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Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA: RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE , Jimme, M. A.; Kagu, A. and Yahya, S. A.
This study which adopted literature review research design was conducted to examine the religious and cultural perspectives in environmental resources management in Borno State, Nigeria. Data were generated from the secondary sources as well as photographs. It examined the concepts of resources management with a focus on local strategies as adopted by communities in the study area. It specifically dwelled on Man's perception and needs of local resources. It also highlighted the religious ethics on resources management and brought to the fore the process of Man's exploitation and responses to management of various environmental resources. The article advocated for the integration of both local and advance environmental management strategies in order to achieve a sustainable environment.
2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CONCENTRATION OF URBAN RIVER: A SEASONAL ASSESSMENT OF RIVER ALA IN AKURE, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA , *Ayeni, A.O.; Balogun, I. I. and Soneye, A. S. O.
This study was necessitated by the peoples' consideration of water from rivers as substitute to the reigning incidence of water shortage in the downstream of the river. Six locations in River Ala upstream were chosen spatially within the urban built-up to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities that are capable of changing the quality of river water. Coefficient of variation and Correlation coefficient were respectively used to test for homogeneity and significant relationship of paired parameters. Water samples were collected for a period of 12 months, and were analyzed for physicochemical parameters which include ph, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, nitrate, iron and zinc using standard procedures. For spatial reference the location of sampling points were determined with GPS and interpolated on digitized topographical map sheets of the study area. It was observed that variation exists in the quality of the sampled waters and impaired to different degrees using WHO standards for the selected parameters.It was recommended among others that the residents along River Ala in the upstream environment should embrace the culture of using waste incinerator and disposing management instead of discharging their waste to River Ala.
3 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BAMBOO-PIPE (Bambusa vulgaris, Schrad) AND MEDI-EMITTER IN A GRAVITY-FLOW DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM , Awe, G. O. and Ogedengbe, K.
The use of bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris, Schrad) in gravity - flow drip irrigation was evaluated at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria with leaf amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) as test crop. The system involved the use of bamboo as the conveyance structure and medical infusion sets as dripper to deliver water to the field at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 drops of water/minutes. The variation in discharge ranged from 6.35 to 10.21 percent as the flow rate decreases from 30 to 10 drops of water/minute. The study revealed that there was an increase in plant height on average of four weeks after sowing while an optimum yield of 4.13Kg/m2 was recorded from 15 drops of water/minute. This is a new dimension in affordable drip irrigation technology and an avenue to exploit local and cheap materials whose propagation should be emphasized.
4 POPULATION DYNAMICS AND VEGETATION CHANGE IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA , Hula, M. A.
This study of population dynamics and vegetation change in Benue State was carried out primarily to analyse the trends in population growth and how the population increase has influenced vegetation degradation/change in the State. The data for the study were sourced and collected through direct field and visual observation and materials from journals, books, extracts from NPC's Office Makurdi. The study revealed that though records about vegetation degradation and population dynamics were less documented in the State yet vegetation is one of the primary suppliers of resources for human use in the State. Hence population size and its composition generate the demands for these resources and then impacting on the vegetation resources negatively. Finally, the study concluded that human population increase and non-sustainable production coupled with consumption patterns, is placed at the centre of vegetation change in the State.
5 TREND OF RAINFALL IN ABEOKUTA, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA: A 2-YEAR EXPERIENCE (2006-2007) , Obot, N. I. and Onyeukwu, O. N.
Rainfall influences a lot of human activities like farming, sports and open air campaigns. It also influences environmental factors like level of water bodies and erosion. A 2-year rainfall data of Abeokuta between 2006 - 2007 was analysed using various statistical applications like the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and the parametric student t-test for two separate time series of monthly total rainfall and rainy days. The result revvealed that the pattern of rainfall rises to a peak before falling to the 'August break', and rises to a mini peak before falling again into extinction. The results also showed an increasing trend from both the non-parametric and parametric tests with a rate of increase of 3.21mm/month using the total amount of rainfall time series, aside showing the seasonality of the location which possibly would not have been revealed if yearly data of large size were considered.
6 REPLACEMENT VALUE OF SPROUTED SORREL (Hibiscus sabdariffa) SEED MEAL FOR GROUNDNUT CAKE IN THE DIET OF GROWING RABBITS , Igwebuike, J. U.; Kwari, I. D.; Diarra, S. S.; Maggawa, D. D.; Garba, A. P. and Musa, R.
In a six-week feeding trial, the effect of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with sprouted sorrel seed meal (SSM) on the performance of growing rabbits was investigated. Twenty cross-bred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand white) aged 6 weeks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. The SSM replaced GNC at 0 %(control), 10%, 20%, and 30% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The diets and clean drinking water were offered ad-libitum throughout the period of the experiment. Data were collected on the growth and haematological parameters. It was discovered among others that there was no significant dietary effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio. However, a significantly higher daily gain was recorded on the 20% compared to the control and the 30% replacement diets, daily gain had the poorest value on the 30% replacement diet. The cost of the feed was linearly reduced as the level of SSM increased. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that replacing 20% of the GNC in the diet of growing rabbits with SSM will reduce the cost of rabbit meat production without adverse effects on the growth and haematological indices of the rabbits.
7 SALIENT ISSUES IN FISH MARKETING SYSTEM IN NIGERIA , Agbebi, F. O.
The importance of fishery products and its marketing had always been an important discourse among scholars due to its contributions to Gross National Product and the per capita income of fishermen in Nations with fishing capabilities. In Nigeria, however, given increasing demand for fish, there seems to be a potentially strong market for the product. Since markets determine marketing policies,it has to be considered before policy making can start. This paper therefore focuses on salient issues in fish marketing in Nigeria. Its various stages of development were considered. It was revealed that the key roles of storage and processing are the main factors aimed at improving fish marketing in Nigeria.Among others the development of large-scale post harvests technologies and the improvement of transportation systems that can support the delivery of fish products to market has been recommended.
8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN IKA NORTH EAST AND IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Ogboi, E. and Kperegbeyi, J. I.
The survey on solid waste generation in Ika urban and rural environs was conducted to explore the environmental consequences. 240 respondents were randomly selected for the study. The data obtained were tabulated and subjected to descriptive analysis. The major causes for increased solid waste generation in these areas were identified to be increased population, earning and urbanization. It was observed that the nature of waste generated in Ika urban was mostly garbage; while in the rural area was agricultural waste and garbage. The major means of waste disposal in Ika urban was incinerator, while open dumping in the rural areas. However, proper waste disposal campaign among others was recommended.
9 EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF WESTERN HARTEBEEST (Alcelaphus buselaphus) IN OLD OYO NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA , Akinyemi, A. F. and Kayode, I. B.
This study on the effect of agricultural practices on the distribution of Western Hartebeest was carried out in Old Oyo National Park, using Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) methods and structured questionnaire to collect information. Animal census survey was also carried out in the park using line transect method to determine the distribution pattern of Western Hartebeest in Sites 'A' the core zones of the park without human activities, and site 'B' the park with human and agricultural activities. T distribution paired test, ANOVA and percentages were used for statistical analyses. The result revealed that there is no significant difference in the purposes of using fire but significantly differs in the distribution of Western Hartebeest in both sites. Therefore, conservation education and modern techniques of agriculture such as planting of hybrids with high yield quality, pest and disease resistance should be introduced to the farmers.
10 THE COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF INCORPORATING BITTER LEAF (Vernonia amygdalina) MEAL IN BROILER FINISHERS’ DIET , Owen, O. J.; Amakiri, A. O. and Ezeano, C. I.
The cost benefit analysis of incorporating bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) meal (VALM) in broiler finishers' diet was evaluated in a four week feeding trial. A total of 144 Marshal brooded broilers weighing 500 - 610g were allocated to four dietary treatments with 12 birds each being a replicate and 3 replicates comprising a treatment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Weekly weight gain and daily feed intake were recorded while the cost of feed was also determined. Results of feed conversion ratio (feed : gain), cost/kg feed, cost of total feed consumed, cost/kg weight gain, net benefit and cost benefit ratio were significantly different. Animals fed with VALM diets performed better than the control. Also the costs of feeding were better in the treated groups than the control. The result indicated that there was no mortality in all the groups suggesting the safety of incorporating VALM in animal diets.
11 COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES , Egbula, F. U.
The popular literature in development communication is found in innovation diffusion studies. Most diffusion programmes are supported with media plan. This study attempted objective evaluation of the communication strategies for the campaign on agricultural improvement practices in five developing countries namely: Pakistan, India, Philipine, Senegal and Mexico. The literature on the agricultural information systems addressed the organized mobilization of the peasant farmers to adopt modern agricultural practices. The multistep-flow theory of information diffusion in large clientele systems was used to evaluate the communication strategy that supported the campaign program in the five countries. This approach paved the way for the understanding of innovation diffusion process in complex target populations. It was recommended that the traditional mass media of communications alone did not effectively support the diffusion process. Rather, the use of a combination of the mass media and some variations in the use of interpersonal network led to effective diffusion process.
12 MAIZE (Zea mays L.) GENETIC ADVANCES THROUGH S1 RECURRENT SELECTION IN ETHIOPIA , Leta Tulu Bedada and Habte Jifar
This paper presented the genetic gain and progress made in improving grain yield, plant height, ear placement, resistance to lodging and other desirable agronomic traits in Ukuruguru Composite B (UCB) maize variety through two cycles of selection. Three hundred and sixty and two hundred and fifty-four S1 families were evaluated in three environments and 36 and 25 families were selected following 10% selection intensity during the first (C1) and the second (C2) cycles, respectively. The progress made through selection was determined by evaluating the parent population (UCB C0), the first and the second selection cycles in six environments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Commercial open pollinated and hybrid varieties were included as checks. UCB S1 C2 produced mean grain yield and had a significant genetic gain with mean gain. It was concluded that two cycles of S1 recurrent selection have brought significant genetic improvement in grain yield and major agronomic traits in UCB. Hence UCB S1C2 was fully released and recommended for commercial production in the mid altitude (1600-1800 masl) agro ecologies of Jimma and Illubabore zones, in South Western part of Ethiopia.
13 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ADOPTION OF AGRO-CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY BY SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN KWALI AREA COUNCIL OF ABUJA FCT, NIGERIA , Bello, M.; Ibrahim, H. I.; Salau, E. S.; Kaura, A. G. and Age, A. I.
The study was conducted to determine factors influencing the adoption of agro-chemicals technology by small-scale farmers in Kwali area council, of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data for the study. Ten respondents were randomly selected from each of the eight districts making the area council giving a total of eighty respondents. Statistical tools involving means, frequency and percentage were used to analyze the data. Ordinary least square linear regression was used to determine factors influencing the adoption of agro-chemicals technology in the study area. The results of the study revealed that gender, age, farm income, marital status and years of farming experience have positive influence on the adoption of agro-chemicals in the study area. Management of Abuja Agricultural Development Project should endeavour to encourage farmers to form strong coherent group such as cooperatives to control agro-chemicals prices supplied by input representatives.
14 THE EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENTS ON GERMINATION OF SEEDS OF Aframomum melegueta (ALLIGATOR PEPPER) IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA , Aronu, A. J.; Nwachukwu, O. C. and Adebayo, O.
The seeds of Afromomum melegueta are difficult to germinate due to seed dormancy. This has made this medicinally important species unpopular. Experimentation was carried out in the Eastern Research station of Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Nursery at Umuahia, to test the influence of 3 pre-germination seed treatments of the seeds of Aframomum melegueta. Simple Complete Randomized Design experiment with 4 replicates was used. The hot water treatment showed a significant influence on the germination percentage and significantly different from potash solution and un-boiled water which are statistically the same with the control.
15 INFLUENCE OF SOME SOIL PROPERTIES ON THE UPTAKE OF LEAD AND CHROMIUM BY Telfairia occidentalis , Orhue, R. E. and Uzu, F.
Trials were conducted between September and December in the year 2009 to determine the relationship between some soil properties and heavy metal uptake by Telfairia occidentalis using correlation coefficient (r) analysis. In the greenhouse, soil sample collected from surface 0-15 depth of soil was bulked mixed thoroughly, air dried, sieved and thereafter 5 kg weighed and put in each of the 96 pots. Each of the heavy metals (chromium nitrate Cr (N03)2 .9H20 and lead nitrate Pb (N03)2) was applied at 0, 50, 100, 200 mg per 5 kg soil. While in the field, the heavy metal rates of 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 equivalents to 0, 50,100,200 mg per 5 kg soil were used in a treatment combination of 2 x 4 factorial organized in Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates and each replicate had 32 pots. Results revealed that the soil pH, amorphous Al oxide, amorphous Fe oxide, free Al oxide, free Fe oxide, available Phosphorus (P), effective cation exchange capacity, organic carbon (C), sand, silt and clay negatively correlated with lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) uptake by the plant and were significant at (P<0.05) level of probability. Also, revealed that increase in these soil properties decrease the uptake of these metals. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain these soil properties at higher levels to reduce the heavy metal uptake by Telfairia occidentalis.
16 RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATIONS IN KEANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U. and Mamman, B. D.
The study examined resource use efficiency in Sesame Production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Keana Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, coefficient of variation, production function and gross margin analysis. Results show that inputs were used not based on recommended rates by both categories of farmers. On the average, farmers that applied inorganic fertilizer earned higher income than those who applied organic fertilizer. Resources were used at suboptimal levels under the two technologies. Therefore, it was recommended among others that extension agents should incorporate sesame farmers into their extension service so that they will be guided on the recommended quantity of inputs to be used and be encouraged to substitute high cost inorganic fertilizer for low cost organic fertilizer, applied at recommended quantity to ensure higher yield.
17 RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY IN SESAME (Sesamum indicum L.) PRODUCTION UNDER ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS APPLICATIONS IN KEANA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U. and Mamman, B. D.
The study examined resource use efficiency in Sesame Production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Keana Local Government Area, Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, coefficient of variation, production function and gross margin analysis. Results show that inputs were used not based on recommended rates by both categories of farmers. On the average, farmers that applied inorganic fertilizer earned higher income than those who applied organic fertilizer. Resources were used at suboptimal levels under the two technologies. Therefore, it was recommended among others that extension agents should incorporate sesame farmers into their extension service so that they will be guided on the recommended quantity of inputs to be used and be encouraged to substitute high cost inorganic fertilizer for low cost organic fertilizer, applied at recommended quantity to ensure higher yield.
18 FARMERS' USE OF NEWSPAPERS AS CHANNELS OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Apata, O. M.
The aim of this study was to assess farmers' use of newspapers as channels of agricultural information in Ekiti State, Nigeria. As a survey, accidental sampling procedure was used to select 60 respondents from the three senatorial districts of the State. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was subjected to frequency count, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Linear regression was used for inferential analysis. The result showed among other things that many of the respondents receive information on timely planting, easy way of obtaining credit, improved varieties of crop and livestock, processing of farm produce and appropriate type of fertilizer application. Itwas recommended aomng others that adult literacy should be more encouraged in the rural communities so that farmers can have access to education thereby help them to make use of Newspaper and other print media for their agricultural information channel.
19 SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIALS AND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIA AGRICULTURE , Yohanna, J. K. and Umogbai, V. I.
The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.
20 THE POTENTIALITIES AND CHALLENGES OF RABBITARY IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW , Owen, O. J. and Amakiri, A. O.
This study was a review of potentialities and challenges of rabbitary in Nigeria. From the study, it was discovered that cooked rabbit meat has high nutritional value with high protein content, low fat, and low in cholesterol, sodium and calories and contains phosphorus, iron, zinc, riboflavin, thiamin, vitaminB12 and niacin making it ideal meat for hypertensive patients. In alleviating the problem of animal protein supply in developing countries, it was recommended that farmers should practice rabbitary and governments on their part should encourage the rabbit farmers by making funds available through granting of loans and other incentives.
21 IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS OF IKONO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF IBIAKU COMMUNITY , Nwankwo O. C.
The main purpose of this study was to find out how the introduction of extension service has helped to change or influence the activities of rural farmers in Ibiaku, Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The study population was made up of all the farmers in Ibiaku community. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select five villages at random. Twenty farmers were also selected at random from each of the five selected villages giving a sample size of one hundred. Data were gathered through interview method and structured questionnaire, and analyzed using simple percentage. From the results, it was observed that Agricultural Extension Service has created a tremendous effect in changing or influencing the activities of rural farmers in Ibiaku community. It was recommended among others that the number of extension workers that visit the farmers should be increased and their efforts intensified so that they will be able to reach all the farmers and solve their problems.
22 CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURE AND FOOD MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA , Ibrahim, M. K.; David, A. M. and Okpanachi, G. U.
This paper aimed at providing hypothetical analyses of the preceding assertion that Nigeria, like many countries within the semi-arid regions of Africa, has been beset by several climatic anomalies during the last century. In particular, the weather variations experienced since the late 1960s through early 1970s to date have impacted on various environmental processes and human activities like Agriculture. Based on this, the study recommended among others that: farmers should be encouraged to adopt new farming approaches such as mushroom farming, planting of more fruit tree orchards and the use of improved varieties.
23 NOISE LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED OIL AND GAS INSTALLATIONS IN OGBA/EGBEMA/NDONI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA , Alao, A. A. and Avwiri, G. O.
A study of noise levels in selected oil installations in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out between January 2008 and August 2009. A sound level meter, a handheld GPS and steel tape were used to carry out measurement at interval of 100m from installations. Mean noise pollution levels were obtained from OB/OB Gas plant, Ebocha oil centre, Obite Gas plant, Obagi oil centre/flow station and Idu flow station. The mean values obtained are lesser than the Federal Environmental Protection Agency standard of 90dBA and slightly greater than WHO standard for outdoor. Results envisaged long-term health implications due to continuous daily exposure by the host communities. However, it was recommended among others that old pumps use in the installations should be replaced with electric motors, while plants or generators in use should be soundproof instead of the conventional types that are regular sources of noise.
24 THE ACTIVITIES OF VILLAGE EXTENSION WORKERS AND FARMERS IN JENKWE DEVELOPMENT AREA OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Bello, M.; Ibrahim, H. I.; Okwu, O. J. and Anzaku, T. K. E
The study which adopted the survey research design was conducted in Jenkwe Development Area of Nasarawa State with the aim of evaluating the activities of Village Extension Workers (VEWs) and farmers in the area. Structured interview schedule was used to collect data for the study. Random sampling was used to select from the four districts of Jenkwe Development area 96 respondents.Simple statistical tools involving frequency counts and percentage were used to analyze the data. Major results of the study showed that the contact farmers reported varying visits between two to three times in a month; pattern of visits from village extension workers to contact farmers were uniform between the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday while Thursday was recorded low by contact farmers. Causes of irregular visits by (VEWs) to contact farmers should be adequately addressed by extension managers of the study area.
25 DIGESTIBILITY AND GROWTH IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF SHEEP FED GLIRICIDIA-BASED MULTINUTRIENT BLOCK SUPPLEMENTS , Aye, P. A. and Adegun, M. K.
Sixty West African Dwarf (WAD) rams aged between 7 - 10 months and mean body weight of 12.6kg were used to study the influence of Gliricidia - based multinutrient blocks (MNBs) as supplement to Panicum maximum and cassava peel feed for 12 weeks using experimental research design. Gliricidia + Poultry manure (GPMNB), Gliricidia + Urea + Poultry manure (GUPMNB) and Gliricidia + Urea (GUMNB) and Panicum - cassava peel (control) were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content, gross energy and antinutritional factors. The coefficient digestibility of DM, CP, CF, EE, NFE of the rams in the control ratio were consistently lower than those fed the MNBs supplemented ratio. The body length gains of rams fed with MNBs were significantly higher than those rams fed with the control diet. It was concluded that Gliricidia - based multinutrient block supplements could be fed with Panicum - cassava peels to improve feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization leading to a better performance of sheep.
26 HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN TISSUES OF Egeria radiata FROM CREEKS IN BURUTU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Nwabueze, A. A.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the levels of heavy metals concentrations in tissues of Egeria radiata from Obotobe and Gbekobor Creeks in Burutu Local Government Area were investigated. The samples were collected fortnightly for 12 months in 2008. The soft tissues were extracted, weighed and dried in oven for 3 days at constant temperature. Ten grams of the dried samples were homogenized and digested before analysis using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained showed that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of Egeria radiata followed an increasing sequence of Hg < Cd < Cr < Mn < Pb < Cu < Ni. Heavy metal concentrations were higher but not significant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Mean levels of lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) were found to be higher than FAO/WHO acceptable standard in fishes and shell fish though not significant, yet manganese and nickel were significantly lower than the standard. There is a need for constant monitoring of levels of heavy metals in the area of study in order to forestall any significant rise in their levels among others was recommended.
27 PERSPECTIVES OF SECURITY OF LAND TENURE SYSTEMS FOR URBAN HOUSING IN N'DJAMENA, CHAD , Djeroh, N. and Ojibo, S.
In the complexity of land tenure systems in the cities of developing countries in general and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular, secure land tenure through the formal provision of individual property title may not be the only prerequisite for the integration of urban poor in the city. Security of land tenure does not always seem to be measured by formal title and statutory legal tender papers. The pros and cons of different tenure options in different contexts are not adequately known to make policy judgments. This paper therefore, attempts to examine what forms of tenure arrangements, in Chadian cities, are able to support the poor by means of the welfare distribution, improving their living conditions, facilitating their empowerment and access to the market value of their property. The paper therefore recommends that land tenure has to be seen as part of a package of policy measures intended to improve the efficiency and equity of urban land and property markets and improving the living conditions of the people. It is vital to address the development of systems and products that can be used by the majority of people.
28 INFLUENCE OF STAGES OF SEED MATURITY ON GERMINATION RATE OF (Dennettia tripetala) PEPPER FRUIT , Nwachukwu, O. C.; Aronu, A. J. and Adebayo, O.
An investigation was conducted to determine the influence of the stages of seed maturity of Dennettia tripetala on the germination rate of the seed. The stages are green matured, yellowish matured and red matured seeds. The experiment was conducted using Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 replicates for each of the 3 treatments. There was a significant influence on the germination rate of the seeds; the red matured seeds and yellow matured seeds showed greater influence which was significantly different from that of the green matured seeds. Therefore, with the prevalent climatic conditions in the rainforest zone, the farmers are advised to watch out for wildings after each fruiting season of the species, this could also save the time of raising them direct from the seed.
29 THE IMPACT OF DROUGHT AND DESERTIFICATION IN THE LAKE CHAD BASIN REGION , Dami, A.; Adesina,  F. A.  and Adeoye, N. O.
The main purpose of this study was to assess and analyze the climatic trends in the Lake Chad basin region between 1960 and 2002 for which the climatic data is made available. This is because of the impact of drought and desertification in the region which affects socio-economic life of the people in very remarkable ways as virtually every economic activity that the people engaged in is dependent on weather. The data for annual rainfall and temperature were for synoptic meteorological stations within the basin. These included N'Djamena, Mao, Bousso, SARH, Lai (Logone), Djimtilo (near Lake), Bol (Lake). The main findings revealed that the climatic data with respect to rainfall total annual figures show a declining trend until about the early 1980s, there after it begins to show an upward trend. The temperature patterns also varied from one stations to the other although Mao stands out from the other stations. The general trend from the polynomial curve is that of a slight decline from 1960 to 2002. It can be concluded that a proactive allocation of water among the various communities in the basin must be pursued to ensure that everyone has access to water optimally.
30 IMPACT OF METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON RICE YIELD: AN APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE SUSTAINABILITY IN EBONYI RICE FARMLAND, NIGERIA , Ogbuene, E. B.
This survey considered the impact of meteorological parameter on rice yields, poverty reduction, environmental resource sustainability and management. Data were generated through the use of multiple linear regression and crosscorrelations analysis. Other tools include correlograms, histogram, and bar graphs. The correlation variable results indicated that the tonnage of rice yield over the years was a function of meteorological condition in the area. The consequences of continuous variation in meteorological condition were severe reduction and deterioration in annual tonnage of rice yield and environmental resource sustainability. In the light of the above, it then became expedient to promote agro-meteorological advisory services as well as promotion of best practices that are climate change resilient in rice production.
31 ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION OF METALLIC ROOFING SHEET IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA , Obia, A. E. and Obot, I. D.
The unique humid equatorial climate of the coastal Niger Delta region of Nigeria has often been suspected to be a major player in the degradation of metallic building and engineering materials in the region. This study examined the role of dominant climatic factors as well as pollutants' concentrations in the corrosion of galvanized iron roofing sheets in the region. Twelve experimental racks composed of cut pieces of galvanized iron were planted across three sites in the region for one year. Monthly readings of four climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and wind velocity) and concentrations of aerosol and sulphur dioxide (SO2 ) were taken at each rack station during the period. The mass loss of each of the specimens was determined at the end of the experiment. The obtained data, both of mass loss and atmospheric factors were subjected to multiple regression analysis and correlation analysis to determine their relative influences in the corrosion plague. It was revealed that there is synergism amongst the factors in their contribution to corrosion impact. Of special note is the fact that the sulphur dioxide was observed not to suit our purpose. To ameliorate the situation, alternative roofing materials that are cheap and durable but less susceptible to corrosion attack as galvanized iron should be explored.
32 THE EFFECT OF GRADED LEVELS OF BOILED AND DRIED PIGEON PEA SEED MEAL ON THE CARCASS OF COCKERELS , Yisa, A. G.; Edache,  J. A.; Oyawoye, E. O.; Diarra,  S. S. and Yakubu, B.
A 15-week experiment was conducted to determine the effect of graded levels of boiled and dried pigeon pea meal on carcass characteristics of cockerels. In a completely randomized design, two hundred 1-week old Bovan nera (dominant black) cockerels were divided into 5 groups of 40 chicks containing 4 replicates of 10 chicks each. They were assigned five dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels of boiled and dried pigeon pea seed meal in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Data obtained from the carcass measurements were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS version 16. Processing reduced the levels of trypsin inhibitor, cyanide, tannins, and phytic acid, by 79.36 23.53, 99.06, and 6.07% respectively compared to the raw seed. Dressing percentage was not significantly affected by the inclusion of pigeon pea seed meal. There was no significant difference in dressing percentage amongst the pigeon pea seed-based diets. Carcass cut-up parts (breast, wings, thighs and drumsticks) were not affected by dietary pigeon pea levels. These results suggest that up to 30% boiled pigeon pea seed meal can be included in cockerel diets without adverse effects on the meat yielding components.
33 ADOPTION OF NERICA 1 RICE VARIETY AMONG FARMERS IN JALINGO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE, NIGERIA , Bzugu, P. M.; Mustapha, S. B. and Zubairu, E. A.
The study examined the adoption of NERICA 1 Rice variety among farmers in Jalingo Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedule were administered to 128 respondents who were randomly selected from the four wards that were purposively selected. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents were less than 40 years of age, who had less that 3 hectares of farm size. The study shows that the level of adoption of NERICA 1 Rice variety was low. The most important reasons for adoption of the NERICA 1 variety was early maturity as identified by the respondents. The most glaring constraint affecting the adoption of NERICA 1 Rice variety was lack of credit facilities. Policy recommendations include among others provision of inputs (including agricultural credits) at the right time and the encouragement of farmers to form NERICA/Rice variety cooperatives with a view to improving the food insecurity in the study area.
