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Texila International Journal of Academic Research

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1  Modern Technological Advances and the Challenges in the Kente Weaving Business of Ghana , Philip Spitta Ansah  
The study examined the challenges of introducing modern technology to facilitate the traditional Kente weaving business of Ghana. Amongst its objectives were ascertaining the weaknesses associated with introducing the technology by identifying the threats emanating from infusing modern technology into the industry. The importance of the study lies in the fact that the findings and recommendations will not only go a very long way to enrich the body of knowledge on the subject of Kente weaving business in Ghana, but will also help make the cottage industry more attractive to the youth and uplift the living standards of the Kente weavers. Challenges associated with the initiative had to do with the fact that most of the weavers are old and illiterates so a lot of work has to be done in coaching them to come on board with the new technology. It is unlikely that the existing weavers would be able to fund the equipments needed for a smooth integration of technology into the weaving of Kente. Keywords: Technology management, Innovation, Kente weaving, traditional, Challenges, weaknesses.  
2 An Assessment of the Knowledge and Practices of Mothers on Home Management of Diarrhoea in the under Five Children at the Medicalised Health Center Nkwen, North West-Cameroon , Christina Asoh  
Diarrhoea has been and is still one of the highest threats to the lives of children below five years. According to millennium development goal, the fourth goal aims at reducing child mortality and morbidity to 2/3 from 1990 to 2015. Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death among children under five years globally [Adimoraet al (2011)]. Nearly one in five child deaths, about 1.5 million each year, are due to diarrhea [Ansari et al (2011)]. Northern Cameroon estimated approximately 18500 diarrhoea episodes and 3696 RVA-associated child mortality occurred in Cameroon annually (Parasharet al, 2003). Many children under five who come to that hospital suffer from diarrhea they have been a steady rise ain the prevalence of diarrhoea among children under five in Cameroon and word (WHO 2004). Therefore, this study aims at assessing the knowledge and practices of mothers on home management of diarrhea in under five. The descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge, and practices of the mother in the home management of diarrhea. Targets were mothers in home management of diarrhea in children (0-5 years) who came in IWC, ANC units at the Nkwen Medicalised Health Center within the period of study. The instrument of data collection was a structured questionnaire, Microsoft Excel 2010 was used for analysis and data presented on tables, pie charts, histograms and Bar charts. The current study revealed that mothers have inadequate knowledge on home management of diarrhoea 90(60%). They had negative practices towards the home management of diarrhoea and the use of ORS/zinc tablets as recommended by WHO was very low (29%) as compared to the use of drugs and traditional medicine. According to USAID and Experts worldwide (2002), success in the reduction of deaths and illnesses due to diarrhoea in childhood depends on the acceptance of the scientific basis and benefits of ORT by governments and medical communities. There is need to educate mothers on home management of diarrhea using scientific bases to reduce infant mortality from diarrhea. Keywords: knowledge and practices, diarrhea, under five children.  
3 Bottom Up and Top-Down approaches to school management: Lessons from Primary Schools in Chadiza District, Eastern Province, Zambia , Daniel L. , Genesis Mwanza, Michael M. Mabenga, Moono Muvombo, Mutinta Matimba, Phydes Ng’uni ,  Febby Banda
This paper shares detailed insights into primary school management in Chadiza District in Eastern Province of Zambia. It provides a critical review of both top down and bottom up approaches to management, specifically focusing on primary school practices. Much of what is discussed herein is anchored on phenomenological data gathered over years of teaching, interacting and supervising teachers and student teachers at primary school level of education. The paper recommends that managers of schools must not get glued to one form (top down or bottom up) but engage junior officers to promote and yield progressive academic performance on the part of learners and maintain standards of teaching and professionalism on the part of teaching staff. This, however, should not be achieved at the expense of losing grip of job and focus of the overall goal of the school. Keywords: Primary School, School, Management, bottom-up approach, top down.  
