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1 Comparative Analysis of Morphological Characteristics of Goalkeepers in Football and Handball (Pg. 5-9), Dragan Milanovic1, Dinko Vuleta1, Antonio Sisic1 1Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
The goal of this research was to determine differences between top football and handball goalkeepers in morphological characteristics. The sample consisted of 10-13 handball and 7-10 football top senior goalkeepers. Morphological characteristics were assessed using a battery of 12 anthropometrical variables – 4 variables for the assessment of longitudinal skeletal dimensionality, 4 for subcutaneous adipose tissue, and 4 for body voluminosity. The standard central and dispersion parameters were calculated for all the variables. The significance of differences between football and handball goalkeepers in the measured morphological characteristics were determined by t-test for independent samples. It was determined that the handball and football goalkeepers differ in the following variables: arm span (ALRR), back skinfold (ANL), upper arm skinfold (ANNAD), abdomen skinfold (ANT), right thigh circumference (AVONATD), waist circumference (AVOT), and body mass (AVTT). The football goalkeepers had lower values in longitudinal skeletal dimensionality, subcutaneous adipose tissue and body voluminosity.
2 Predictors Affecting the Ranking in Women Armwrestling Competition, Selçuk Akp?nar1, Raif Zileli2, Emre ?enyüzlü2, Seydi A. Tunca3 1Nev?ehir University, Faculty of Education, Physical Education and Sport Department, Nev?ehir, Turkey 2Bilecik ?eyh Edabali University, Physical Education and Sport Department, Bilecik, Turkey 3Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Ankara, Turkey
The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors contributing to be in the first three places with right arm in women armwrestling. Thirty-one female senior armwrestlers competed in Turkish National Championship voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected from six different weight classes. Handgrip strength, auditory reaction time, forearm length, and forearm circumference were determined as the predictors. All the measurements were taken after weigh-ins had been done and before the first day of national championship competition. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict whether a competitor in women armwrestling would be in the first three places with right arm, to be a winner or non-winner. Relative handgrip strength and forearm length were found significant predictors (p < .05). This result suggests that strength can be viewed as the main predictor in right arm ranking for women competitors; however, in order to apply different techniques during the match, forearm length also found to be an effective factor to be a winner. Thus, this anthropometric measurement can be used for the talent identification for women armwrestlers.
3 The Influence of Basketball on the Asymmetry in the Use of Limbs, Aleksandar Cvorovic1 1Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia
The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of young players with the rank of at least four years experience in basketball training, while the second group consists of members of the healthy school population, but with no experience in the continuous training of basketball. The study tested the explosive power of the lower and upper limbs, and the reaction time and agility in the lower limbs. Statistical analysis of results showed significant differences in certain tests between groups and within groups, both among the upper and lower extremities. It can be concluded that basketball as a specific sporting activity has positive influence on the development of the tested variables, while the level of asymmetry at basketball player is less than in the non-basketball population.
4 Effects of Internal, External and Preference of Attentional Focus Feedback Instructions on Learning Soccer “Head Kick”, Bülent Okan Miçoo?ullar?1, Sadettin Kirazc?1, Ömür Serdal Altunsöz2 1Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Education, Physical Education and Sport Department, Ankara, Turkey 2Turkish Football Federation, Analyze and Performance Department, ?stanbul, Turkey
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of feedback on learning soccer “head kick” of female adolescent. Novices performed head kick during two practice days [one week apart) for two weeks using either internal or external preference attentional focusing instructions. There was also a preference group who choosen their feedback type themselves. Internal focus feedback related with body movements, whereas external focus feedback related with movement effects. The subjects (N=64) were randomly assigned to three groups internal focus feedback group (IFF) (N=15), external focus feedback group (EFF) (N=15) and preference group (PF) (N=34). To promote learning two skill acquisition days for two weeks and one retention day was applied at initial day of third week. Technique of the skill was measured in acquisition days and targeting was measured in retention day. In technique measuring part, EFF group was significantly more accurate than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF). Similar to acquisition phase, EFF group was significantly more successfull than IFF group, PF group was better than those two groups (PF>EFF>IFF )in retention phase. Acquisition and retention phase results indicated significance main effect for attentional focus feedback groups. This study results’ indicated that external focus feedback was more effective than internal focus feedback in terms of acquisition and retention of learning soccer head kick for students with limited amount of knowledge about this skill. This study also indicated that not only the source of attention but also control over to source of attention of preference was an important factor in the amount of retention.