34 SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES OF GUM ARABIC TREE (Acacia senegal): A REVIEW , Alkali, U. U.
The silvicultural practices of Acacia senegal (Gum Arabic tree) are reviewed in this paper. Acacia senegal is a tree of multiple uses and the main gum Arabic producing Acacia species. Its contribution towards environmental protection and economic development in the Sudano-sahelian is highly significant. The paper analysed the main environmental and climatic factors supporting the growth and development of the plants. Acacia senegal is grown in large areas of West, East, Central and Northern Africa and Asia. The climate, soil and water needs are well suited for its growth and development. Available literatures confirm that the tree can be produced at a seedlings stage in the nursery under a controlled environment up to the stage that will be ready for transplanting when the rainy season has fully established.
35 LAND RIGHTS CHARACTERISTICS AND ACCESS TO LAND: IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA , Agwu Kenneth; Amasiatu Oluchi G. and Onuoha Obianuju U
In recent times, food security issues have come to the front burner on national discussions in Nigeria sequel to the pride of place given to it by the Yar'AduaJonathan administration in its seven point agenda. The paper examined land rights characteristics and access to land and their implications on food security in Nigeria. It explored various strategies to gain access to land and the effects of land rights characteristics (discriminatory (gender, age, and nationality), determinable, subject to legal and town planning apparatus, transferable, derivable, useful and controllable) on access to land which eventually affects food security. It also examines the consequences of food insecurity on the nation such as dependency on other nations, health crisis, trade imbalance, hunger/famine, social and political crisis, rise in the prices of food etc. It is the candid desire of this paper to trigger off the zeal and interest, not only to expedite work on the review process of the land use act, but for those entrusted/saddled with the responsibility of reviewing the act and implementation thereafter, to consciously employ their wits and patriotism in doing so.
36 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SELECTED SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION (SSI) SCHEMES IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA (II) , Udom, I. J. and Essien, A. I.
This study was conducted to determine what variations exist in the measured attributes of farmers from different selected SSI schemes. Mechanization survey data collected between October 2005 and March 2007 from 12 SSI schemes with the aid of structured interview were statistically compared. The result showed considerable degree for variations in the socio-economic, agronomic and technological resources among 551 operators in the same ecological, cultural and linguistic zones of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Similar data collected between October 2007 and March 2008 were examined to quantify the differences in the attributes of literate and illiterate farmers. It was observed that the literate farmers have higher awareness, good management and willingness indices than illiterate farmers. Among others, education and training was recommended as a result of the important role they play in the efforts to mechanize Traditional Irrigation Practice (TIP) in Small Scale Irrigation in developing countries.
37 GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS MEASUREMENTS OF BROILER CHICKENS FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAW SORREL (Hibiscus sabdariffa) SEED MEAL , Kwari, I. D.; Igwebuike, J. U. and Diarra, S. S.
The growth performance and carcass measurements of broiler chickens fed different levels of raw sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed meal replacing soyabean meal as the major protein source were investigated in a 63-day feeding trial. One hundred and fifty day-old Anak-2000 broiler chicks were individually weighed and allotted to five experimental diets in which raw sorrel seed meal (RSSM) replaced soyabean meal at 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The diets and clean drinking water were offered ad libitum throughout the period of the experiment. Results of the study showed among others that final live weight and daily feed intake were depressed above 50% level of soyabean meal replacement with raw sorrel seed meal in the diets. Raw sorrel seed meal can therefore replace soyabean meal upto 50% without adverse effect on broiler performance.
38 CLIMATE CHANGE AND POVERTY: CONCERNS FOR BOTSWANA AND THE AFRICAN CONTINENT , Kgosietsile Maripe
Climate change poses serious challenges and takes centre stage in the global agenda as an issue calling for corporate strategies and appropriate measures by countries, communities, and individuals. The United Nations and other actors are responding to the challenge with the major focus on the development of strategies, and policy framework. These approaches set standards for relevant and contextualized country’s specific approaches to attain sustainable community-climate related livelihoods. On this premises, this review is pre-occupied with Climate Change and Poverty as it concerns Botswana and the African Continent. It was revealed from the study that current trends indicate that Botswanans are gradually shifting from crop production and livestock to tourism partly due to drought related losses. Therefore, there is need for widespread Climate Change Community Education (CCCE) and intensified advocacy at all levels of government in Botswana and the African Continent.
39 CONSTRAINTS TO SUCCESSFUL FISH FARMING IN ABAK LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , Essien, A. I.; Effiong, J. O. and Abasiubong, N. D.
The constraints to successful fish farming in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State were investigated. The study area was stratified into clans with a frame survey; and a random sampling method employed to select the thirteen fish farms, with each designated farming units- from where the data were collected. Information was collected with the use of questionnaires and personal interview, transformed into data and computed with simple percentages for this work. It was discovered that despite the abundant aquaculture potentials of the study area in terms of land, local feedstuffs, good climate and perennial streams; the impact of harvested fish was yet to be felt in the area. Lack of feasibility study on sites selection, poor fish culture management methods, poor pond construction amongst others, were some of the major constraints of fish farming in the study area. However, proper feasibility study on fish farm project, site selection, knowledge of fish farm management practices, fingerling transportation from the hatchery; and a running capital are some of the measures that would remove the constraints.
40 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND THE CHALLENGES OF COLLAPSE BUILDINGS IN NIGERIA , Usman, N. D.; Chen, J. A. and Lodson, J. T.
This study aimed at exploring the relationship between environmental sciences and the challenges of collapse buildings in Nigeria. It adopted literature review as its research design, whereby causes of buildings failure and collapse in Nigeria were enunciated. The problems associated with collapsed of building were find to based on lack of compliance on building ethics such as carrying out work on soil that lacks engineering properties lack of carrying soil test, use of salty soil, inappropriate selection of contractors and use of sub-standard materials. It was recommended among others that professionals should ensure the compliance with the Nigerian code of practice, as well as enforcement of the use of standard materials for construction work in Nigeria..
41 CONTRIBUTIONS OF METAL WELDING WORKSHOPS TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN AKURE METROPOLIS, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA , Adekeye, E. A; Ojo, M. A and Ajayi, O. O.
The concentrations of eight metals - Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), and Cobalt (Co) in soil samples of selected gas and electric welding workshops in Akure of Ondo State in Nigeria were determined. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of welding activities to environmental pollution. Soil samples were collected from five gas and five electric welding workshops. A control sample collected for each of the welding workshops was about 100meters away from the study samples. The study samples and the control samples were pretreated digested and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer. The differences between the study samples and the control samples indicated that the welding activities are possible sources of environmental metal pollution. Foods of plant origin come from soil as such care should be taken to monitor the metal concentration of these metals in the soil as this is a channel through which metals can inadvertently enter the food chain.
42 APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IN REVISING TOWNSHIP MAP: A CASE STUDY OF MUBI METROPOLIS, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Yohanna Peter and Nuhu H. Tini
The major phenomenon in our contemporary era is the high and accelerating rate of changes and extensions of urban centers. This calls for fast technique for updating the existing maps. This research demonstrated the application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in revising township map of Mubi metropolis. A conventional map of 1975 and Quick-Bird imagery of 2005 of Mubi metropolitan town were used for the map revision of the metropolis. GPS was used for picking the required coordinates; Ilwis 3.1 was used for georeferencing the satellite imagery, Arcview 3.2a was used for digitizing roads and ward boundaries. This research revealed that a lot of changes have occurred on the road network which indicated increase in the number of roads from 15.205km in 1975 to 30.023km in 2010.The built-up areas expanded from 17.3158km2 in 1975 to 23.8780km2 in 2010. It was recommended that revisions of all categories of maps should be embarked upon. The use of remotely sensed data should also be adopted for mapping purpose by the relevant government authorities for example, Federal Ministry of Survey.
43 IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS IN NIGERIA , Agboola O. P.
Among the basic necessities of life is shelter, after food, housing has always been rightly assumed to be the next essential human need. As a result of this, the construction of buildings in which people live and work has been a major concern since the early times when human being first made huts of stick, mud or rock. It later developed into the use of bricks, stones, timber, organic and inorganic wastes. This paper focused on the need to develop and design an appropriate building suited to their purpose, taking into cognizance the various environmental elements acting on the structures. The research method adopted for this paper was based on an in depth literature review. This paperreiterated the need for architects/designers to design in relation to climate, in order to achieve pleasant, comfortable and conducive structures that ensure physiological and psychological comfort of the occupants. As a result of which, there will be a reduction in substantial amount expended by people to achieve thermal comfort within and around the building, through the use of mechanically controlled measures. This study concluded by giving appropriate design guidelines and recommends that designers/architects should be equipped with the climatic data required for appropriate architectural designs which will help in the evolvement of designs that best suite the various climatic zones of the country identified.
44 FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN GONGOSHI GRAZING RESERVE IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Khobe Dishi and Ayuba K. Daneil
A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield and productivity of Forage in the Gongoshi grazing reserve between the months of August and October, 2005 with seasonal and monthly variations in temperature and rainfall. Forage yield was determined from mean dry matter yield of forage in randomly selected 1m2 quadrats. The total forage yield for the three months for the area was found to be 2,130kgDM/ha. The month of September was the most productive with monthly biomass of 63.1kgDm/ha and decreased towards the month of October. Reduction in grazing pressure, complete implementation of laws and range improvement practices such as reseeding were recommended for the reserve.
45 CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE: CREATING GREATER DESIGN AWARENESS AMONG ARCHITECTS , Kabiru S. Daroda
Climate has always challenged man in his quest for a better life. The elements of weather have affected all spheres of man's activities and have shaped his instinctive responses leading to largely disruptive effects to the natural environmental equilibrium. Nothing is more basic to human existence as food and shelter. The search for habitable dwellings which offer comfort, security and relief brings into focus the need for buildings which respond to particular local climatic and environmental conditions. This paper primarily aimed at creating greater design awareness among architects on designing climate responsive architectures. It strives to provide suggestions to architects (who lead the building professionals) on employing an organized approach to designs to suit specific climates. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that architects should embrace a proper interpretation of location and climate parameters. Also, architectural designs must harmonize passive and active cooling/heating strategies. This may include sun shading, thermal insulation and cross-ventilation in combination with active systems, such as air conditioning.
46 THE ROLE OF ADEQUATE RAINFALL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES AND ENHANCEMENT OF TOURISM POTENTIAL IN UGBO TOWN OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA , Ogbuene, E. B.
The position of adequate rainfall in the development of environmental resources is a worthwhile research area in the concept of tourism enhancement and sustainable resource exploitation. The study became indispensable due to the significance of biodiversity, forests, wildlife and other environmental features in development of tourism industry in Nigeria. Photographs of crucial tourism potentials and analysis of rainfall pattern with charts were employed to ascertain the position and discuss the role of tourism potentials in the development of environmental resources in the area. It was observed that tourism potentials which exist in the area include landforms, wetlands, biodiversity, forests and wildlife. These are highly influenced by the condition of rainfall in the area. These tourism potentials were mostly conserved through groves and deity shrines. The paper maintain that the tourism potentials are capable of yielding huge sums of revenue yearly to the state government once developed into tourism centers. Encouragement of public and private partnership in the developing tourist sites everywhere in Nigeria was recommended among others.
47 SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING SOLID WASTES GENERATION AND DISPOSAL IN IBADAN METROPOLIS, NIGERIA , Kayode, A. M. and Omole, F. K.
This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socioeconomic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.
48 DETERMINANTS FOR THE ADOPTION OF FARMING TECHNOLOGIES IN JENKWE DEVELOPMENT AREA OF NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Bello M.; Dauda S. and Okwu O. J.
The study focused on the factors influencing the adoption of farming technologies among farmers in Jenkwe Development Area (JDA) of Nasarawa State of Nigeria. The research respondents consisted of 96 farmers from five districts of the development area selected through simple random sampling technique. Primary data were obtained by means of structured interview schedule administered to the respondents. The results were analysed using descriptive statistical tools involving frequency, percentage and means in respect to farmers' characteristics. Regression analysis using the Statistical package of Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to determine the relationship among the variables. The results showed significant negative relationship between adoption and number of farm plots and farm size positively significant correlation with years of farming experience and farm income. Based on the results, the study recommended that technologies dissemination to farmers should be based on economic benefit and assessable to all farmers in the study area.
49 THE ROLES OF NIGERIAN YOUTH IN FOOD PRODUCTION : A CASE STUDY OF DEKINA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE , Edoka M. H.; Otajele, S. D. and Adeje O. J.
Worst still in Nigeria is the recent intention to imitate the Western nations to divert lands hitherto meant for crop production to feed mankind, to crops to feed automobiles (agrofuel). Our youths nowadays are not helping matters, as they consistently shy away from farming. It was at this instance that this survey was carried out in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State to determine the roles youths play in ensuring food security and/or crisis. The LGA has 3 major districts namely; Biraidu, Okura, and Dekina. From each district 30 youths were selected through simple random sampling thus making a total of 90 respondents. Structured interview schedule was conducted on the respondents to elicit data. Descriptive statistics (Mean, frequency, and percentages) were used to analyze the data collected. The results show that aged parents were the major producers of food crops, and cassava was the major staple food produced in the area. Credit facilities should be provided to youths engaged in agriculture to serve as a motivating factor for them to remain in farming business.
50 THE EFFECTS OF Prosopis africana PULP ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY, CARCASS COMPONENTS AND BLOOD COMPOSITION OF GROWING RABBIT , Adama, L.; Igwebuike, J. U. Kwari I. D. and Aliyu, J.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding Prosopis africana Pulp (PAP) on nutrient digestibility, haematological indices and carcass components of growing rabbits. The experiment which lasted 10 weeks consisted of thirty (30) rabbits of five to six weeks of age. They were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in groups of six but caged individually. The PAP replaced maize weight for weight at levels of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in diets 1 (control), 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The formulated diets contained similar crude protein content of 18%. The apparent digestibility of nutrients, carcass parameters as well as haematological indices were not significantly different among all the treatments. These results indicate that Prosopis africana pulp can completely replace maize in the diets of growing rabbits without adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, carcass components and blood parameters.
51 NIGERIAN YOUTH INVOLVEMENT IN RICE PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF LAFIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NASARAWA STATE , Bello, M.; Madza T. and Saror S. T.
The study was conducted in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State to examine rural youth involvement in rice production. A two-stage purposive sampling technique among villages noted for the production of rice was used to select forty youths as respondents. Simple descriptive statistics involving frequency counts, percentages, rank order score, participation index and multiple regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The grand participation index infered that youth in the study area were rarely involved in rice production. The major constraints faced by youth in rice production in the study area were inadequate capital, farm inputs and farming land. The study recommended that improvement in the provisions of inputs supply and farm land, less vigorous credit measures and fixing of credit ceiling to specified maximum levels should be put in place on appropriate financial institutions by relevant authorities.
52 MONTMORILLONITE CLAY AS MINERAL SUPPLEMENT IN THE DIET OF CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) , Ismaila M.; Mulima I. and Buba U.
In a 3-week experiment, the value of Montmorillonite clay as mineral supplement for catfish was investigated. Eighty four fingerlings aged 6 weeks were randomly assigned to 6 groups of 14 fingerlings with each group weighing 14g average. Two diets containing 30% crude protein were formulated. Diet 1(control) was based on commercial premix as mineral supplement which was replaced with Montmorillonite clay in diet 2. Each three groups of fingerlings received one of the diets for three weeks of experimentation. Result showed no significant difference in daily gain and final body weight between the two groups. The cost of the feed was reduced on the Montmorillonite-clay-based diet and the skin quality of the fish improved on this diet compared to the control. There was no mortality during the experiment. It was concluded that Montmorillonite clay can completely replace mineral/vitamin premix in catfish diets with no adverse effect on growth. The substitution reduced the cost of fish feed and improved the skin quality thus, the market value of the fish.
53 CONSERVING BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY FOR SUSTAINABLE USES IN TROPICAL RAINFOREST OF NIGERIA , Ekpo, F. F; Asuquo, M. F and Akpabio Jeremiah
The most serious loss of biological diversity occur in the tropics due to explosive growth of human populations, widespread poverty, growing demand for fuel wood and failure to use sustainable methods in agriculture and forestry. A considerable part of tropical rainforests of Nigeria are also being destroyed through indiscriminate and reckless logging of timber, extraction of non-timber forest products and exploitation and exploration of crude oil in the region. This study was primarily designed to assess the conserving biological diversity for sustainable uses in tropical rainforest of Nigeria. It carefully reviewed the contributions of other related works. It was revealed that the weakness of conservation and sustainable management effort is due to poor governance and lack of knowledge and scarcity of research programs on species conservation. Hence, the Earth's basic life-support systems, including climate, the water cycle, and soils, must be conserved intact if life is to continue and the genetic diversity, a major key to the future, must be maintained.
54 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS MATURITY GROUPS AND SIZE OF WET PITUITARIES OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) , Akpaniteaku R. C.
This study was conducted to determine relationships between maturity of various groups of Clarias gariepinus and size of their wet pituitaries. The maturity groups of the fish species used during the research were unripe males, ripe males, immature females and mature females. Data were obtained and recorded according to sex and maturity groups. The data were later subjected to correlation and coefficient analysis. Results showed that increase in length of the specimen did not follow the same pattern as the increase in size of the pituitary. Diameter size of the pituitary gland was highest in mature female donors and least in unripe-male- donor group. Relative reproductive potentials were observed in the result of both the ripe-male and immature female groups. No significant correlation was shown between length of donor and size of the wet pituitaries. There seem to be a higher reproductive potential in the mature female donors. This might be dependent on reproductive process and the need of the fish breeders.
55 EFFECTS OF VARYING LEVELS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CAGED LAYER DROPPINGS , Oluyemi, S. O.; Adesehinwa, A. O. K.;  Akinsoyinu, O. A. and Abu, A. O.
This study aim was to find out the effect of varying (graded) levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the chemical composition of caged layer droppings in two genotypes. The experimentation was carried out at the poultry units of the Teaching and Research Farm of University of lbadan, lbadan Nigeria during the months of April to June 2009. Four graded levels of dietary sodium chloride in iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were fed to two strains of laying domestic chicken. The moisture content of the droppings was observed to increase insignificantly with increased dietary salt, while dry matter content of the droppings decreased insignificantly with increased dietary salt content.
56 FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF THE DRYLAND ZONE OF NIGERIA: POLICIES, CHALLENGES AND UTILISATION , Alkali, U. U. and Shettima, U. K.
Nigerian forest policies are said to be conflicting with a lot of duplications and inconsistences in formulation when compared with other countries of the world. The dryland areas consist of a number of potential uses as reflected in the number of trees and shrubs which are grouped. An Agroforestry initiative contributes greatly by increasing products and services on farm. The challenges in future dryland forest are enormous to all stakeholders which needs to create sustainable balance between utilisation and conservations. The management of dryland forest in Nigeria, its utilisation, policies and challenges are reviewed in this paper.
57 UTILIZATION OF EQUIPMENT AND BIOSAFETY OF CASSAVA PROCESSING IN THE MIDDLE BELT OF NIGERIA , Yohanna, J. Kuje and Umogbai, V. I.
Cassava processing and equipment assessment is very important for safe consumption and utilization. The presidential initiatives in cassava production have led to many establishments of cassava processing industries in the middle belt of the country. Apart from being used as food, cassava is an important industrial raw material for the production of starch, alcohol, pharmaceuticals, gum and confectioneries. This study derived its data from secondary source to assess the utilization of equipment and biosafety of cassava processing in the middle belt of Nigeria. The study postulated among others that if adequate machinery is put in place, it will standardize the quality of the product for safe consumption and utilization. Cassava contains 77.9% of carbohydrates, 7.9%, 7.3%, 3.3% protein, water and fats respectively. Based on the empirical facts for the study, there is therefore the need to harness the total on-farm and off-farm agricultural capability of rural farmers through cassava production, processing and utilization in order to improve their lives and Nigeria as a whole.
58 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIVERSITY OF SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES IN PROTECTED AND UNPROTECTED HABITATS OF OKWU OGBAKU FOREST RESERVE IN MBAITOLI L.G.A., IMO STATE, NIGERIA , Nwosu Luke Chinaru and Iwu Charles Joseph
Butterfly diversity at the Okwu Ogbaku forest reserve, Mbaitoli local government area of Imo State, Nigeria was investigated by the use of sweep nets along transects in two types of habitats (unprotected and protected). A total of 201 butterflies belonging to 28 genera and 5 families were identified in this study. Members of the families Lycaenidae, Pieridae and Satyridae were more dominant than Nymphalidae and Papilionidae which were scarce in the study area. Abundant species of butterfly recorded in this study include Ypthima (Satyridae), Hypokopelates (Lycaenidae) and Eurema (Pieridae). The number of butterflies in the protected habitat were more than those in the unprotected habitat, though not statistically significant. The distribution of butterfly genera in the two habitats showed a significant difference. This suggested the effect of grazing and agriculture activities on the ecosystem. The species recorded in this study currently amount to 3.0% of all butterflies recorded in West Africa.
59 THE INFLUENCE OF ALLELOCHEMICALS OF PRIDE OF BARBADOS (Caesalpina pulcherrima) SEEDS IN NUTRITION OF SWINE , Annongu A. A.; Toye A. A. and Ogunbode A. A
Investigations into the influence of allelochemicals of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) seed meal (PBSM) processed by traditional and chemical methods and using weaner pigs was conducted. 20-pigs weighing an average of 3.7kg were fed diets made of a corn-soy reference diet and diets with 5, 10 15 and 20% inclusion of PBSM in a one way ANOVA using completely randomized design model. The feeding trial lasted a month while the experimental animals were offered feed and water ad libitum. Results on quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in the virgin and treated seed samples showed that raw seed meal contained 0.708% tannins while boiled, boiled and fermented, boiledfermented poluvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) treated gave 0.534, 0.406 and 0.360% tannin content respectively. Treated PBSM in diets did not influence performance characteristics and 100% survival rate was recorded on both the control and test diets. Biochemical indices were ascending and descending in values due to increasing levels of dietary content of PBSM. Processing PBSM had no deleterious effects on the pigs' electrolyte balance except on K+ which the significant difference was on the positive side. Summarily, treating PBSM as described and including in diets up to 20% level produced diets comparable in nutritional value with the conventional diet.
60 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REPLACING MAIZE WITH PALM KERNEL CAKE IN BROILERS’ STARTER DIET , Kperegbeyi J. I. and Ikperite S. E.
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of using palm kernel cake in place of maize in broilers’ starter diet. One hundred and eighty day old hubbard strain were used for this experiment. The birds were reared in deep litter floor pens. A total of 12 pens, with an allowance for one feeder and one drinker per pen was used. The floor of the pen was covered with wood shavings. Each group was placed in a pen with an area of 5.00m2 . The average weight per bird at the start of the experiment was 500grams above. Antibiotics, coccidiostat and vaccinations were administered periodically as required. The experiment lasted for 0 - 6 weeks. Data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and significant means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test at 5% level of significance. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. The results indicated that weight gain, final body weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratios were not significantly affected by dietary treatment. The metabolisable energy (ME) intake was significantly affected by dietary treatments. Protein intake was not significantly affected by dietary treatment. It increased with increases in PKC level of diet. There was no mortality during this period. As a result of high cost of maize, PKC could be used to replace at least 50% of the required amount of maize in broiler starter diets.
61 EFFECT OF POVERTY ON FOOD SECURITY OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Adewuyi, Kolawole A. and Hayatu Yusuf
The major panacea towards reducing poverty remains a focus effort in increasing food security. Poverty situation in Nigeria is precarious, not only in terms of income poverty, but also in terms of food poverty. Nigeria is already hanging precariously with greater percentage of its population living on less than one dollar per day without any sign of change. This study examined the effect of poverty on food security of rural households in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 230 households in Adamawa State Nigeria, using structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using the Logit Regression model. The result of the study revealed that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between the household food and the poverty status of the household. This suggested that the food security of households will improve if household poverty is reduced. Hence, it was the recommended that the design of poverty reduction programmes should focus more on improving food production for the growing population through increased funding of agriculture and controlled food prices.
62 GRINDING MACHINE NOISE SPECTRA IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA , Ali Haruna and Agu, M. N
When we are exposed to intense noise levels some or all of the hair cells in the organ of corti may be damaged temporarily or permanently. Exposure to excessive noise for a short period of time may produce a loss of heavy sensitivity. Continuous noise exposure over a long period of time (years) is more damaging than interrupted exposure to noise, which permits the ear to have a rest and possible recovery period. The presence of low frequency noise in the noise generated by grinding machines in Kaduna metropolis can have adverse effect on concentration and memory.Thus, this study was carried out to assess the grinding machine noice spectra in Kaduna Metropolis using sound level meter (Digital, Testo 816) and Digital Hand Data Logger (DB-525).
63 MICROBIAL LOAD ANALYSIS OF FRESH MUD CATFISH (Clarias anguillaris) AND TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) IN LAKE GERIO, ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA USING TWO DIFFERENT SMOKING KILNS , Onyia L. U.; Sogbesan O. A.; Milam C. and Joseph A. I.  
Fresh mud catfish (Clarias anguillaris) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from Lake Gerio in Adamawa State were smoked using two different smoking kilns in order to evaluate the microbial load in the fish samples. Variations were observed in the microbial composition contained in the samples. The samples from the traditional smoking drum had higher microbial load, higher peroxide values and higher moisture loss when compared to the FUTY improved processor. In terms of the microbial composition, gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria were identified for samples from both processors. Fungi identified include Aspergillus niger, Pennicillium spp, Rhizopus spp, Mucor spp and Neurospora spp. The quality of the smoked Clarias anguillaris and Oreochromis niloticus with reference to their various peroxide values were obtained after a 28 day storage period. The physico-chemical parameters of the four samples were also obtained. In conclusion, the FUTY Improved Processor (FIP) were of better quality products than the Traditional Smoking Drum (TSD) and was recommended for fish processors in Adamawa State.
64 SECONDARY PLANT METABOLITES UTILIZATION IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF DOES FED COMBINED LEVELS OF ANDROPOGON GAYANUS (KUNTH) AND GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (JACQ) WITH CASSAVA OFFAL BASED CONCENTRATE , Ogungbesan A. M.; Eniolorunda O. O.; Fasina O. E. and Taiwo B. B. A.