4 Knowledge, Behaviour and Perceptions Affecting Control of HPV / HIV Co-Infection and Cervical Neoplasma Screening Among Patients with Cervical Cancer in Kenya , Philip Kasawa Naluande, Praveen Thaggikuppe Krishnamurthy, Margaret Nyanchoki Keraka
The main objective of this study was to assess how Knowledge, behavior and perceptions affect Cervical Cancer screening and the control of HIV/ HPV Co-infection among patients with cervical cancer in Kenya. The following specific objectives guided the study; to weigh the knowledge, behavior, and perceptions on the understanding of the absorption of Cervical Cancer Screening and prevention strategies among women in Kenya. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative comparative study of cervical neoplasia screening and control strategies among women attending Kenyatta National Hospital and Coast Provincial General Hospitals in Kenya. The study was conducted at the Coastal region of Kenya particularly Mombasa County and all parts of Nairobi County over a twelve-month period at the Coast Provincial General Hospital (CPGH) and Kenyatta National Hospital respectively. The target population for this work involved all female respondents who had tested positive for HIV and Cervical Cancer and have the results or they need further screening. Convenience sampling technique was used because of time constraints. Random sampling was used to identify participants. The study concludes that knowledge, behavior, and perceptions on absorption of Cervical Cancer Screening and prevention by women depend on initiatives that have been put in place to motivate and educate women on issues related to cancer screening. The study recommends that the need for community understanding of cervical cancer and the causal relationship between HPV and cervical cancer is usually poor, giving priority to continuing education on the significance of HPV prevention and periodic cervical Cancer screening.  
5 Factors Influencing the Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Lactating Mothers Attending the IWC in District Hospital Mbengwi in the North West Region of Cameroon , Christina Asoh  
Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal nutrition for the healthy growth and development of infants. The global public health recommendation is that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health (WHO, 2003). Exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life stimulates babies’ immune systems and protects them from diarrhea and acute respiratory infections, two of the major causes of infant mortality in the developing world and improves their responses to vaccination (UNICEF, 2006). Approximately 1.5 million young infants die each year as a result of lack of knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding benefits and improper infant and young child feeding practices (Nguyen, 2009). The World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and other organizations promote exclusive breastfeeding as one of the key effective low-cost interventions to enhance child survival. It is therefore for these reasons that we sort to find out the factors influencing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among lactating mothers attending infant welfare clinic (IWC) at the Mbengwi District Hospital. A cross-sectional survey was used where the convenient sampling technique was used. Data collection tool was a structured questionnaire with open and closed ended questions to give a snapshot of the factors influencing the practice of breast feeding among lactating mothers attending IWC. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel tables and figures. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding among lactating mothers attending IWC in district hospital Mbengwi was found to be 26.6% which is relatively higher compared to those reported in other studies 13.3%, 16%, in Tanzania, Kenya, respectively (Maru et al, 2009). This observed difference may be due to the strengthened MCH services. Despite the improvement in the percentage as compared to other African countries, there is still a need for strengthened MCH services to improve the percentage of mothers adhering to exclusive breastfeeding. Keywords: exclusive breast feeding, lactating mother, infant welfare clinic, Mbengwi District hospital  
6 The Effect of Traditional Marital Counseling Therapy (TMCM) on Marital Distresses among Married Couples in Ghana , Daniel Dei  
The study aims at determining the impact of the Traditional Marital Counseling Model (TMCM) on marital distresses among married couples in Ghana. The study adapted versions of the Session Process and Outcome Measures-Client version (SPOM-C) and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) questionnaires to measure therapy outcome for 50 married couples who were selected through stratified proportionate random sampling technique to participate in a descriptive-correlational-experimental research design. Disparity analyses were done using the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW) 18 guide to Data Analysis. Descriptive frequencies were used to analyze the data on the levels of marital distress. Disparity mean values within the sample were measured by paired t-test technique. Correlation between outcome of therapy for TMCM and level of marital distress were measured by Pearson correlation coefficient. The study found that TMCM has a significant effect on the marital distresses of the married couples. Though TMCM is better for counseling clients with various types of marital distresses, it is most effective in situations where clients present severe marital distress. Therapists should use TMCM especially for clients showing sever marital distress. Keywords: Traditional Marital Counseling Model (TMCM), Marital Distress, Married Couples, Marriage and Family Counseling, Marital Therapy.  
7 Comparative Study of Haematological Parameters in Male-Female Diabetics and Non-Diabetics in Abuja, Nigeria , Lawrence Chinaemelu , Abiodun Olaiya Paul, Sanni Olaniyi Felix, Charity Nkem Umeji, Abiodun Abiola Folake, Okeke Ndubisi Chrisitian, Nicholas Innocent Eigege, Chisara Sylvestina Okolo
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. The complicationsof diabetes mellitus are known to be very severe, unbearable, incapacitating, fatal, and has high health and economic burdens. This study was conducted to compare hematological parameters in diabetic males and females compared with non-diabetic individuals. This study was done at the Defense Reference Laboratory, Asokoro, Abuja, Nigeria. Venipuncture was performed on all participants; Complete Blood Count was carried out with 2ML-EDTA blood tubes using the Sysmex platform while Fasting blood sugar was done using 2ML-Fluoride Oxalate blood tube. This assay was done using an automated Chemistry analyzer (Selectra Pro-S). The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 25.0. A total of 200 participants including 40 diabetic males, 60 diabetic females, 48 non-diabetic males, and 52 non-diabetic females were recruited for the study. The values of FBS and MCHC were significantly higher in the diabetic male and female group. The mean values of PCV and MCV were significantly higher in both male and female non-diabetic group. The values of HB, RBC, and PLT-CT were also significantly lower in diabetic male but not significantly in females. There were 48% cases of anaemia among diabetic females 27% among non-diabetic females whereas only 13% anaemia was seen for diabetic males. Hematological parameters should be evaluated and treated periodically in both male and female diabetic patients to reduce the burden of DM and ocular morbidity due to retinopathy.  
