it will help students to understand social studies, and the objectives of its teaching much better.
174 Peace Education and its Place in Human Sociological Development , Ekiugbo, U. E. and Isanbor, P. O.
In this paper, we examine the consideration of the value of Peace as it necessarily engenders the course of human sociological development, it emphasises the union of peace and development as it reflects man's current quest of advancement. It is about the attainment of peace and justice that will engender the all-round development in human society. This is because; we ascertained that the embrace of the reign of peace is the inevitable entrance of positive effectual development and growth, at both individual and communal level. Then, peace is humanity itself. The conclusion is drawn on the value man places on his life, rights and dignity when he pleases to exercise his freedom and intellect, then, human sociological development is possible.
175 The Place of Educational Media in the Effective Utilization of the New Curriculum Module in Nigeria , Babalola, B. K.
This paper examines the place of educational media in the effective Utilization of the new curriculum module in Nigeria. It equally delves into the historical development of Educational Technology as well as its application with the aim of solving the problem which teacher encounter during the utilization of the new curriculum module. This paper observes that these educational media are meant to appeal to learners’ sense of touch, smell, sight and hearing. At the same time, they are useful supplement to direct verbal communication in the classroom, because people tend to forget what they are told but are more likely to remember the experiences which they gain by examining and manipulating objects or representing them in the form of drawing, photographs and all the likes. Among other remarks the paper submits that educational media will help make education more productive through increasing learning by providing worthwhile experiences for the learners that teachers alone may or cannot furnish.
176 The Imperatives of Lobbying for Improved School Health Education Programme in Nigeria , Achalu, D. I. and Ikorok, M.
Information about health is a priceless commodity. This is because getting the right information at the right time saves a lot of lives. School education programme therefore is an imperative scheme which relevant authorities must identify with. This review is therefore assessing the imperatives of lobbying for improved school Health Education programme in Nigeria. The primary aim is to encourage lobbyists to establish a strong School Health Education Programme, comprehensive enough to meet students’ needs. The study gathers that the success of School Health Education Programme is determined by how effective its lobbyists can participate in the lobbying competition. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that in Nigeria, competition for school time and fund allocation is stiff. Consequently, lobbyist should adopt a more flexible and creative strategy and make, in advance, a personal and continuous contact with decision makers so as to secure a better place for school health education programme in the education industry in Nigeria.
177 Developing Good Personal and Human Relation Skills among Workers of Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria , Rowell Ubogu
The importance of developing good personal and Human Relation skills at the workplace cannot be overemphasized. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the elements of human relations, as well as discuss the skills necessary to work with others harmoniously and efficiently in tertiary Institutions. How the employee is perceived by superiors, supervisor and co-workers plays a significant role in the day-to-day relationship at the workplace and has a major role to play in the future of his career. Employers appreciate employees who get along with people at all levels therefore, they seek employees who have good interpersonal relationship in areas such as communication, problem solving, and teamwork. Conclusively, an understanding of one’s own capabilities and limitations in terms of knowledge, skills and personal traits is especially important in developing human relations in the work place.
178 Library Services and Generated Data: Using Available Statistics to Improve the Library Services , Aziagba, P. C. and Umeozor, S. N.
This study is conducted to assess the availability and usefulness of statistics generated in Nigerian University libraries. Three University libraries from each of the six geo-political zones of Nigeria were selected for the study. Questionnaires were used in data collection. Data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. On the frequency of recording library statistics, all the libraries surveyed collected data daily and kept records of registered users. None of the libraries surveyed kept records of the number of people whose visit were not related to information gathering. As regards the rate of book use, all the libraries kept records of the number of books consulted, returned, renewed and re-shelved daily. There was variation in opening hours. Few of the libraries open for services on Saturdays and Sundays, for only a limited period. All the libraries surveyed reduced opening hours during holidays. Despite automation efforts observed in most of the libraries, manual record of circulation statistics has not been completely abandoned. While majority of the institutions renew their statistical indicators (such as print materials expenditure, database etc.) annually, few of them do so quarterly. The findings of this study showed that statistics generated in library operations were useful in improving library services. These were most important in portraying the activities of the library to the University communities especially in sourcing for fund and making other necessary demands for improvement.
179 Improvisation of Instructional Materials for Introductory Technology: The Delta State Experience , Odu, O. K.
The study sought to identify how the teachers of introductory technology improvise instructional materials for teaching and learning. The survey research design was adopted. 150 introductory technology teachers in Delta State Secondary Schools were sampled. The questionnaire had 22 major items which fall into five categories namely: perception of the introductory technology teachers towards improvisation; degree of awareness of improvised materials by the introductory technology teachers; extent of utilization of improvised materials; obstacles hindering improvisation of teaching materials in introductory technology and extent of improvisation of introductory materials. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentage and revealed that: introductory technology teachers have positive perceptions towards improvisation. Teachers’ awareness for improvisation and the level of utilization of improved materials is very low. Also a lot of obstacles confronted teachers from improvising and teachers find it difficult to improvise instructional materials. The study therefore, recommends among others, that all technical education programmes (including introductory technology programme) should include a course on improvisation. Practicing introductory technology teachers should attend regularly conferences workshops and seminars on improvisation.
180 Graduate Students' Perception and Utilization of Research Commons (RCs) in the University of Ghana Central Library (Balme Library), Legon , Daniel Opoku
The paper mainly focused on graduate research students' needs and expectations in terms of use of facilities and services of a Research Commons (RCs) at the University of Ghana, Legon. The study used survey research design. Data collection methods used was a convenient sampling to select a sample size of 200 out of 1,460 registered graduate student patrons of the RCs. In all, 190 completed questionnaires were retrieved, giving a response rate of 95%. The study shows that, on the whole, the RCs established barely six months ago is a great success and is putting the library back at the centre of graduate learning and research at the University of Ghana
181 The Effects of Circadian Typology, Emotional Intelligence and Creativity on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Delta State, Nigeria , Agokei, R. C.
The study investigated the effects of Circadian Typology, Emotional Intelligence and Creativity on the achievement of 300 Senior Secondary School III Students in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. The participants responded to three valid scales. A correspondence of the participants academic achievement was retrieved from their schools. Using Pearson Product Correlation and Multiple Regression procedures to investigate the predictive capacity of the independent variables on the dependent variables, the result indicated that the three independent variables, when taken together were effective in predicting academic achievement. However while circadian typology had no significant contributive effect, other variables contributed significantly to achievement. It was recommended that emotional intelligence and creativity should be fostered and encouraged among students in accordance of enhancing students positivity in the academic.
182 The Effectiveness of Three Rating Scales in the Assessment of Upper Basic Science Students’ Practical Skills in Ikole Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria , Boris, O. O.; Ilugbusi, A. A.; Falemu, F. A. and Adawumi, M. G.
The study analyzed and compared the effectiveness of three rating scales in the assessment of upper basic science students’ practical skills in Ekiti State. The study sample consisted of 280 (male and female) students, which were selected from five junior secondary schools in Ekiti State using multi-stage sampling techniques. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested p = 0.05 level of significance by using the analysis of covariance and student t-test for independent data, while turkeys HSD post HOC comparison was carried out on the ANCOVA results to determine the comparative nature of the rating scales. However, findings showthat there was a significant difference in the practical skills of upper basic science students assessed with numerical, Likert and graphic rating scales. The group assessed with numerical rating scales had the best performance in practical skills. Students’ gender and school type did not significantly affect students’ practical skills in basic science. Consequently, observational techniques should hence forth be employed in assessing basic science students’ practical skills.
183 Emotional Intelligence, Course Satisfaction and the Attitudes of Pre-service Special Education Teachers towards Career in Special Education , Umar, T. Ibrahim
The study investigated the effects of emotional intelligence and course satisfaction on pre-service special education teachers towards a career in special education. The study employed the descriptive survey design using the ex-post facto type. 230 special education students were randomly drawn from all four levels of study in the University of Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. Three reliable and valid instruments were used to collect data from the participants. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The result indicated that emotional intelligence and course satisfaction correlated positively with participants' attitude toward a career in special education. The result further demonstrated that emotional intelligence and course satisfaction had predictive influence on the criterion measure. Based on these findings, it was suggested that appropriate strategies and policies for emotional intelligence and course satisfaction should be encourage to forestall negative intents and advance the mainstay of a positive attitude towards a career in special education among pre-service special education teachers
184 Effects of Self-Efficacy and Transactional Analysis Techniques in Enhancing Social Competence among Socially-Isolated Pupils in Private Primary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria , Nlemadim, M. C. and Falaye, Ajibola
The negative impact of social isolation on the developmental life span of children can result to social maladjustment. Affected children could find it difficult to initiate, maintain and sustain social interpersonal relationship and this has implications on their well-being. Therefore, this study determines the effects of self-efficacy and transactional analysis techniques in enhancing social competence among socially isolated pupils in private primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. It also examines the moderating effects of friendship ability making skills and gender on social competence. The study adopted pre-test-post-test, control group experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three local governments and 60 participants from three private primary schools in Ibadan. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of self-efficacy and transactional analysis techniques training. Three instruments used were: Loneliness questionnaire, Scale of Social Competence and School Adjustment and Peer Attachment Inventory (PAI). Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and Sheffe post hoc. It is revealed among others that there was a significant main effect of treatment on social competence score of socially isolated pupils. Also, there was significant main effect of friendship ability making skills on social competence of participants. However, there was no significant main effect of gender on the social competence of male and female participants. Hence, teachers should endeavour to create interactive environment that would enable pupils relate with each other during and after classroom teaching learning situation. This would motivate pupils to overcome their social incompetence and be socially competent
185 The Influence of Dependent and Independent Cognitive Styles on Achievement in Mathematics among Senior Secondary School Students in Bida Educational Zone of Niger State, Nigeria , Yunusa Umaru and Tukur, H. A
This study employed ex-post-facto design. The study investigated the influence of dependent and independent cognitive styles on students’ achievement in Mathematics. The study was guided by four research questions, two null hypotheses that were tested at 0.05 levels of significant. The population consisted of all the 40 senior secondary schools in Bida Education Zone of Niger State. One Hundred (49 dependent and 51 independent cognitive style) students, were drawn from the senior secondary schools, using multi-stage sampling technique, that constituted the sample of the study. Instruments adopted for data collection were the Student Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin and Goodenough, 1984) used to determine the participants’ Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (PCSQ) and Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings of the study show that independent cognitive style students achieved significantly higher than their dependent cognitive style counterpart in Mathematics Achievement Test. It was also not consistent across gender levels. Recommendations among which include, that teachers should use independent strategies in integrating with students in the classroom, especially in mathematics, and other science related subjects.
186 Universal Basic Education (UBE) and Effective Science Teaching Strategies in Kaduna State, Nigeria , Habiba, B. Y and Jibrin, A. G.
The study focuses on the Universal Basic Education (UBE) and Effective Science Teaching Strategies in Kaduna, State. A survey was conducted using 25 Junior Secondary Schools in Zaria metropolis where 10 schools with 53 teachers were randomly selected and used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire on the Strategies employ by Junior Secondary School Teachers (UBE) teachers in Zaria Metropolis. The instrument was validated and pilot tested with the reliability coefficient of r = 0.70. The instrument was administered by the researcher. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results indicate that 50% of the Junior Secondary School Teachers Start with questions about nature of whatever subjects they were teaching. 25% only provide historical perspective and 70% of the teachers supported the used of ICT in teaching. Based on the results it was recommended that Government and NGO's should encourage teachers to attend conferences and workshop and provide ICT facilities for effective lesson delivery.
187 Determinants of Senior Secondary School Students’ Logical Reasoning in Problem-Solving and Mathematics Achievement in Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria , Agah, J. J.; Sule Lamido and Utibe, U. J.
This study examined the determinants senior secondary school of students’ logical reasoning and mathematics achievement. Three factors; age, sex and class level were viewed as determinants of students’ logical reasoning. Ex-post-facto research design was used for the study and the sample size was 420 senior secondary school students in Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State-Nigeria. Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses also stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was “Mathematical Reasoning Test (MRT)” developed by the researchers and validated by two mathematics Educators and one measurement and evaluation lecturer. The reliability of the instrument was determined using inter-rater approach and kendall’s coefficient of concordance statistic gave .84. Data was analysed using t-test and analysis of variance. The findings revealed among others that; age and class levels determine students’ logical reasoning in mathematics. It was recommended that age and class level should be given serious recognition in planning and organizing the mathematics curriculum.
188 Determinants of Senior Secondary School Students’ Logical Reasoning in Problem-Solving and Mathematics Achievement in Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria , Agah, J. J.; Sule Lamido and Utibe, U. J.
This study examined the determinants senior secondary school of students’ logical reasoning and mathematics achievement. Three factors; age, sex and class level were viewed as determinants of students’ logical reasoning. Ex-post-facto research design was used for the study and the sample size was 420 senior secondary school students in Olamaboro Local Government Area of Kogi State-Nigeria. Three research questions were raised and three hypotheses also stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was “Mathematical Reasoning Test (MRT)” developed by the researchers and validated by two mathematics Educators and one measurement and evaluation lecturer. The reliability of the instrument was determined using inter-rater approach and kendall’s coefficient of concordance statistic gave .84. Data was analysed using t-test and analysis of variance. The findings revealed among others that; age and class levels determine students’ logical reasoning in mathematics. It was recommended that age and class level should be given serious recognition in planning and organizing the mathematics curriculum.
189 The Effectiveness of using Inquiry as a Method of Teaching Social Studies in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions , Okogu, J. O
The study reviews the effective use of inquiry as a method of teaching Social Studies students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The Social Studies subject is interdisciplinary in nature and content. Teaching it at this level requires the use of inquiry method to enable the students participate actively in the learning process in the normal classroom situation. The theoretical framework of the study is hinged on learning skills acquisition and development that are necessary for achieving academic excellence in Nigeria tertiary institutions. Therefore the inquiry strategies are recommended for teaching Social Studies through lead questions, affirmative questions, subjective questions, use of adverbial clause, use of phrases and objective questions
190 Peace Education and Human Rights Argument , Fasuyi, A and Isanbor, P. O.
The paper examines the proper placing of peace education as it relates to the advocacy of human rights, with respect to human life, and as a way of reducing the abuses on human rights and dignity. The current situation of humanity demands the holistic embrace of peace and the consideration of the value of the social justice agenda to the rescue. The paper also calls for proper peace education for the masses as individuals, group and community since it can help the society in establishing healthy environment and ethical living, and it also envisages the inclusion of it in the schools curricula, as the individual and the whole human society are in great need of peace and justice
191 Deterioration of Library Materials in Nigeria: Causes and Remedies for Librarians , Olajide, Abiodun
It is true that deterioration is as old as librarianship. It is also no longer news that as soon as an item is manufactured it also starts to depreciate so also printing materials. If this concept is known should librarians fold their arms watching their valuables destroyed? This paper takes a cursory look at causes of deterioration of library materials. It also discusses the concepts of deterioration to the library, librarianship and librarians. The paper argues that some of the causes include lack of environmental sanitation of library surroundings, lack of trained preservators, faulty storage and book arrangement on the shelves, the library illumination etc. The paper calls for collective responsibilities in order to rescue the library materials by abiding with library hygiene, the use of air conditioners to control reading room temperature, good ventilation, the use of right insecticides and the use of incandescent light that is least destructive. Window blinds and plastic coatings can be used to control direct sunlight. Training of the staff on books shelving is also advocated .Upon the whole the paper says "prevention is better than cure" Deterioration can be reduced to the barest minimum if it is nipped in the bud before it becomes uncontrollable
192 Effectiveness of Public Library in Meeting the Information Need of the Community Users: A Case Study of Amuwo Odofin Local Government of Lagos State, Nigeria , Folashade, Y. K
At every level of education in a nation, Library is an essential part. It is established as a social agency of civilization and development with the sole responsibility of acquiring, processing and making available information materials that reflects the intellectual, educational, cultural, political and other needs of the society. In Nigeria, the public library is expected to play an indispensable role in life of the community they serve in order to ensure the realization of national development. Looking at the uncompromising roles of the public library, this survey looks at the effectiveness of public library in meeting the information need of the community Users in Amuwo Odofin Local Government of Lagos State. This study uses three different sets of questionnaire for collection of data from the respondents. These are a set for the Librarian/Library Officers, one for Library Users andanother set for the Non Library Users. Data obtained for the were analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. The study reveals lack of awareness in the community, operation time, non conducive environment among oyhers as some of the problems faced by the library users and the non-user inclusive. Hence, organizing enlightenment programmes to sensitize the community, reading competition among school childrenand much more are recommended.
