1 Credit Risk Management Assessment as an Operational Strategy in the Ghanaian Banking Sector: Empirical Evidence   , Article by Joshua Akanyonge Management, Texila American University E-mail: joshua.akanyonge@regent.edu.gh
Banks are very important in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). They provide financial support to enterprises to increase production and boost economic development. It is necessary for banks to be engaged in profitable activities and also have the ability to grow and survive in the industry. Sustaining growth and survival of banks in Ghana requires efficient strategic, tactical and operational management of credit risk in the banking sector. Credit risk has the potential to negatively affect the survival of banks. The study set out to assess the credit risk management strategy in the banking sector using Cal Bank Limited as a case study. Extensive literature on credit risk management was reviewed. Quantitative approach was used in the study. Data was collected from 4 Cal Bank branches (Graphic Road, Achimota, Derby Avenue and Ring Road Central) in Accra using likert scale questionnaires and open-ended questionnaires and the data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The study indicated that the banks have credit risk management procedures in place. The respondents indicated that credit risk management is an important strategic management tool employed by banks. However, risk assessments are not frequently carried out and qualified personnel to carry out effective risk monitoring are inadequate. Keywords: Management Information System Market Line (ML), Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
2 The Prevention of HIV Infections in South Africa Focusing on Attitude and Behaviour , Article by Imisani Simon Sirunwa Texila American University and Polokwane Welfare Complex, Limpopo Province, South Africa E-mail: issirunwa@webmail.co.za
The prevalence of Aids in South Africa has pushed us to painting a picture of a “friendly HIV/Aids”, and thus eliminated the fear that is crucially necessary. Socially (practically) South Africans are more exposed to Aids than to condoms (and other preventions). Condoms are plenty but we are shy. We are shy to talk about them, we are shy to get them, and we are shy to use them. This may be because there are stigmas attached to them, greater than those attached to Aids itself. Psychologically we are more exposed to Treatment than the reality of the virus and its effects. When we imagine ourselves being infected, the first thing that comes to our minds is the taking of treatment rather than suffering and "the possibility of death". So, there is more comfort towards Aids than prevention because treatment is regarded as the worst consequence. We have become numb to the true danger of Aids. If we start showing people reality, we can change the status quo. Aids is manageable but it is intensive, which is similar to smoking and secondary smoking. We need to show graphics of this killer. It will take real fear for people to be really careful. We should not allow the next entire generation to also be vulnerable to this disease by the superfluous shielding of the dignity of those who are already infected. This can be done within the confines of our National Health Act and without compromising human rights. Activists need to make this sacrifice for our future. A lot of people don’t know what AIDS really is. They have never seen the extremes of it and the cruelty it has. No one is openly and publicly telling the true personal pain of living with AIDS but everybody is talking about treatment and survival. If we attach fear to our prevention efforts, we can save millions of people and South African Rands.'   Keywords: AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the name of the fatal clinical condition that results from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which progressively damages the body's ability to protect itself from disease organisms.
3 The Viability of a Crop Insurance Scheme; A Case Study - Guyana , Article by Parmeshwar Irshad Budhu E-mail: parmeshwarbudhu@yahoo.com
Guyana is a developing tropical country on the Atlantic coast of South America and a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Guyana has a land mass of 214,970 sq. km and the current estimated population is 772,298 with approximately 90% living on the coastal land of the country. This is a narrow strip of land which constitutes only 10% of the total land mass, but provided 90% of its cultivation land. Guyana ‘s coastal plain is below sea level and its muddy and clay soil texture makes it ideal for rice cultivation. The cultivation and export of sugar, rice along with gold, bauxite, shrimp and timber contributes to the country approximately 60% of its Gross Domestic Product. Guyana has two major rainy seasons per year- May to August and November to January, which can result in overflow of rivers causing the agriculture sector to suffer losses mainly from flooding, especially flash floods. This research aims to investigate the viability of a crop insurance scheme in Guyana. This is because the current system by the government to provide relief to farmers affected by crop failure for whatever reason is not sufficient to compensate them for full extent of the losses suffered. Current data obtained Windward Island Crop Insurance Limited suggest that there are crop insurance in other CARICOM countries providing significant assistance to farmers especially in the Windward Islands which are prone to hurricane of increasing magnitude. Keywords: Crop Insurance, Government Aid & Windward Island Crop Insurance Limited.
4 Marketing Education: A Critical Factor in Reducing Unemployment and Entrepreneurship Failure in Developing Economies , Article by Omojola, T. R Department of Business Education, College of Education, Ikere, Ekiti E-mail: toluomojola@yahoo.com
Due to the increasing rate of unemployment among the youth, especially school graduates in many countries of the world (both developing and developed) and its resultant negative effects on the society, many countries now emphasize entrepreneurship training for their citizen as a means of reducing the unemployment problem. This is laudable especially for developing countries with high population but low level of industrialization. However, encouraging people to acquire vocational or technical skills in order to establish their own business can only provide permanent solution to unemployment if the entrepreneurs are well equipped with marketing skills to make their business relevant for a long period of time rather than a short period as statistics have shown that as high as 80% of small business fail during their first five years. The high rate of business failure would only compound the unemployment situation rather than solve it. Although there are many reasons why these businesses fail, but the writer is of the opinion that inadequate market research and planning resulting from little knowledge of marketing by business owners is mainly responsible for the failure of their businesses. This paper therefore discusses the meaning, functions, and importance of marketing in a business organization and recommends comprehensive marketing training for potential and current entrepreneurs as this is believed to be capable of reducing business failure greatly. Keywords: unemployment, Entrepreneurship, Vocational/Technical Skills, Marketing, Business failure.
5 Enhancing the Inclusion of Small and Medium Enterprises into the Global Value Chain through Upgrading Support in the Mining Sector in Zambia , Article by Peter Kanyinji1, Gelson Tembo2 1Cavendish University Zambia 2 University of Zambia E-mail: peterkanyinji@yahoo.com  
The use of the global value chain approach is becoming the vogue as a poverty reduction strategy in the word today. This approach requires participants to upgrade and meet international requirements. Unfortunately, Zambia has not been active in its development plans to use this approach which links small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to the value chain activities. The main objective was to determine the effect of upgrading support from NGOs, Government and Private Mining companies on SME inclusion in the mining global value chain. The relevant global value chain literature was reviewed to give insight on how upgrading support enhances SME inclusion. A random sampling was conducted among the SMEs from the mining area to determine whether government policy support, NGO support and private mining support help SMEs upgrade to meet international requirements. The findings show that SMEs do not receive enough support from government and mining companies to upgrade despite the presence of government agencies and mining supplier development programme but from NGOs. The study recommends that government must form a mining commission of Zambia to implement SME policy support programmes, mining companies must create the Supplier Development Working Group to implement SME support programmes and NGOs must partner with the government and the mines to improve SME competitiveness and enable them to be included in the mining global value chain to supply and earn sustainable income. Keywords: Inclusion in the mining global value chain, Mining Global Value chain, Upgrading support of SMEs.
6 Role of Public Capital Inflows in Financial Inclusion in Uganda , Benson Benedict Okech, Godfrey Akileng, Rheeta Marjery
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of public capital inflows in financial inclusion in Uganda. Financial inclusion was measured using three dimensions (access, usage and quality). Whereas public capital inflows where measured using three proxies of loans, grants and donations. The study anchored on financial intermediation theory. The target population was public organisations that have received public capital in Uganda. The study used data collected from Bank of Uganda and Ugandan investment Authority, Ministry of Finance for the period 2012-2016. A cross sectional descriptive designs were used while data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate Logistics regression analysis. It was found that public capital inflows did not play any role in promoting financial inclusion in Uganda. From the findings the study concluded that loans contributed 89% of public capital while grants contributed 11%. The study recommends that government particularly Bank of Uganda, Ministry of Finance and Uganda Investment Authority to formulate policies to ensure loans are reduced and parliament through its oversight role should ensure this happens. Further, grants and donations which are sustainable and stable sources of inflows should be deepened and widen by ensuring that adequate accountabilities for grants are done. Keywords: Public Capital, Financial Inclusion, Inflows, Uganda.
7 Prospects of Introducing Modern Technology into SME Businesses in Ghana , Article by Philip Spitta Ansah
The prospects of introducing modern technology into the operations of Cottage and Small industries has been the focus of most governments in emerging markets due to the enormous benefits it accrues to the economy of nations. The study is aimed at determining the strengths and opportunities linked with introducing modern technology into these local industries. The findings and recommendations of the study will go a long way in identifying the vast prospects of economic benefit to the government and also to the other stakeholders involved. The problem of youth unemployment can be reduced by the introduction of modern technology in the cottage industry as discovered during the study. It is also envisaged that the study will also have some impact when it comes to enriching the body of knowledge on the subject of technology management introduction into cottage and small-scale enterprise businesses in Ghana. The study found out that, prospects for introducing modern technology in the cottage industries are very bright considering that a lot more output could be achieved to bring in more income to cottage groups like weavers, palm oil producers, Shea butter producers, soap and other beauty products producers etc. than the existing traditional methods. It also came out during the study that it is unlikely that the existing small cottage owners/workers would be able to fund the equipments needed for a smooth integration of technology into their businesses. The study concluded that the introduction of modern technology into the cottage industry business is likely to enhance the fortune of the industry as well as create more jobs and therefore stakeholders should liaise with the appropriate authorities including the Trade & Industry ministry and Employment & Social welfare ministry to ensure that the necessary structures have been put in place to enhance the smooth integration of modern technology into SME industry in Ghana. Keywords: Cottage industry, Technology management, Prospects, Small industries, innovation.
8 Assessing the Type of Advertising Influencing Consumers’ Behaviour of Telecommunications Firms in Ghana: A Case Study of MTN Ghana , Article by Ibrahim Ofosu-Boateng
The purpose of the study was to assess the type of advertising influencing consumers’ behaviour to respond to offerings of MTN Ghana. The study adopted the survey design. Convenient sampling technique was used to gather data from a sample of 124 customers of MTN Ghana in Accra and Kumasi using a structured interview guide and data analyses carried out using SPSS version 20. The findings of the study reveal a steady growth of advertising of MTN Ghana. At another level, the study shows broadcast advertising ranked 1st, outdoor advertising ranked 2nd, print advertising ranked 3rd, public service advertising ranked 4th and celebrity advertising ranked 5th as the type of advertising employed by MTN Ghana to influencing consumers’ behaviour to respond to the company’s offerings. Based on the findings, the study recommends MTN Ghana to consider fostering strong laden-relationships with consumers to retain them. Also, the study recommends MTN Ghana strengthening the use of broadcast, outdoor and print advertising since they contribute significantly to influencing consumers’ behavior to respond to the company’s offerings. Notwithstanding, public service and celebrity advertising should not be ignored since they also contribute to influencing consumer behaviour to respond to the company’s offerings. Keywords: advertising and consumer behavior.
9 Extending Ghana’s Pension Scheme to the Informal Sector for Small and Micro Business Operators within Accra Business District: Challenge and Prospects , Article by Victor Baah Danquah
The study examines the challenges and prospects for extending Ghana’s Pension Scheme to the Informal sector for small and micro business operators within the Accra business district. Information for addressing the objectives of the study comes from small business operators as well as officials of the Ghana’s Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT). Systematic Random Sampling technique has been employed in selecting small business operator’s respondents while purposive sampling technique was used in targeting relevant SSNIT officials for their views on the study. Both interview guide and the questionnaire technique have been used as research instruments while statistical package for social studies (SPSS) has been employed to assist with data analysis. Constraints put forward by the small business operators which have the potential of kicking against their integration into the pension scheme ranged from their low income which will breach regular monthly contribution, frequent prosecution of contribution defaulters, relatively small returns (sometimes less than 10%) on SSNIT investments and the apparent high operating cost of SSNIT. The study further found out that upon membership, small business operator will have access to housing schemes, enjoy monthly pension income after retirement, access first class medical attention and also make good friends of common interest when they join the well-organized Pension Associations. The study recommends to SSNIT to streamline its operations in respect of doing away with contribution default prosecutions, high penalty levies as well as create alternate convenient channels for receiving periodic contributions. This way the Trust will appear attractive and pension friendly for a good number of small and micro business operators to join with their employees.
10 Assessing the Effects of Pricing Strategies on Sales Performance of Street Hawkers in Ghana , Article by Ibrahim Ofosu-Boateng
The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of pricing strategies on sales performance of street hawkers in Ghana. The study adopted the survey design. Data were gathered from a purposively selected sample of 198 traders at their hawking sites using a structured interview guide and data analyses carried out using SPSS version 20. The findings of the study reveal product bundle pricing and psychological pricing strategies used by hawkers. The majority of the hawkers have not been able to increase performance. It is recommended that the hawkers should be educated on the various pricing strategies available and when to apply them. Products which add value and satisfy the needs of consumers should be encouraged. Keywords: Hawking, pricing strategies, sales performance.
11 Yield Analysis and Adaptation for Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT) and Non-Bacillus Thuringiensis (BT) Cotton Varieties in the Kingdom of Eswatini , Article by Daniel Khumalo
Cotton in Eswatini contributes 2.1 % of the country’s Gross Domestic Product owing to low cotton yield due to high pest pressure. Eswatini farmers grow Alba QM 301 a conventional non Bt variety which is affected by bollworm. Cotton is no longer profitable and farmers are quitting the industry, yet it is the only source of livelihood in drought prone areas of Eswatini. Countries like India and South Africa have replaced conventional cotton with high yielding Bt or genetically modified cotton. The study analyses yield and adaptation of Bt cotton under rain fed condition. Bt cotton hybrid was evaluated under field condition for adaptation and yield performance in 2016 and 2017 season. Two Bt cotton varieties JKCH 1947 Bt and JKCH 1050 Bt were tested against the local variety Alba Plus QM 301 and JKC 724 both Non Bt (NBt). JKCH 1947 recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield per ha of 3070 kg/ha on the first year. It was closely followed by JKCH 1050 with a yields of 2955 kg/ha. The number of bolls per plant was also significant higher compared the control. Alba Plus QM 301 and JKC 724 both Non Bt (NBt) recorded the lower yields of 2066 and 821 kg/ha respectively, under the same condition with less number of bolls per plant. Similar observations were recorded on the second year, JKCH1947 and JKCH 1050 recording 1765kg/ha and 1865kg/ha respectively. A similar trend was observed on the number of bolls per plant, higher number of bolls were recorded in JKCH 1050 Bt followed by JKCH 1947 Bt. Alba Plus QM 301 NBt and JKC 724 NBt recorded fewer boll in both years. All varieties showed good adaptability to local environment with good plant stand. Keywords: Bt cotton, rain fed conditions, seed cotton.
12 To Determine the Relationship Between SMEs Growth and their Marketing Activities/Practices: A Case Study of Furniture Industry in Kabwe-Zambia , Article by Ernest Mubita
The way the SMEs have been doing their business has some connections with the capacity to embrace marketing activities that have made some of them to become big companies. The importance of SMEs and their contributions to the national development cannot be ignored and these are in form of job creation, paying taxes and poverty reduction. SMEs enable an entrepreneurial culture to be cultivated in a society. The major problem that this study examined was the relationship between SMEs growth and marketing practices/activities of these SMEs in the furniture industry in Zambia. SMEs have the advantage of being able to use unutilized resources by involving different groups of people such as youth and women and act as an engine to achieve the economic vision of Zambia of being a semi-industrial country by the year 2025. The SMEs that are in the furniture industry are the manufacturers and traders of furniture products in Kabwe, Zambia. The general research problem that the research investigated was to find out the types of marketing activities/practices that the SMEs were using and their effect on the growth of their enterprises. The methodologies applied in this research include a combination of descriptive study (cross-sectional survey) and explanatory embedded literature search and case study. The research findings serve as tools to take actions to stimulate marketing practices of SMEs in Zambia. Some recommendations about the contributions and importance of marketing activities/practices to the SMEs have been made to various sectors of the economy that have some significance influence on the growth of SMEs in Zambia. Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprise, Marketing Activities, Growth, Entrepreneurship, Performance.
13 Nation Building Proposed Topic: “The management of Guava farming to create a more sustainable and productive Jamaican economy” , Article by Zeco Brown
The purpose of this research is to learn the benefits guava farming in the development of the agricultural sector and to a greater extent the Jamaican Economy. Many countries have used guava farming to increase the exports of their local produce. As a government worker in Jamaica that works with the HEART Trust NTA which is the National Training Agency for the Government, I play a major role in Labour market research and working with Agricultural Agencies such the RADA and Agricultural institutions such as Ebony Park Academy which after speaking with farmers at both entities have shown me the potential of Guava farming to boast the nation’s Gross Domestic Product and help the socio-economy of the country. We have used the mix method of collecting data which involves philosophical assumptions that guide the direction of the collection and analysis of data and the mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches in many phases in the research process. As a method, it focuses on collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies.
14 Effects of ICT Incorporation Lapses in the Electoral Process of Cameroon , Article by Edward Veranyuy Ndzenyuy
The undisputable benefits of Technology implementation in the electoral systems of advanced democracies like those of Europe and the United States of America, have been applauded and heralded by the international community. But since the year 2012 when Cameroon set out to incorporate Technology in its electoral processes, the fruits are insignificant as the system is plagued by a fleet of electoral Information and Communication Technology (ICT) challenges. This paper investigates the ICT gaps and their consequences on the electoral outcomes in the country. The findings reveal that a fragile electoral ICT implementation system accounts for the poor sensitization and civic education, inappropriate constituency delimitation, mediocre voter registration, uncertain voter verification and voting, rudimentary vote counting and computation, and unsatisfactory dissemination of elections results in the country. To address these shortcomings, this article proposes a comprehensive ICT-enhanced electoral system that incorporates training elections officers on the techniques of electoral digital technology, procurement of the crucial ICT devices, and setting them up in the respective field branch offices. Keywords: ICT, ELECAM, Technology, Election, E-voting, EMB, Cameroon.
15 Employee Motivation Incentives and Their impact on the Organization's Productivity , Article by Jacqueline Aziri
This article presents literature on employee motivation incentives and evaluates their impact on organizational productivity. The article aims at explicitly highlighting the effect of incentives on different elements that influence organizational productivity. A qualitative analysis of literature was employed to consolidate literature that informed the study. The findings indicate that incentivizing the organization's activities undertaken by human resources helps in improving organizational productivity. The results showed that incentives increase productivity by enhancing the following elements; employee work performance, employee engagement, innovation and creativity, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. This finding will provide useful information to organizations when designing incentive schemes and analysing their functions and general impact. Keywords: Employee motivation, incentives, organizational productivity, motivators.
16 The Impact of Public Sector Barriers on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) Supplying in the Mining Global Value Chain in Zambia. A Case of Selected SMES in the Mines , Article by Peter Kanyinji, Gelson Tembo
The global value chain approach has become a useful strategy to reduce poverty in the mining area by forming linkages among various players. This approach gives an opportunity to all stakeholders to participate in any suitable activity along the value chain. Once SMEs enter the value chain, they supply and earn sustainable income. Unfortunately, the mining value chain in Zambia has become restrictive due to many public sector barriers such as tax, registration, standards, financial and licensing protocols. The main objective was to determine the impact of public sector barriers on SMEs participation in the mining value chain. The global value chain literature focusing on barriers of entry was reviewed to give insight on how these barriers affect SMEs participation. A random sampling was conducted among the SMEs from the mining area to determine the extent to which tax, registration, financial, technology, standards and licensing barriers impact on SME participation in the mining value chain and which barrier ranks highest. The findings show that public sector barriers greatly affect SME inclusion in the mining chains. In the hierarch, registration processes, followed by financial, technology, and tax barriers respectively affect SMEs inclusion. The study concludes that public sector barriers greatly affect SME participation while specifically licensing and standards have a lesser effect. The study recommends a review of government policy and enhance economic empowerment to SMEs for them to participate in selling to the mines. Keywords: Barriers of entry in the mining global value chain, Mining Global Value chain, small and medium enterprises.
17 Factors Undermining the Effectiveness Development of Human resources in Organizations , Article by Jacqueline Aziri
Human resource development is an important function in organizations as it provides the framework to help HR to augment their abilities, knowledge and organizational skills. Implementing HR development initiatives involves undertaking planed and systematic activities which aim to augment the HR skills as a strategy to meet contemporary and future work demands. However, several factors such as; lack of finances, poor employee evaluation, organizational policies, poor change management and leadership, lack of finances, lack of human resource planning, conflicts and disputes undermine the effectives of development of human resources in organizations. Given that HR development is function of HRM, adoption of robust leadership and management to limit the adverse effects of factors that undermine HR development. Keywords: Human resource development, change management, human resource planning.
18 Influence of Demographic Factors on Individual’s Investment Decisions in WA Municipality, the Upper West Region of Ghana , Article by Nestor Naabulee Nasage
Investment is the obligation of a person's resources to earn income in the form of benefits, pensions, dividends, bonuses, capital appreciation, stock purchase, obligations, and savings certificates in the post office and policies, all of which are certainly investments in the financial sense”. Among other elements, investor behavior is also influenced by demographic characteristics; including age, sex, marital status, experience, and knowledge of financial management, level of income and educational level. The case study analysis assesses two main areas of concern. The qualitative and quantitative research methods made use of questionnaires that constituted data collection tools. Both primary and secondary data constituted the data sources for this study.  A sample of 300 investors in the municipality of WA was selected using convenience sampling where snow balling was considered. The data collected were quantified using descriptive statistical tables. The SPSS version 25 software was also used in the analysis. The study proved that demographic factors affect investment decisions. It also concluded that, the educational level of respondents was a weak indicator of investment decisions and therefore, does not determine the investment decision for individual investors. The study concluded that the most common investment methods investors invest in are fixed deposits in banks and life insurance policies. It is recommended that individual investors take into account the asymmetry of information, which is the largest contributor to the investor's indifference that leads to investment decisions. Keywords: Influence, Demographic Factors, Investment Decisions.
19 Greener Pastures or Banished to Slavery: The Case of Zimbabwean Migrant Workers in Botswana and South Africa (2000-2018) in the context of ILO Standards and Peoples’ Rights , Article by Feddious Mutenheri  
The socio-economic and political impositions within African states in general and Zimbabwe in particular at the start of the new millennium have forced a host of workers into sundry parts of the world to prospect for better opportunities. Southern African countries of Botswana and South Africa, owing to their relatively sturdy economies and comparatively dependable human rights records, played the major hosts to the bulk of these migrant workers. Hordes of workers (of skilled, semi-skilled and general) flocked to the borders to escape their conditions back home. However, such a drift in search of the so-called ‘greener pastures’ met with varied outcomes. The paper documents the state and dynamic circumstances of these migrant workers in South Africa and Botswana in the 21st Century. It analyses how this state of affairs has impacted on migrant worker’s livelihoods. The paper analyses the pertaining situation of migrant workers vis-a-vis the internationally accepted labour standards. The research also focuses on the effectiveness of Workers’ Unions (or lack of) meant to represent their needs. Keywords: Migrant Labour, International Labour Organisation, slavery, greener pastures.
20 Roles of Media in Man-made Disasters: A Case of Protracted Conflict in South Sudan Roles of Media in Man-made Disasters: A Case of Protracted Conflict in South Sudan , Article by Gai Emmanuel Mabor
Since the attainment of independence of South Sudan, a protracted conflict did ensue between two factions sparked off by political reasons. Since then, the conflict disrupted the socio-economic and political lives of the citizens and a spillover effect was even felt in the neighboring countries. At the epicenter of the conflict lies the issue of media reporting and how the conflict was handled because depending on how it was handled, it either led to reduction of tensions or heightened tensions. This research delves into the role of the media in the protracted conflict. The objectives of the research include; To evaluate the extent to which media has assisted in mobilizing support for peace agreements; to analyze strategies employed by the media in propagating cessation of conflict in Sudan; assess the media’s level of success in sensitizing people about conflict prevention and to determine the extent to which government censorship impacted on the rights of journalists. The theory of Peace Journalism was hinged on the study to argue for how conflicts can be managed by the media. The study adopts a descriptive Survey Design; this involved targeting media organizations, both national and international media through the use of questionnaires and documentary evidence. It was expected that the study would be important to local media in South Sudan, the government and international organizations including the international press. Keywords: Protracted Conflict, Peace Journalism, Censorship, Manmade Disasters, Emergency Management, War Journalism.
21 The Theory of Disequilibrium: Why Complexity is Required to Sustain Organizational Management , Article by Romeo Gloverberg
The study of management has been a series of sequential events contingent upon the exploration of multiple fields of study. Widely and broadly inclusive in the evolution of organizational management are sociologist (Max Weber), economist (Adams Smith), philosopher (Pluto) etc. This research has attempted analysis and classification of organizational management in three phases: Pre-industrial era, industrial era and post-industrial era. In a second fold, this study has compounded and formulated the theory of organizational disequilibrium or simply put the theory of disequilibrium. This theory has been adopted to emphatically, intrinsically and extrinsically elaborate to a comprehensive whole, the variance of imbalance of organizational management across the evolutional phases of management, in a highly complex digital transitioning and transformational era. A dashboard analysis of the theory exposed organizational management and leadership (internal environment) as a fundamental fracture impeding organizational growth from reaching the required complexity of the digital age. In furtherance, provided measures to mend the organizational fracture. Keywords: management; evolution; organizational disequilibrium; imbalance; complexity; leadership.
22 Investigating the Economic Benefits of ISO 9001 Certified Companies in Guyana via Pre and Post Certification , Article by Iran Ali
ISO 9001 Quality Management System is one of the leading management standards that companies worldwide seek to be certified to, with over a million companies certified and increasing yearly, being ISO 9001 certified is a requirement for potential clients to do business with a company. The purpose of this research is to investigate the economic benefits of ISO 9001 certified companies in Guyana. Eighteen (18) companies were identified and participant’s responses were analyzed into quantitative and qualitative data and discussed. The findings suggested that companies experience increased economic benefits among other internal benefits that enhanced the company’s overall performance. Keywords: International Organization for Standards (ISO), Standard, Quality Management System (QMS).
23 Cash Transfer Programmes on Refugees welfare in Uganda. A case Study of Adjumani and Yumbe Districts , Article by Benson B. Okech
This paper provides an empirical review of the role Cash Transfer Programmes play on refugees’ welfare in Uganda. Cash Transfer was measured using non-conditional cash and Cash for works whereas refugees’ welfare was measured using food security, education and medical. The study anchored on contingency theory. The target population was 425,732 refugees in the two districts and a sample of 400 were drawn. The study used primary data collected from refugees and corroborated with key informants’ interviews from Districts officials. The scope of the study was 2015-2018. A cross sectional descriptive design was used while data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses. It was found that cash transfers play significant role on refugees’ welfare in Uganda. The study recommends as follows; encourage the use of direct cash transfer, discourage the use of vouchers, enforce cash for works scheme only up to the extent possible, increase and regularly review the transfer value and the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Health and World Health Organisation to be actively involved with implementing organisations and review the approaches and modality of cash transfer before implementation. Further, government particularly Office of the Prime Minister and UNHCR including key actors within the humanitarian space to formulate policies which deter misappropriation of resources meant for refugees, acquisition of advanced technology which can track financial resources from source to the point of distribution and most importantly, conduct value for money audits within 3 months of implementation and thereafter on quarterly basis. Keywords: Cash Transfer, Non-Conditional Cash, Cash for works, Vouchers, Uganda.
24 Factors Affecting ERP Implementations in the HIV Free Project Center Region Cameroon. Clerks and Consultants perspective , Article by Chia Vivianne Kenyuh
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are becoming popular among business organizations globally as well as locally. The main reason is that the corporate benefits gained through such implementations. However, in the event of such a project failing, the company has to incur a huge loss. Therefore, identifying the issues involved with the ERP implementation is of paramount importance. This paper aims to identify factors affecting the successful implementation of ERP projects, find out the level of practice of each factor in HIV FREE project and recommend best practices to minimize the ERP project failures. The findings of this research are based on a questionnaire survey performed among 20 data clerks and 5 ERP consultants selected through judgmental sampling method. There are 3 factors each for clerks and consultant perspectives where the level of practice is poor, they are; product selection procedure, project planning, client commitment, competency of consultants and communication of support requirements during the pre-implementation stage. Except for above, level of practice of rest of the factors is good. Set of guidelines has been suggested to overcome the poorly practiced implementation factors in order to follow in future ERP implementations for both clerks and consultants. Keywords: ERP implementation, Success factors, Clerks perspective, Consultant perspective.
25 Impact of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in the Generation of Employment in Nepal , Article by Dipti sharma
For an underdeveloped and developing nation uplifting economy up to expectation is a challenge. Raising economy in such context must have accelerated growth and development that improves quality of life. Small and medium scale enterprises are provisions for fast growth and fulfillment of economic prosperity by any nation. The economy depends on its working population for economic growth and development. The economic reform in the early 1990s in Nepal pulled the attention of the private and joint investment to seek the financial sector. National and regional development strategies, the strategies towards poverty reduction of individual member countries should underline the importance of private sector promotion. In this research A total of 200 copies of the questionnaires to be administered. The instruments to be used are gather information for this study includes questionnaires and interview. Two different statistical methods are to be employed to analyze data for the study; the tools are simple percentage and chi square test. keywords: youths, employment, economic growth, small and medium enterprises, Nepal.
26 Role of Private Capital Inflows in Financial Inclusion in Uganda , Article by Benson Benedict Okech, Godfrey Akileng, Rheeta Marjery
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the role of private capital inflows in financial inclusion in Uganda. Financial inclusion was measured using three dimensions (access, usage and quality). Whereas private capital inflows where measured using two proxies of foreign direct investment and remittances. The study anchored on financial intermediation theory with its three associated theories. The target population was private organisations that have received private capital in Uganda. The study used data which were collected from Bank of Uganda and Ugandan investment Authority, Ministry of Finance for the period 2012-2016. A cross sectional descriptive designs were used while data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate Logistics regression analysis. It was found that private capital inflows did not play any significant role in promoting financial inclusion in Uganda. The study recommends that government particularly Bank of Uganda, Ministry of Finance and Uganda Investment Authority to formulate policies which will attract more investors to Uganda hence boosting FDI. For worker remittances to be deepen and widened, the Ministry of Finance and Uganda Revenue Authority should remove costs associated with receipt of remittances in-country. This way an all-inclusive and stable financial sector in Uganda is ensured. Keywords: Private Capital, Financial Inclusion, Inflows, Uganda.
27 Family Farming Program Farm Management and Record Keeping Handbook , Article by Michael W. Pewu
Let me assume that approximately 70-75 percent of the Liberian workforce is involved in agriculture or agriculture-related activities. Many of these farmers lack basic business and loan management training, recordkeeping skills, equipment, and market connections they need in order to grow their business. For farmers working in subsistence agriculture, it can be difficult to access credit to purchase farm equipment. To bridge this gap, commitment is needed on the part of project staff working as Agricultural marketing officer to offer basic business and loan management training, recordkeeping and equipment skills to rural smallholder farmers with the opportunity to build their businesses. This will help to improve the creditworthiness of potential borrowers in the agriculture sector; become more attractive to lenders/financial institutions. Farmers can then use the credit to purchase assets such as seeds, farming equipment or irrigation systems that will help generate income, boosting livelihoods and eventually enabling them to pay back loans. Access to financial services enables rural smallholder farmers to take the increase from subsistence farming to market-based farming, thereby increasing their productivity and income for the long term. Access to financial services can also provide farmers with tools to escape the cycle of poverty and earn a sustainable livelihood. The article will assist agribusiness enterprises acquire planning and business skills so as to be fully commercial, and achieve higher profits and competitiveness. Keywords: Agribusiness, Enterprises, Management & Records.