Twenty West African Dwarf Does of average weight of 5±0.58 kg aged between 3 and 6 months were used to determine the effect of level of Andropogon gayanus and Gliricidia sepium with cassava offal based diets on secondary plant metabolites digestibility. The five (5) treatments were I (Gs0) 100% Ag + 0% Gs; II (Gs25) 75% Ag +25%Gs; III (Gs50) 50%Ag +50% Gs; IV (Gs 75) 25% Ag+ 75% Gs; V (Gs100) 0% Ag + Gs100. Lowest and highest Saponin, Tannin, Phytate, Oxalate and hydrocyanide (HCN) digestibilities were observed in Gs100 and Gs0 , Gs100 and Gs25, Gs75 and Gs50 , Gs100 and Gs0 as well as Gs100 with Gs75 and Gs0 respectively. No definite pattern of digestibility was established in relation to levels of supplementation but it was evident that goats (does) can accommodate, through degradation of all the allelo chemicals.
65 PESTICIDE RESIDUES CONTAMINATION OF VEGETABLES AND THEIR PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN GHANA , Botwe, B. O.; Ntow W. J.; Kelderman P. ; Drechsel, P.; Derick Carboo; Vincent K. Nartey and Gijzen, H. J.
This study aimed at determining the residues concentrations of pesticides in vegetables, and assessing the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated vegetables for adults in the prominent farming community of Akumadan in Ghana. Fifteen pooled samples, belonging to five vegetable types (tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion and eggplants) purchased from local markets across Ghana were analysed for DDTs, endosulfan, HCHs, methoxychlor, dimethoate and lambda-cyhalothrin using GC-MS. The concentrations of the pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 46.95 µg/kg wet weight. Dietary data were collected from 130 residents. By combining the dietary and contaminant data, dietary exposure to the identified pesticides was calculated. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues at Akumadan is low and there is no associated health risk. However, the results of persistent contaminants are of particular health concern because of this persistence. The estimated exposure distributions were shown to be insensitive to valuation of the non-detect residue samples.
66 PETROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PEGMATITES AROUND AWO, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA , Jimoh, M. T.
Pegmatites around Awo bear valuable economic minerals; the rocks which trend mostly in the North East/South West are associated with other rock types like syenite, quartzite, porphyritic granite, biotite gneiss and migmatite gneiss. This study involves geological mapping of the study area showing its associated rock types, petrographic studies and chemical analysis were also considered. Five representative samples of the rock were investigated for their geology, petrography and geochemistry. Geological field mapping of the study area was carried out by collecting various rock types, studying their field occurrences, structural components and hand specimen observation. Petrographic studies entailed cutting polished sections of the rocks to identify each constituent mineral under petrological microscope while the geochemistry involved carrying out X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry analytical method on the digested samples at ACME Laboratory in Canada. The Petrographic studies revealed the modal composition of constituent minerals like microcline, plagioclase, quartz, mica (muscovite +/- biotite), opaque minerals and accessory minerals in the pegmatites. Geochemical analysis showed the mean weight of the major oxides like SiO2 , TiO2 , Al2 O3 , Fe2 O3 , MnO, MgO, CaO , Na2 O, K2 O, and P2 O5 . The AFM diagram plot falls on the calc-Alkaline rock suite while the harker's plot revealed that the plots between and SiO2 and other major elements are derived from the same geological environments. The study generally showed that the pegmatites of the study area bear semblance with pegmatites from other parts of the basement complex of South Western Nigeria with proven mineralisation.
67 PROTECTION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT: WHOSE RESPONSIBILITY? , Akaso, A. A.
Marine environment include the oceans and all seas and adjacent coastal areas that form an integrated whole that is an essential component of the global lifesupport system and a positive asset that presents opportunities for sustainable development. Pollution of the marine environment is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly of substance or energy into the environment, including estuaries, which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and other legitimate uses of the sea, impairment of quality for use of sea water and reduction of amenities. This study examined the question of who is responsible for the protection of the marine environment. It employed a descriptive research methodology; and the research findings indicate that the major threats to health, productivity and biodiversity of marine environment result from human activities on land, in coastal areas and further inland. The protection and prevention is the cornerstone of any sound environmental management programme and the most economic and effective means of limiting the adverse environmental consequences of oil pollution incidents from ships. Accordingly, the ship-owner's responsibility of protecting the marine environment is embedded in the concept of seaworthiness at the initial stage of the contract agreement with the chatterer.
68 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WARRI RIVER IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA , Aghoghovwia, O. A.
The discharge of excessive quantities of organic matter is undoubted by the oldest and even today the most widespread form of water pollution. Warri River is an example of Niger Delta River receiving effluent from sewage and several industries, factories and markets. These wastes result in loss of productivity of natural water as well as deterioration of water quality. Physico-chemical characteristics of the Warri River in Nigeria were examined in this study. The results show that physicochemical parameters differ significantly in respect to locations. Thermal pollution as well as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) exceeded stipulated permissible limit by EEC and WHO for drinking water and to protect the health of fish. In order to stall further deterioration of water quality in the river, it is mandatory to place the river under surveillance.
69 IMPERATIVES OF ENVIROMENTAL REVOLUTION IN NIGERIA , Aneze, E. U.
Every revolution is a child of necessity and exigency. Industrial revolution, through technological revolution is predicated on the duo. At present, environment and environmental issues have captured the attention of the entire world going by the amount of attention being given to it by notable world bodies, coupled with the stark realities of the situation as evidenced in environmental disasters being experienced these days. Consequently, nations are coming up with actions and policies aimed at protecting the environment from systematic battering and degradation. In adverse forms, ways and manners of coping with the adverse consequences are being advocated at different fora. Phenomena like climate change, global warming, desertification, extreme flooding, erratic weather conditions are highlighted extensively as well as wastes and waste management as crucial issues in environmental engineering. Exhaustive treatment of the environmental issues raised above maked the title of this work most apposite. Meanwhile, global warming is the term used to describe the change in the climatic condition of the earth which means the increase in the average temperature of the earth surface and ocean as a result of emission of green house gases into the atmosphere. Sometimes the ingredient of the topic can find comfort and safely when treated as "climate change" although the former is the component of the latter.
70 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TEPHROSIA BRACTEOLATA (GULL ET PERR) BASED DIETS IN CELL WALL FRACTIONS DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN WEST AFRICAN DWARF GOATS , Ogungbesan, A. M.; Akeem, L. A.; Fajemisin, A. N. and Mbomie, S. E.
Sixteen west African Dwarf Goats (8 bucks and 8 does) were balanced for age, sex and weight (average of 5.79±0.60kg), to test for performance characteristics, cell wall digestibility and Nitrogen Retention. The animals were fed Tephrosia bracteolata based diets. They were allotted randomly to the following dietary treatments (T. bracteolata, P. maximum, Concentrate) namely, I as control, II, III and IV for one hundred and twelve days; 14 day pre-growth adaptation, 84 days growth and 14 days digestibility (7 days adaptation and 7 days monitoring). Highest DM was observed in IV and lowest in I. Treatment IV also had highest and daily weight gain and lowest occurred in I. Concerning NDF, ADF and NDL digestibility (%), highest occurred in IV and and lowest recorded in I. Similarly trend of highest in IV and lowest in I repeated itself with respect to nitrogen balance. This study confirmed that with concentrate waste, Tephrosia bracteolata can be sole feed to goats with A.I.B. (Agro industrial byproducts) for optimal performance with or without grass supplement despite it inherent anti nutrient factors.
71 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA , Ogundele, J. A. and Jegede, A. O.
Climate change will impact agriculture and food production around the world due to; the effects of elevated Carbondioxide (CO2 ) in the atmosphere, higher temperature, altered precipitation and transpiration regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, and modified weed, pest and pathogen pressure. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary source of data were collected using two sets of structured questionnaires. A total number of three hundred (300) questionnaires were administered on two categories of respondents in this study. Results from this study revealed that Food Crops are the major crops cultivated in the study area, and the effects of climate change on agricultural production results to soil loss, plant nutrient loss, textural change, increase in pests and diseases and poor yield germination etc. This study therefore recommended that cover trees should be planted, which will provide shade and reduce heat, due to climate change and the preservation of underground water.
72 CONSERVATION OF KANO ANCIENT CITY WALL AND GATES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN NIGERIA , Adeyemi, A. and Bappah, B. A.
This study examined the problems militating against the conservation of the Kano city ancient wall and gates and the prospects of their conservation. The theoretical purpose and significance of conserving the historic built environment were examined to clarify their validity to the study area while also evaluating the extent of decay of the wall and gates. Field surveys, interviews and observations were conducted. From data collected it was revealed that wall and gates were rehabilitated in 2004/2005 through the support of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany with a sum of $70,000.00 as grant under the "Preservation of Cultural Heritage of Developing Countries" and also that major culprit aiding the destruction of the historical monument is the State Government among other factors. The research concluded that the ancient city wall and gates are greatly threatened by destruction and complete elimination while conservation is the only way to prevent it. Finally, the Insurance of the historic structures promotion of tourism so as to generate revenue for the upkeep of the monuments amidst other were recommended.
73 CREATING AWARENESS OF HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA (HPAI) AMONG POULTRY WORKERS IN NIGERIA: A STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH STATUS OF HUMANS , Ibhafidon, O. D.; Olugasa, B. O.; Meg, A. E.; Ibhafidon, A. and Anyanwu, S. N.
Avian influenza viruses that cause Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) are highly virulent and mortality rate in infected flocks often approach 100%. In Nigeria, cases of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus were first reported on February 8, 2006. A lot of avian were lost to the incidence. Human cases of H5NI influenza have been reported in many countries of the world including Nigeria. The fatality rate was more than 50%. Exposure to live chicken and low perceived risk were implicated in the spread of the virus. However, if awareness about Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza is created the economic loses in ill health of humans associated with it would be averted. This will enhance the chance of Nigeria becoming one of the top 20 world economies by year 2020. In view of the above, this study examined host range of HPAI, transmission of HPAI, clinical signs of HPAI, gross lesions of HPAI, morbidity, and mortality of HPAI, field diagnosis of HPAI, treatment of HPAI, vaccination of HPAI, control and eradication of HPAI, and public health importance of HPAI. Part of the recommendations was that the stakeholders in poultry farming should put all machinery in motion to prevent or forestall outbreak of HPAI.
74 CONTRIBUTIONS OF SEASONAL MIGRANTS FISHERMEN TOWARDS FISHING ACTIVITIES IN BAGA, KUKAWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA , Usman, H. M.; John Abdullahi and Usman, H.
Seasonal migration is a short-term, repetitive or cyclical movement of people from one geographical location to another for the purpose of improving the economic position of their household. It is influenced by "Push" factors (food shortage, poverty etc) and "Pull" factors (better income, job, food supply etc) which make them to move from their area of origin to a more lucrative environment. Seasonal migration to Baga area is not a new phenomenon, people from neighbouring countries and part of the country come in for fishing and farming activities. This study sought to identify the reason for migration to and from the study area, the contributions of each migrant to fishing activities and identify the categories of the migrants. A total number of 80 respondents were interviewed, twenty from each community of which fifteen were seasonal migrants and five were permanent resident fishermen in the study area. The findings revealed that the seasonal migrant fishermen pattern of migration is not uniform. However, majority of the migrant came to the study area in the month of August and leave in the month of January. The research revealed that 75% of the respondents claimed that the major push factor for their migration from their states of origin is due to the seasonality nature of fish availability in their local rivers, while the pull factors of migration to the study area as stated by 95% of the migrants was the abundance of fish in the Lake Chad basin. Measures should be taken towards resuscitating the disappearing Lake Chad which serves as the pull factor of the migrants to the area.
75 EFFECTS OF THREE AQUEOUS PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE CONTROL OF TOMATO FRUITWORM (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) IN GOMBE, SUDAN SAVANNA OF NIGERIA , Silas, L.; *Degri, M. M. and Zakaria, D.
This research was conducted at Federal College of Horticulture Research Farm, Dadin-Kowa, Gombe during 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 dry seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of three aqueous plant extracts (Balanites aegyptiaca Del., Momordica balsamina L., and Mitracarpus Villosus L.) on tomato fruit worm (Helicoverpa armigera Hubrer). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design replicated four times. The results showed that tomato treated with bitter melon at 10% w/v concentration at one week interval significantly reduced the number of holes/fruits in 2005/2006 and in 2006/2007 dry seasons. Bitter melon also reduced the number of damaged fruits/plant in 2005/2006 and in 2006/2007 dry seasons compared to the other treatments. The result also showed that M. balsamina had significantly highest number of undamaged fruits, highest fruit weight , highest fruit size and highest total fruit yield. It is therefore recommended that tomato production spaced at 60cm and sprayed at 10% w/v concentration with bitter melon extract at one week interval be encouraged among low resource farmers in Dadin Kowa, Gombe, Sudan Savanna of Nigeria.
76 CONTRIBUTION OF BAMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL TO RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA , Helen H. Ray and Zannah Kaloma Ali
This study assessed the Contribution of Bama local government council on rural water supply schemes in Borno State. The objectives are to identify the sources of rural water supply and determine the level of effectiveness of the local government council in rural water supply provision, determine the durations of the water facilities provided and determine the functionalities of the water supply facilities To achieve these objectives, 4 districts were systematically selected out of the 9 districts identified for the study. The districts are Goniri, Kumshe, Walasa and Yabiri. Data were systematically collected from households through the use of 170 structured interview schedules while records on the types of water facilities provided by the council were obtained from the local government council. The data generated were analyzed using both the simple percentage and inferential statistics. The chi-square test of goodness-of-fit was used to determine the level of effectiveness of the local government council in rural water supply. In this light, the findings revealed that the local government council is not fit in terms of provision of rural water supply to the study area. Thus, the study therefore concluded that 98% of the water supply sources in the study area are not only below the World Health Organization (WHO) water quality standard but also identified that the area is faced with persistent domestic water problems for decades. In line with these facts therefore, the study recommended that there should be strong government political commitment to clean rural water supply schemes
77 MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF COLCHICINE AND PARADICHLOROBENZENE ON TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum) , Adelanwa, M. A. Habeeb, M. L. and Adelanwa, E. B.
The seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) variety Roma VF obtained from Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR), Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, were treated with Colchicine and Paradichlorobenzene with the aim of determining the effectiveness of the mutagens in the production of variations in Tomato. Highly significant difference were observed for germination percentage, number of leaves, and height at maturity. Seedling height, number of branches and germination percentage decrease with increase in concentration of Colchicine and there was increase in leaf length, height at maturity with increase in concentration. While there was highly significant difference in germination percentage, number of leaves, and significant difference in leaf length and height at maturity for Paradichlorobenzene. There was decrease in all the traits that were studied; however, there was increase in seedling height, leaf length, and number of branches with increase in concentration. Paradichlorobenzene showed the highest effect in seedling height, germination percentage at both 5 and 8 days respectively. While colchicines showed the highest effect only in number of branches.Therefore, the use of 1mm and 4mm Colchicine and Paradichlorobenzene is recommended for inducing mutation to create variability and thus increase the possibility of isolating beneficial mutants.
78 EFFECT OF LOCALLY PREPARED COMPOUNDS ON THE RESISTANCE OF GUM ARABIC WOOD TO TERMITE ATTACK , Alkali, U. U. and Muktar, A.
The effect of three locally prepared compounds (table salt,potash and tamarind leave extract) and their combinations as preservatives of gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal) wood against attack by termites was investigated in a 12-week experiment in Yobe State of Nigeria. One hundred and ninety two (192) wood samples of same dimensions were cut from branches of freely growing gum Arabic trees. The samples were carefully debarked to avoid scaring the wood, rinsed in clean water and oven-dried at 105 ± 3 o C until constant weight was achieved. The samples were then weighed and measured for length and diameter and then exposed to three termite mounds of similar size housing the same subterranean termite species (Macrotermes bellicosus) for 12 weeks at 3 different locations using a randomised complete block design. At the end of the 12th week, they were removed, rinsed and oven-dried, weighed and inspected for possible damage. Treated wood samples were heavier, longer and had bigger diameters than the untreated control. Location had no significant effect on the extent of termite attack. It was concluded that the compounds in test could have either toxic, repellent or both effects on the insect, thus suggesting that the compounds have high potential as wood preservatives.
79 GROUNDWATER QUALITY AND RELATED WATER BORNE DISEASES IN DASS TOWN, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA , Jacob K. Nyanganji; John Abdullahi and Ibrahim Umaru Sarkin Noma
This study examined 20 randomly collected water samples, using 75ml sterilized bottles from private and public wells with mean depths of 3.91m and 6.23m respectively, and boreholes/pump bores of 12 to 25m deep in Dass town in December, 2010. Laboratory analysis were carried out at Gubi dam Water Treatment Plant, Bauchi, using standard procedures to determine the concentrations of physical, chemical and biological properties of the samples in line with WHO and SON standards. Results reveal that pH, total dissolved solids (TSD) and Nitrates were within WHO and SON limits, while Manganese, Calcium carbonate (total water hardness) and E-coli concentrations exceeded the safe standards by 600%, 1035% and 274% respectively. E-coli cfu decreased with depth of wells and distance from pit latrines. The excessive concentrations of these parameters seem to be related to the reported cases of water borne diseases in the town at the time of the research. It was recommended among others that governments should take urgent steps to safeguard and protect public sources of potable water supply through her relevant water and health institutions to serve as part of the dividends of democracy to the people.
80 RURAL FISH FARMERS' AWARENESS AND PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' ACTIVITIES IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA , Ogunremi, J. B.; Faturoti, E. O. and Oladele, O. I.
The need to improve fish farming through enhanced technology necessitated the focus of this study on Fish farmers' awareness and participation in Agricultural extension agents' activities. A structured questionnaire was administered randomly to 60% of the fish farmers who were registered with the Agricultural Development Programme of Oyo State to give a sample size of 205 fish farmers. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were used to analyze the data. The study showed that fish farmers are well aware of extension agents' activities, such as farm demonstration, training of group leaders and meetings. Chi-square analysis was used to test the significant relationship of awareness and participation. It was discovered that awareness was significantly related to participation. The study recommends that extension agents should effectively make use of all available means of communication to fish farmers for increase in productivity.
81 LAND USE CHANGES IN THE ADJOINING RURAL LAND OF MAIDUGURI BETWEEN 1961- 2002: TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN BORNO STATE, NIGERIA , Dami, A.; Adesina, F. A. and Garba, S. S.
This study aimed at examining the trends in land use changes in Maiduguri urban area between 1961 and 2002 and the implications of these in environmental management. These were based on the use of GIS and Remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing data that were made available for this study include black and white aerial photographs of 1961 and 1972 at scale of 1:10,000 and 1:25,000 respectively and SPOT (panchromatic) at a scale of 1:40,000 with 10m resolution. These were interpreted to generate the land use maps for 1961 and 1972, and 1990. The land use map for 1990 on which the field observation of land use changes between 1990 and 2002 was used as the base data. The four land use maps were then digitalized and analyzed in a GIS environment using ILWIS 3.0 and ARCINFO 3.8. The total land area delimited in the study area within which changes were monitored over the period was 13,389 hectares. The study revealed among others that the land use changes trend in the city showed that Maiduguri grew at a fast rate. Consequently, it was concluded that such a high growth in a semi-arid environment where water supply is grossly inadequate, poses a lot of challenges in urban management. Therefore, there is a need to put in place procedures for regular acquisition of remotely sensed data that will make it possible to track the changes happening to land in the urban areas in Nigeria. 
82 FACTORS AND RATE OF GULLY EROSION IN GOMBE TOWN, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA , Mbaya, L. A.
The development of gullies is one of the severe environmental problems in Gombe town. It has threatens urban infrastructure, properties, lives and the physical growth of the town. Knowing the rates of gully development in the last decade helped explain the reasons for current land degradation. This work therefore aimed at assessing gully erosion in Gombe town. Data were derived from field measurements, satellite imageries, and laboratory analysis. Results from the interpretation of Spot 5(1999) and Quick Birds (2009) imageries and field measurements showed that gully variables (length, depth and widths) have significantly increased in the last 10 years. Laboratory analysis of soil particles revealed that the soils are dominated by sand. The values of Atterberg limits (liquid limits; plasticity limit and the plasticity index (PI), shear strength (cohesion and angle of internal friction) and bulk density values were low, soil chemical properties also showed that the soils are moderately acidic, contained low organic matter, and low exchangeable cations, with serious implication on biological methods of erosion control.
83 PETROLEUM EXPLOITATION AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF LABOUR OUTPUT IN THE RURAL ECONOMY OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Igben, J. L.
This study examined the impact of petroleum exploitation and the temporal and spatial dynamics of labour output in the rural economy of Delta State, Nigeria, between 2001 and 2006. The study utilized data from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source is the survey of selected settlements and heads of households in which structured questionnaire was administered. A multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of sample. The first stage involved a random selection of 10 settlements from 40 oil-producing settlements in the study area. The second stage involved systematic selection of 560 heads of households out of 5,615 households enumerated in the sampled settlements. The data collected were analysed using the pair-wise Student's t-test and the One-way Analysis of Variance. The results show that temporal dynamics of labour output in the primary sector were significant. Also, spatial changes in labour output were influenced by distance from petroleum exploitation sites over the two-timed period. Impact evaluation of petroleum exploitation activities is recommended for sustainable development of the physical environment and labour force of the region.
84 CLIMATE CHANGE: CAUSES AND EFFECTS ON AFRICAN AGRICULTURE , Sodangi I. A.; Izge, A. U. and Maina, Y. T.
Climate is the primary important factor for agricultural production. Science has made enormous efforts in understanding climate change and its causes, and is helping to develop a strong understanding of the current and potential impacts that will affect people today and in the future. This understanding is crucial because it allows decision makers to place climate change in the context of other large challenges facing Africa and the world. This study reviews the causes and effects of climate change on agriculture in Africa. The main interests are findings concerning the present and potential impacts to agricultural systems, role of human adaptations in responding to climate change, and potential changes in patterns of food production.
85 POST-HARVEST STORAGE AND SPOILAGE OF CASSAVA TUBERS (MANIHOT SPP) IN IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , Udoudoh, P. J.
Cassava (Manihot spp.) tubers form a major food source of carbohydrates and other food nutrients for tropical dwellers. The tubers also are sources of industrial products such as dextrins, glues, ethyl alcohol, acetone and glucose etc. Post - harvest losses on storage of cassava root tubers are large because of their poor storage qualities. In this study, wholesome cassava tubers were washed and disinfected for used to study the storage and spoilage of cassava tubers using moist saw dust in sealed boxes and some exposed as control. Profuse microbial growths occurred on the surface of tubers exposed on the 4th day and were completely soften due to fermentation of the tissues on the 7th day. Bacteria isolated from the tubers were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Diplococcus. Fungal species isolated using cultural characteristics were Candida and Aspergillus. Tubers on moist sawdust had no microbial growth but developed secondary roots on the 3rd day of storage. They could be stored up to 3 weeks. The sawdust acted as soil for the tubers while the different gases and heat evolved by the tubers in the sealed boxes had a curing effect on the tubers. The study hence recommends that storage of cassava tubers in moist saw-dust would provide effective preservative method against post-harvest losses.
86 ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: THE CHALLENGE FOR THE RURAL WOMEN IN NIGERIA , Aluko, T.
Given our settlement pattern as evident in Nigeria, it is expedient to note that the country's population spread has shown considerably that we have older women and children dwelling within the rural areas of the country and doing subsistence job on their respective farms so as to keep them going. Given this trend, their quest for survival at the face of the eminent economic pressures has sent many into pursuing vigorously the best option in survival strategy with utmost aim of making life bearable for them within the changing society of ours by their subsisting on nature. The consequences of such effort demonstrated the government's total neglect of women's need. Therefore, this study looked at these issues from the feminist perspective as they relate to women's need. Also, the plight of the rural dwelling women, their survival strategy, the poverty syndrome and the planned action of the government in the effect to salvage the impending problems which women's quest for survival in the rural areas will cause the Nation as a whole have been studied. Our submission is arrived at as a result of our observations in villages such as Eye-Korin, Gambari, Lasoju, Gbede and Ote among others in Asa Local Government are of Kwara State in Nigeria. Consequently, this study proposes a premise for the re-awakening of all parties to the needs of not just women alone, but the environment that all must collectively preserve lest the consequential effects which such neglect will cause will be enormous.
87 EFFECT OF SEASON AND SEX ON THE BODY MORPHOMETRICS, HEAT TOLERANCE AND FAECAL EGG COUNTS OF WEST AFRICAN DWARF (WAD) GOATS , Adedeji, T. A.; Ozoje, M. O.; Peters, S. O.; Ojedapo, L. O. and Sanusi, A. O.
Eight hundred and twenty (820) West African Dwarf (WAD) goats were sampled randomly on-farm in Ogbomoso agro-ecological zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Data obtained on body weight, body length, chest girth, height-at-wither, sacral pelvic width, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, heat stress index and faecal egg counts were corrected for age effect and analysed for fixed effect of season and sex using General Linear Model procedure of SAS (2003). Significant effects of season and sex were obtained in all the aforementioned parameters except rectal temperature and pulse rate which were not influenced by sex. Highest values of body morphometrics, physiological parameters and faecal egg counts were recorded during the early dry, late dry and late wet seasons respectively. Female goats had higher body parameters and faecal egg counts and lower breath per minute. It therefore suggests the significant importance of season and sex in the growth and productivity of WAD goats.
88 EFFECTS OF RAW, COOKED AND DEFATTED MELON SEEDS ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND MINERAL RETENTION OF BROILER CHICKENS , Akanji, A. M.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of raw, cooked, toasted and defatted melon seeds on performance characteristics and mineral retention of broiler chickens. The plant seeds were fed to the birds at 15% level . A total of 200 day old broiler chicks of the Marshall strain were randomly allocated to five dietary groups in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted for five weeks. Feed intake was similar between birds fed the control diet and those fed cooked melon seeds , but significantly reduced in birds fed raw melon seed. Body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were higher in birds fed cooked melon seeds , but significantly reduced in the birds fed raw and defatted melon seeds respectively. Birds fed on toasted melon seeds however ranked next to those fed on cooked melon seeds in BWG, FCE and PER values respectively. Nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus and iron retention were markedly reduced in birds fed on raw melon seeds. Phosphorus and iron retention were however similar between those fed on toasted and defatted melon seeds respectively. Over all, the best significant improvements in the response indices were obtained in birds fed on cooked melon seeds as the birds fed on the diet competed favorably with the control group. It is therefore recommended that cooked melon seeds are best incorporated into diets of broiler chickens.
89 HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN SOME FISHES FROM LAKE CHAD REGION IN NIGERIA , Bdliya, D. I. and Tagi, D.
The primary aim of this study was to experiment the levels of concentration of heavy metals in some fishes in the Lake Chad. Three samples of fishes were bought from the fish market and dried to constant weight then acid digested and analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (model Perkin Elmer 3110) for Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pd), Iron (Fe), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Copper (Cu). The levels of these ions were found to be satisfactory for human consumption with highest levels for the ions zinc, lead, iron mercury nickel and copper of 121.15 in molusca, 7.28 in Mackerel, 132.02 in molusca, 0.08 in mulusca, 1.86 in molusca and 1.78 in Mackerel respectively while the lowest values were 98.23 in tilapia, 5.78 in Molusca, 110.00 in tilapia, 0.06 in tilapia, 0.43 in tilapia and 1.05 in tilapia respectively. Though the study revealed the health implication of high levels of various elements such as Cu, Pd and Hg in humans as a breakdown in the nervous system, yet consumers of fishes from this lake are not at risk since the levels are low.