8 Big Data Phenomenon in Banking , Bernard Aliu  
The banking industry has significantly thrived with the rapid advancement of human civilization and the associated growth in information technology. Earlier to this digital era, all the transactions and the business intelligence thereof had excessive human involvement. The digital world, while making the transactions clear and transparent, generated large amount of digital data. Digital data has snowballed, with the proliferation of network services, mobile devices, and online users on the Internet the banking sector has witnessed a rise of interest in big data. A recent study showed that the global population produces a total of 2.5 quintillion bytes of data daily and this continue to rise. The global financial service sector continues to rapidly embrace digitization aided by the advent of new technologies and greater government push. This trend has been further stimulated by the emergence of Financial Technology (FinTech) players, who are playing a significant role in the banking value chain. The availability of Big Data in this domain has opened up new avenues for innovation and has offered huge opportunities for growth and sustainability. Simultaneously, it has presented a number of new challenges that must be surmounted in order to maximize its value. Since today’s customers expect more personalized banking services and to remain competitive while complying with bigger regulatory surveillance, the banking services sector is hugely pressurized to utilize the depth and breadth of the available data in the best possible way. This study will examine big data and its analytics while looking at the impact and applications of Big Data in the banking domain. It will also consider the important Big Data challenges that remain to be addressed in the banking sector. Keywords: Big Data, Big Data Analytics, Financial institution, Banking.  
9 Examining the Use of Digital Media and Technologies in teachers’ teaching: A Case of Selected Schools in Luampa District, Zambia , Nawa Maseli  
The purpose of this study was to investigate and examine teachers’ use of technology and digital media in their lesson delivery. This study also explored how teachers equip their learners with 21st century skills that are taking place in the education sectors. Respondents under this study were primary and secondary school teachers. The primary school runs from early childhood to grade 9, while the secondary sector covers grades 8 to 12. A questionnaire was formulated and used to collect data from two institutions used as study areas. Results revealed that the most worrying concern is lack of knowledge of many teachers on the use of digital media and emerging technologies on teaching. The other challenge observed was on the lack of the required technological tools to use at the secondary sector and lack of technological skills. There was need to train teachers on technology skills so that they can provide our learners with solid foundation of ICT and Computer Studies. Keywords: digital media; emerging technologies; creativity; ICT; primary and secondary school.  
10 Influence of integrated Services on Routine family planning use: a cross-sectional survey in South Sudan , Nebiyu Lera Alaro  
South Sudan’s modern contraceptive prevalence rate stands at just 2.7 percent, with an unmet need for modern family planning (FP) at 30.8 percent (FP 2020, 2018). Multiple barriers contribute to low FP uptake in South Sudan: inadequate data collection tools and insufficient analysis, interpretation, and communication of data. Research from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) shows that improved management of FP data enables stronger ownership of program results at the health facility and community levels, empowering community members and providers to increase FP uptake (Ho & Wheeler, 2018). The study methodology used a cross-sectional observational design with quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis. Data were collected from 178 health facilities across 17 counties in two states in South Sudan: Central Equatoria and Western Equatoria. The purpose of the study was to explore how effectively FP data in the routine health information system (RHIS) are analyzed, interpreted, and communicated, and it discusses barriers to RHIS data use and ownership in two states in South Sudan, to inform policy and programmatic decision making. The study result was over half (55.8%) of the 172 health facilities assessed that should be collecting FP data do collect FP data. Only 16 percent of the county health departments (CHDs) assessed, and fewer than six percent of the health facilities assessed, carry out FP data analysis. Two hospitals, two primary healthcare centers (PHCCs), and one primary healthcare unit (PHCU) had the capacity to interpret analyzed FP data. Keywords: Family planning, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, routine health information system and empowering community members.  