5 Report of the 9th International Scientific Conference on Transformation Processes in Sport “Sports Performance”, Stevo Popovic1, Dobrislav Vujovic1 1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikši?, Montenegro
The article discusses the highlights of the 9th International Scientific Conference on Transformation Processes in Sport "Sports Performance", which was held in Herceg Novi, Montenegro. The event comprised three sessions, namely Top Level Performance, Theory and Practice in the School Sports, and Science of Various Sports Disciplines. One of the opening speeches was given by professor Sanja Vlahovic, Minister of Science in Montenegro.
6 Comparison of Instep Kicking Between Preferred and Non-Preferred Leg in Young Football Players, Dusko Bjelica1, Stevo Popovic1, Jovica Petkovic1 1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikši?, Montenegro
This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about important differences with respect to compare accuracy of instep kicking between preferred and non-preferred leg depending on the different intensity (optimal and maximal) in a resting state, and in a state of fatigue. The sample included 20 respondents whose characteristics were age (yrs) 16.7±0.47, height (cm) 178.91±4.26, and body weight (kg) 71.52±5.13. The sample of variables contained eight measures that defined accuracy of instep kicking by preferred and non-preferred leg in various occasions: with optimal and maximal intensities and in a resting state and a state of fatigue respectively. The results of the measuring were analyzed by means of a statistical procedure labeled a significance test of two arithmetic means conducted on independent samples or popularly known a t-test. In comparison of accuracy between preferred and non-preferred leg in a resting state with optimal and maximal intensity, as it was expected there were significant differences as well as in a state of fatigue with optimal intensity, all in favor of preferred leg. While the football instep kicking significant differences between preferred and non-preferred leg in a state of fatigue with maximal intensity were not noticable. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the young football players have much more uniformed legs at the expense of accuracy when fatigued and kick the ball with the maximal intensity. It means a state of fatigue can affect the tested accuracy of instep kicking with the maximal intensity.
7 Metric Characteristics of One Battery of Motoric Measuring Instruments, Damjan Jaksic1, Radenko Matic1, Milan Cvetkovic1 1Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
The paper at hand presents the results of research, which is carried out on 161 male students of Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. System of 11 composite measuring instruments was applied on them and each of tests had three replications. Analysis of metric characteristics was done on two ways: in real and in Guttman’s image space. Finally, it could be concluded that battery of motor measure instruments is absolutely appropriate for this sample of participants and also that it will be very useful to check all these outcomes with some of advanced statistical techniques in further investigations.
8 Evaluation of Behaviour to Pain Measures in Athletes - A Correlative Analysis, Praveen Kumar1, Jaspal Singh Sandhu1, Shweta Shenoy1 1Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Sports Medicine & Physiotherapy, Amritsar, India
Research suggests that pain affects behaviour of the athletes, assessment of behaviour when in pain reveals that pain has influenced athletes’ measurable response when they get injured in their course of play. The objectives of the study were to find and analyse correlation of pain behaviour measures in contact and non-contact sports. The study has been conducted using Vienna Testing System (VTS) Questionnaire for Evaluating Pain Behaviour- FSV on four hundred and eighty one (n=481) subjects that included both male and female athletes who had a history of injury in the past but not suffering from any acute injuries. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between variables in both covariate and partial correlation analysis. We conclude that higher avoidance score predicts a lower activity score regardless of cognitive control and social support in FSV scale.
9 Osgood Schlatter’s disease - A burst in young football players, Marcio Domingues1 1University of Coimbra, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Department of Youth Studies, Coimbra, Portugal
Football is the most popular sport in the world. Like any contact sport it is susceptible to various kinds of injuries. It is referred the link between methodology of training and the prevention of overuse injuries in youth as it relates to maladaptive sport programs. There is an increasing awareness to growth related conditions and the relation of musculoskeletal development and the onset of youth related conditions. This article examines one specific injury sustained by children and adolescents who play football, Osgood Schlatter disease, and the main mechanisms whereby such injury occur. The aethology is complex and the risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.