193 Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Ecosystem Conservation in Nigeria , Farounbi, A. I.
It is becoming increasingly clear that man is unlikely to avoid the environmental challenges resulting from his unsustainable practices; the result of which is already noticeably triggering changes in agriculture; the incidence of forest fires; flood and drought patterns, the movement of invasive species; biodiversity loss, climate change and so on. This review is therefore directed towards evaluating the application of ICT in ecosystem conservation in Nigeria. In the course of the study, it was gathered that ICTs are transformative technologies that put intelligence at the edges of networks, thereby maximizing users' capacity to create and adapt. Such transformation as revealed include using ICTs to improve practices in agriculture and forestry; monitor air and water pollution; improve disaster warning and relief; improve the efficiency of the energy, transportation, and goods and services sectors; and harness social networking for transformative change. Hence, to better manage the environmental challenges highlighted, there is the need to enhance the capacity to predict and track such changes, develop appropriate management and adaptation strategies, and plot a course towards better environmental management in Nigeria
194 The Role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teachers' Education in Nigeria: Challenges and The way forward , Habiba, B. Y.
This survey takes a look at the role of ICT in Teachers’ Education in Nigeria. Its major aim is to appraise the challenges faced by ICT in teachers’ education and profer the way forward. The design for the study was survey method using interview. The population for the study was all 1400 education students of Federal College of Education, Zaria where 50 pre-service teachers were purposively selected. The instrument is a questionnaire on availability and utilization of ICT facilities for pre-service teachers in the study area. The instrument was validated by experts and pilot tested with a reliability coefficient of 0.65. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The result indicates that 40% of preservice teachers have their personal computers and 30% of the lecture rooms have ICT facilities. Based on the results, it is recommended that, government should make ICT facilities available for pre-service teachers training. Also, all lecture classrooms should be well equipped with necessary ICT facilities for proper training of teachers
195 Introduction of Comparative Religion as General Studies in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions’ Curriculum: A Panacea to the Rising Intolerance among Religious Groups , Okai, M. O.
Recent events, though different in many ways, have highlighted the misunderstanding and intolerance often generated by expression of religious beliefs. This review is to assess the need for the introduction of comparative relogion in general studies curriculum in Nigerian tertiary institutions; considering this act as a panacea for the rising intolerance among religious groups. The aim is to present the comparative religious benefits such as providing adequate and concrete information on the tenets and nature of different faiths and philosophies; transfer such data to others, so that they can complement instead of conflicting each other. Qualitative data on cases of religious violence in Nigeria from 1999 to 2013 were gathered through the secondary source. The study reveals that most violent conflicts today, contain religious elements linked up with ethno-national, inter-state, economic, territorial, cultural, and other issues. Threatening the meaning of life, conflicts based on religion tend to become dogged, tenacious and brutal types of wars. Hence, this work proposes the inclusion of the teaching of comparative religion in general studies so as to remedy the intolerance existing among religious groups thereby reducing or eliminating religious conflicts in the country
196 Factors Inhibiting School Library Development in Kano State, Nigeria , Mustapha Idris
Literature abounds on both the importance of the school library and on why the school library should be integrated into the curriculum. Some States have already made positive strides in the direction. It is against this backdrop that the situation in Kano State with regard to primary, junior and senior secondary school libraries is examined. An overview of the current school library scene in Kano State is presented. The importance of lobbying the relevant authorities in the school libraries development scheme comes out quite clearly. The major aim of this study is an attempt at changing the Kano State school library situation in conformity with modern school library practices. Finally the result shows that out of the seven thousand two hundred and fifteen (7,215) schools only three thousand four hundred and ten (3,410) got libraries, it was observe that majority of schools from rural areas fail to have libraries from what was observed during the research and the situation is worse in primary school having the largest number
197 Awareness and Use of e-journals by Medical Students of Delta State University, Abraka (DELSU) and University of Benin, Benin City (UNIBEN) in Nigeria , Eyaufe, O. O.; Golley, J. and Brume-Ezewu, S
This study is a survey of the awareness and use of electronic journals by medical students of Delta State University and University of Benin in Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all the medical and clinical students of the two universities studied, which is 93. The entire population was used for the study because the population was small (41 in DELSU and 52 in UNIBEN). Data were generated using questionnaire and analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage. The findings reveal among various others, low level of awareness of e-journals and low computer literacy skills resulting in low level of usage of the e-journals among the medical students from both institutions. Based on the results of the findings, the study recommends among others that information literacy courses should be initiated compulsorily in course curriculum and libraries should be well equipped with internet facilities to encourage the use of electronic journals
198 Effect of Item Arrangement on Test Reliability Coefficients: Implications for Testing , Naibi, Louisa
This study investigated the effects of two types of item arrangement formats (ascending and specified mixed order) via test scores, on the two types of test reliability coefficients (test-retest and Kuder Richardson 20). A repeated measures two-group within-subject design was used, with a sample of four hundred and eighty (480) secondary school students from three Local Government Areas in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria. A 40-item Mathematics Achievement Test was used to gather data, which was analyzed using the z-test and the t-formula for testing the significance of reliability coefficients. The study finds significant effect on test scores, with the specified mixed order format having significantly higher scores, but found no effect on either of the reliability coefficients. It is recommended that item arrangement be strictly considered when constructing tests in schools and for standardized examinations
199 Theft and Mutilation of Library Materials in Academic Libraries: The Case Study of Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria , Mustapha Idris; Usman Hassan and Firdausi Abdul-Qadir
This research is on theft and mutilation of library materials in academic library: the Case of Kano University of Science and Technology Wudil, Kano, Nigeria. It is no doubt a known fact that what motivates the developments of a society is the ability to get the right information at the right time and one of the agencies in this drive is the library. However, the effective services of the library depend very strongly on the availability of needed materials. Theft and mutilation of library materials has been identified as one of the major blocks against this all- important body especially in academic libraries. This work, therefore,aims to ascertain the level of theft and mutilation in academic library. In accomplishing this task, interviews were conducted and copies of questionnaire were also administered to the various units of the library and the student. Also, discussions were systematically made with the staff of the library in addition to the researcher’s personal observation. Random sampling was employed to select participants for the study. Data were analysed using frequency counts and simple percentage. The study recommends among others that there is need to educate library users, give proper library orientation periodically for the users to acquaint the importance of books in education and how mutilation could be an obstacle to the services rendered by libraries
200 Educational Challenges and Prospects of Using Internet among Library and Information Science Students of Delta State University, Abraka and Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma in Nigeria , Odede Israel and Enakerakpo Edesiri
The aim of this study is to analyze the educational challenges and prospects of using internet among library and information science students. From the population, 238 undergraduates in the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Abraka, and Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma were selected randomly as sample size for the study. A well structured questionnaire was distributed among the 238 undergraduates. The population for this study is 1190. This consists of all full-time undergraduate students in the Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University Abraka and Ambrose Ali University, Ekpoma. This study employed descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies as well as mean to analyze the data. The study reveals that the undergraduates use the internet to access a wide range of information resources, to search for specific information as well as to complement a lecture and gain more knowledge. Responses from the undergraduates also show that slow internet access speed, erratic power supply and too long time to view/download web pages are the major problems encountered by them while using the internet. Therefore, it is recommended among other things that these challenges can be over come through different mechanism such as the purchase of upgraded version of modem by undergraduates which will help to overcome the problem of slow internet access speed.
201 Determinants of Choice of Health Education as a Major Area of Study among Female Students of Physical and Health Education Department, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria , Ibhafidon, A.; Kalu, M. O.; Nwachukwu, K. C. and Nwaobiala, C. J
This study focused on determinants of choice of health education as a major area of study among female students of Physical and Health Education Department, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State. A self developed and validated questionnaire with 0.82 reliability was used as research instrument. The data was analyzed using simple percentage and binomial test. Three hundred female students of the Department of Health Education, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State drawn using purposive sampling technique served as sample for the study. The results of the study showed that personal interest, academic performance and economic reasons were positively significant showing that they were the determinants of choice of health education as a major area of study among female students in the study area. Furthermore, the result showed that parental pressure was not a determinant of choice of health education as a major area of study. Part of the recommendations was that the interest of students in health education should be maintained through quality teaching in order to sustain and increase the interest of those who have lost interest in the subject
202 Relationship between Self Concept and Academic Achievement among Secondary School Students in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria , Umma Abdulwahid
The study employs ex-post facto experimental design to examine the relationship between self concept and academic achievement among secondary school students in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of this study comprises all secondary school students in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna State. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 6 secondary schools in the study area. These include two each from boys, girls and mixed secondary schools respectively. A total population of 420 students made up the sample of the study. Mean, Pearson r and t-statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings reveal among others that self concept correlates positively with academic achievement, though the correlations were generally low for all the groups. From the results, it is observed that the female students have higher self concept than their male counterparts. Hence, equal learning environment to enhance academic achievement with respect to gender is recommended among others
203 Utilization of Instructional Materials by Physics Teachers and Students in Ekiti State Secondary Schools, Nigeria , Asubiojo, R. O and Aladejana, A. L.
This study investigates the level of use of Instructional Materials by Professionals and non-professional Physics teachers in Ekiti State Secondary Schools. The purpose is to determine the availability of Instructional materials in schools and its level of use by professional and non-professional Physics teachers. The study employs the descriptive survey as its research design. The population for the study consisted of all physics teachers and physics students in senior secondary schools in Ekiti State. Stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 120 physics teachers and 240 physics students from the population. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. It was revealed through the result of this study that most of the instructional materials that can improve the teaching and learning of Physics in schools were not available while the little ones available were not put into effective use. Based on the finding of this study, it is recommended among others that efforts should be made by all the stakeholders in the educations sector towards the provision of adequate instructional materials in schools for effective teaching and learning of physics in Ekiti State Secondary Schools
204 Learning Disabilities: Causes and Educational Strategies , Yakubu, S. A.
A specific learning disability is intrinsic to the child and linked to neurological dysfunctions, whereas a specific learning difficult in United Kingdom is seen as a school issue, a mismatch between the child’s performance and what the curriculum offered. This study explores the concept of learning disability with the aim of identifying the traits or symptoms as well as causes and educational strategies to overcome the disability. The study reveals a number of characteristics or symptoms that are associated with learning disabled children. However, not all children identified as learning disabled exhibit all the symptoms associated with learning disabilities. Hence, it is recommended among others that the method of communication between the teacher and the learning disabled children is very crucial hence it should be direct, simple and meaningful
205 Impediments to the Teaching of Chemistry as an Experimental Science in Secondary School in Oju Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria , Agogo, P. O. and Otor, E. E.
This study investigates the implements to the teaching of chemistry as an experimental science in secondary schools in Oju Local Government Area of Benue State. The aim is to highlight the appropriate approach that should be adopted in the teaching of the course in secondary schools. Purposive sampling method was used to sample the nine chemistry teachers from five secondary schools in the study area. Three research questions were stated and answered. The instrument used for data collection was the chemistry teachers’ experimental science questionnaire; simple percentage and itemization were used to analyse the data collected for the study. From this analysis, it was found that lack of professional qualification by chemistry teachers as well as lack of chemistry equipment/instruments affected to a very high extent the teaching of chemistry as an experimental science. The study recommended among others that government and other stakeholders in the education sub-sector should provide functional chemistry laboratory for meaningful practical activities.
206 Vocational Education as a Strategy for the Sustenance of Socio-Economic Empowerment of Nigerians , Utibe, U. J. and Udongwo, G. E.
The socio-economic status of Nigerians could be enhanced through the empowerment using vocational education, whose activities spread across all fields of study and sectors of the economy. This survey therefore examines vocational education as a strategy for the sustenance of socio-economic empowerment of Nigerians. The basic aims are to know when vocational education should be introduced, challenges facing vocational education and types of vocational education that should be introduced to students so as to provide a scientific stand point on the subject matter. The study is conducted in the southsouth and south-east geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Teachers and other education stakeholders totaling 1850 were used for the study. Three research questions were raised and answered. Two sets of questionnaire were used for data collection. The instruments were validated by two vocational Educators and one measurement and evaluation lecturer. The reliability of the instruments was determined using Pearson Product Moment Coefficient statistics as 0.84, 0.79 and 0.88. Data was analysed using frequency and percentage. The findings reveal among others that vocational education should be introduced at the primary level. It is recommended that the federal government should setup machinery to introduced vocational education with a special curriculum in the primary schools.
207 Influence of Students’ Characteristics in the Use of Library Resources in Colleges of Education in Edo State, Nigeria , Bosah, L. E. and Amadasu, M. E
The effectiveness or success of any library in achieving its stated goals is measured by the users’ ability to effectively make use of its resources. Thus, assessing the use of library resources by students has become a major focus for most library scholars. In this light, several scholars have noted the low utilization of library resources by colleges of education students. This survey examines the influence of student’s characteristics on the use of library resources. The population of the study consists of students of Colleges of Education, Ekiadolor and Igueben in Edo State. The School of Vocational and Technical Education, School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages and School of Sciences were selected for the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample size from each of the four schools in proportion to the actual size of the group in the total population. A sample size of 372 students was used for the study. Questionnaire on Assessment of Use of College Library Resources (QAUCLR) is used for data collection. The data analysis techniques used are Analysis of Variance, t-test, and Chi square. The analysis of the data collected indicates among other things that the academic level of students does not affect their use of library resources. The study recommends that male students should be targeted in an effort to improve the use of library resources and teachers should engage the students with serious assignments that could encourage them to use the library regularly
208 Entrepreneurship Education as a Panacea for Sustainable Economic Development of Nigeria , Saheed, G. A. Taiwo, A. A. and Alebiosu, S. O.
It is axiomatic that entrepreneurship education serves as a catalyst in the socioeconomic development of any country. It is a veritable vehicle for the achievement of macro-economic objectives in terms of employment generation at low investment cost and the development of entrepreneurial capabilities. This review examines the potent place of entrepreneurship education as a factor in sustainable economic development of Nigeria. The work highlights the need for the training of would-be entrepreneurs as engine room of sustainable economic development of Nigeria. It also examines the efforts of the Federal Government of Nigeria in the area of entrepreneurship education as well as identifying the problems militating against entrepreneurial activities in Nigeria. The study opines that there is close relationship between entrepreneurship education and sustainable economic growth and development.
209 Effects of Insecurity on Primary School Attendance in Damaturu Metropolis Yobe State, Nigeria , Umaru Abdullahi and Terhemba, G. A.
This study examines the effects of insecurity on primary school attendance in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. The study is a survey. Three questions were addressed: what is the level of school attendance under the crisis situation in Damaturu metropolis? Are parents and teachers willing to send back their children to the affected schools? Does insecurity have significant effects on attendance of school children? Effect of Insecurity on School Attendance Questionnaire (EISAQ) was developed for the study. The alpha reliability of the questionnaire was .965. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 225 parents and teachers in 10 Primary Schools in Damaturu, Yobe State that were affected in the activities of Boko Haram in the metropolis were administered with copies of the questionnaire. The responses to the questionnaire were summarized using percentages. T-test was computed to test for differences in responses on the effect of insecurity on school attendance. The level of primary school attendance under the crisis situation in Damaturu metropolis was found to be low but that of male pupils were found to be lower than that of female pupils. Parents and teachers were willing to send their children back to the affected primary schools. Male and female significantly differ on the effects of insecurity on primary school attendance. It is incumbent on the government to provide adequate and effective security personnel to all the institutions of learning in Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe State, Nigeria to stop the burning of schools and constant shooting around educational institutions.
210 Effect of Subject Combination on Students’ Performance in Biology: A Case Study of Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun, Nigeria , Farounbi, A. I.
The effect of subject combination on the level of students’ performance in biology: a case study of Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun is studied in this work. The study adopts a quasi experimental design with no control group. The Grade Point Average (GPA) of students in Biology Department were analyzed according to subject’s combination of BIO/CHE, BIO/CSC, BIO/GEO and BIO/ ISC. The mean GPA of the groups were subjected to paired statistical analysis. The results show significant difference between the mean GPA of the various groups. It was observed that the mean GPA of the students offering BIO/CHE is higher than that of the other groups. It is recommended that chemistry should be made a pre- requisite for biology at tertiary institutions because it seems to aid the learning of biology; also course prerequisite should be strictly enforced to ensure the quality of NCE graduates in biology.