90 EFFECTS OF POPULATION DENSITY AND STORAGE DURATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CALLOSOBRUCHUS SUBINNOTATUS IN STORED BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (VIGNA SUBTERRANEAN (L.) VERDCOURT) , Maina, Y. T.; Degri, M. M. and Sharah, H. A.
An experiment was conducted in the Entomology Laboratory, Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri in 2010. The aim was to determine the effect of Population density and storage duration on the development of Callosobruchus subinnotatus in stored bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verdcourt) with different levels of infestation (2, 3, 4 and 6 pairs of C. subinnotatus) per 100g of bambara groundnut and stored for three months duration under prevailing tropical storage temperature of 30 - 32o C. The results showed that as the population density of C. subinnotatus increases with increasing storage duration the more the damage done to bambara groundnut. The mean number of eggs laid at different levels of infestation increase with the storage duration indicating a significant difference between the first, second and the third month. Adult emergence in treatments infested with two pairs at the third month has a higher mean number of adults compared to those of first and second month which are also applicable to 3, 4, and 6 pairs. The percentage seed damage of bambara groundnut done infested with two pair of C. subinotatus and stored for three months was higher with mean number of 87.84% while four and six pairs gave 99.66% and 99.33% respectively. The severity of damage caused was more in the third month compared to that of first and second month regardless of the level of infestation. The study submitted that the longer the storage duration, the more economic damage stored produce will suffer due to increase egg laying, increase adult emergence and increase percentage damage of seeds which result to high severity of damage.
91 SOIL POLLUTION FROM VEHICULAR LEAD EMISSION IN ENUGU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA , Eze, H. I.
A study on the pollution of soil from lead contaminants in vehicular exhaust emission in the Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria has been carried out. Twenty one experimental and control sites were involved. Laboratory chemical analysis using the spectrophotometer was employed in the detection of lead toxicity level in the soil samples. The soil sample leads pollution index and the Analysis of variance statistics were used to analyse the laboratory results which proved that the experimental sites have very high lead contamination than the control site. The hazardous effects of leads were addressed to create awareness of this toxic substance. The advanced recommended measures should be seriously adhered to with a view to reducing health deteriorating problems that arise from both acute and chronic exposure to lead.
92 WATER TRANSFER METHODS IN RESPONSE TO WATER DEMAND FOR AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE AT CHANCHAGA RIVER AND TAGWAI DAM IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA , Musa, J. J. and Saba, V.
Water remains the determinate factor in intensifying agricultural and non agricultural activities. Considerable investment in water transfer will improve availability of water for irrigation. Random selection method was used to administer questionnaires to the farmers on the irrigation scheme of Chanchaga River and other activities carried out in the area. Some of these questionnaires were also distributed to the farmers along the major course of the Tagwai dam. Farmers who have their farmlands upstream the Tagwai dam were observed as 77.05%, the midstream had a population 6.89% farmers while at the downstream, was 16.06%. A total of 315 copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to the respondents. It was observed that the water transfer for Agricultural (irrigation) purposes is relatively not enough. Consequently, it is recommended that government should make water available for farmers to have access at all time when needed for bountiful crop yield.
93 EFFLUENT DISCHARGE AND SOME POLLUTANT SOURCES IN THE BANK OF WARRI RIVER IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Aghoghovwia, O. A.
This study examined notable points of effluent discharge sources of the Warri River and their level of toxicity. Nine locations were chosen, seven of them were points of effluent discharge, while two are the terminals, which served as control. Water/effluents were collected quarterly for two years in 250m/s sampling bottles. There was significant difference in physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals between the locations. Temperature, COD, TDS, pH as well as five heavy metals Fe, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd in effluents obtained at all stations except the control points, exceeded specified permissible limit by statutory bodies. This implies that these effluents were not treated. The government, regulatory bodies and indeed all stakeholders must sit up in order to safeguard the aquatic life, resources and human population that depend on the river for food, water and recreation and survival.
94 QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM THREE BREEDS OF CATTLE IN NIGERIA , Yunusa, A. J.
Quality characteristics of cheese produced from milk obtained from three Nigeria breeds of cattle (White Fulani, Muturu and Red Borori) were evaluated. The experiment was conducted at the Animal product laboratory of the College of Agriculture, Kabba, Nigeria. Fresh milk samples were collected from three Nigeria cattle breeds (White Fulani, Muturu and Red Borori) into three different containers. Eight cattle of a single breed were used making a total of 24 samples. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the pH, cheese and whey yield of the cheeses used for this experiment. White Fulani, Muturu and red Borori cheese had moisture content of 72.51%, 70.03% and 63.42% respectively. There was a significant difference in the moisture content of the cheeses. Cheeses from the three breeds of cattle were stable upon storage for the first 24 hours but further refrigeration slightly decreases the weight of white Fulani and Muturu cheese. The sensory evaluation of the cheeses showed that the three cheeses have good acceptability by consumers but red Borori cheese is mostly preferred for all the properties considered. Hence, milk from these cattle varieties should be produced in commercial quantity in Nigeria adopting the best modern technologies.
95 APPLICATION OF METEOROLOGY AND WEATHER PREDICTION IN THE SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN NIGERIA , Ojo, M. O.; Olanusi, O. B. and Akinnubi, R. T.
In the past few decades, the perilous socio-economic effects of meteorological hazards were exemplified by drought, desertification, flood, storm surges, erosion, landslide, harmattan haze, line squalls and thunderstorms, tornadoes and heat waves. These were sadly concerned as observed on the lives of the citizens of Nigeria. It is saddening to note that weather hazards are evidently becoming an ever-greater part of the daily lives of our people and must not be over-looked. Therefore, Studies on the potential impact of climatic change on man and his environment have become very crucial in contemporary scientific research. Because, human health, energy and comfort are affected by climate than any other element of the physical environment. This study examined the impacts of meteorology and weather prediction in the process of national transformation. The development and challenges of modern prediction with special focus on tropical weather system are examined. The paper concludes that there is a pressing need to improve our conventional methods of weather forecasting through more up-to-date and powerful techniques such as weather prediction, monitoring and processing by the use of radars, satellites and computers.
96 GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT IDU URUAN WATER HEADWORK AND ADJOINING ENVIRONMENT IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , Ukpong, E. C.
This experiment was carried out to analyze groundwater quality at Idu Uruan water headwork. Five samples were collected at random from the study area while the Idu Uruan water headwork was the control sample. The test result showed that all samples met the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and World Health Organization (WHO) specifications for the physicochemical parameters. Samples A, B, D and E met the NSDWQ and WHO specifications being maximum of 5 Nephle-metric turbidity unit (NTU) and sample C with turbidity of 10.2NTU which is above specification. The PH result of the samples showed that all samples are slightly acidic. The bacteriological analysis showed that samples C and D were bacteria free, sample B had E. Coli 0 per 100ml and total coliform count of 10 per 100ml which shows that according to NSDWQ B is fit for drinking. Samples A and E showed evidence of heavy pollution and water from these sources are not fit for drinking due to fecal intrusion. It was recommended that all wells should be filled and abandoned wells should never be used for waste disposal as it was a path for contaminants to enter the aquifer and septic tanks should be pumped out every 1 to 2 years.
97 GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT IDU URUAN WATER HEADWORK AND ADJOINING ENVIRONMENT IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , Ukpong, E. C.
This experiment was carried out to analyze groundwater quality at Idu Uruan water headwork. Five samples were collected at random from the study area while the Idu Uruan water headwork was the control sample. The test result showed that all samples met the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and World Health Organization (WHO) specifications for the physicochemical parameters. Samples A, B, D and E met the NSDWQ and WHO specifications being maximum of 5 Nephle-metric turbidity unit (NTU) and sample C with turbidity of 10.2NTU which is above specification. The PH result of the samples showed that all samples are slightly acidic. The bacteriological analysis showed that samples C and D were bacteria free, sample B had E. Coli 0 per 100ml and total coliform count of 10 per 100ml which shows that according to NSDWQ B is fit for drinking. Samples A and E showed evidence of heavy pollution and water from these sources are not fit for drinking due to fecal intrusion. It was recommended that all wells should be filled and abandoned wells should never be used for waste disposal as it was a path for contaminants to enter the aquifer and septic tanks should be pumped out every 1 to 2 years.
98 MEASURING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF MAIZE PRODUCTION USING PARAMETRIC AND NON-PARAMETRIC METHODS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA , Ogunniyi, L. T. and Ajao, A. O.
This study compared Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis to assess efficiency of maize production using a cross-section data randomly obtained from maize farmers in Ogo-Oluwa Local government Area of Oyo State. Previous studies have dealt with the use of either of the techniques or both. Consistency of potential existence was found in the two approaches but varies in magnitude. The significant variations in the level of inefficiency across sample farms were attributed to the variations in the 'use intensities' of resources.
99 PROCESSED AFRICAN YAM BEAN (SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA) IN BROILER FEEDING: PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND NUTRIENT UTILIZATION , Emiola, I. A.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding raw and processed African yam bean (AYB) Sphenostylis stenocarpa on the performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens. The experiment utilized one hundred and twenty one day old Abor-Acre broiler chicks in 56-days intensive feeding trial. Four dietary treatments comprising a basal maize-soybean meal diet and three differently processed AYB meals were used to replace soybean at 50% protein for protein in the basal diet (raw, aqueous heating and dehulled AYB). There were four 4 treatments groups of 3 replicates with 10 birds per replicate. Birds were randomly divided into four groups in a completely randomized block design. It was revealed that a 50% protein for protein replacement of SBM with cooked AYB was equally as good as feeding SBM as protein source in diet of broiler chicks. Hence, Aqueous heating was a better processing method for African yam bean compared to dehulling or better still dehulling prior to aqueous heating to enable adequate removal of the anti-nutritional factors to the barest minimum.
100 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ACCEPTABILITY OF THREE TEPHROSIA SPECIES AND USE OF TEPHROSIA PURPEREA AS SUPPLEMENT FOR GRAZING ANIMALS IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF CAMEROON , Mbomi, S. E.; Ogungbesan, A. M.; Babayemi, O. J. and Nchinda, V. P.
The study was carried out to investigate the suitability of utilizing Tephrosia species in the feeding of small ruminant livestock. It involved the laboratory assessment of nutritive and anti-nutritive components of three Tephrosia species. Forage acceptability of the species using cafeteria method with eight adult goats and effect of feeding the most preferred specie to grazing goats. The species studied were T. candida (Roxb) D. C., T. purpurea (L) Pers, and T. vogelii (Hemsley) A gray. These values are within the ranges considered adequate for goats. The concentration of tannins, saponins, oxalic acid and phytic acid were low. Differences in the relative preference index (%) were significantly different with an average of 80.4 for T. purpurea, 67.7 for T. vogelii and 19.9 for T. candida. Total body weight of grazing animal supplemented with T. purpurea was significantly higher than those without supplement by 2.19kg. The results showed that these Tephrosia species have good level of nutrients save level of anti-nutritional factors and therefore can be used as supplement to animals grazing on poor paddocks.
101 RESPONSE OF SUBCUTANEOUS ADMINISTRATION OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DATURA STRAMONIUM LINN SEEDS ON LIVER ENZYMES , Fatoba, T. A.; Adeloye, A. A. and Soladoye, A. O.
To evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of Datura stramonium seeds on the enzymes activity and to identify the hepatotoxicity of aqueous extracts in white albino rats. Effect of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was experimented for liver enzymes activities in forty white albino rats (200- 250g). Plant extracts (aqueous) were tested for their effect on the enzyme activity at four dose levels: 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08ml/kgbodyweight (BW) and 0 (saline) levels served as control. The extracts were administered via subcutaneous route for ten consecutive days using completely randomized design and the histological studies of the livers were carried out to confirm their hepatotoxicity activity. The result of the study revealed among others that the extract had significant (p<0.05) effect on the liver enzyme activities. This elevation may be an indication of hepatotoxicity of the treated rats resulted from the high dose of aqueous extract. The significant activity exhibited by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.
102 MEAT CHARACTERISTICS OF AFRICAN ANTELOPE (ANTILOPE CERVICAPRA) IN AGO-IWOYE AREA OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA ,  Apata, E. S.; Eniolorunda, O. O.; Ajayi, K. I. and Okubanjo, A.O.
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the percentage of some selected muscles of antelope relative to its half carcass weight, proximate composition of raw and cooked antelope meat as well as sensory attributes of the meat. Four antelopes of mixed sex and of 2-2.5years were used for this study. They were purchased live from Ago-Iwoye market in Ogun State, Nigeria and were transported to Meat Science Laboratory of the Department of Animal Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, Ayetoro for processing. They were weighed, bled, eviscerated, washed and chilled at 4o C for 24 hours. The carcasses were sawed into two halves and one half was weighed and fabricated into primal cuts. Selected muscles were excised from the cuts weighed and their percentages relative to chilled half carcass weight were determined. Proximate composition of raw and cooked semimembranosus and longissimus dorsi muscles as well as the taste panel evaluation of the two muscles was conducted on a 9-point hedonic scale I correspond to dislike very much and 9 like very much after broiling the meat at 160o C for 25min. The results showed that longissimus dorsi muscle was biggest followed by biceps femoris, quadriceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles, while vectus abdomimis, bradclialis and biceps brachii muscles were smallest. Crude protein, ash, nitrogen free extract and tenderness were higher in cooked meat, while fat was lower. In conclusion, antelope (Antilope cervicapra) should be domesticated to complement the conventional livestocks so that adequate meat supply to growing human population can be achieved.
103 GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus FED COMPOUNDED RATIONS AND MAGGOTS , Kareem, A. O. and Ogunremi, J. B.
An investigation into the monoculture of Clarias gariepinus was carried out with a view to determine the most suitable level of supplementing maggots with compounded rations and evaluate the growth performance. Ten juvenile Clarias were stocked each in four different hapas of 1m x 1m x 1m in a pond. Initial mean weights recorded are 105.55g, 110.63g, 108.25g and 112.65g for the four treatments respectively. There were four experimental treatments T1 - T4 , T1 100% compounded ration, T2 50% compounded ration and 50% maggots, T3 25% compounded ration and 75% maggots, T4 100% maggots. Experimental fish were fed at 5% body weight for 8 weeks with final weight as 201.56g, 230.28g, 186.35g and 170.80g for the treatments respectively. The highest mean weight of 119.65, specific growth rate of 1.3 and protein efficiency ratio of 0.39 were recorded in treatment II for fish fed 50% compounded ration and 50% maggot Results of this study showed among others that a combination of 50% compounded ration and 50% maggot (Treatment II) yielded the best growth performance of Clarias gariepinus. Hence, equal combination of compounded ration and maggots in fish which is one of the goods sources of human protein is highly recommended.
104 THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR MONITORING DEFORESTATION IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA , Yohanna Peter; Innocent Reuben and Emmanuel Bulus
The forest vegetation of South-West Nigeria has been seriously undergoing deforestation in a rapid state. The region, with population of over 40 million, who engaged in cultivation of food crops and timber extraction for industrial uses have put the forest vegetation in the region under pressure. The need for monitoring forest vegetation changes therefore, becomes inevitable. Spot XS land use and vegetation cover map of and lansat MSS land use/vegetation map of 1995, a period of 17 years. Ilwis 3.1, Arcview 3.0 and Idrisi 32 were used for map capturing, digital mapping and image classification/analysis respectively. The study revealed that the forest vegetation which 3360.79Km2 in 1978 has reduce to 2549.659km2 in 1995. This means that 2367.67km2 of the forest vegetation remains as forest vegetation in 1995, while 1190.36km2 have changed to the land use types within the period. It was also revealed that forest vegetation was mainly due to urbanization, which results to settlement expansion, disturbed forest, grassland encroachment, reservoirs for the water sources and intensive agriculture. Enactment and operation of land use activities, control of indiscriminate bush burning and other protective measures were suggested for sustainable utilization of the forest vegetation.
105 THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) FOR MONITORING DEFORESTATION IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA , Yohanna Peter; Innocent Reuben and Emmanuel Bulus
The forest vegetation of South-West Nigeria has been seriously undergoing deforestation in a rapid state. The region, with population of over 40 million, who engaged in cultivation of food crops and timber extraction for industrial uses have put the forest vegetation in the region under pressure. The need for monitoring forest vegetation changes therefore, becomes inevitable. Spot XS land use and vegetation cover map of and lansat MSS land use/vegetation map of 1995, a period of 17 years. Ilwis 3.1, Arcview 3.0 and Idrisi 32 were used for map capturing, digital mapping and image classification/analysis respectively. The study revealed that the forest vegetation which 3360.79Km2 in 1978 has reduce to 2549.659km2 in 1995. This means that 2367.67km2 of the forest vegetation remains as forest vegetation in 1995, while 1190.36km2 have changed to the land use types within the period. It was also revealed that forest vegetation was mainly due to urbanization, which results to settlement expansion, disturbed forest, grassland encroachment, reservoirs for the water sources and intensive agriculture. Enactment and operation of land use activities, control of indiscriminate bush burning and other protective measures were suggested for sustainable utilization of the forest vegetation.
106 GEOELECTRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FRACTURED BASEMENT COMPLEX OVER IGEM CITY IN IBADAN, NIGERIA , Owoyemi, S. I. and Ojo, M. O.
This study was carried out to establish a baseline geo-physical data and hydrological characteristics using the Schlumberger arrangement (a vertical electrical sounding) and drillers log from the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) data were acquired from 4 locations evenly distributed around International Gospel Evangelical Mission (IGEM) city and her environs. This was an attempt to obtain useful information on the aquifer distribution within the area and hence delineate possible depths boreholes could be drilled for potable and sustainable water supply. The first aquifer consist of fine-grained sand formation at a depth between 1.60 - 8.70m and thickness between 1.60 and 7.10m. The first aquifer consist medium-topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement formation and occurs at a depth, between 1.60 -8.70m. Prospective groundwater exploration was therefore recommended in the second aquifer at a depth, between 1.60 -8.70m to enhance sustainable and potable water supply in IGEM city and her environs. The basement thickness was considered adequate for any overlying pressure from the camp to locate effective water. The results obtained from the VES curves show a typical three layer model in all the parts. The area cannot experience any ground water failure, these layers include the topsoil, clayey weathered layer/partly weathered basement and the fresh/ crystalline basement. It has been discovered from this study that the weathered/ fractured zone are deeply seated and will not have any adverse effect on the structures that will be placed in the nearest future. The area is not likely to experience any ground water problem as the low resistivity weathered zone thickness is high enough for reasonable accumulation of water.
107 DRY SEASON VEGETABLE FARMING IN THE FLOODPLAINS OF RIVER KATSINA-ALA IN KATSINA-ALA TOWN OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA , Dam, P. D.
The study assessed dry season vegetable farming in the floodplains of River Katsina-Ala in Benue State, Nigeria. The study sought to know the sociodemographic characteristics of dry season vegetable farmers, method of production and variety of vegetables grown as well as the average farm sizes and annual income derived. Data were collected from 160 dry season vegetables farmers using structured questionnaire, interviews and personal observation. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. The result of the study shows that migrants of Hausa origin dominated the farm against the indigenous settlers of Tiv (13.1%) and Etulo (26.9%). Farm sizes were generally small less than a hectare accounted for 61.9%. Dominant variety of vegetables grown was spinach, tomatoes and okra. The study identified lack of capital, farm inputs, storage facilities and attacks by pests and diseases as the major constraints affecting the farming practice in the study area and recommended among others that agricultural extension services should be offered to the farmers on modern way and innovations of vegetable farming; and indigenous farmers should be enlighten to practice dry season vegetable farming to boost availability of the product during this season.
108 CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L. Karst) UNDER FRUIT WORM (Heliothis Zea Buddie) INFESTATION IN A LINE × TESTER , Izge, A. U.; Garba, Y. M. and Sodangi, I. A.
Field experiments were conducted under irrigation during the dry seasons of 2010 and 2011 at Lake Allau near Maiduguri, Borno State and at Hong, in Adamawa State, Nigeria to evaluate F1 hybrids in tomato for high yield and resistant to fruit worm insect (Helicovarpa zea Buddie) developed from eight parents (2 lines and 6 testers) through line x tester. The purpose of this study among others was to estimate the association existing between fruit yield and other yield components and to also determine the path analysis. The correlation studies revealed that number of flower clusters/plant, number of leaves/plant and plant height exhibited significant positive genotypic correlations with number of fruits/plant. The results also revealed a strong positive phenotypic correlations between number of fruits/plant with trichome count, number of flower clusters, number of leaves/plant and plant height. However, there were insignificant genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients between percentage fruit damage and trichome count. Trichome count, flower clusters/ plant, number of leaves/plant and plant height are traits therefore to be considered when selecting tomato plant for fruit yield improvement.
109 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SIX LOCAL AND FOUR IMPROVED COWPEA CULTIVARS TO Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) INFESTATION IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA , Maina, Y. T.; Mbaya, A. M. and Mailafiya, D. M.
The susceptibility of seeds of six local (Banjara, Borno brown, Gwallam, Kanannado brown, Kanannado white and Saddam) and four improved (189KD288, IT89KD-391, IT90K-82-2 and IT97K-499-35) cowpea cultivars that were commonly grown in north eastern Nigeria to infestation by the cowpea storage bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) was evaluated in the laboratory at 30oC - 35oC and 60% - 65% RH. Parameters tested include the number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage, seed susceptibility index and bruchid developmental period. All parameters collected were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean number of bruchid eggs laid and adults emerged, percentage seed damage, severity of seed damage and seed susceptibility index were generally significantly different amongst the ten different cowpea cultivars. Mean bruchid developmental period, was however, not significantly different amongst the cowpea cultivars tested. The seeds of all ten cowpea cultivars (local and improved) were either moderately or highly susceptible to infestation by C. maculatus. Results obtained in this study indicated the need for breeders to develop high-yielding cowpea cultivars that are well adapted to cultivation in the north eastern region of Nigeria, with relatively high resistance to attack by the bruchid beetle.
110 COMBINING ABILITY FOR FRUIT WORM RESISTANCE IN SOME COMMERCIALLY GROWN TOMATOES IN LAKE ALAU NEAR MAIDUGURI AND HONG IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA , Izge, A.U. and Garba, Y. M.
Combining ability studies for yield and yield components of tomato under artificial and deliberate infestation by tomato fruit worm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) were made over two environments at Lake Alau near Maiduguri and at Hong Adamawa State, Nigeria in a set of 6 lines and 2 testers during the 2009 and 2010 dry season under irrigation. The pooled results showed that both General Combining Ability (GCA) and Specific Combining Ability (SCA) were influenced by the environment implying that the parents and hybrids must be evaluated over a wide range of environments to have unbiased estimate. The tester Cherry and the lines UC and Roma VF indicated great promise for the production of increased number of fruits per plant and incidentally the general fruit yield in tomato under infestation by fruit worm insect. Out of the 12 hybrids studied, 4 each were found to be good specific combiners for number of flower clusters and plant height, and 5 for number of fruits per plant over both the environment combined. Cherry × Hong Large and Cherry × Roma VF were the best specific combiners for number of fruits per plant and incidentally having high number of trichome count. These hybrids could be resistant to this insect. Additive gene action were preponderant for number of flower clusters, number of fruits per plant and days to final harvest, while non-additive action were preponderant for number of leaves per plant, plant heights, weight of fruits and the percentage damaged fruits.
111 GULLY DEVELOPMENT ALONG RIVER NGADDABUL FLOODPLAIN OF MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA , Mustapha Mala; Jacob K. Nyanganji and Alhaji Mukhtar
This study focused on gully development along River Ngaddabul floodplain in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives were to examine the factors and processes influencing gully development. The data used were obtained through measurements of the parameters such as gully length, width and depth at four locations. Also examine were slope angles, relief and vegetation of the topography and mapping of the gully patterns. The data were subjected to laboratory and statistical analysis. The findings revealed that factors that influence gullying (process) along the floodplain are rainfall amount, runoff taking advantage of footpaths, wheeled-tracks and soil texture. It was also revealed that human activities such as sand mining contribute to gullying processes by influencing mass wasting processes like slumping through undermining of channel banks leading to caving as well as collapse of channels. The construction of new houses along the road due to population pressure accelerated the gullying processes. The River Ngaddabul annual floods also contribute towards gullying (processes) by deepening the channels, leading to the initiation of new gullies on the slopes. In view of these, the study recommended that drainage channel should be constructed in the gully affected areas to check the volume of runoff influencing gullying. Sand quarrying should be restricted to specific locations along the road in order to prevent further disfiguring of the Ngaddabul channel through undermining processes along the channel.
112 THE USE OF ORGANIC MANURE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PLANT- PARASITIC NEMATODE IN NIGERIA , Maina, Y. T.; Mohammed, F. K. and Galadima,  I. B.
This review focused on the sophisticated methods of controlling nematodes that are out of reach of most farmers. The study which made use of secondary data, primarily evaluated the use of organic manure in the management of plantparasite nematode in nigeria. The effects of synthetic pesticides misuse around the world include costly environmental pollution and disruption of balance of nature in addition to their high cost and non availability. There is therefore the need to investigate methods which will maximize crops production under the prevailing farming systems suitable to local farmers. Several organic products have been shown to possess nematicidal properties and are available, inexpensive and economical methods of nematode management. As an alternative to chemical control, it has been shown that organic manure can release ammonia, phenols, azadirachtin, selannin, meliantriol and many other substances, which show nematicidal properties. The use of organic manure was found to be easy and economical in controlling plant-parasitic nematodes.
113 FODDER PRODUCTION: RESPONSE TO SOWING DATES, PRUNING HEIGHTS AND CUTTING INTERVALS OF Tephrosia SPECIES IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF CAMEROON , Mbomi, S. E.; Adetimirin, V. O.; Ogungbesan, A. M. and Anjah, G. M.
Fodder production responses to three Tephrosia species (T. candida, T. purpurea and T. vogelii) to sowing date of April, May, June, and July, pruning heights of 50cm and 75cm and cutting intervals of 8, 12 and 16 weeks were evaluated. The study was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development Mankon - Station in the Western highlands of Cameroon. Experimental design was split-split plots with four replicates. Data were collected during two growing seasons on dry matter (DM) yields and subjected to analysis of variance. There was significant reduction in DM yield between April (1870kg/ha) and July planting seasons (679kg/ha) in the year of establishment. Forage DM yield doubled in all three species when cutting height was increased from 50cm to 75cm. Averaged over species, dry matter yield was significantly influenced by cutting height, with 1673kg/ha obtained at 75cm and 772kg/ha at 50cm. For proper establishment and adequate dry matter yield the three Tephrosia species should be planted when the rains are steady, between April and May, cut at 12 weeks interval at a height of 75cm above ground level for optimum DM production.