28 Modern Business Ethics, Anti-Corruption and Corporate Governance in the United Nations , Article by Etiki John Firstday
The fundamental of modern business ethics, anti-corruption and co-operate governance in the United Nations is to support an organizational culture that is informed by integrity, accountability, transparency and respect. Organizational culture describes the social norms and rules of behaviour that express our beliefs about ourselves, how work is accomplished, and how we relate to each staff relate with each other as well as outsiders. More than 50% of work-related conflicts are related to ethical issues, corruption and violations of governance. The ethical behavior of organizations is rarely recognized as a pillar of good corporate governance. However, there are many ways that ethics underpins much of UN business behaviors, whether it is at the senior management or staff members’ level and regardless the UN organization’s geographic location, size, or specialization (agency). The moral underscoring the decision-making processes can be observed not only at the UN level but also from an OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) country doing business in its own back yard. This largely depends much on the quality of mangers . In an ethical organization like the UN, 95% of every staff member is usually able to recognize, appreciate, and resolve ethical issues that arise in our everyday work. Thus, staff members are able to take decisions based on the shared values and core competencies. Keywords: Corporate governance, ethics, anti-corruption, teleology, United Nations, management, UN agencies, stakeholder, shareholder, corporate social responsibility.
29 The Impact of Digital Inside on the Financial Sector of Sub-Saharan Africa , Article by Emmanuel Doh Tita Sama
The number of connections, interaction and transmission of information that we carry out using the digital technology is growing exponentially, blurring physical barriers and reducing the cost of accessing information. Interconnectivity, Mobile technology, the internet of things, Big Data, Artificial Intelligence and automation are the main exponential technologies to which Banks have to adapt now. The adoption process of digitalization hasn’t been fully successful in sub Saharan Africa and the implementation process too is still lacking in many ways ie from employee’s ability to use the right hardware and software to fully work digitally. Thus, the question of how has the digitalization of the Bank internal process and people impacted the bank’s operations and productivity? This study made use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. All scales were tested for reliability using Pearson Correlation. The relationship between digitalization and employees of banks investigated using Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a positive correlation between the two variables [r= .275, n=46, p=.1], with increasing levels of digitalization associated with higher levels of employees’ performance. Digital inside of banks brings about satisfied employees who create satisfied customers as they work within a shorter time effectively and efficiently. Thus, it can be concluded that digital inside plays a significant impact in the financial sector of Sub Saharan Africa even though most employees initially turn to be resistant to digital transformation in their way of work if it is not properly implemented as they see it as a possible cause of unemployment. Keyword: Digitalization, Internal processes, Productivity, Digital inside.
30 The Nature of Recruitment and Employee Performance in Government Organizations in Uganda (East Africa), a case study of Wakiso District Local Government , Article by Bombo Henry Lubega
The study sought to investigate the nature of recruitment and its effect on employee performance in government organizations in Uganda with reference to Wakiso District Local Government. The objectives that guided the study were; to identify how Educational levels influence employee Performance, to examine the relationship between experience and employee performance & to establish the relationship between personal training and employee performance. The respondents were selected using stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Descriptive and Associational research designs were adopted with Data gathered through Questionnaires and interview guides administered to respondents. Out of the 142 questionnaires distributed to the target sample, 127 responses were received. The SPSS technique was used to establish the relationship that existed between experience and employee Performance, Personal training and employee Performance & between financial Status of the organization and Employee performance. The major findings from the research study indicated that the Level of education is a key aspect of employee performance in an organization. It acts a better tool for recruitment in the organization. The study findings revealed that there is a positive linkage between the educational level, experience, personal training and financial status on employee performance. The study recommends that there is a need to motivate the employees and to ensure socio-economic development, adopt a general policy of transparency & encouraging the development of performance personal training processes that ensure that performance expectations are agreed upon and reviewed regularly. Keywords: Recruitment, employee performance, Motivation, educational level, experience, personal training and the financial status of the organization.
31 Nigerian Pharmaceutical Brand Marketing – The Role of the Product Manager in Making Selling Superfluous , Article by Abimbola Rotimi
The Product Manager in a Pharmaceutical company is considered the CEO of the product and responsible for the strategy, roadmap and feature definition for that product/brand. The roles often include Marketing, Forecasting and Profit & Loss (P&L) amongst others. The interphase between sales and marketing is not a very clear one in most Pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria and the role of the product manager is usually mistaken or not well defined. A clear understanding of the role of a PM and its responsibilities will ensure focus of the PM on his core responsibility and maximize his productivity. Who is responsible when sales do not go as planned? Is it the joint responsibility of Marketing and sales or does the scale tip more to one side? What makes selling easy? Who puts ideas behind sales plan and formula? Is a PM necessary or will the sales team just suffice? This article will look at the above questions and the Role and responsibility of the Product manager in ensuring the sales process is seamless. The paper will also define a Pharmaceutical Product Manager and highlight his strengths, challenges, opportunities and threats facing his role. In conclusion, sales and growth of a brand is the joint collaborative effort of Sales and marketing. Everything marketing does is designed to make sales easier. The sales team, in addition to completing the sales process, also provide valuable information required by marketing such as marketing intelligence. Successful businesses recognize the role of marketing in ensuring future relevance. Keywords: Brand, Brand Manager, Marketing, Pharmaceutical, Product Manager, Sales, Sales Manager, Selling.
32 The Challenges of the Blue Economy in Ghana and the way forward , Article by Benjamin Ashitey Amarh
This study paper gives highlighting to the major challenges of the blue economy in Ghana and proposes the way forward in curbing those challenges. The study gives emphasis on the fact that the full potential of the blue economy has not been well appreciated because of the major challenges that hinder the potentials of the natural resource. As valuable as it is, the blue economy is being muddled up in Ghana as the resource suffers major challenges spanning from pollution and degradation, terrorist attacks, lack of proper marine policy, over exploitation of the blue economy to climate change and these calls for the need for better ocean governance. This study intends to achieve the following objectives; first is to identify the major challenges of the blue economy in Ghana, to identify some benefits of the blue economy of Ghana and to determine and make effective commendations that would help in curbing the challenges faced by the blue economy. For the slated objectives to be achieve for this paper, review of secondary data from documented reports and the internet, publications, journals and articles were used. The primary data was a coordinated approach to major stakeholders and observation of events relating to the sea in Ghana. Valuable recommendations were presented to curtail the menace for the ordinary Ghanaian and Africa as a whole to derive the blessings of the blue economy. Keywords: Blue Economy, threats/challenges, Marine, Ocean, solutions, Ghana.
33 Performance based Financing as a Health System Reform: Success Story on how the Application Performance based Measures Improve Performance both in Quantity and Quality of Health in South West Region , Article by Ebah Essama Alain Roland
Background: In order to improve the health status of its population and to find practical solutions to the main challenges of the health system, the Government of Cameroon has been implementing the Performance Based Financing approach (PBF) since 2011. Following the pilot phase from 2011 to 2014, the project produced encouraging results as seen in the use of health facilities by the population, quality improvement and governance in health facilities. The project also enabled the actors involved to learn lessons during its implementation. Methods: This paper is based on first hand observation carried out by the researcher alongside the ground implementers of the PBF system in the health sector (CDVA South West Region). The group developed some criteria to stimulate improvement in health care, by ensuring payment for greater performance. The group also developed main criteria to measure the improvement in performance which can be translated in monetary terms, coaching was regularly carried out to provide solutions to problems. These activities were carried out between 2011 and 2014 in four health districts of the South West Region of Cameroon. Results: The paper starts with a discussion, to clarify the core concept of PBF and how the different terms are used. It then develops a framework of on the development of implementation, evaluation, monitoring, coaching and the final results. Conclusion: The paper brings out a picture of the importance of the PBF system of health financing in the South West Region of Cameroon, showing the pictures of change and the changes in the quality and quantity of health care delivery by health facilities. Keywords: Performance Based Financing, Monitoring and Evaluation.
34 Customer Relationship Management, A strategic Tool for Business Sustainability: The case of Small, Medium Enterprises in Ghana , Article by Annie Babah-Alargi
The purpose of this article is to highlight the lack of business sustainability of small and medium enterprises in Ghana and how the trend can be reversed through the adoption of customer relationship management and strategic management practices as a solution for sustainable business that can transcend generations. Small and medium businesses in Ghana more often either collapse, shuts down or in case owners are sick, the business cease or when owners die, the business dies with them. Those that are able to put structures and systems in place soon become dreary and inward looking and eventually fall into decline, as a result of lack of strategic management and customer relationship management. Failure to build, develop and manage strategic and customer relationships creates complacency stifling growth and profits notwithstanding business expansions, hence the business folds up or shuts down with economic turbulence. According to Bloomberg, 8 out of 10 small and medium businesses fail within the first 18 months and the reason being that, they simply run out of cash. (Bloomberg 2013). The trend can be reversed if small and medium enterprises embeds the necessary elements including customer and strategic relationship management practices to enable their long-term sustainability. Implications of the short lives of small and medium businesses in Ghana is an indication of a cycle of stifled economic growth as new businesses keep springing up but without a successful, practical and workable existing business model to emulate or learn from to support their sustainable business practices. Keywords: customer relationship management, strategic management, service management, business sustainability.
35 The Impact of Digital Outside on Financial Sector of Sub-Saharan Africa , Article by Emmanuel Doh Tita Sama
Digitalization has brought to the banking industry new business models, development concepts, from internet, mobile banking to monetization of transactions on different platforms and intermediaries. Currently there is no doubt that the banking sector is at a major crossroads. This disruption can be seen also from the demand and supply of financial services, forcing banks to develop new low-cost models. Due to this pressure, almost all commercial banks in West and Central Africa are in the process of crafting their own digital strategy with the principal objective of offering more inclusive banking services to the population who in their majority has limited or no access to banking facilities. Recent studies show that less than 10% of Sub Saharan Africa population is banked, yet not much research has been done in this area to understand why. Thus, the need to investigate the impact of digitalisation of Banks external (Digital Outside) processes on the financial sector, of Sub-Saharan Africa. This study made use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The relationship between digitalization and customers of banks was investigated using Pearson correlation coefficient. There was a positive correlation between the two variables [r= .236, n=278, p=.0.05], where increasing levels of digitalization is associated with higher levels of customers satisfaction. Based on the finding of the study, one can conclude that internet, mobile, ATMs, are the mostly used digital channel to reach the customers and thus increases the level of customer satisfaction and digital banking adoption in sub Saharan Africa. Keywords: Digitalization, Customers Satisfaction, Profitability, Digital outside.
36 Conflict Resolution in the United Nations: Case Study of the Ombudsman , Article by Etiki John Firstday
Managing conflicts in the United Nations is time-consuming but a necessary task. It usually ranges from minute disagreements to major cases that may even lead to litigation or violence. Conflicts have an adverse effect on health of the staff, productivity, morale and staff performance. This study is a cross sectional study designed to examine and portray conflict management systems, its awareness and its effectiveness in the United Nations. Data collection was done using a structured questionnaire distributed to UN workers in the Hq (New York), selected Offices away from Hq and selected department of peace keeping operations (DPKO). Data analysis was done using SPSS20.0 The result showed that by location the Ombudsman had 35% of the cases from the UN Headquarters in New York,38% of cases from offices away from the UN headquarters in New York and 27% of cases from field missions (DPKO). It further showed that cases by staff category were: P and above: 38%, UNV& Consultants: 23%, Former Staff:2%, National Staff: 2%. Furthermore, breakdown of cases was as follows: promotion/entitlements/conversion (29%), Separation/termination (19%), Entitlements (15%), Standard of Conducts (12%). Multi-issues (10%), Inter-personal issues (8%), Conditions of service (5%), Referrals (2%). Recommendation requires that training and awareness programmes should be conducted periodically to create awareness on the existence of the structure of conflict resolution structure via the office of the Ombudsman. Keywords: Peace-keeping, UN General Assembly, ombudsman, conflict resolution, staff members, United Nations, Staff members.
37 Investigating the Practice of Total Quality Management as Competitive Advantage in the Pharmaceutical Industry. A Case Study of Tobinco Pharmaceuticals , Article by Mark Owusu Ansah
The objective of this study is to investigate the Practice of Total Quality Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry. The data collected from the field was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. The demographic profile of respondents was analysed, followed by an analysis of responses provided to investigate the Practice of Total Quality Management in the Pharmaceutical Industry using Tobinco Pharmaceuticals as a case study. Tables, graphs, charts and percentages were used in data presentation and analysis. It was therefore concluded that a company that can produce goods at reduced costs than their competitors, while delivering quality products that satisfy customers will have an advantage over those companies that do not duplicate those feats. The Total Quality Management (TQM) business philosophy of satisfying the customer with quality goods and services reducing waste and empowering workers and suppliers is a method to achieve those goals as well as usage of the six (6) sigma approach which seek to eliminate errors to a significant magnitude. Keywords: Total Quality Management, Competitive Advantage, Pharmaceutical Industry.
38 An Examination of Project Risk Identification and Prevention Techniques in Ensuring Project Success; A Case Study of Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) , Article by Mark Owusu Ansah
Project risk management is the systematic process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to risk by applying risk management principles and processes at the project level. This is seen to be a very big challenge to most project managers. Research has proven that most projects that are executed face serious challenges as far as risk is concerned due to lack of appropriate techniques in identifying and preventing risk. Therefore the study intends to evaluate risk identification and prevention techniques in ensuring project success in Electricity Company of Ghana ECG with the objective of examining how efficient and effective the Project Management Team manages risk and whether the success of project depends on effective risk management identification and prevention techniques in project management of Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG). The study intends to adopt the cross section survey technique in that it will be necessary to interview key personnel within the entire stratum of Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) especially those activities impinge upon risk and project success. Qualitative information will be obtained and analyzed in order to address the objectives of the study. Where necessary such information will be quantified using relevant Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) to enhance the direction of the study. The study seeks to find out whether project success depends on the following for effective risk management and strategies for effective project risk identification: · Risk Analysis and Evaluation · Risk Monitoring and Reviewing · Risk Communication It also seeks to find out if Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) has a Project Risk Management Plan and Risks that are identified before projects are initiated and that if Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) has competent project management professionals.
39 How Working Conditions Affect Quality Healthcare Delivery , Article by Adekunle Adekanmbi
In Nigeria, incessant strike is prevalent among healthcare workers in public and civil service with workers asking for more remunerations and facilities so as function optimally. Each episode of disruption of service has an enormous effective on the citizen, economic implication, health parameters of the population. Healthcare workers suffer enormous injury ranging from biological, physical, psychological and economic as a consequence of our working conditions; sometimes healthcare workers even suffer death. Administrators of public and civil service need to be abreast with different classification of working conditions as explained by the International Labour organization (ILO) so as to affect the necessary standards in our healthcare facilities, hence, mitigating industrial strike actions, improving working condition in our facilities, translating to improved patient experience and health indices. A literature review into the different effect of poor working condition on healthcare delivery; resulting in dissatisfaction among healthcare workers and support staff, most predictor of burn out syndrome, an increased risk of non-communicable disease in workers with overtime and extended schedules. It was also revealed that improvement in work environment can lead to higher productivity of employees and bad working conditions contribute to low productivity of employees (Taiwo, 2010). The information in this report will assist clinicians, health system managers, policy makers and health services researchers to improve their understanding about how features of the work environment affect the quality of services rendered to the public. Keyword: Working Condition and Quality Healthcare.
40 Community Support During Disasters- A Review of Disaster Pattern in the Bigu Rural Municipality of Dolakha District and their Management , Article by Amit Chakarwarty
In this research, I am focusing to identify the causes of disaster occurrences and the coping mechanism of the vulnerable community. This research will cover the action plan of preparedness and community capacity for disaster management. Nepal is one of the most disaster-prone countries of the world due to complex geophysical condition and poor socio-economic situation. The country is facing various types of natural disasters like: flood, landslide, fire, earthquake, windstorm, hailstorm, lightning, glacier lake outburst flood, drought, epidemic, avalanche and so on. Further it is also exposed to various types of natural disasters due to rugged and steep topography, extreme weather events, and fragile geological conditions. The key research question is the analysis of the community’s resilience to the frequent natural and man-made disasters. This will include understanding of: the ín-situ’coping ways of the community within their families as a unit and the preparedness measures that they have and how do they act when disaster occurs. The research will further investigate and analyse the patterns of the disasters in the study area, the impact of the past disasters on the community and the landscape. These actions will help in framing the project narrative describing the disaster patterns, impacts, community coping mechanisms incl. preparedness and mitigation measures. Key Words: Hazard, Vulnerability, Capacity, Disaster, Risk, Mitigation.
41 The Role of Transportation in Logistics Chain , Article by Awo Esaah Bempong
Transportation is needed to ascertain the state of moving products. The growth in the skill and management principles enhance the movement of load, delivery Speed, service quality, operation costs, the usage of facilities and energy saving. Transportation serves an important part in the control of logistic. Assessing the current state, a strong system needs a clear frame of logistics and a proper transport to execute and techniques to connect the producing procedures. The aim of the paper is to define the role of transportation in logistics for the action of further improvement. The research was undertaken to define and understand the basic views of logistics and its various applications and the relationships on either side of logistics and transportation.
42 Improving Performances of Polymerase Chain Reaction Laboratories in Nigeria: Using Supply Chain Indicators Through Monitoring and Supportive Visit , Article by Theophilus Faruna, Dimitris Folinas
Access to polymerase chain reaction services for ribose nucleic acid (RNA) for adult and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for infants was in paucity due to numerous challenges that were not clearly identified for rectification. Poor supply chain management of PCR commodities was prime amongst others that hindered optimization of equipment and scaling up of viral load and early infants’ diagnosis (EID) tests in line with the Joint United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy of 90-90-90 concept. To overcome these challenges, decision support system approach: where the Government of Nigeria (GON) and supporting partners organized monitoring and supportive visits (MSV) to 29 out of 30 PCR facilities was adopted to provide support using logistics management information system (LMIS) tool to mentor facility personnel. Findings included poor logistics management of commodities, lack of LMIS data collection tool, poor reporting of utilization, stock outs of commodities at some facilities and expiries of same in others, wide knowledge gap on logistics management, poor storage condition. After two cycles of conducting MSV, there was an improvement in the scaling of viral load and EID testing, reduced stock out, reduced expiries, proper storage of commodities, improved on-time LMIS data reporting rate. We concluded that supply chain management through MSV can be used to improve the services of PCR laboratories to meet the UNAID 90-90-90 concept with a recommendation to continue a quarterly MSV to PCR facilities and extend this to other areas of laboratory services. Keywords: Supply chain management, polymerase chain reaction, monitoring and supportive visit, viral load assay, early infants’ diagnosis, laboratory performance, 90-90-90 UNAIDS concept.
43 The effect of Brand Association on Consumer Patronage of GSM Service Providers in Kano Metropolis , Article by Bayero Usman Jaafaru
The research is aimed at investigating the effects of brand association on consumer patronage of GSM service providers in metropolitan Kano. The study utilized descriptive survey research design with both descriptive and inferential statistics used as techniques of data analysis. The five Likert type rating scale was used in measuring responses to the questions. Specifically, linear regression model was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The analysis of the study revealed that perceived quality of service was found to significantly influence consumer patronage of service providers. The finding of the study also revealed that the use of the celebrity for promotional activities by GSM operators has no effect on consumer patronage of service providers. It was also found that consumer patronage of GSM service providers was not influenced by the fact that GSM companies engaged in sponsorship of notable events. The study recommends more investments in facilities, quality control technologies and strategic development and implementation of plan for delivery of high-quality service. There is also the need for service providers to ensure greater coordination of efforts in the use of celebrities for promotional activities. There is the need for more investments in social amenities by the GSM service providers. Keywords: Consumer, Patronage, Brand, Association, Metropolis, Service.
44 Impact of Relationship Marketing Practices on Doctors’ Prescribing behaviour towards J. L. Morison Son & Jones Brands in Sri Lankan Context , Article by Chaminda Deshapriya Malalasekara
In modern marketing practices, relationship marketing becomes impertinent strategic tools. It can be applied in different industry in different scales. When it comes to the pharmaceutical industry, end users of most of medicines cannot decide the brand of the drugs prescribed by doctors. On the other words most of medical practitioners often continue to prescribe brand-name drugs to their patients even when less expensive generic equivalents are available. Apart from the prevailing conditions, some multinational companies like J L Morrison’s Ltd may not provide un ethical marketing practices to promote their brand through doctors. In this context, it is important to investigate role of relationship marketing practices in prescribing behaviour of doctors in local context. Accordingly, main purpose of this study is to assessing the impact of relationship marketing practices effect on the prescribing behaviour of doctors towards JLM brands. As the empirical nature of the study, data were collected through structured questionnaire designed based on the measurement indicators identified in literature and field experience of the researcher. Accordingly, sample was selected from main cities of the country with the purpose of getting the doctors’ responses about the main research issues. Accordingly, 125 respondents were included in each sample. The respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method to represent all medical consultants who are relevant to the JLM brands in Sri Lankan market. Frequencies, percentages, descriptive statistics, and correlation analysis etc. were employed as data analysis tools. Reliability test was carried out and Cronbach’s Alpha values of each construct was found that a good interring reliability exist with the data. The results indicated that there are positive relationships between all three aspects of relationship marketing practices adopted by JLM brands and doctors’ prescribing behaviour. Further it is noted that perceptions of doctors towards relationship marketing practices are favourable and positive tendency for prescribing JLM brands. The results provide evidence to accept all hypotheses. Finally, researchers have emphasized some implications to marketers of pharmaceutical industry to develop their marketing strategies for encouraging doctors for prescribing JLM brands in competitive markets. Keywords: Relationship marketing, Prescribing behaviour, Pharmaceutical industry.
45 When Empowerment Leads to Impoverishment: A Case of Sanimart Project in Bhola District, Bangladesh When Empowerment Leads to Impoverishment: A Case of Sanimart Project in Bhola District, Bangladesh , Article by Gai Emmanuel Mabor
This study was conducted in Bhola district of Barisal Division in Bangladesh. The purpose of the study was to conduct a careful analysis of the plights of working adolescents who are also attending schools, to find out whether UNICEF project being implemented by COAST Trust is actually leading to the intended objective of adolescent empowerment. I organized focus group discussions reaching a total of 60 adolescents. Educational pass records of a total of 120 students were reviewed and compared to ascertain whether the work of the children has potential correlations with their pass grades. I conclude that the empowerment project has instead caused disempowerment of the adolescent girls because of a number of reasons; long working hours are so detrimental for the girls given that the girls have to attend school and after schools proceed to work for additional 4 hours, and perhaps perform other domestic works in their households, the remuneration of girls is very low but being so helpless, they cannot complaint about the unfair wages for which they work daily, the speak up culture which is so much required in empowerment situation is not available in the work places of the girls, the girls leave their work places at night which could expose them to other sexual harassment scenarios in a very conservative environment, the working environment could endanger the health of the young girls since they are dealing with cotton materials which may lead to respiratory related diseases, and finally, the extra work time has to a larger extent led to the low pass grades of the girls in schools. Certain measures could be taken to avert or reduce the impact of working adolescents such as: girls who are below the minimum required age for work can appoint their parents or representatives to work on their behalf while close scrutiny is maintained to ensure the girls benefit from the proceeds of their work. The entrepreneurs can be compelled by Ministry of Women and Children Affairs (MOWCA) to ensure they pay necessary minimum wage that is commensurate with the work of the adolescent girls. Finally, the employers must be compelled to reduce the number of working hours to ensure the girls can reach their houses before dark as well as by allowing them a day off in a week. Keywords: Empowerment, impoverishment, agent, empoweree, disempowerment, child labor, Power differentials, economic influence.
46 The Roles and Impact of Mission Statement on Performance: An Empirical Study of Commercial Banks in Zambia , Article by Richard Kaela
This study assessed the roles and impact of mission statements in the Zambian banking industry and envisaged the quality of the mission statements using a Nine Point Scale model given by Fred R. David. A total of 19 commercial banks formed the sample. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research design approaches was used. The data was obtained from annual reports for the period 2010 to 2017, these were provided by either the central bank or obtained from websites of commercial banks. The SPSS 20 and MS-Excel were used for data analysis. The Pearson correlation model was used to analyses the variable associations. The return on equity (ROE) and the return on investment (ROI) were used for Bank performance measurement. The study disclosed that the length of mission statements in terms of sentences ranged from 1to 2 sentences and the number of words ranged from 3 to 32 words. Twelve (12) banks scored above average and 7 banks scored below average. It may be summarized that broadly banking system’s mission statement score in Zambia was well above the average score card of mission statement and majority of the banking setups were keen to incorporate their philosophy, products and services and customers concern but less focus on concern for employees and self-concept. Overall, there was a weak, negative correlation between mission statement and return on equity. Also, an overall weak, negative correlation between mission statement and return on investment. Keywords: Mission Statement, Commercial bank, Performance, Roles, Components, Content Analysis.
47 The Relationship between Mission Statements and Corporate Social Responsibility in Zambia: A case of Commercial Banks , Article by Richard Kaela
The purpose of this Study was to show the linkage between mission statement and corporate social responsibility of commercial banks in Zambia using the Fred R. David Model for mission statements and the Archie B. Carroll Model for CSR. Reflecting on literature on how banks in Zambia have embraced and practiced corporate social responsibility (CSR). This study contributes to the CSR literature by examining annual reports and websites about current CSR activities of Commercial banks in Zambia. The study used quantitative approach and Qualitative approaches a mixture of two to collect primary data through a structured questionnaire, annual reports and websites from Central and Commercial Banks. 17 banks formed the sample for the exercise and data was collected and analyzed descriptively and the results presented. The overall results indicate a very weak, negative correlation between mission statement and corporate social responsibility programs in commercial banks of Zambia. Evidence from the study also suggests that all commercial banks in Zambia had a formal mission statement and about 94.7 percent had CSR program. The study only covered Commercial Banks that operate under the central bank of Zambia and mainly obtained data from the websites and annual reports. The study provides an insight into concepts about Mission statement and corporate social responsibility in the banking industry in Zambia and in Africa at large, which to the best knowledge of the author, have not been done extensively before. Keywords: Mission Statement, Corporate Social responsibility, Commercial bank, Model, Annual report.
48 Innovations for reviving small-scale industries in Ghana , Article by Dominic Kwesi Eduah
This research paper give emphasis to some of the innovations used in reviving small-scale industries in Ghana. It stresses on the point that if SMEs that has been labelled as the engine growth of the Ghanaian economy can adopt innovative ways in doing business, there would be great impact to Ghana. There is a general awareness and acceptance of the role SMEs play in socio-economic development in Ghana. The Small-Scale industries contributes greatly to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in ensuring economic growth, employment, income stability and poverty reduction in most developing countries. In-spite of the above roles, most of these industries are now collapsing because of the lack of innovations in conducting their businesses. The few who has been able to adopt innovated ways of doing business are experiencing business boom while the majority of them are struggling to break-even thereby classifying the small-scale industries as synonymous to a ‘hand to mouth’ industry. This study intends to achieve the following objectives; first is to pinpoint some of the innovations used in reviving SMEs, to identify some challenges faced in the adoption of innovation in small-scale business delivery in Ghana and to determine and make effective recommendations that would help to reduce or mitigate those challenges. To achieve the objectives slated, review of secondary data from documented reports and the internet, publications, journals and articles were used. The primary data was an in-depth guided interview with key stakeholders (revenue collectors, policy makers, small-scale business owners, members of the SMEs etc.) Keywords: Innovation, Small scale industries, SME, Ghana.
49 Using Innovation in Organization as a Survival Strategy in a Highly Competitive Telecommunication Industry of Ghana: Prospects and Challenges: The Case of Vodafone Ghana Limited , Article by Dominic Kwesi Eduah
The study investigated the prospect and challenges of how Vodafone Ghana is employing innovation as a survival strategy in the highly competitive telecommunication industry of Ghana. Amongst its specific objectives were analyzing the market performance of innovation products and services placed on the market by Vodafone Ghana as well as examining to importance innovation as a survival strategy in the telecom industry of Ghana. The study also identified challenges confronting Vodafone Ghana in using innovation strategy as a survival tool. The researcher adopted the onion research approach, which unfolds the various stages of research from the sampling, questionnaire design observations and interview as well as data management. In selecting the respondents, purposive sampling technique was employed. The questionnaire technique constituted the main research instrument although some face-to-face interviews were also carried out to straighten up some of the responses reflected on the questionnaire. The study findings noted that Vodafone Ghana parades such innovative products and services as broadband facilities and money transfers among others to compete in the local industry. These services were seen to be enhancing socio-economic systems because they facilitate money transfer to business fellows and relations as well as enable customers to talk much longer. On challenges negating innovation efforts at Vodafone, the study discovered that competitors often copy and expand the scope of new products thereby pre-empting benefits that accrue from research and development activities. Frequent internet failure also disrupts the benefit derivable from Vodafone innovative products and services. Recommendations were made to address these challenges. Keywords: Innovation, Prospects and challenges, Telecommunication, Ghana.
50 The Impact of a Good Remuneration Package to Public Servants on the Enhancement of the Delivery of Public Services , Article by Amanda Jaisingh
The government of any country such as Guyana has a fundamental right in providing public services and goods to its people. Salaries and benefits are paid to public servants all over the world to deliver effectively on the job thus bringing total satisfaction to the citizens of a country as it relates to the services or goods they received. The title for this study was: “The impact of a good remuneration package to public servants on the enhancement of the delivery of public services.” There were six objectives in this research but the main objective was “To determine if a good remuneration package to public servants will lead to the enhancement in the delivery of services to the public.” Great attention has been paid to remuneration package and its impact on the delivery of services within the public service of many countries, e.g. Guyana. Problems experiences were many, for example employees’ benefits were not sufficiently competitive to retain well experienced staff members. Therefore, in order to bring clarity to the problems, the researcher developed and answered five research questions. It will be beneficial to the researcher, government, public servants and other stake holders of Guyana. The study was qualitative and quantitative in nature. The secondary data was collected from many sources and the researched countries public services were Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and The General Caribbean, etc. The primary data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Two hypotheses were developed for this research. The data analysis was both statistical and descriptive. The major findings discovered were that in almost all public service under study, there were massive public sector reforms to tackle remuneration package enhancement, work performance and delivery of services. The determination of a remuneration package/ wage structure for the various categories of public servants is a problem, public service delivery is a problem in most countries as pointed out in Africa, in Latin America and the Caribbean and the employee performance tools used is ineffective and needs to be revised. Therefore, it is imperative for any government to look into this matter. The statistical results indicated that there were significant association between remuneration package and enhancement in the delivery of services. It also indicated that remuneration package to public servants has a positive impact on the enhancement of the delivery of Public Services. Keywords: Public Service, Remuneration Package, Public Officer, Public Office, Public goods and services.
51 Contributory Factors of Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction in Organizations , Article by Sherena A Persaud
Job satisfaction- dissatisfaction is a major concern to every organization irrespective of the type. As job satisfaction boosts productivity and creates healthy and stress-free employees, job dissatisfaction does the opposite. Job dissatisfaction causes downtime which leads to low productivity and jeopardizes an organization’s profitability and long-term security to stay afloat and compete. The aim of this research was to investigate if employees are satisfied in their chosen organization in East Berbice-Corentyne, Guyana. This paper also highlights what is meant by the term “job satisfaction” and “job dissatisfaction” as well as the causes and their effects in organizations. A questionnaire was created and administered to 50 persons from three organizations. Based on the survey carried out, 94% of the respondents had an appreciation for their job, 36% stated that they had no issue at their workplace, and 44 out of 50 respondents planned to remain in the organization they are currently apart of despite issues faced. Keywords: job satisfaction, job dissatisfaction, employee withdrawal.