10 Overuse Knee Injuries in Athletes, Miroslav Kezunovic1 1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikši?, Montenegro
According to many statistics over 55% of all sports-related injuries are incurred in the knee joint (active sportsmen and recreationists). The statistics definitely differ, depending on type of sport and specific movements habitually performed in a particular sport. Therefore, in addition to acute knee injuries overuse syndromes are common in the knee area also due to specificities of patellofemoral joint just because specific diseases like „jumper's knee“ and „runner's knee“ are related to certain sport activities. Generally speaking, these syndromes occur due to poor orientation of the knee extensor mechanism, i.e. friction of iliotibial band and patellofemoral chondromalacia. It is believed that about 45% of all overuse syndromes in the knee area occur as a result of running.
11 Theoretical Issues and Methodological Implications in Researching Visual Search Behaviours: A Preliminary Study Comparing the Cognitive and Ecologic Paradigms, José Afonso1 1University of Porto, Faculty of Sports, Centre of Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Porto, Portugal
A number of research papers have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underpinning successful decision-making in sports, and analysis of eye movements has deserved special attention in this concern. A thorough reading of existing literature denotes that research on ocular fixations requires at least 100 milliseconds within the same location. For average eye-tracking systems, this means using at least three frames for each fixation. However, ecological psychology has claimed that as low as 16.67 milliseconds might suffice to capture relevant information, implying using merely one frame to consider that a fixation has been made. The goal of this experiment was to directly compare two systems (one frame-one fixation versus three frames-one fixation) for coding information concerning eye movements in a representative volleyball task in an in situ condition. Specifically, it was intended to analyse emerging differences and their meaning. Results exhibited statistically significant differences with regard to search rate (number of fixations, number of fixation locations, and mean fixation duration). Analysing fixation locations it was apparent that the ecological paradigm for considering visual fixations afforded supplementary information. Furthermore, the additional emerging cues appeared to be meaningful, and the level of noise introduced was very low. It is suggested that future research in eye movements considers using the one frame-one fixation approach, instead of the traditional three frames-one fixation set.
12 Plasma Growth Hormone and Prolactin Levels in Healthy Sedentary Young Men after Short-Term Endurance Training under Hot Environment, ?brahim Cicioglu1, Fatih Kiyici2 1Gazi University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Ankara, Turkey 2Ataturk University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Erzurum, Turkey
Pituitary hormones play an important role energy expenditure and body temperature regulation during exercise. The aim of the stu¬dy was to investigate the effect of two different endurance training in ambient temperature (30.76 ± 1.71oC and 57.92 ± 5.80% r.h.) on plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels in non-trained healthy subjects. Twenty-four untrained healthy men participated in an 8-wk progressive two different endurance-training program. Subjects were divided into two groups: an in¬ter¬val running group (IR), and continuous running group (CR). Both groups were performed 3 days/wk. Growth hormone, PRL and VO2max levels were assessed at the beginning and the end of the training period. Body temperature (TB) was also measured at the be¬ginning and immediately after each training. The exercise type affected plasma PRL (8.52 vs. 6.50 ng/ml IR and CT groups, P < 0.02) but did not alter plasma GH levels (0.95 vs 0.63 ng/ml IR and CT groups, P>0.38). Plasma GH level at the end of training pro¬gram increased from 0.42 to 1.48 ng/ml and 0.58 to 0.67 ng/ml for IR and CR groups. Expectedly, both training types increased TB, at a greater rate for IR group than CR group. In conclusion, an 8-wk regular exercise result in an increase in plasma PRL level, with¬out altering plasma GH level, which accompanied by elevated body temperature, regardless of the individual’s sporting rou¬ti¬ne. These suggest that untrained individuals could benefit from a regular exercise program as much as those doing the routine sport.
13 Comparison of training and competition opportunities in leisure time among people with intellectual disabilities in selected European countries, Lucie Francova1, Hana Valkova2, Roman Sinkovsky1 1University of Pardubice, Department of Physical Education and Sport, Czech Republic 2Palacky University, Faculty of Physical Culture, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Leisure time activities are important for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) Table tennis (TT) seems to be the most suitable and accessible activity in relation to motor skills and low financial requirements. The aim of the project was to investigate the opportunities for the TT training and competition among individuals with ID in the following European countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, England, and Hungary. Those countries regularly participate in international TT events organized by Inas. The coaches of the mentioned countries were questioned about the TT training process of persons with ID during their leisure time. The survey was completed by 4 coaches (3 male and 1female), who work at various levels (from the lowest level in sports clubs to the top level in national teams) in each country. The research findings showed that all of the surveyed couches practiced trainings frequency two times per week. In addition to national games, all the countries organize competitions at regional levels and par¬ti¬ci¬pa¬te in international events. The data reveal that training camps lasting from 5 to 14 days per year are organized in all the sur¬veyed countries. The survey found certain training options, which correspond more to the standard of the recreational sport than to the standard of the top-level sport. A positive finding was the possibility of training with the intact population, which may be con¬si¬de¬red as an important phenomenon of social inclusion.