114 EVALUATION OF TWO NEW HERBICIDE MIXTURES FOR WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.) , Takim, F. O.; Awolade, V.; Ajisope, T. A. and Lawal, M. B.
Field trials were conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm in the southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria during 2009 and 2010 growing seasons to evaluate the weed control efficiency of different herbicide treatments and the performance of maize. Two new preparatory herbicide mixtures: Lasset1 and Huricane2 each at 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 kg a.i./ha were evaluated alongside with a check herbicide Bullet®3 at 3.0 kg a.i/ha, a weedy check and two hand weedings at 3 and 6 weeks after planting. The trial was designed as a randomized complete block with three replications. Significant differences occurred in the level of weed control provided by the various treatments. Huricane and Lasset provided the same level of control as Bullet(R) at each of their application rates, except 2.0 kg ai/ha. There was no phytotoxic effect of the herbicides on maize. The plots that were hoe-weeded twice produced significantly higher grain yield that was similar to yields in the herbicide treated plots except for the plots treated with 2.0kg ai/ha of Lasset and Huricane. This study suggests, that the new formulated mixtures can be recommended to supplement the existing ones in this agroecology.
115 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAMATOLOGICAL STUDIES OF BROILER CHICKENS FED COWPEA BASED DIETS , Akanji, A. M.; Adebiyi, A. O.; Adebowale, O. S.; Fasina, O. and Ogungbesan, A. M.
This study was carried out to look at the utilization of cowpea - based diets on performance characteristics and haematology of broiler chickens. Raw cowpea ( Vigna unguigulata L.Walp), dehulled - cowpea, dehulled - cooked cowpea and dehulled - roasted cowpea grains were fed to broiler chickens in a five week feeding trial. A total of seventy five day old broiler chicks of Marshall Strain were allotted into five dietary treatments. Marginal reductions in the crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash were obtained in the dehulled cowpea and dehulled - cooked cowpea grains respectively. The dehulled - roasted cowpea grains however gave slight increases in the proximate composition. Feed intake and growth was significantly reduced in birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled - cowpea respectively. The feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also followed a similar pattern. Non-significant differences were however obtained in weight gain, FCE and PER of birds fed the control diet and those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea in this study. Birds fed dehulled - roasted cowpea also had marginal reductions in weight gain, FCE and PER when compared to those fed dehulled - cooked cowpea based diet. Mortality was higher in birds fed raw cowpea - based diet.The haematological studies showed lower values of haemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume and white blood cells of birds fed raw cowpea and dehulled cowpea respectively. However, despite the better response indices, the combination of dehulling and cooking led to leaching of some water-soluble food nutrients. Hence, more studies still need to be carried out especially at other processing methods that can drastically reduce the anti-nutritional factors without necessarily leaching the food nutrients.
116 PALM WINE TAPPING METHODS AMONG IDOMA AND TIV ETHNIC GROUPS OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS ON CONSERVATION OF PALM TREES (Elaeis guineensis) , Onuche, P.; Shomkegh S. A. and Tee T. N.
Some methods employed in tapping wine from palm trees may affect the life span of the palm tree. This study investigated the methods of tapping wine from palm trees (Elaesis guineensis) among the Idoma and Tiv ethnic groups of Benue State. The aim was to examine the implication of the palm wine tapping methods on the conservation of the palm trees in the study area. Applying a multi-stage sampling technique, 150 respondents were sampled and interviewed using semistructured questionnaire to generate data. This was backed up with field observations of various palm wine tapping methods to gather the required information. The result identified three palm wine tapping methods namely inflorescent flower, terminal budding and felling of palm trees. The inflorescent flower method practiced in Idoma areas had all the trees tapped surviving while none of the trees tapped using felling the tree method in both communities survived. The inflorescent flower tapping method adopted by majority of tappers in the Idoma ethnic group was found to be more sustainable for palm wine tapping as it ensures survival of trees tapped, providing for the palm wine needs of today and future generations. However, terminal budding method of palm wine tapping associated with Tiv ethnic group is destructive because only a fraction of one quarter palm trees survived after tapping. Creating awareness on palm treefriendly tapping methods and conservation strategies among the tapping community in these ethnic groups will improve the availability of living palm trees for continuity of use.
117 IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL DISPARITY ON HUMAN COMFORT INDEX IN ENUGU URBAN ENVIRONMENT, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA , Ogbuene, E. B.
The rate of changes in temperature and rainfall disparity constitutes severe impact on human comfort index in Enugu Urban Environment. The area is characterized with built-up structures, little or no vegetation cover and high urban heat island which affect temperature and rainfall distributions adversely. This study then becomes indispensable because of the continuous increase in the rate of changes in temperature and rainfall disparity over the years. Temperature, rainfall and human comfort index data for the period of 1970-2005 were collected for the purpose of establishing the rate of temperature and rainfall disparity as well as its impact on human comfort index within Enugu urban environment. Results show among others that temperature and rainfall over the years fluctuates wildly and has grave impact on human comfort index. The study established that the consequences of temperature and rainfall disparity are severe biodiversity and vegetation loss which affects human comfort index adversely. In that light, it then becomes expedient to promote Urban Planning-Meteorological Advisory Services, substantial planting of trees, adaptation measures and Specialized Research Programmes (S.R.P) in the area.
118 GRASSCUTTER (THYONOMYS SWINDERIANUS) HUSBANDRY IN NIGERIA: A REVIEW OF THE POTENTIALITIES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES , Owen, O. J. and Dike, U. A.
Domestication of grasscutter is a relatively novel practice in Nigeria with its potentialities, challenges and opportunities. This study was a review of grasscutter husbandry in Nigeria. The major aim was to assess the potentialities, opportunities and challenges of this aspect of farming in Nigeria. As revealed by the study, the potentialities of grasscutter rearing are that grasscutter farming has social acceptability, good meat quality of high biological value (high protein and low fat), inexpensive feeds and amenability to captive rearing, good litter size and short generation interval. Despite the challenges of domestication of grasscutter, non-steady supply of the meat, air pollution and ecological devastation as a result of bush burning to hunt cane-rats and threat of extinction of grasscutter; the domestication and production of grasscutter is another dimension in the livestock industry that has the potential to ensure regular and sustainable animal production in the nation.
119 Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Buck as Affected by Datura Stramonium Linn Seed Extract , Fatoba T. A.; Adeloye A. A. and Soladoye, A. O.
To evaluate the action of aqueous extract of Datura stramonium seeds on the physiological status of West African Dwarf (WAD) -bucks, the effects of aqueous extract of the seed of Datura stramonium Linn was investigated for some physiological parameters in twenty (20) West African Dwarf bucks aged 12- 18 months and averaged 8.76±1.23kg for a period of 2months. The bucks were grouped into five treatments consisting four bucks and using Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The bucks were subcutaneously administered with the plant extract at a dose of 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08ml/kg bodyweight respectively. The results of the study revealed that the treated bucks had higher (p>0.05) body weight than the control but treated had lower rectal temperature than the control (p>0.05). However, the extract produced significant effect (p<0.05) on the pulse and heart rate and this may be as a result of the active principles present in the extract used for the study. Based on the findings of the present study, the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium could serve as a stimulatory agent and if properly screened using additional solvents, pharmacologically active drugs could be obtained. The significant effect produced by the aqueous extract on the animals has provided scientific justification for the ethno medicinal uses of the plant in India and South Africa.
120 Effects of Drought on Pastoral Household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia , Abera Bekele and Aklilu Amsalu
This study adopted the survey research design to investigate the effect of drought on Pastoral household in Fentale Woreda of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The aim was to give information about drought pattern in the study area, create an understanding of the menace as well as identify appropriate and relevant local level response mechanisms. A household survey was conducted with 134 households and this was complemented by interviews with informants. Meteorological data were also used to map out the time line of drought events in the area. It was observed that severe and recurrent drought of the present time has brought about declining range land resources, poor productivity and declining survival of livestocks. The results indicate that the frequency of drought has been on the increase from year to year. Increased severity of drought has caused huge moisture deficit and has posed multi-dimensional adverse effects on households' livelihood sources. However, households have developed various strategies to deal with the challenges of severe droughts through pastoral and non pastoral activities.
121 Environmental Degradation: Development Philosophy and Moral Responsibilities , Kiugbo, E. U. and Isanbor, O.
Many damage have been done to the ecosystem, especially the biosphere that houses the human species. The systems demand that human species and non-human species should be protected from avert environmental or ecological conditions which are detrimental to healthy living. This review examined environmental degradations in modern society. It also examined the ways in which every individual, group, community can help its society in establishing healthy environment and communitarian ethical living by possibly looking at the effectiveness of man’s moral obligation to the ecosystem as the responsive solution to the degrading environments surrounding humanity.
122 The Pattern of Housing-Health Status among Residential Zones in Uyo Metropolis, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria , James, E. E.; Akpan, P. A.; Essien, A. U.  and Ekpo, K. J.
This research was conducted in order to examine the pattern of housing-health status among residential zones in Uyo metropolis, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey in Uyo Metropolis was based on 400 randomly sampled households stratified into 40 residential zones. The study used structured questionnaire administered during a face-to-face interview with heads of household. Housinghealth status was measured using indices of physical support, accident/safety, crime/security, indoor temperature/ventilation, household hygiene/sanitation, lighting, crowding, building material type, refuse disposal and environmental quality. Data analysis was done using Chi – square test to examine the “goodness of fit” between observed distribution of housing-health indicators and the WHO theoretical standards. One way ANOVA was also used to examine variation in housing – health status among residential zones. Results showed significant difference between observed distribution of housing – health indicators and theoretical expectation. Housing – health indicators fell quite below WHO standards. Housing - health status was also found to vary significantly among residential zones. These findings provide the needed platform for improving housing -health status by enforcing stringent housing regulatory frameworks and accelerating the distribution of critical housing infrastructure in cities of developing economies.
123 Effects of Intercropping Pattern and Planting Date on the Performance of Two Cowpea Varieties in Dalwa, Maiduguri, Nigeria , Degri, M. M.; Sharah, H. A. and Dauda, Z.
Field experiment was carried out in Dalwa, Maiduguri to investigate the effects of intercropping pattern and planting date on the performance of two cowpea varieties with sorghum. The experiment was laid in split-plot design each replicated three times including control. The factorial experiment consisted of two varieties of cowpea (Borno brown and Banjiram), two planting dates (early and late planting) and three intercrop patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3). The results showed that cowpea flower count per plant were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Borno brown cowpea variety, late planting and 1:1 intercrop pattern. It further showed that cowpea pods count per plant was significantly higher in varieties, early planting date and 1:1 intercrop pattern. Grain yields were significantly higher in both varieties and not significantly different from one another, but higher in early planting date and higher in 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns. Farmers in the Maiduguri Northern eastern region of Nigeria could therefore adopt early planting of the two varieties at 1:1 and 1:2 intercrop patterns.
124 Identification of landing Site Preference of Fully-fed Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans (diptera: glossinidae) , Nyengerai, T.; Gori,  E.; Mwandiringana, E.; Mushayi, W. and Nheta, B.
An experiment to identify landing sites of fully fed Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans was set up at the end of the winter season in Zimbabwe at Rukomichi Research Station. Five experiments subjected to three treatments differing in duration of catch, interval of catch and landing position were performed. A mean catch of 13 was recorded for 15-minute interval catches on logs wrapped in black cloth for the same species. Site and treatment had a significant effect on mean catch levels for Glossina morsitans (LSD=0.0979) and Glossina pallidipes (LSD=0, 1409). The mean catch (1644) for both fully fed Glossina morsitans and Glossina pallidipes was highest for 15-minute interval catches on unwrapped upright logs. This was twice higher than the overall mean catch recorded for continuous catch on unwrapped upright logs indicating the repellent effect of man on Glossina morsitans and Glossina pallidipes. Unwrapped upright logs could alternatively be used to catch Glossina pallidipes and Glossina morsitans after feeding for the purpose of biological and chemical assays to determine the effectiveness of chemicals on trials. This could also avoid the rubbing effect on the animal body and hence eliminating contamination on the hand-nets.
125 The Effects of Nitrogen Mineral on Yield Performance of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) in Bauchi State, Nigeria , Wabekwa, J.  W.; Degri, M. M. and Dangari, L. C.
Result of field trial reported herein was conducted during 2010 and 2011 wet season at Wamdeo (100 30 ‘ N, 130 09 ‘ E), 345m above sea level, geographically located south of Borno state in Northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The treatments were 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120kg N ha-1, arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Results indicated among others that growth parameters (leaf area, plant dry weight and crop growth rates) all increased with increasing Nitrogen (N) rates as the application of 120kg N ha-1 produced leaves with wider surfaces and increased dry matter production during all sampling periods (4, 6, 8 and 10 WAS) in both years and combined analysis. Also, the application of 90kg N ha-1 accelerated crop growth in 2011 wet season without statistical comparison to other N rates, as 120kg N ha-1 in 2010 at 8 and 10 WAS and in combined analysis at 10 WAS influenced higher crop vigour which out-grew other N rates. Conclusively, the study stressed that Nitrogen application markedly enhanced growth and yield if applied in the right quantity and time. Consequently, farmers are hereby encouraged to apply the mineral in the right proportion of at least 120kg to 200kg to their plants for improved growth and yield.
126 The Effect of Different Re-mating Time after Parturition on the Haematology of Doe Rabbits , Awojobi, H. A.
The field experiments for this research were carried out at the rabbitary of the Teaching and Research Farm, College of Agricultural Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Yewa Campus, Ayetoro. Laboratory investigations were carried out at the Animal Nutrition and Physiology Laboratory, of the University. One hundred and eight New Zealand White × Chinchilla Does were subjected to three postpartum re-mating time-periods in two seasons. Blood samples were collected at 2, 10 and 20 days post coitum for haematological assay. All haematological indices examined were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by postpartum remating time-period. Seasonal variation in haematological values were equally not significantly (P>0.05) different. The results of this research has demonstrated that concurrent pregnancy and lactation occasioned by early rebreeding in the Doe rabbit does not place a stress on the Does’ internal physiology at least in the short term.
127 Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Husbandry: A means of Increasing Animal Protein Base in Developing Countries , Owen, O. J. and Dike, U. A.
Raising Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) for food can be regarded as another dimension of poultry farming as a result of increase demand for animal protein in Nigeria. The major aim of this review is to examine the challenges, potentialities and opportunities of quail production in Nigeria. This study reveals among other things that quail husbandry was introduced in Nigeria in order to expand the domestic chicken production through meat and eggs. It highlihgted other unique qualities of Japanese quail over other species of poultry to include fast growth, resistant to many diseases than domestic fowl, less expensive to rear, early maturity with short gestation and generation intervals. It further reveals that they have high fecundity and their meat and eggs are renowned for their high quality protein, high biological value and low calorific contents, making it a choice product for hypertension prone individuals. Despite the challenge of high cost of concentrates, non-readily available market, inadequate knowledge and information about the advantages of eating quail meat coupled with high proportion of spoilt eggs due to infertility and embryonic mortalities in hatcheries, the Japanese quail has the potential to serve as an excellent and affordable source of animal protein in Nigeria
128 Effects of Varying Levels of Leucaena Leucocephala Leaf Meal Diet on the Growth Performance of Weaner Rabbi , Adedeji, O. S.; Amao, S. R.; Ameen, S. A.; Adedeji, T. A. and Ayandiran, T. A.
This study examines the effect of varying levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diet on the growth performance of weaner rabbit. The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional worth of including Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal as a plant protein source in the diet of rabbits. Twelve weaner rabbits were used for the study with four diet groups containng 0, 5, 10 and 15% Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal and measurements taken in a 50 day experimental period were: final body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio, and digestibility coefficient for crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash contents. Three rabbits were randomly allotted to each dietary treatment after balancing for sex and body weight, and kept in individual pens. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Results show that the body weight gain of the rabbits decreased as the proportion of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal in the diets increased, except with 10% inclusion. The final body weights were 1.23kg, 1.12kg, 1.29kg, and 1.00kg for 0, 5, 10 and 15% inclusions, respectively. Average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were 106.7, 109.8, 109.6 and 73.9kg and 7.13, 10.54, 6.88 and 12.29 for the respective diets/inclusions. Digestibility coefficient for crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract and ash contents were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. Though the study asserts that Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal had adverse effects on the feed intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance when it is included in the ratio beyond 10% level of rabbit diet, yet the inclusion of 10% Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal in the diet of weaner rabbits ensured optimum performance and is, therefore encouraged as a healthy practice.
129 Climate Variability and its Implications on Rural Household Food Security in Nigeria , Nwankwo, O. C.
Some of the most important impacts of global climate change and food security will be felt among the rural household, predominantly in developing countries. Their vulnerability to climate change comes both from being predominantly located in the tropics and from various socio-economic demographic and policy trends limiting their capacity to adapt to change. Climate variability directly affects agricultural production, as agriculture is inherently sensitive to climate conditions and is one of the most vulnerable sectors to the risks and impacts of global climate change. However, these impacts will be difficult to predict because of lack of standard definition of the rural household farming system, intrinsic characteristics of these household particularly their location specificity and their integrated agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood strategies and their vulnerability to a range of climate related and other stressors. This study therefore, is on climate variability and its implications on rural household food security in Nigeria. The main aim is the assessment of the impact of the below normal rainfall and drought on food security in Nigeria. Based on the facts gathered, this study concludes that there is need for stakeholders in environmental management and agricultural sustainability in developing countries to come to terms with negative impact of climate change and likely positive and beneficial response strategies to global warming.
130 The Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in Delta North Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria , Amata, I. A. and Ozuor, E.
Oil palm is the highest oil producing plant. In 2006, palm oil was the world’s most important oil with a production output of 37 million tons, accounting for 25% of the total production of fats and oils. Small scale farmers adopt different methods of oil palm processing which are different from the industrialized methods. This study aims at comparing the quality of crude palm oil (CPO) produced by three different methods of oil palm processing in Delta North Agricultural Zone, which include the scientific method, the semi-scientific method and the traditional method. 18 small /medium scale CPO processing units were surveyed. The CPO collected from these units was compared to CPO collected from NIFOR. Parameters studied to assess quality include free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value and the carotene content. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the quality of CPO obtained from the three different methods of processing in NIFOR. There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in FFA and carotene content of CPO obtained from NIFOR when compared to CPO obtained from the different processing units. However significant (P<0.05) differences were observed in the peroxide value of all the samples investigated.
131 Climate Change and Labour Output of Primary Sector in The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , Igben, J. L.
This study examines empirically the temporal changes in labour output of primary sector as a resultant impact of environmental dynamics induced by climate change in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Its specific objective is to analyse the temporal dynamics of the labour output in the main economic activities in the primary sector as a result of climate change between 2008 and 2012. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the selection of the sample. This involves a systematic random sampling of 450 household heads from a total of 4,578 households enumerated in five rural settlements drawn randomly from a representative state in the study area. The questionnaire covered impact of climate change on the environment and labour output, measured in monetary terms, of primary sector between 2008 and 2012.The paired sample t-test was used to analyse the data collected for the study. The result showed that climate change is manifested in excessive heat and off-season rainfall. There were significant dynamics in labour output over the two-time period. The study, therefore recommends environmental education of the population and adoption of coping strategies such as introduction of modern technology and improvement in quality of inputs into primary activities.
132 The Effect of Harvester Ants (Messor spp) Nests on Farmers’ Productivity in Semi-Arid Zone of Maiduguri, Nigeria , Degri, M. M.; Sharah, H. A.; Maina, Y. T. and Musa, H. S.
Field survey is carried out on cowpea, millet and groundnut farms in five villages of Maiduguri area located in the North Eastern Nigeria (Latitude 11o 51’N and Longitude 13o 16’E) from October to December, 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effect of harvesters' ants (Messor spp) on farmers productivity in semi-arid zone of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Five farmers’ farms were randomly selected from each crop (Cowpea, groundnut and millet) being the predominant crops cultivated in the area) for the survey. The primary aim of the survey is to assess ant nest size, nest area and the number of plant loss caused by the ants activities. Data for the study were generated through physical examination and measurement using measurement tape. The readings of the measurement were recorded. Data obtained from the field survey was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were separated using least significant difference (LSD) at 5% level of probability. The survey shows that all the farms had different nest sizes that were not significant from one another but their nest area and plant loss were significantly different from one another. Millet farms had the highest nest area and a corresponding plant loss than groundnut and cowpea farms. Arable crop farmers in Maiduguri area are advised to manage or avoid harvester ant nests in their farms to reduce loss of their crops during cropping seasons.
133 Impacts of Farmer Inputs Support Program on Beneficiaries in Gwembe District of Zambia , Alfred Sianjase and Venkatesh Seshamani
Since 2002, the Government of Zambia has been funding a farmer input subsidy program that consumes a very large part of the resources allocated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. This survey examines if the program is producing commensurate impacts on maize production by the farmers who benefit from the program. Data for the study was collected through a structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 600 farmers in Gwembe District. Though 600 copies of questionnaire were administered, 570 copies were recovered for analysis. Analysis was done using quantile regression at the 5th, 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the maize production distribution in two phases - with and without control for endogeneity. The analysis reveals that the largest production impact is on the farmers at the 50th percentile. There is also significant dependence on the subsidies by households at the 5th and 10th percentiles. These results cast doubt on the efficacy of the program to reduce poverty and improve household food security. The Zambian Government should target the program more selectively at the more responsive households in the median percentile.
134 Ethnoveterinary Practices in the Treatment of Skin Disease (Mange) in Small Ruminants in Kwara State, Nigeria , Adedeji, O. S. and Aiyedun, J. O.
This survey investigates the ethnoveterinary practices in the treatment of skin diseases in small ruminants in Ifelodun and Irepodun L.G.As of Kwara State between June and December 2011. The aim of this study is to investigate the benefits and problems associated with ethnoveterinary practices among small ruminants' livestock in Ifelodun and Irepodun L.G.As of Kwara State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire was used to gather data from 162 randomly selected farmers using multi-stage sampling technique. The study uses descriptive statistics to analyse the data. Majority of the respondents are male and mostly subsistence farmers. It was a hobby to majority of the farmers to keep small ruminants. About 60% kept them on semi-intensive system with flock size of 75-105 sheep/goat per farmer. All of the respondents agree that mange is the commonest skin disease in the area. Majority of respondents treated the skin disease with used engine oil, sulphur, kerosene and battery carbon. All the respondents found this local medicament accessible, easy, simple, cheap and affordable. Based on this findings, ethnoveterinary practice can enhance good health and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore it recommends that policy makers should formulate policies that would enhance the integration of conventional animal treatment with indigenous (ethnoveterinary) treatment of domestic animal. In addition, there is need for more research into other diseases of small ruminants that are treated by ethnoveterinary practice among the rural livestock owners in Nigeria.
135 Effects of Dietary Advanced Lipid Oxidation End-products on Colitis Healing in Albino Rats , Adeleye, G. S.; Nwozor, C. M. and Okafor, C. B.
This Experiment is undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts on colitis healing in albino rats. 45 albino rats (divided into 3 groups - control, low dose and high dose ALE groups) of average weight of 200g were used for this study. Colitis was induced in all groups using 6% acetic acid. The low and high doses were fed with 7.5g and 15g ALE respectively for 20 days.The control animals ate normal rat chow. The stools of all animals were scored according to the scale of Masonobu et al (2002) for 20 days. On days 7, 14 and 20 three animals were sacrificed from each group and 8cm of the colon was cut out for weight measurement and gross morphological scoring.The results show that on day 6 colitis scores were 0.63 ± 0.03 (control), 0.80 ± 0.03(low dose),0.73 +_ 0.03(high dose). On day 20, 0.33 ± 0.03 (control), 0.50 ± 0.03 (low dose), 0.50 ± 0.02 (high dose). ALE reduced colitis healing rate compared to the control. This study concludes that ALE aggravated acetic-acid induced colitis in albino rats.
136 Effect of Age and Sex on Serological Indices of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Reared in Derived Savanna Area of Nigeria , Ojedapo, L. O.
The study is to evaluate the effect of age and sex on serological indices of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared in derived savanna area of Nigeria. A total of 200 quails comprising 100 each of male and female were selected for this study. Fifteen each of the males and females quails were randomly selected at each week of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 respectively. Data were obtained on Total Protein (TP) using Biuret method, Albumin (ALB) using dye binding techniques with bromocresol green, Globulin (GL) using differences between total protein and Albumin, Sodium ion (Na+) and Potassium ion (K+) using flame emission spectroscopy, Serum Alanine Amino Transferase (SALT) and Serum Aspartate Amino Transferase (SAST) using method described by Bergmeyer, for both sexes on the quails. The results obtained show among others that statistical differences were observed for all the parameters of serological indices in relation to age and sex. Therefore, it is concluded that age and sex have an influence on serological indices of quail.
137 Environmental Effects of Socio-economic Activities on Songor Ramsar Site in Ada, Ghana , Yeboah, Samuel Akpah; Allotey Albert Nii-Moe and Nani, Evelyn
Overexploitation due to developmental activities and overdependence on their values for livelihood are threatening the existence of wetlands. The objective of this study is to find out the main socio-economic activities at the Songor Ramsar Site at Ada, and tax the environmental consequences of these activities on the wetland, and make recommendations to address the cause of its destruction. The research made used of primary data on household livelihood activities, and their effect on the wetland. Data on land use were collected using structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and participatory observations. Among other findings of this study, 92% of the respondents depended solely on the wetland for their livelihood. This overdependence has led to a reduction of the resources as confirmed by 84% of the respondents. The study therefore recommends among others that public awareness be created concerning the values of the wetland among the communities that depend on the resource.
138 Effect of Oil Exploration on Socio-Cultural Issues in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria , Akhionbare, A. E. and Osuji E. E.
This study examined the effects of oil exploration on socio-cultural issues in Oguta local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 316 respondents for this study. Information on the objectives of this study was elicited from the sampled respondents through a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as the mean, frequency distribution, percentage and Likert scale. Multiple responses were recorded in terms of environmental challenges posed by oil exploration in the area. Problems such as loss of source of livelihood, community clashes and intra and inter-community violence, loss of community norms, destruction of historical sites of importance, sexual pervasiveness, decrease in longevity and infant mortality and inequality/inferiority complex were regarded as serious socio-cultural problems in the area. Strengthening of Social Impact Assessment within the EIA process in Nigeria, as well as an upgrade to Strategic Environmental Assessment to address socio-cultural issues in policies and plans is recommended for the Government, while the management of oil companies should liase with members of the host communities on ways to restore and preserve the traditions of their host community.
139 Pearl Millet Breeding and Production in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects , Izge, A. U. and Song, I. M.
This work reviews the problems in pearl millet production and breeding and its prospects. Pearl millet is a staple for millions of people in arid and semi-arid ecologies around the world especially in northern Nigeria. The crop has a potential of becoming an important component of intensive agriculture because it responds well to management inputs. However, improvements in certain traits of pearl millet need to be undertaken if high yields are to be attained. Considering also its hardiness and genetic enhancement prospects, the crop has the potential of becoming important components of intensive agriculture especial in Nigeria. Breeding work on the various aspects of this crop and sustained cultivation need to be encouraged.