52 The Impact of Effective Leadership Practice on Organizational Performance and Growth of state owned banks in Ghana: The Case of National Investment Bank, Ghana , Article John Kweku Asamoah
The study investigated the impact of effective leadership practices on an organizational growth and development in Ghana with the search light on the operations of National Investment Bank of Ghana (NIB). NIB recently had new management members with a new board of directors in place. For the year 2015 the bank shocked the banking fraternity when it was able to pay huge dividend to state coffers having experienced dividend draught for a long period. It is not too clear whether the leadership practices of the new executives have turned round the fortunes of the bank or the success story is due to the general boom in the banking industry of Ghana. Random sampling technique was adopted to select some branches of the bank and its headquarters as the study population. Purposive sampling technique was then employed to directly approach officials for their views. The questionnaire technique was the main research instrument while Statistical Package for social science (SPSS) was employed to facilitate the analysis of the data. Findings of the study indicated that the new management team of NIB employed sound communication skills, very fair compensation packages groomed employees to perform better are some of the strategies for shoring up financial performance of the bank. The study therefore concluded by upholding the hypothesis that the recent success story associated with the financial performance of NIB was due to the leadership style of the new management team but not necessarily a direct results from the simile booming performance in the banking industry of Ghana. As a further study, the role ICT played in NIB’s success story deserve investigation. Keywords: Leadership, productivity, financial performance, effective leadership, organizational performance.  
53 “A Qualitative Study on the Impact of a Good Remuneration Package to Public Servants on the Enhancement of the Delivery of Public Services” , Article by Amanda Jaisingh
The government of any country such as Guyana has a fundamental right in providing public services and goods to its people. The title for this study was: “A qualitative study on the impact of a good remuneration package to public servants on the enhancement of the delivery of public services.” They were many objectives but the main one was “To determine if a good remuneration package to public servants will lead to the enhancement in the delivery of services to the public.” Great attention has been paid to remuneration package and its impact on the delivery of services within the public service of many countries, e.g. Guyana. Problems experiences were many, for example employees’ benefits were not sufficiently competitive to retain well experienced staff members. Therefore, in order to bring clarity to the problems, the researcher developed and answered five research questions. The study was qualitative in nature. The secondary data was collected from many sources and the researched countries public services were Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, The General Caribbean, etc. The major findings discovered were that in almost all public service in the world there were massive public sector reform to tackle work performance and delivery of services. The researcher interprets and concludes that there is a strong relationship between public servants receiving a good remuneration package and its enhancement in the delivery of the public service to the people. However, governments should not totally depend on remuneration package but look at other means. Keywords: Public Service, Remuneration Package, Public Officer, Public Office, Public goods and services.  
54 Ensuring Effective and Efficient Humanitarian Logistical Services Delivery: The role of Disaster Relief Organisations in Ghana , Article by Japhet Baidoo
Sudden natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and tsunamis usually generate destruction on impact, injuring people, rendering many homeless and imposing huge cost to governments by destroying public infrastructure. Considering the adverse effects on properties, human life and the economy at large, it is important to pay particular attention to humanitarian logistics as a vital medium for responding to present disasters and preparing for future ones. This study examined the factors and mechanisms for humanitarian logistical services delivery in Ghana. The case study focused on humanitarian and relief organizations operating in Ghana. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to gather data from officials of ten disaster relief organizations. Findings from the study revealed important factors for effective and efficient disaster relief operations. Despite financial and logistical challenges, humanitarian organizations have put in place mechanisms for dealing with emergencies. Disaster relief organizations operating in Ghana should adopt innovative and responsive mechanisms in humanitarian relief operation so as to achieve agility. Keywords: Humanitarian Logistics, Natural Disaster, Relief Organisations. Innovative and Responsive Mechanisms.  
55 The Impact of Emotional Intelligence Training on the Quality of Work life amongst Employees , Article by Sandhya Vijayakumar
The main research problem in this study was to identify the impact of emotional intelligence training on the quality of work life amongst employees. The main research problem gave rise to three sub problems which were addressed through the following actions: A literature study was conducted to explore what the existing literature revealed about emotional intelligence, quality of work of work life and the relationship between the two constructs. Special attention was given to emotional intelligence training and its impact on the quality of work life amongst employees. A two day structured emotional intelligence training program was delivered to a group of thirty employees. Additionally, pre and post the training intervention, an emotional intelligence psychometric assessment (The SEI assessment by the Six Seconds Network) was administered and the results were compared. Further to this, structured interviews were conducted with fifteen members from the sample group to obtain their views on the benefits of the emotional intelligence training and its impact on their quality of work life. The results from the literature review and empirical study revealed the emotional intelligence training was extremely beneficial to employees, specifically with regard to improving their emotional intelligence competencies, which led to a better, happier work life. As a result of the above, the researcher concluded that every organization in today’s contemporary environment should aim to incorporate programs that build emotional intelligence amongst employees which can lead to better relationships in the workplace and a more productive, stress free work life. Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Quality of work life, Competencies, Psychometric assessment, Impact of training.  
56 Employee Discipline Enhances Employee Engagement: An Affective Shift Model Perspective - A Literature Review , Article by Adamson Mukhalipi  
Purpose: The purpose of this document is to propose that employee discipline be considered as a factor in employee engagement. Design/Methodology/Approach: This conceptual review focuses on the research evidence showing the mediating role of employee discipline in enhancing employee engagement. The affective shift model helps us understand the relationship between employee discipline and employee engagement. Findings: The author proposed that based on the affective shift model, employee discipline be considered as employee engagement and employee disengagement. Recommendations: It is suggested that Human Resource Department should develop and put in place an engagement Plan targeting such employees to help them to quickly adjust and become productive and active, take part in decision making as they become committed in the realization of the organizational strategic objectives. Further, the author recommend that a detailed comparative study targeting both private and public organizations be conducted to assess the effect of discipline in enhancing employee engagement and also that an exploratory study be conducted to determine the effect of progressive discipline on employee engagement in organization. Originality/Value: The author suggests that Human Resource Department should develop an engagement plan targeting disciplined employees with the view of helping them to quickly become productive and active, take part in decision making and become committed in the realization of the organizational strategic objectives. Keywords: Employees, Discipline, Disengagement, Engagement, Commitment, Involvement.  
57 An Overview of the Relationship between Total Quality Management and Employee Performance in a Selected Nigerian Company , Article by Omede Solomon Abdul  
The ever increasing demand of customers and the challenges of globalization put a lot of pressure on companies worldwide to adopt proven frameworks for organizational excellence. As a result, Nigerian companies today are implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) System. The objective of this study is to establish a relationship between total quality management and organizational performance using a manufacturing company in Nigeria. Twenty five (25) carefully framed questionnaires were sent out to the study population and 13 were returned in usable form. The Chi Square method of statistics was used to test the four formulated hypothesis. The findings showed a significant relationship between total quality management and organizational performance, between TQM and defect prevention and perception errors, between the success of TQM and perception of organizational members, between TQM and effective management of resistance to .change. This study recommends that organizational management provide enabling environment to implement TQM systems. The study concludes that a major strategy for achieving high quality is TQM with a good management system for continuous improvements that rely heavily on employee involvement. Keywords: Defect Prevention, Globalization, Organizational Challenges, Organizational Performance and Total Quality Management.  
58 Analysis of the Impacts of Compensation on Job Satisfaction amongst Teachers: A Case Study of Lakes State Ministry of Education, South Sudan , Article by Gai Emmanuel Mabor  
Compensation is a systematic approach to providing value to employees in exchange for work performed. Compensation may achieve several purposes assisting in recruitment, job performance, and job satisfaction. Wage and salary administration is concerned with designing and implementing total compensation package. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the impacts of compensation on the job satisfaction of teachers in Lakes State. The problem of the study revolved around teachers’ dissatisfaction with their compensation before and in the aftermath of the South Sudanese civil war which started in December 2013, whereby the economic situation deteriorated badly, this further exacerbated the already dire situation of civil servants of various government ministries both at national and at sub-national levels. The economic downturn affected people’s livelihood as cost of goods which are basically imported from the neighboring East African Countries of Kenya and Uganda soured. As prices continue to increase daily, staff salaries remained fixed. The research question was: what are the impacts of all forms of compensation on job satisfaction of teachers in Lakes State? The research was carried out in four schools within Rumbek Township and 42 teachers were reached out of the targeted population of 47 teachers. Purposive sampling was used to identify respondents and pretested questionnaires were shared with them. The resultant data was tabulated and analyzed. The findings showed lack of appropriate compensation which is embodied in the three predictor indicators (remuneration, supportive organization factors, demographic factors) and has caused unprecedented level of dissatisfaction among teachers. The predictor variables work in tandem to achieve a better job satisfaction for teachers or otherwise. Keywords: Compensation, Remuneration, job satisfaction, employee turnover, and employee wellness.  
59 Role of E-Commerce in the Economic Development of Nigeria , Article by Vincent Audu Adejoh
The main objective of the study is to investigate the impact of e-commerce on emerging market. The study aims at examine the role of electronic commerce in promoting the development of emerging online market firm. The study used a descriptive research design in gathering data from employee working in Konga. One Hundred and Twenty-Seven male and female employee working in this organization were involved in the study. The study participants were selected using convenience sampling techniques. The data gathered from the respondents were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. One hypothesis was tested using multiple regression analysis at 0.05% level of significant. The analysis reveals that e-commerce would significantly have influence {F (1,126) =25.270, R²=.168, P<0.05} on developing market of Konga online marketplace. In addition, the analysis shows that 16.8% variation in developing market of Konga online marketplace can be explained by the level of e-commerce adopted. E-commerce adoption strategies significantly improve the firm growth and development. It is recommended that more e-commerce promoting policy should be established to improve the level of e-commerce adoption in Nigeria. It is suggested that business firm should incorporate e-commerce related system to their business operation to boost the overall growth of Nigeria economy. Keywords: Electronic Commerce, Development, Performance, ICT, Emerging Market, Growth.  
60 Factors Affecting Technology Acceptance in Banking - A Case Study of the Ghanaian Banking Industry , Edmund Amponsah Opare  
The introduction of new technologies has changed the way services are rendered by majority of organizations. Mensah, (2012) defines electronic banking as the provision of new and conventional banking products and services specifically to clients through electronic correspondence channels, usually using the internet. Parameswaran, (2012) defines electronic banking as the provision of financial services for the individual clients through the internet. (Parameswaran, 2012) further explains that electronic banking also involves the transfers of funds through an exchange of electronic signals between financial institutions rather than using cheques or other documentation. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting the acceptance of technology in the Ghanaian Banking Industry. The methodology used in this study is questionnaire, survey and information from Eco bank’s website. The results of the studies showed that Eco bank is able to use its websites to advertise, provide information to their clients, sell products and reach new customers. Technological tools have also helped employees get task done more quickly and efficiently. This then translates into high profitability of Eco bank and hence high employee remuneration. Technology acceptance has made it simple to set up banking facilities in rural areas. Also through technology acceptance, the customers of Eco bank and the general public are able to access a branch for a variety of services through the convenience of home banking. Electronic financial services either by Internet or via mobile phone or other means of remote transmission or through smart cards has rapid expansion and has changed the nature of financial services around the world strongly. Keywords: modern business, information technology, economy, innovations, mobile banking and social influence.
61 The Paper Investigates the Role of Remote Working in Export Management, Determining How Virtual Organizations can Manage Remote Working Effectively , Seun Onakoya
Remote working is becoming a growing trend within all technological & organizational business. However, in Export Management, its growing trend has voiced concerns over the containment of remote working and the determined impact it has on business. Communication continues to involve in Export Management especially, with the explosion of technology has meant that flexible working legislations have been introduced. However, there are managerial personnel who adhere to remote working without determining the effect it has on export performance. There are number of factors that have not been addressed and this article looks to highlight & investigate the impact remote working has on export management, how it can be managed and the influence it has on effectiveness, productivity and sales in export organizations, not to mention from an employee personnel point of view, identifying the positive role remote working may have on employee personnel and whether it develops a positive working environment and determine the attitude towards personnel within Export Management organizations. Because many of these antecedents can be controlled managerially, these findings suggest important ways in which a remote employee's work performance can be enhanced, through the intermediary effect of improved remote work self‐efficacy. The research will be tested with self-efficacy theory and critical research & historical evidence to investigate the global impact remote-working employees have, a type of psychology model that determines the adoptions of positive psychology. The current study also provides a basis for future research in the remote work area through its development and testing of a remote management framework. Keywords: Self-efficacy, Remote, Communications, Performance, Global, Productivity.
62 An Evaluation of Commodity Supply Chain and Logistic Strategy for Internally Displaced Persons in Borno and Plateau State, Nigeria , Solomon Omede Abdul
This study is an attempt to evaluate the logistics and supply chain processes involved in providing humanitarian aid commodities for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Jos Plateau State, Central and Maiduguri Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria. The study was carried out in two IDP camps, one located in each of these two towns – Jos and Maiduguri, with the method of survey questionnaire which was administered to 60 respondents randomly selected from 200 state and non-state actors involved in the supplying of aid commodities to both camps at the time of this study. The findings uncover gaps between research and practice; providing new insights into human behaviour in the humanitarian aid commodity logistics and supply chain management. Explanations for these barriers and possible solutions to mitigate them are disclosed in the course of this study. The summary of the findings from the study are: Initial IDP needs assessments are not done, no clearly outlined national disaster management plans, the capacities of the state and non-actors inadequate and Logistics Service Providers generally ill equipped. It is in the opinion of this researcher that in order to ensure a very effective and efficient response to the needs of Internally Displaced Persons in Jos Central and Maiduguri North Eastern Nigeria the state and non-state actors must address the gaps identified in this research. Keywords: Camps, Conflict, Disaster, Displacement, Host Community, Humanitarian Logistics, Humanitarian Aid Commodities, Humanitarian Aid Worker, Internally Displaced Persons, Kampala Convention, Logistics Service Providers, State and non-state Actors and Supply Chain Management.
63 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Mobile Money on the Profitability of the Ghanaian Banking Industry , Edmund Amponsah Opare
Over the years, the evolution of and use of mobile phones and other mobile devices such as tablets has offered society the opportunity to access financial services such as mobile money. Mobile money allows one to transfer money or make payments with their mobile phone, in the comfort of their location and in a simple, fast, convenient and affordable way. This research sought to determine the effect of the evolution of mobile money services on traditional banking in Ghana. The article showed that mobile money is a viable tool for financial inclusion, it has improved efficiency of transactions, it has initiated some changes in traditional banking and has a generally positive impact on traditional banking in Ghana. Keywords: Mobile Phone, Mobile Money Transfer, Financial Inclusion, Mobile Money Subscribers, Ghanaian Economy, Threats, Business Activity, Payment Systems.  
64 The Influence of Top Management on Market Orientation in Malawi , Enwell Pickford Tomoka Kadango
The paper investigates the prevalence of market orientation in insurance industry in Malawi. It is a well-known fact that market orientation improves business performance because all the right actions relating to the market and consumers are well thought through. This being a behaviour construct requires the top leadership to be fully involved and walk the talk in leading the organization to drive the marketing agenda. The study aimed to find out the status of the insurance companies on market orientation while at the same time checking the influence of top leadership in the implementation of the marketing concept, a prerequisite for market orientation. MARKOR scale for assessing market orientation was used bearing in mind that some of its constructs review the cultural angle thereby revealing employee behaviour towards their drive to live and or implement the marketing concept. Survey was conducted in one insurance company under the case study research methodology using simple random sampling. Primary data collection was complemented with qualitative in-depth interviews at the same company. Analysis was done using SPSS tool version 20. The findings reveal that insurance companies in Malawi are market oriented. In addition, top leadership has strong influence on market orientation. Some shortfalls were identified for companies to work on to correct these shortfalls in order to achieve high-level market orientation. Keywords: market orientation, insurance marketing, marketing concept, top leadership and market orientation, influence of top leadership, insurance sector in Malawi.
65 Increasing Human Security to Disaster Risk Targeting Vulnerable Communities in the North of Haiti , Pierre Edwidge Moise
To date, much of the work on human security has focused on threats emerging from war and conflict. Disasters have largely been overlooked, despite being now identified by the international community as a major threat to human security. They cause many of the same problems as conflict - such as large scale destruction and extensive displacement and contribute to Human Rights violations and heightened vulnerability, especially of the most marginalized groups and individuals. Haiti is one of the most vulnerable countries to disasters in the world and the North Department is one of the most disaster prone areas in Haiti. In such a highly disaster prone country, preparedness and risk reduction are critical components of human security. From 1909 to 2013, Haiti has faced over 100 disasters primarily caused by hydro-meteorological hazards of which 30 cyclones, 47 extensive floods, 7 droughts and 2 earthquakes. Cyclones, landslides and droughts are the phenomena that most impact the agricultural sector, which represents the most important source of income for Haitian households. Since 1963, approximately 240,000 people have been killed and over 9,000,000 people have been affected by disasters in the country.  
66 Challenges and Strategies for Rapid Response in Disaster Relief Operations in Ghana , Japhet Baidoo
Natural disasters are catastrophes that are beyond the control of humans. However, the effects of natural disasters can be reduced through rapid response and effective post-disaster management strategies. This study examines the barriers to effective disaster relief operations in Ghana and propose strategies for ensuring efficient response in disaster relief operations. Questionnaires were used to obtain data from officials of ten major disaster relief organizations in Ghana. The study revealed a number of constraints affecting disaster relief operations in Ghana. Key among these are lack effective planning, lack of logistics, people’s behavior and perception and lack of coordination and corporation. Strategies for efficient disaster relief operations should include appropriate in-country training and education to personnel, proper coordination among stakeholders and improvement in logistical suppliers through increased funding for disaster relief organizations. Keywords: Natural Disasters and Catastrophes, Rapid Response, Disaster Relief Operations and Relief Organizations.  
67 Correlates of Consumer Patronage of Shopping Mall in Metropolitan Lagos , Bayero Usman Jaafaru  
The research is aimed at investigating the pattern and extent of relationship among factors that stimulate consumer patronage of shopping malls in metropolitan Lagos. The Study utilizes survey method with questionnaire and interview as the two instruments used in data collection. Analysis is done largely using descriptive statistics. Also a four point Likert scale is used to measure the variables which form the basis for the use of regression model as the sole tool used in hypothesis testing. Based on the survey of urban shoppers, the study analyses the cognitive attributes of the shoppers towards attractiveness of shopping malls and intensity of the shoppers. The results of the study revealed that ambience of shopping malls, assortment of stores; sales promotions and comparative economic gains in the malls attract higher customer traffic to the malls. The analysis also revealed that class difference of consumers play an important role in choosing shopping malls. In other words, the research reveals a significant relationship between shopping malls sales growth and middle and upper class patronage. The study recommends that Mall Managers should therefore develop appropriate tenancy policies for retaining firms in reference to the socio-demographic factors of customers to satisfy different segments. An appropriate mix of anchor tenants who have different target groups would better attract customers to shopping malls and such assortment of stores could co-exist in a shopping mall successfully without conflict of interest. Shopping mall managers should focus attention on providing information about retailer’s offers beforehand for the customers to make their purchase decision prior to mall visit. There is the need for shopping mall managements to increase social and recreational facilities which acts as driving factors in augmenting the customer’s traffic to the shopping malls. Also, there is the need for government to monitor the sitting of shopping malls in order to ensure adequate space and avoid congestion which is the major feature of traditional markets. Keywords: Correlate, Consumer, Patronage, Shopping, Mall, Product.  
68 Challenges of the Implementation of Water and Sanitation Projects in Gushegu District , Article by Richard Assibi Awini  
Achieving the goal and objectives of projects implemented remains the desire of project decision makers in the Gushegu district. The Gushegu district assembly in collaboration with the development partners have implemented water and sanitation projects in most of the communities in the district. However, many of these projects have not achieved their desired objective of ensuring availability of water and good sanitation due to varied challenges. There are many people especially in the rural areas in the district who still do not have access to drinking water all year-round while others are still living in very poor environment condition after decades of interventions in the area of water and sanitation. This research sort to uncover the main challenges of the implementation of these important projects aimed at leveraging the people from poverty and disease in the Gushegu district of the northern region of Ghana. The study found that inadequate commitment level of project staffs, lack of involvement of the project beneficiaries in planning and decision-making process and some cultural beliefs system of the people of Gushegu challenges the successes of the water and sanitation project implementations. Also, inadequate financial resources on the part of the Gushegu district assembly and unpredictable funds flow from the development partners as well weak monitoring of the planned implementation challenged the successes of the water and sanitation projects in the districts. Therefore, the Gushegu district assembly, the development partner in the water and sanitation area, the community members who are the direct beneficiaries needs to work towards behaviour change and re-examine the institutional partnership to succeed in these projects. Keywords: Sanitation, implementation, water challenges.  
69 Human Resource Management and Its Impact in Healthcare Services in Nigeria , Oyewole Oluwaseun Oduwusi
Human resource management in healthcare system play indispensable roles as it enable effective healthcare service delivery through staff performance monitoring and evaluation, compensation as well as recruitment of competent employee. This study reviewed the impact of practicing human resources management on the quality of healthcare service in proffering efficient treatment to patients. The study shows that effective human resources management great impact in efficient healthcare services and can significantly improve the performance of healthcare workers. The study recommends the necessity to measure the routine of the Head of human resources department in healthcare sectors before stabilizing performance development process as well as continuous improvement in staff capacity building for effective service delivery while more research should be done on this subject as it relates to patients’ safety. Keywords: Human resource management, health care services, Nigeria.  
70 The Impact of Electronic Banking on the Profitability of Banks: A Case Study of Banks in Ghana , Nii Kwartei Perry-Quartey
Electronic banking basically refers to performing banking functions or transactions using a smart technologically inclined device or the internet. Information Technology has recently influenced banking operations, transactions and service delivery. It has provided a channel through which banking is done in convenience, thereby, reducing customer queues in banking halls, administrative expenses and the complexities associated with traditional banking. However, the disadvantages of electronic banking are quite significant. They include unauthorized data access, data loss and fraudulent activities. Using the internet, banks display all relevant information regarding their products on their website which is easily accessible to customers. Through modern technology, branches are networked using terrestrial or satellite links such that customers can visit any branch of their bank to transact business and transfer funds both locally and internationally. This paper discusses e-banking, various definitions, examples, advantages and limitations, electronic banking in Ghana and its impact on the profitability of banks in the Ghanaian banking industry. From the study, e-banking adoption was a business strategy the bank used in response to customer needs and the changing marketing trends in the banking industry. Obviously, tremendous benefits such as revenue generation, improved productivity, efficient service delivery and cost savings accrue from e-banking. The lack of a solid technology infrastructure was identified as a major challenge of e-banking adoption in the country. Keywords: Electronic Banking, Efficient Service Delivery, Modern Banking, Convenient Banking, Customer Satisfaction, Banking Services.  
71 Correlation between Poor Socio-economic Background and Poor Academic Performance among Students at Tertiary Education in Tanzania , Crescent Ombay
The core goal and expectation of student at any given learning environment is to achieve the required level of academic performance. This is also true for both educators and parents/guardians. However, sometime this ambition comes in contrary to their former expectation due to different factors that affects students’ performance. Among the long list of factors for poor academic performance, social economic factor is reported to highly contribute. This factor is reported responsible for majority of students’ failure to pay their school fees in time. The major source (90%) of income for Private and Faith Based training institutions is from school fees. Often, there has been delay or failure in payment of school fee among students. The payment failure rate among many institutions is <50%; thus resulted to inconveniences on students study patterns. In the recent years, there has been an increased rate (11%) of academic failure among students in their tests, semester and final examinations. Institutional management and academicians have been putting great efforts to uplift level of students’ academic performance. Despite all these efforts, students’ academic performances are still not satisfactory. This article is particularly going to discuss the components of student’s economic backgrounds in relation with academic performance. The article looks on how the element of in time failure payment of school fee affects performance of the students. From this discussion, a constructive suggestion would be delivered accordingly to the respective stakeholders as a contributive solution to the problem under discussion. Keywords: Poor Socio-economic Background, in time failure payment of fee and Poor Academic Performance.  
72 The Effect of Microcredit on the Development of SMEs in Ghana: A Case Study of Ho District in the Volta Region , Edmund Amponsah Opare
Microfinance emerged as a noble substitute for informal credit and an effective and powerful instrument for poverty reduction among people, the objective of this study is to estimate the effects of micro credit on the development of SMEs in Ghana. A total of 171 respondents were selected by using random sampling technique were administered to MFI and SMEs at Ho in the Volta Region, for them to indicate their views on micro credit in the area and how to improve it. A structured schedule of questions was prepared for this purpose. The research instruments used in the study were questionnaires and interviews. Simple statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics including tables were used in analyzing and summarizing the data. It was noted that access to financial institutions products and services is a crucial element for the development of SMEs. Thus their sustainable growth will largely depend on the capacity of financial institutions to mobilize resources from low valued to high valued and invest in SMEs activities. However, inadequate collateral, difficulty of processes, fear of inability to repay, and high borrowing cost were frequently mentioned reasons by SMEs for inaccessibility of banks products and services. Finally, The National Board for Small Scale Industries (NBSSI) and other SMEs funding and promotion agencies should incorporate SMEs coping strategies into their policies, programs and orientate them to replicate these strategies for others to enable SMEs have flow of resources (inputs) for production. Keywords: Informal Credit, Economic Development, Income Generation, Industrialization, Economic Growth, Micro-Credit, Global Financial Systems, Alleviate Poverty.  
73 Stock Prices Reaction to Dividend Announcements in Ghana: An Empirical Investigations of Banks Listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange , Nii Kwartei Perry-Quartey
The paper investigates how stock price react to dividends announcement the Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) from 2015 - 2017. It focused on examining the reaction of share prices to dividend announcement using a sample of six banks (financial institution enlisted on the GSE from 2015 – June 2017. The methodology and the market model are used in estimating the abnormal and the cumulative abnormal return for -10 days before and +10 days after the announcement date. The overall findings of the study showed that share prices react to dividend announcement though not instantly. It is observed that the average abnormal returns and the cumulative average abnormal returns for all the days before, on and after the day of dividend announcement are statistically significant and positive. It is expected that this study would help most investors to know the level of efficiency on the Ghana Stock Exchange. It suggests that in addition to the recent electronic trading development on the GSE, there is the need to further improve the quality, quantity and reliability of information on listed firms disclosed to the public. Keywords: Dividend, Dividend Announcement, Efficient Market Hypothesis, Market Efficiency, Stock Prices, Stock Returns.  
74 Market Orientation in Service Industry: Banking and Insurance Sectors in Malawi , Enwell Pickford Tomoka Kadango
The study was conducted to assess the marketing orientation for Malawian companies. Business performance is linked to market orientation hence it is important for companies to display the behaviour that is in keeping with this phenomenon. Malawi being a least developed country has its industry sector contribution key to its economic growth. Such industry need to contribute positively to help push the economic growth of the country. Marketing orientation has proved to be important in driving such business growth through the implementation of the marketing concept. The aims for this study was to find out if companies in Malawi are market oriented. The gap that existed on the Malawi market was that no such research has been done in Malawi before and this study aimed to bridge that gap and help companies realize the importance of being market oriented. The objectives of the study included as assessment of the market orientation of companies in Malawi, Resourcing of the marketing department tasked with the implementation of the marking concept and if the marketing concept is fully implemented in the companies in Malawi. The final objective was to check if MKTOR and MARKOR scales used for assessing market orientation give similar conclusion on market orientation.  
75 Venture Capital Financing for Innovative Start-up Companies in Nigeria , Theophine U. Achugbu  
This study investigates the impact of venture capital (VC) financing on the growth of innovative start-up companies in Nigeria. The number of people that are extremely poor has fallen in all regions of the world except Sub-Saharan Africa. This has triggered a reinvigorated discourse, internationally, on the strategy to reduce poverty rate in the continent. Many African countries including Nigeria have taken bold steps towards crafting strategies to promote inclusive growth that incorporates private sector development. Supporting entrepreneurship by providing appropriate funding is one of the strategies. In developed countries, venture capital has significant impact on the performance of start-ups. In contrast, the performance of venture capital in developing countries especially Nigeria has been unsatisfactory. Venture capital industry in Nigeria is relatively nascent. Exploratory research design was employed in this study due to the fact that venture capital is relatively an unknown area in Nigeria. This study adopted an inductive research approach. In addition, qualitative research method was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out to collect qualitative data and the data was subsequently analysed using content analysis method. A sample of 30 start-ups from a total population of 120 start-ups in Onitsha, Awka, Nnewi and Abuja was randomly drawn using systematic sampling technique. Qualitative data analysis was performed using NVivo which is a comprehensive qualitative data analysis software package. NVivo software was used to organize and analyse in-depth interviews, field notes and textual sources. It was found that venture capital financing has an impact on the growth of innovative start-ups. The use of VC financing increased profitability, spurs employment growth, boosted asset base, and improved the quality of management for VC-backed start-ups. Taking into account this positive trend in enterprise sustainability, it was concluded from the study that Venture capital-backed start-ups will make more meaningful contributions to the society. These contributions could be in form of improvement in productivity, reduction in poverty rate, paying taxes to government and overall growth of the economy. The recommendation from the study was that there should be an enabling environment for VC investments to blossom. Keywords: Venture capital finance, start-up companies, entrepreneurship, innovation.  
76 Embracing Technology Advancement in Banks for the Marketing Orientation Efforts in Malawi , Enwell Pickford Tomoka Kadango
“What helps people helps business.” Leo Burnett. This paper investigates the implementation of the marketing concept thereby allowing entrenchment of marketing orientation in the service industry in Malawi. Of the service industry, banking was the focus in this study to see how marketing orientation and technology have enabled the implementation of the marketing concept. If businesses including banks are to be marketing oriented, they must implement fully the marketing concept. In doing so, they must have the marketers at the top table. This article aims to review the use and embracement of technology in banks to enhance its marketing orientation. The investigation was done through qualitative methodology where top-marketing executives in the banks participated in the study in depth interviews. Top marketing executives were interviewed using a discussion questionnaire to understand the organizations structure, technology in use and the level of involvement in decision-making. Data analysis made use of thematic grouping to gain the direction, behavior and practice in the banking industry to determine the level of marketing professionals’ engagement in decision-making and technological use in the same efforts that relate to marketing orientation and implementation of the marketing concept. Generally, the banking industry does not have a fully-fledged and well-resourced marketing department that would effectively implement the marketing concept thereby being fully marketing oriented. Lack of resources both financial and human capital for marketing department is apparent in the banking sector. Keywords: marketing orientation, marketing concept, banking technology, banking services  
77 Significance of Market Segmentation to Strategic Marketing in Nigeria and its Impact on Global Education, Research and Technology for Sustainable Development , Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu  
The growth, profit and survival of any firm irrespective of its policies relies positively on how well the consumers wants and needs are satisfied by the firm’s products or services and this can inversely be improved by global education, research and technology for sustainable development. It is through marketing that a firm can identify and offer products that will satisfy the wants and needs of customers or consumers and also cause sustainable growth and development. By tailoring marketing programs to individual marketing segments, management can do a better marketing job and make more efficient use of marketing resources. This study then seeks to look at the application of market segmentation and its significance to strategic marketing in Nigeria and how it can improve global education, research and technology for sustainable development by using a case study of Kaduna Flour Mill. Detailed and current background information about Kaduna Flour Mill and their products was obtained while personal interviews were conducted at different locations in the metropolis to ascertain the extent to which the company applies market segmentation in marketing their numerous products. However, the findings of this research study are analyzed and discussed in chapter four while conclusion and recommendation were drawn and made in chapter five. The micro environment includes, naturally, actors like customers, suppliers and intermediaries, competitors, as well as investors and financial institutions, and in addition also the media, communities, the government, different interest groups and the public. Customers, regardless whether they are individual consumers, other businesses, retailers or public service providers, can probably be regarded as the most important factor when considering the strategic approach to sustainable development.  