14 Qualitative and Hierarchical Analysis of Protective Factors against Illicit Use of Doping Substances in Athletes Calling a National Anti-Doping Phone-Help Service, Sara A. Mohamed1, Jean Bilard2, Denis Hauw1 1University of Lausanne, Institute of Sport Sciences, Grissul, Switzerland 2University of Montpellier, Epsylon, France
Evidence of a sport-specific hierarchy of protective factors against doping would thus be a powerful aid in adapting information and prevention campaigns to target the characteristics of specific athlete groups, and especially those athletes most vulnerable for doping control. The contents of phone calls to a free and anonymous national anti-doping service called ‘ecoute dopage’ were analysed (192 bodybuilders, 124 cyclists and 44 footballers). The results showed that the protective factors that emerged from analysis could be categorised into two groups. The first comprised ‘Health concerns’, ‘Respect for the law’ and ‘Doping controls from the environment’ and the second comprised ‘Doubts about the effectiveness of illicit products, ‘Thinking skills’ and ‘Doubts about doctors’. The ranking of the factors for the cyclists differed from that of the other athletes. The ordering of factors was 1) respect for the law, 2) doping controls from the environment, 3) health concerns 4) doubts about doctors, and 5) doubts about the effectiveness illicit products. The results are analysed in terms of the ranking in each athlete group and the consequences on the athletes’ experience and relationship to doping. Specific prevention campaigns are proposed to limit doping behaviour in general and for each sport.
15 Future of Alpine Skiing Schools-gender related programs, Vjekoslav Cigrovski1, Nikola Prlenda1, Ivan Radman2 1University of Zagreb, Faculty of Kinesiology, Department of Kinesiology of Sports, Zagreb, Croatia 2University of Vienna, Institute of Sport Science, Department of Exercise Physiology, Vienna, Austria
Gender differences in anthropological characteristics may influence success in adopting skiing skill if different teaching met¬hods are applied. This study aimed to determine the difference between the level of adopted skiing skill for female and male ski-be¬gin¬ners applying 2 different teaching programs. 126 subjects (30 females; 96 males), average age 23,3±1,6 years participated in 7 days ski-school. Within the male and female group ski-teaching was carried out using 2 different methods: combination method [CM], which implies using of snowplough and parallel ski technique, and direct method [DM], where only parallel ski technique is used. Following the learning process, subjects were tested through 7 elements of skiing technique. For female subjects no diffe¬ren¬ce between two teaching models was recorded, while CM appeared to be more efficient for males in elements traversing to the right (p=0,03), short turn (p
16 The Coaching Process in Football – A qualitative perspective, Hugo Sarmento1, Antonino Pereira2, Maria T. Anguera3, Jorge Campaniço4, José Leitão4 1Department of Sport Sciences and Motricity, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal 2Department of Sport Sciences and Motricity, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Viseu, Portugal 3Department of Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain 4Department of Sport Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
This study aims to understand what the coaches observe in the game, and how they evaluate and make their intervention based on this observation. The participants were 8 experienced First Portuguese League coaches. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and the data were analysed through the technique of content analysis. The software QSR NVivo 9 was used in coding the transcripts of the interviews. According to these coaches to effectively observe and analyze the game it is crucial to have a detailed knowledge of the game and of the individual characteristics of players. They consider that the most important aspects to observe in the game are: i) the 4 moments of the game; ii) set pieces; iv) individual characteristics of players; v) random aspects of the game. Coaches have the perception that over the years their observation has become more effective and they value different aspects in the game. They consider that the factors responsible for the evolution of their observations are: i) the accumulated experience; ii) a better knowledge of the game; iii) the academic formation. These coaches evaluate the teams in a general way focusing mainly on strengths and weaknesses and they follow a specific logic of prioritization for the evaluation of these aspects that is based mainly, in their model of the game. The intervention is done mainly through the adaptation of the training exercises, but also through visual strategies (movies, photos, etc.) and meetings (individual, by sector or in group).