140 The Economic Potential of Compounding Rabbit Diets with Graded Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal , Owen, O. J.; Alikwe, P. C. N. and Okidim, I. A.
The economics of raising rabbits using Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MoLM) supplemented diets was experimented in this study that lasted for 56 days. A total of twenty four, 2-3 months old weaned rabbits of mixed sexes with an average initial weight of 1.00kg – 1.18kg were randomly allocated to four diets which were formulated with Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MoLM) replacing soybean meal at 0% (control), 5%, 10% and 15% designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The animals were randomly distributed into 3 replicates comprising 2 rabbits per replicate using Completely Randmonised Block Design (CRBD). The results obtained show among many others that significant differences existed in weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, cost of feed (kg), cost of weight gain, production cost (TVC) and net benefit. It also reveals that MoLM can conveniently replace up to 15% of expensive sources of protein in rabbit diet without compromising performance and favouring production cost positively. Hence, rabbit farmers are encouraged to patronize the use of MoLM as feed source for their rabbits.
141 Acute Toxicity and Effect of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Leaves on Organs and Tissues in Rats , Ojo, N. A.; Igwenagu, I.; Badau, S. J.; Sambo, N.; Ngulde, S. I.; Adawaren E. O.; Madziga, H. A.; Yahi, D.; Mbaya, Y. P.; Bargu, J. S.; Simon, J.; Ndahi, J. J.; Auwal, M. S. and Dibila, H. M.
This research is conducted on the aqueous leaf extract to evaluate the acute toxicity and the prolonged effect of extract administration on organs and tissues of rats. The revised limit dose test of Up and Down procedure was used to determine the acute oral toxicity of the plant. The administration of the extract to rats at 5000 mg/kg body weight did not produce death at 24 hours. For sub acute toxicity, graded oral doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract were administered daily for 21 days to rats in the treatment groups (5 rats per group) there was no extract administration to the rats in the control group. At the end of treatment, standard procedures were used to euthanize the rats and were examined both grossly and histopathologically. Extract administration for 21 days at various doses did not result in death of the rats; however, histological lesions occurred in the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs and intestine. It is concluded that the extract had a wide safety margin while the histopathological lesions found in the various organs suggested that the extract should be administered with caution when used for prolonged period.
142 Community-based Investigation of Rabies Antibody Profile of Dogs and Control in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria , Aiyedun, J. O.
This survey is a community-based investigation of rabies antibody profile in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. The aim is to examine how the dogs owners control this disease in the study area. This study employed survey research design. One hundred and ninety apparently healthy dogs of both sexes (106 males and 84 females) were selected for the study using stratified random sample technique. The study provides the rabies antibody profile of dogs in Ilorin, Nigeria using an ELISA technique. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to the dogs owners in the study area within three months to assess anti-rabies vaccination history and rabies history in the community. The study reveals a seroprevalence rate of 53.70%, 43.60% and 25% for Ilorin East, Ilorin West and Ilorin South respectively. The low prevalence of antibody against rabies observed in this study indicates lack of consistent vaccination programme and/or vaccination failure in some cases. Data analysis was done through student t-test. Based on the findings of this study, the control of rabies in dogs through vaccination remains the only cost effective way to control rabies in dogs and to sustainably protect human from contacting the disease.
143 Economic Implications of Dust Assaults on Humans and Animals exposed to Environmental Hazards due to Air Pollution in the Dry Belt Zone of Nigeria , Yahi, D.; Ojo, N. A.; Ngulde, S. I.; Telta, A. D.; Dibila, H. M.; Sambo, N.; Sanni, S.; Sodipo, O. A.; Madziga, H. A.; Mbaya, Y. P.; Simon, J. and Sandabe, U. K.
Daily, humans and animals are exposed to environmental hazards due to air pollution whether indoor or outdoor. The extent, nature or characteristics of such hazards varies from one locality to another. Dust constitutes one of the important air pollutants in the dry belt zone of Nigeria (Sahel Savanna). The zone is generally characterized by scanty rainfall and vegetation cover, summering heat, incessant dust storms and harmattan, droughts and desertification, desiccating wind pattern and sandy soil textures that are prone to droughts and alarming desertification and soil degradation and deterioration brought by both natural and human forces. The open and flat topography of the region allows an uninterrupted incursion of dust particles into the region and this persist for greater part each year. There is heavy dependence on agriculture related activities leading to land degradation and desertification as a result of deforestation and denudation which further exacerbate the environmental problems. Dust storms and harmattan dust are so prevalent in this region and recently are assuming harming rate and proportion, destroying lives and property. This work is hence a review of the economic implication of dust assaults on humans and animals exposed to environmental hazards due to air pollution in the dry belt zone of Nigeria. The study highlights that the sand dunes created by such phenomena bury crops, lands, houses, water, schools, roads and animals, rendering this region almost completely unsuitable for human and animal habitation as well as agricultural activities.
144 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Food Crop Farmers and their Perception of Environmental Problems in Ekiti State, Nigeria , Osundare, F. O. and Adekunmi, A. O.
This study examines the socio- economic characteristics of food crops farmers in relation to their perception of environmental problems. The aims are to identifyenvironmental problems affecting food crops production, ascertain respondents’ perception of environmental problems and the coping strategies or conservation methods used to combat these problems. Data were collected from 120 food crop farmers in Ekiti State. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency tables, simple percentage and mean. Chisquare was used to test the hypothesis formulated for the study. Results revealed that soil erosion, windstorm, pests and diseases; soil Nutrients’ depletion, inadequate water supply and sanitation were the major environmental problems affecting food crops production in the State. Majority of the respondents strongly agree that these environmental problems cause serious decline in food crops production. It was also revealed that respondents employed minimum tillage, mulching, crop rotation, cover cropping etc. to halt environmental degradation .Results of tested hypothesis indicate that there was a significant relationship between age, gender, major occupation, farming experience and farmers perception of environmental problems. Based on the foregoing, it is recommended among others that policies that would reduce the deleterious effects of environmental problems must be initiated and formulated early enough by appropriate government body if the aim of increased sustainable food crop production in this era of global warming is to be achieved.
145 Fishing as a Source of Livelihood and Sustainable Growth in a Resettlement Scheme: The Case of Bakassi Resettlement Programme in Cross River State, Nigeria , Isokon, B. E.; Ekeh, J. E. and Icha, C. I.
This study investigates fishing business as a source of livelihood and sustainable growth in Bakassi resettlement programme in Cross River State, Nigeria. The major aim is to ascertain whether fishing business promotes sustainable growth in the study area.. A structured interview schedule was designed and administered on 600 household heads and further confirmed with Focus Group Discussions (FCD). The research adopted a descriptive survey design while the stratified and systematic random sampling techniques were applied at appropriate stages to select the sample. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to test the only hypothesis formulated for the study. The results show among others that fishing business is the major productive base that promotes sustainable growth in the resettlement. Consequently, the study stresses the need for government to create the right environment for settlers to continue with their fishing business through the provision of incentives, grants, loans and subsidies. Beside, new methods of fish farming such as artificial fishing ponds should be introduced to the settlers as this will help boost their fishing business.
146 Evaluation of Semen Quality of Five Different Cockerel Breed used in Poultry Industry in Nigeria , Ameen, S. A.; Opayemi, O. S. ; Ajayi , J. A. and Adediwura, M. A.
This experiment is conducted to evaluate semen quality of five different cockerel breeds used in poultry industry in Nigeria. The ultimate aim is to improve the production efficiency of meat and egg in the poultry industry. The differences between breeds were determined by evaluating the semen, microscopically checking for motility, sperm concentration, and sperm morphology and life to dead ratio. Five different chickens namely Hubbard, Dominant brown, Isa white, Yoruba Ecotype and Fulani Ecotype were used. Comparative evaluation of the semen was performed in 25 cockerels (Five per breed). Semen was collected twice per week for seven weeks. The eosin-nigrosin staining techniques were used microscopically to evaluate the morphology of the sperm from the different breeds. The fresh semen parameters evaluated were ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, the percentage live and dead sperm, sperm motility and sperm abnormalities. The study shows a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the ejaculated volumes, sperm concentration, active and sluggish sperm cells. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in all the semen abnormalities and sperm motility. Hence, Fulani Ecotypes were significantly different in terms of body weight, low sperm abnormalities; high ejaculate volume of semen and high relative motility. Despite the fact that it is an indigenous local breed of poultry found in Nigeria, Fulani Indigenous breeds are recommended for semen production if adequate management practices are in place. This will reduce the cost of importing exotic breeds used for breeding.
147 Traffic Demands and Delays on Lagos - Ikorodu Road in Nigeria , Ibrahim–Adedeji, K. B.
This survey assesses the nature of passengers’ traffic demands and delays with a view to identifying its effects on the users of Lagos Ikorodu Road. Questionnaire serves as the major instrument of data collection for the study. The sample is 4,050 passengers at four selected bus stops/junctions from 7am-10am on a particular Monday morning. The sample size is 3% in accordance with Kregjen principle of sample size determination. The purposive sampling technique is used for this study. The sampling procedure entails the identification of the study area, bus stops, selection of passengers at the bus stop and the use of structured interview schedule with the passengers at the bus stops. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tool. The results reveal among many others that there were more people in public transport than private, most passengers’ travel purposes were basically for work which was more than others, and most respondents spent more than 1 hour. The study also shows that majority of the passengers’ frequency of travel was once/twice per day. The study based on thenresult of the findings recommends amidst other things that there should be a thorough enforcement of traffic regulations, road rehabilitations in order to reduce the traffic challenges on the road.
148 Effect of Nitrogen and Spacing on Yield and Yield Attributes of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) (Thumb Mest.) and their Interactions in Bauchi , Umaru, M. A.
This study is undertaken to investigate the effect of nitrogen and spacing on yield and yield attributes of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) (Thumb Menst). Field experiments were conducted during 2011 wet season at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi and Bauchi State Agricultural Development project, Teaching and Research farms, Bauchi. The treatments used consisted of four levels of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 75kg N ha-1) and three plant spacings (1.0x1.0m, 1.5.m x 1.5m and 2.0m x 2.0m). The treatments were factorially combined and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Results indicate that nitrogen significantly increased number of flowers per plant, number of fruits per plant, total fruit yield per hectare and marketable fruit yield per hectare. Days to 50% flowering were also attained earlier with application of nitrogen. Spacing however had no significant effect on yield and other yield characters observed. Result indicate among many others that existence of significant interaction effect between nitrogen and spacing on fruit number per plant at Bauchi State Agricultural Development Project (BSADP) experimental site. A combination of 50kg N ha-1 and 1.5m x1.5m spacing provided best yield in the study area.
149 The Influence of Rural Group Organization in Agricultural and Rural Transformation of South East Nigeria , Njoku, J. I. K. and Echetama, J. A.
This survey investigates the role of rural group organization in agricultural and rural transformation. The major aim is to examine the role of group organization in agricultural and rural transformation in the study area. Mean, simple percentage and a 2-point scale were used in data analysis. Questionnaire, focus group discussion and personal interview were for data collection. Multi stage random sampling technique was used to selected three States in south-east Nigeria. One hundred and forty respondents were randomly selected from the three selected States. The study observes that rural group organization is a complementary component in promoting agriculture and rural transformation. Rural group organization has proved the most effective means in promoting agriculture and rural transformation in rural areas. But there is a controversy on whether rural group organization can really bring about change. The study also observes that, if rural group were properly managed with other modes of promoting agriculture and rural transformation, it would be at a higher level. Proper human capital development should be developed and maintained to eliminate the paternalistic view which assumes that rural people are passive and fatalistic, uninterested in improvement of their lives and incapable of making initiative for improvement.
150 The Role of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in National Economic Development in Nigeria , Akpanebu, I. J. and Olu–Gbo, T. S.
Due to the need for Environmental Impact Assessment EIA in national development, the role of EIA in national economic development in Nigeria is reviewed to see how it impact on national economic development. It is observed among many others that the relevance of EIA provides quality information about a project that helps quality decision to be taken before execution. Therefore, it study concluded that with EIA, every developmental project will have positive impact on national economic development and future generational benefit of the nation. Hence, the study recommends that proper EIA should be properly carried out by professionals and the government should enforce and regulate the agency of environmental management to carry out EIA on projects before execution and penalties to those that violate the law.
151 Structure and Profitability Differentials among Fishermen in Kwara State, Nigeria , Oladimeji, Y. U.; Omokore, D. F.; Abdulsalam, Z. and Damisa, M. A.
The study has three overriding objectives; to assess the structure and profitability differentials among motorised and non-motorised fishing enterprise in Kwara State, Nigeria; to examine the factors influencing net fishing income in artisan fishery and to identify the constraints to artisan fishing in the State. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire administered at random to 306 artisan fishermen in eight fishing settlements in Kwara State. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, net margin and ordinary linear regression. The results show artisan fishery enterprises to be profitable, but finds out that fishermen who imbibed motorized gears make more profitable when compared to non-motorised one. Depreciation of fixed assets, cost of labour, fishing hours, experience and household size were factors that influenced variability in net fishing income in the study area. Access to credit stood as the most important constraint in artisan fishermen’s operations. It is therefore concluded that artisan fishermen should adopt improve fishing techniques and motorised gears to increase their income which will ultimately improve their well being and reduce the level of poverty in the study area.
152 Migration of Housing from Traditional/Cultural Architecture to the Modern Style and its Significance in the Urban Development of Mubi Town in Adamawa State, Nigeria , Hashim, A.; Waziri, H. I.; Rabiu, M. U. and Suleman, A.
This survey aims at assessing migration of housing from traditional/cultural architecture and style to the modern style in Mubi Town of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Mubi Town is the second largest town in Adamawa State after Yola the State Capital. Fifty copies of questionnaires were distributed to the seven wards in the study area to collect data for the study. Physical observations, oral interview as well as photographs were employed during the data collection. E-VIEWS 3.1 software was used for its precision for the data analysis and interpretation. Descriptive statistics, regression analysis and linear probability were used for data analyses. The regression analysis indicates that there is positive relationship between age of buildings, education level, income level and modern houses. This means that there is a positive relationship between modern houses and other explanatory variables. The coefficient of determination (R2 ) (0.933333) shows that about 93% of the changes in the dependent variables (Modern Houses) was accommodated for the changes in the explanatory variables (Age of Buildings, Education level, income level, Number of household per compound and occupation of the respondents). Based on this, it is recommended among others that departments of Urban and Regional Planning, Estate Management and Building Technology as well as Architectural department and other related discipline should jointly form research network in all Nigerian universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of works and Housing to improve the existing housing supply to in relation to the low income levels in an affordable manner.
153 Comparison of Height Differences obtained from Automatic, Digital and Tilting Level Instruments , Adewale Adebayo; Emenari, U. S. and Uwaezuoke, I. C.
Leveling is fundamental to the profession of surveying, Civil Engineering, and other related professions. It is therefore imperative that the type of instrument used to obtain data to determine the height of point either relative or absolute for decision making are carefully selected and used interchangeably if need be. The aim of thiswork therefore is to compare height differences obtained from three different leveling instruments in other to advice on the choice of instrument base on cost, accuracy and whether the instrument can be used interchangeably. Temporary bench marks were established at a distance of 150m interval and leveling operation was carried out with the instrument setup mid-way (125m) between the forward and backward observation. The data obtained were reduced using the height of instrument method and statistical analysis using the Fdistribution and ANOVA was used to analyze the data at 5% significant level. Result from the analysis shows that at 5% significant level there is no difference in the performance of the three instruments; therefore the instrument can be used interchangeably without any effect in cost and accuracy.
154 Proximate Analysis and Phytochemicals of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Plant Bark , Olubiyi, E. O.; Ukozor, A. U. C.  and Monday, A. I.
This experiment assesses the food value of the bark of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Guinea corn) by determining the nutrient composition, some anti-nutritional factors and its contributions to nutrient intake of its consumers. Samples of sorghum plant bark were obtained, cut into bits, sun-dried for 7 days and milled into powder. The nutrient composition proximate, minerals and vitamin A, and its anti-nutritional factors were determined using standard methods. The results of the proximate analysis reveal that the dried bark contains 18.07g carbohydrate, 4.31g crude protein, 3.439 crude fat, 53.30g crude fibre and 6.18g ash/100g dry sample. Mineral contents of the sample show 17.61mg/g calcium, 3.52mg/g magnesium and 0.002mg/g Iron. The vitamin A value was found to be 2880 IU (288 μg RE). The results of the anti-nutritional factors show that it contains 21.38g Saponin, 2.16mg cyanide, 1.50g oxalate, 0.70g alkaloid, 1.02g Tanin and 2.0g flavonoids (primary anti-oxidant)/100g sample. The results of this work revealed that the bark of sorghum plant can provide a substantial amount of fibre while supplying about 38.4% of pro-vitamin A (â– carotene) of dietary reference intakes (DRI) of individuals. It is however recommended that application of suitable processing technology can reduce the high levels of antinutritional factors observed in the sample to safe residual levels so as to permit its consumption as a fibre (insoluble) supplement.
155 Awareness and Perception of Local Communities towards Wildlife Conservation in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria , Kwaga, B. T.; Khobe, D. and Ateh, G. O.
This study assesses the awareness and perception of local communities towards the conservation of wildlife resources in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State with a view of proffering suitable options towards wildlife conservation in the study area. One hundred and eighty copies of questionnaire were randomly and proportionately administered in six Wards of Adum, Adiko, Itogo, Odiapa, Obarike and Okpokwu out of the twelve existing Wards in the study area. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistics (percentage, pie chart, and histogram). The findings reveal among others 52% of the respondents perceived that wildlife conservation is for the establishment of game reserves, and few indicated that poaching is a major problem of wildlife conservation in the study area. The research recommended the enforcement of laws, enlightenment campaigns, and employment of the locals and provision of social amenities to the communities.
156 Effect of Varying Incubation Days on Hatchlings of African Giant Land Snail (Achachatinamarginata) , Kayode, I. B. and Agbelusi, E. A.
The study examines the effect of different incubation days on the growth rate and colour changes of hatchlings of African Giant Land Snail (Achachatinamarginata). A total of 100 eggs were incubated for the experiment, 10 eggs were hatched on each day from the 16th to 30th day of incubation, at an interval of 2 days, while those left to hatch naturally served as control for the experiment. The viscous yolk fluid of the eggs hatched on different incubation days were observed, the initial weight of hatchlings were taken while the weight gain and colour changes were monitored for two weeks. The result of the experiment revealed that the quantity of the viscous fluid reduced as the incubation days increased. Initial mean body weight of the hatchlings varied from 1.50g on the 16th day of incubation to 2.73g on the 30th day of incubation and the control weighed 3.90g. The colour of the shell ranged from light yellow to coffee brown while the head-foot changed from light yellow to black in hatchlings. Those hatched on the 16th died after five days when the viscous yolk fluid dried up. This implies that at this stage, the hatchlings cannot survive outside the egg’s shell. The incubation period of eggs of African giant land snail has great effect on the growth rate and colour changes of the hatchlings, especially those hatched below 22nd day of incubation. Since there is no significant difference in the growth rate of the snails hatched from the 22nd day of incubation, the incubation days of African giant land snails’ eggs can therefore be reduced to 22 days so as to be able to increase snail meat production in Nigeria.
157 Access and Utilization of Climate Services among Vulnerable Communities in Nigeria: A Case Study of Isoko Communities in Delta State , Andrew Onwuemele
The devastating impacts emanating from climate related hazards cast doubts in the accessibility and utilization of climate services. This survey aims at investigating access and utilization of climate services among vulnerable communities in Nigeria using Isoko communities in Delta State as a case in point. Isoko land was selected for the study due to its high vulnerability to climate change especially as cause by flooding. Data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administration and content analysis of official documents. Analysis of data was done with the use of Statistical Packages of the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results indicate among others poor understanding of climate services by vulnerable communities in the study area a high positive correlation between usage of climate services and income, ownership of radio and television as well as local community groupings. The survey consequently calls for greater enlightenment programmes and the integration of local medium in the communication of climate services in the region for effective access and utilization of climate services by vulnerable communities in the region.
158 Major Factors Militating against Youths Participation in Agricultural Production in Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria , Nwankwo, O. C.
This survey is carried out with primary aim of identifying the major factors militating against youth participation in Agricultural production in Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The population of the study is made up of all the youths in Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State out of which six clans, namely: Asaga, Amaekpu, Isigwu, Ndi Uduma Awoke, Akanu and Amangwu were randomly selected for the study. A sample of 194 youths were randomly sampled for the study. The research instrument used is structured questionnaire. A glossary review of literature and data collected show that those factors are, land tenure system, non-availability of capital, poor storage facilitates, lack of social amenities, non-functional extension services to discharge the improved seeds and seedlings to youths and drudgery in farming due to use of out-dated implements. Consequently, there is need to determine the potentials of youths in agricultural production in the State, the nature of these opportunities and the factors influencing them. The Government through Ministry of Agriculture should supply agriculture inputs such as fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides at appropriate time and at a subsidized price to encourage greater percentage of use.
159 Preserving the Natural Sponge between Water and Land through Regulating Wetlands , Agbasi, M. N.
This article examines the nature of wetlands in the developed and developing world, and the intrinsic problems associated with each area. The intention is to look at regions that are most vulnerable to potential damage and suggests possible measures to guard against it. Human progressive endeavours can be carried out with minimal damage to wetlands. It is the position of this work that the preservation of wetlands should be a collective effort between individuals, corporate organizations and the various federal governments in recognition of the magnitude of the task at hand. This should be a better position than mitigation of new wetland sites. Aside from restoration of the wetlands, concerted efforts at conservation and monitoring of results of reclamations are also paramount. As such, the work suggests the sensitization of the populace, especially industrialists, on how their activities may be seamlessly aligned with the needs of the wetlands.
160 Status of Ticks Infestation in Ruminant Animals in Ogbomoso Area of Oyo State, Nigeria , Ameen, S. A.; Odetokun,  I. A.; Ghali-Muhammed, L. I.; Azeez, O. M.; Raji, L. O.; Kolapo, T. U. and Adedokun,   R. A. M.
A survey is conducted on the status of ticks infestation in ruminants animals in Ogbomoso area of Oyo state. Collection and identification of ticks is carried out from February 2012 to August 2012. All the visible individual ticks were collected from the body of 317 cattles, 210 goats and 104 sheep. The status of ticks infestation in cattles , goats and sheep was found to be 96.2%, 80.3%,67.3%, respectively. In this study 6 species of ticks were identified. The most abundant species found in this study were Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Boophilus decoloratus, Boophilus annulatus, Amblyomma variegatum, Rhiciphalus appendiculatus and Haemophysalis leachi. Haemophysalis leachi is the minor species of tick observed in sheep in the study area. This parasitological investigation will enable the farmers and veterinarians to have effective prophylactic , therapeutic and control measure of ticks in the study area.
161 Disposal and Management of Solid Waste in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria: Challenges and Implications , Adamu, I. M.; Dibal, H. I. and Duhu, B. Y.
This study assesses the challenges of solid waste management and their implications in Damaturu, Yobe State, Nigeria. The data were generated through primary and secondary sources. A total of 50 copies of questionnaire were administered to households, civil servants, and Yobe State Environmental Protection Agency staff. Direct survey and interview were conducted. The findings of the study reveal that majority of the respondents have been living in Damaturu for more than 2 years. The type of soil wastes generated mostly were organic which are biodegradable, and the solid waste is dispose in open land by the inhabitants. Most of the respondents reveal that YOSEPA is managing their waste to some extent. Majority of the respondents dispose their waste on daily basis. Based on the findings, wastes in the environment have some implications to human health and aesthetic nature of the environment. Inadequate financing, low workforce and lack of adequate machinery are the major factors hindering the performance of the agency. Refuse collection containers preferably plastic bag should be provided to individual households at closer intervals in markets, shopping areas, streets and other commercial centers.
162 Average Daily Food Consumption and Live Body weight of Captive Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) , Okoli, C. P. and Aiyedun, J. O.
Twenty five common buzzards randomly picked at the reception of the Hellenic wild life hospital and Rehabilitation Centre, Aegina, Greece were weighed and put in separate well ventilated paper boxes in a large room (30m x 15m x5m). At entry, the birds weight ranged from 499g to 796g. They were weighed 4 times during the study at fairly regular intervals. The birds were fed on chicken with bones every morning. A control was set up in a 26th paper box in which the same quantity of meat was placed but without any buzzard. The control was to find out the quantity of moisture lost to the atmosphere through evaporation. The moisture lost daily was recorded and the average computed and corrected and used for calculating the average quantity of food consumed by the buzzards. A unit increase in the average quantity of food consumed per day and the initial weight resulted to a corresponding increase of 1.495 and 1.265 respectively in the final weights of the buzzards. The approximate daily food consumed by a buzzard of average weight of 691g was 115.1g which translates to 16.7% of its live body weight. The initial weight is significant in predicting the final weight with the criterion P value < 0.05. The range of weight gain for the studied buzzards was with an average of 19.4%. The approximate daily quantity of food consumed by a common buzzard of average weight of 691g was 115.1g which translates to 16.7% of its live body weight.
163 The Efficacy of Biofuel Production as a Means of Increasing The Energy Base in Nigeria , Famurewa, J. A. V.
This study critically reviews the efficacy of biofuel production as a means of increasing the energy base in Nigeria. It aims at assessing among others, the progress made so far in this direction. Biofuels are renewable liquid fuels coming from biological raw materials which are good substitutes for both fossil fuel and energy. It has the exciting potential for mitigating the grave threats of global warming, reducing the world's dependence on imported oil from insecure sources and reducing the skyrocketing costs of oil that are threatening to undermine the world's economies and are devastating the people in non-oil producing developing countries. This study unveils the fact that Biofuels were once our primary source of fuel and as old as civilization itself in the solid form like wood, dung and charcoal ever since man discovered fire. Liquid biofuel such as olive oil and whale oil have also been in used at least since early antiquity. Rising taxes on ethanol, combined with a decreasing price of petroleum and an aggressive campaign run by large oil producers kept ethanol out of the mainstream. As a result of the several fossil fuel crises since 1970s, biofuel came back to fashion. Therefore, in the quest for a more sustainable feedstock with the potential in solving the challenges in converting cellulosic materials, and produce the quantities of fuel needed at affordable prices today, scientists are converting the lipids and hydrocarbons produced by algae into a variety of fuels and these algae-based biofuels are being touted by some as a path to a sustainable energy supply.
164 Status and Distribution of Some Available Micronutrients in Sudan and Sahel Savanna Agro-Ecological Zones of Yobe State, Nigeria , Mulima, I. M.; Shafiu, M.; Ismaila, M. and Benisheikh, K. M.