78 Assessing the Impact of Venture Capital Financing on Growth of SMEs , Eric Kwame Buah  
This paper assesses the impact of Venture Capital financing on growth of SMEs. Government all of the world are seeking to improve unemployment situation in their respective countries. One of the numerous ways governments can use to reduce unemployment is to ensure there is more SMEs and also accelerating it growth. This study therefore examining the impact of venture capital financing on growth of SMEs. Data for this study was collected from 40 SMEs who are being financing from the venture capital funds. The instrument used was mainly questionnaire. Descriptive statistics like frequency, mean score and percentages were the statistical tools used. ANOVA and regression were the inferential statistical tools used to ascertain the impact of venture capital financing on growth of SMEs. The main aim of this paper was to examine the impact of Venture Capital financing on the growth of SMEs. The study found that businesses have expanded, improved in the profitability, number of employees have gone up due to VCF financing. The study also found that VCF has significant influence on the performance of SMEs. The study found that most of the businesses have turnovers low the threshold of World Bank. It is therefore recommended that fund managers will intensify their advisory role to ensure that businesses increase their turnovers. Keywords: Venture Capital, Financing, and growth of SMEs.  
79 Politicization of Education: A Bane to Ghana’s Educational System and a Threat to Sustainable Development , Benjamin Ashitey Amarh
The article underlines the threats to sustainable development because of the politicization of the educational system of Ghana. This paper also highlights the point that there is a correlation between national development and a nation’s achievement in education. This is actually one of the explanations why most advanced nations put in so much resource in the education of its citizenry. Definitely with a high probable expectation of developing its infrastructural and human capital for national growth. This is so because of the fact that the education of the people in a nation is a sure bet of the rate of that nation’s growth in both economically and sustainable development and the catalyst that brings about the needed revitalization of the people that makes up the nation. It also the force that forms a wall for a nation’s defense. This therefore supports the perception that a nation’s growth is always equal to the level of its intellects. In light of the above, there is the need for successive governments to always accord education the necessary support in terms of policy formulation and implementation, continuity of policy and proper management of government allocated fund to make the educational sector not only vibrant but also beneficial. Politicization of the Ghanaian educational system has been and continues to be a bane to education in Ghana as well as a threat to the sustainable development of the country and there is the urgent need to combat this menace before it gets out of hand. To avert this, useful recommendations are made. Keywords: Politicization of Education, Sustainable Development, Ghana.  
80 National Culture and Modern Business Ethics in MNCS in Ghana-An Analysis , Philip Spitta Ansah
This study had the aim of examining the influence that national cultures have on the formulated business ethics and codes of conduct being implemented in multinational corporations. It is an undeniable fact that individual employees who make up the workforce come from different cultural backgrounds and orientations. In the light of this, it became more interesting to find out if their cultural backgrounds affect their ability to adhere to the ethics of the organizations they work for. The focus was on the national culture of Ghana and the imported business ethics by the management of multinational organizations operating in the country. Hofstede’s groundbreaking work and the GLOBE expanded scope study remains the largest study to examine national culture with selected countries specifically for the purpose of providing valuable guidance to individuals seeking to work effectively across such differences.The result as put forward by the various research data on this subject especially from Hofstede and the GLOBE shows that the national culture of Ghana does not necessarily affect the implementation and enforcement of the corporate ethics in multinational firms operating in Ghana. On the contrary, most of the multinational organizations come from a very strong and regulated corporate ethics environment established by legal regimes in their home country. It is also worth noting that most of the multinational firms conduct orientation for new employees and occasionally for old staff as well. Keywords: Corporate Business Ethics, National Culture, Ghana, Employee orientation, organizational culture, Multinational corporations.  
81 Factors Affecting the Implementation of Accrual-Based International Public Sector Accounting Standards (AIPSAS) in Ghana , Joseph Kwasi Agyemang  
In recent times, the significance of Accrual-based Public Sector Accounting Standards (AIPSAS) in financial reporting is gaining momentum and current debates are moving in the trend of full AIPSAS reporting. The move to new reporting standards results in numerous challenges. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the factors affecting the implementation of Accrual-Based International Public Sector Accounting Standards (AIPSAS) in the Municipal, Metropolitan and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. A questionnaire which was quantitative in nature was used to collect the data from the respondents. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 480 accounting practitioners. Pearson regression analysis was used to analyse the results. The study showed that there is a significant positive relationship between level of accounting education and training and the implementation of AIPSAS with a regression coefficient of 0.295, and P-value of 0.000. There is also a significant positive relationship between different levels of costs and implementation of AIPSAS with a regression coefficient of 0.627, and P-value of 0.000.It could be concluded that the level of accounting education and training and the different level of costs affect the implementation of AIPSAS in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Therefore, the study recommends improving capacity building through training and education and establishment of strong financial reporting standards’ enforcement body. The study again recommends inclusion of IPSAS in the academic curricula, inclusion of IPSAS implementation fund in the District Assemblies Common Fund (DACF). Keywords: Accrual-Based International Public Sector Accounting Standards, Implementation, Challenges, Accounting Education and Training, Costs.  
82 The Impact of Botswana Being an Upper Middle Income Country on the Relationship with Development Partners in Achieving Development Excellence , Dorcas Elisa Sebina  
Botswana is a landlocked, politically stable, democratic and growing steady economically. It gained its independence from the British in September 1966 and in the subsequent years gained a distinction for the fastest growth in per capita income in the world. This led to the country being upgraded to an Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC) in 2007. Together with the support of aid from the British government and aid from other countries after independence, the discovery of diamonds in 1967 also contributed significantly to the country’s economic growth rate. The country’s performance has consistently reflected good governance, political stability and leadership committed to strong institutions and development over the years. This study is to determine if there has been a change between the government of Botswana and its development partners since its upgrading. The results of the study indicated that the relationship between Botswana and the United Nations (UN) as one of the development partners has not changed significantly since Botswana’s upgrading to an Upper Middle-Income Country. It however emerged that the level of financial and human resource assistance has tapered down significantly. The study revealed that there is significant confidence in Botswana’s ability to attain its National Development Agenda despite the inability to clearly articulate its new priorities as an Upper Middle Income Country. It was recommended that Botswana align its development priorities to its new status as a UMIC status and initiate platforms and forums to clearly communicate these priorities. This will assist in the transformation of the relationship to a more mature collaborative relationship. Keywords: United Nations, Upper-Middle-Income-Country, National Development Agenda, good governance, economic growth, diamonds revenue, Development Partners, National Development Plans, Sustainable Development Goals, Implementing Partners.  
83 Strategic Management Practices and Barriers in Rural SMEs , Vishvanath K.P.V. Doerga  
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) make up the majority of business entities in the region and contribute significantly to revenue generation and employment. For SMEs to be profitable and to grow into larger corporate entities, a significant amount of management capacity is required. As a SME owner, private sector leader and management student, the author has recognised a significant gap which exists between SMEs and the knowledge required by owners to deploy an effective company strategy to maximise potential of a business. The purpose of this research study is to examine the need for this gap to be addressed, the level of strategic thinking among owners which exists –if any; and the barriers to its inclusion by SMEs in Guyana. By investigating and studying twenty three (23) organisations in a rural community, reference was made to both quantitative and qualitative data from respondents in the context of management knowledge literature of SMEs. Host country and knowledge provider perspectives were also considered. The results of the research confirmed the limited to average level of strategic thinking which currently exists in the majority of SMEs. By addressing the identified knowledge gap all the parties involved including the SMEs, the host country and the knowledge providers are likely to benefit significantly in terms of increased revenues, profits and employment.  
84 Customer Feedback Utilization: The Case of a Telecommunication , Annie Babah Alargi  
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate how data from customer feedback is utilized by the Telco and translated into strategies and competency based actions to address customer needs and service concerns. Problem statement: Whereas customers are displeased with cost of services, limited network service coverage, long queues and poor connectivity, this Telco have focused on basic elements of service including greeting, smiling, making the customer feel comfortable at their service centres and enticing them with discounts and promotions. Methodology: A mixed method of qualitative and quantitative research was used. Using purposive sampling, two homogeneous groups were selected; the first was semi-structured interviews with five managers. Secondly, closed ended questionnaires were dispensed to a quota sample of 20 affluent customers. Findings: This Telco giant mainly collects customer feedback through call centres, social media, direct customer engagement, close-loop feedback system. However the feedback is not adequately utilized because it does not favour the Telco relatively to profit optimization and in some cases involve new system infrastructure. Research limitations: The study focused on one giant Telco within the industry in Ghana believed to have best practices that can be generalised to other Telcos in market. Selection of only affluent customers represents a deeper understanding of customer satisfaction issues. Practical implications: whereas this Telco believes that it is delivering the best of service to its customers by smiling at them, greeting, making them feel welcome and rewarding them with promotional gifts and discounts, the customers on the other hand, believes that the service the Telcos are offering are “must be” and that, these are basics of service, hence what they expect including improved network coverage, decrease in high cost of voice calls, seamless connectivity and zero interruptions in service transactions are not what they are actually experiencing to enable their satisfaction. Originality: While this paper is the first to consider customer feedback utilization of a conglomerate Telco in Ghana, it also measured the service competency based actions that is implemented to provide superior service experiences to its customers. Keywords: customer service experience, service value, service management, customer expectations, customer desires, customer delight.  
85 Managing the Implementation of a School Curriculum in Malawi: Challenges and Policy Implications , Byson Colyns Sabola
The study was conducted to investigate how the implementation of the Malawi senior secondary school revised curriculum was managed by exploring the underlying factors behind the students’ poor academic performance in Social and Development Studies (SDS) national examinations. To accomplish this purpose, the study examined the challenges faced by teachers in their teaching of SDS and assessed the effectiveness of the supervisory and advisory support provided to teaches by heads of department and head teachers. The study further explored the policy implications of the experienced challenges for curriculum implementation. The study took a qualitative approach and used face-to-face interviews to collect data from teachers, Heads of Department and Head teachers in eight secondary schools in South Eastern Education Division. The findings revealed that the implementation of SDS faced a number of challenges such as lack of teaching and learning materials including textbooks, lack of trained teachers, and lack of in-service training for the practising teachers who were assigned to teach the subject. In addition, teachers were not given adequate supervisory and advisory support by heads of departments, head teachers and school inspectors. The study concluded that the introduction of the revised senior secondary school curriculum was poorly managed such that the schools did not have adequate capacity to successfully implement the teaching of newly introduced subjects like SDS. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should ensure that, in future, implementation of a new curriculum is adequately planned for in terms of availability of instructional materials, specialised teachers and in-service training for teachers as well as provision of adequate teacher supervisory and advisory support by heads of department, head teachers and school inspectors. Keywords: curriculum implementation, teacher factors, continued professional development, instructional materials, specialist teachers, in-service training.  
86 Value for Money in Provision of Services in the Public Sector of Uganda , Benson Benedict Okech  
Value for money has increasingly become a contentious and very prominent subject in the development agenda both within developed and developing Economies. Donor groups and community consider value for money when allocating budgets and other resources to developing countries. The study examined value for money in the provision of services in the public sector of Uganda. The general objective of the study was to evaluate value for money in the provision of services. The study was guided by three specific objectives which were; to examine effectiveness in the provision of services in the public sector of Uganda; to assess efficiency in the provision of services in the public sector of Uganda and to evaluate economy in the provision of services in the public sector of Uganda. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect primary data from the respondents while secondary data were collected through literature reviews and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study findings show that economy as one of the pillars of value for money was the least consideration and therefore, not practiced in the public sector of Uganda. Meanwhile, efficiency was the most practiced element of value for money and followed very closely with effectiveness. The conclusion is that there is no value for money from the provision of service in the public sector of Uganda. The study recommends that MDAs and Local governments should operationalize the concept of value for money and make it well understood across the three spheres of government; review alternatives including considering making inter-ministerial and departmental use of skilled resources which are in short supply to delivery on required projects; and above all, ensure that the anticipated benefits from the services outweighs the costs of acquiring the services. Keywords: Value for Money, Economy, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Procurement of services, Public Sector, Uganda.  
87 Effects of Leadership Styles on Organisational Performance in Ahantaman Rural Bank Limited , Augustine Ngmentomo Beakana  
The study was intended to investigate the effects of leadership styles on organizational performance in Ahantaman Rural Bank from 2013 to 2016. The study also sought to investigate any relationships between leadership styles and overall performance of the Bank. The main objective of the study was to investigate what type (s) of leadership style (s) led to improved organizational performance in the Bank. The specific objectives of the study were to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance and the type of leadership style (s) that lead to improved organizational performance. The study adopted a total population sampling approach to data collection. Among the leadership styles investigated, transformational leadership style obtained the highest raw score of 350 representing 22 percent of the total population investigated. Transactional, democratic, autocratic and laisez-faire leadership styles followed in that order. Thus, it was found that the most dominant and preferred leadership style in the Bank was transformational leadership style. This leadership style led to improved and consistent performance of the Bank. The study concluded that there was a direct relationship between leadership styles and performance of the Bank. Assessment of the key performance indicators of the Bank and the consistent improvements in these indicators supported the assertion that there is a direct relationship between organizational performance and leadership styles. It is suggested that the scope of this study should be expanded by future researchers who intend to investigate the same subject. The expansion will lead to generalizability of the findings. Keywords: Leadership style, Organizational performance, performance indicators.  
88 Synergies from Mergers and Acquisitions: A Study of Ecobank Ghana Limited and the Trust Bank , Daniel Kwabla- King  
The Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) the national Pension Scheme managers in Ghana with significant stake in the Ghanaian banking industry, in the year 2011 made a strategic move to drive bank consolidation in Ghana through the swapping of its shares in The Trust Bank (TTB) for ETI’s shares in Ecobank Ghana Limited (EBG). This study was set examine whether synergies were derived from the merger. It also examined whether the objectives set by SSNIT were met and finally determine whether the bank has remained competitive after the merger. The approach used for the study was quantitative technique and case study which concluded that the merger of Ecobank Ghana Limited and TTB achieved the intended results for SSNIT. Keywords: Synergies, Merger, Acquisition, Ecobank Ghana Limited, the Trust Bank, SSNIT, Ghana.  
89 Evaluating 4 Years’ Cost of Managing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Pandemics using Enterprise Resource Planning for Supply Chain Management in Nigeria , Theophilus Faruna, Dimitris Folinas
For over three decades the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) held humanity in captivity. Before 1990, HIV was a fairy tale in Nigeria. However, by 2000, HIV had become a public health concern with efforts to reduce the burden on people living with the virus. It started with a prevalent rate of 1.8% in 1991, peaked at 5.8% in 2001 before the decline. The cost of providing screening rapid test kits over four years was examined to explore the areas where enterprise resource planning (ERP) could be used to scale down the cost of HIV commodities management in Nigeria. Procurement, warehousing, distribution, and collection of logistics management information system data were examined. Management of HIV RTKs with and without ERP was compared. The result showed that without ERP, there was an increased cost of labor, recording errors, and poor data for decision-making. With ERP, it was different. Study was done for RTKs, there is room to do for other HIV commodities. Though initial cost of deploying ERP was high, on the long-run has cost benefit. Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning; Logistics Management Information System; HIV Commodities; HIV Rapid Test Kits Algorithm; Supply Chain Performance Measures; Impact of HIV Pandemic.  
90 Relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance in Multi-Purpose Co-Operative Societies, Lagos, Nigeria , Akinade, Simeon Adebisi
In the light of corporate financial scandals, there is an ever increasing attention on corporate governance issues. As the investors look for emerging economies to diversify their investment portfolios to maximize returns, they are equally concerned about governance factors to minimize risks in these economies. The Government of Nigeria and other stakeholders have therefore directed their effort in enhancing Corporate Governance in various organizations. This became the motivation of this study, which is focused on examining the relationship between Corporate Governance and Financial Performance of multipurpose Cooperative Societies in Lagos State Nigeria. A cross sectional research design was used for the research study, with the aid of secondary data. The purposive sampling techniques were adopted for the study. Two (2) multipurpose Cooperative Societies were selected based on the availability of their financial statements. The data obtained were analyzed using the STATA software. From the analyses, it was established that, Corporate Governance has no significant effect on the financial performance of these multipurpose Cooperative Societies. However, it impacted positively on diligence of procedures, records kept and conduct of daily business. The researcher however opined that the radical improvement noticed in the level of governance and financial ethics introduced by the various regulatory authorities should be maintained at all levels of stewardship in organizations.  
91 The Core Critical Areas for Innovation to Sustain Business Growth: Management Implications and Business Outputs , Abena Pokuaa Ackah
In an age of increasing dependence on new trends and ideas, innovation has become a critical conduit for the thrust of business growth. Also, technological advancement and its rapid accompanying challenges of similar products and services make it indispensably necessary to create new ideas to facilitate the development or augmentation of new/existing products, services, processes, and procedures to sustain business growth. This article examines the varying views on types of business innovation; eliciting the key concepts underpinning these viewpoints, and argues that the areas for business innovation espoused by the different proponents are dispersal and lack precise focus. The article further establishes that innovative approach to promote business growth ought to be simplistic and clear in focus. It posits innovation in the construct of the core business functions – product delivery, service delivery, process delivery and people delivery for which; the author names as ‘The 4Ds of Innovation’ and stipulates that these are the fundamental elements underpinning the promotion of business growth. The author further argues that a business entity can maximize its business growth if innovative activities were specifically directed in these critical areas. The paper provides a conceptual framework for innovative activities as well as innovation audit matrix to monitor innovative activities within the organizational setup; suggesting a more simplistic approach that ensures continuous focus on the core critical areas, and bringing in management logic interventions to stimulate innovation and promote business growth. Keywords: core, critical areas, innovation, business growth, strategic outputs, and management implications.  
92 Global Education, Research and Technology for Sustainable Development , Gwagsi Lois Ebkhah  
The purpose of this research is geared towards understanding how key factors such as global education, research and technology, can influence sustainable development – which is, according to the Brundtland Report of 1987, “the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The immense depletion of natural resources and high levels of pollution derived from human and climatic activities are a major concern in recent times. International organizations, states, nations and individuals have to put hands on deck to ensure a balanced society by seeking ways to sustain developmental efforts across the globe, through education, research and technology. The outgrowing female folk, according to world population statistics, is drawing our attention to investing in their advancement, prior to the need for massive global development. Hence, education of the woman should be focused upon as an enormous initiative towards achieving developmental sustainability. Amongst other standardized methods, a qualitative research was conducted using random sampling approach through questionnaires, to obtain data. Positive indicators of the aforementioned study carried out, demonstrates that a rapidly evolving worldwide economy can hardly disregard the concepts of global education, research and technology, when addressing issues of sustainable development. Sustainable development safeguards the immediate interests of the present, and guarantees a stable socio-cultural environment for future generations. Thus regulating and striking the balance between what is to be developed and what is to be sustained. Keywords: Global education, Research, Technology, Sustainable development.  
93 Raising Financial Reporting Standard and the Financial Stability for Banks: A Case of Commercial Banks in Sierra Leone , Peter M Kamara  
This article looks at two broad-spectrum of financial management discipline; the first one examines the financial stability of commercial banks by analysing their published financial statement to test their stability in the market place before the Ebola scourge. This paper focus on the Sierra Leone Company’s Act 2009 and relevant Sections of the Banking Acts of Sierra Leone to analysis its alignment with the reporting standards of its financial statement produced by various firms in compliance with the IFRS standards. This report tests the financial stability of seven commercial banks in Sierra Leone with the major financial ratios used, especially the z-score analysis that check the financial stress of a firm. Keywords: Profitability, Liquidity, Stress test, Financial Performance, Return on Capital Employed, Z-Scores, and financial statement analysis.
94 Globalization and Collective Bargaining In Nigeria , Okache Susan Ochotukpo  
This review basically was script, review and to critic the article ‘Globalization and Collective Bargaining in Nigeria’, which was gotten from the European Journal of Business and Management. The steps in which the article will be reviewed as follows: summary of the article, looked at a brief analysis of the structure of the article, examine the information, setting and how effectual it is to the reader. Also, reviewed key points (Labor, Globalization, Collective Bargaining and Industrial Action. This article shows the extent of how globalization had aided or hindered collective bargaining in Nigeria and the setbacks it creates and not the positive influence. Another hand, to evaluate the literature review to check source and reliability of the information used for the article. Other aspect of the review will be done on the authority of the article, to assert the authenticity of the document, the currency, objectivity, accuracy, relevance and importance of the article will be critic and reviewed. The content of the article spoke to the title of the article, spoke to three core contents that defined and explained the effect of globalization to collection bargaining in Nigeria.  
95 An Assessment of Public Private Partnership and Social Service Reform in Nigeria: 1999-2007 , Nebo Sandra Ogochukwu, Nnamani, Desmond Okechukwu, Ituma, Afam.O  
The provision of infrastructure in any developing nation especially third world countries is the backbone of the country’s national economy. The government at all levels is responsible to provide infrastructure via dependence on loans and credits from financial institutions, the requirement for the infrastructure deficit is such that cannot be met by relying on the public sector to boost public investment without increasing public borrowing. The exclusive funding of social services in Nigeria was a challenge in early 80s; the economy co-opted International Monetary Fund (IMF) and Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) to disengage social service delivery. The premise of global economic meltdown declined the revenue base and source of income as a means of funding social services in Nigeria. Public Private Partnership initiative has the prospect to attain financial constraints to improve the framework for business environment. The paper examines the link between PPP and social service delivery in Nigeria, and recommends that government should put more efforts to improve the level of awareness on the involvement of private sector in the provision of infrastructure through public enlightenment locally and internationally stating the benefits both for citizens and investors. Keywords: Social Service, Revenue, Policy, Financial crises, Reforms.  
96 Human Capacity Building in Nigerian Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAS) , Nebo Ogochukwu Sandra, Ituma, Afam .O, Nnamani, Desmond Okechukwu  
The efficiency and effectiveness in every Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs) depends on the right quality of people packaged and utilized to increase output. The bureaucratic and administrative theory as propounded by “Weber” states that recruitment and selection into public organization is embedded on qualification, experience and competency as avenue for sustainable development. Undoubtedly, meritocracy has been buried on the altar of mediocrity; square peg has been paired in a round hole of plural entity. The ideology of federal character principle, quota system, and political god fatherism on the aegis of tribe, sex and religious affiliation is a bearing to secure job in Nigeria. Theoretically, it is no longer right quality human capacity recruitment; it is cognitive melodrama of man-no-man syndrome is an edge to get job in Nigerian public sector whether experienced or inexperienced. The paper explores the concept, performance and challenges affecting human capacity in Nigeria and system theory were adopted as framework. The paper suggests ways to enhance improvement on human capacity in Nigeria MDAs. Keywords: Departments, Ministries, Agencies, Utilization and Development  
97 Evaluation of Good Financial Health Management Practices and its contribution to Program Implementation Rate for Small NGOs Supported by Donors in Malawi , Jones Stevelio Stamalevi, Malawi  
Financial health management practices involves the management of the six key variables according to this research work which includes budgeting and planning, accounting system, internal control, financial reporting, grant management and staffing. Most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) do not manage these variables and this has been a major obstacle to their programs implementation rate. The study evaluates the effects of financial health management practices on implementation rate for NGOs. The study utilized a diagnostic research design and it’s a single case study targeted Malawi Girl Guide association (MAGGA) one of the NGO listed and registered in Malawi. Data was obtained through questionnaire and from document analysis of consolidated financial reports of years ending December: 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on the data to determine the relationships between components of financial health management practices and the program implementation rate of the NGO. The study established that financial health management practices was strongly related to high implementation rate. Implementation rate of an NGO depends upon effective financial health management practices. Furthermore, contrary to the expectation of the researcher, the research has further established that donors also contribute to poor implementation rate by late funding the NGOs supplemented by lack of program monitoring visits, spot check and lack of capacity building for implementing NGOs. These are the major constraints the NGOs face when implementing donor funded programs. The study therefore recommended that NGOs should focus on strengthening financial health management practices and encourage donors to disburse funds on time and make sure to carry out assurance activities like program monitoring, spot check visits, auditing and capacity building to minimise financial risks. Keywords: Planning and Budgeting; Accounting system, Grant management, Internal Control; Financial Reports, Staffing, Implementation rate, Nongovernmental Organization
98 The Impact of Budgeting and Budgetary Control on the Liquidity Levels of Non Profit making Organizations in Uganda , Bombo Henry Lubega  
This study was conducted using Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) as the Case study. A sound and effective budgeting system is based upon certain prerequisites/or conditions. Failure to observe and appreciate these essentials will render the budgeting exercise ineffective (Arora, 1995). It was against this background that the study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of IDI budget systems and its impact on the liquidity levels of the Institution. The respondents were selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Descriptive and Associational research designs were adopted with Data gathered through Questionnaires and interview guides. The SPSS technique was used to establish the relationship between Budgeting systems and liquidity levels. The major findings from the research study indicated that the budgeting systems used were inapt. It was also revealed that, there exists a positive relationship between Budgeting systems and control and liquidity level. In this respect, it was concluded that though many other factors were pointed out as possible causes of the declining levels of liquidity in the Institution between 2010 and 2014, poor budget systems and budget control strategies were largely held responsible. Considering the persistent declining liquidity trend, a new approach of budgeting which encourages improvement by eliminating inefficiencies and wasteful expenditure should be adopted.  
99 The Role of Community-Based Forest Management on the Awareness of Watershed Protection and Conservation , Gerald T. Malabarbas and Novlloyd E. Celeste  
Watersheds play an important role in our ecological system especially to the communities surrounding it. In the Philippines, domestic, industrial water and irrigation systems were supplied by watersheds. However, not all watersheds are truly protected even though there are several community-based forest management programs implemented. Thus, this study tries to elicit the role of community-based forest management on the awareness of watershed protection and conservation. In particular, it tries to 1) generate baseline data on the demographic, livelihood activities, resources used of the communities living within the watershed area of Calbayog Pan-as Falls Hayiban Protected Landscape (CPHPL); 2) determine the relationship of the respondents’ profile to their level of awareness of watershed and to their existing watershed protection and conservation practices; and 3) recommend programs and policy that would strengthen community-based forest management protection. The study was conducted in the five upland communities of CPHPL, namely: Sitio Pena 2, Cango-maud, Danao 2, San Rufino and Cag-anahaw. A descriptive-survey was used to assess the relationship of awareness of watershed protection and demographic profile. Results show that educational attainment has a significant relationship (0.05% level) to the level of awareness on watershed roles and functions in the environment among the upland communities. This is despite most of the respondents (56.5%) have obtained primary education. This means, awareness of existing watershed protection and conservation practices helps educate the people about watershed conservation and protection. In fact, the presence of community-based forest management program made the community moderately aware (33.2%) about watershed protection. Keywords: watershed, watershed protection, watershed conservation, forest  
100 Improving Dining Hall Attendance among Female Students in Public Co-Educational Secondary Boarding Schools in Ghana – The Case of Aggrey Memorial Secondary School , Freda Kabuki Ocansey  
Management of Ghanaian public secondary boarding schools, particularly the co-educational ones is often faced with the problem of irregular attendance of female boarding students to the dining hall. Attendance to the dining hall is important because it ensures that the student is well fed and also benefits from the socialization and other experiences that attending dining hall sessions regularly bring. This action research was undertaken to identify and put in place specific strategies that will encourage regular dining hall attendance of female boarding students of one public co-educational secondary school where the problem has been reported to exist. The intention was to use the findings and recommendations as a guide to management of schools who are experiencing a similar problem. A sample of 152 female second and third year boarding students of Aggrey Memorial Secondary School in Cape Coast, Ghana, was picked for each of the two tests, that is, the pre-intervention and the post-intervention tests. The sample was made up of 66 second year and 86 third year students. Both pre-intervention and post-intervention data were gathered using the same self-administered questionnaire. The pre-intervention test gathered evidence to ascertain the level of the problem whilst the post-intervention test demonstrated the extent to which interventions identified and applied helped to ameliorate the situation. Data gathered at both stages were converted into frequencies and percentages for analysis. The pre-intervention test revealed irregular attendance to dining sessions due to reasons which students saw as unattractive conditions in the dining hall. Post-intervention test saw a remarkable improvement in the situation. The study concluded that an attempt to make the dining hall a more pleasant and comfortable place to eat and socialize will encourage students to be more regular as required. Keywords: Co-educational boarding schools, female student, dining hall attendance  
101 Impact of Logistics Outsourcing Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda , Abaniwonnda Azeezah Osaro
This task carried out is a review of the article titled ‘Impact of Logistics Outsourcing Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda’. The oil and gas industry globally has logistics cost as a vital component of its total cost that varies with the various level of economic activities, depending on level and nature of their production function. In an effort to achieve overall objective and attain targeted performance level of firms leads to outsourcing as an option for firms. The uniqueness of   logistic is not only that is a cost element that can affect profitability, competitiveness and strategic position of individual firms, but creating obligation for contract with prospective suppliers to maintain continuous production. As a result of contractual and price uncertainties, a major technical issue in outsourcing is risk taking and depending  on the level of risk a firm can take.  The role of the producing segment of the economy; firms, is to allocate scare resources that have alternative uses efficiently but the complexity of modern day businesses has made firms to resort to devising means of optimization through maximization of profit and minimization of cost.  
102 Human Resource Management , Freda Kabuki Ocansey
This paper is a review of the article “Determinants of employee retention in telecom sector of Pakistan”, presented at the second COMSATS International Business Research Conference which is a conference for Business, Economics and Behavioral Sciences held in Lahore, Pakistan on Saturday, November 14 2009. The review will begin with a presentation of a summary of the article. A brief analysis of the structure of the article will be presented in an effort to demonstrate the article’s success at presenting an objective reportage of the investigation into the determinants of employee retention in the telecom industry in Pakistan. The article will be critiqued along the following lines: the backgrounds of the authors to establish their authority, how relevant the content of the article relates to its title, the accuracy of the reportage and how current the article is, evidence of objectivity in the development of the article. A brief conclusion will summarize general impressions about the article and the way forward.  
103 Analysis of How Black Market Exchange Premium Affect Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) ,  Jones Stevelio Stamalevi
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how black market exchange premium affect Foreign Direct Investment. The results of the study will shed light on whether black markets served to impede or enhance FDI inflows, and hence whether their disappearance since the 1990s should be of importance to developing countries keen to attract FDI. Design/methodology/approach – In studying the effect of the black market premium the author used historical study for 28 developing countries with high, low and moderate black market premiums for the years 1982-1993. The author used several models to support his hypothesis which include econometric model and regression analysis. Data on the black market exchange rate was obtained from the Pick’s Currency Yearbook for the years 1983-1988 and from Global Financial Statistics for the years 1989-1993. The premium iscalculated as the percentage difference between the official exchange rate, obtained from the IMF, and the black market exchange rate. Findings –Contrary to hypothesis, the results show that the black market exchange premium does not affect net FDI inflows. The author asserts that, if this result is in fact accurate, then liberalization of currency regimes in developing countries, which leads to the disappearance of black markets, should not be expected to bring in more or less foreign investment, the reason being that the black market premium did not in the past impede nor enhance foreign investment.  