11  Challenges faced by Biology Secondary teachers when using instructional methods that promote Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematic (STEM) Education in Zimbabwe , Fenton Ruparanganda  
The study sought to determine the challenges faced by Biology Secondary teachers in Zimbabwe when using instructional methods that promote Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematic (STEM) Education and the possible solutions to the challenges. The sample was composed of fifty secondary schools in Harare that offer Biology at Ordinary and Advanced level. Two Biology teachers per school were involved and the total number of Biology teachers was one hundred. Data was collected using questionnaires administered to both Ordinary and Advanced level biology teachers. One lesson at Ordinary and Advanced level was observed at each of the fifty schools. The obtained results indicate that Biology teachers in Zimbabwe are still using more the traditional teaching method that is teacher centered rather than the current student-centered approach that promotes STEM education due to a number of challenges they are facing. These challenges include lack of digital classrooms, lack of consistent power supply, lack of fully equipped biology laboratories and lack of teachers who have the necessary skills such as computer skills. In order for STEM Education to be successfully implemented in Zimbabwe at secondary school level these issues must be addressed.  
12 Electronic Document Management System using DocuVision for Food Reserve Agency , Joseph Alick Phiri  
This project entitled Food Reserve Agency (FRA) Document Automation system is a server-based application that client computers accesses in order to manage documents. The server provides a facility for client computers to manipulate the internal documents that various departmental users make use of such letter, reports, photographs, images, etc. A document management system (DMS) is a system (based on computer programs in the case of the management of digital documents) used to track, manage and store documents and reduce paper. Most of these DMS are capable of keeping a record of the various versions created and modified by different users (history tracking). The term has some overlap with the concepts of content management systems. It is often viewed as a component of enterprise content management (ECM) systems and related to digital asset management, document imaging, workflow systems and records management systems. In the case of our project, we procured a DMS from our Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) company called Netone IT Ltd. The DMS is called the DocuVision. It has the capabilities to create folders and various file types with varying attributes. This made our project easy and very reliable in terms of the solution provided to users. This was particularly very handy for our Registry department which receives and stores hard copy documents. Keywords Electronic Document Management System (EDMS) Server based application Client computers document management system (DMS) computer programs digital documents content management systems Enterprise Resource Planning enterprise content management folders secure storage naming standards document ownership document revision control inactive files  
13 Investigating the most applied Head Teachers’ Leadership Style in Motivating Teachers: The Case of Secondary Education Teachers in Kitwe District, Zambia , Prudence Mwelwa Kalunga  
The purpose of the study was to investigate the most applied head teachers’ leadership styles in motivating teachers’ in secondary schools of Kitwe district, Zambia. The study was conducted using descriptive survey. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 22 head teachers and 210 teachers respectively to participate in the study. Questionnaire instruments with likert scale questions were used as research tools in collecting data from teachers and head teachers. To test reliability of the instruments, data set on the questionnaires were subjected to chronbach`s alpha (α) test statistics using statistical package for social sciences version.20 (SPSS 20). Data collected from the participants were quantitatively analyzed and presented into tables using SPSS 20. The results for this study show that head teachers frequently apply democratic leadership style as they allow teachers to express their feelings about how things should be done and they put suggestions made by staff members into operation. It is recommended that head teachers in secondary schools of Kitwe district should equally apply all the three leadership styles (democratic, laissez-faire and autocratic) without favoring only one type of leadership style. (184 words). Key words: Head teachers’ leadership styles, Teachers’ motivation, Secondary education teachers, Kitwe district, Zambia.  
14 Patients’ Satisfaction and its Determinants in Outpatient and Inpatient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals in Ghana: Case Study of Greater Accra Regional Hospital , Jones Akuamoah-Boateng
Background: One of the most important objectives of any health system is patient satisfaction, yet there is considerable difficulty in the measurement of satisfaction and gauge the responsiveness of healthcare systems. This study assessed the level of satisfaction of patients who utilize the outpatient department and inpatient services of tertiary hospitals in Ghana and also identified the factors that influence patient satisfaction. Method: The study employed quantitative research approach with a cross-sectional study design. A two-stage sampling process based on stratified sampling and convenient sampling was employed. A structured questionnaire was administered to 1000 patients from the outpatient and inpatient departments of Greater Accra Regional Hospital to elicit their satisfaction level with both core-clinical and non-core/system services. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 22.0. Some of the analysis strategies were descriptive statistical tests of comparing means of the various predictors of overall patient satisfaction. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to find the factors or determinants that influence patient satisfaction. Results: The satisfaction derived from treatment outcome (β = 0.298, p< 0.001) and involvement of patients in treatment decision (β = 0.173, p< 0.001) were the strongest determinants of patient satisfaction at the OPD care service. Patient satisfaction with technical service (β = 0.232, p< 0.001), service format (β = 0.293, p< 0.001) and nursing care (β = -0.187, p< 0.001) were the key areas that associated with patient overall satisfaction at the OPD. Patient satisfaction with doctor services (β = 0.20, p< 0.001), privacy during treatment (β = 0.14, p< 0.001) and complaint handling (β = 0.12, p< 0.001) during admission at the ward were the strongest determinants of patient satisfaction at the inpatient setting. The number of nurses on duty, doctors’ time spent with patients, communication and behaviors of healthcare staff as well as quality of healthcare support provided by paramedical staff were some of the elements of healthcare that patients place a lot of value on. Conclusion: Majority of the patients in both OPD and inpatients were satisfied with the set of core-clinical service and thus perceived that core clinical service contributed most to their satisfaction as against non-core/system service. Patients' satisfaction can be increased by focusing on improving treatment effectiveness, communication and behavior, doctors spending enough time with patients, reduced waiting time, organized care at OPD, making technical staff available and effectiveness in handling patient complaints. Keywords: Satisfaction, Determinants, Inpatient, Outpatient, Core clinical, Non-core/system service.  