211 Effects of Non-Cordial Relationship between Teachers and Students of Secondary Schools on Teaching-Learning Process , Tyoakaa, L. M.
As a matter of fact, teacher-student relationship provides a unique entry point for educators and others working to improve the social and learning environments of schools and classrooms. The focus of this review is on the effects of non-cordial relationship between teachers and students of secondary schools on teachinglearning process. In view of this, the work examines relationship and types of relationships; factors affecting student-teacher relationship; ways of improving teacher-student relationships, as well as the benefits of positive student-teacher relationships. It is revealed that the child should be made to feel free, be at ease, active in class, yet remain disciplined. Based on this, the study concludes that there is every need for a positive coexistence between the teacher and his students
212 Challenges of Globalization and Education in Nigeria , Nwankwo, O. C.
The phenomenon of globalization appears to be a product of renewed beliefs and contestations in a global process, which has drawn the international community at the threshold of a global village. These range from politics, economy, communication and education to even agriculture and food. National culture and national economies are all becoming irrelevant and giving way to globalized strategies characterized by powerful market forces. The market scenario is dominated by powerful transnational entities that owe no allegiance to any State. This study therefore review globalization and education with the main aim of addressing its implications and challenges in Nigeria.
213 Predictive Factors influencing the Performance of Mathematics Student-Teachers in Teaching Practice at College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria , Ojo, O. A. and Ayodele, O. B.
This study on Predictive Factors influencing the Performance of Mathematics Student-Teachers in Teaching Practice at College of Education, Ikere-Ekiti, Nigeria aims at determining student-teachers performance in Teaching Practice in relation to Education Method, Mathematics Method, Micro-Teaching and Problem Solving course among 185 mathematics students in College of Education Ikere Ekiti. They were selected from nine subject’s combinations in three consecutive sessions by using stratified random sampling techniques. The major instruments for data collection for this study are mathematics students’ scores in EDU 311, EDU 113, EDU 213, MAT 123, and MAT 212. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficient, multiple regression and analysis of variance. Mathematics Method (MAT 123) and Problem Solving course (MAT 212) were found to be significant factors influencing student teachers performance in Teaching Practice, while Education Method (EDU 123) and Micro-teaching (EDU 311) have contributed significantly to Teaching Practice skills. Hence, there is also a need to restructure the course contents in such a way that each of them will have strong and positive relationship with teaching practice.
214 Effect of Professionally Qualified Teachers on Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Mathematics: A Case Study of Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State , Dele-Rotimi, A. O. and Oyinlana, O. P.
This study adopts an ex-post-factor and survey research designs in which there were no treatment and manipulation of the subject. Instead, it involves the collation of data from the records. The study aims at examining the effect of Teachers’ Qualification (TQ) on academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Mathematics. The target population consisted of all Junior Secondary School Students and Mathematics teachers in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Random sampling technique is used to select six secondary schools out of which 100 students were sampled. Three hypotheses were analyzed using correlation matrix and t-test statistics at the 0.05 level of significance. The results show a significant relationship between JSS 1, JSS 2 and JSS 3 mathematics performance. At the same time, significant correlation between Teachers’ Qualification (TQ) and Junior Secondary School Students’ performance in mathematics. Based on the results of the findings, it is recommended that government should always enforce professionalism in teaching. Employment of professionally trained, competent and qualified teachers should be ensured by the government, while in-service training should be conducted to no-professional teachers who also assist in teaching.
215 Linguistic Change, Growth and Development: Implications for English Language Teaching and Learning in Nigeria , Olowoyeye, C. A. and Adeniyi, F. O.
This review traces the origin, growth and development of language in its diachronic and synchronic dimensions with the aim of identifying the various causes of linguistic variations. It also discusses the implications and possible remediations of the impact of linguistics change on teaching in terms of the model to teach, language material development, methodology, curriculum planning and language policy in Nigeria. This work observes that linguistic change, although inevitable, nonetheless, is frowned at, criticized and condemned by many enlightened minds. The impact of language change has far-reaching consequences in the social setting and especially in the teaching and learning of the English language in Nigerian schools. Consequently, the study recommends that prescriptive laws should be played down. The grammar of the language should be taught in line with the changing lexicons and in its cultural contexts.
216 Relationship between Internal and External Assessment Scores in School Subjects among Secondary Schools Students in Ekiti State, Nigeria , Abe, T. O.; Egbon, F. O. and Ayodele, O. B.
This study investigated relationship between school and WAEC based assessment in Mathematics, English Language and Biology among the senior secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Cluster sampling was adopted to select ten schools from the three senatorial districts and simple random technique was used to select 500 students per subject which was made up of fifty students per school. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested at p < 0.05, using Pearson-ProductMoment Correlation Coefficient. The results show among things that there is significant relationship between internal and external assessment scores in school subject among secondary schools students in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should be concretized to the practice of continuous assessment faithfully in schools so that, the purpose of schools system of Education which emphasizes on quality assessment of students would not be bastardized.
217 Application of Competitive Intelligence in Indigenous Knowledge: The Role of the Library Professionals in Nigeria , Adigun, T. A.
This study examines how competitive intelligence can be strategically deployed to ensure better and effective access to indigenous knowledge. The knowledge gap hypothesis provides the theoretical framework for this study. The aim is primarily to evaluate the role of the library professionals in brokering a situation where the acquisition, creation, organization accessibility and dissemination of indigenous knowledge have competitive advantage over the western knowledge which is presently favoured. The study reveals that indigenous knowledge is often the basis for decision making at the local level in all areas of human endeavour including agriculture, health care, education, food preparation, natural resource management, psycho social care and other activities that are germane to rural communities. Therefore, information professionals must work with indigenous communities to develop unique solutions that meet local needs. Also, Library professionals must ensure that adequate policies are put in place for local communities to be adequately recompensed as prior owners of their knowledge.
218 Roles of Guidance and Counselling in Vocational and Technology Education (VTE) , Baba, M. M. and Nasir Umar
Career guidance and counselling processes need permeate teacher education in post primary, tertiary and adult education settings, in order to encourage learners to consider the broadest possible range of options. At a philosophical level, people need to realize that guidance and counselling must become integral parts of the VTE system and of the lifelong learning process. In view of this, this study tries to explain the rationale for guidance and counselling in VTE. The aim is to brung to light the need for guidance and counselling in VTE. The study shall further discuss among the many others the objectives of guidance and counselling in VTE. Findings of the study indicate that guidance and counseling in VTE is perceived in Nigeria to be the greatest weapons that can be used to achieve peace stability, tranquility and economic development. Therefore, it is recommended that the federal, state and local governments should provide a clear vision and mission for guidance and counselling and Vocational and Technology Education for a more vibrant Nigeria.
219 Vocational Counselling: A Strategic Tool for Promoting Entrepreneurship Training among Nigerian Youths , Iyeke Patrick and Fakrogha, I. E.
This review thus assesses vocational counselling as a strategic tool for promoting entrepreneurship training among Nigerian youths. The major aim is to trace the origin of “skilless” education system in Nigeria and the attempt to reverse the trend at independence. It expatiated on the new emphasis on entrepreneurship skill acquisition and the place of vocational counselling in ensuring its success. During the course of the study, it was revealed that entrepreneurship education is the stategic tool for national development the world over. Consequently, as the society becomes more and more service-oriented and as graduate unemployment goes high each passing day, Nigerian youths should be orientated towards selfemployment and business ownership. To this end, the new senior secondary school curriculum and entrepreneurship education should be implemented in practical terms in order to inculcate entrepreneurship skills into our youths.
220 Activity Based Learning: A Successful Model for Business Education , Agatha Samson
Activity-based learning model is a cognitive-learning model which is considered a “constructivist” learning theory, especially; a learner “constructs” his own small version of knowledge from past knowledge and/or current experiences and interacting with data or information. The work is on activity based learning as a successful model for business education. The aim is to identify the problems in teaching business education in relation to practical aspect. It shall further appraise activity based learning (ABL) and its purpose, the need for quality business education and the ABL in teaching business education, the factors militating against integration of ABL among other. This study reveals that activity based learning is one of the best ways of learning and teaching especially in business education since it is built on the rationale that students learn best when they do or are involved in action.
221 Teachers’ Characteristics as Predictor of Students’ Learning Outcomes in General English in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, Nigeria , Olowoyeye, C. A. and Alonge, S. G.
Students’ continual dismal performance in public examinations from the primary to the tertiary level of education is increasingly alarming and pathetic. The search for a panacea necessitated this survey of teachers’ characteristics as predictor of students’ learning outcomes in general english in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti, Nigeria. The aim is to assess how teachers’ self efficacy, teaching style and rapport influence NCE students’ achievement in General English. The study reveals that the teachers’ teaching style and good rapport had significant influence on the students’ achievement. Therefore it recommends that practicing teachers should make use of multiple teaching styles appropriately. And that good rapport enlivens the students’ learning environment and boost learning outcome.
222 Security of Library Materials under Nigeria’s Depressed Economy , Chiwar, M. A. and Minakaro, F. M.
The challenge for librarians today is not just the acquisition of book and nonbook materials into the library, but the problem of safeguarding them to avoid losses or damage. Like many developing countries of the world, Nigeria has also been experiencing difficult economic conditions and this has affected a lot of organizations including library institutions. Library services can only be successful through the availability of library materials that satisfies the needs of both present and future users. It is against this background that this work examines how library materials can be secured under Nigeria’s depressed economy. The study reveals that the dwindling economic fortunes of Nigeria coupled with hyper-inflation has made it increasingly difficult for government to fund the libraries adequately. Hence, this will afford libraries the opportunity to provide adequate and multiple copies of highly demanded materials for their users.
223 Strategies for Planning, Teaching and Evaluating Practical Projects in Vocational and Technology Education Programmes , Nasir Umar; Musa Adamu Aliyu and Umar Dankade
The study introduces the concept of practical project evaluation, and identifies the strategies for its planning and teaching; which deals with rudimentary preparation prior to proper presentation, method of teaching and actual presentation of practical project lesson. It also elaborates the four stages of evaluating practical project with their various indicators which includes; planning evaluation, process evaluation, product evaluation and workshop attitude evaluation. Numerical scoring performance pattern was outlined, followed by its grading system. It is concluded that the construction of practical project incorporated all the aspect of educational objectives, cognitive, affective and psychomotor, which directly indicates the application of what is learnt in the class and workshop or laboratory to solve a particular problem in society. This is done by carrying out a practical project to provide a product that will solve some problems beneficial to the community. It is therefore recommended among others that the teacher should make provision for the students to work in groups because leadership roles of certain students will stimulate others to greater efforts to maintain good standing in group.
224 Brainstorming: An Act of Creativity in Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum in Nigerian Secondary Schools , Gbolagade, S. O. and Adegoke, E. S.
This survey is carried out to investigate brainstorming as an act of creativity in vocational and technical education curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools. The aim is to examine by relevant and notable strategies of brainstorming as an act of creativity with a view to assessing their implications for vocational education curriculum in Nigeria. The researchers designed a self-developed questionnaire entitled Questionnaire on Brainstorming the Act of Creativity in Vocational and Technical Education Curriculum in Nigerian Schools “QBCVTECN”. The questionnaire was classified into two sections. Three hypotheses were developed and tested using t-test. The study adopts the multistage sampling to select six States from the six geopolitical zones of the federation. From this selection, one secondary school was selected from each of the States and thirty students were randomly selected from each of the selected secondary schools. This gives a sample size of one hundred and eighty respondents. The findings of the study reveals among others that there is no significant difference between male and female students on brainstorming as an act of creativity in vocational and technical education curriculum in Nigerian secondary schools.
225 Quality Theatre Education: A Recipe for Social ReEngineering of the Nigerian Youths for National Stability , Abe, O. T.
The principal characters in the 1914 amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates which eventually led to the birth of Nigeria did not envisage the voluminousity of the social re-engineering which their decision may engender upon the natives. Their main aim of carting away natural and human commodities as well as civilizing the natives must had beclouded their intention and expedition and therefore could not see that their decision was a dagger on the throat of our co-existence. Today, no region in the nation is devoid of turbulence and social crisis; intolerance and struggle for religious supremacy, the south east is known for militancy while the south west sit on kegs of gun-powder each time the region experiences a change in governance. In all these disturbances which are inimical to the peaceful co-existence of the various tribes that constitute the nation, the youth had been turned to veritable tools in the hands of the chief perpetrators. The focus of this review therefore is the potency in theatre education as a recipe for social re-engineering. This work observes that in an era besmeared with youths’ involvement in political and social disturbances, theatre education has the veritable power to curb social unrest. It concludes that theatre education has the capacity to create social awareness as it brings the people together and helps them to identify with each other.
226 Relationship between Students’ Performance in Ordinary Level Mathematics and NCE Biology in Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun, Nigeria , Farounbi, A. I.
The effect of ordinary level mathematics grade on students’ performance in NCE Biology examinations was surveyed in this work with the aim of establishing whether mathematics as a prerequisite for biology will enhance students’ performance in biology. The study looks for the relationship that exists between ordinary level mathematics and grade point average (GPA) of the students under study using secondary data. The data used include the result of senior secondary school examination of the students admitted to study Biology in the year 2005 and their results in NCE biology from part one to three. It is observed from the results that there is no significant difference in the GPA of the students that made high scores in SSCE mathematics and those with low scores but those that failed SSCE mathematics have GPA that is significantly lower to others. It is, therefore, recommended that passes in ordinary level mathematics should be made a prerequisite for admission to NCE biology.
227 Using Finger Counting Strategies in Early Childhood Education as a Basis for Culturally Responsive Teaching of Mathematics in Owerri Municipal Area of Imo State , Ihekwaba, C. N. and Unamba, E. C.
The aim of this study is to elicit responses from Early Childhood teachers on their use of counting strategies in early childhood education as a basis for cultural responsive teaching in mathematics. The study was carried out in Owerri Municipal Council Area of Imo State. Based on the purpose and objectives of the study, two research questions and one hypothesis were posited to guide the study. The population of the study comprises all the teacher in early childhood care education in Owerri municipal area of Imo State which is 450 (four hundred and fifty) teachers, out of which a sample of one hundred and fifty (150) early Childhood teaches was selected for the study through simple random sampling technique (balloting). The research instrument was questionnaire validated by three experts; data collected were analyzed using Mean, Proportion and Chisquare. The study reveals that higher population of the teachers uses beats or abacus and models more than the use of fingers in counting numbers and higher proportion of teachers used whole fingers, many do not use the finger lines in teaching counting of numbers. It also observes that the use of finger counting in teaching by teachers is significantly dependent on school location. It is therefore recommended that teaching of mathematics especially at the early child care education stage should be presented in such a way that reflects the people’s culture and values.
228 Higher-order Correlates of Gifted Students’ Motivation towards Science Learning in Turkey , Köksal, M. S.
The purpose of this study is to investigate possible higher-order correlates (IQ, logical thinking and critical thinking) of gifted students’ motivation towards science learning. The study was designed as a correlational study and it focused on 65 gifted students at the level of sixth, seventh and eighth grades. The data was collected by applying Motivation towards Science Learning Questionnaire, Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-R), Group Assessment of Logical Thinking Test, Critical Thinking Test. The data was analyzed by applying Spearman correlation analysis. The findings represented that motivation towards science learning of gifted elementary level students were not significantly correlated by logical thinking, IQ performance , IQ verbal, IQ total and critical thinking scores. The findings refer to gap between motivation and cognitive learning in gifted students.
229 Awareness, Availability and Utilization of ICT Facilities for Effective Service Delivery in Academic Libraries in Nigeria , Edidiong Akpan-Atata and Enyene, E. T
This paper assesses the availability and utilization of ICT facilities for effective service delivery in academic libraries in Nigeria. The paper opines that since the beginning of the 21st Century, Libraries automation has come to stay and since then library services delivery have undergone changes from purely manual to modern technology- driven, the aftermath being challenges in terms of inadequacy of manpower, infrastructure and finance. The paper then recommends that since ICT has come to stay, academic libraries in Nigeria should adopt a positive attitude towards its adoption and adaptation to enhance their service delivery. It encourages libraries to train and retrain their staff to adopt ICTs. It concludes that academic libraries and Librarians should not remain onlookers rather should be active participants in policy formulation and implementation as its affects ICT usage in academic libraries.