104 Core Employees’ Impact on the Performances of Turkish Large Firms: A Research in the Frame of the Resource-Based View of the Firm , Molla Mekonnen Alemu
The basic aim of this study is to explore the impact of core employees on organizational performance with a research conducted on Turkish large firms. Core employees were taken as the personnel, working at the production functions of firms, and their role were examined in frame of the resource-based view. Survey forms were developed by international literature review and sent to top 500 firms of Turkey for 2010, which were determined by Istanbul Chamber of Commerce (ISO). This study reveals statistically significant relation between value and uniqueness and inimitability levels of core employees and organizational performance, innovation, strategic vision, flexible design, quality orientation, organizational culture, providing employee potential, and product diversity; as a reflection of resource-based view of the firm. Moreover, the analysis of data revealed the value of core employees is more effective than their uniqueness on organizational performances. This research also indicates the valuable and unique human resources of top Turkish firms as one of the basic elements that lead to competitive advantage  
105 Mobile Phones are Strategic Tools for Promoting Access to Financial Service in Underprivileged Communities in Developing Countries , Osman Haruna, Ghana
The unprecedented rate at which mobile phone is penetrating the socio-fibre of society, especially its ability not only to facilitate communication but also aid in money transfer to loved ones and relations in sub-urban and rural communities makes it crucial for researchers to investigate the relationship between this communication device and administration of financial services. Besides the article being reviewed the reviewer consulted other reputable current publications on the role mobile phone plays in delivery financial services to the poor thereby extending the scope of the literature material. The article itself examined various papers on “how banks can translate the potential of mobile phones into greater financial access for poor people”. It came out unequivocally that the potential of mobile phones to assist in meeting the financial services needs of the poor has been driven by rapid expansion into previously un-served regions and communities of developing countries over the last decade. In most developing economies, governments five-year tax  holiday and favourable regulatory environment for promoting investments in the mobile telecommunications sector all goes a long way to explain why a good number of international companies have thrown in heavy investment to reach a lot more rural and sub-urban communities. The study further revealed that the various governmental interventions such as waving import duty and taxes on mobile handsets and accessories all help in rendering the prices of handsets very affordable thereby enabling the masses to procure these devices at very reasonable prices to enhance the mobile banking business. It is doubtless to assert that the mobile phone technology has really revolutionized the socio-economic set-up of mankind. Despite its ability to stimulate effective and timely communication it also facilitate the administration of financial services to alleviate poverty in developing economies. It is therefore essential for stakeholders especially developing partners and manufacturer to join forces and make the device much cheaper for the poor so as help reduce poverty.  
106 E-Business and Management Science: Mutual Impacts , Sulaiman Adewale Abaniwonnda  
This review critically reviews the article ‘E-Business and Management Science: Mutual Impacts (Part 1 of 2)’ Journal (Management Science), Vol. 49, No. 10, Special Issue on E-Business and Management Science (Oct., 2003), pp. 1275-1286 The review will first summarise the article. Secondly, it will briefly analyse the effectiveness of the article’s structure, investigating how the information is set out and whether the reader can access it efficiently. Thirdly, the review will critique the article, evaluating its authority, currency, accuracy, objectivity and coverage. The review will also analyse the graph before finally judging the article’s accessibility and credibility. Overall the article was well written, clear and relevant.  
107 The Impact of Brand Awareness on Customer Loyalty: A Case Study of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana Limited   , Isaac Tandoh
Given a much broader array of product choices offered in the current financial market and ubiquitous marketing efforts in Ghana, customers often turn to a favorite brand to facilitate their purchase decisions. Brand awareness creation and strategies seem to serve as a roadmap to customer decision facilitator. This study is principally focused on the impact of brand awareness on customer loyalty, a case study of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana limited. Data was drawn from both primary and secondary sources and the main instrument for data collection was the questionnaire and interview involving 301 respondents sampled from the customers of Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ghana Limited across Ghana and a brand manager of Sinapi Aba Savings and loans Limited. Generally, the study revealed that, brand awareness strategies practice is a very prominent feature in the savings and loans industry in Ghana and customers are very much aware of the various brand awareness strategies practiced by Sinapi Aba Savings and Loans Ltd. Events influencing actual decision to patronize the services of savings and loans industry which included brand trust, Corporate reputation, peer group opinion, recall of ad’s, service delivery and employee appearance ranked highest. The study recommends that savings and loans companies in Ghana need to do a continuous follow up to establish long term relationship with new customers when implementing brand awareness strategies.
108 The Importance of Payback Method in Capital Budgeting Decisions , Jones Stamalevi
Purpose – To investigate the importance of using payback method in making capital budget decisions in relation to other appraisal techniques used for capital budgeting decision in organizations. The paper also included the examination of the importance of the payback method in relation to simplicity, manager incentive compensation and the size of the company. Design/methodology/approach – The author used conceptual analysis using theories on payback period in which secondary data from past research in African, European and American companies were analyzed to determine the importance of the payback method in capital budgeting. Findings – The analysis show that the payback method is preferred in appraising capital budget decisions in various organizations because of its simplicity, liquidity and risk assessment among many other advantages. Managers should complement payback method with other methods in order to make a sound investment decisions. Keywords: Capital Budgeting, Payback Method, Payback Period, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, Real Options Approach
109 Performance Appraisal as an Employee Evaluation Tool in an Organization like the Integrity Commission of Guyana , Amanda Jaisingh
 To evaluate an employee is a management task and a tool that is constantly used is Performance Appraisal. The business dictionary.com define Performance Appraisal in three parts that is, it is the process where managers/consultant 1) examines and evaluates an employee’s work behavior by comparing it with present standards, 2) documents the results of the comparison, and 3) uses the results to provide feedback to the employee to show where improvements are needed and why.  An efficient and effective organization will constantly performed evaluation on its employees to measure their work performance on the job. An organization must understand that Performance Appraisal is not the only tool to measure an employee performance. Employees’ evaluation is an assessment/ review of an employee job performance. Performance Appraisal is a formal/objective assessment of an employee’s job performance. This Performance Appraisal at the Integrity Commission is an evaluation tool that will identify employees that are performing from the one that is not. An organization Performance Appraisal must have a clear purpose and measurable objective. The most common errors in the evaluation process are the halo and horn effect or a poorly designed Performance Appraisal. To overcome these errors, manager/supervisors should have discussions with the employees when designing the Performance Appraisal so that their goals and objective can also be incorporated with the position goals and objectives. The Performance Appraisal is presented as an evaluation tool used at the Integrity Commission in Guyana. The Commission had taken into consideration Milan Fekete research in which he said that Van and Dan den Berglie (2004) said that organizational performance is “the measurement and reporting system/ tools that qualifies the degree to which managers achieve their objectives”. At the Office of the Integrity Commission evaluation of employee is done every six (6) months using the Performance Appraisal to see whether an employee was performing on the job in order to be eligible for the payment of his/her gratuity, to identify areas that need training. In designing the Performance Appraisal for the Integrity Commission, it adopted the following questions poses by Milan in his research to make it an effective evaluation tool:  
110 Moral Standards and Corporation’s Moral Responsibility , Damianus Abun
It has been an old argument that Business Corporation is a legal entity, separate entity and separate from the owner. It has blanket to protect itself from being sued. Corporate veil has been used as shield to protect itself from prosecution. With such protection, how can it be morally responsible for its act? Moral responsibility is only applied to human, not to any other things. However, this paper will argue otherwise. Based on paper reviews, it is found that one of the requirements in determining moral responsibility is the presence or the absence of knowledge and free will in a certain act. Such requirement clearly strengthen the idea that corporation, though it is a separate entity from the owner may not completely out of hand, wash its hands and can just do what it wants but it has to be also guided by moral standards and take moral responsibility to its immoral actions. The reason is that a corporation as an entity is still composed of rational beings that have knowledge and free will in pursuing their objectives. Therefore, when things go wrong in the corporation, it is not only individual employees who committed the crime are taking the moral blame but also the corporation as a whole including the owner. Key words: Moral responsibility, moral standards, element of moral standards, individualism methodology, the nature of corporation, knowledge and freewill.  
111 Improving Access to HIV and Aids Services for Key Populations in Jinja District – Uganda , Balidawa John
Background: This paper details the application of knowledge and skills gained from Total Quality Management, Management Information Systems and Research Methodologies trainings from TAU in increasing access to HIV and AIDS services to key populations in Jinja district. Uganda has continued to suffer from the adverse effects of HIV and AIDS for almost three decades now, with the HIV prevalence rising from 6.4% in 2005 to 7.3 in 2011%, (UAIS 2011 Report). This was attributed to the increase in the rate of occurrence of new HIV infections, even when access to Ante Retroviral Therapy (ART) for the general population was increasing. The Uganda Ministry of Health noted that the major sources of new infections are the Key Populations. Key Populations’ are those categories of people who are most likely to be exposed to HIV infection and or most likely to transmit HIV to their sexual partners. According to studies, Key Populations in Uganda have higher HIV prevalence rates above the National HIV prevalence rate of 7.3%, sometimes often more than twice the national average. Key Populations in Uganda include; Fisher folk, Sex workers and their partners, Uniformed personnel, Long distance drivers and Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Methods: A PLACE (Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts) study conducted by Makerere University and Jinja District Local Government revealed that there were limited interventions in the district to address the challenges of access to HIV and AIDS services for the Key Populations yet they existed in the district. The Jinja district health team came up with interventions to address such challenges faced by Key Populations starting September 2015. The goal of the interventions is to reduce new HIV infections in Jinja district by providing universal access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services to Key Populations in the Jinja district. The specific objectives are; To provide factual information on issues related to HIV and AIDS among Key Populations to the general population including the health workers. To mitigate specific drivers increased HIV infection/transmission among Key Populations. To scale up delivery of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment services to Key Populations. To build a strong enabling environment for equitable and sustainable delivery of HIV prevention and treatment services to Key Populations, and lastly is to strengthen the strategic information system for program and policy improvement for Key Populations. Achievements: The project identified a few key populations for consultations on how best they would access and or be provided healthcare services. Venues where Key populations could easy be found were identified and sensitization of 60 managers in these venues about the intended interventions for the key populations was done. 90 leaders of the different categories of the key population were also identified for orientation and easy mobilization of their peers for services that we offer. The project also prepared 120 health workers to provide services to the key populations. Special clinics for key populations were created for easy access to the different services and to reduce stigma and discrimination. Logistical support is very vital and there was budgeting and procurement of condom dispensers, information and communication posters, and drugs. HIV Counselling and Testing outreaches conducted and 510 key populations have been tested for HIV. Data collection tools were modified to suit the project information demands. The challenges expected when serving key populations in Uganda are mainly security agencies interference, ethical dilemmas, lack of legal framework to provide such services to key population and limited finances to meet the created demands. Conclusion: HIV prevention, care and treatment interventions have been limited in the Uganda health care system and introduction of such services have been observed to be key in reducing HIV transmission among the population  
112 Analysis of Effects of Working Capital Management on Profitability of Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study of Listed Manufacturing Companies on Nairobi Security Exchange , Jones Stamalevi  
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of working capital management on profitability of manufacturing companies for a sample of Nine firms listed on Nairobi Securities Exchange. Design/methodology/approach – The paper includes a conceptual as well as empirical analysis, in which data from a sample of listed firms for the period from 2006 to 2010 are analyzed to examine the effect of working capital management on profitability of manufacturing firms. The author used OLS regression techniques to test assumptions and several different models were also run. Findings – The study reveals that effective working capital management has great impact on profitability. He suggested that managers should focus on managing working capital components to achieve profitability of their companies Originality/value – The paper's originality and value lies in suggesting that financial managers should pay more attention to working capital management of manufacturing firms and other companies in general to optimize the value of the share holders and maintain a favorable trade-off between liquidity and profitability Keywords: Working Capital Management; Profitability; Average Collection Period: Average Payment Period; Cash Conversion Cycle, Inventory turnover in Days.
113 Civil Service Reforms and National Development in Nigeria , Ogochukwu E.S. Nebo, Nnamani, Desmond Okechukwu
Civil service is an executive arm of government that implements the programmes and policies of government efficiently and effectively to enhance national development. Civil servants are crops of technocrat at federal, state and local level who assist government of the day with their wealth of knowledge and experience to carry out their legitimate business. Nigerian civil service has been in dilemma of partisan politics, red-tapism, leakages, wastage, non professionalism, unproductive, redundancy and over-bloated ghost workers from one administration to another since independence of 1960. Civil service revolves around people to achieve result, this prompted why successive regimes have bent on reforming to improve the machinery of government; yet the effort remain obsolescence, no enthusiasm to execute government policies. The paper examines various reforms in Nigeria civil service and finalize that nothing has been done for better service delivery. The lacuna experienced in Nigerian civil service is not far from the structure of Nigerian state coupled with socio-cultural factors on the aegis of federal character principle and quota system all this floored national development. To ameliorate this persistent deterioration of bureaucratic bottleneck, inefficiency and unaccountability, this demands meritocracy in the altar of mediocrity during appointment to enhance national development. The bureaucratic theory of Max Webber should be in place in the context of civil service reform in Nigeria to achieve result. The paper concludes that civil service reform in Nigeria will build human capacity to improve institutional structures and achieve the goal of national development. Keywords: Civil Service, Reforms, Commission, panels, Red-tapism, service delivery  
114 Mobilizing deposits; the role of Commercial Banks in Ghana , Bright Adu-Gyamfi Antwi
Commercial banks are the main controller of the financial system in Ghana performing financial intermediation. They control greater portion of the investment funds from domestic deposits and are the main creditors of the corporate bodies, SMEs and individual investors. However, the amount of domestic funds that commercial banks receive is far below the level sustainable for self-sufficiency. Huge volumes of loanable funds are left out of the banking system and it needs the efforts of the commercial banks to tap them into productive uses. The purpose of this study therefore is to identify the most effective and efficient ways commercial banks in Ghana should employ to maximize the volume of domestic deposits in the environment of high rural population, dominant informal sector employment and macroeconomic instability. Thus, the study aims to evaluate the design of bank products and services, assess their effectiveness of harnessing domestic deposits and challenges they face in mobilizing deposits. This research is based on relevant books, journals, articles and other publications. In addition, data from commercial banks in Ghana on deposits they received from 2000 to 2004 were studied to make recommendations. Results from the analysis indicated that deposits mobilization of Commercial Banks in Ghana though, has an upward trend, it increases at a decreasing rate hence, the present level of deposits as a ratio of the total amount of money in circulation is woefully inadequate. The study also reveals certain basic facts about commercial banks in Ghana. Their concentration in the cities and a few urban areas as well as their product design and services are targeted to the literate formal sector employees. In addition, unfavourable macroeconomic conditions have resulted in negative real interest rate on deposits while unnecessary government intervention has reduced the confidence in the banking sector. The effects of these factors are the low deposits that commercial banks receive. The study concluded with recommendations for commercial banks such as; the need to redefine their product target, increase their scope to include the large majority etc. in order to ensure improvements in their operations. Keywords: Commercial banks, mobilization of deposits, products and services, macroeconomic conditions, capital growth and investment, and interest rate.  
115 Patients and Health Workers’ Engagement in Patient Safety in Healthcare in Kitgum General Hospital , Omona Kizito
Introduction: The delivery of health care is known to involve potential safety risks for the patients who are supposed to benefit from medical treatment and care. Over the years, efforts have been put in place to reduce the occurrence of safety risks and improve on patient quality of care. Both the health care providers and patients have their respective roles to play. Bringing on board patients in efforts to minimise safety risks, also known as patient engagement, proved effective. Objectives: The objectives of the study were; to ascertain the level of awareness about patient safety in healthcare among patients and health workers, to determine the level of health workers engagement in patient safety in healthcare, assess the level of patient engagement in patient safety, as well as to determine the factors affecting patients and health workers engagement in patient safety in health care in Kitgum General Hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross sectional study of patients and health workers’ engagement in patient safety in healthcare in Kitgum General Hospital (KGH). The study took both qualitative and quantitative dimensions. A probability sample of 384 patients was interviewed using structured questionnaires and 103health workers were studied by observation and key informant interviews. Documentation review of previous patient files (50files) was carried out to assess the depth of patient identification, as a measure to minimize medical errors. Pre-testing of the questionnaires and training of research Assistants were done prior to the study to ensure quality of the research. Ethical considerations in research were strictly adhered to. Results: The level of awareness about patient safety among patients and health workers was found to be 46.5% and 51% respectively. The level of health workers engagement in patient safety was found to be 51.4% while engagement of patients in patient safety was at 52.1% The factors affecting patients and health workers engagement were mainly demographic factors such as age and level of education, among others. Conclusion: In conclusion, health workers in KGH were 4.5% more aware about patient safety than the patients. However, patients in KGH are 0.7% more engaged in patient safety than the health workers.  
116 Dynamics of Savings Culture in Gahna , Isaac Tandoh,Victor Tandoh
In Ghana and most developing parts of the world, families feel that it’s troublesome or skirting on hard to save as a result of low levels of wages (Boateng, 1994). The low profit of Ghanaian families is a result of the low levels of budgetary improvement consolidated with distinctive components, for instance, unlucky deficiency of training. The purpose of the study was to find out the determinants of savings culture in Kumasi, the second capital of Ghana. Quantitative methodology was used and sample was obtained from selected households in Kumasi. The study assembled and made utilization of primary data through the organization of organized surveys. Questionnaires were used as a data collection tool and SPSS a statically tool was used to analyze the data. It was discovered in the study that, relatively high level of savings culture among the people of Kumasi metropolis. Respondents preferred to save more for the future, they planned life ahead of time, saving money was a virtue, respondents paid close attention to how much money they spend, and before they purchased anything, they compared prices on similar items. The study recommends that financial institutions improve their operational and marketing strategies to attract all persons in the qualified age bracket being it male and female and also governing bodies like the Bank of Ghana, must take drastic measures to close down all these illegal financial institutions in the system that is dragging the reputation of the rest into the mud.  
117 Challenges of Strategy Implementation at the Eswatini Cotton Board   , Daniel Khumalo  
Strategy implementation is critical to the success of every organization. It addresses means of achieving desired goals and objectives. Literature review indicates that strategy formulation is given more focus than strategy implementation. Previous studies have shown that strategies fail due to poor implementation. Given the importance of strategy and its execution, it is imperative that the Eswatini Cotton Board identifies challenges that impede strategy implementation. This study investigates strategy implementation challenges at the Eswatini Cotton Board with an aim of providing recommendations on how to overcome the identified challenges. Qualitative research method was adopted in conducting the study. The target population included senior management and board members of the Eswatini Cotton Board who were familiar with strategy formulation and implementation. Ten interviewers were selected using purposive sampling technique. Primary data was collected using a semi structured interview schedule and analyzed by means of a thematic analysis. The findings indicate that poor management, lack of financial resources and poor coordination of activities are the key factors that hinder strategy implementation. The study recommends education and training, development of resource mobilization strategies, alignment of the organizations structure and effective communication. Keywords: Strategy implementation, Eswatini Cotton Board, Challenges, strategy implementation.  
118  An Anatomy of the Business and Financial Performance of State-Owned Financial Institutions in Ghana (2012-2015) , Henry Frimpong  
The study evaluated the business and the financial performance of state-owned financial institutions in Ghana for the four-year period ending December 31, 2015. In conducting the study both officials and customer of the bank were interviewed using the questionnaire technique as the research instrument. Simple random sampling techniques enabled the researcher to select the customer respondents while purposive sampling technique helped in directly approaching officials of the bank whose job description logically enhanced their readiness to co-operate fully with the study. The study uncovered the fact that state owned banks in Ghana have assembled fairly qualified personnel who assist in achieving organizational goals. It also came to light that the banks’ operating costs are increasing as a result of hike in staff cost emanating from industry competition over experienced professionals as well as unpaid loans on government businesses. Customer c0mplaints centered on unreliable service delivery systems especially ATMs. It was recommended that government and political authorities should desist from interfering in the operations of state- owned banks so as to enable them retrieve loans granted to minimize the large the bad debts. The banks were further advised to maintain planned maintenance schedule for the ATM equipment, thereby enhancing service delivery. Given the relatively more affordable service charges offered by these banks, their visibility in terms of numerous branches, it stands to reason that if government grants the board members the free hand to operate, they will continue to serve Ghanaians better than their foreign counterparts. Keywords: state owned banks, financial institution, business performance, financial ratios.  
119 The Prevalence of Locally Owned Enterprises and Their Role in Economic Growth and Development in Chipata District of Zambia , Ezekiel Mtonga  
Enterprise development is key in driving the growth of the local economies around the global. Economic growth is an important factor when it trickles down and triggers the availability of jobs, wealth creation, and improved standards of living. The study aimed at assessing the role of entrepreneurship in economic growth and development of Chipata district of Zambia. The objectives of the study included; an investigation of the prevalence of locally owned business enterprises in Chipata district, establishment of the types of activities to which entrepreneurs are involved, an examination of the business growth and to find out how the local entrepreneurial activities were helping people in poverty alleviation in Chipata district. The study was limited to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Chipata district; town centre. The study implored a case study design to address the research questions. Questionnaires were used as means of collecting data from the business owners. The study sampled 60 business units in Chipata district. The sample was identified by means of specific purposive sampling. All ethical considerations were taken into account. The findings of the study revealed that most business organisations were male gender dominated, sole proprietors and had financial challenges. It was further established that agriculture was the major business activity. Arising from the findings above, the study recommends that Government should devise a deliberate policy that would help finance SMEs, and waive taxes and levies on start-up SMEs. Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Small Medium Enterprises, Economic Growth.  
120 A Comparative Synopsis of Public Health Management in Botswana and Zimbabwe from a Public Administration Perspective , Feddious Mutenheri  
Governments have a huge role to play in the delivery of public health both at macro and micro levels. The provision of public healthcare is a matter of social justice and all individuals in a population should have access to the same programs despite their social status. Improving health and quality of life and reducing the impact of disease amongst the population should be the core business of public health administrators. The overall development of a country can be judged by the quality of its population’s health how healthy people are across the social spectrum. Ever since their attainment of independence the two Southern African countries of Botswana and Zimbabwe have pursued aggressive public health policies within, but with varied results. This paper compares the public health philosophies of these two countries. The paper then analyses the public administration frameworks within which public health management can be located in these two countries and evaluates their impacts since independence. The paper will critique the state of public health management in these countries against the public administration ideology that each of these countries has pursued. Keywords: Public Health Management, Public Administration, Theories of Public Administration, Public Health.  
121 Financial Ratio Analysis -Reviewing the Financial Performance of ZANACO Bank (2013-2015) , William Mwila Chishiba  
This research set out to review the financial performance of ZANACO bank from the year 2013 to 2015 using financial ratios. Three (3) ratios were adopted to establish its financial soundness namely; the profitability, solvency and liquidity ratio. The liquidity ratios used were the cash ratio, quick ratio and the current ratio. The results from these ratios showed the bank was quite liquid and was able to convert its assets to cash easily as the ratios were above one (1) except the cash ratio. The profitability ratios used included the return on asset, return on equity and the net profit margin. It was discovered that though the ratios were not constant an average ratio of them showed the bank is making profits from its services. The last but not the least ratio done was the solvency ratio. The solvency ratios used included the debt to asset, debt to capital and the debt to equity ratios. The ratios were in favour of the banking meeting its long-term obligations except the debt to equity. All in all, all ratios suggested the bank was financially sound during the period 2013 to 2015. Keywords: Financial Ratios, Financial Statements, Financial Ratio Analysis.  
122 Effects of Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviour on Production and Performance: Case Study of the Health Care Providers at Children’s Hospital, University Teaching Hospital of Lusaka, Zambia , Chileshe Mwansa, Malizgani Paul Chavula
Background: Zambia, like other low- and middle-income countries, faces numerous effects of negative attitudes and behaviours among health care providers in various institutions. Stawiski et al. (2011) argued that the exploration of work attitudes enables organizations to position themselves correctly and take advantage of every opportunity to improve their corporate performance amidst economic hardship. Methodology: The University Teaching Hospital (UTH) is the biggest and largest hospital in Zambia. A case study design was employed to explored effects of employees’ attitudes and behaviour on production and performance among health care providers at Children’s Hospital, University Teaching Hospital of Lusaka, Zambia.   The study population was comprised of working men and women who have been working at Children’s Hospital. The study conducted six in-depth interviews and a survey of 40 health care workers. Results: The findings indicate that 50% Health Care Providers satisfaction with their work. Responded narrated that they had positive attitude towards work, this was expressed through the manner they received, respected and cared for the patient. The majority of the respondents reported that cases whereby health care providers display negative attitude towards patients were rare. Keywords: Health Care Workers, Attitudes, Behaviour, Production and Performance.  
123 Analysis of Information Communication Technology on Crop Marketing in Zambia: Problems and Prospects , John Phiri
The study analyses Information Communication Technology with a view to ascertain problems and prospects on crop marketing in the Agriculture Sector in Zambia. The inevitable gap between the potential and the extent to which Information Communication Technology is meeting crop marketing in the Agriculture Sector has continued to prompt further research into how the benefits of Information Communication Technology can be better allied. The study used both primary and secondary data to establish the problems and prospects of Information Communication Technology on crop marketing in the Agriculture Sector. The total population for the three districts analyzed comprising six camps under study was 7840; and the sample was 290. The findings revealed that some benefits to be gained by farmers, traders and agricultural workers using Information Communication Technology in crop marketing were that of interactivity which created opportunities and awareness on the availability of crops’ quality, quantity and location. The study concluded that timely knowledge about who was buying the crops, how much one paid and where they were located could be an important tool in decision making by traders, farmers and agricultural extension workers. It enables them to balance their activities. Unfortunately, information on crop marketing rarely reached farmers in rural areas due to poor signals and electricity power outages. It was therefore recommended that establishing market information centers and tele centers in rural areas could boost access to crop marketing information. Keywords: Information Communication Technology, Crop Marketing, Problems, Prospects.  
124 Business Environmental Scanning and Ethics Impact on Small Scale Enterprise: A Case Study of Las Palmas Restaurant , Emmanuel Oppong-Mensah  
Importance of environment scanning and ethics in the business world is superlative and global in its nature. The ethical action and environmental scanning of businesses in developing countries are highly linked with business performance. This study therefore evaluates the business environmental scanning and ethics impact on the performance of small-scale enterprises, Las Palmas Restaurant. The research approach used was exploratory. Primary data has been collected by using questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion to collect the desired data from managers and employees. The study has been conducted through a case study. As the target population of the study has been managers and employees. A Sample size of 40 is taken; the collected data analysis has been supported by Microsoft Excel 10. As result shows that business environmental scanning and ethics have positive effect on the performance of small scales. Keywords- Ethics, Environmental Scanning, Business Performance.  
125 Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility Practice and its Effects on the Botton Line , Isaac Tandoh
The study comparatively evaluates the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability in the Energy, Telecommunication and the Transport industries in Ghana. The study adopted a quantitative research approach through a cross-sectional survey design to sample 50 employees from VRA, MTN Ghana and CETSED Content and regression analysis were utilized for analysis of the research objectives/hypotheses stipulated by the study. A five-point closed-ended Likert Scale self-administrable structured questionnaire and researcher guide to aid participants answer relevant questions was used to confirm that innovations in strategic stakeholder engagement fuelled increases in corporate bottom-line of selected companies. The four major steps of analyzing data collected from Atkinson’s (2002) categories of quantitative data analysis was used, following which the primary data/information gathered and coded was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to guarantee validity and reliability of the various investigations conducted. The hierarchical multiple regression of the Baron and Kenny’s (1986) procedure was also adopted to analyse for study the mediating effect of innovation on the relationship between strategic stakeholder engagement and corporate bottom-line. The study discovered a statistically significant positive influence of perceptions of CSR towards the customers on organization’s image in general. The energy and transport industry observed greater significant influence of employee perceptions of CSR towards customers on organization’s image as compared to telecommunication sector which was not significant. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Employees, Perception, Image, Brand.  
126 An Analysis of the Impact of the Emergence of Mobile Money Transfer on the Cameroonian Economy: A Case Study of MTN Mobile Money (MTNMOMO) , Julius OruhAgbor
This research investigates the impact of Mobile Money Transfers (MMTs) on economic development in Cameroon, with specific attention to Mobile Telephone Network Mobile Money (MTN MoMo). Furthermore, the study was done in the town of Obala, 33km from Yaoundé. Data was collected using questionnaires and focus groups and it was analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16 plus. The study showed that Mobile Money Transfers are significant to the Cameroonian economy, due to the fact that it has strongly contributed to economic development through creation of employment and financial inclusion. In addition, MMTs are easily accessible in remote areas and easy to use when paying and receiving tax. In short, this is the reasons why it has increased the use of electronic-wallet (e-wallet) money in Cameroon as well as reducing the transaction costs and risk. That said, the study therefore recommends that the government put in place regulations to deal with the Mobile Money Transfer sector to ensure that the interests of the consumer are safeguarded and at the same time guaranteeing the viability of the sector. Furthermore, mobile network operators are encouraged to improve service quality and ensure that people do not have challenges in accessing their funds due to network congestion and poor network connectivity. Keywords: Mobile Money Transfers, Economic Development, MTN MoMo, Rural Areas, Electronic Wallet.  
127 Managerial Capabilities and Strategic Business Success in the Petroleum Industry in Uganda , Nicholas Disney Ogola, S. Rheeta Marjery, Vincent Bagire
This paper explores the relationship between managerial capabilities and strategic business success in the petroleum industry in Uganda. Managerial capabilities were measured using communication, conceptual, human and technical skills. The study premised on knowledge-based view of the firm theory. The population was 347 licensed petroleum companies in Uganda and a sample of 186 was used. The study used a survey research design. Regression and correlation were used to do analysis. The study used a self-administered questionnaire and semi-structure key informant interviews. Findings indicate that managerial capabilities have positive and significant relationship with strategic business success. Findings also indicate leadership partially mediated the relationship between managerial capabilities and strategic business success. It is recommended that the level of conceptual skills be internally assessed by each company since it was ranked lower than other dimensions. Leadership is a contributor to increased and sustainable relationship between managerial capabilities and strategic business success.  
128 Multi-Factor Biometrics for Enhanced User Authentication in an E-Health System, Ghana , Lazarus Kwao, Richard Millham, David Oppong, Wisdom Xornam Ativi  
For most existing computer systems, once the user’s identity is verified at login, the system resources are available to that user until he/she exits the system. In high-risk environments such as healthcare or where the cost of unauthorized use of a computer is high, a dynamic check of the user’s identity is extremely important. This study evaluated the feasibility of multifactor authentication with biometrics, incorporating both traditional and the time dynamics-based techniques of keystrokes (behavioural) and fingerprint swipes (user’s physical characteristics), for adoption into an eHealth system (DHIMS 2). The results indicate that individual authentication by Keystroke and Fingerprint dynamics yields acceptable results. However, when combined with the traditional methods of authentication, extremely high security is obtained than could be obtained by each paradigm acting independently. Hence, it is concluded that combining Keystroke and fingerprint dynamics with traditional authentication procedures into an eHealth system (DHIMS 2) will yield a system with improved account security and integrity of health information. Keywords: DHIMS 2, Keystroke Dynamics, Fingerprint Dynamics, Biometrics, Multifactor Authentication, Ghana Health Service.  