15   A Study on Workers’ Satisfaction towards Job with Respect to Mobile Telephone Network Cameroon (MTNC) , Kenyuyfoon Joan Mary Wirnkar
Job satisfaction has something to do with how committed an employee is towards its company which is a very important factor. Job satisfaction is a very important subject in the professional world and numerous researches have been done and still been done on this topic to better answer the hypothesis surrounding job satisfaction The researcher has chosen to study this issue because she happens to have been an employee of company under case study for a cumulative period of two (2) years where in she at some point experienced low job satisfaction about the job and other colleagues shared the same feeling. The researcher is interested in this topic so that, from the results obtained, the management will be aware of the many reasons why employees in their company have low, little or no job satisfaction of which they tend to neglect.  
16 The Impact of Gender Based Violence on Child Development in Livingstone District of Zambia , Chanda Florence  
Gender based violence exposure happens in different social contexts of children’s lives including families and communities. This often occurs in different form of violence exposures. Children are likely to be exposed to violence at a tender age and when they grow a bit old. In Zambia, Children in high-density populated areas are disadvantaged and are more exposed to violence. For young children, it has been identified that where violence affects the one who is taking care of the child it means the child will be affected too. As the child grows with this violence exposure, the child’s social, mental, emotional and academic performance out comes may be affected. Children’s exposure to violence has received less attention than of older children, it is an especially important developmental period when children are developing social and cognitive skills and preparing for transition to formal schooling. Gender based violence can be the evil in terms of child development. Violence exposure in the lives of children can include different ways of which children experience. This can be within the family and the community and this affects the physical, emotional and mental development in a child. In Zambia, Gender-based violence' is a form violence that has come on the scene and very common. This has brought problems in most people’s lives and causing children to suffer also and in some cases, children ending up to be living on the streets resulting in street children and poor performance in school, in some cases children even drop out of school. Gender based violence is mostly inflicted by men on women. Women are the most victims of gender-based violence and this leads children to be exposed to different forms of violence. This is so because most of the time women are always with the children. When young children are exposed to violence in the community and in their families, their behavior out comes is questionable. According to the ministerial, report by the Minister of Gender 2015 states, “Children who witness or are the victims of violence may learn to believe that violence is a reasonable way to resolve conflict between people. Boys who learn that women are not to be valued or respected and who see violence directed against women are more likely to abuse women when they grow up. Keywords: Gender, Gender based violence, Child development, Impact, Witnessing, Hearing.  
17 At Crossroads: Reflections on the Efficacy of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in Conflict Resolution in Zimbabwe and the DRC , Feddious Mutenheri  
Since its formation in 1980, The Southern African Development Community (SADC) (formerly SADCC) has been confronted with a number of conflict cases within its membership. The conflicts include, but indeed not limited to, civil wars in Angola and DRC and political instability in Lesotho, Madagascar, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The Democratic Republic of Congo and the Zimbabwean conflicts are contemporary yet internecine test cases a propos the competence and relevance of SADC in providing the so-called “African solutions to African problems”. SADC, through its various organs has been involved in the resolution of these conflicts. Nonetheless, SADC has found itself in intricate circumstances and perceptibly unsatisfactory principally as it dealt with Zimbabwe and the DRC. The paper traces the development of conflict in the DRC and Zimbabwe. It traces the historical performance of the SADC in conflict resolution in southern Africa. It is the aim of the paper to assess SADC performance in conflict resolution in the region, particularly in Zimbabwe and the DRC. Keywords: SADC Efficacy, Conflict Resolution, Negotiation.  