To ensure economic utilization of the soil resources by the resource-poor Nigeria farmers and also help in the government’s drive towards food sufficiency, it is important to know the original concentration of micronutrients in the soils and add only as much of the micronutrients as is beneficial to plants and foraging animals. Two study sites (Geidam and Gujba local government areas) were selected to represent the dominant agro-ecological zones in Yobe State. From the results, Copper (Cu) was found to be in the medium category while Zinc (Zn) was generally low in both zones. However, the soil contains Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) above the critical limits for crop production and categorized as “high”. It is, therefore, suggested that supplementary application of Zinc (Zn) will be required for sustainable arable crop production and application of organic matter to improve the overall fertility of the soil as well as reduce the possible development of phlinthic/petrophlinthic layers.
165 Effect of Locational Attributes on Residential Mobility in Ikorodu Metropolitan Area of Lagos State, Nigeria , Ibrahim Adedeji, K. B.
This study assesses the effect of residential mobility in Ikorodu metropolitan area of Lagos State. Ikorodu was particularly selected because of its locational attributes and residential mobility. Residential mobility is inevitable in any society; it has become part of our urban growth. For one reason or another, residential mobility will continue to occur. Mixed system approach is adopted for the study in order to capture the necessary facts. One hundred and ten copies of questionnaire were randomly administered on landlords, landladies, estate agents and developers in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed with the use of frequency count, simple percentage and ratio. The findings reveal that the metropolitan area experienced residential mobility which resulted in high rental value and shops rental price rise as well as varied prices of residential houses (mini-flat). Despite the fact that some of these factors are known to the planning authorities as the reasons for the residential mobility in the area, little has been done to tackle them. It is hereby recommended that the planning authorities of Ikorodu metropolis should develop and adopt proactive planning policies with specific strategies that can guide land use development in the unplanned suburbs.
166 Information Needs of Organic Crop Farmers in Ekiti State of Nigeria , Alaka, F. A.
This study examines the areas of information needs of organic farmers in Ekiti State, so as to promote the practice given its numerous benefits to human beings and preservation of the environment. Organic Agriculture is a farm production management system whose activities and practices favour ecosystem balance and sanity, biodiversity, biological cycles, soil biological activities, as well as eliminating food poisoning; all of which are promoted by the conventional practices of intensive agro-chemical use and other off-farm inputs. One hundred and twenty (120) registered organic farmer of Justice, Development and Peace Commission of the Ekiti State Catholic Diocese were selected by simple random sampling from 2 of the 16 Local Government Areas in the State (Ido/Osi and Oye). It is revealed that majority of the respondents were young, physically and economically active. Majority of the respondents are educated to tertiary level. Radio is their main source of information with a weighted score of 119 while manure application is the organic farming method mostly involved in the practice with a weighted score of 200, and the most important areas of information needs is the organic product price with a weighted score of 170.8. Consequently, a significant relationship is established between involvement and areas of information needs using PPMC to test the formulated hypothesis. It is, therefore, recommended that radio programme on Agriculture should be richly encoded with indicated areas of information needs of the organic farmers to improve their expertise and the advantages derivable there-in.
167 Evaluation of Some Improved Varieties of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) (Crantz) for Resistance to Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) in a Humid Forest Zone of Nigeria , Emiri, U. N.
Ten improved varieties of cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz) obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan and a local variety (Efuwa) which served as a local check were evaluated for resistance to Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) at the Rivers State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) Research Farm, Degema, Rivers State, Nigeria. The varieties were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated three times. Field observation shows that seven varieties were resistant to CBB infection with proportional increase in tuber yield. Two categories of varieties were observed in the study. The first category which have higher resistance to CBB and good tuber yield thus having potential in reducing foliar diseases as well as increasing tuber yield, while the second category produces relatively higher biomass and good tuber yield. This group can therefore be cultivated for good foliage and tuber yield. The root number weight and above-ground biomass had a significant positive correlation with yield, while a negative correlation exists between incidence/severity and yield. Therefore, Varieties with high level of resistance are recommended for crop multiplication in humid rain forest zone of Nigeria.
168 Small Holders’ Willingness to participate in a Nucleus Breeding Programme for West African Dwarf Goats under Low Input Environment , Adedeji, T. A.; Ogundipe, R. I.; Ige, A. O. and Fadare, A. O.
Participatory willingness of smallholders in a nucleus breeding scheme (NBS) involving West African Dwarf goats in Ejigbo, Osun State, Nigeria was assessed using structured and open ended questionnaires. The questionnaire was administered on two hundred respondents selected through purposive sampling technique. Socio-economic characteristics, routine and management practices, breeding characteristics and participation in rural NBS were studied. Female muslims were actively engaged in goat rearing than their males counterpart and majority of them are uneducated. Their acquisition of livestock knowledge and animals were through traditional means and family members as well as occasional purchase. Goats were reared mainly for family consumption and occasional sales. Goats were kept on free range, individually identified through local names, no record kept and their animals were exposed to a combination of diseases. The respondents never selected their animals for breeding nor were they aware of any form of breeding programme. However, majority of the respondents were not satisfied with the present productivity level of their goats and desired a change. The participants welcome the suggestion of a community NBS for their goat improvement and agreed to share the proceeds base on number of goat donated and meeting attendance. The willingness of the majority of the respondents to participate in NBS is an indication that they were not satisfied with their animals’ production, therefore, alternative approach of communal NBS is then advocated.
169 Genetic Parameter Estimates of Early Growth Traits of Pure and Crossbred Chicken Progenies in the Humid Environment of Nigeria , Adedeji T. A.; Adebambo O. A.; Ozoje M. O.,; Dipeolu M. A. and Peters S. O.
Heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations amongst some growth traits in pure and crossbred chickens at day old to 8 weeks of age are estimated using 357 chicken progenies. A total of 23 sires from four different strains (Naked neck, frizzle feather, normal feather and White leghorn) are mated to 45 dams of White leghorn strain through artificial insemination. Data collected on body weight, body length, breast girth and keel length on weekly basis are analysed using Maximum likelihood (ML) computer programme and paternal half-sib analysis. Sire heritabilities for growth traits at day old are generally low, suggesting higher influence of environmental factors. However, estimates for 4 and 8 weeks vary between moderate to high in each sire strain. Also, genetic correlations amongst the traits using combined sire variances were generally high while those of phenotypic correlations vary between low to high. Moderate to high heritability estimates indicate presence of appreciable genetic variabilities in the growth traits studied amongst the sire strains and improvement could be made through mass selection. Similarly, high genetic correlations suggest that the traits are under the same genetic influence (pleiotropism), therefore, selection for one trait would lead to improvement in the other traits as a correlated response. This study therefore concludes that Nigerian local chicken are unimproved and has the potentials of genetic improvement.
170 Near Shore Bathymetry Evaluation using Remote Sensing Method , Ekpa, A. U. and Ojinnaka, O. C.
This study explores the application of satellite remote sensing technique in nearshore bathymetry. The study area is a section of Cross River which lies between Akwa Ibom State and Cross River State, as well as Bakassi Peninsula. The extensive coastal waters of Nigeria have remained uncharted due to constraints imposed by government policy, funds and technological limitations. The applications of conventional technique of bathymetry such as echo sounders or swath sounding systems are inadequate for mapping very shallow areas due to sensor fouling or prohibitive cost in attempt for full sea floor coverage. The data employed include multispectral Landsat-7 ETM+ image set of year 2000, sounded depth for 2012, tidal data and extract from Admiralty tide tables. Tidal prediction was carried out for 2012 and in retrospect for 2000. The sounded data and Landsat-derived depth were reduced to the same Chart datum for ease of evaluation. Atmospheric correction of the satellite image was accomplished using Improved Image-Based Dark Object Subtraction (DOS) Model, while Stumpf’s Ratio Model was employed to estimate the bathymetric depths. The depths derived from the ratio of blue/red bands reveal better bathymetric depths than the ratio of the blue/green bands when compared with the sounded/ground truth data. The results obtained agree with the specifications for under-keel clearance in shallow water navigation and therefore showed that this technique can be adopted for safe mapping of the Nigerian Coastal waters. This is an efficient and cost-effective technique for near shore bathymetry and is therefore strongly recommended for mapping and monitoring of sea floor changes in our coastal waters.
171 The Contributions of Rural Institutions in Rural Development: Case of Smallholder Farmer Groups and NGOs in Uganda , Patrick Nalere
In this work, through a case study, the role of NGOs and smallholder farmer groups as sample rural institutions in addressing four main objectives is examined. A range of organizational level information on the characteristics is collected using various research tools. The data collection tools administered to leaders of the SFGs and staff of NGOs mainly included a structured questionnaire, focus group discussion, interview guide, key informants and literature review. A random sample of 40 NGOs and smallholder farmer groups (SFGs) were selected, stratified by location in the Central region of Uganda for a period between 2002 and 2012 for which the data were available. The central region of Uganda was chosen based on their ease of logistics – transport and communication, and presence of NGOs and functional SFGs. Based on the findings presented in this study, it is conclusively remarked that rural development in Uganda is informed by four major objectives of improving health, education, agriculture as well as improving industry.
172 Rainfall Variation Effect on Soya Beans Yield in Ushongo Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria , Mage J. O.; Iorlamen Teryima and Orvesen T. M.
This study examines the variations in rainfall characteristics and their impact on Soya beans yield in Ushongo Local Government Area of Benue State. Rainfall data for (2002-2012) were collected from the archive of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) at headquarters tactical air command Makurdi. Data on soya beans yield for eleven years (2002-2012) were obtained from the Benue State Agricultural and Rural Development Agency (BNARDA) Makurdi. From the rainfall data, the rainfall characteristics of onset, cessation and annual totals were derived. Partial correlation and multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used in analyzing the data in order to determine the effect of rainfall on soya beans yield. The result indicates low variability in rainfall characteristics. The result also shows that dates of cessation and annual rainfall totals have a relatively strong correlation with soya beans yield. However cessation was found to account more for the annual variation in soya bean yield. The study recommends establishment of more weather stations for more climatic data generation, seasonal forecast of rainfall characteristics and the application of climatic information by farmers to enhance productivity.
173 Climate Change and Agriculture in Nigeria , Sadiq, Y. A. and Anjorin, O. J.
Some factors are at work to fluctuate and lessen the trend in agriculture outputs and values in Nigeria. Hence, the need to assess the climate-agriculture nexus becomes imperative. This review takes a critical examination of available documentation on Climate Change and Agriculture in Nigeria, with a view to proffering long term proposition for proactive improvement. The characteristics of Nigerian agriculture (land tenure, low farm inputs in fertilizer, extension and machinery, low economies of scale in production, poor storage, lack of capital formation/investment, and being “prone to national disasters-drought, pests, weeds, and floods’’ or the vagaries of the climate) observed to significantly affect the agriculture output and value. Thus, as an early warning system climate change is asking whether the Nigerian government would please wake up, the peasant farmer of colonial days is waiting for maximum output.
174 Appropriate Technology for Sustainable Municipal Sewage Treatment in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria , Ibrahim Saidu
The current discharge of enormous quantities of untreated sewage released into water bodies containing several substances that are hazardous to aquatic life and public health is a major environmental and economic concern in Yola. The bottlenecks occasioned by the absence of sewage treatment plant to which sewers are usually connected for conveyance of the sewage for eventual treatment of the phenomenon before its discharge into the environment, are well documented. Application of alternative innovative approaches to sewage treatment technologies is not understood and several constraints to their adoption exist. Sewage best management practices are the application of modern technologies for sewage treatment to address the issues of water quality, quantities, and amenity for long term sustainability. This study propses an appropriate technology for the treatment of sewage in the study area.
175 Designing a Prototype of Geoinformatics Documentation System using Microsoft Access , Ekpa, A. U. and Udotong, I. U.
The purpose of this study is to design geoinformatics documentation system using Microsoft Access. It also identifies useful knowledge management tools and processes associated with geoinformatics documentation system. Geoinformatics documentation seeks to support high quality information management that is in compliance with survey rules and regulations. It ensures that all the geoinformatics/surveying processes are transparent, captured, reproduced and that the survey results are presented in an objective and accurate manner. A prototype content management system is being designed using Microsoft Access database tool to provide a systematic and comprehensive approach to documentation which offers an optimal and efficient approach. The efficiency of this system seeks to minimize costs, lost of information associated with storage, eliminate redundant information and maximize benefits of documentation in terms of quick and efficient storage, accessibility, editing, management, analyses and retrieval.
176 Constraints Perceived by Farmers’ Community Organizations Affecting Roles of Extension Agents in Okigwe Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria , Echetama, J. A.; Ani, A. O.; Opara, I. U.; Ojo, O. U. and Oguegbuchulam, M. N.
This study assesses the constraints perceived by farmers’ community organizations affecting roles of extension agents in the Okigwe Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examines the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers, identifies major sources of agricultural information available to the farmers, ascertains the roles of extension agents, determines the perceived level of satisfaction with the roles and identified the perceived constraints to the effectiveness of extension agents in the study area. Multistage sampling technique is used to select a sample of 120 farmers. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and were analyzed using mean, frequency counts and percentages. Results show among others that the farmers were satisfied with the creation of awareness on agricultural innovations and helping farmers obtain loans. Shortage of well-trained extension agents, inadequate extension visits and low involvement of farmers in programme planning were some constraints militating against the effectiveness of extension service delivery in the Zone. It is recommended among others that more extension agents should be recruited and deployed to the rural areas to improve extension service coverage.
177 Insecticide Repellency of Plant Extracts Against Callosobruchus maculatus , Obadofin, A. A.; Fatoba, T. A. and Fatunsin G. F.
Several plant species were selected as potentially safer substitutes for control of cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. The objective of the study was to investigate the insecticidal activity effect (that is, avoidance after contact) of aqueous extracts (crude) of Andrographis paniculata, Chromolaena odorata, Datura stramonium, Senna siamea and Vernonia amygdalina (leaves ) in comparison with a synthetic insecticide (actellic powder) frequently used in treatment of cowpea in store. The phytochemical studies revealed presence of arrays of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, oxalates, glycosides and reducing sugar in the tested plant. Cowpea weevils of a single strain were subjected to free-choice tests with cowpea seed sprayed with the different aqueous extracts and actellic powder. The behavioral response of C. maculatus to aqueous extracts and actellic powder differed (p<0.05) from the negative control. The results observed that insecticidal activities were demonstrated as Datura stramonium > Senna siamea > Andrographis paniculata> Chromolaena odorata > Vernonia amygdalina with the synthetic insecticide powder and D. stramonium produced the best result. The aqueous extracts of these plants could be employed in developing natural pest control products that may replace the synthetic bio-pesticides that are currently used against C. maculatus.
178 Downstream Socio-Economic Impact of Dam Failure: A Case Study of 2012 River Flooding in Benue State, Nigeria , Shabu, T. and Musa, S. D.
The paper focused on evaluating the short and long term impacts of the 2012 flood disaster on the socio-economic sectors of Benue State. To achieve the aim of the study, Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean (ECLAC) methodology was employed. Results of the analysis showed that health, agriculture and business centres experienced the worst socio-economic damages among the different sectors in the area. Value of damage and losses in Health sector was N314.4 million, estimated needs for the sector was N215.1 million. In Agriculture, 32,860 livestock were destroyed during the flooding, estimated value of losses in fish production was 240.38 metric tons while in crop production, farmers lost N21.7 billion to flood disaster. In trade and commerce, 438,536 business outfits were affected and aggregate working days lost in trade and commerce was 881,400 days. It has also an enormous impact on the economic foundation of the state due to expenditure for rehabilitation and reconstruction. The paper concluded that, absence of buffer Dams contributed to the increased socio-economic impact of the disaster.
179 Invitro Anthelmintic Efficacy of Aqueous Extract of Parkiabiglobosa Fruit Husk on Albino Rats , Telta, D.; Dibila, H. M.; Ojo, N. A.; Sanni, S.; Sandabe, U. K. and Shamaki, B. U.
The toxicity and anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous extract of Parkiabiglobosa fruit husk were studied in albino rats. The oral acute toxicity study was conducted using the standard method. The anthelmintic efficacy of the extract was conducted using the fecal and larval recovery test tube paper technique and the egg hatch assay. The result of the studies showed that the LD50 of the oral administration of the extract was 1120mg/kg b.w indicating that the extract was moderately toxic. The extract did not significantly reduce egg hatch as compared to levamisol and albendazole used in this study, hence does not have anthelmintic effect. In conclusion the aqueous extract of Parkiabiglobosa fruit husk can be said to be safe but does not possess anthelmintic activity.
180 Isolation of Entomopathogenic Nematode-Bacteria Complex with a Potential for Use as a Biological Insecticide in Nigeria , Aliyu, H. U.; Dahiru, M. and Owuama, C. I.
The larvae of G. mellonella obtained from honey combs were successfully grown to adult on newly developed artificial medium in the laboratory. Generations of the moth were grown and maintained on the artificial medium. The larvae were used as bait to trap entomopathogenic nematodes from the soil. The nematodes isolated were identified as Steinernema species based on their morphology. The pathogenicity of the nematodes is tested after storing them in water for three and six months respectively. It is observed that the ability of the nematodes to kill the larvae reduced with increase in the period of storage. Nematodes stored for six months killed only 20% of larvae treated while that stored for three months killed 40% of larvae treated. Death of the larvae occurred within 24 hours for freshly harvested infective juvenile nematodes while it took 72 hours for nematodes stored for three months and 168 hours (7days) for those stored for 6 months. The nematode-bacteria complex isolated has a potential for use as a biological insecticide.
181 Developing Community Based Disaster Programmes and Resilient Strategies for South East District Disaster Management in Botswana , Kgosietsile Maripe
Communities in Botswana have suffered from floods, drought, wild-land fires, windstorms, and heavy rains. The perpetual losses suffered by Botswana motivated the need for this research to identify and analyse factors that make communities vulnerable and non-resilient to disasters. The aim of the research is to investigate the resilience and adaptability of communities to disasters in the South East Administrative District, Botswana. This is achieved by undertaking a documented investigation and analysis of hazards and risks, vulnerabilities, and capacities prevalent in three communities (Ramotswa, Otse and Mogobane) and appraising the perceptions and conduct of exposed individuals and communities. The study is organized in two phases. The qualitative phase interviewed 88 participants, 6 (six) focus groups, and 26 key informants to assess their perception of hazards and risks, vulnerability, and resilience and their experiences of disasters. The quantitative phase covered 3567 (94%) of the total respondents who completed the questionnaire to establish the extent of the problem, its scope, and to describe prevalent resilience characteristics. A key result from the analysis is that communities are vulnerable and are constantly under disaster threat and that communities, families and individuals lack fundamental knowledge, skills, and techniques to enhance their resilience to disasters, hence the disaster management strategy.
182 Effect of Aqueous Extract of Parkiabiglobosa Fruit Husk on Heamatological Parameters in Rats , Telta, D.; Dibila, H. M.; Sanni, S.; Shamaki, B. U.; Sandabe, U. K. and Ojo, N. A.
The toxic effect of the aqueous extract of Parkiabiglobosa fruit husk on haematological parameters is studied in albino rats. The oral acute toxicity is conducted using the standard method of Karber as modified by Aliu and Nwude. The prolonged toxicity is evaluated by estimating the haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), white blood cells (WBC) count and the body weight. The results of the study show that the oral LD50 of the extract is 1120mg/kg b.w indicating that the extract is moderately toxic. The aqueous extract has no significant (p>0.05) effect on the RBC, HB and PCV but shows a significant (p<0.05) increase in WBC count on day 14-21. The body weight of the rats is significantly (p<0.05) increased by the administration of the extract which may imply that the extract is a taste receptor stimulant which stimulates appetite of the rats, thereby increasing feed consumption or the extract may have been responsible for depressing the satiety center leading to continuous consumption of feed resulting into increase body weight. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of Parkiabiglobosa fruit husk can be said to be safe but also with a significant (p<0.05) increase in total serum WBC count which may mean a possible stimulation of the immune system.
183 Growth Performance of Broiler-Chickens Fed Cassava Starch residue Leaf meal as a Replacement for maize diet , Olowoyeye, J. C.
A 42-day trial using 300 day old broiler chickens was conducted to evaluate the nutritive potential of cassava starch residue and cassava leaf mix on their performance characteristics. The birds were divided into 6 treatment groups and further replicated 5 times with 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design and fed diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% Cassava Starch Residue Leaf Meal (CSRLM) (95:5) mix as a replacement for maize diet. The birds were adequately housed, while feed and water were supplied ad-libitum. Other standard management practices were adequately put in place. The results show that final body weights of birds are significantly influenced by dietary treatments. The values recorded for broiler chickens fed the control diet (1970g/bird) is higher than values obtained for bird fed the test (1424 - 1660g/bird). Average daily weight gain is also significantly affected by dietary treatments with the control diet recording the best value. No significant difference is observed across dietary treatments for Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI ). Birds fed the control diet have a higher ADFI and this decreased with increased replacement of maize with the CSRLM (95:5) mix. The FCR for bird fed the control diets is significantly better than those fed the test diets.
184 Sawdust Briquette: A Renewable Energy for Sustainable Livelihood of Rural Dwellers in Nigeria , Akpan, S. J.
Available energy applicable in Nigeria is mainly of fossil-type (coal, petroleum products and natural gas). These are costly to acquire and intermittent in supply and for most times unavailable and/or unaffordable to majority of the citizenry. Therefore, the easily affordable energy source is fuel wood the high demand of which has resulted in rapid deforestation with attendant adverse consequences as desertification, erosion and global warming. This work does not only review the various energy resources available in Nigeria and their level or limit of applicability but also proposes the use of sawdust briquette as alternative source of energy most especially for the rural dwellers in view of the attendant socio-economic benefits. The simplicity of the manufacturing process, the thermo-graphic superiority of the product over ordinary fuel wood, and contribution to environmental amelioration are also highlighted.
185 Geospatial Surveillance of the Degraded River KomaduguGana Area, Potiskum, Yobe State, Nigeria , Oladimeji, Bunmi; Nyanganji J. K. and Ikusemoran Mayomi
Geospatial techniques is used to survey the topography and assess the degradation in terms of the presence, spatial location and the magnitudes of soil and gully erosion around River Komadugu-Gana in Potiskum town, Yobe State. The main objectives of the study are to assess the topography of the area, assess the changes in river floor, determine the spatial coverage as well as elevation and slope of the river valley between 2005 and 2014 and to analyze the land use and land cover changes along the banks of the river valley within the period of study. Coordinates and elevation data generated from GPS were used to create DEM and 3-dimensional image of the area, while Google Earth Pro image of 2005 and 2014 of the study area are also obtained to derive the land use and land cover change of the area. The elevation profile module of the Google Earth Pro is used to generate and calculate the parameters of the river profile. The results of the study show among others that the eastern side of the river bank is more inhabited because of its undulating topography, while the western side with rugged topography had scanty built-up areas. Local flood control mechanisms such as construction of embankments and planting of shrubs were also found in the area. The position of gullies were also identified and mapped, while the landcover and landuse of the area were discovered to have changed due mainly to human activities. It is suggested that geospatial techniques can be embraced for proper environmental monitoring.
186 Environmental Design Requirements for Courtyard Buildings in Hot-Dry Climate , Markus, B.
The main goal of this study is to review the environmental design requirements for courtyard buildings in the hot-dry climatic region. The study aims at bringing to understanding the design requirements for shading and ventilation performances of the courtyard. The study was conducted by making an analogy with respect to courtyard buildings in the hot-humid climatic zones. The study shows that, for optimum shading performance in the courtyard, its shape, orientation, and sky view factor are the most important environmental design requirements for courtyard in the hot-dry climatic zone. For ventilation performance, the use of night ventilation could improve the interior thermal situation in the hot-dry region, but in hot-humid zone, however, some scholars opine that air flow through courtyards is vital to comfort, whereas others state that ventilation is needless because it would allow hot air into buildings. This study concludesthat the courtyard shape, orientation, and sky view factor are the major environmental design requirements in the hot-dry climatic zone, but their appropriateness is still unknown and need to be studied in future simulation studies.
187 Community Vulnerability to Disasters in Botswana: A Case Study of South East Administrative District , Maripe, K. and Setlalentoa, B. M. P.
Community vulnerability to various hazards and related risks complicates recovery, reconstruction, and adaptation to disaster shocks. Vulnerability results from several factors rooted within the community requiring an accurate analysis of environmental threats. As such, vulnerability and capacity assessments are essential in the analysis and better comprehension of disasters and the related behaviour within the social environment. Hazard and vulnerability assessment diagnose situational crises and the likely effects on people and the environment. A key result from the study on community resilience to disasters in Botswana shows that communities are vulnerable and are constantly under disaster threat. Although there are district disaster management committee, they are only active during emergency response and ignore the pre and post disaster activities. As such, communities, families, and individuals lack fundamental knowledge, skills, and techniques necessary to enhance their resilience to disasters. Whereas, disaster risk reduction is a multifaceted approach which requires the deliberate involvement of different stakeholders for the successful attainment of desired ends. Therefore, tribal leaders, the business community, church leaders, government, and households should have defined roles and responsibilities in all phases of the disaster cycle. The roles and responsibilities must state actions to be undertaken before, during, and after disasters by each actor in the system.
188 Persistence of Pendimethalin in Southern Guinea Savanna, Ogbomoso, Nigeria , Adelasoye, K. A.; Popoola, K. O. K.; Ogunyemi, S. and Awodoyin, R. O.
Pendimethalin is experimented for persistence using Spectronic 2ID for residue analysis in Ogbomoso, Southern Guinea Savanna soil. Pendimethalin (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 l/ha), hoe weeded and Weedy Check (WC) were the applied treatments.Soil samples were taken for herbicide residue analysis to determine Disappearance Time for 50% (DT50) of the herbicide. The lowest rate, 1.0 l/ha disappeared faster than 1.5l/ha. Up to 75.2 days after application, 75% of the herbicide at the recommended rate of 2.0l/ha had disappeared. The DT50 were 48.3, 57.3 and 37.9 days for 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l/ha respectively. There was inadequacy in weed control ability of Pendimethalin due to the loss in quantity of the herbicide from the soil in this zone. Thus, before eight weeks of application more than half of the applied herbicide had disappeared leading to reduced weed control. However, Pendimethalin was found to be moderately persistent in the zone. This implied that the problem of choice of follow-crop does not arise and the compartments of the environment would be free from pendimethalin residues.
189 Peasants and Pastoralist in the Market Place (Land Grabs and the Sovereign Food System in Africa): The Mali Experience , Martin Uadiale and Anirejuoritse Awala-Ale
Before the development of the concept and term ‘food sovereignty’, food sovereignty has been the guiding principle of food systems on the African continent. Culturally acceptable and nutritious food had been produced by the smallholder farmers in such a way that ensured environmental sustainability through environmental and ecologically conscious methods. However, irrespective of the historical role played by these smallholder farmers, governments of respective African countries such as Mali have continually neglected them and have subsequently lost faith in their ability to adapt and address the growing situation of hunger and undernourishment. The Malian government has put its trust in the neoliberal enterprise. This work aims at highlighting the insidious nature of foreign land investments in Mali. It is the argument of this study that these foreign investors are in direct competition with the Malian farmers, they threaten their access to land, water and threaten the existent environmental sustainability and biodiversity. In conclusion, this study asserts that the culminating effect of land grabs by these foreign investors is that they threaten food sovereignty and a chance at food security.