129 A Study on the Wellness Practices of MNC Employees and Recommendations on Wellness Practices   , Abhilash Reddy Lingala
Today’s multinational companies understand the need for a healthier workforce. Whether in developed markets such as the United States and the United Kingdom, or in emerging economies such as China and India, health trends pointing to a rising incidence of chronic disease and lifestyle-related health issues are requiring a strategic response from employers. This project is undertaken to study the MNC employee wellness measures in selected company. The study has been conducted by adopting survey method among the MNC employees with the help of questionnaire. The sample of size of 100 respondents from the company was chosen for the study. The scope of the study consists of the importance of the MNC employee wellness is to find out the satisfaction level of the MNC employees. The objectives tell about the necessity of the study. The research methodology consists of design, sample size & sample technique. The project work is based on descriptive research. Simple random sampling is used for data collection. Percentage analysis is used for data collected through questionnaire. The study provides some findings that were interrupted from the analysis of the collected data. The suggestion and recommendations were given by the researcher which may help the company to improve their MNC employee wellness measures. Keywords: Wellness, MNC, employees, healthier workforce, economies.  
130 Structural Model Framework of Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Market Performance in Nigerian Banking and Manufacturing Sector , Olanipekun, Wahid Damilola, Lawal, Azeez Tunbosun, Mustapha, Rahman Oladimeji
The study examined the relationship between CSR and market performance using a structural equation model framework. Survey research design was used in the study. Data for this research was obtained from Primary sources through the aid of a structured questionnaire. Krejche and Morgan formular were used to estimate the sample size. 384 copies of questionnaires were administered to employees of the selected companies out of which only 305 copies were found to be useful for data analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of partial least square structural equation model (PLS-SEM). The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 alpha levels. Findings revealed that social responsibility and sustainability are the variable that best predicts the market performance with the following values (β =.372, t= 3.859, p=0.000). The next vital predictor in order of importance is the economic responsibility and sustainability (β = .244, t= 3.545, p= .000) and finally, environmental responsibility and sustainability (β = .169, t= 2.495, p= .013) is significantly related to market performance. Based on the findings, the study concluded that CSR philosophy facilitates the unlocking of the human capital which makes significant contribution to the success of an organization. The study recommends that organizations should embrace the spirit of being socially responsible; because by involving in CSR, it will add to the goodwill of their companies, thereby, increasing their financial worth and eventually boosting their image to gain an edge through increasing patronage for their services. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability, Development, Market, Performance.  
131 The Role of Artificial Intelligence in the future of E-learning and Project Management , Ogechukwu Rosita Adunchezor, Nkemjika Bernardine Nwagu
Artificial Intelligence is one of the technological innovations that has been greatly hyped in many research studies as well as in mainstream media. The 21st century has become notorious for the drastic change introduced to the way tasks are done, how people think, e-learning and project management have not been spared from the changing terrain courtesy of technology expansion. Advancement in technology has presented immense growth potentials to organizations and brought about efficiency in operational procedures. Today, E-learning has to take the title of the contemporary paradigm of education, this is largely due to its ability to allow people to acquire learning following their own pace without necessary putting a hold on other times demanding aspects of their lives. Project management, on the other hand, has received a boost as most routine jobs are becoming automated, thus reducing error chances. Judging from the numerous benefits which can be accrued from the AI, It is assumed that AI innovation would be received with open arms by all, however, in reality, this may not be the case as current research has established the existence of controversies surrounding the adoption of AI. One among the controversies is based on the expression of an innate fear that the full introduction of artificial intelligence might mean lesser jobs for humans. if not the uttermost displacement of humans by machines. This paper, therefore, focuses on exploring the impact which AI will have on e-learning and project management in the future. Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Electronic learning, Project management, Innovations.  
132 Sustainable Development Reporting in Accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative guidelines: An investigation of Selected Nigerian Firms , Olanipekun, Wahid Damilola, Lawal, Azeez Tunbosun, Lasisi, Fatai Adebayo
The study investigated the extent to which firms have applied the global reporting initiative index in their sustainable reports. Data for this research was obtained from secondary sources purposefully from five Nigerian banks and five manufacturing firms that have consistently provided sections for sustainable reporting in their annual reports. Thus, the annual report and account of selected companies as well as their Sustainability reports were examined. The study adopted a qualitative method of data analysis. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyses the qualitative data with the aid of NVivo software. The findings revealed that sustainable development from the perspective of a triple bottom line (economic, social and environmental) is very appropriate and useful as all sampled firms provided information on the global reporting initiative index. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that organizations that want to succeed in the highly competitive 21st century business environment must integrate and balance economic, social and environmental bottom lines in their activities and report all its efforts in achieving these to its stakeholders. The study recommends that organizations should intensify efforts in having comprehensive sustainable reports outside the annual reports which is in line with global best practices.  
133 The Role of “Social Class” in Relations to Educational Background, Income and Occupation in the Namibian Society   , Josephine Shailemo
This paper examined the roles of social class in relation to education, income and occupation in the Namibian society specifically for the Windhoek residents. Qualitative research design was chosen to describe this study. Windhoek was selected as a case study because it is the capital city of Namibia and most of classification and combination of social class could easily be obtained there. The targeted population of Windhoek city is 268,000 but the population sample size was about 10 constituencies in Windhoek and out of those constituencies only 10 people per constituency were chosen for an interview. The study surveyed hundred (100) people from Windhoek, 10 residents per constituency. It was a survey whereby data was collected by the use of questionnaire which were prepared and presented to respondents and also the use of oral interviews was conducted. To give meaning to data, primary and secondary data was analyzed and presented in a form of tables, graphs, chart etc. The study found out that education, income and occupation do really relate to social class. The study recommends three things; firstly, the government of Namibia should intervene to assist the needy and encourage them to study, but they can also do it by giving them loans; Secondly, the society should come together and form up groups for self-sustainment; thirdly, future researchers should do more research of the entire country to generate adequate information on social issues. Keywords: Social Class, Education, Income, Occupation, Society.  
134 Implementing and utilizing Health Information Management System in Hadiya Zone, South Nations Nationalities and People Region, Ethiopia , Derebe Tadesse Kintamo
Health Information systems are increasingly important for measuring and improving the quality and coverage of health services. Reliable and timely health information is vital for operational and strategic decision making that save lives and enhances health. In Ethiopia information quality and use remain weak, particularly at district health offices and primary health care facilities to facilitate decision making. Therefore, this analysis will signal the current status of Health Management Information System (HMIS) in area of observation. In Hadiya zone there are 311 health posts, 61 health centers and 4 hospitals in 13 rural districts and 4 town administrations. In Hadiya zone 83% of health facilities fully implementing HMIS and 17% of them especially at health post level need further assistance for full implementation. Keywords: Health management information system, Electronic Health record, health extension Package, Community health Information system.  
135 Environmental Context Analyses for Integrated Agricultural Project (Dairy, Cattle Fattening and Milk Processing Plant), Hadiya Zone, Hossana Town, SNNPR, Ethiopia , Derebe Tadesse Kintamo  
Environmental analysis is a strategic tool. It is a process to identify all the external and internal elements, which can affect the organization's performance. The analysis entails assessing the level of threat or opportunity the factors might present. Every day the market is changing the way it is. Many new things are developed and in a matter of about some seconds, the whole scenario stands different in front of us. Among them, there are many things that we can control and then there are other things that fall beyond our control and those are called systematic factors. Systematic things happen in the environment we live in, the environment that surrounds us and many times they greatly influence us. Businesses are also influenced by the environment that they are in and all the situational factors that determine circumstances from day to day. It is because of this, that businesses need to keep a check and constantly analyze the environment within which they run their trade and within which the market lays. Comprehensive operational research for evidence-based decision making is important aspect for adopting in the dynamically changing environment. In Hadiya zone, availability of human resources is abundant in terms of skilled and non-skilled labour. The environment is favorable in terms of market access and potential consumers for dairy products and political environment and commitment of the government is a bit challenging in terms of access to land. Keywords: economic, social, political, environmental and technological factors.  
136 Leveraging information Communication Technology for Crop Marketing in Northern Province of Zambia , John Phiri, Madhu Bala
The article focuses on leveraging Information Communication Technology (ICT) for crop marketing in the Northern Province of Zambia. Government’s investment in the use of ICT is often inspired by its potential to realise benefits in trade innovations. Recent developments in the field of global information flow have led to a renewed interest in the study of ICT. However, few writers have been able to draw on any systematic research into how ICT is leveraged particularly for crop marketing in Northern Province of Zambia. Both primary and secondary data were collected. The total sample size was 290 while total population was 7,840, for the three districts and six camps under study. The findings revealed that there are various challenges that stand as impediments towards successful reaping of the fruits of ICT in crop marketing. Some of these include high cost of units and bundles which usually expire when not utilised within a specified period of time, lack of electricity and frequent power outages. Subsequently, the study concludes that most of the farmers and crop traders lacked awareness of various ICT applications accessible through mobile phones or internet such as Zoom, Face Book and WhatsApp including their potential contribution to crop marketing. The study recommends the need to build crop marketing capabilities by training farmers, traders and agricultural extension workers in ICT usage for them to tap into opportunities found therein and as a necessary strategy for expansion of crop marketing in Zambia. Keywords: Information Communication Technology, ICT, Crop Marketing.
137 Assessment of the impact of Delayed Reimbursement by the National Health Insurance Scheme on the Supply Chain Management of St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana , Ebenezer Kenneth Abban
The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a major social intervention program ever initiated, implemented and championed by the Government of Ghana in its quest to achieving universal health coverage for all the citizenry. Although a beautiful and highly acclaimed and acceptable scheme by many, the implementation of its payment regime of reimbursable claims to service providers is fraught with several challenges of which delayed reimbursement of submitted claims to health service providers is a major one. It is assumed that this anomaly disrupts the supply chain management of service providers with some consequential results in general service output of the latter viz; availability of prescribed medicines, surgical and medical consumables, patient waiting time and medical and surgical equipment. Employing descriptive and inferential statistics in a cross-sectional study with the problem statement, variable assessment, instrument development, method of data collection (primary and secondary), data analysis and report writing well captured, the researcher concludes that there is some amount of truth that truly delayed reimbursement by the NHIS has some consequential results on the general service output of healthcare providers and therefore recommends prompt payment of submitted claims by the NHIS. Keywords: National Health Insurance Scheme, Delayed Reimbursement, Health Service Providers, St. Dominic Hospital, Supply Chain Management.  
138 Role Conflict and Staff Productivity in Academic Libraries: A Study of Private Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria , Jamiu Wankasi Abdulraheem, Martins Olanrewaju Atunde, Johnson Abiodun Medupin, Olabode Awarun, Oba Baba Ayoku
The study investigated the relationship between role conflict and staff productivity in academic libraries with a focused on private universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study design was a descriptive research of a correlational type. The population for this study comprised of 87 library staff consisting of 26 librarians and 61 library officers and Assistants in the four studied private universities. Total census technique was applied for the study, that is, all the 87-library staff served as research subjects in this study. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled "Role Conflict and Staff Productivity Assessment Questionnaire” (RCSPAQ) was used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistics and Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the formulated hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that: work-family roles, co-curricular roles and social roles have a joint effect on staff productivity (F =2152.027, p-value < 0.0001). The study also found that work-family roles (β = 0.362; t = 7.424; P<.01), co-curricular roles (β = 0.328; t = 9.162; P<.01) and social roles (β = 0.291; t = 5.761; P<.01) respectively were independent predictors of library staff productivity. Based on the findings, the study recommended amongst that, library managers should avoid placing demands that are impossible to reach on staff as some may not be able to manage more than one role so as to avoid adding extra roles to those who cannot manage them. Keywords: Academic Libraries, Co-Curricular Roles, Role Conflict, Social Roles, Staff Productivity, Work-Family Roles.  
139 Influence of Environmental Knowledge on Manager’s Decision Regarding Sustainable Business Practices in Companies , Mary Lamoka Alfred
This paper considers the nature of environmental knowledge and its importance in general as well as from a sustainable business perspective. Key literature on current environmental knowledge affairs form the bulk of the discussion to illuminate issues of interest. As it considers sustainable business practices, their history, nature and effectiveness, while seeking to investigate them from the perspective of a dependent variable that results from causative environmental knowledge. A purposive sample of 40 managers in different industries on the subject was carried out to investigate the correlation and possible influence of environmental knowledge on sustainable business management in today’s world. The study unearths that presence of environmental knowledge is a sure predictor of the likelihood to adapt sustainable business practices. Based on the findings, the study has concluded that environmental knowledge has a positive and significant influence on sustainable business management such that the more of the former a manager possesses the more of the latter likely to try to incorporate in the firm’s operations. Keywords: Environment Knowledge, Decision management, Sustainable business practise.  
140 Career Development and Talent Management in Banking Sector , Lawal Comfort Iyabode
This paper empirically investigates how career development and talent management complement each other in shaping employees' career progress and productivity in the banking sector. This article describes career growth and development, the conceptual framework on career and talent management, talent management, and career management policy implementation. The management staff were interviewed through structured questions in Lagos from six commercial banks: First Bank, Wema Bank, GTB, FCMB, Stanbic Bank, and Access bank. The finding from the study indicates that talent philosophy is a prominent concept in bank management policies, and several organizations including commercial banks are already utilizing a particular form of talent management policies based on their perception of talent, but only a few policies impacted career development of staffs in commercial banks in Lagos. Although commercial banks give the opportunity for career development and program that encourages career progression, conversely, career management is the joint responsibility of organizations and individuals, but human resource management in organizations such as commercial banks duly triggered training and development of staff. Keyword: Career Development, Bank, and Talent Management.  
141 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender: How satisfied are they with their life conditions? , Nathaniel Acolatse
LGBT population in Ghana experience numerous discrimination and abuses in their everyday lives. These issues have been found to have a detrimental effect on the life of these individuals. This study sought to examine how the discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs in Ghana affect their self-esteem and life satisfaction. The study used data from 494 self-identified LGBTs, recruited via non-probability sampling technique of snow-ball. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used to describe the distribution of responses of the participants. The inferential statistics of multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the impact the discrimination and abuses have on the self-esteem and life satisfaction of the LGBTs. The findings of the study revealed that LGBTs in Ghana experience a high level of self-esteem contrary to the assertion that LGBTs have low self-esteem. The findings of the study also revealed that majority of the LGBTs in Ghana are satisfied with their lives. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that overall, the discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs accounts for 16.3 per cent and 38.4 per cent of the variation in the self-esteem and life-satisfaction of the LGBTs, respectively. Meanwhile, the findings indicated that the social and family discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs have a negative impact on their life satisfaction. It is recommended that policy makers, family members, health care professionals and the general public play their role in helping to lessen the discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs in Ghana. Keywords: Self-esteem, life satisfaction, sexual orientation, mental health, LGBTs, Ghana.  
142 COVID -19 Gateway for ICT Integration; The case of St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia , Ebenezer Kenneth Abban
The application of Information and Communication Technology during these times of Covid-19 has been phenomenal. For example, the number of people who use zoom, an ICT application, during this time of covid-19 has increased by over 1000%. This study examines the extent to which ICT integration at St. Dominic Hospital would be necessary to provide quality care to patients without compromising the expectation of the latter. Descriptive analysis of data is employed to analyze (n=78) staff. 64% of respondents will not visit the hospital during this time for fear of contracting the infection of SARS-Cov-2, although 41% will still prefer face-to-face interaction with a prescriber than interaction over the internet. The study utilizing time series analysis demonstrates an increase of 4.7% in admission rate without integration of ICT with OPD visits seeing a downward trend. Nonetheless, 58% of respondents share the view that ICT integration is needful during this time of Corona Virus. Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV-2; World Health Organization (WHO); Information and Communication Technology; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia.  
143 Lessons Learned from the Quality of Care Project , Roy Chikwem
Each year 40,000 women die during pregnancy and childbirth, and over 250,000 babies die in their first month of life in Nigeria. Save the Children International worked to improve the lives and health status of an estimated 435,000 mothers and their babies in Lagos and Jigawa over a period of three years through its Quality of Care (QoC) project in Nigeria. This integrated project drew on existing partnerships with national, state and global experts to strengthen essential training, improve the clinic environment including supervision and monitoring, develop and disseminate communication messages for behaviour change as well as advocate for implementation of transformative policies. A combination of document review, qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches were adopted. These data were then triangulated to respond to the objectives of the evaluation. The findings show that the project has changed the way healthcare is provided in target facilities in Jigawa and Lagos as a result of their participation on the project
144 Employees Perspective on Internal Branding Mechanisms. Case Study of a Multinational Organization in Ghana , Mary Akweley Cobblah
This study examines how employees are supported to acquire requisite knowledge and skills and build brand supportive behaviors for corporate success. The study was conducted in a manufacturing setup of a multinational organization in Ghana. Being an exploratory study, a qualitative approach was adopted, and primary data was collected from twenty respondents via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Purposive sampling was employed as it enabled diversity to be explored and targeted personnel to be contacted and interviewed. Manual coding was used in analyzing data collected. The study findings identified various mechanisms that an organization can employ to help employees build brand supportive behaviors, and to get employees empowered to deliver on the brand promise. The findings revealed that internal branding initiatives such as employees perceived knowledge and capability building activities, internal communication, leadership support, and the work environment, acted as critical mechanisms that contributed to employees’ empowerment and display of brand supportive behaviors. The study further notes that effective management and implementation of internal branding activities contributes greatly to employees’ empowerment, employees’ internalization of corporate values, and consequently employees’ delivery on the brand promise. The study results confirm the significance of internal branding initiatives to employees’ development and organizational growth and recommends that internal branding initiatives be promoted for sustained success. The research approach adopted however limits generalizability of the findings to other organizations. This study contributes to the scanty empirical literature on internal branding in Africa, and more importantly to the limited literature on internal branding in Ghana.
145 The Role of Internal Branding for Corporate Success. Employees Perspective from a Multinational Organization in Ghana , Mary Akweley Cobblah
The study examined the role of internal branding to understand how the practice was used as a strategic tool to empower and support employees’ building of brand supportive behaviors for corporate success. An inductive approach was adopted, and data was collected from twenty respondents via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Purposive sampling was employed as this technique enabled the conscious engagement of targeted respondents (both senior and junior staff). The grounded theory approach was used in analyzing data collected. Study findings revealed that internal branding played both an enabler and a differentiator role. As an enabler, internal branding initiatives enhanced employees’ brand understanding, facilitated employees’ internalization of corporate values, and exhibition of brand-supportive behaviors. Additionally, the practice empowered them to act as brand ambassadors and inspired them to achieve desired goals. With regards to the differentiator role, internal branding efforts promoted the alignment of internal processes and culture with desired goals, which enhanced the identity, image, and reputation of the establishment. This suggests that internal branding practices contributes greatly to building strong brands as the practice helps provide the point of differentiation for the organization. The research approach adopted limits generalizability of the findings. It is suggested that future research consider a wider company or sector coverage and much larger sample size. The paper highlights the important role of internal branding initiatives for employees’ acquisition and display of brand supportive behaviors for sustained competitiveness and corporate success. It thus contributes to the limited empirical literature on internal branding in Africa.  
146 Costing and Financial Management: The Financial Impact of Investment of Technology in Motors Manufacturers (T) LTD , Fatema Rehman
This study examined the relative effects of investing in technology and its financial impact on the company. The analysis was based on primary data collected from the auditor of Motor Manufacturers (T) LTD which included the cash flow statement and income statements for the years 2015 to 2017. The review also included secondary data from previous researches in order to support the results and findings obtained. The findings of study show that companies investing in technology would bring a positive financial impact for the company. The results indicate that the company can bring higher returns and better liquidity through new technology however needs to maintain it throughout the years in order to bring constant improvement. In order to analyze the impact of investment in technology, the financial analysis would include the ratio analysis, budgeting, benchmarking, risk management and investment appraisal. The constantly changing environment increases the need of investing in technology however the negative financial impact becomes a concern for a company’s management. This therefore causes the management in neglecting the idea of investing in technology which does not bring any positive impact that it could have brought to the company if the management would have forecasted its’ financial and investment appraisal.
147 Implications of Water Development Projects on Community Welfare; The Case of Eloumden I Mbankomo Sub Division, Mefou and Akono Division , Roosevelt
Global trends like desertification, urban growth, and economic restructuring are making water increasingly scarce and water access increasingly inequitable in cities around the world. While much is being done to extend water provision systems to most communities, the roots of water scarcity are complex and difficult to resolve. Today, as communities face water scarcity challenges, research is needed to help mitigate its impact on the environment and human welfare. The aim of this research is to establish the implication of water development projects on community welfare in the Eloumden I community through determining the different waters sources, knowing the causes of water supply problems in the Elounden I community and examining the various health related hazards caused by water crisis in this community. The research performed participant-observation, direct observations, and survey interviews in an impoverished, water-scarce neighborhood in Elounden I community. The study contains a thorough discussion of the definition and operationalization of the “community water scarcity” concept, including water provision, water sources, and the environmental impact. The data indicate that water scarcity greatly affect the health situation of the population of this community. When people are first hit by severe water scarcity, the health concerns become more intense.
148 A Critical Analysis of the Effects of Strategic Management on Small Scale Businesses; A case study of Patent Medicine Stores in Abuja, Nigeria , Akinsola Fadeyi
The impact of strategic management in businesses cannot be over-emphasised irrespective of the size or nature of the business. The strategy provides the key to success in today’s changing business environment; hence, the success of a business can be traced to a well-pronounced factor, which is strategic management. As expressed by Jauch (2015), strategy formulation is a grand plan to be followed to achieve a set objective in small-scale businesses. For improved profitability and sustainability, small-scale businesses need to manage their operations intentionally. To utilise the limited resources effectively for higher profitability, small-scale businesses need a strategy; when resources are finite, when there is uncertainty about competitive strength and behaviour, when decisions must be coordinated between far places and overtime, and when there is uncertainty about control of initiative Miller (2013). However, the study critically analysed the effect of strategic management on small-scale businesses of Patent Medicine Stores in Abuja, Nigeria, especially in the 21st century. The methodology comprises the research and questionnaire design, data collection and data analysis techniques. The researcher was able to retrieve 53 questionnaires out of 70 and test the hypothesis using the chi-square method. From the result after the research, the researcher discovered that strategic management has a great effect on small-scale businesses of patent medicine stores in Abuja, Nigeria. Conclusively, business owners and managers must formulate policies and strategies if their businesses must continue to exist, serve and sustain competition.  
149 Organisational Structure and Strategic Business Success in the Petroleum Industry in Uganda , Mohammed Ibrahim Abubakar, Kapil, Kathuria  
The purpose of this study is to critically analyse previous studies on management processes as antecedents of organizational performance. The study summarizes the level of understanding as regards the topic presently because of the importance of the information to the performance of organizations. The author searched Emerald, ScienceDirect.com, EBSCO and Google Scholar using a series of combinations of the following keywords: organizational management, performance management, high-performance organizations, management processes, management tools, influences of management processes, strategic management, marketing management, services marketing mix, , business organization and performance. This literature review has shown that performance is critical for the survival of the organization. It has also revealed that strategic management processes, marketing management processes and services marketing are key to organizational performance.
150 The Implementation stages of ERP application and It Advantages , Peter M Kamara
Enterprises Resource Planning (ERP) system has become the standard for organizations to achieve collectiveness and better integration within a business set units/department. The ERP system creates the platform for integration of all business processes that guaranty immediate tracking of the business growth. For Large organization with multiple office locations, benefited more on ERP platforms as it integrates all their offices business processes on a real-time basis that give managers and top Executive an overall performance of the company or a snapshot of the company activities. It also provides the decision-makers quicker analysed information from their desktop to reach a conclusive decision for the smooth running of the organization [1]. It helps Management to control better and reposition the organization trend of doing things as its scoop information from various departments. This article will enable scholars to understand how ERP is implemented and its benefit for any organization setting.  
151 Knowledge and Awareness on the Utilization of Talent Philosophy by Banks among Staff on Contract Appointment in Commercial Banks in Ibadan, Oyo State , Lawal Comfort
Commercial banks rendered financial services to customers within the community. Staffing in banks can be classified broadly into permanent and contract staff. Contract staffs are key workforce in the banking sector and their awareness, knowledge and concept of talent philosophy is very paramount. This study seeks to assess the knowledge and awareness on the utilization of talent philosophy by banks among staff on contract appointment in commercial banks in Ibadan, Oyo State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the five local governments within Ibadan metropolis. Simple random sampling was used to select one bank each from each local government area. Base on sample size determination formula, 245 respondents were proportionately for each bank. Finding of the study revealed awareness on talent management philosophy is high (94.3%) among contract staff in commercial banks in Ibadan and 227(92.7%) of them are aware that talent management philosophy is been utilized within their organization. However, only 182(74.3%) have been trained on talent management. Knowledge of talent philosophy amount contract staff shows that overwhelming majority (96.3%) model talent as inclusive/developable; that is, that all seemingly ordinary people can become extraordinary performers through dedicated training. The Anova analysis revealed Fcal of 5.573 is significance, therefore contract staff with talent philosophy awareness will perform better than other staff that are not aware of talent philosophy within the banking industry and Fcal 5.506 is significance showing that motivating talented staff will increase their performance.  
152 The Empirical Examination of the Socio-Economic Effects of Convicts in Ghana , Priscilla Brobbey
The study examines in-depth knowledge relating to the socio-economic effects of incarceration in Ghana. And further conduct a careful examination of the impact on convicts, their immediate family and working environments, as well as the government expenditure burden through the tax-payer on inmates. The study adopted the approach of qualitative and phenomenological methods to ascertain empirical findings to guide policy formulation and adjudication in Ghana and West Africa as a whole.  
153 Organisational Structure and Strategic Business Success in the Petroleum Industry in Uganda , Nicholas Disney Ogola, S. Rheeta Marjery, Vincent Bagire
This paper explores the relationship between organisational structure (ORG) and strategic business success (SBS) in the petroleum industry in Uganda. ORG was measured using span of control (SPOC), coordination of functional units (CORD), centralisation (CENT) and decentralisation (DECE). The study premised on institutional theory. The population was 347 licensed petroleum companies in Uganda and a sample of 186 was distributed and 174 used for analysis. The study used a survey research design. Regression and correlation were used to do analysis. The study used a self-administered questionnaire and semi-structure key informant interviews. Findings indicate that ORG has positive and significant relationship with SBS, although DECE and CORD make bigger contributions to ORG and ultimately SBS, CENT to a less extent. It is recommended that to generate more value, organisations should adopt CORD and DECE. It is concluded that petroleum companies should strengthen and manipulate DECE and CORD to meet the growing need of the petroleum industry. The study concluded that ORG does predict changes in SBS and is an important predictor of SBS.
154 An Investigation in to the Effectiveness of Participatory Budgeting in Achieving Community Development Goals in Port Loko District Council , Daniel E. M. Lavalie, S. Subadra, S. P. Sreekala
The Sierra Leone local council is charged with the responsibilities to govern and look over the welfare of its citizens in its localities but has been faced with a lot of challenges ranging from limited finance, insufficient staff capacity, insufficient material resources, mobility, and little compliance from bigger MDAs in terms of control. Hence has raised effectiveness issues in council operations. With the implementation of participatory budgeting in Port, Loko District Council calls for a study with the objective to investigate the effectiveness and linearity of participatory budgeting in the achievement of community development goals in the Port Loko District Council. Purposive sampling was done and administered a survey questionnaire to 420 respondents in the Port Loko District. Simple linear regression and correlational tests were used to interpret and analyze the primary data using SPSS 16.0 software package. The data analyses found out that there was a mean agreement rate of 1.95, which indicated that the respondents agreed that participatory budgeting was effective. The hypothesis test, if the effectiveness of participatory budgeting in Port Loko District Council has an impact on the achievement of community development goals, the major finding in this research is that effectiveness of participatory budgeting significantly affects the achievement of community development goals in the council district and concludes that participatory budgeting implemented in the Port Loko District Council in relation to the achievement of community development goals is effective, has a positive relationship and a strong correlation between them.  
155 Prevalence and Associated Factors for Sick Leave Among Bulawayo City Health Employees, Zimbabwe, 2013 , Cynthia Ncube, Chiedza Sibanda
Sick leave is time spent away from work due to illness or injury. A preliminary review of sick leave records for 2012 for the 6 clinics in Nkulumane showed 3 clinics experienced higher sick leave incidents than the other 3 clinics. The study sought to establish the prevalence and associated factors for sick leave in the City of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out among Bulawayo City Health employees working in 20 health facilities. A total of 144 respondents and 3 key informants were interviewed. An interviewer-administered questionnaire, key informant interview guide, and a checklist were used to collect data, which was analysed using Epi Info. The prevalence of sick leave was 34%. Employees who took sick leave less than six months ago were 4.3 times more likely to go on frequent sick leave than those who did not (POR 4.3, P-Value 0.002). Employees who reported good team climate were less likely to go on frequent sick leave (POR 0.29, P-Value 0.002). Feeling unappreciated at work was a risk factor for frequent sick leave (POR 2.61, P-Value 0.01). The cost of sick leave for the City of Bulawayo in 2012 was $US20 840. Periodic refresher meetings on conditions of service, training of managers and other employees on good teamwork, and production of a standard template for recording sick leave by clinics may assist in curbing frequent sick leave incidents.  
156 Strategy and Business Survival during Disruptive Times: A Survey of Passenger Transporters in Harare, Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 Lockdown , Ruth T. Mugweni  
Business leaders must be strategic about their operations to ensure success in different operating environments. The COVID-19, which emerged as a public health pandemic that affected businesses in different sectors differently. Passenger transport businesses were directly affected after the movement of people was banned for extended periods, during the lockdowns. The lockdowns represented a disruption in the operating environments. The study sought to assess the effect of strategic management on the survival of passenger transport operators during the COVID-19 induced lockdown disruptions in Harare, Zimbabwe. Data were collected using survey questionnaires distributed to representatives of 100 passenger transporters in Harare, from which questionnaires were returned. Results showed that 84 percent of the passenger transport operators have formal organizational structures of which about 73 confirmed the practice of strategic planning. Therefore, there is high adoption of strategic management by passenger transport operators in Harare. The most effective strategies for enhancing business survival in disruptions are diversification and competitive strategies. The logistic regression model results showed that the existence of a formal structure minimized the negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown disruptions on the survival of passenger transport operators in Harare.  
157 The Impact of Central Bank of Liberia Guidelines on Inbound Money Transfers in Liberia (The Liberian Bank for Development and Investment 2016-2018) , Jerome M. Kesselly
The Central Bank of Liberia (CBL), according to its mandate under the Act of 1999 and its authority, in line with Section 55 and 39, on November 15, 2016, issue a regulation (No. CBL/RSD/004/2016) on payment of Inbound money transfers, which was ordered by former President of the Republic of Liberia, Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The objective of this regulation was to support the effective management of the foreign exchange market. The regulation applies to all licensed financial institutions involved in money transfer services, such as Western Union and MoneyGram. The regulation did not apply to inbound money transfers that are made using recipient accounts at commercial banks. Conclusion: The theoretical framework presented in this research suggests that commercial banks, be precise, the Liberia Bank for Development and Investment (LBDI), are more likely to suffer a decrease in commission on inbound money transfers throughout the three years (3) of restrictions.