18 The Impact of Technology in Public Sectors Workers’ Performances in Nigeria: Case of Federal Ministry MDAs and Agencies , Fred-Osogu Obioma  
This paper provides information about the worker's productivity and performances in Nigerian public service operations. It clearly outlines the productivity and performances decrease that faces employees inside of workplace of Nigerian public sector. The article further argues that the deficiency in the perfect usage of technology, computer systems and communication networks (internet) is lack of interest of the organization to prepare a training schedule. It is the failures of respective Ministries and Agencies (Heads of Affairs) to train the staff on the use of technology in work place. These factors are among others which effect on the productivity and performances causing the employees to be less productive at their workplaces. Consequently, this has the negative effect on the economy. In addition, the decrease of individual productivity and performances is evidenced via the outcome of the survey of individuals who has shortage of interest of the management to prepare a time training schedule and system of computing to work within the country of Nigeria. Therefore, the paper recommends measures which should be taken to improve productivity and performances of workers by training them on Computer technology. The training can be inside or outside in the organization, which could lead to improvement in the input /output performances of individual work staff, all workforce and economic development of Nigeria in general. Keywords: Technology; Training; Computing System; Internet; Workers Performances & Productivity.  
19 Strategic Management and Corporate Planning, Tools to Achieving Organizational Products Continuous Efficiency: The Case of Multi- National Company’s Products in Nigeria , Osogu Fred Obioma  
The desk review of literatures in strategic management and corporate planning as tools in organizations strategic operational framework shows excellent prospects in management of corporate establishments. World-wide, products like Coca-Cola soft-drink and Maggi cubes for cooking, have been household consumer goods. Their availability at all times is attributed to Strategic Management and Corporate Planning techniques adopted in creating the brands. It is being observed that these products had foreign origins with good leadership lifestyle. In Nigeria for instant, they were incorporated over 50years ago as Multi-National Companies (MNCs). This study reveals that the applications of strategic management and corporate planning are indispensable management tools that gave leverage to prosper growth and maintain high market shares. The study key findings show that availability of aforementioned products’ success story factors come from the combination of strategic corporate planning of people, process, marketing and leadership style. The study made some policy recommendations that: There is strong need for manufacturing organizations operating in a dynamic environment wrapped with economic uncertainty to embark on realistic and systematic implementation of strategic management and corporate planning principles to overcome challenges. For business development, market leadership and desires for perpetual effectiveness, there is strong need of good strategic management and corporate planning as tools to enhance business prospects. The application of strategic management and corporate planning is desirable for organizations to continue being in operations no-matter the economic business trends. Keywords: Strategic Management, Corporate Planning Decision-making, Continuous Organization, Efficiency, Growth, and Products.  
20 The Challenges in Analyzing Project Management Principles in Service Delivery in the Issuance of Driver’s License (A Case Study the Driver’s and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) of Ghana.) , Daniel Quansah  
Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading and controlling resources to achieve specific goals (kshama, 2018). Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority is a semi-autonomous public sector organization that promote good driving standards and establish methods for the training and testing of driving instructors and drivers of motor vehicle and riders of motor cycles in Ghana. Of recent, there have been a lot of road accidents as a result of poor driving practices. This study is to address some of the contributing factors by analyzing the project management principles in the service organization by focusing on the process of issuing driver’s license by DVLA. Several literatures assess the concept of driving license. 300 respondents made up of employee and customers of the firm were sampled for the study. The mix method was employed in collection of data whilst the purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used. The findings of the study indicate that an applicant is eligible for a driver’s license if he/she is 18 years and above and must have attended an accredited driving school. The study found that, there are delays in the operations of DVLA due to the manual process they employ, the trend been currently used to register applicant and book them for exam and driving test as well as the time wasted in the printing and issuance of driver’s license. Customers are very dissatisfied with the manure of operation especially customer service and accessibility to information in the company. keywords: Applicants, Driver and Vehicle licensing Authority, Probationary, Satisfaction, Semi-autonomous.  
21  Organizational Economics, the Firm, & the Entrepreneur: A Motivation for the Emergence of the Entrepreneur as Coordinator of Organizational Resources for Firm Success , Chilumba K. Bwalya  
Organizational theory and organizational economics both acknowledge the existence of the firm; research about the firm, and the organization of work and people followed the path of tracing responsibility, ownership, control, and the dispensation of the unit of work to create value for the owner otherwise referred to as investor/entrepreneurs and or the owner’s shareholders. In attempting to appreciate organizational economics, we discover that it actually is linked to define departments and divisions in the organization, resource allocation, the role hierarchy and control, the important role of contracts in the field, how decisions happen and where they occur from in an organization. This research then leads to further understanding of organizational configuration which describes the way an organization is organized structurally and how their approach of doing business is described, this school of thought has been a big consideration within management research and thinking for many years; all this synthesized and guided by scholarly wisdom then discusses; an organizational economics view of the firm as a basis for the justification of the entrepreneurial organization’s existence and how foundational literature in management and organizational economics can be used to create the modern entrepreneurial organization structure lead by the coordinator called ‘The Entrepreneur’. Keywords and terminologies: Firm, organization, entrepreneur, coordinator, organizational economics, management, structure.  