17 Effect of Half Time Cooling on Thermoregulatory Responses and Soccer-Specific Performance Tests, Yang Zhang1, Svetlana Nepocatych1, Charlie P. Katica1, Annie B. Collins1, Catalina Casaru1, Gytis Balilionis1, Jesper Sjökvist2, Phillip A. Bishop1 1The University of Alabama, Department of Kinesiology, Tuscaloosa, USA 2The Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden
This study examined two active coolings (forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling) during a simulated half-time recovery on thermoregulatory responses and subsequent soccer-specific exercise performance. Following a 45-min treadmill run in the heat, participants (N=7) undertook 15-min recovery with either passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, or neck cooling in a simulated cooled locker room environment. After the recovery, participants performed a 6×15-m sprint test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test (YYIR1) in a temperate environment. During the 15-min recovery, rectal temperature fell significantly (p
18 Two Aspects of Bias in Multivariate Studies: Mixing Specific with General Concepts and “Comparing Apples and Oranges”, Joško Sindik1 1Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia
This paper presents two types of bias that occur relatively often when using multivariate analysis. For both types of bias, it is characteristic that the number and choice of different types of variables are not balanced by application of clear methodological rules. Following the interpretation of broader theoretical positions, which include "confirmation bias" ( of initial hypothesis) and "mis¬specification bias", a description of two types of bias characteristic of multivariate analysis are given: "mixed-level bias" (in terms of specificity - generality) and "mixed-constructs bias" . Both types of bias further enhance the disparity in the number and ratio of different types of variables in the same multivariate analysis. Details of situations, when these two types of bias appear, are presented and displayed in four different examples. Several strategies are proposed as to how these types of bias can try to be avoided, during the preparation of studies, during the statistical analyses and their interpretation.
19 Do Significant Achievements of National Football Team Can Strengthen National Identity in Montenegro?, Stevo Popovic1, Dusko Bjelica1 1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikši?, Montenegro
Although most of Montenegro’s population adore football and support national football team, strong ethnic bigotry still exists. It is interesting to compare the results of 1981 and 2011 census. There were 44.98% of ethic Montenegrins in 2011, 28.73% of Serbs, and 8.65% of Bosnians; while the population living in same area in 1981 numbered 68.54% of ethnic Montenegrins and 3.32% Serbs, while ‘Bosnians’ did not exist as a category at that time; they were referred to according to their religion, i.e. “Muslims”. Obviously, these differences were not caused by some great migrations, as it might seem at first sight, but it is the result of the ideological sentiments of a number of citizens of Montenegro, who changed beliefs during the difficult and turbulent time of the 1990s. The variations of their ethnicities are the outcome of the ideological concepts and their religious affiliations, mostly due to the reason that most of them experienced the collapse of the Yugoslav national identity and still looking for their self. Hence, a main goal of this study is to recommend that significant achievements of national football team can strengthen national identity and enhance peaceful coexistence between various ethnic groups in multi-cultural society such as Montenegro.
20 Effect of Egg White Protein Supplementation Prior to Acute Resistance Training on Muscle Damage Indices in Untrained Japanese Men, Yuko Hasegawa1, Yuko Mekata2, Ayaka Sunami3, Yuri Yokoyama3, Takahiro Yoshizaki3, Maya Hagiwara1, Kae Yanagisawa4, Mika Usuda5, Yasunobu Masuda8, Yukari Kawano1 1Tokyo University of Agriculture, Department of Nutritional Science, Tokyo, Japan 2Bunkyo University, Department of Registered Dietitians, Chigasaki, Japan 3Tokyo University of Agriculture, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Tokyo, Japan 4Sagami Women's University, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Sagamihara, Japan 5Kewpie Corporation, Research & Development Division, Tokyo, Japan
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of egg white (E) protein supplementation on the muscle damage indices and muscular soreness after acute resistance training (RT) compared with soy (S) or no protein supplementation (C). In this cross-over study, six healthy untrained men completed three RT trials. Participants were asked to consume a meat-free diet and refrain from high-intensity activities during all trial periods. On the day of RT, participants ingested one of three test beverages containing water only or water containing either 20 g of E or S protein 1.5 hours after breakfast, then performed 60 minutes of RT. Blood was drawn at baseline, before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after RT to assess blood glucose, lactate, insulin, growth hormone (GH), creatine kinase activity (CK) and cortisol levels. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-MetHis), urea nitrogen (UN), and creatinine (CRE) were measured using 24-h urine samples, and muscular soreness was measured by a visual analog scale. The daily protein intake was approximately 0.8 g/kg body weight in all three groups. Each lactate, GH, CK, cortisol, 3-MetHis, or muscular soreness increased significantly after RT, with no significant differences between the three groups. The UN was significantly higher in the E and S groups compared to the C group. The RT exercise protocol successfully induced blood biochemical changes, muscle damage or muscle soreness in all three groups with no significant differences, and pre-exercise protein supplementation taken in excess may accelerate protein catabolism.