158 The Interactive Impact Between Empowerment and Women Empowerment Programs in Selected Local Government Areas in Ekiti State , Makinde, Christiana Omone Bose, Arogundade Toluwanimi Oreoluwa, Adeoye, Ayodele, Ilesanmi Itunnu, Banjo oluwafikayomi
The Nigerian Society is purely Patriarchy in Nature, and since this patriarchal nature is evident in traditionally social, cultural, economic, and religious realms or settings, there is a need for Women's Empowerment that directly influences these sectors. This Study assessed Women's Empowerment programs in Ekiti State, Nigeria. A descriptive Survey design was adopted. Sample size of 500 respondents were selected from 10 local government areas in the State. The Analysis was conducted using Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 23. The set null hypotheses were tested at a 0.05 level of significance. The set null hypotheses for Psychological Empowerment (B = 0.399, t = 22.853; P< 0.05), Social Empowerment (B = 0.318, t = 15.160, P<0.05), Economic Empowerment (B = 0.305, t=`11.955 P<0.05) and Political Empowerment (B=0.732, t= 21.221, P<0.05). The findings revealed that Social, Economical, Political, and psychological empowerment has significant contributions to Women's Empowerment programs in Ekiti State. The study recommended that Social Empowerment, Economic Empowerment, Psychological Empowerment, and Political Empowerment are key contributors to Women's Empowerment.  
159 Impact of Socio-Economic Development on Sustainable Business Development Among Small and Medium Scale Businesses in Nigeria , Kingsley Nwagu  
This study is undertaken to investigate the impact of socio-economic development on sustainable business development among small and medium scale business in Nigeria. The significance of socio-economic development in achieving sustainable business development among small and medium scale business, especially in a developing country like Nigeria, cannot be over-emphasized. This study employed a survey research design as data were elicited from the respondents who agreed to fill out the questionnaires. In this study, several socio-economic development indicator variables such as Self-reliance in Development, Policy Delivery Mechanism, and Access to Health Facilities were employed among others. The findings elicited from this study revealed that socio-economic development recorded a positive impact on sustainable business development among small and medium scale business in Nigeria.  
160 The Theoretical Proposition to Promote and Motivate Prison Labour in Ghana , Priscilla Brobbey
The ultimate purpose of the prison industry over the years was for the incarceration of criminals to serve their custodial sentence, which was later fused with rehabilitation programs to reform criminals to become better citizens after being released from custodial sentences. However, the outcome of the reformation of convicts after released from the prison has been a sad story than expected success cases. Hence, the theoretical proposition of the paper with respect to the prison industry of Ghana is to resolve recidivism, promote inmates’ skill upgrade and labour reformation programs to become socio-economic beneficial during and after a custodial sentence.
161 Assessment of Technical and Supporting Staff Reward Systems during COVID-19 Pandemic in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Plateau State, Nigeria , Bulus Pikitda  
The aim of this study was to assess the reward system for technical and supporting staff in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Plateau State. The study was guided by two objectives and one hypothesis. The study used a descriptive design approach, while a self-developed structured questionnaire titled Covid-19 Pandemic and Reward System Questionnaire (CARS-Q). The data were analyzed using simple percentages, mean rating standard deviation, and independent t-statistics. The results revealed that covid-19 allowances, access to palliatives, provision of personal protective equipment, payment of salaries, provision of relevant information, and staff training were the types of reward systems provided to technical and supporting staff of JUTH during the covid-19 Pandemic. It was also fund that these rewards were not distributed to the staff equally. The results indicated that the technical staff were better rewarded during the Pandemic than the supporting staff. The study concluded that there were differences in the reward system provided to technical and supporting staff of JUTH during the covid-19 Pandemic. The study recommended amongst others that the government and management of JUTH should ensure that both technical and supporting staff are rewarded equally during a pandemic so as to enhance their level of efficiency in service delivery, government and management of the Hospitals should make provision for equality in the payment of covid-19 allowances, insurance benefits and overtime allowances for staff of JUTH during a pandemic and that the hospital should provide flexible working opportunities for the staff for maximum performance.  
162 Assessment of Technical and Supporting Staff Reward Systems during COVID-19 Pandemic in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Plateau State, Nigeria , Bulus Pikitda  
The aim of this study was to assess the reward system for technical and supporting staff in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Plateau State. The study was guided by two objectives and one hypothesis. The study used a descriptive design approach, while a self-developed structured questionnaire titled Covid-19 Pandemic and Reward System Questionnaire (CARS-Q). The data were analyzed using simple percentages, mean rating standard deviation, and independent t-statistics. The results revealed that covid-19 allowances, access to palliatives, provision of personal protective equipment, payment of salaries, provision of relevant information, and staff training were the types of reward systems provided to technical and supporting staff of JUTH during the covid-19 Pandemic. It was also fund that these rewards were not distributed to the staff equally. The results indicated that the technical staff were better rewarded during the Pandemic than the supporting staff. The study concluded that there were differences in the reward system provided to technical and supporting staff of JUTH during the covid-19 Pandemic. The study recommended amongst others that the government and management of JUTH should ensure that both technical and supporting staff are rewarded equally during a pandemic so as to enhance their level of efficiency in service delivery, government and management of the Hospitals should make provision for equality in the payment of covid-19 allowances, insurance benefits and overtime allowances for staff of JUTH during a pandemic and that the hospital should provide flexible working opportunities for the staff for maximum performance.  
163 Economic Assessment of Solar Milling Plants as an Investment Tool: A Case of Katete District-Zambia , Hastings Munyenyembe  
The purpose of this study was to assess the economic impact of the solar milling plants to the local people in Katete District, Zambia. The specific objectives were to assess the performance of the solar milling plans, the effect of solar milling plants on mealie meal prices on the local market, the effect of solar milling plants on job creation in the district, and to find out challenges that co-operators are facing in managing the solar milling plants in the district for economic development, suggesting measures to be put in place to see to it that the program was sustainable. The research employed a qualitative research design, and extensive literature reviews were conducted in order to have a broader understanding of the research. The data was collected using the structured questionnaires and interview guide. The main findings of the research were that the hypothesis was rejected because there were no immediate economic benefits of the solar milling plants to the local people of Katete District. Following the results of the research, the solar milling plants were underperforming and underutilized in the district. Solar milling plants had no effect on the price of mealie meals in the district. Solar milling plants had a 40% effect on job creation in the district, and the study concluded that there were no immediate economic benefits brought about by solar milling plants in the district at the time of the study.
164 Product Differentiation Strategy and Perceived Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Uganda , Kosea Wambaka, Omotayo Adeniyi Adegbuyi
The banking landscape in Uganda is such that there is a section of commercial banks that has consistently posted impressive performance figures, particularly over the last five years, while the performance of the others leaves a lot to be desired. This study’s purpose was to examine the effect of differentiation strategy on the financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda. The study employed a cross-sectional design characterized by a quantitative approach. The target population in this study constituted 210 Senior Managers and Chief Executives of 10 selected commercial banks in Uganda that have been rated as the best performing commercial banks in the five years (2015-2019). A sample of 144 individuals was calculated for this study using Yamane’s (1967) formula, and the probability sampling technique of stratified proportionate random sampling was used in selecting Senior Managers of the selected commercial banks, and these were surveyed using a structured self-completion questionnaire. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations; and inferentially using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings showed a positive and statistically significant relationship between product differentiation strategy and financial performance in terms of ROI (β = 0.5841, ρ<0.05). The study concluded that product differentiation strategy is an important factor in the financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda particularly in terms of ROI.  
165 An Analysis of the Unpredictable Factors Influencing Loan Default in Small Scale Enterprises in the Port Loko Municipality in Sierra Leone using the Fish Bone Diagram , Edmund Benedict Amara
The study shows that there are unpredictable factors influencing loan default in small-scale enterprises in Port Loko Municipality. A fishbone diagram which is a cause an effect tool was used to determine these factors. A brainstorming activity was used to get the views of participants with regard to the Research Question. The research question was to respond to a research objective which was “Are there unpredicted factors influencing loan default in small scale enterprises in Port Loko Municipality in Sierra Leone?”. Reviews of necessary literature were done to aid the study. In the review, matters relating to loan default and possible causes were addressed. It is unfolded that there are some loan defaults that are as a result of the borrowers’ lapses and others that are lender-oriented causes. The population size of one hundred and a random sample size of sixty people were used as participants to carry out the brainstorming activity. The population is comprised of small-scale enterprise owners and workers of credit or Microfinance institutions in the Municipality. Brainstorming participants proved that the death of clients or borrowers, internal insecurity, outbreak of diseases (Pandemic), Natural Disasters, and accident all significantly influence loan default of small-scale enterprises.
166 Assessing the Impact of Electronic Business on the Performance of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses in Kumasi, Ghana   , Emmanuel Oppong-Mensah, S. P. Sreekala, Gabriel Dwomoh, Henrietta Oppong-Dwamena
The study evaluated how electronic business impacted the performance of a selected small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Kumasi. A convenient sample of 50 SMEs in wholesale and retail of consumer goods in Kumasi were selected at random to be surveyed; however, only 30 responded. Structured questionnaires were used to collect quantitative data from the participants to answer the research questions. The results were statistically analyzed to draw conclusions. The results revealed that, to a large extent, the businesses used e-business methods in several ways to undertake five categories of business activities which include advertising, customer support service, marketing, payment system, and order and delivery. Several factors influenced the adoption and use of e-business methods by the businesses, but the most influencing ones were the businesses’ customers’ low use of e-business and telecommunications services not being very dependable. It was also discovered that the adoption and use of e-business made positive impact on the businesses’ performance. It is therefore recommended that more SMEs be encouraged and assisted to fully embrace the use of e-business.  
167 Analysis of a Shift in the Business Environment and Post-Covid-19 Consumer Behaviour (A Case Study of Residents in Lagos Nigeria)   , Adunchezor, O.R, Akinade A.S
With the current global pandemic and the consequent social distancing rule limiting business and market operation, it has propelled a shift in the way businesses and organizations operate from the traditional physical market place to the adoption of information technology for business digitalization. These have also affected the attitudinal aspect of consumers and shoppers, particularly on the prospect of consumers going back to their old habits once the global crisis is over. This study, therefore, examines the conditions for consumer preference of the changing digitalized business environment in the Post-COVID-19 Era and its predictive value in the future. The study adopted a survey research design, using an online questionnaire as a research instrument among residents in Lagos. From the findings of the study, it was revealed that the perceived benefit of business digitalization, combined influence attitudes of consumers behaviour and perceived convenience is the most significant of conditions for the preference of the changing digitalized business environment that affects attitudes of consumers. On the prospect of the digitalized business environment in the post-COVID-19 business environments, the study revealed that a 1 percent change in the conditions for consumer preference of online constructs is likely to have an 8.4 percent effect on consumer’s attitudes. This, therefore, is an indication that a 1 percent change can have a significant effect on consumer’s buying behaviour. Conclusively the study recommended that online retailers should consider improving their technological infrastructure in order to offer more convenience for Customers online shoppers.
168 Critical Literature Review on Agriculture Co-Operatives in Developing Countries: A Poverty Mitigation Perspective , Sikalumbi Arona Dewin, Victor Muchemwa
Over the decades, the perception of cooperatives has revolved from that of considering them as food security agents and determinants to that of social and economic agents to cooperators, community, and national development. The study, therefore, critically reviewed the related literature on agriculture cooperatives as poverty alleviating agents. An integrated strategy in the research review approach was used to support the study. The findings revealed recent developments in cooperatives that are putting agriculture cooperatives on the map as agents of poverty eradication and social and economic development in third-world countries. Currently, there is a societal expectation that cooperatives have not only a responsibility to better the lives of the members but also the entire community and nation as a whole. The study concluded that achieving future sustainable social and economic development requires full recognition of all the key economic players in the business ecosystem. The study, therefore, recommends full support of the agriculture cooperatives if they are to play a positive and integral role in mitigating the poverty levels in third-world countries.
169 Impact of Length of Stay on both Financial Health and Medical Outcomes of Mission Hospitals in Rural Ghana , Ebenezer Kenneth Abban
One of the major key clinical indicators of hospital performance is length of stay (LOS). This denominator is calculated in averages. The role of this measure could be dual (as medical outcome or financial health indicator). Regardless, it can also be observed as either positive or negative variable depending on how it is measured. By this study, LOS was assessed on both counts: as a measure of financial health and also as medical outcome of hospital. The investigator concludes, after thorough evaluation of available data, from both structured interviews and responses to a set of questions in a survey, that truly length of stay impacts positively on medical outcomes and also could be a measure of the financial healthiness of hospital.  
170 A Review of The Unethical Business Practices That Causes Loan Default in Small Scale Enterprises in Port Loko Municipality in Sierra Leone   , Edmund Benedict Amara  
Small scale enterprises are an income stream for the unemployed and under-employed in Sierra Leone. The financing of such a venture is from the loan capital of Micro Finance Institutions and other credit agencies in the country. Default in the repayment of loan capital within prescribed conditions has been an issue because of the unethical practices of lenders and borrowers and hence concern for studies. The primary objective of the study is to do a review on the unethical business practices that causes loan default in small-scale enterprises in Port Loko municipality in Sierra Leone. Such studies will avail recommendations that shall be instruments to minimize the rate of unethical practices of borrowers and lenders within the Pot Loko Municipality. The Specific objectives of the study are to know the attitudes of Lenders and borrowers that influence loan default. Questionnaires were administered to respond to Researched Questions which were framed from the research objectives. Also, Reviews of others writers were done with regard ethical issues. The researcher Used the Likert Scale in preparing and administering the questionnaire. Opinions of Respondents were analyzed using the Structured Package for Social Sciences. The following analyses were done: i) Percentage Analysis, ii) Analysis of correlation by use of the Pearson Correlation. iii). Analysis of coefficient iv) Analysis of Model summary v) Analysis of Anova. From the study, the Researcher discovered that Unethical business practices like bribe-taking and other dishonest games are predominant between lenders and borrowers, and these practices have greatly influenced loan default in small-scale enterprises in Port |Loko Municipality in Sierra Leone and have a significant relationship on loan default.  
171 Single Women Involved in Entrepreneurship Negatively Affected by Gender and Marital Status as Entrepreneurs , Brown Chomba  
Issues to do with gender imbalances and inequality of women in general and single women in particular in the political arena and entrepreneurship are nowadays a burning issue in all the countries worldwide. This is a major aspect of modern democratic governance such that low levels of female participation in politics are a major concern worldwide. The steps were taken by the United Nations Convention on stopping all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and other international organizations have laid the concrete basis for the emergence of women’s participation in politics and entrepreneurship. In Lusaka, Zambia, women’s political participation is not proportional to the 50% of the country’s population which women represent, thereby not translating into equal representation in political leadership positions. The study employed questionnaires to collect data. The findings demonstrate that there exists a significant gender gap in the political participation of women in all the wards in the Lusaka district and that factors affecting their effective participation were social, economic, political, cultural, and religious-based. The study, therefore, recommended the change of perception of the people, equal representation in governance, support from everyone, and also stopping of discriminatory practices to ensure the equal and full participation of women.  
172 An Assessment of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church Teacher Recruitment Process on the Achievement of the Church’s goals. A Study of Adventist Schools in Bulawayo , Themba Dube
This paper aimed at unearthing practices driven by the Adventist-Teacher recruitment process in order to determine achievement of the organization’s goals. The study was conducted in Adventist Schools in Bulawayo. The schools have a population of about 218 teachers. The study followed a mixed method of research, where quantitative-descriptive statistics were used to discuss findings. A sample of 106 teachers was chosen using the stratified sampling to respond to a self-administered questionnaire. Simple random was used to choose teachers from within each stratum among the three Secondary and Five Primary Schools. In the schools selected, the teachers’ list was used, and either odd numbers or even numbers were used as respondents. Through purposive sampling, three Secondary and five Primary School heads were chosen to respond to interview questions indicated in this study. It is important to note that teachers and school heads did not agree on issues regarding induction and mentoring. Primary data was collected and analyzed using SPSS. Tables and graphs were used in the presentation and discussion of findings. The study established the link between the Recruitment process- which aims at the integration of faith and learning- and Redemptive practices to be positive at Pearson’s r 0,696. The interaction of the Recruitment process and the cutting-edge practices recorded a Pearson’s r of 0,589. The recruitment process appeared to be operating below the ideal standard. The study revealed a poor teacher induction and mentoring process in the schools studied.
173 Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Competitive Advantage: A Case of Newmont Ghana Limited , William Ohene-Adjei, Pamela Amankwah
Corporate Social Responsibility has taken part in the operations of businesses, but there is a need for research on why CSR is and how advantageous it is for a firm in a competitive market. The paper investigated the use of CSR as a stronghold for firms in a competitive environment using Newmont Ghana Limited as a case study. The study further seeks to identify the impact of Newmont Ghana’s CSR activities and its impact on both the firm’s output and reputational image. These objectives are explored through the evaluation of the effect of Newmont Ghana’s CSR activities. Using a purposive and convenient sampling method, 120 questionnaires, both open and close-ended questions, were distributed to the employees of Newmont Ghana across all levels. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The outcome showed that corporate social responsibility gives Newmont Ghana an advantage in positioning and diminishing of competitive attack in the market. Also, the results showed that Newmont Ghana’s CSR activities have a positive impact on its reputation at both the local and national level. Also, CSR activities had a positive impact on its output as it draws in more investors and makes them perform better. The study recommended that firms should integrate CSR into their basic operations and to educate their employees on the firm’s social responsibilities, the general public should be educated on the different duties of all other actors, and the topic should be expanded to include all firms in the mining industry in Ghana and how they benefit from CSR.
174 Product Differentiation Strategy and Perceived Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Uganda: Moderating Effect of Managerial Discretion , Kosea Wambaka, Omotayo Adeniyi Adegbuyi
The moderating effect of managerial discretion on the relationship between product differentiation strategy and firm financial performance has not received necessary empirical attention. The study sought to examine the moderating effect of managerial discretion on the relationship between product differentiation and the perceived financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda. A cross-section survey design was formulated targeting a population comprised of 210 Senior Managers and Chief Executives of 10 selected commercial banks in Uganda, which were chosen because of their relatively consistent superior financial performance in the last five years. A sample of 137 individuals was calculated using Yamane’s (1967) formula, and the technique of stratified proportionate random sampling was used in selecting sample subjects. Data was collected from these individuals using structured questionnaires and analyzed descriptively (using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations) and inferentially using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The coefficient of the interaction term between managerial discretion and product differentiation strategy (MD*PD) was found positive and significant (β = 0.3421, ρ<0.05). Accordingly, the null hypothesis was rejected. It is concluded that managerial discretion is an important factor in the adoption of product differentiation strategies for purposes of enhancing the perceived financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda. The study recommends that commercial banks in Uganda should avail Chief Executives with the necessary and adequate latitude to implement product differentiation strategies if they are to maximize financial performance.  
175 Customer Satisfaction in the Retail Sector of Botswana , Misani Sephetsolo
This paper examined the level of customer satisfaction within the retail sector of Botswana. In making this examination, the paper utilised the large retail chain stores, specifically, Choppies, PnP, Shoprite, and Spar, within Gaborone. This means that this paper undertook a survey concentrating on 4 retail giants in Botswana from which a sample of 750 customers was sampled using convenience sampling for participation in the study. The findings from this study show that the level of customer satisfaction in Botswana was good (rating score = 3.87/5). The significant contributors to customer satisfaction were gender, product quality, product diversity, pricing, responsiveness, design and appearance, and customer experience. The paper recommended that retailers focus on strategic pricing for enhanced customer satisfaction in the sector, adopt quality and diversity-centric policies, and adopt robust customer knowledge management and customer experience management. Keywords: Age, Appearance, Customer service, Customer experience, Customer satisfaction, Design, Gender, Location, Product quality, Pricing, Product diversity, Responsiveness.
176 The Impact of Social Media on 21st Century Businesses Growth: A Case Study - Background Check International Limited, Nigeria , Alexander Kolawole Olugbodi
The advent of the internet and advancement in technology has changed the way businesses are done across the world. This advancement in technology has also resulted in the development of numerous social media platforms. With more than 4.48 billion social media users worldwide in July 2021, individuals, small businesses, and even large corporations now rely heavily on social media to promote various businesses, outsmart competitors, and grow their businesses. This study aimed to examine the impact of social media on business growth in this century and to examine to what extent social media platforms have revolutionized and transformed how businesses now market their products and services, and also to affirm the impact of these social media marketing activities on the organizations business growth. I used Background Check International Limited, Nigeria, the company wherein I am a Chief Executive Officer, as the case study for the influence of social media marketing on businesses. The study found that the impact of social media platforms on business growth is significant. Using my company as a case study, social media marketing has proven to be a better alternative to traditional marketing in all ramifications. Social media has successfully reduced the world to a small global village, enabling tremendous business growth. I also found, beyond all reasonable doubt, that social media will continue to disrupt any remaining aspect of traditional marketing that may still be surviving till day. Keywords: Businesses, Growth, Social media.
177 The Electronic Payment Systems in a Developing Economy with Reference to Guyana , Imran Khan
The general intention of this Publication is to feature Electronic Payment Systems in a Developing Economy with reference to Guyana and the bearing comprising the advantages in cultivating payment systems while heightening safety, the efficiency of payments, and cost savings. The continuous transformation of a developing economy’s payments system will support monetary growth through the fiscal system for its sustainability and enables proficient financial interposition. This publication further highlights the need for frequent evaluation and supervision for the continuous modernization of electronic payment systems to the benefit and referencing to the developing economy of Guyana. Critical areas that are essential which emphasis have been placed upon but needs further attention in addressing, are as follows: 1.   Increase the rate of finalizing a transaction through its related operations within actual or rapid time, as time is money. Currently, the rate of one transaction varies (by hours). 2.   Decrease of paper materials and handling costs which generally eases functional cost. 3.   Payment assurance and dependable guard against illegal entry to the client’s account in ensuring safe dispensation. This publication has formed the basis to associate investors behind the target to endorse a modern payments system infrastructure that is required for a developing economy with reference to Guyana with the objective of restructuring, empowering discussion and the propelling effect in generating inventive and country-specific electronic payment solutions. It should be noted that a substantial amount of transformation has occurred to date with reference to Guyana. Keywords: Developing Economy, Electronic Payment Systems, Implementation.
178 The Potential of Technology within the Agribusiness Industry in the Emerging Market of Ghana , Richard Asante, Rheeta Marjery, Frank Boateng
This article examines the potentials of an appropriate technology with which the Ghana Agribusiness industry can leverage to boost the living conditions of the industry dependent people, increase the sector’s contribution to GDP, and equip local firms with resources to stand the international competition and to offer multinational firms information required during their globalization endeavours. This will be strategic to maximise the opportunities and manage constraints. Moreover, many business constraints exist. Some are poor technological infrastructure, institutional voids, bribery, corruption, bureaucracy, and poorly trained human capital. There was a critical examination of extant studies by several scholars and researchers related to the study’s objective. The review’s primary focus is to establish strong conceptual, theoretical, and empirical support for this study. These included segments that dealt with the conceptual framework review of competitive advantage and theoretical reviews of the Network Theory. Structured as the third segment is the empirical review. This entails an in-depth review of extant studies related to the three-pronged objectives, with the aim of either rejecting or accepting the underlying framework in such studies. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the primary data collected via focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. In-depth examination of participants’ responses revealed that though the majority (18), 82% of the participants indicated the adoption of technology in the workplace, whiles a few suggested partial or near adoptions. Keywords: Agribusiness industry, Business model innovation, Constraints, Emerging market, Opportunities, Technology.
179 The Effect of Corporate Reputation on the Performance of Corporate Organizations in Developing Countries: Evidence from West Africa , Kingsley Nwagu
This study is carried out to understand the effect of corporate reputation on the performance of corporate organizations in developing countries: evidence from West Africa. The population for this study consists of selected listed multinational companies in Nigeria and Ghana. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire and was measured on an interval scale through the research questionnaire. The statistical tool used to analyze the set variables is multiple regression. It involves the collection, collation, analysis, and interpretation of data for this study. It further incorporated ANOVA to show CSR Practices and their impact on the performance of corporate organizations as explained by the independent variables through the coefficient of determination R2. This design is useful and most appropriate in measuring the degree of association between two or more variables. It is also helpful in measuring the effect of independent variables on a dependent variable. As predicted, the study proves that corporate social responsibility practice can be integrated into corporations’ business strategy for enhanced performance. Rather than just being beneficial to society, corporate social responsibility can be the value-added opportunity for corporations that engages in responsible actions. The research adds to the existing literature on corporate social responsibility practices and their impact on corporate performance. Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate organization, Philanthropy, Performance, Reputation, West Africa.
180 Application of the Deming PDSA Cycle as a Patient Experience Management Tool to Improve HIV Care. An Action Research in Under-Resourced Settings of Jinja-Uganda , Balidawa John
The study to determine the effect of patient experience management using the Deming PDSA cycle on the quality of HIV care was conducted in under-resourced settings of Uganda. The interventional study had 437 files studied, and 224 adult HIV clients with poor HIV care outcomes of; missed appointments for more than two weeks, poor adherence to treatment of < 85%, and unsuppressed viral load of > 1000 viral copies per milliliter were interviewed at baseline and end line. The study revealed a 13.6% prevalence of the study HIV care outcomes among all the client files, the majority of which were for patients in care for more than four years. 11.8%, 65.2%, and 46.5% were due to poor adherence to treatment, two weeks missed appointments, and unsuppressed viral load at baseline, which reduced to 4.7%, 25.1%, and 31.5% at end-line assessment, respectively. 80% of the studied clients were retention in care between the baseline and end-line assessments. 7.7% of the study files had never had a viral load done to the clients at baseline, which reduced to 1.4% at the end line. 34.5% of the study client files were overdue for a viral load at baseline but only 16.8% at end-line assessment. The study also showed a general improvement on the patient experience before and after interventions. In conclusion, Patient Experience Management using the Deming PDSA cycles improves the quality of HIV care in under-resourced settings. Keywords: Deming PDSA cycles, Management, Patient Experience.
181 Impact of Communication in the Management of Revenue Collection in Onitsha Metropolitan Area, Anambra State of Nigeria , Joseph Brown
The government needs adequate financial resources to deliver its many developmental functions. However, such financial resources are either not available or inadequate. One way of rising to this challenge has been scaling up revenue collection from local revenue sources. This study aims to assess the impact of communication in the management of revenue collection using a descriptive survey research design. The researcher formulated two research questions and one hypothesis. A self-developed questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample size consists of revenue collectors in Onitsha Metropolitan Area selected using the purposive random sampling technique; subsequently, thirty copies of the questionnaire were administered by the researcher. Mean, and standard deviation was used to analyse the data. The study showed, among other findings, that communication facilitates the co-ordination of the task, which impacts the management of revenue collection. Also, there is no significant difference on the views of male and female revenue collectors regarding the impact of communication on the management of revenue collection in the Onitsha Metropolitan Area of Nigeria. These findings have the vantage of providing the researchers, policymakers, and government with adequate and correct baseline data on the impact of communication in the management of revenue collection. Conclusions were drawn from the findings, and it was recommended that training and re-training programmes for the revenue officials should be organized at regular intervals to enable them to meet the challenge of the new millennium. Keywords: Communication, Management, Metropolitan Area, Revenue collection.
182 Opportunities and Constraints within the Agribusiness Industry in the Emerging Market of Ghana , Richard Asante, Rheeta Marjery, Frank Boateng
The purpose of the study is to conduct an empirical investigation into the important role of technology in a value-driven business process design for an emerging market. Emerging markets are characterized by low GDP because of low economic activities. However, it is full of business opportunities within its environments for prospective businesses or existing small business which wants to scale up or globalize. Moreover, many business constraints exist some are poor technological infrastructure, institutional voids, bribery and corruption, bureaucracy, and poorly trained human capital. There was a critical examination of extant studies by several scholars and researchers related to the objective of the study. The main focus of the review is to establish strong conceptual, theoretical, and empirical support for this study. These included segments that dealt with the conceptual framework review of competitive advantage and theoretical reviews of the Network Theory. Structured as the third segment is the empirical review. This entails an in-depth review of extant studies related to the three-pronged objectives, with the aim of either rejecting or accepting the underlying framework in such studies. Thematic analysis was employed for analysing the primary data collected via focus group discussion plus in-depth interviews. An in-depth examination of the responses of participants revealed that though the majority (19) of the participants agreed that emerging market has several potential and benefits, yet they indicated the existence of certain constraints mitigating increased investment in agribusiness in Ghana, as demonstrated in the excerpt. Keywords: Constrains, Emerging market, Opportunities.
183 Strategy Behind the Business Success of Amazon: A Case Study , Chukwuka Sunday Ukeni
The success of any business is dependent on the strategy/strategies that are deployed in the operation of such a business. Strategy is a critical determinant of business success. Amazon.com is one of the most successful brands in the world; the company has been in business for over two decades and has recorded an unprecedented business success in human history. In this research work, the key strategy behind the success of Amazon will be extensively investigated. Given the unusual success rate of this organization over the past two decades and their high prospect for greater success, it becomes imperative to investigate the strategy behind this tremendous business success in-order to unveil and/or re-emphasize an established business principle that may not be obvious to many businesses. The purpose of this research is mainly to identify these strategies and extend further emphasis on the viability of such business strategies in order to strengthen existing research on the subject matter. Using the waterfall methodology, the history of the company will be reviewed, the financial reports, company memos, press releases, etc., will be analysed. The evolvement of the business from its inception as an online book retailer to its diversification into numerous other lines of businesses will be reviewed and analysed. Keywords: Amazon, Brand, Customer, Management, Strategy, Success.
184 Gender and Perceived Usefulness of e-HRM Technologies. A Case of the Bankers’ Experience in Tanzania , Judith Namabira, Hezbon Tenison Mtawa
This study investigates the impact of gender differences on the perceived usefulness of e-HRM technologies, using 158 observations from a survey conducted in one of the commercial banks in Tanzania. The descriptive statistics show that the e-HRM technologies in the bank have not been perceived as useful. With the T-Test, it has been found out that men perceive the e-HRM technologies more useful compared to women. The paper urges the promoters of e-HRM technologies in organizations to better understand the ways in which the use of such technologies can be enhanced to their employees, particularly women. The study proposes further research on e-HRM and gender, particularly on the impact of e-HRM technologies on spending, time saving, and errors. Keywords: Adoption; Gender; Perceived usefulness; Perceived ease to use; e-HRM.
185 The Strategic Impact of Total Quality Management on Customer Satisfaction. A Case Study of Colour Fiesta Nigeria Limited , Gladys Harold-Juwah
The importance of Total Quality Management in businesses today cannot be over emphasised because the over-increasing needs of the customers and the right to quality has taken a long way in ensuring that organisational strategic objectives are set to meet this demand. Customer satisfaction is a major concern of most organisations, this has led to corporate strategies being considered as important in total quality management. This study examines the strategic impact of total quality management on customer satisfaction in Colour Fiesta Nigeria Limited which is involved in printing and publishing. The major aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between senior management commitment in total quality management and the effect it will have on customer satisfaction. It is believed that customers are unsatisfied due to the failure of total quality management hence the active involvement of the top management. Based on the findings, it was revealed that the management of Colour Fiesta is more concerned of continuous quality improvement and customer focus philosophy than benchmarking, employee training, etc. There was also an inconsistency in integrating total quality management with the strategic planning process. In conclusion, the result shows that total quality management plays a vital role in the strategic implementation of customer satisfaction. Keywords: Affinity and Ishikawa diagram, Benchmarking and QC Circle, ISO 9001 Standard, Process management, Quality function deployment, Total Quality.