230 School Imprest System and Administrative Effectiveness of Secondary School Principals in Uyo Senatorial District of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria , Usabor, E. E
This research was conducted to investigate the prediction of principals’ administrative effectiveness based on imprest received by the schools. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher. Survey design was adopted for the study. Population of the study was 472. This consisted 86 principals and 380 vice principals in public secondary schools in Uyo Senatorial District. Multi-stage sampling technique was used. The total sample used was 180. 36 principals and 144 vice principals at the ratio of 1:2. Opinion questionnaire for vice principals (OQVP) and school Imprest Questionnaire for Principals (SIQP) were constructed by the researcher for the study. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The two research questions were answered using simple linear regression analysis: and the two hypotheses were tested by Analysis of Variance of the Simple Linear Regression Analysis. The result revealed that school imprest significantly predicted principals’ ability to provide learning facilities and maintain school buildings. Among recommendations made was that each school must open an imprest account to enable government’s supervision on the imprest fund execution
231 Effects of Guided Inquiry and Expository Teaching Methods on Secondary School Social Studies Students’ Academic Achievement in Delta South Senatorial District, Nigeria , Ogheneakoke, E. C.
This study examines the effect of guided inquiry and expository teaching methods on secondary school social studies students’ academic achievement in Delta South Senatorial District. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopts a quasiexperimental design; pre-test and post control group were used. The population of the study comprises all the students in JSS II classes in Delta State South Senatorial District. A sample of 240 students was randomly selected from six public secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT). The data collected were analyzed using t-test statistical tool. The findings of this study revealed that guided inquiry teaching method was more effective in enhancing students’ performance than the lecture method. The study significantly establishes that students who were taught with guided inquiry method performed better than students taught with the lecture method. The findings of the study also confirm that students in urban area outperformed students in rural schools. Based on these, it is recommended among others that social studies teachers should be encouraged to employ guided inquiry teaching method in their pedagogical practices
232 Enhancing Labour Efficiency through Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria , Elebe, M. I.
There is a great deal of young people entering the labour force yearly without the appropriate skill for effective performance. Consequently, they are often given on the job training by their employers. Such training is not only time consuming but additional stress on management. “The word in vogue today is technology and if our technology education is not reviewed to meet the needs of this technology age, the product will definitely miss the trend and this will be out of time. The paper therefore examines the place of labour in economic development. It x-rays the role of vocational and technical education in enhancing labour efficiency, problems of vocational and technical education in Nigeria and concluded that skill acquisition man power development and provision of functional workshop by the relevant authorities among others are some of the best approaches to enhancing labour efficiency in Nigeria.
233 Improving Teacher Education through Blended Learning in Nigeria’s Colleges of Education , Nwoke, B. I.
The study was carried out to determine the contributions of blended learning in improving teacher education. The study was carried out in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri. A sample of three hundred pre-service teachers from the School of Natural science was used for the study. A researcher made questionnaire instrument of the Likert 4 points type was used to generate data. It had reliability coefficient of 0.72 determined through Persons product moment correlation coefficient. The generated data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that, blended learning has positive contributions in improving teacher education. Based on the result, it was recommended that teacher education curriculum should incorporate blended learning approach in training pre-service teachers.
234 Improving Teacher Education through Blended Learning in Nigeria’s Colleges of Education , Nwoke, B. I.; Akukwe, A. C.; Uzoma, P. O.and Nwanjo, C. L.
The study was carried out to determine the contributions of blended learning in improving teacher education. The study was carried out in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri. A sample of three hundred pre-service teachers from the School of Natural science was used for the study. A researcher made questionnaire instrument of the Likert 4 points type was used to generate data. It had reliability coefficient of 0.72 determined through Persons product moment correlation coefficient. The generated data was analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The result revealed that, blended learning has positive contributions in improving teacher education. Based on the result, it was recommended that teacher education curriculum should incorporate blended learning approach in training pre-service teachers
235 Major Indigenous Languages and The Origin of Foreign Languages in West Africa , Saleh, A. J
The thrust of this paper is that we have different languages across West Africa. Each of these West African countries has its culture which is synonymous with its language as culture and language are inseparable. On the other hand, these languages and cultures have been infiltrated by alien or foreign cultures as a result of colonialism, religious activities and trade. The infiltration of these alien or foreign cultures has brought a distortion to the originality of West African languages and cultures. In addition to the distortion of languages and cultures in West Africa are code –switching, code – mixing of languages and Pidgin English spoken in English speaking West Africa. The paper also takes a look at English speaking West Africa, French speaking West Africa and Portuguese speaking West Africa. The need to teach indigenous West African languages and dialects to run pari pasu with foreign/second/official languages in West Africa is a panacea so as to resuscitate extinction of languages and dying cultures is advocated in this paper
236 Reasons for Continuous Decline of Students’ Academic Performance in External Examinations , Egede, N. K.
In recent times, the performance of students in external examinations such as the West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) amongst others has continued to decline. Available statistics shows that in 2005 only 27.53% of students who sat for the West African Senior School Certificate Examination obtained five credit passes and above including mathematics and english language, while in 2008, it was 13.74%%. This study aims at identifying the reasons for continuous decline of students performance in external examinations. The findings of the study indicate among other things that the continuous decline of student’s performance in external examination is attributed to student’s incessant activities on social media. It is therefore, recommended that private organizations should begin to organize educative competitions among students and schools such as debates, while government should establish-well furnished libraries in all schools
237 Social Studies Educaion as a Tool for Peace Advancement in Nigeria , Okogu, J. O.and Umudjere, S. O.
This study examines Social Studies Education as a tool for advancement of peace in Nigeria. It adopts literature review as its research approach. It discovers that social studies education was introduced into Nigerian schools to project and disseminate vital knowledge, skills, values, and right attitudes combined that are suitable for addressing the challenges of peace keeping and instability in Nigeria. It is with this mindset that the study recommends that social studies education should be used as corrective measures in propagating peace and tranquility for the progress of Nigerian society because its contents have value laden to accommodate contemporary changes, challenges and progress for the purpose of maintaining peace in Nigeria
238 Open Access and Scholarly Publishing: Challenges and the Way Forward , Obi, R. C
Open access is a free availability of literature on the internet, permitting a user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself (The Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002). The paper examines different concepts of open access on scholarly publication and goes on to examine the motivation for open access and its benefits. The findings posit that it enhances and increases the citation of published scholarly works. It provides free online access to literature that is very important as it also helps in career development. Efforts should be geared towards inculcating the awareness of the concepts techniques, technologies and benefits of open access in scholarly communities
239 Users’ Participation in Acquisition and Users’ Satisfaction with the Information Resources in University Libraries in the South-South Zone of Nigeria , Okpokwasili, N. P and Blakes, E.
The study was conducted to determine the influence of users’ participation in the acquisition process on users’ satisfaction with information resources in university libraries in South-South zone of Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research method. The population of this study consists of all university library staff and lecturers in government-owned university in the South South zone of Nigeria during the 2012/2013 academic session. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 36 library staff and 4627 lecturers from 6 of the universities in the zone. A structured questionnaire entitled: Users’ Participation in the Acquisition Process and Users’ Satisfaction with Information Resources (UPAPUSIRQ), was used to collect data. Means and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected for the study while the hypothesis was tested using t-test in IBM SPSS for Window version 20 at p = 0.05 level of significance. The findings reveal among other things that there was significant influence of Users’ participation in the acquisition process on users’ satisfaction with information resources. It is therefore recommended that librarians should take cognizance of the factor of users’ participation in the acquisition process when acquiring information resources for the libraries
240 Salient Issues in Students’ Poor Performance in Mathematics at Public Examinations in Nigeria: A Case Study of selected secondary schools in Adamawa State , Udonsa, A. E.
This study on Salient Issues in Students’ Poor Performance in Mathematics at Public Examinations in Nigeria aims at investigating the possible and reliable solutions to the problems that are emanating from the “causes of mass failure in mathematics at O-level examination. A case study is drawn selected secondary schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study adopts expository research design. It also investigates the way teachers and students are involved in a day to day process of teaching and learning of mathematics as a subject and as a career. It is observed that the brain behind the whole setbacks centered on the attitude of the students and effectiveness of the tutor in handling the subject (Mathematics). Therefore, it is good that government should propound the means to allocate necessary resources needed for the implementation and development of our educational system; and for the attainments of the whole goals written in the national policy on education
241 Self-Efficacy and Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Employees Job Performance in Manufacturing Companies in Lagos State, Nigeria , Okoiye, O. E.; Onah, T. A. and Atsaka, J. G.
This study investigates self-efficacy and emotional intelligence as predictors of factory workers job performance in manufacturing companies in Lagos state Nigeria. Using a descriptive survey research design; Simple random sampling technique was used to select five hundred factory workers from twenty randomly selected manufacturing companies in Lagos state Nigeria. Instruments used were Job Performance Rating Scale (JPRS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT). Two research questions were answered at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analysed using Multiple Regression statistical tool. The independent variables accounted for 62.1% of the total variance on employees’ job performance. In order of magnitude, in terms of magnitude of the contribution: Emotional Intelligence has more predictive influence on employees’ job performance followed by self-efficacy on employees’ job performance. Therefore, Employers should ensure their employees are made to embark on training to improve on their ability, competence and social emotional skills that will enable them to adapt well to their environmental and career challenges. Also, employers should make available counselling and psychotherapeutic services for their employees to help manage maladjustment and maladaptive behaviour that could negatively affect their level of job performance
242 Imperative for Inclusion of Herbal Medicine Education in the Curricula of Nigerian Schools , Adeniran, M. A. and Owoeye, P. E. O. 
This study examines the need for the inclusion of herbal medicine education in the curriculum of the Nigerian schools. The work is propositional. It employs the review method to collate well referenced documented materials. The study reveals that many advanced countries of the world had imbibed similar medical ideology about herbal medicine practices to promote the health of their citizens and also to enhance healthy life styles. Most of the developed Oriental (East) and Occidental (West) continents have herbal medicine programmes on their national health agenda sponsored by their governments e.g. Germany, China, Japan, India, and Asia. Inclusion of herbal medicine education in the schools curricula would help learners, youths and adults to have a healthy living as they personally utilized herbal medicine preparations specifically and instructively. It is imperative at this time when the nation’s economy is on the down turn for the government, curriculum planners and education stakeholders to see the need to incorporate herbal medicine education in the curriculum of the Nigerian schools.
243 Impact of Problem Solving Approach on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Mathematics , Nwoke B. I.
The study is carried out to investigate the impact of problem solving approach on senior secondary school students’ achievement in mathematics. The study is carried out in Owerri North local government area of Imo State. Based on the objectives of the study two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Quasi-experimental research method was applied in carrying out the study employing the pre-test post-test control type. A sample of 155 students was selected for the study from two purposively selected schools. A 25 item researcher made objective test question entitled “Mathematics Achievement Test” (MAT) with reliability co-efficient of 0.73 determined through KuderRichardson method (KR20) was used in data collection. The data were analysed using mean and standard deviation to answer research questions while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistical tool. The result of the study reveals that problem solving approach of teaching mathematics enhanced students achievement. Based on the findings, it is recommended that appropriate problem solving approach should be applied by mathematics teachers in teaching so as to enhance students’ achievement in the subject
244 Strategies to Improve Nigerian Students’ Performance in Mathematics , Udonsa, A. E.
This study adopts the survey research design to examine the strategies that should be adopted in order to improve Nigerian students' performance in mathematics. The aim is to spot out some of the reasons responsible for the alarming rate of failure in mathematics especially in public examinations and the possible ways to overcoming them. Sample for the study comprises 10 mathematics and 20 non mathematics teachers selected from the College of Education, Yola. Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study using five point likert scale of strongly agree, agree, undecided, strongly disagree and disagree. Analysis was done using tables and frequency counts. The hypotheses were tested using Chi-square. The research showed that the qualification possessed by a mathematics teacher has a great positive effect on the learners. However, adequate and availability of facilities such as library, mathematics laboratory are necessary in order to improve on the students' poor performance in mathematics. Based on the findings of this work, it is proposed among others that qualified and adequate mathematics teachers should be employed in our schools
245 Perceived Factors Predicting Against the Control of HIV/AIDS in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State: Implications for Health Education , Okudaye, I. N.
The purpose of this survey is to determine those perceived factors predicting against the control of HIV/AIDS in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State. It raises issues on the implication for health education. Four research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The instrument for the study is a questionnaire. The population for this study is 440 HIV/ AIDS patients who were currently receiving treatment in HIV/AIDS Centre at the time of study. The sample size is 120 respondents. Instrument is validated in its surface and content value. The reliability of the instrument is ascertained through test-retest method. The data generated were analysed using simple percentage and multiple regression analysis. The findings reveal that the belief on herbal medicine, non-periodic HIV blood screening, improper distribution of aid materials and individual lifestyle are significantly predicting against the control of HIV/AIDS in the study area. Hence, it is recommended among others that government should warn or ban fake media advertisement on herbal medicine. HIV test, condom and Anti retroviral drugs should be given to people free of charge, then individuals should strictly be adherent to HIV/AIDS education
246 Higher Qualifications and Job Satisfaction among Lecturers in Akwa Ibom State College of Education , Ekeng, M. W
This study examines the extent to which lecturers in Akwa Ibom State College of Education are satisfied with their job in terms of additional qualifications and work environment. Two hypotheses were formulated to give a guide for the study. The population consists of all the 184 academic staff in the Institution. The sample size comprises all the 184 academic staff of the College. Data were obtained using the researcher’s constructed instrument named Higher Qualification and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (HQJSQ). Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was used to analyze the data in order to determine the relationship between the two variables. The analyses reveal that the more additional educational qualifications obtained by lecturers in the College of Education, the less satisfied they feel, and they are in a hurry to look for another job, probably in the University system. Also, it is observed that lecturers in the College of Education are always looking for jobs that can give them, at least, some comforts or more conducive work environment. The study, based on the fact that their level of academic attainment does not match their job status, concludes that a greater number of lecturers in the College of Education, who acquire additional qualifications are always looking another employment elsewhere they can receive job satisfaction that commensurate with their current academic qualifications.
247 Effect of Learning-Together Technique on Pupils Achievement in Primary Mathematics , Unamba, E. C.; Ugochkwu, N. J. and Nwaebo Ijeoma
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of learning together technique or cooperative learning method on pupils’ achievement in mathematics. The study employs an experimental design with control group. It was carried out in Owerri Municipal Area of Imo State. A sample of 58 primary six pupils is used for the study. Two hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. A 20 item multiple choice Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) was utilized to collect data. T-test statistics is used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study reveal that learning-together technique or cooperative learning method is more effective and there is no significant difference in mean scores achievement of male and female in learning-together technique or ooperative learning. It is recommended that cooperative learning method be used in mathematics teaching at all levels of education and mathematics laboratory should be designed for the use of cooperative learning method in mathematics teaching at all level of education. These laboratories should be designed in the way of providing the groups for special tasks.
248 Igbo Women and Political Development in Nigeria: Historical Perspective , Uduma, D. O.
This work is an historical exploration of Igbo women in political development and in key governance positions in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that the role of women in our society is no longer new in developmental discourse. In this work, we examine the concepts of politics and governance, the theoretical position of women and their relevance in politics. A critical analysis of Igbo women in the pre-independence era is also discussed. Furthermore, an assessment of the degree of Igbo women in nationalist struggle and their involvement in governance in post independence Nigeria are also explored. It is accepted that for development of any kind to be successful, women who make up a large proportion of the population should not be left out. There is the belief that as many men and women who have the potentials and rights should be encouraged to contribute meaningfully to the development of our society. Therefore, everything must be done to nurture democracy as it gives room for engaging stakeholders to uplift the political status of women
249 Repositioning the Facilities in the National Certificate in Education (Technical) Awarding Institutions’ Workshops for Future Nigeria: A Case Study of North Eastern Nigeria , Yaro, A. S.; Cheledi, A. A. and Adamu, M.