22 The Extent of the Zambian Government’s Support in Eradicating the Challenges Faced by Early Childhood Teachers in Zambia , Precious Lubinda  
Early childhood is a crucial period for the development of children's mental functions; hence it needs to be handled by qualified teachers who are well motivated. The purpose of the study is to highlight some of the challenges faced by ECE teachers in rural areas and how much efforts have been made by government in terms of policies, funding, curriculum and infrastructure. A case study of early childhood provision in rural areas of Mongu district of Western Province, was presented as an example of challenges in a remote rural of Zambia. Using questionnaires and observations from the visited schools, ECE teachers are faced with a number of challenges. Based on this background, ECE teachers are supposed to be qualified in order to be able to comprehend the developmental process of ECE children. The study results revealed that most administrators, teachers, had very little knowledge on ECE provisions, and teachers were rarely monitored by standard officers to take stock of the ECE delivery system in rural areas. Also, among other findings, ECE teachers were overloaded with other responsibilities giving them less time to prepare adequately for their classes. The study was set to investigate challenges faced by preschool teachers in rural areas, and suggest measures that could be addressed by the government and other stakeholders to ensure that there is quality delivery of early childhood education regardless of the geographical positions of the centers. Other researchers who may be interested to verify on these challenges are free to do so. Keywords: Early childhood education, curriculum, infrastructure, conducive environment, Policy  
23 Discouraging Ageism in Workplace: Key to Global Organizational Efficiency , Sam Bodunrin
According to Dictionary.com, it define human aging as “discrimination against persons of a certain age group.” Within the above contest, one can begin to ask a rhetorical question that who will not get old? Why older persons are discriminated or age restrictions to some of the vital things we do in the society? The science of gerontology is vast and could only be treated positively when its impact is well understood. The impact of age discrimination is retrogressively demeaning to the victims especially the baby boomers who were veterans and had sacrificed for the so called freedom we enjoyed today. In establishing the impact of gerontology and ageism, I dedicated my study to carry out a research that on age discrimination and was able to establish some facts about ageism and its effect in our society. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of age discrimination on the aged emotions and capability. In ascertain this study, we deployed questionnaires to the aged old in Lagos Nigeria (sample population) where we got feedback from veterans and other retired fellows staying in old people’s home. About 95% of our sample population confirmed that they felt cheated and undignified after they were discriminated at in various aspects of their lives, even after retirement, while 3.8% disagreed not to have experienced age discrimination and 1% prefer not to comment on it. Details of the survey shall be given in the body of this article. In this article, the first and second paragraph introduced the timing and age bracket that falls victims of ageism -especially the aged ones. When it is likely to start experiencing age discrimination which sometimes is not limited to aged but also the under-aged who are rated as incompetent to carry out or participate in an aged rated activities. The third paragraph underscored how ageism affect the baby boomers and Gen x irrespective of their fitness and how millennial also face age discrimination in recruitment and political eligibility. Further to this, work of Robert Butler – the first researcher on ageism was mentioned with our team research at Regina Mundi Ages Home in Lagos and other field survey that were carried out in paragraph seven and eight. The article pointed out different countries acts that protect age discrimination in paragraph nine while the general effect of ageism in our society with our recommendation on how to stop ageism were cited in paragraph ten and eleven respectively.  
24 A Comparative Assessment of Near Point of Convergence between Goldsmiths and Normal Population , JayaRajini Vasanth, Jeevitha.J
The process of jewelry making involves minute visual tasks at closer working distance for goldsmiths, which demands high visual ability that eventually might result with receded near point of convergence (NPC). Hence the aim of our study is to compare the near point of convergence between goldsmiths and normal population. One group of 72 male experienced goldsmiths and other group of 72 male normal populations were evaluated. Binocularly the near point of convergence was tested with sharpened tip of pencil. The patient age ranges between 30 to 60 years with best corrected visual acuity of 6/6, N6 monocularly without any ocular pathology were included in both the groups. The other near occupational work was excluded for normal population. The p-value for subjective comparison of NPC is 0.008 and for the objective comparison of NPC is 0.0005 which showed a highly statistical significant changes between goldsmiths and normal population for both subjective and objective comparison. Hence this test can be used as a clue to suspect whether the goldsmiths having convergence insufficiency and to decide on referring the patient for further binocular vision assessment and treatment accordingly. Keywords: Goldsmiths, near point of convergence, sharpened pencil tip.  