190 Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Senna siamea Lam Reproductive Parameters of Male Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus) , T. A. Fatoba and O. O. Ajibogun
Stress on animal considerably affects the relative efficiency by which body processes occur. The aim of this work is to study effects of aqueous root extract of Senna siamea on morphormetrics and some reproductive parameters using male wistar rats. Twenty weaned male wistar rats with average weight 86-97g were used for the study. The rats were randomly allotted based on their initial body weights (BW) into five (5) treatments (control; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 ml/ kgBW) comprising six (6) rats. Feed and fresh water were given ad libitum. The aqueous extract was administered via oral route in the morning for ten (10) days consecutively. The results reveal that animals in the treated groups had better bodyweight and intestines than the control. The effect on sperm characteristics produced significant effect on mass motility, sperm concentration and abnormalities and insignificant effect on colour and mass activity in the treated rats compared to control. It is concluded that the extract is safe and beneficial if taken in safety dose. The results of this study justify the use of this plant as traditional medicine.
191 Plants Used As Anti-Anaemic and Haematinic Agents among Indigenes in Ijero Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria , M. A. Adeniran and F.A. Falemu
The central discourse of this work is on the plants used by the indigenes of Ijero Local Government Area of Ekiti State for the prevention and treatment of blood disorders such as anaemia and haemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells and their haemoglobins). Mention is made of plants used as anti-sickling agents for the treatment of sickle-cell anaemia. Herbal treatment of other forms of anaemia such as microcytic and megaloblastic anaemia were discussed. The research design for this study is Survey design. Materials and method for the study include the use of interviews (two-way communication), semi-structured questionnaire matrix and normal field technique for plant collection. In the study, 46 botanicals that have anti-anaemic and haematinic properties were discussed. The treatise includes the general descriptions of the plants, their local and scientific names and the parts of the plants used. Their methods of preparation were enumerated as well as the medicinal significance of all enlisted botanicals. Consequent upon the findings, the justification for this study includes that the use of haematinic plants would help rural and urban dwellers to overcome problems of anaemia and haemolysis, caused by constant malaria attack on children and adults which is prevalent in the study area. Rural and urban dwellers in the study area would be able to identify and learn to use anti-anaemic and blood-building plants already left un-utilized due to people’s ignorance and lack of ethnobotanical education. It is therefore submitted that The State Department of Health should encourage research into the use of medicinal plants to supplement orthodox medications available.
192 Detecting and Monitoring Desertification Indicators in Yobe State, Nigeria , E. Elijah; M. Ikusemoran; K. J. Nyanganji and H. U. Mshelisa
Owing to the environmental and socio economic impacts of desertification in Yobe State, this work sets out to detect the indicators of desertification in the study area and to monitor their spatio-temporal changes from 1975 to 2013. Five multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries within the same season (OctoberNovember) of 1975 (from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), 1986 (from Thematic Mapper (TM)), 2000 and 2009 (from Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+)) and 2013 was acquired from Earth Explorer by Google Earth Pro maps were used for this study. The acquired images were classified into four landcover types: surface water, trees, shrubs/grass and bare land/dunes. The result shows that the percentage of surface water recorded about 0.51% decrease between 1975 and 2013, the trees landcover class decreased from 582.76km2 in 1975 to 284.73km2 of the total land area in 2013, area covered by shrubs and grass also decreased from 1990.45km2 in 1975 to 669.06km2 in 2013. Dryland areas covered by bare land and dunes increased from 5061.25km2 to 6719.74km2 in 1975 and 2013 respectively at a rate of 43.64km2 annually. The results of the spatial distribution pattern of physical and biological indicators of desertification were used to establish the presence and spatial coverage of desertification in the study area. Assessment of area coverage of a selected dune at the northern part of the study area using Google Earth Pro map reveals that the dune increased from 0.19km2 in 2010 to 0.21km2 in 2013. From these findings, constant monitoring and evaluation of areas affected by desertification and effective community-based tree planting programme is recommended among others.
193 The Crux of Farmers and Herdsmen Conflict in Nigeria , J. C. Ajadike
Land and water are crucial for crop farming and livestock raising. But these two resources are strongly affected by physical factors such as climate change, drought, desertification and human factors such as population pressures, over grazing, migrations of herdsmen within Nigeria and from neighbouring countries of Cameroon, Chad and Niger; Boko Haram insurgency that has crippled economic activities in the three States of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa in the north east, and cattle rustling that has forced many herdsmen to flee with their animals for security and for sustainability. Detailed reviews were made on all the physical and human factors identified by this study as the flash points of the farmersherdsmen conflicts in Nigeria and the facts are that the farmers and herdsmen are clashing mainly because of resource control which both desire for their occupational survival. This work therefore concludes that heightened farmersherdsmen conflicts especially since 2015 in Nigeria have nothing to do with race and religions as often portrayed. The National Assembly should establish the standard with enabling laws and administrative structures to ensure that all the ranches meet minimum standard for hygiene and environmental sustainability.
194 Socio-economic and Demographic Profile of Agricultural Labour Force in Delta State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , J. L. Igben and E. Igun
There has been no concerted attempt to study agricultural labour force in the Niger delta region that has been degraded by petroleum exploitation activities. Consequently, this study examines the socio–economic and demographic characteristics of the labour force with a view to providing a framework for a comprehensive planning. Data utilized are obtained from primary and secondary sources. The former is through a multi-stage sampling technique which involves the purposive selection of one State and three agrarian settlements. The systematic random sampling was used to select 350 households, on which a one-time questionnaire is administered. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze data collected. The study revealed, among others, an ageing and large illiterate labour force. Consequently, adequate planning by government to make agriculture more attractive and retraining of farmers is recommended to improve productivity in the sector.
195 Socio-economic and Demographic Profile of Agricultural Labour Force in Delta State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , J. L. Igben and E. Igun
There has been no concerted attempt to study agricultural labour force in the Niger delta region that has been degraded by petroleum exploitation activities. Consequently, this study examines the socio–economic and demographic characteristics of the labour force with a view to providing a framework for a comprehensive planning. Data utilized are obtained from primary and secondary sources. The former is through a multi-stage sampling technique which involves the purposive selection of one State and three agrarian settlements. The systematic random sampling was used to select 350 households, on which a one-time questionnaire is administered. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze data collected. The study revealed, among others, an ageing and large illiterate labour force. Consequently, adequate planning by government to make agriculture more attractive and retraining of farmers is recommended to improve productivity in the sector.
196 Socio-economic and Demographic Profile of Agricultural Labour Force in Delta State, Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , J. L. Igben and E. Igun
There has been no concerted attempt to study agricultural labour force in the Niger delta region that has been degraded by petroleum exploitation activities. Consequently, this study examines the socio–economic and demographic characteristics of the labour force with a view to providing a framework for a comprehensive planning. Data utilized are obtained from primary and secondary sources. The former is through a multi-stage sampling technique which involves the purposive selection of one State and three agrarian settlements. The systematic random sampling was used to select 350 households, on which a one-time questionnaire is administered. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze data collected. The study revealed, among others, an ageing and large illiterate labour force. Consequently, adequate planning by government to make agriculture more attractive and retraining of farmers is recommended to improve productivity in the sector.
197 Animal Service: Mounting Integrated Social Security in Nigeria Using Domesticated Dogs (Canis familiaris) to Combat Crimes , M. A. Adeniran
The central focus of this study is on the employment of trained domesticated dogs in the security service of man. Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) have been used for many centuries as pets, guard dogs, watch dogs and hounds in advanced countries of the world like England, Germany, U.S.A., Belgium, Holland, Russia and many others. The types of canids breeds that could be trained for crime control and security purposes were enumerated in this study. The study pinpoints the people or places where trained dogs could be used for security purposes such as: airports, sea ports; banks, residential areas, business premises, Police and Military services as well as during warfare. Well trained dogs, called guard dogs, or watch dogs could be used to track down criminals, sniff out and locate bombs, guns, explosives and hard drugs: defeat hoodlums and overpower armed robbers. Experts’ modalities for dog training and dogs’ health-care services were included in this treatise. Employment of trained dogs in human services would reduce crime, create serenity and ensure individual, corporate and national security in Nigeria.
198 Application of Satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Monitoring Deforestation at Ikwe Forest Reserve, Benue State, Nigeria , M. A. Hula and B. T. Tyubee
The decline in forest cover of Ikwe Forest Reserve at Igbor, Benue State, Nigeria is analysed using Satellite Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS). Landsat 5 TM data of December 12, 1986 and Landsat 7 ETM+ data of December 19, 2016 covering the study area are acquired for analysis. Six land use/land cover (LULC) types, comprising three forests (forest gallery, light forest and shrub) and three non-forests (marsh, eroded surface and bare surface) types are derived from both imageries. To analyse changes in LULC types from 1986 – 2016, the LULC image of 2016 is overlaid with that of 1986. The result indicates that there is a decline in forest cover, comprising forest gallery, light forest and shrub by 375ha (39%), marsh by 136ha (34%), eroded surface/built up area by 44ha (25%) from 1986-2016. However, the area of bare surface, representing forest clearings or deforested areas, has increased by 555ha (112%). Similarly, only 87ha (6%) of forest cover has appeared over deforested areas within the period of study. The result indicates a net decline in forest cover of 288ha (33%) and an annual decline rate of 2.8% respectively. Integrating the local communities in conserving the forest resources of the resort will aid in combating the forest decline. Such communities should be provided with agriculture and other economic incentives such as subsidized fertilizers, improved seedlings, pesticides and herbicides, preservation and storage facilities.
199 Youth Organizations’ Participation in Agricultural Activities in Omoku Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria , A. I. Oguzor; A. B. Odinwa and N. Amugo
This study examines youth organizations’ participation in Agricultural Activities in Omoku Metropolis, Rivers State. The population comprises all the youth organizations in Omoku metropolis. A sample of 150 youths from five communities in Omoku is used. A structured questionnaire with 24 items is designed to elicit data for the study. A test retest is used to conduct the reliability of the instrument with Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient which yields 0.85. Data analysis is done with the use of arithmetic mean. The study reveals among others that majority of the youth organizations in Omoku metropolis do not engage in agricultural activities, youth organizations face a myriad of challenges which impede their involvement in agriculture; these range from lack of co-operation, land tenure and inadequate fund. The study, therefore, concludes that youth organizations’ participation in agricultural activities in Omoku is relatively low. Hence, it recommends among others that the government at the State and local levels should ensure that re-orientation and youth mobilization programmes are designed to educate the youths on agriculture and its importance to national development.
200 Application of Principal Component Analysis on the Body Morphometric of Nigerian Indigenous Chickens reared intensively under Southern Guinea Savanna Condition of Nigeria , S. R. Amao
The experiment employs the principal components analysis (PCA) on the body morphometric of three genetic stocks of Nigerian indigenous chickens reared intensively under southern guinea savanna condition of Nigeria. A total number of 300 birds comprises of 100 each of normal feathered, frizzled feathered and naked neck chickens are randomly selected from the pre-existing reared intensively birds in the farm. Data are collated on body weight (BDW), head length (HL), beak length (BKL), comb length (CL), neck length (NL), body length (BDL), wing length (WG), keel length (KL), thigh length (TL) and shank length (SL). The results from the morphometric measurements indicate that frizzled feather birds displayed superiority in terms of BDW, HL, BKL, CL, NL, TL and SL than naked neck and normal feathered chickens expect for BDL and KL which are favoured by normal feather birds. The pooled correlation matrix reveals that the values obtained highly positive significant correlation is noted between the BDW and HL, BLK, TL, WG, SL, CL and NL. For PCA, two principal components are extracted (PC1 and PC2). PC1 and PC2 contribute 83.14% of the total variance while PC1 account for 65.44% of the total variance. The screen plot indicates that only the first two components have eigenvalues greater than 1. This implies that only the first two components should be retained. The CL, SL, TL, BKL, HL and BDL contribute to the total variability of PC1 and these traits could use for selection in breeding programme to improve the body weight of the genetics stocks of Nigerian local birds.
201 Application of Principal Component Analysis on the Body Morphometric of Nigerian Indigenous Chickens reared intensively under Southern Guinea Savanna Condition of Nigeria , S. R. Amao
The experiment employs the principal components analysis (PCA) on the body morphometric of three genetic stocks of Nigerian indigenous chickens reared intensively under southern guinea savanna condition of Nigeria. A total number of 300 birds comprises of 100 each of normal feathered, frizzled feathered and naked neck chickens are randomly selected from the pre-existing reared intensively birds in the farm. Data are collated on body weight (BDW), head length (HL), beak length (BKL), comb length (CL), neck length (NL), body length (BDL), wing length (WG), keel length (KL), thigh length (TL) and shank length (SL). The results from the morphometric measurements indicate that frizzled feather birds displayed superiority in terms of BDW, HL, BKL, CL, NL, TL and SL than naked neck and normal feathered chickens expect for BDL and KL which are favoured by normal feather birds. The pooled correlation matrix reveals that the values obtained highly positive significant correlation is noted between the BDW and HL, BLK, TL, WG, SL, CL and NL. For PCA, two principal components are extracted (PC1 and PC2). PC1 and PC2 contribute 83.14% of the total variance while PC1 account for 65.44% of the total variance. The screen plot indicates that only the first two components have eigenvalues greater than 1. This implies that only the first two components should be retained. The CL, SL, TL, BKL, HL and BDL contribute to the total variability of PC1 and these traits could use for selection in breeding programme to improve the body weight of the genetics stocks of Nigerian local birds.
202 Mechanization Problems of Peasant Farmers in Oyo Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria , A. W. Animashaun and J. Gbadamosi
This survey is carried out to assess the mechanization problems of peasant farmers in Oyo metropolis. The population of the study comprises all peasant farmers in Oyo metropolis of Oyo State. Ten communities were systematically selected in the study area namely: Aba Iyaibeji, Offa meta, Fashola, Eleekara, Baale Agbe, Oko Ajagba, Eleke, Soku, Otefon and Mogaji. Multistage sampling technique is employed to collect data from 400 farmers in the study area using structured questionnaire. The data are analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. Findings reveal that most of the farmers are male with low or no level of education. Most farming operations are carried out manually and implements are being mostly hired. Inadequate capital is the major problem affecting farmers in the study area while other problems include land tenure system, lack of equipment, government policy, lack of storage facilities, and insufficient farm input. The study also shows that most of the farms in the area range from 1-5 acres and farmers in the study area are poor to employ irrigation facilities even though 80% of the foods consumed in this country come from the peasant farmers in the rural areas. In summary, it is revealed that mechanization practice is still at a premature stage in the Oyo metropolis. Therefore, enlightenment programme should be done by extension officers all over rural areas to improve the knowledge of farmers about the advantages of mechanized farming.
203 The Effect of Housing Systems on the Welfare of Pigs in Santa Sub-Division in the North West Region of Cameroon , Kiambom Tracey and Muafueshiangha Ibrahim Menkeh
This study adopts the survey design to examine the effect of different housing systems on the welfare of pigs in Santa Sub-Division of north west region of Cameroon. A total of 50 copies of questionnaire was administered in Santa Sub-Division. The determination of number of questionnaire per locality was based on the piggery farmers population which is about 5000 in the locality. Through random sampling, 50 piggery farmers were chosen for the research. The data obtained are analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results show that the most common housing systems used by piggery farmers in Santa area are raised floor and deep floor litter systems. Pigs in raised floors suffer from lameness and injuries while those of deep floor suffer only from diarrhea. From a policy perspective, the study recommends that given that pigs in slated floor systems experienced fewer health hazards as compared to those in deep litter housing, piggery farmers in this locality should adopt the slatted floor system of housing in other to minimize parasitic infections as pigs will have no contacts with their faeces.
204 Comparative Effects of Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Selected Plants Material on Insect Pest of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) , A. A. Obadofin; T. A. Fatoba; D. O. Owolabi and B. F. Yakubu
This study is designed to comparatively investigate the effects of aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants (Datura stramonium, Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata) on field insect pests damage to cowpea. Ife bimpe cowpea seeds are procured from IITA and planted on beds assigned to four treatment groups (including a control), in a completely randomized design. A 250g/litre of plant material is used to prepare the stock solutions. Field application of extracts is done in the mornings, two times in a week for two months. The findings of the study reveal that the different aqueous extract reduced the activities of insect pests attacking the cowpea leaves in order of D. stramonium > A. paniculata > C. odorata compared with the control thereby encouraged the cowpea plant treated with D. stramonium and A. paniculata to have more leaves, growth flowering and podding than the other groups. D. stramonium and A. paniculata are more effective in controlling insect pest damage to cowpea than C. odorata. It can be concluded that utilization of plant extracts in pest management is a cheap, environmentally friendly alternative to chemical pesticides. However, there is need to test the extracts on other crops, with similar pest problems to verify the elasticity of it effect.
205 Trends in Preventing Medicinal Plants from Extinction in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria , M. A. Adeniran and M. A. Daramola
This study examines how the medicinal plant species in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria could be rescued from further ecological genocide due to human socio and agro-economic development. Combination of social survey and direct field observations are carried out. Semi-structured questionnaire matrix and conversational interviews (two-way communication) based on human exploration of the environment in the last 10 years are employed. The results show that a total of 48 medicinal plant species belonging to 25 different families are discovered to be at risk extinction in the study area. Thirteen (13) medicinal plant species are considered to be endangered, 17 medicinal plant species are threatened, while 18 are considered scarce. The scientific and local names and families of the plants are identified with clues on their medicinal significance. The overall population of medicinal plants species in the study area is on the decline. This work reveals that the extinction agents are mostly humans, consequent upon economic and social development such as agricultural development, urbanization, lumbering and logging, assaultive herb grazing, bush burning and habitat distortions and deforestation. Ex situ conservation (protecting endangered plant species outside its natural habitat) should be introduced in form of botanical gardens, arboretums and parks in the local government area by the Ministry of Environment.
206 Suitability of Rice Husk and Chicken Droppings as Organic Fertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture in Ghana , S. M. Murimi and S. F. Gbedemah
This study experiments the suitability of using rice husk and chicken droppings to produce organic fertilizer. This is achieved by composting rice husk and chicken droppings mixture in treatment ratios of 2:0, 2:1, 2:2 and 2:3 by volume, with an objective to establish the optimum combination ratio which can produce the highest total nitrogen content and a low carbon to nitrogen ratio acceptable in farming. The study utilizes a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment involves four treatments with three replicates. The treatments are done by increasing the volume of mixture of chicken droppings added to rice husk waste. Water, comprising 40% by volume of rice husk and chicken droppings mixture is also added to all treatments. The total organic carbon and total nitrogen content of composting materials are analyzed after every 28 day and on the last day of composting. Finished compost quality in terms of total nitrogen content, are significantly increased by enriching rice husk waste with chicken droppings, while the carbon to nitrogen ratio are significantly reduced in most treatments. Analysis of the results shows that the best treatment combination are mixing rice husk waste with chicken droppings at the ratio of 2:2 and 2:3. The treatment combination ratio of 2:2 has 2.26% of the total nitrogen content, which is higher than the treatment combination ratio of 2:3 which has 2.23% of the total nitrogen content while both treatments have C:N ratio of below 20 which is acceptable in organic fertilizer production for use in agriculture. The conclusion is that composting rice husk and chicken droppings mixture in treatment ratio of 2:2 is the best for use on farms to improve nutrient of soils for plants utilization.
207 Assessment of Polythene Wastes Generation and Disposal in University of Maiduguri Campus, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria , Dawi Musa and Ikusemoran Mayomi
This study is a survey which assesses generation and disposal of polythene wastes in the University of Maiduguri Campus. The population of this study comprises all the quarters or units in the University of Maiduguiri Campus. Data were generated through questionnaire, oral interview, personal observation, Global Positioning System (GPS), photographs and documents. Samples drawn purposively were made from four units comprising student hostels, residential, academic and commercial areas of the University. Big polythene bags were used to collect the polythene wastes in each unit or area for one week, the collected wastes were measured with weighing scale. One hundred copies of questionnaire were also administered to the respondents to capture polythene wastes disposal methods. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was adopted to find out the variance among the six items on public perception of the impact of polythene materials. The study establishes that student hostels and commercial areas generate higher quantity of polythene wastes than the residential and academic areas. It also reveals that almost half of the polythene wastes were generated in the students’ hostels. Keeping wastes for collection by the environmental units of the campus or direct disposal in designated places were the main methods of polythene wastes disposal in the campus, though, polythene wastes were collected irregularly. It also reveals that there is no significant difference among some selected items on the impacts of polythene wastes in the environment. The study recommends among others that as much as practicable, dust bins should be provided in designated places in the campus, which are expected to be collected daily for final disposal.
208 Transesterification of Cotton Seed Oil to Biodiesel using Nanoparticles of Bentonite Clay Catalysed Reaction , Philip Shallsuku
This work focuses on optimizing various process parameters involved in transesterification of cotton seed oil to biodiesel by bentonite clay catalyzed reaction. The various process paramaters studied include temperature, oil to alcohol ratio, reaction time and amount of catalyst to improve the yield of biodiesel. The various properties of biodiesel produced such as calorific value, Cetane index, flash point and pour point were determined. The aim of applying nano-catalysis in the present project is to produce catalysts with improved selectivity, extremely high activity, low energy consumption, and long lifetime. This can be achieved only by precisely controlling the size, shape, spatial distribution, surface composition and electronic structure, and thermal and chemical stability of the individual nano-components. Cotton seed oil is extracted from the seeds of cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum, G. barbadense and G. hirsutum) and other related species of Gossypium. Current production technology for the extraction of cotton seed oil generally relies on crushing with solvent extraction. The clay used in this work is calcium bentonite clay from North-eastern Nigeria. The biodiesel produced is characterized using FT-IR spectral analysis and GC-MS analysis to ascertain the various functional groups and compounds present. The major finding is that genotype differences in characteristics of cotton seed oil exist under field conditions. Highest oil content and amount of tocopherol is obtained from Funtua, while the highest oleic and linoleic acid content is found in Zaria and Funtua cotton species respectively. It is desirable to use non-edible oils, particularly those which can be grown on non-fertile or waste lands unfit for growing food crops. This will help in not only utilization of waste land but also create jobs for the rural poor.
209 Trace Elements in Soil of Farming Communities of Jigawa State, Nigeria , Abubakar, K. S. and Ibrahim Yusuf
The savannah soils especially the ferrallitic and ferruginous types have peculiarities associated with soil color, texture, parent-rock formations that make them unique. Investigation is carried out on trace elements in soil of some farming communities of Jigawa State, Nigeria. The aim is to examine the accurate nutrients removal and replacement, crop production statistics and soil analysis that result will help the producer manage fertilizer applications to grow good crops. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is used to determine five essential elements (Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn) useful in plant nutrition and several others commonly found in association in the soil mineralogy of savannah region of Nigeria. Trace elements concentration determined from the three farming communities’ shows that the soils are acidic. But they are rich in essential elements such as Chlorine, iron, potassium, manganese and magnesium. The three farming communities lack calcium. Therefore, the soils need to be neutralizing by adding lime to it. The farmers need to add fertilizers in order to get a good yield from their farms.
210 Residual Effect of Rice Husk on Soil Properties in Makurdi, Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecology of Nigeria , S. T. Wuese; M. N. Akpem and T. Gerun
This study was carried out as a follow-up research from the 2015 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Makurdi during the 2016 cropping season. The aim was to evaluate the residual effect of rice husk incorporation on the soil chemical properties. It involved the use of an experimental field previously applied with three rates of unburnt and four rates of burnt rice husk as soil amendment and the control, replicated three times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) during the 2015 cropping season. Data was obtained on selected soil chemical and biological properties. They were analysed using standard laboratory procedures. Results indicated that the residual effect of rice husk improved soil chemical and biological properties in the succeeding growing season. It is recommended that burnt rice husk at 2.5 t/ha or 4 t/ha of unburnt rice husk could be applied to improve the soil chemical and organic matter content respectively for increased soil fertility in the study area.
211 Stakeholders’ Signature to Climate Change Adaptation in the Agrarian Sector of Bui Plateau, Northwest Cameroon , Suiven John Paul Tume and Banlilon Victor Tani
This study on stakeholders’ signature to climate change adaptation in the agrarian sector of Bui Plateau, Northwest Cameroon aims at assessing the vulnerability of agricultural systems to climate variability as well as farmers’ limitations to adaptation. The Bui Plateau is diverse and segmented into seven agrarian basins with diverse stakeholders involved in grappling with changing climatic and environmental problems affecting livelihoods. A total of 597 copies of questionnaire were administered, together with eight (8) focus group discussions and guided interviews with public services and community based organisations involved in climate change mitigation. Consequently, the findings reveal among others that there is no strategy on how to address adaptation in the long-term and that importance is given more ‘misplaced priorities’ like office functionality, communication, out of station allowances and other financial benefits, while, there are little or no budgetary allocations for pressing environmental problems distressing the masses. These leave poor rural farmers at the mercy of the whims and caprices of climate and environmental changes. Hence, there is need for concerted efforts and commitment at the local level to address the immediate needs of inhabitants by the local and national governments.
212 Relationship between Forest Structure and Soil Properties in Bagale Forest Reserve in North Eastern Nigeria , J. E. Omijeh and I. O. Tella
An extensive soil survey with assessment of growth and yield of trees in Bagale forest Reserve in North East Nigeria is conducted. Five fragments within five altitudes are selected using LANDSAT ETM+ satellite imagery from Google earth. Composite soil samples are collected from 0-20cm and 20-40cm depths in the fragments and their physico-chemical analysis is done in the laboratory. Height, DBH, Volume, Basal area and crown area of trees are assessed in the quadrats, and laid in the fragments. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, correlation matrix are derived from the relationship between soil properties and forest structure. At both, surface and sub-surface depths, negative relationships are recorded between forest structure and soil physical and chemical properties. Based on the in-depth analysis of the study, it is therefore, concluded that salinization is not a significant pedogenic process in the soil and the soil does not contain a concentration of soluble salt that may hamper the growth of plant.
213 Development and Utilization of Mobile Cassava Grating Machines in Nigeria , V. E. Aideloje; H. A. Okwudibe; A. Z. Jimoh and B. B. Olawepo
Garri and starch are staple food in Africa and Nigeria in particular, these and other numerous foods are by products of cassava. With the continued demand for these by products, the need to fabricate machines for easy grating of cassava becomes inevitable. A mobile cassava grating machine is designed, fabricated using locally sourced material and tested to determine its output capacity. The current design is an improvement to the other designs. It consists of a hopper unit, the grating drum and the delivery channel; it also consists of tyres for easy mobility. All these components are assembled on a frame made from angle bars. The machine is mechanically powered; the grating drum is also made of metallic cylinder that carries a perforated plate which served as the grater. The machine cost N42,000.00 to produce, with an output capacity of 55.79 kg/hr. The machine is economically affordable and used for both house hold and industrial purposes.