This study focuses on assessing the facilities in NCE Technical awarding institutions’ workshops in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. A descriptive survey design is adopted. Two research questions are formulated to guide the study. A 35-item questionnaire is developed based on the NCCE standards, and was validated by three experts. Data are collected from 149 teachers randomly sampled in the six NCE Technical awarding institutions in the North Eastern part of Nigeria. Statistical Mean is employed to answer the research questions. Results reveal that teachers are aware of the inadequacy of facilities in NCE Technical awarding institutions’ workshops. It therefore recommends among others that the private sector should be encouraged to initiate and participate in the provision of facilities, special intervention funds should be set aside by Government for procurement of workshop facilities to NCE Technical awarding institutions
250 Public Education, a Conduit for Responsible Leadership in Nigeria , Uduma, D. O. Onu, I.
This study reviews an ideal public education as conduit for responsible leadership in Nigeria. It is evident that public administration predates when society started organizing themselves to pursue common goals. Public education has been perceived as the enlightenment platform for the State; especially in areas where the State has metamorphosed from the maintenance of law and order to the creation of welfare and services to the people. The classical theory was used as the basis of analysis. It is based on the findings of this work that it is concluded that when talking about public administration, we are indeed discussing about public institutions. As a way towards achieving an ideal public administration practice and responsible leadership, public education is therefore recommended.
251 Trend on Students’ Performance in Mathematics at the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria , Udonsa, A. E.
The purpose of this work is to examine the factors that contribute to the consistent poor performance of students in SSCE Mathematics. The study is a descriptive research. The study analyses of the forgoing trend and familiar rates of failure in mathematics especially at the public examinations was made and hypotheses were formulated and tested based on the factors that seemed to be the major impediment. The findings have explicitly established among others inadequate teaching materials, unqualified mathematics teachers and large class size as the major factors responsible for the students’ poor performance in SSCE mathematics. A conceptual review of related literature has also shown that there are a number of factors that impeded students’ achievement in Mathematics in the senior secondary schools examinations. It is recommended among others that small group delivery method should be adopted for the teaching of mathematics because it provides useful insights and solutions to some problems that cannot be adequately handle in the larger class and also paves way for close interaction and careful and better understanding of individual students.
252 Ethno-Religious Politics in Nigeria: A Threat to National Unity , Benike Joseph
This work critically examines the concepts of ethnicity, religion, politics and national unity as they interface in the affairs of Nigeria. Thus, it exposes the unhealthy disposition of ethno-religious politics as regards our collective quest for National Unity which is most paramount for peaceful co-existence. This strongly posit that the electorates are the keys in any political project and that people should be free to choose their leaders irrespective of place of origin or ethno-religious affiliation or considerations. The study recommends among others that ethno-religious politics should be discouraged in strong terms; Political Parties in Nigeria should have national spread instead of wearing regional toga; electoral victories should be determined by well articulated programmes which must be in tandem with our national ideology; Nigeria being a multilingual country every segment of the society must have a say in the affairs of the country; and inclusiveness as against exclusiveness must be our watch word in the affairs of the country.
253 Effectiveness of Staff Training in Civil and Public Services in Nigeria , Uduma, D. O.
Bureaucracy in Nigeria’s public service has been strongly acknowledged as requisite of any successful attempt at appraising the public service. Evidently, many people perceive bureaucracy as red tapism, sluggish, cumbersome and rigid. Other critics are of the opinion that bureaucracy now exercises too much power and influence more than their calling as public servants. This work is a critical appraisal of the role of bureaucracy in the development of Nigerian public service. Findings of the study reveal among others the fact that bureaucracy remains the greatest asset of the state quest for socio-economic and political transformation. For a successful implementation of governmental policies, there is the need for a meaningful, articulated and responsive bureaucracy. To curb the negative side of public bureaucracy and direct it to the achievement of national goals and meaningful delivery of benefits to the citizens, this work strongly recommends that a strong and viable political institutions, responsible and disciplined leaders, enthronement of a responsible and people centered democracy, enlightened populace and strong, articulate and dynamic civil society organizations be instituted.
254 Education and Women Empowerment: A Panacea for Peace and National Development in Nigeria , Maigari, M. A. and Baba, M. M.
The importance of women in peace building and national development is pertinent. However, in all societies, men and women are integrally linked. Gender equality is a human right, empowered women and girls contribute to the health, education and productivity of families, communities and countries, creating a ripple effect that benefits everyone. However, discrimination in girls’ access to education persists in many parts of Nigeria particularly within the rural areas, owing to customary attitudes, early marriages and pregnancies, inadequate and gender-bias teachings and education materials, sexual harassment and lack of adequate schooling facilities. This work discusses women in politics, women empowerment, society and status of women, women education, counseling technique or services needed to assist women in actualizing their potentials. There is need for increased participation of women in peace processes and leadership positions through outreach activities such as public awareness, sensitization and rallies; media activities.
255 Influence of Metacognitive Evaluation Strategy in Reducing Test Anxiety among Low Achieving Secondary School Students in Mathematics in Katsina Metropolis, Nigeria , Sayyadi, S. I. and Yunusa Umaru
This study investigates the influence of metacognitive evaluation strategy in reducing the level of test anxiety among low achieving secondary school students in mathematics. A quasi experimental design involving pretest posttest control group is adopted for the study. Simple random sampling technique is used in selecting two schools out of ten schools in the study area. Samples of twenty students out of those identified with low achievement in mathematics are used to serve as treatment and control groups. The treatment group is exposed to six weeks training of metacognitive evaluation strategy while the control group did not receive any treatment. The instrument used is Westside Test Anxiety Scale. The hypothesis formulated for the study is tested using independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal that significant difference exist between the treatment group that received metacognitive evaluation strategy training and the control group that received no treatment, the difference is in favour of the treatment group. Significant difference also exist in the effect of metacognitive evaluation strategy in reducing test anxiety among male and female low achieving secondary school students in mathematics. It is recommended that school counselors and teachers should be exposed to metacognitive evaluation strategy in order to enhance the test anxiety of secondary school students in mathematics.
256 Academic Staff Awareness and Use of Library Resources and Services in Nigeria: The Case of Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola , Chiwar, M. A.
This survey is carried out to find out the awareness and use of library resources and services by the academic staff of Adamawa State Polytechnic, Yola. Four objectives and four research questions guided the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered on one hundred and forty academic staff of Adamawa State Polytechnic drawn from three different colleges. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics comprising frequency distribution and percentages. The response rate was one hundred and thirty-two representing 92.3%. The results show amongst others that majority of the academic staff do not use the library effectively but only when the need arises. Also, majority are not aware of the available resources and services in the library. Based on the findings, it is recommended that librarians of academic libraries should ensure that there is adequate awareness on the resources available in the libraries to stimulate the interest of the users.
257 User Education: An Essential Tool for Using Library Materials , Mshelia, H. S. and Durman, G. B.
Library User Education (also called instruction), teaches the library user how to make the most effective and efficient use of library materials/resources. User Education encompasses all activities undertaken to help students become efficient users of information. That is knowing how to identify the information need. This work discusses the significance of user education, as user education on its part, aims at changing an individual behaviour and experience towards the use of library and other information resources. It also discusses the benefits and factors that militates against full implementation of under education. User education can only be successfully carried out if there is cooperation between library officers and other key-stockholders of the library. The work conclusively recommends that user education should form a part of the school curriculum.
258 Punishment and Rewards as a Behaviour Modification Technique on the Learners , Ahmed, H. T. and Muhammed, A. I.
School Psychologists believe that severe physical punishment defeats its own purpose by modeling aggressive or physical behaviour, the very behaviour it is often attempting to correct. The work examines punishment and reward as a behaviour modification technique on the learners. Studies have shown that violent punishment can produce aggressive, anxiety, fear, paranoia, apathy, hatred, depression, delinquency and self-destructive behaviours. Adults who were punished violently as children display an increased likelihood of criminal activities, domestic violence, and suicide. Most current promoters of punitive discipline in Nigeria and the United States, however, espouse nonviolent forms of control, or "mild" punishments such as time-out, scolding and disapproval, natural and logical consequences, and penalties (restricting television viewing for example). This work therefore recommends that school psychologists, counsellors, teachers should be trained on use of improve ways of punishment and reward such as token economy, time-out, cognitive behaviour technique, solution focus brief therapy and self management as well as modeling technique be used to readdress problems such as depression, aggression, anxiety and phobic condition of learners.
259 Teacher-Student Consultation and Interest in Subject as Correlates of Learning Disability in Mathematics among Secondary School Students in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria , Asaimago, E. E.
This study examines teacher-student consultation and interest in subject as correlates of learning disability in mathematics among secondary school students in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. Using the descriptive survey research design, two hypotheses were tested. Data were collected using validated instruments, from three hundred (300) purposively selected senior secondary school (SSII) students from ten randomly selected secondary schools in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. Data was analysed using the Multiple Regression Analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at 0.05 level of significance. The study reveals that the independent variables correlate with learning disability in mathematics among secondary school students. Therefore, it is recommended among others that teachers should make teaching and learning experience stimulating to arose the interest of students to get closer to them and develop interest in their subject.
260 Entrepreneurship Skills Education: A Catholicon for Youth Criminality in Nigeria , Michael, C. E.; Inyang, M. N. and Ojeka, G. O.
This study examines entrepreneurship skills education as a tool for addressing youth criminality in Nigeria. One of the objectives of entrepreneurship skills education is equipping and creating in the youth the mindset to undertake the risk of venturing into viable enterprises, by the application of the acquired knowledge and skills in schools. The work looks at the skills required by an entrepreneur such as ability to recognize opportunity, innovative skills and interpersonal skills. The roles of entrepreneurship skills education in curbing youth criminality such as providing youth with the risk-taking ability and innovative capabilities to set up an enterprise rather than waiting to be employed, managerial skills necessary for self-reliance, which will help in reducing unemployment and poverty and keep them off crime were discussed. As Nigeria is currently witnessing high level of criminal activities, triggered by unemployment, the study maintains that one of the most plausible ways to empower the youth and reduce criminality is via entrepreneurship skills education. The study recommends amongst others: that there is urgent need to reactivate entrepreneurship skills education in all our institutions of learning. Our school curriculum should be design in such a way that entrepreneurship skills education will be practical-orientated. Government and non-governmental organizations should embark on enlightenment campaign to sensitize youths on the need to shun all forms of criminality, and stresses the need for acquisition of entrepreneurship skills education to maintain honest livelihoods.
261 Peace Education, a means for Better Adjustment of the Niger-Delta Youths: Implications for Counselling , Oghiagbephan, A. D.
Peace education is the process of acquiring the values, the knowledge and developing attitudes, skills and behaviours to live in harmony with oneself, with others, and with the natural environment. Peace is often considered as the fundamental basis of stability, progress and development in human societies. Peace connotes tranquility, psychological consonance, physical and environmental stability and the sustenance of enabling circumstances that guarantee freedom from all sources of all individual and societal instability. This study primarily examines peace education as a means for better adjustment of the Niger Delta youths. Among other things, it goes further to explain peace agenda and national stability and stated some characteristics of Peace Education. The review also analyses as it major aim some social and psychological strategies for better adjustment of the Niger Delta Youths as well as its implication for counselling. To this end, the study recommends among others the introduction of peace education, which should adopt the formal and informal context to cover a wider range of individuals and the curriculum developers should imbibe the tenets of peaceful co-existence and religious diversity.
262 Nigeria Certificate in Education Programme: The Need for Restructuring , Ekeng, M. W.
The NCE programme was created in line with the Ashby Report on Education in 1959, which emphasized the need for the training of middle level manpower for our educational institutions. Initially, granduands from Colleges of Education, that is to say, NCE holders were employed to teach in secondary schools (both junior and senior secondary), but with the abolition of Teachers’ Training Colleges (who hitherto produced teachers for primary schools), NCE holders were thus redirected to teach mainly in the Basic Education years (primary and junior secondary schools). A close look at most of the programmes run in Colleges of Education shows that these Courses or Programmes are not restructured to meet the new academic needs and demands of pupils in primary schools and students in junior secondary schools. NCE students are still trained as if they are to teach in both junior and senior secondary schools. Thus, this work is primarily concerned with the need to restructure the programme in the Nigeria Certificate in Education to enable it serve the present need for which it meant to meet. It is on this premise that this study advocates that curriculum experts and National Commission for Colleges of Education should urgently restructure NCE programmes, (not only in Federal Colleges of Education), to address its present status and to meet the needs of the society.
263 Educational Policy Formulation, Political System and the Attainment of Development in Nigeria , Ofoegbu, N. G.
There can be no doubt that education opens people’s mindset, enlightens their knowledge, equips them to pursue freedom and links them with liberation and independence. It assists the society in various ways, such as agriculture, manufacturing, research among others. The examination of education policy and political system of a nation indicates that educational programmes of a country do not operate in isolation and such depends largely on the political powers that be. There is also the indication that the approach and plan to provide education services depends largely on the ideology of the ruling political party; the ideology of the ruling party dictates who funds education; the ideology of the ruling party determines who controls the educational institutions; while it should be noted that the ideological camp, which a country belongs, dictates the type or form of education in the country.
264 Education: An Instrument of Investment in National Development , Salako, C. T.
This study examines education as an instrument of investment in national development. It stresses the fact that a nation develops in relation to its achievement in education. This explains why contemporary world attention has focused on education as an instrument of launching nations into the world of science and technology and with consequential hope of human advancement in terms of living conditions and development of the environment. This is because, education is the force and protection of any nation’s defense and it has been observed that no nation rises above the level of its education. Seeing education in this perspective, calls for proper funding from federal, state and local governments to make the sector produce the desired results which will stimulate national development. To attain national development through education in Nigeria, there should be serious commitment of government at all levels to effective educational policies from pre-planning stage through planning stage to postplanning stage (implementation) in realization of the fact that Nigeria is a developing country and it cannot afford to neglect the education sector that is most crucial in the provision of the needed manpower for national development.
265 Effect of Understanding Learning Outcomes on Students’ Performance in Geometry: The Case of Senior Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria , Banus, A. A.; Waziri, M. B. and Buba, M. A.
This study seeks to know the effect of understanding learning outcomes on students’ performance in geometry taking the case of senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State. Quasi-experimental design is used for the study. A gender based sample of 180 respondents (90 males and 90 females) out of the population of senior secondary school students in Maiduguri Metropolis are selected using stratified random sampling technique. “Mathematics Performance Test (MPT)” for pre-test and post-test with alpha calculated of 0.675 using the test-retest is used for data collection. Data analyses are done using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariate (ANCOVA). The results of the analysis show among others that Understanding Learning Outcomes has significant effect on Students Performance. Also, the study reveals that gender difference has significant effect on Students’ Performance when the techniques involved in Understanding Learning Outcomes were taught properly in senior secondary schools. Thus, students without using Understanding Learning Outcomes is unlikely to adopt a deep approach or to be related to higher quality of learning and difficulties caused by individual differences in the Understanding Learning Outcomes base may result in difficulties in solving mathematics problems. It is therefore, recommended among others that teachers and other relevant stakeholders should motivate and inculcate in students, positive attitudes towards mathematics to promote better academic performance.
266 Improving Library Services through Effective Communication: The Case of Delta State Polytechnic Library, Ogwashi-Uku, Nigeria , Anyaobi Grace; Onyenwenu Chinwendu and Ogonwa Isioma
This work examines the role of communication in improving library services in Delta State Polytechnic library, Ogwashi-Uku, Delta State. The study is a descriptive research. The population consists of 3,504 registered users and 50 library staff. From the target population, the sample size of 150 was randomly selected. 130 were library users while 20 were library staff. All members of staff completed and returned their questionnaire while 120 library users completed and returned theirs. Simple percentages were used to analyze the data collected. Major finding shows that communication channels in the library should be improved to enhance good communication between library staff and library users. This study concludes by advising Library management to make up-to-date materials available to library users and Internet facilities should be made available for effective communication.
267 Community Resilience to Disasters in the South East Administrative District of Botswana: Theories and Perspectives , Maripe, K. and Setlalentoa, B. M. P
This study seeks to motivate individuals/or communities to reduce disaster related risks by adopting an approach based on the crisis, stress, social constructivism and resilience theories and the ecological model that provides analytical lens for hazards and risks and related behaviours. The study covers three communities: Ramotswa, Otse, and Mogobane in the South East Administrative district of Botswana. It adopts a concurrent mixed research paradigm to theoretically assess the perception of hazard, risks, and disaster in the three communities studied. The sample consists of a total of 3567 respondents for the quantitative and 120 participants for the qualitative phase respectively. The 3567 constituted 94 % of the target 10 percent of the total population from each of the communities represented in the study. In terms of gender representation, males constituted 40% while females were 60% and were the majority in all age groups. The quantitative phase was meant to establish the extent of the problem and its scope, and to describes prevalent resilience characteristics. The crisis, stress, social constructivism and resilience theories and the ecological perspective provide the analytical lens for the interpretation of data. A key result from the study shows that communities are vulnerable and are constantly under disaster threat. Although there are district disaster management committee, they are only active during emergency response and fail to address the pre and post disaster activities. As such, communities, families, and individuals lack fundamental knowledge, skills, and techniques that would enhance their resilience to disasters. After reflecting on issues that make individuals/or communities vulnerable, the participants, key informants, focus groups, and respondents propose radical disaster resilient measures and a shift from reactive to proactive measures to disasters.