186 Health Budget Allocation and Performance; and the Budget’s Preparedness for Health Events such as COVID-19: Enugu State Perspective , Simon Nnamdi Eneh
This is an exploratory study of the health budget allocation and performance of a State against the background of its health indices and preparedness for any public health emergency such as COVID-19. This is aimed to guide future health programming in the state. Three research instruments (Questionnaire, data collection, and interview guides) were used to collect data, key informant interviews with health planners and managers; synthesis of relevant literature reviews to identify relevant documents; and responses gathered from the public and civil servants. The findings identified eight (8) Ministries, Departments, and Agencies (MDA) under the State Ministry of Health, which is the policy-making body that monitors and coordinates/regulates all health activities in the State. The government budget, donor partners, out-of-pocket expenditures, and contributory schemes are sources of funds for Health. The State’s budgetary allocations for health shows an annual increment from reaching 15% in 2016 to 16% in 2017 and over 17% in 2018, surpassing the Abuja Declaration target of 15% of the state budget. In nominal terms, allocation to the health sector fluctuated between 2011 and 2016 and finally went down in 2018. There is no clearly cut-out budgetary provision for emergency preparedness for health events in the State’s health budget. The government has proactively made budgetary provisions for the challenges facing the health care system to facilitate efforts towards addressing them. However, it remains to be seen whether the poor health indices will get better in the long run. Keywords: Budget allocation, Emergency preparedness, Health economics, Health expenditure, Health financing, Health indices.
187 Citizen Participation in Health Budget Process: Trends and Patterns with Particular Reference to Enugu State of Nigeria , Simon Nnamdi Eneh
This study looked at Citizen Participation in Health Budget Process: Trends and Patterns in Enugu state of Nigeria. The study's objectives included exploring citizens’ perception of the factors that influence the release of funds in the State, their level of participation, and knowledge about the goals of citizen participation in the budget process. Respondents were 398 in number (198 males and 200 females), inclusive of 40 civil and public servants. The two sets of questionnaire were used to collect data (One set for the public and civil servants; and the other set for the general public. Results reveal that the factors that influence the release of funds include, among others, poor allocation and release of funds from federal sources and weak political commitment. The results also reveal that citizens are not openly and substantially involved in the health budget process, and their level of knowledge regarding the government’s goal in citizen participation in the budget process is poor. The findings from this study will inform the development of advocacy packages to the government towards greater and meaning engagement of the citizens in the budget process. The advocacy packages might give the necessary voice to the people, which are required to strengthen efforts towards the attainment of Universal Health Coverage, as well as generate useful data which will serve as a guide for future interventions. Keywords: Budgetary process, Citizen Participation, Health care financing, Health Sector Funding, Participatory budgeting, People-Task-Oriented Budgeting.
188 The Effect of Kaizen Implementation and Sustainability on Performance of the Manufacturing Sector in Ethiopia, Abebe Nigatu
Today’s modern society, where business dynamism is changing fast, requires going beyond the traditional managerial approach. This research examines how and the context of Kaizen implementation affects the sustainability and Performance of manufacturing companies in Ethiopia. The study follows the framework of the Kaizen practices implemented in Ethiopia as the application of Kaizen tools, kaizen thinking, and culture. The findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between Kaizen Implementation factors (input factors) and sustainability factors in relation to the Performance of manufacturing companies in Ethiopia. The results of the study suggest that manufacturing companies in Ethiopia should emphasize working on promoting the Kaizen culture and empowerment of employees coupled with the use of the Kaizen tools effectively and adapted to the context of each company to enhance the Performance and achieve competitive advantage. Empowerment factors include all variables that measure thinking and culture. The variables are critical for sustaining Kaizen in terms of maintaining improved culture. For Kaizen to be sustainable, employees need to be empowered to learn, apply and own the changes. The results from the PLS path model analysis indicate that the dependent variable (improved culture) is found to have a strong relationship with two implementation variables (independent variables): empowerment and leadership commitment. Keywords: Culture, Empowerment, Leadership Commitment, Sustainability, Performance.
189 Leadership Styles and Employees’ Performance in University System: The Case of University of Abuja, Nigeria, Tekun Segun
This paper assessed the relationship between leadership styles and employee performance of the University of Abuja, based on the arguments propounded by modern leadership theory. It adopted a survey research design and made use of primary data obtained from structured questionnaires distributed to a sample of 380 non-academic staff members of the University. Using the OLS regression technique, the study found strong evidence in support of a positive and statistically significant association between transformational and transactional leadership style in the University of Abuja. Specifically, the result of the analysis suggests that leadership style plays crucial role in the overall performance of the employee of the University. The study concluded that leadership style be it transformational, transactional, or laissez-faire, influences employee performance. In line with the above findings, the study recommended, among others that leaders (managers) at the University of Abuja should project inspiration, encourage creativity and innovation, and reward hard work but never abdicate its responsibility to drive performance. Keywords: Employee Performance, Leadership Styles, Organisational Outcomes.
190 A Proposal for Re-structuring of Nurses and Midwives’ Promotions and Ranks toward an Advance Professional Practice in Ghana, Michael Wombeogo, Bridget Daborikuu, Cynthia Maambo
Staff promotion is the advancement of an employees’ rank or position in an organizational hierarchical system. A Study explains that promotion when and wherever it happens, comes with two impressions: the monetary aspect and the change of position from lower to higher in the organizational hierarchy. This study aims at presenting a proposal for re-structuring of Nurses and Midwives’ promotions and ranks toward an advance professional practice in Ghana. A descriptive, phenomenological qualitative study was used. The study established that ranking and promotions in nursing and midwifery should be based on qualification and experience and not just number of years served in the health sector. The respondents largely added that for nurses and midwives to be academically active with apt skills in their respective fields, promotions should also be based on some number of scholarly papers published in reputed journals. Accordingly, the Nursing and Midwifery Council must ensure that nurses and midwives adhere to these protocols towards ranking and remuneration. In conclusion, ranking is beneficial for the advancement of the nursing and midwifery professions in Ghana. Keywords: Ghana, Nurses and midwives, Promotions, Professional practice, Ranks, Re-structuring.
191 An Empirical Analysis of the Importance of Teamwork on Project Management: The Case of Nigeria Telecommunication Sector, Olanrewaju Modupe-Samuel
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the importance of teamwork in project management in the Nigerian telecommunication industry. Data was collected across 310 telecommunication firms and analyzed using descriptive statistics and a t-test. The study found that teamwork is significant in meeting project timelines, project efficiency, reduction in project costs, enhanced project quality and improve customer satisfaction. Keywords: Project, Project Management, Teamwork.
192 Consumer’s Adaptation and Financial Stability with a Modern Payments System Infrastructure in Guyana, Imran Khan
A payments system is no more than a structured arrangement for moving value between its participants. So defined, it is crystal clear that payment systems are ultimate to the functioning of all monetary economies, no matter they are developed economies, transitional economies, or developing economies like Guyana. The aim of this work is to show how the architecture of payment systems (payment instruments, processing, participants, consumers, etc.) impact to payments industry (microeconomic approach) and for the promoting the role of the Central Bank in payment systems and financial stability (macroeconomic – public approach) along with consumers adaptation to these changes and developments. We use the method of qualitative to analyze, not experimental measures. Central Banks, as circulators of money, have always had a keen interest in the smooth functioning of their respective National Payments System and the way it affects the economy. Their involvement has, however, evolved over time, as Central Banks have increasingly taken on a blatant role in the pursuit of the Consumers good of maintaining trust in the currency and ensuring its smooth circulation in carrying out their core monetary and financial stability functions through the payment systems modern evolving infrastructure. Keywords: Payment Systems, Consumers Adaptation, Financial Stability, Central Bank, Guyana.
193 Assessing the Importance and Benefits of Continuing Professional Development to Technical University Lecturers in Ghana, William Owusu-Boateng
The main objective of the study was to find out the importance and benefits lecturers at technical university lecturers in Ghana derive from continuing professional development. The study was qualitative in nature, and a sample size of forty-eighty was chosen. The sample size was chosen from two technical universities. The sample comprised six deans of faculties, six heads of departments, and thirty-six lecturers. Two interview schedules were used for the data collection. One of the interview schedules was used to interview the deans and heads of departments, and the other was used to interview the lecturers. The study revealed that CPD plays an important role for lecturers as it helps them stay abreast with the happenings in their area of specialties. It, moreover, helps them to stay relevant to their students so that the students explore their latent qualities. CPD helps lecturers to gain self-confidence and self-actualization. It equips lecturers to qualify to apply for promotions and appointments. The more the lecturers embark on CPD, they learn the relevant skills to conduct research and come out with innovative results which are published in recognized journals. The benefit the lecturers enjoy is that it helps them to conduct and publish quality results which puts them in a better position to qualify and apply for promotions and appointments. The students benefit from CPD as it helps lecturers to acquire innovative and better teaching methods which make lectures interesting and understanding. It is recommended that all lecturers should make it a policy to attend at least one CPD program a year. Keywords: Professional development, self-actualization, promotion, appointments, and publications.
194 Customer Service Quality in The Banking Industry. A Case Study of Zanaco-Ndola, Kennedy Chilufya
The main purpose of the research was to find out the customer service quality in the banking industry with respect to ZANACO PLC. The literature review on the subject was mainly collected from journals, textbooks, publications of articles and other relevant literature. The purpose was mainly to enhance the understanding of the subject. The primary data was collected from existing ZANACO west branch customers and its Management; Data was collected through questionnaires, direct observations, and personal interviews with the key informants on the subject matter. This research sought to establish the customer service quality in the banking sector, a case of ZANACO Ndola. The main objective of the study was to investigate the impact of customer service quality in the banking sector and make recommendations based on the findings of the study and to determine the importance of providing quality customer service to customers, and at the same time, checking whether customer service is a tool for gaining competitive advantage. Mainly a descriptive research design was used for the collection and analysis of data. Finally, it was found that customers are generally satisfied with the quality of services offered by ZANACO. Keywords: Atm, Commercial Banks, Covid-19, Investrus, Xapit, Zanaco.
195 Addressing the Management Challenges Related to Organizational Structure of Hospital Services in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Grace Walters
This study was conducted to explore the measures that can be taken to address the management challenges that relate to the organizational structure of hospital services in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. A mixed method design was employed in which both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from top managers assigned to four public hospitals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The top managers were purposively selected because of their different roles in the management of hospital services. The thematic approach was used in the analysis of data. The study was significant in that it focused on exploring measures that could be used to address management challenges that relate to the existing organizational structure of hospital services in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The study also contributed to a strategic approach to addressing challenges that affect the delivery of hospital services. The results of the study revealed a number of measures that were highly recommended for addressing the management challenges related to the existing organizational structure of hospital services. The measures included :(i) redesigning the organizational structure to allow a single person to head the management of the organization, (ii) clearly defining the existing reporting lines, and (iii) appointing a CEO along with a board of directors to manage the hospital Services. The study informed a model framework of an organizational structure that illustrates the changes proposed. Keywords: Hospitals Services, Leadership, Measures, Management, Organizational Structure.
196 The Implementation and Adoption of Electronic Payment System by Hospitals in Nigeria: A Case Study of Good Shepherd Clinic, Gladys Harold-Juwah
Information Communication Technology play a major role in the implementation and adoption of electronic payment systems in Nigeria. The rapid growth of the internet has facilitated the exponential growth in the electronic payment systems (EPS) as a result business transaction is constantly moving from cash-based to electronic-based hence leading to economic growth in Nigeria. This study examines the implementation and adoption of Electronic Payment System by Hospitals in Nigeria. A case study of Good Shepherd Clinic. A random sampling of 150 patients of the clinic was carried out and the data gathered through structured questionnaire consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Based on the findings, it revealed that most of the clients preferred to use the electronic payment system (EPS) or has intention to use the EPS method. It is also seen that economic growth has a significant positive effect on the implementation of electronic payment system in the hospital. To continuously promote the adoption of EPS in Nigeria, it is necessary to address the barriers identified and encourage clients to use the services of the bank where the money is kept for easy usage. Keyword: Cash-based, Electronic Payment System, Information Communication Technology, Questionnaire, Random Sampling, Technology Acceptance Model.
197 Evaluating Strategic Planning as Intervention Tool for Improving Healthcare Delivery in Private Hospitals in Ojodu, Lagos, Olusola Abiola Olaitan
The Nigerian healthcare sector is currently faced with various incapacitating problems making universal health coverage difficult and the healthcare workforce being poorly managed. In a bid to manage these problems effectively, it has become pertinent, more than ever, for healthcare managers to resort to use of strategic management tools to improve the overall health status of the teeming population of Nigeria as these tools have been proven effective in other non-health industries. This study, therefore, examines the influence of different aspects of strategic planning like facility planning, professional improvement planning, manpower planning, health services planning, and customer service planning on different components of healthcare delivery like patient safety, waiting time, medical staff retention, the effectiveness of health services, people-centeredness, and equitable service delivery. Cross-sectional and random sampling techniques were adopted to administer 123 copies of the questionnaire to a population of 178 managers of private hospitals in Ojodu, out of which 111 copies were validly filled and returned by the respondents representing a 90.24% response rate. Simple regression analysis was adopted to analyze the six hypotheses of this study, and the results showed that they were all statistically significant at a 5% significance level. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that strategic planning is a valuable tool that can be used to improve healthcare delivery in private hospitals. The study, therefore, recommends that managers of private hospitals should be trained in the use of strategic planning tools in order to fully exploit the benefits inherent in the strategic planning processes. Keywords: Healthcare delivery, Hospitals, Intervention, Strategic planning.
198 Effects of Organizational Structure on Management of Public Hospitals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Grace Walters
This study explored the effects of organizational structure on the management of hospitals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The study sought to answer the question: What effects does the existing organizational structure have on the management of hospitals in St. Vincent and the Grenadines? The study took a qualitative approach. The participants consisted of a purposively selected sample of forty-five (45) top level and senior managers in the health care system, assigned to the four public hospitals on the island of St. Vincent and managers within the administrative arm of the Ministry of Health, Wellness and the Environment in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The findings revealed that poor problem-solving strategies and the lack of or inadequate input from middle managers as it relates to operations of the organization were some of the ways in which the existing organizational structure affected hospital management. The results also highlighted challenges which included inadequate communication, poor distribution, and management of resources as well as poorly defined and inflexible roles. Lack of support from top level managers, contradictory decisions made by the managers and poor accountability measures, were also stated as challenges of the existing structure. The results of this study have informed the conclusion that the organizational structure of Hospital Services impacts performance, prompting a call for review of the existing organizational structure of hospital services in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Keywords: Hospital services, Management, Organizational structure, public hospitals.
199 The Commercialisation of University Research Outputs: A Review of Literature, Gregory Tweheyo, Ernest Abaho, Anju M Verma
Universities are presently experiencing rapid transformation, shifting emphasis from pure teaching to equal their strength in teaching and research to increase their capacity to commercialise. The universities are not only accountable for teaching and research accomplishments but they are expected to commercialise their research outputs into marketable products and services. This paper identifies and ranks the factors that are influencing the commercialisation of university research outputs. A Systematic Review of Literature (SLR) was made on 59 articles that were published between 2000 and 2022. The findings indicate that the significant factors influencing the commercialisation of research outputs included; collaboration/networking, research funding, regulative factors both by government and university, entrepreneurial culture, availability of research infrastructure, the competence of researchers, motivation and attitude of researchers, transformational leadership culture, technology suitability for commercialisation, protection of Intellectual Property Rights, the effectiveness of Technology Transfer Office (TTO) and closeness to industry. Keywords: Commercialization, Factors, Research outputs, Systematic literature review.
200 Barriers to SME Computerization in Developing Countries: Evidence from SMEs in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rodrigue Kalumendo
SMEs are widely recognized as the development enablers in developing countries. They contribute to job creation and, in so doing, to poverty reduction. To remain competitive, SMEs use several tools, including computerized information systems. However, given their characteristics, several constraints hinder their computerization; these constraints are even more accentuated in developing countries. This study attempted to identify the barriers to computerization as outlined in the literature and to ascertain them in the DRC context. In order to achieve this, we examined the relevant literature and carried out a survey of 53 respondents, principally local ICT stakeholders. Using descriptive statistics, we established that Congolese SMEs face the same computerization challenges identified in the literature. These constraints include the local SME characteristics - poor financial resources, low internal and external expertise, and low management involvement -, high infrastructure costs - expensive software and hardware - and the availability of the technological infrastructure - poor internet access -. The Congolese digital ecosystem stakeholders can, each at their own level, use these results to assist the digitalization of Congolese SMEs and thus make them more agile in the achievement of their goals. Keywords: ICT, Barriers, Computerization, DRC, SME.
201 Mobile Money Adoption in Africa: A Literature-Based Analysis, Joyce Koi-Akrofi
The study sought to assess the factors that influence the adoption of mobile money banking and financial services in Africa. Despite the growth in the mobile money industry and its potential for the future, studies suggest that mobile money banking/financial services adoption remains low across sub-Saharan Africa. This research work employed a systematic literature review methodology, specifically, a literature-based analysis for the investigation. The researcher, for the purposes of this study, identified, selected, and critically reviewed only secondary data, which refers to data that has already been collected for some other. Twenty (20) recent articles on mobile money banking/financial services and external/internal factors, modeled by various theories concerning technology/innovation adoption, were gathered from highly recognized and profiled research databases, including Google Scholar, Research Gate, Emerald (database), Elsevier (database), Pro-quest, Scopus, and Springer. From the 20 articles reviewed, analyzed, and discussed, the number of external factors that influence mobile money adoption positively or negatively is twenty (20), while the count of internal factors that influence mobile money adoption positively or negatively is eight (8). In conclusion, the external factors outnumber the internal factors, but the internal factors are more grievous and have a significant impact on the mobile money service. The results of this research work also revealed the top five external factors researchers seem to encounter in their studies. The study provides significant insight into both external and internal factors affecting the adoption of mobile money services in Africa. Keywords: Africa, Databases, Mobile Money Banking/Financial services, Systematic.
202 Mobile Money Adoption in Africa: A Literature-Based Analysis, Joyce Koi-Akrofi
The study sought to assess the factors that influence the adoption of mobile money banking and financial services in Africa. Despite the growth in the mobile money industry and its potential for the future, studies suggest that mobile money banking/financial services adoption remains low across sub-Saharan Africa. This research work employed a systematic literature review methodology, specifically, a literature-based analysis for the investigation. The researcher, for the purposes of this study, identified, selected, and critically reviewed only secondary data, which refers to data that has already been collected for some other. Twenty (20) recent articles on mobile money banking/financial services and external/internal factors, modeled by various theories concerning technology/innovation adoption, were gathered from highly recognized and profiled research databases, including Google Scholar, Research Gate, Emerald (database), Elsevier (database), Pro-quest, Scopus, and Springer. From the 20 articles reviewed, analyzed, and discussed, the number of external factors that influence mobile money adoption positively or negatively is twenty (20), while the count of internal factors that influence mobile money adoption positively or negatively is eight (8). In conclusion, the external factors outnumber the internal factors, but the internal factors are more grievous and have a significant impact on the mobile money service. The results of this research work also revealed the top five external factors researchers seem to encounter in their studies. The study provides significant insight into both external and internal factors affecting the adoption of mobile money services in Africa. Keywords: Africa, Databases, Mobile Money Banking/Financial services, Systematic.
203 Project Planning, Stakeholder Involvement, Risk Management, and Project Success - A Case of Selected NGOs in South Sudan, Amule Robert Elly
Despite the huge inflow of billions of donors into the country for humanitarian and development programs, South Sudan communities have remained vulnerable to natural and humanmade disasters, this has resulted into massive poverty, loss of human lives and property, and internal and cross border displacements as the best coping options. This study was aimed at investigating the factors perceived to influence NGOs projects’ success in saving lives and restoring the human dignity of the most vulnerable populations in the Country. These factors studied include Project planning, stakeholder involvement, and Risk Management. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches for data collection through a sample size of 144 respondents, selected from 233 sample frames of NGOs’ staff in South Sudan. The sample size was determined by Krejcie Robert V. Morgan W. (1970) table). The study findings show positive relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable as follows; Project Planning and Projects Success at (r = 0.348, P-value < 0.01); Project Planning and Risk management at (r = 0.528, P-value < 0.01); Risk management and Projects success at (r = 0.523, P-value < 0.01); Stakeholder’s involvement and Risk management at (r = 0.503, P-value < 0.01); and A Regression analysis of (R = 0.541). Therefore, in consideration of the positive correlations’ independent variable, NGOs are advised to ensure sufficient project planning, risk management, and stakeholders’ involvement; to ascertain intervention success. Keywords: Project Planning, Stakeholder Involvement, Risk Management and Project success.
204 The Influence of Economic and Technology Factors on Performance Outcomes of Community Pharmacists in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modeling Study, Theophilus Ehidiamen Oamen, Banjo Lawal
Community pharmacists, as healthcare providers, operate within local and global business environments. Therefore, they are not immune from the effects of the business environment on practice performance. However, limited empirical research is available to explore these effects. The study proposes an empirical model to investigate the influence of economic and technological factors on the performance domains of community pharmacists in southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires to 661 randomly selected community pharmacists. Performance measures were operationalized based on theory into 3 domains: operational, economic, and social performance domains. Study hypotheses were tested by applying factor-based structural equation modeling (SEM) using WarpPLS software. Results showed acceptable internal reliability of constructs and fit of the model to the data. Technology, compared to economic factors, had a significant influence on operational performance (β=0.242, p=0.001 vs. β=0.067, p=0.055). At the same time, economic factors had a higher influence on economic performance (β=0.070, p=0.036 vs. β=0.032, p=0.203). Both predictors affected social performance, with economic factors having a relatively stronger impact compared to technological factors. (β=0.095, p=0.007 vs. β=0.069, p=0.037). Community pharmacists should continue to strengthen economic value for their customers while incorporating relevant technology to improve practice outcomes. Macroeconomic policy by governments to enable community pharmacy practice is also recommended. The study recommends that community pharmacists emphasize the relevance of regular performance assessments to identify areas for improvement. This study adds substantial theoretical and methodological value to the existing literature by using SEM to explore the impact of business environmental factors on disaggregated performance measures of community pharmacists. Keywords: Community pharmacists, Economic, Measures, Nigeria, Performance, Technology, Structural equation modeling.
205 CSR Paradigms, Consumer Behaviour, and Business Performance: A Literature-Based Analysis, Joyce Koi-Akrofi
The study sought to contribute to the general body of knowledge and research work in corporate social responsibility. The research work also aimed to establish the most prevalent forms of CSR from the literature and ascertain how CSR influences customer behavior and businesses. Corporate social responsibility is a contentious subject for managers of businesses and their stakeholders. However, this paper’s purpose is to bridge the various pieces of CSR knowledge in literature by systematically reviewing a collection of articles on the subject and drawing valuable conclusions relating to the various paradigms or schools of thought. The researcher, for this study, identified and critically reviewed twenty (20) recent articles on CSR that were gathered from highly recognized and profiled research databases, including Google Scholar, Research Gate, Emerald (database), Elsevier (database), Pro-quest, Scopus, and Springer. Persistent themes on the prevalent forms of CSR; and the influence of CSR on consumer behavior and business performance were observed. It became clear that defining CSR is an arduous task because of the different perspectives of researchers and managers of organizations. Nevertheless, CSR is simply an organization getting back to the people it serves or produces for and offering any form of help that revolves around the environmental, the social, the economic, the stakeholder, and the voluntariness themes: In conclusion, CSR, no matter the angle it is looked at, there is enough evidential proof from the literature that when implemented well, yields enormous benefits to the community and respective businesses. Keywords: Benefits, Business Performance, Consumer Behaviour, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
206 Investigating Challenges of Mobile Money usage in the Central Business District of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly, Adum- Ghana, James Mado Lambongang, Peter Annan Aborhey, Gabriel Gbiel Benarkuu
A descriptive cross-sectional design approach was deployed using a structured questionnaire underpinning the research objective to collect data from mobile money users and non-users within the Business District Centre of the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly, Adum. The purposive random selection technique was used to choose a sample size of 59. This study seeks to investigate the challenges encountered by patrons of mobile money and examine their behaviour and attitudes towards the usage of mobile money transactions. The study identified seven (7) challenges, namely, financial, security, privacy, performance, time, convenience, and psychological, with performance, security, and privacy challenges being the most prevalent. The low transaction limits due to inadequate constant liquidity flow (cash and e-float) by agents affect consumers who wish to transact more than being offered; unwarranted delays experienced by customers and merchants due to incomplete payment process are some of the causative challenges of mobile money transaction; and invasion of privacy and defamation are among major. Fraudsters use the fear and anxiety of customers’ personal details in the hands of a third party, especially when the mobile money accounts are linked to clients’ bank accounts. The effect of inconvenience and delays in transactions are pointers to a duplicated transaction. It is recommended that service charges be lowered to their minimum rates, ensure a reliable mobile money system for consumers through system upgrades, and service providers ensure that personal details remain private to avoid consumer-driven fraud by inadvertently making pin codes known to third parties. Keywords: Global System for Mobile Communications Association (GSMA), Mobile Money, Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Diffusion of Innovation Theory.
207 Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Governance in Public Organizations: A Study of the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), Priscilla Kusena
With the growing level of adoption and utilisation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the 21st century, it is cardinal to examine Information Technology Governance (ITG) in relation to approaches utilizable in public sector organizations for efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, this work examines information, communication, and technology governance in public organizations with a focus on the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC). The specific objective covers the level of involvement of Information Technology Governance (ITG) and the Information Technology Governance (ITG) mechanism used by the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) as a public sector organization. Objectives also focus on the benefits of Information Technology Governance (ITG) and the challenges involved with Information Technology Governance (ITG) in the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC). The study adopted the Technological Determinism Theory. With the adoption of the survey method through the instrumentation of a self-designed questionnaire administered to two hundred and nine (209) respondents, the study revealed that the involvement of Control Objective for Information and Technology (COBIT) as ITG mechanism in the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) is to a great extent. The benefits of ITG include the creation of values, improved effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery, and improvement of service quality. However, these benefits are hindered by some challenges ranging from poor infrastructures, inadequate expertise, poor resource management, culture, and bureaucracy to leadership style. The study recommends that government commitment and provision of adequate IT infrastructures to various public service agencies in Nigeria will enhance the successful implementation of ITG applications and efficiency in public service delivery. Keywords: Information Technology Public Organisation, Information Technology Governance, Nigerian Communications Commission, Standard Framework.
208 Is Organizational Evaluation Competency Framework Contextually Relevant for Local NGO Strategy Measurement? Evidence from Uganda, Lawrence Rafaih Okello
Despite the assumed added value of localization, what remains unclear is the method and framework within which local non-governmental organization (NGO) strategies are measured. Owing to considerable difference between donor demands and local stakeholder’s requirements, local NGO evaluation landscape in many developing countries including Uganda is characterized by disrupted systematic application of evaluation practices and standards. While there are considerable congregation towards ensuring standard evaluation, various evaluation models and frameworks; the proliferation of different donor donors’ framework is increasingly making strategy evaluation as subject of varied imagination against localized norms and standards. This study sought to validate the contextual relevance of organizational evaluation competency (OEC) framework as a standard process upon which local NGOs could meaningfully be seen to contribute to the realization of national development plan and aspirations. In-depth key informant interviews were conducted with 16 respondents drawn from NGO executives, NGO managers, board members, consultants, and academicians from a wider spectrum of specializations. Findings revealed that the OEC framework is contextually relevant for strategy evaluation. Specifically, the findings revealed that matured NGOs strategies were positively impacted by utilization OEC framework as they consistently apply it compared to emerging new local NGO. The study highlight higher potentials in wider application of OEC framework by both matured and emerging NGOs. This implies policy engagement on capacity strengthening must urgently prioritize NGO network support towards a strengthened evaluation technical expertise and steering. Keywords: Localization, Strategy, Organizational evaluation competency framework, NGOs.
209 Financial Management of Village Savings and Loans Associations in West Nile, Uganda, Yanga Elias Lagu
Village savings and loans associations (VSLA) groups have recently garnered popularity in rural and urban settings. This study aimed to assess the relevant financial management practices in the context of VSLA in West Nile, Uganda, and provide recommendations for robust and sound VSLA financial management practices for the effective management of grouped financial resources. This study adopted a quantitative research design, used a questionnaire to conduct a field survey, and employed SPSS for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, frequency, and percentile were utilized to analyze data collected from the study sample of 196 VSLA groups whose management committees were the unit of enquiry. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. The study found that the number of members that a VSLA group has typically ranged between 25 and 30, of which 87% were between 34–54 years, and 62% of the groups had saved for 1–5 years. This study identified the interest earned, penalties or fines charged, savings of members, and support from non-governmental organizations and government in the forms of donations and grants as major sources of income of the VSLA group. Record keeping, security of savings from members who saved by keeping their money in banks, budgeting, segregation of duties among management committees, registration status, and the availability of a functional constitution to members were identified as good financial management practices. This study indicates that good financial management practices yield an opportunity for VSLA groups to borrow large amounts from financial institutions for investments. It also ensures proper planning, revenue and expenditure monitoring, transparency, and better utilization of hard-earned financial resources, while also boosting the confidence and trust of the group members. Keywords: Associations, Financial, Loans, Management, Savings, and Village.
210 The Effect of Human Resource Management on Performance of Employees with Mediating Effect of Work-Life Balance in Nigeria, Priscilla Kusena
This paper examined the effect of human resource management on the performance of public sector organizations with the mediating effect of the work-life balance of the Nigerian Federal Inland Revenue (FIRS). The specific objectives of the study were to ascertain the practices of Human Resource Management (HRM) regarding work-life balance and to examine the level of effectiveness of Human Resource Management of FIRS regarding work-life balance. The study also investigated the challenges of work-life balance faced by Human Resource Management in FIRS and suggested probable measures to improve the HRM system at FIRS. The study was hinged on the Easton System theory of 1979. The study adopted a quantitative survey with data collected from one hundred and thirty-two (132) respondents from the Federal Inland Revenue Service, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Findings from the study reveal that there is an average level of practices of HRM regarding work-life balance in FIRS. Further, the findings revealed that the level of effectiveness of Human Resource Management of FIRS regarding work-life balance is poor. It also revealed that challenges include employers’ difficult policies and practices, lack of duty control, unsupportive employee relationships, inadequate human resources, increasingwork–life pressures, and high-stress levels. The study, therefore, recommends that the organization employs strategies that will boost staff morale, motivate workers, reduce absenteeism, and improve organizational productivity. This can be done through an efficiently managed work-life balance among employees at FIRS. Keywords: Human Resource Management, Performance, Public Sector, Work-life Balance, and Nigerian Federal Inland Revenue Service.
211 Evaluation Steering and Strategy Performance of Local NGOs in Uganda, Lawrence Rafaih Okello, Benson Benedict Okech
This article interrogates the contextual relevance and application of evaluation steering in a strategy implementation discourse by local NGOs in Uganda. The study hinges on the assumption that evaluation outputs from local NGOs are often less utilized due to inept leadership, yet critical programmatic and policy issues of strategic relevance can best be utilized through a steering score. The study’s main purpose was to examine the relationship between evaluation steering and the strategy performance of local NGOs. The study drew findings from a cross-sectional study conducted using quantitative methods. In total, 349 participants comprising of field workers, mid-level staff, and executives from local NGOs from all parts of Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results of the study showed that there was a positive correlation between evaluation steering and strategy performance constructs of fund stability (r = .243**), community satisfaction (r = .201**), and timeliness (r=.134**). The study concludes that evaluation steering has a high potential to improve fund stability, community satisfaction, and timeliness despite a weaker level of positive correlations. The national NGO bureau and NGO associations should establish executive capacity-building initiatives to support local NGOs to overcome the weakness in the current evaluation steering process. Consultants, volunteers, and NGO forums should advocate for donor resources to deepen organizational development, which supports an effective steering process. Keywords: Evaluation steering, Localization, Strategy performance.