21 Comparison of the Anaerobic Power of Brazilian Professional Football Players Grouped by Tactical Position, Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos1, Caio Victor de Sousa2, Rafael Reis Olher2, Ivo Vieira de Sousa Neto2, Lilian Alves Pereira2, Marcelo Magalhães Sales3 1University of Brasilia, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brasília, Brazil 2Catholic University of Brasília, Graduate Programme of Physical Education, Taguatinga, Brazil 3Catholic University of Brasília, Graduate Programme of Physical Education, Taguatinga, Brazil; UDF Centro Universitário, Health School, Brasília, Brazil
Football is characterized as a predominately aerobic modality, however, during a match; the most important actions performed by the players are in short duration and high intensity. In addition, this sport presents to have some particularities, such as, highlights differences of each tactical position. Thus, this study aimed to compare the anaerobic power of professional football players grouped by different tactical positions. Thirty professional football players separated in three groups, goal¬keep¬ers+fullbacks, sideways+DMF (defensive middlefields) and OMF (offensive middlefields)+forwards, performed two anaerobic po¬wer tests, Running anaerobic sprint test and Sargent jump test Goalkeepers+fullbacks showed higher values of body mass index and absolute anaerobic power (w), using Sargent jump test than the others, but when analyzed the RAST results, this same group presented lower values (p
22 Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Handball and Basketball Players, Aldijana Muratovi?1, Dobrislav Vujovic1, Rasid Hadzic1 1University of Montenegro, Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Nikši?, Montenegro
The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric characteristics and body composition of elite handball and basketball players as well as to make comparisons between them. Fifty-nine males were enrolled in the study, divided into three groups: fifteen handball players, fourteen basketball players and thirty healthy sedentary subjects. The descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD) for each variable, while the ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to detect the effects of each type of sport. The results showed there was no significant difference in body mass index among the groups, while a significant difference was found for body height and body weight as well as for all three of the body contents measured (muscle, bone and fat) among the groups. These findings may give coaches from the region better working knowledge and suggest to them to follow recent selection process methods and to be more careful during the recruitment.
23 Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo, Joško Sindik1, Dina Renduli?2, Sanda ?orak3, Ana Perini? Lewis1 1Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia 2Kindergarten Masla?ak, Zapreši?, Croatia 3Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Croatia
This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors) or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations) can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.
24 Why Left-handers/footers are overrepresented in some sports?, Selçuk Akp?nar1, Bilal Bicer2 1Nev?ehir Hac? Bekta? Veli University, Faculty of Education, Department of Physical Education and Sport Education, Nev?ehir, Turkey 2Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Hatay, Turkey
Left-handers/footers are found with disproportionately more frequency in many interactive sports compared to the general po¬pu¬lation. In ?order to point out this issue, we firstly mentioned about handedness in general and secondly the origin of handedness. Ba¬sed on the studies in the literature, we then gave examples about the anatomical correlation of handedness. Finally, some expla¬na¬tions were provided to explain the higher rate of lefties in some sports compared to the general population. Regarding the last issue, researchers stated that there are mainly two possible hypotheses to explain this phenomenon; innate superiority and negative fre¬quency hypothesis. Besides those hypotheses, we should also consider that there is a need to have left handed/footed players in so¬me sports to get more tactical advantages. We tried to give some examples regarding those ideas. The studies in the literature sta¬te that left handed/footed players, in fact, have both tactical and perceptual advantages in some interactive sports and thus, over¬represented in those sports compared to the general population.