268 Information and Communication Technology Readiness in Technical Colleges in Bauchi State, Nigeria , Yaro, A. S.
This study examines the role of ICT in Technical Colleges in Bauchi State. It investigates the level of availability of ICT facilities in technical colleges, the capacity for using ICT facilities for teaching, the perceived benefits of using ICT and the problems facing the use of ICT in Technical Colleges. The population of the study (196 teachers) comprises all the technical college teachers in Bauchi State. Proportionate systematic simple random sampling is used to draw 94 participants (teachers) for the study. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection is a structured questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the instrument were established and the statistical mean is used to analyse the data. The study reveals that ICT facilities are lacking in technical colleges and teachers and students are to a little extent exposed to the use of ICT. It is therefore recommended that government should increase the funding of the education sector with emphasis on ICT infrastructural development. There is need also for periodic training of teachers in computer and ICT skills acquisition.
269 Electronic Information Resources available at the Delta State Polytechnic Library, Otefe-Oghara, Nigeria , Eyaufe, O. O.; Golley, J. and Stephen Brume
This study assesses electronic information resources available at the Delta State Polytechnic Library, Otefe. The aim is to ascertain if the information resources required by the academic staff to perform their teaching, research and general academic activities are adequately available. The study applies the survey method, using the questionnaire as the main instrument of data collection. The stratified random sampling method is used to arrive at a sample size of 50 respondents selected from 200 academic staff. A total of 50 copies of questionnaire administered to 50 academic staff from the 3 schools (Business Studies, Computing and IT as well as Engineering) of the polytechnic, of which 48 were returned and 45 were found usable for the study. Data were analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage. The results of the study reveal among others that the Polytechnic library is lagging behind in the provision of electronic information resources which is mostly needed considering that the world has gone digital. Also, it is found out that most participants of the study have considerable level of electronic information resources awareness and search skills. Thus the study recommends to the polytechnic management board and library as a matter of urgency the introduction of ICT infrastructure and provision of accessible electronic information resources at the Polytechnic library and entire polytechnic community.
270 Impact of Educational Inputs and Teachers’ Quality on Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria , Uyeri, Ajiri Oghene
This study which is supported by the system theory examines the extent to which provision and utilization of educational inputs relate to teachers’ quality and students’ academic achievement in Delta State Public Secondary Schools. The population of the study comprises teachers and students of senior secondary school class three (SS3) in public secondary schools in Delta State. Three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research method is used to study seventy one thousand and eleven (71, 011) students of SS3 who sat for the May/June 2011, 2012 and 2013 West African School Certificate Examination in the 25 Local Government Areas of Delta State. The State consists of fifty (50) public senior secondary schools out of which 500 teachers were selected for the study. The random sampling technique is used to select two secondary schools from each Local Government Area. A questionnaire entitled: “Educational Inputs and Teachers Quality on Students Academic Achievement Questionnaire – EITQSAAQ) is administered to respondents; and students WASCE results for Mathematics and English Language for the period are also analyzed. The hypotheses are tested using Z-test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The simple percentage is used to analyze the data. The findings show that there were significant differences in educational inputs and teachers’ quality, their years of experience on students’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Delta State. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended, among others, that old students’ association, philanthropists and well meaning individuals in the society should assist in the provision of essential educational inputs like libraries and computer laboratories for effective teaching and learning.
271 Usage and Perception of Information Resources and Services among Academic Staff of Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe, Nigeria , Eyaufe, O. O.; Grace Anyaobi and Roseline Mukoro
This study adopts the survey design to examine the usage and perception of the information resources and services among academic staff of Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe. The aim is to establish whether the information resources and services provided by the polytechnic satisfy the need of the staff or not. Simple random sampling technique is used to select a sample size of 100 respondents.A total of100 copies of questionnaire were administered to the academic staff in the three schools (school of business administration; school of engineering and school of applied sciences and technology) of the polytechnic and 95 were retrieved giving a 95% response rate. The data collected are presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency count. The outcome of the study shows that academic staff do not make frequent use of the information resources and services of the Delta State Polytechnic Otefe library. It is also revealed that the Delta State Polytechnic Otefe library houses only print information resources. Moreover the academic staff are highly dissatisfied with the quality of information resources and services offered by the Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe library. The study therefore suggests that the Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe library be equipped with information resources and services that are expected of an academic library in the digital age to maintain her relevance in the polytechnic community
272 Impact Assessment of the State of Emergency Policy on Education and the Provision of Qualitative Education in Bayelsa State, Nigeria (2012–2015) , Korikiye Mc Wenibowei
This study adopts the descriptive and the empirical research designs to evaluate the implementation of the State of Emergency Policy on Education and the provision of qualitative education in Bayelsa State. The aim is to assess the extent to which the implementation of the policy has impacted on the educational sector of the State. It identifies the relationship between funding, availability of educational facilities, adequate manpower and the effective realization of qualitative education. The study makes use of both primary and secondary sources of data to establish the linkage between the implementation of the policy and the achievement of the expected goals of the policy in the educational sector. The primary sources of data included, personal observation, and interview of stakeholders such as parents, policy makers, practitioners, and members of the public in the education sector and the administration of questionnaire to respondents in selected primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in the State. The study is guided by four research questions. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 190 copies of questionnaire are distributed, out of this, 183 copies were returned and these are used for the analysis. The data collected from the field are analyzed using simple percentages and tables. The study reveals among other things that the introduction of the state of emergency policy on education has not substantially impacted positively on the development of education in Bayelsa State. Consequently, it is proposed that a synergy be created between the public sector and the private sector in the development of the educational sector of the State.
273 Students Attitude towards Cataloguing and Classification in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University and University of Maiduguri Libraries: Case Studies of Students on Industrial Training , Adamu, I. A.; Yunusa, H. M.and Miringa. A. H. U.
This work adopts the case study approach to examine the attitude of library and information science students on industrial training towards cataloguing and classification. The population of this study comprises students on industrial training in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University and University of Maiduguri Libraries for a period of one year and six months. The sample size comprises of all the fifty-two students since they are not much in size is used for the study. Structured questionnaire s used for data collection and the analysis is done using simple percentage and frequency. Findings reveal among others, a negative attitude towards cataloguing and classification. To overcome this negative development, it is recommended that practical training on cataloguing and classification should be put in place and viewed seriously at the training level of librarian in training. Also, experienced cataloguers especially the lecturers should serve as motivators to the young ones so that the entire society will be interested in joining the profession
274 Paradigm Shift from Technical and Vocational Education and Training to Technical and Vocational Skill Development for National Economic Development , Medayeidun, M. S.; Shodipe, O. T. and Aderoju, J. A.
The wind of change in the education sector is paramount and calls for a paradigm shift from general education to the inclusion of technical and vocational education and training to improve not only the individual learners but also to enhance economic development in the country. Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) suffered stereotyping from parents, students and other stakeholders and was perceived to be education option for dropout and less than average intelligence. Therefore, the introduction of Technical and Vocational Skill Development (TVSD) complements the thriving needs of TVET. In conclusion, the paradigm shift from TVET to TVSD does not really mean the eradication of TVET but more emphasis should be laid on technical and vocational skill training rather than theories. It was recommended that the government should give TVET a face lift to eradicate its public perceptions so that individuals can enrol in technical education and orientation programmes should be carried out to allow the public to know the employment benefits in TVET
275 Integrating Electronic Information Resources in Polytechnic Libraries as Instrument of National Development in Nigeria ,
Eyaufe, O. O.; Adams, B. C. and Brume-Ezewu StephenThis study surveys the importance of electronic information resources in tertiary education as instrument of national development in a developing country like Nigeria. It centres on the need to equip the Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe academic library with information resources/sources that meet the educational and research needs of the potential workforce needed for national development. A census comprising 270 HND final year students from electrical and electronic, mechanical and computer engineering departments from the Delta State Polytechnic Otefe, Oghara, Nigeria are used for the study. Questionnaire is used as instrument of data collection. Two hundred and seventy copies of questionnaire were administered on the entire population. Only 243 copies of completed questionnaire were filled and returned. Data obtained are analysed using frequency count and percentage. The study reveals that the Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Library is not appropriately equipped as an instrument of national development to provide needed educational and research support to HND final year students for them to contribute meaningfully to the growth of the nation. It is recommended among others that the Delta State Polytechnic, Otefe Library should upgrade her collections by providing other information resources/sources such as print abstracts and indexes, newspapers/magazines, seminars/conference papers, technical/ scientific reports, online databases, online abstracts and indexes, electronic journals, electronic books, discussion groups, photographs and other visual sources and news group for enhanced research which gingers economic development
276 Usage and Perception of Online Information Resources among Students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria: A Case Study of Library and Information Science Department , Odede Israel
Online information resources encompass the wealth of learning resources and research data that are available in electronic format from online sources such as the World Wide Web, journal databases, library catalogues, course materials databases and unit websites. They are invaluable resources to the academic achievement of students. However, there are some barriers encountered by students while using these online information resources. This study adopts descriptive survey method. Stratified random sampling technique is used to select 200 respondents for the study. Questionnaire is used to collect data for the study. Statistical tools such as frequency count and simple percentage are used in analyzing the data collected. Pie chart is used to present the results. The findings reveal that majority of the participants frequently make use of online information resources. Also, the study reveals that online information resources are of great benefits to the students. However, it is discovered that students encountered several barriers while using online information resources such as power failure etc. The study recommends among others that the university management should ensure constant power supply especially in areas where students access online information resources such as the library and adequate computers systems should be provided to enable students access online information resources at any point in time
277 Assessment of Cost Indicators in Akwa Ibom State Basic Education System (2009-2015), Nigeria , Usabor, E. E
This study assesses cost indicators in Akwa Ibom State Basic Education System to determine the percentage of budgetary allocation for Universal Basic Education (UBE) by assessing the total and unit costs between 2009 and 2015 academic sessions. The background of this study is free and compulsory education policy analysis based on cost indicators to ascertain if; the outcome has been in line with the United Nation’s benchmarks for Education for All (EFA) agenda of 2015. Two specific objectives are stated and two research questions are raised to guide the study. Population of the study is 5,866,009 pupils and students that enrolled in Akwa Ibom State Basic Education system in the six academic sessions under study. No sampling was done. The entire population was used for the study. The research design is the survey design, specifically the longitudinal time series survey is used. Data are collected from inventories of past documents using a researcher-made pro forma in the form of a checklist, since the study involves the use of secondary data. Data analysis is done using descriptive statistics (percentages, means and bar charts). Findings of the study reveal an average unit cost of N 69,319.83 and an average total cost of N 823, 761,973.33, with a constant 0.2% of budgetary allocation for Universal Basic Education between 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 academic sessions. From findings of the study, the researcher recommends among others: increase in the percentage of budgetary allocation for UBE to suit UNESCO’s suggestion of 16.6%; to help reduce the challenges of Basic Education System in Akwa Ibom State to its barest minimum.
278 Relevance of School-Community Relations in the Development of Primary Education in Delta State, Nigeria , Ataine, A. J. and Nkedishu, V. C.
The purpose of this survey is to identify the relevance of school-community relations in the development of primary education in Delta State. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique is used to sample 1697 respondents from a population of 16961 headmasters, assistant headmasters, teachers in primary schools and community elders in Delta State. The instrument used for data collection is self-designed questionnaire entitled “School-Community Relations and Development of Primary Education Questionnaire” (SCRDPEQ). The study employs descriptive statistics of mean scores and standard deviation to analyse the data collected for the study. Proving the relevance of school-community relations on the development of primary education in Delta State, the study reveals among others that the community provides lands for building of primary schools, helps in funding the primary schools, helps in provision of more classrooms in the primary schools, the community makes use of the school surrounding during election, classrooms can be used by the community during holiday, school play grounds can be used by the community for local games and school parks can be used by community during festive seasons. Based on the findings, the study recommends among others that school heads should make themselves accessible to community members. School facilities such as the field, hall should be made available to the community for use when necessary, this will bring more bond between the school and the community
279 The Effect of the Use of Models in Teaching on Students’ Achievement in Social Studies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria , H. T. Tavershima and A. I. Shammah
This study examines the effect of models on students’ achievement in social studies in Nasarawa State upper Basic Education Level (JSS 1-3). A pretest and post test experimental control group design is employed. A sample of 220 upper basic two students is randomly selected for the study. Research hypotheses are formulated and tested at 0.05 significant level and a 30 item social studies achievement test (SOSAT) is used for data collection. A descriptive statistics is used to analyse the data. Student t-test is uesd to test the hypotheses formulated for the study. The results of the findings show that the experimental group that utilized models performed better than the control group. The post test mean achievement scores of gender is not statistically significant. It is therefore recommended that social studies learning should be taught using models to drive home difficult concept in the subject to the students
280 Digital Enterprise in an Emerging Economy: A Panacea for Vocational and Technology Education Graduates Unemployment in Nigeria , L. A. Adamu; Nasir Umar and Umar Buba
The rapid advancement in technology which leads to digitalization and development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is creating vast opportunities through digital entrepreneurship and other different types of entrepreneurial activities in emerging economies. However, very few researches were conducted in this area for ample understanding of the nature of digital entrepreneurship in the new and emerging economies. So far the connection between the up-and-coming fields of digital entrepreneurship has not been academically investigated in detail. This study aims at closing this research gap. It represents a detailed literature review of the emerging digital entrepreneurship using a structured analysis of the current state of research. The contents of this work is based on a literature analysis of scientific publications on results from an extensive database search on the role, opportunities and challenges of digital entrepreneurship. To concretize the understanding of the digital entrepreneurship in the existing literature, its characteristics are specified along with concrete application areas as a synthesis. These are then analyzed with regard to its adequacy and applicability as a strategy for reducing unemployment for graduates of business education in Nigeria. The study clearly specifies that digital entrepreneurship is totally absent in vocational and technology education curriculum and recommended that Government should support the creation of digital entrepreneurship at all levels of education so as to encourage graduates to tap the various existing digital entrepreneurship opportunities.
281 Impact of Information Literacy Skills on Academic Performance of Students of Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria , A. E. Onuoha
The society is facing the challenge of navigating the ever rapidly increasing volume of information available via equally fast developing technology. In order to successfully deal with this information rich - environment, it has become very necessary for students in institutions of higher learning to develop information literacy skills in their current studies as well as their future lives to become independent lifelong learners. Information literacy skills empower students to develop abilities and skills to harness and use information resources efficiently and effectively. It is in the light of the above that this research attempts to assess the impact of information literacy skills on the academic performance of students in Federal Polytechnic, Ede. This work adopts a survey research method and utilizes questionnaire to generate data. Out of one hundred and fifty (150) copies of questionnaire distributed, 93.3% were returned with valid response. Data collected are analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. It is revealed among others that most students do not have skills on how to use information resources; that information literacy skill forms the basis for independent lifelong learning. However, it is concluded that librarians should work hard to develop and integrate effective information literacy skill programmes to enhance students' research abilities, which include problem solving, creativity and presentation of ideas. The librarian should also provide assistance to the polytechnic students on how to get relevant resources and where to locate the resources using OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue).
282 Examination Anxiety and Shyness among Secondary School Students in Kwara State, Nigeria , O. A. Olakojo and M. O. Ojo
Shyness and examination anxiety are behavioural realities among students in this generation and because of its adverse effect in Nigeria educational system, it needs cogent and urgent intervention. This study investigates examination anxiety and shyness among students in secondary schools in Kwara State. Multistage sampling technique is used for selecting 600 secondary school students. At stage one, two hundred students were randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts in Kwara State: Kwara south, Kwara central and Kwara North. At stage two, the researchers stratified the respondents into different state based on variable of gender and class. In stage three, the researchers employed simple random sampling technique to select 600 secondary school students consisting of 330 males and 270 females. The questionnaire used is entitled “Examination Anxiety and Shyness Questionnaire (EASQ). T-test statistics is used to test the hypotheses. Findings show that the hypotheses 1 and 3 were significant and hypotheses 2 and 4 were not significant. The level of significance is set at 0.05 and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for hypotheses 3,4,5 and 6. Generally, the results show that majority of the respondents are examination-anxious and are shy. Implication of the findings is that shyness and examination anxiety are behavioural realities among students. Hence, the school counsellors should pay special attention to these students behavioural realities (shyness and examination anxiety).
283 Assessment of the Level of Environmental Education among Secondary School Students in Mubi Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria , M. H. Shalangwa; Jacod Helandadu; Abdu Shuaibu; A. E. Udonsa and S. I. Barguma
This survey investigates the level of environmental education among secondary school students in Mubi Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprises all secondary school students in Mubi Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Systematic sampling technique is employed to select four secondary schools in Mubi. A simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting fifty respondents from each school. Data are analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. Two hundred (200) copies of questionnaire with 20 structured questions are distributed to the respondents. The results reveal among others that students are not absolutely ignorant of environmental issues, but when they cleaned their environment, they dump refuse in drainage and road sides. The level of environmental awareness and management were inadequate. Also, based on survey and interview carried out, it was found that there were no environmental related clubs and association among schools to educate student on the environmental problems. Hence, there is need to enlighten and sensitize the individual’s knowledge and perception of the environment in order to enhance a sustainable habitable environment particularly in Mubi enclave
284 Teaching Anxiety, Emotional Labour and Job Stress as Correlates of Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria , O. E. Okoiye; N. E. Okezie and T. Onah
This study investigates teaching anxiety, emotional labour and job stress as correlates of expressed job satisfaction among teachers in Owerri, Nigeria. Using the descriptive survey research design of ex-post facto type employing questionnaire for data collection; one research question is answered and three research hypotheses are tested. Data are collected using four validated instruments, from four hundred (400) randomly selected teachers in Owerri. Analysis of data is done using Multiple Regression and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at .05 level of significance. The study reveals significant correlation between the independent variables (Teaching Anxiety, Emotional Labour and Job Stress) and the dependent variable (teachers job satisfaction in the following order of magnitude, teaching anxiety (R=0.216, p<0.05), emotional labour (R=0.174, p<0.05) and job stress (R=.158, p<0.05). The findings suggest that teachers should not be overburdened with teaching task and they should be given necessary support that would make them to be satisfied as well as motivate them well in their teaching task
285 The Challenges Facing Secondary Education Service Delivery under Decentralization by Devolution in Tanzania , Peter Mwemezi
This study investigates the challenges facing decentralization by devolution on public participation in secondary education service delivery in Tanzania. It is a descriptive research under which a cross-sectional survey is used to collect detailed information from Tanzania. The main focus is on the management of secondary education. The population of this study comprises national groups of local governance actors in education sector including officials from local government authorities and from district councils of Karagwe and Bukoba Municipality in Tanzania. The study employs purposive and simple random sampling techniques to draw 287 respondents. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The collected data from face to face and other group interviews are transcribed qualitatively. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 is used to analyze the quantitative data. The evidence obtained indicates that decentralized education governance is challenged in terms of policy decision and clear policy guideline, hence, the minimality of education decision-making at grass-roots level. However, the study also observes that, the local government agencies attempted little to encourage involvement in local needs particularly decision-making. But there are reasons to believe that given the opportunity to continue to institutionalize local government over a long period, and following the decentralization reform route, decentralization by devolution will gradually bring about better results.
286 Early Childhood Care Teachers Classroom Assessment Skills and Approaches in Mathematics in Owerri Educational Zone of Imo State, Nigeria , E. C. Unamba; N. N. Ewunonu; O. M. Nwaneri and G. C. Ibe
This study examines classroom assessment skills and approaches of early childhood education teachers in mathematics in Owerri Educational Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Two research hypotheses are formulated and tested for significant difference between the mean score of the variables. The population of the study consisted of all early childhood care teachers in public schools in Owerri Educational zone Imo State with population size of 1,037 teachers A sample of 213 early childhood education teachers is selected using stratified random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection is Assessment Skills Inventory (ASI) developed by the researchers and is validated by two experts in mathematics education and one expert in measurement and evaluation. The instrument has reliability coefficient of 0.91and 0.86 determined using Cronbach alpha reliability method. The data are analyzed using mean and standard deviation while t-test is used to test the two hypotheses formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. The results show that classroom assessment approaches used by early childhood education teachers are mostly class exercise, homework, test and quizzes as well as normal assessment test notes grading and communicating results. Also, the results show that female teachers are more skillful in written test items and communicating assessment results than their males counterpart. Consequently, it recommends that workshops and seminars should be organized for early childhood care education teachers on the use of assessment approaches
287 Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in English Speaking African Countries with their Teachings Implications , A. J. Saleh and A. A. Akoshi
The thrust of this work is to x-ray African native or indigenous languages and the intrusion of foreign languages in English speaking African countries. The aim is to reveal the  teachings implications. The English speaking African countries have had their languages and cultures before advent of colonialism because these two cannot be separated. The irony is that these foreign languages and cultures have infiltrated our languages and cultures; thereby causing a distortion just like what the French policy of assimilation and association has done. The work considers Anglophone countries as Britain and America who have colonized 23 and 1 respectively of the 54 countries, which constitutes 44.4% of the African countries. The study reveals that one of the implications of multilingualism in English speaking Africa is distortion of cultural values and norms. However, it maintains that multilingualism gives the nation/nations the opportunity to establish bilateral relation with the other parts of the world. Based on the findings of this work, it is concluded that Multilingualism and multiculturalism are endowments to the nations and peoples and should be encouraged. Hence, curriculum designers should design the curriculum to include the teaching of multilingualism at the primary, secondary and tertiary schools in the continent.
288 Awareness of modern contraceptives use and Family Planning Methods among Catholic Families in Hoima Diocese, Uganda , Rose Kyaligonza; Bibianna M. Ngundo and Johnson Mavole
This study examines the level of awareness of modern contraceptives use and family planning methods among Catholics of Hoima diocese in Uganda. The study is grounded on the Protection Motivation Theory and it adopts servey research design. Data are collected from 406 respondents mainly by use of questionnaire and interview guide. Quantitative data are analysed using descriptive statistical methods, such as frequency and percentage with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Chi-square is used to test the only hypothesis formulated for the study. The findings reveal that majority of the respondents were fully aware of contraceptives use. It is also found that awareness of contraceptives use influences Catholic family values. The study concludes that awareness of modern contraceptives use has negatively influenced Christian family values. It therefore advises that Church leaders should sensitize people on the Catholic teaching on contraception and on the Catholic family values which they must uphold
289 Involvement of Library Professional Associations in Development of Primary School Libraries in South East Nigeria , M. N. Ngwuchukwu and V. W. Dike
This study is on the involvement of library professional associations in the development of primary school libraries. The aim is to examine the factors and successes in South East Nigeria. The population of this study comprises all the library professional associations in South East Nigeria. It uses structured interview and document analysis schedule to generate data. The twenty key players in the professional associations purposively sampled participated in the study. Data are presented using the thematic order of reporting, which provides the themes for the content analysis. It indicates that professional associations were very active in the development of primary school libraries in the 1980’s to early 1990’s. The activities that were in place were awareness campaigns, training of teacher librarians, placing of jingles, lobbying of government and collaboration with other agencies. These activities helped in school library development, but dwindled from 1990 as a result of creation of new States, retirement of key players in the associations from civil service. It concludes that selfless and dedicated efforts on the part of professionals is believed to have the power to rekindle the development of primary school libraries in South East Nigeria
290 Managing the Challenges of Technical Education in the South-West Region of Cameroon: A Case study of selected secondary Schools in Fako and Meme Divisions , R. A. Abangncha and J. B. Besong
A survey has been conducted in selected secondary Schools in Fako and Meme Divisions in the South-West Region of Cameroon to examine how to manage the challenges of technical education. Data are collected from teachers, discipline masters, vice principals, principals and Regional Pedagogic Inspectors for technical education through questionnaire administered using stratified, convenience and random sampling to two hundred and forty (240) respondents randomly sampled from twelve technical secondary schools and the Regional Delegation of Secondary Education for the South-West Region. Four research hypotheses are formulated and tested using Chi-Square statistics. Computer software of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20) is used to bring out the tables for data presentation. The results reveal among others that effective human resources management have a significant impact on the challenges of technical education in emerging Cameroon. Hence, it recommends among other things that school administrators should undertake courses in human resources management while stakeholders should effectively utilize the resources provided to them for efficient management of technical education in Cameroon
291 Attaining Best Practices in Nigerian School Libraries through Policy Formulation and Implementation , M. N. Ngwuchukwu and V. W. Dike
This is historical survey of school library policy formulation and implementation as they affect best practices in Nigerian education. The aim is to evaluate the progress and pitfalls. It traces school library policy formulation and implementation as factors for attaining best practices in Nigeria from the inception of the National Policy on Education in 1977 to the present. Nigeria’s post-independence educational policy advocates an active, learner-centered and resource-based constructivist approach that demands a central role for school libraries as learning and resource centers. However, putting policy into practice has proved difficult in the almost 40 years that have followed. Since 1977, implementation has been attempted through a number of initiatives aimed at developing school libraries as a way of realizing the NPE vision. This study reveals that the policy implementation begins with the efforts of the Nigerian School Library Association that works with government in implementing NPE provisions on school libraries and the successful advocacy of school libraries by the Anambra State School Libraries Association and Bendel State Library Board at State level during the 1970s and 1980s. It continues by reviewing federal government programmes to improve primary education and school libraries through the National Primary Education Commission in 1989-1991 and the Universal Basic Education Commission from 1999 onwards. Policies concerned include those on provision of material resources and funding; those related to human resources, their training and position; and policies enabling use of school libraries as “the heart” of any education system.
292 Post-Civil War Experience and Women with Disabilities in Nigeria , U. U. Effiong; Kingdom Mboho and Steve Wordu
This work examines post-civil war experience and women with disabilities in Nigeria, fifty years after the War. Literature is replete with conditions or dimensions of disabilities created by the Nigerian Civil War. Both men and women were wounded and amputated during the war. Some have died, some are still alive. Often times, the war-induced people with disabilities (PWDs) have lived in abject poverty and not received adequate care or assistance. In fact, they have been subjected to series of inhumane treatment by the society they fought to keep united. Painful enough, people with disabilities are often excluded from development policies and programmes that concerned them. CommunityBased Rehabilitation is central to the achievement of satisfactory empowerment of PWDs, because of its capacity to be implemented through the combined effort of people with disabilities themselves, their families, organizations and communities and the relevant governmental and non-governmental health, education, vocational, social and other services. The core of this study is that a cost-effective strategy should be employed to reach women with disabilities within their own communities. This approach makes use of existing community services and promotes inclusion instead of exclusion. As advocated by Obiozor and Koledoye (2011), government authorities and stakeholders must ensure that WWDs benefit from the gains of the 1993 Nigeria with Disabilities Decree, and access quality healthcare, literacy, security, vocational and special education and democracy, especially through community-based rehabilitation strategy
293 Students’ Attitude towards E-Learning in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Nigeria , Emmanuel Umoh and N. E. Udoh
E-learning is now emerging as an advanced paradigm for higher education. This study is conducted to measure the attitude of students towards e-learning in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua, Ikot Ekpene. The population comprises all the students admitted in the Polytechnic during 2014/2015 academic year. A stratified random sampling and cluster techniques are used to select a sample of 850 students from the Polytechnic. A well designed (structured) questionnaire is developed for data collection. The interaction effect between gender and programme of study, gender and stream of study, stream of study and programme of study and the secondary effect between gender, programme of study and stream of study are considered. The data are analysed on frequency table. Analysis of variance is employed to test the interaction effect. The results reveal greater frequency of acceptance of elearning and that students' attitude towards e-learning is independent of gender, stream of study and programme of studies. The results do not show any significant difference in their attitude as expressed in the questionnaire. Hence, e-learning facilities should be provided in Akwa Ibom State Polytechnic to aid e-learning and the e-library orientation should be revolutionalized to enable students conceptualized the use of e-library
294 Awareness and Usage of Online Databases among Postgraduate Students in Library and Information Programmes in Universities in South-South, Nigeria , Odede Edesiri
This work examines awareness and use of online databases among postgraduate students in library schools in South-South Nigeria. A survey was conducted using questionnaire to collect data from a total of 121 postgraduate students in the three library schools accredited by the NUC and the LRCN to offer Library and Information Programmes at postgraduate level in South-South Nigeria. Data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings indicate that the level of awareness of online databases among LIS postgraduate students in the three institutions under study is low and this affected their usage as they were underutilized. Furthermore, the findings of the study identify lack of awareness of the existence of relevant online databases, inconsistence of electricity supply, lack of/inadequate information (Internet) skill as major impediments to the access to and use of online databases. This paper, therefore, recommends that libraries intensify their awareness campaigns for the online databases which they subscribed to and ensure that they subscribe to relevant online databases in order to avoid their underutilization which is bound to occur if libraries keep subscribing to online databases that are not relevant to disciplines within the institutions. In addition, the study recommends that libraries organize user education and workshop on the use of online databases and provide constant electricity supply.
295 Re-Orientation of Moral Value System in Nigeria: The Roles of Women as Change Agents , O. O. Ojo and A. B. Abibu
The re-orientation of value system in Nigeria is a look into the past for national culture that would reshape national character and image. This work, therefore, examines the value system in Nigeria in pre-colonial era and Colonial period. This work on re-orientation of value system is focused on redeeming Nigerian society currently faced with crushing identity crisis, resulting, from misplacement of value that led to misunderstanding of the purpose of human life through the role of women in the society. The study reveals that values have either positive or negative effects on the social, economic, political, and cultural lives of the society.In order to avert the ugly implications of the debased values system in Nigeria. It recommends among others investment in women’s participation in community relations and community development. In addition, the National Orientation Agency should embark on re-orientation campaign and enlightenment on the effect of debased values in the country
296 The Challenges and Prospects of Promoting Visual Arts Education for Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria , M. O. Ogunmola
The study discusses the concept of poverty and elucidates the various method of measurement used in evaluating poverty though visual arts in Nigeria. It also shows the table of poverty level from 1950 to projection of 2025 in Nigeria. It further shows the juxtaposition level of poverty in Nigeria based on settlement vis-à-vis rural and urban population between 1958 and 2025 in Nigeria. It was concluded that Visual Art is a subject that can bring gainful employment for the school leaver. Hence, there is need to change the societal attitudes towards this discipline in order to motivate prospective artists and those who may be interested in the discipline to alleviate poverty
297 Creative Writing as a Driving Force in The Making of a Society , G. U. Saleh
Creative writing in Nigeria and indeed Africa has gone on actively for over half a century and has passed several stages. The themes treated however, range from cultural conflict at the early stage to economic and social problems at the later stage. Considering the rate at which the world is changing rapidly there is need for a corresponding change in creative writing. This study is a result of my personal experience of several years of studying the subject both as a student and a lecturer from the mid-eighties to the present day. The work highlights the role a writer should play in the making of a society; it essentially reflects writing in the past, the present and juxtaposes the two with a view to focusing on the future. The work proposes that whatever positions a writer may take or the class he may belong to, his writing should serve as a spring board for moving the society forward. This should be commensurate to the period, place and circumstances in which the society finds itself
298 Social Studies Education as an Antidote to Corruption among Political Class in Nigeria , J. Okogu
The study investigated Social Studies education as antidote to corruption among political class in Nigeria. The researcher discovered that social studies focus on citizenship education. Citizenship is the process through which Nigeria political class can acquire and internalize the values, sentiments and societal norms that is relevant to occupying political offices including anti-social and unguided political exuberance. It is with this mind-set that the researcher recommended among others that: Nigeria political class should be given general orientation on social studies education, they should acquire social skills that involves self-control in public offices and to be very familiar with the common values of our societies as enshrined in the constitution of the federal Republic of Nigeria
299 Sociolinguistic Assessment of the Attempts to proffer Solution to the National Language Question in a Multilingual Nigerian Environment , E. T. Enang and S. T. Udoka
This study takes a look at the multilingual posture of Nigeria in the light of the national language question. It assesses the sociolinguistic factors that had hitherto prevented attempts to proffer appropriate answers to the national language question. It addresses from a different angle the age-long Nigerian (black man) penumbra and the vexed issue of language question in Nigeria as a conglomeration of many ethnic nationalities loosely existing as a multilingual one-entity. This study keeps on bearing in mind the frustrating roles which the dense multilingualism, multiculturalism and multiethnicity have hitherto played against the national desire and effort to choose a national language for Nigeria. It is the intention of the researchers of this work to re-assess the existing scholarly positions and opinions of contributors on this issue in order to be in a better platform to proffer a lasting answer and draw a conclusion on the issue which will be devoid of grounds that would nurture threats to the cooperate existence of Nigeria and to the language question. This study therefore, suggests among others that a dicey matter such as the one on hand should be given a fair hearing at both the lower and the upper houses of the federation legislature
300 French Language Education in Nigeria: Significance and Status , A. J. Saleh
French is one of the international languages most widely used in commerce, science, technology, research, administration, education, literature among others. This study reviews French language education in Nigeria. The objective is to examine the significance and status of French as one of the international languages studied in Nigeria. The work tries to find out the reasons for learning French language in Nigeria. Literature shows that French is a foreign language in Nigeria because it is not indigenous to any ethnic group in Nigeria. It has an unfamiliar phonology in a multilingual and diverse cultural society such as Nigeria. The work recommends that the teaching of French language should be included in the primary school curriculum since the language has gained an international status. The teaching of the language should also be restructured in the secondary school curriculum where every student would learn the language beyond Junior Secondary School level.
301 Enhancing Senior Secondary Schools Students' Speaking Skill in English as a Second Language Through Teachers' Verbal Questioning in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria , O. O. Deji-Afuye and C. A. O. Olowoyeye
Questioning is an inseparable part of a classroom teaching/learning process that facilitate students' respone. This study, therefore, investigate students' speaking skills in English as a Second Language classroom through teachers' verbal questioning. Ninety students and ten English language teachers from five senior secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria are randomly selected as participants. Classroom observation and questionnaire schedule are used for data collection and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact Test and regression analysis are adopted for the test of hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The result shows that teachers' questioning significantly facilitates students' speaking skill in English as Second Language. It also reveals that the most used type of question among others is close/display questions which do not really facilitate much students' classroom responses. The study, therefore, recommends that teachers should be aware of the importance of questioning as a fundamental skill for effective teaching and facilitating students speaking skill. Teachers should be trained on using all types of questions where the focus would be on leading students to higherlevel thinking in order to promote active interactions during classroom participation
302 Photocopy and Copyright Violation in Academic Libraries: A Case Study of Fatiu Ademola Akesode Library in Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria , K. O. Akalumhe; A. A. Bamgbose; A. M. Sulaiman and S. A. Gbenu
This study aims at evaluating the levels of photocopying and violation of Copyright Law in Nigeria at the Lagos State University Library, Ojo. This study is a descriptive survey. The population comprises all students of Lagos State University, Ojo. The number of students is listed according to their faculties. A sample of 1,300 respondents is randomly sampled from a total of 35,000 students enrolled for full time programmes. The instrument for data collection is the questionnaire. Frequency table and simple percentage are used to analyse the data. Findings reveal that majority of the respondents are aware of the existence of copyright law in Nigeria but continue to rely mostly on photocopying of copyrighted materials for their studies. They unanimously admit that there are reprimands for copyright violation though mild. Consequentlly, Nigerian copyright commission should intensify its efforts in ensuring that libraries at tertiary institutions in Nigeria penalize any form of copyright violation by photocopier operators.
303 Improvisation and Usefulness of a Scaling Board In Inverse Proportion Problem Solving , F. C. Y. Aprebo and Uranta Soba
This study on improvisation of a Scaled-Board and its usefulness in inverse proportion problem, is basically concerned with how a model is improvised to teach an inverse proportion topic in Mathematics which portrays the practical bit of the mathematics. A simple pretest-posttest experimental design and control groups design are used. The model is tested on a randomised sample of 50 students randomly selected from 200 students, out of which 25 of them were taken for the experimental group while the other 25 were taken for the control group. Mathematics Achievement Test of 3 questions was given to the sampled groups before and after treatment.It explores the stages of the Scaled-Board preparation and how the model is used in solving the inverse proportion topics in Mathematics. The finding shows that the scaledBoard is more effective than the calculation method.
304 Computation of Inverse of N − Square Matrices Using Crammer’s Rule for the Solution of Linear Equations , E. D. John
A method for computing the inverse of square matrices is discussed in this work. The aim is to develop an alternative method for the computation of inverse A-1 of an )×) matrix. By employing Crammer’s rule used for the solution of linear system of equations, an inverse of the matrix A is obtained as a coefficient of a catalytic column vector of a supposed solution of linear system of equation . However, a separate computation is not needed for the adjoint of the matrix since this process is absorbed by the Crammer’s rule. Therefore, practical illustrations are given to demonstrate the applicability of the method.
305 Impact of Information Literacy on Students’ Academic Performance: The Case of American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola, Adamawa State , Aliyu, Zainab Bappa and Chiwar, Mary Anthony
This survey examines the impact of information literacy on students’ academic performance in American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola. Three research questions guide this study. The population comprises all the undergraduate students that registered with the university library from the three schools. Based on Simple random sampling technique, a sample of 107 students is selected for the study. The collection instrument is a questionnaire. Out of 107 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 86 which give a response rate of 80.4% are returned and used for analysis. Data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency counts, percentage and tables. The findings reveale that delivering information literacy skills is one of the major needs for Information Literacy; library orientation constitutes the major responsibility of Information Literacy Unit, Information Literacy enhances accessibility, evaluation, processing and use of information for academic activities and diverse groups with different backgrounds, lack of learning zeal from the students, uncooperative attitude of library staff and inadequate orientation time are the major challenges associated with information literacy in American University of Nigeria Library.
306 Impact of Information Literacy on Students’ Academic Performance: The Case of American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola, Adamawa State , Aliyu, Zainab Bappa and Chiwar, Mary Anthony
This survey examines the impact of information literacy on students’ academic performance in American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola. Three research questions guide this study. The population comprises all the undergraduate students that registered with the university library from the three schools. Based on Simple random sampling technique, a sample of 107 students is selected for the study. The collection instrument is a questionnaire. Out of 107 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 86 which give a response rate of 80.4% are returned and used for analysis. Data are analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency counts, percentage and tables. The findings reveale that delivering information literacy skills is one of the major needs for Information Literacy; library orientation constitutes the major responsibility of Information Literacy Unit, Information Literacy enhances accessibility, evaluation, processing and use of information for academic activities and diverse groups with different backgrounds, lack of learning zeal from the students, uncooperative attitude of library staff and inadequate orientation time are the major challenges associated with information literacy in American University of Nigeria Library.
307 Information Policy and Nigeria's National Development , Bernadette Adams
This review on information policy seeks to indicate the relationship between library and information policy and how it contributes to national development in Nigeria. It is evident that the role of the library in such an endeavour is crucial and remarkable but is gradually diminishing as information technology progresses. Information technology has overshadowed and remarkably cast aside library significance since early 19’s. Analysis has revealed that no nation can develop rapidly when the library is not part and parcel of its information policy agenda. Giving too much priority to information technology invites information policy flaws. The role of library should not be abandoned, but should instead be returned to its place, in order to have a holistic, balanced and wise information policy
308 Influence of Interactive White Boards on Students Academic Achievement in Mathematics in American University of Nigeria Academy , Yakura Shiwaye Bassa
This study examines the influence of interactive white boards on students’ academic achievement in American University of Nigeria Academy. The survey research method was used. The population of 10 teachers and sample of 90 students are randomly selected from the population of 258. Questionnaire is constructed on 4 point likert scale and was used for data collection. Mean score and standard deviation are used to answer the three research questions. The result shows that there is availability of Interactive White Boards in American university of Nigeria Academy and the use of the Interactive white boards in teaching mathematics has improved student academic achievement. Recommendation among others are, the school administration should organize workshop and seminar for mathematics teachers to update them on the new skills on the use of interactive whiteboards in teaching mathematics, students should be permitted to use the interactive white boards in collaborative learning in order to enhance their understanding.
309 A Review of the Trends and Issues affecting Academic Libraries in Higher Institutions in Nigeria , Bernadette Adams
There have been developmental changes in the society because of its dynamic nature. This developmental changes cut across every sphere of life including library and information science. In view of this, the traditional methods of discharging library services are gradually going into extermination thereby necessitating the move along with times. This paper therefore focuses on the nature of information carriers in the past, the modern trends in librarianship. It further accounts for the challenges faced by librarians who use these information technologies in the library and information services provision. It also examines the historical antecedents of library materials that have evolved over the years. The paper concludes with suggestions for improvement.
310 Mechanisms Used By School Principals to Achieve Effective Instructional Supervision in Delta State Public Secondary Schools, Nigeria , Oroye-Okpoudhu, Rachael Zino
This study examined mechanisms used by principals to achieve effective instructional supervision in Delta State public secondary schools. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. The study is a descriptive survey adopting the ex-post-facto design. The population of the study was 452 public secondary school principals in Delta State as at 2018/2019 academic year. Stratified sampling technique was used to sample 226 public secondary school principals in Delta State. A self-developed instrument titled “Instructional Supervision Mechanism Questionnaire (ISMQ)” was used to gather information from the respondents. The responses were converted into mean scores and standard deviation for the purpose of answering the research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Result shows that principals in Delta State public secondary school use instructional supervision mechanism such as; checking of teachers’ lesson note/plan, ensure that teachers follow the scheme of work, classroom visitation, teachers use useful instructional materials, provide feedback to teachers soon after classroom visitation and recommend ways teachers can enhance their instruction. Also administrative experiences of principals influence their use of instructional supervision mechanism in Delta State public secondary schools. It is consequently recommended among others that principals in Delta State secondary schools should continue to apply mechanisms such as checking of teachers’ lesson note/plan and ensure that teachers use useful instructional materials, provide feedback to teachers soon after classroom visitation and recommend ways teachers can enhance their instruction.
311 Portuguese Language for Education and Economic Development in Africa , Aria John Saleh
The thrust of this study is to examine the nexus between Portuguese Language for Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa. The study attempts to identify the number of Portuguese speaking countries in Africa. The study also identifies the language family of the Portuguese language as well as the percentage of Portuguese speakers in each region. Consequently, Africa must operate first in African languages. However, rooms must also be made for learning major world languages as foreign languages are intended to facilitate communication with the outside world but not for communication within. Hence, the Portuguese government should liaise with respective countries globally for the purpose of inculcating the language in their language curriculum at the tertiary level of education.
312 Education, Social Mobility and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria: A Sociological Perspective , Otu Ekpenyong; Aniefiok Sunday Ukommi and Emmanuel Obiahu Agha
This sudy contributes to the arguments by scholars in the social sciences over the relationship existing among education, social mobility and poverty reduction using Nigeria as a case study. The argument has been championed by those in the functionalist camp who have established that education guarantees higher social mobility and poverty reduction. In fact, it is argued that it is true that higher educational attainment or qualifications are a strong predicator for higher social mobility and living above the poverty line in an open society, but this link cannot be adequately established in the Nigerian context because of high rate of unemployment. Increased unemployment has ensured that many graduates, even up to doctorates, roam the streets of Nigeria unemployed. We have also argued that this high unemployment rate perpetuates poverty among significant number of Nigerians and in turn, poverty ensures that a lot of people remain untaught (without formal education). An appraisal of some poverty alleviation programmes reveal that these programmes have failed to minimise poverty because of certain structural and policy problems such as inadequate funding, corruption, inadequate coordination, political instability, infrastructural inadequacies and lack of proper focus, among others. The study recommends, among other things, that tackling the problems of unemployment in an effective manner will inevitably reduce poverty and help Nigerians attain the quality education that can develop our nation, and that adequate funding should be provided to our educational institutions so as to guarantee their accessibility by all Nigerians.
313 Relationship between Lesson Implementation and Intrinsic Motivation of Pre-service Physical Educators in Universities in the Border Provinces of Southern Thailand , * Singha Tulyakul, Orapin Tipdech, Wilaipin Thongprasert, Taewaet Junhom, Kasem Pantusa, Nom Sangthong, Namchok Buaduang, Teeraphan Sangkaew, Chawapong Metheethammawat, Katcha Sirirattanapun, Mathee Kaewsanit, Piyorot Puichumpol and Chanasit Kaewmanee
This study investigates the relationship between lesson implementation and intrinsic motivation of pre-service physical educators in Universities in the Border Provinces of Southern Thailand. This research adopts a cross-sectional research design. The instrument for data collection has three sections (backgrounds, intrinsic motivation for teaching, and lesson implementation) adopted from Tulyakul (2019). The participants are 141 pre-service physical educators in five universities in the border provinces of Southern Thailand. The findings reveal that the levels of lesson implementation and intrinsic motivation are high. Hence, there is a positive relationship between the lesson implementation and the intrinsic motivation of pre-service physical educators. Consequently, it is recommended that to improve the teaching effectiveness of pre-service physical educators in the universities in the border provinces of Southern Thailand, they should enhance their ability in lesson implementation and develop their intrinsic motivation in teaching.
314 Information and Communication Technology as a Tool for Effective Teaching: A Case Study of Special Education Centre, Bauchi, Nigeria , Yunusa Abubakar and Al-Munnir Abubakar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability and acceptability of information and communication technology (ICT) as a Tool for effective teaching using Special Education Centre, Bauchi as a case. This Centre was selected because of high number of special education teachers in the school. Descriptive survey design was employed. The study targeted all special education teachers in the centre. Purposive sampling was used to sample the respondents who participated in the study. The instrument used for collection of data was teachers‘ questionnaire. To ascertain the validity and reliability of the instruments, independent judges were used to review them, test re-test was done and pilot study was conducted. Data collected were presented using descriptive methods such as frequency and percentages. The major finding shows that despite the teachers‘ readiness to use ICT facilities, the study found that the facilities were generally lacking in the centre. The study recommends that government should provide adequate ICT facilities in the centre so as to promote effective teaching. The study further recommends that teachers should be trained and encouraged to accept the use of ICT facilities for teaching students with disabilities. The study also recommends that school authority should ensure provision and maintenance of standby power generator in case of power failure.
315 Teacher-Students’ Relationship and Students’ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Magu District, Tanzania , Mahona Joseph Paschal and Demetria Gerold Mkulu
This study explored the influence of teacher – students’ relationship on students’ academic performance in Tanzania using Magu District as a case study. The sample for this study was 130 respondents that were drawn from six public secondary schools both by using rondom sampling and purposive sampling; 6 school Heads, 57 teachers, 66 students and one District Educational Officer. A descriptive survey approach was used in this study. In order to get information, the researcher used questionnaire and interview as instruments. The results of this study indicated that teacher–students’ relationship is a crucial determinant and catalyst to academic performance in Tanzanian public secondary schools. The study identified among others that teacher - students relationships helps students to feel cared for by their teachers, helps students to have freedom of expression in the classroom and help teachers and students to be an integral part of the classroom as they participate actively. From the findings, it is concluded that despite the fact that teachers and students were aware of the elements of teacher- students relationships poor teacher – student relationships were still recorded in schools. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers should introduce close relationshis with students. Also, the study recommended that, performance of students can only be attained if teacher – students relationships will be maintained.
316 Establishing the Nexus between Technical Education and Industrial Development in Nigeria , Emmanuel Obiahu Agha; Aniefiok Sunday Ukommi; Otu Ekpenyong and Umo Umoh Effiong
The role of education (especially technical education) in the development of great countries of the world is not doubtful. Ordinarily, one expects such a result in Nigeria, given the abundance of human, natural and financial resources in the country. However, this is far from being realised in the country and calls for a critical inquiry into the forces behind low industrial development in Nigeria. This study critically evaluates the role of technical education in Nigeria’s industrial development. This evaluation reveals that technical education and industrialization in Nigeria are bedevilled by several challenges. Therefore, the work argues that as far as technical education in Nigeria is still battling with the challenges of underfunding, lack of basic facilities and workshops, weak government policy and poor implementation, inadequate power generation and supply, corruption, political influence, problems related to curriculum and the colonial mentality of being a form of education for the educationally disadvantaged individuals, which still drives the current discrimination against graduates of polytechnics, monotechnics, and universities, it will continually lack the impetus to ensure rapid industrial development in the country. Pertinently, far-reaching suggestions for achieving industrial development in Nigeria through her technical education and training programme are proposed.