25 Academic Self-Regulation of STEM of Senior High School Students of Divine Word Colleges in Region I, Philippines and Their Academic Performance , Damianus Abun, Theogenia Magallanes
The study wanted to determine the level of academic self-regulation of the STEM students of Senior High School students of the Divine Word Colleges and its effect toward academic performance. There were four aspects of self-regulation investigated such as external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic motivation. Questionnaires were used to gather the data. The quantitative descriptive research design and explanation research was used in the study. The findings showed that the academic self-regulation of the STEM students of the senior high school of Divine Word Colleges is high which means that they have high external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and moderate intrinsic motivation. However, the findings also showed that there is no correlation between academic self-regulation and their academic performance. Their academic performance can be caused by other factors that are not considered in this study. Keywords: Self-regulation, self-determination theory, academic performance, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation.  
26 Two Important Predictors of Quality Instruction: Teacher Ratings and Student Outcomes: Correspondence and Interpretation , Nusrat Ara Begum  
This quantitative study determined the coefficient of correlation between teacher ratings and students’ grades in the final exam of an elementary statistics course GSTA 140 and their reliabilities (overall consistency of a measure) at Effat University in Jeddah Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted with a cluster convenience sample of 558 students, registered in 22 GSTA 140 courses over a period of 3 years (fall 2014 to fall 2017). To avoid the effect of variability of different teaching styles on ratings, only those courses were collected, which are taught by the same instructor. The study, designed and inferences obtained, is based on Pearson product-moment Statistical correlation test, Normality test and Empirical rule. The results showed that there is a very weak positive correlation between teacher ratings and student achievement, however; their independent standard deviations (a measure of variation) are approximately equal. Normality tests showed that the data set for the students’ grades is well modeled by a normal distribution as compared to the data set of teacher ratings. Results also indicated that the application of the empirical rule is the optimum approach to interpret the reliability of the data of teacher ratings surveys and students’ final grades and hence prediction can be made on the bases of these values. The findings of this study could prove useful to university, regional, and kingdom, implementing similar formal teacher evaluation framework as Effat University. Keywords: Teacher Ratings, Student outcomes, Normal distribution, Coefficient of linear correlation, Standard deviation, Empirical rule.  
27 Achieving Financial Inclusion in Ghana through Mobile Money , Dominic Tetteh Sackitey  
Financial inclusion refers to the act of ensuring that all the citizen sin a country are connected to a well – functioning financial or payment system, especially those citizens who live in rural areas and are mostly under privileged. This includes the provision of traditional banking products and services, credit facilities that are affordable and specially designed for low income earning individual, small and medium scale enterprises and other relevant financial products and services. The aim of this study is to assess Ghana’s ability to achieve financial inclusion through mobile money. Using MTN mobile money as case study, the researcher reviewed literature of other authors and researchers collected from secondary sources such as newspapers, research papers, online articles, books, journals, reports, dissertations etc. Findings from the literature review showed that the introduction of mobile money in the country has contributed immensely and in various ways to achieving financial inclusion in the country. Keywords: Payment systems, Financial, products, financial inclusion, mobile money, country, services, mobile phone, transfers, remittance.  
28 Data Security and Privacy in Mobile Technology: A case of Whatsapp Web , Samuel Chris Quist  
Mobile computing technology is on the ever ascending trajectory, making it the technology to use in any thriving industry. Mobile computing technology is thriving due to its portability as such it is very easy to carry around and can be operated anywhere. However, due to the size of most mobile devices that run mobile apps being very small, which also makes it more portable, it sometimes impedes its usage on very large data inputs volumes. Most people find it more comfortable using their personal computers or laptops to prepare and store their documents and other files. This article reviews the benefits of using WhatsApp web, the potential privacy or security vulnerability as compared with other screen mirroring or casting technologies such as Vysor, Mobizen, AirDroid, etc. It is recommended that WhatsApp web connects to the mobile device through a WiFi or USB as implemented in AirDoid instead of connecting directly to the WhatsApp server once the QR code has been scanned using the WhatsApp on the mobile. Secondly, WhatsApp must implement automatic logout of older WhatsApp web sessions instead of just disconnecting the older session once a new session is connected and reconnects the older session once the new one is disconnected since this increases the vulnerability of the end-user. Keywords: WhatsApp Web, Data Security, Privacy, Screen mirroring, Screen casting, Mobile Technology.  
29 Perceptions of Nurses Regarding Information and Communication Technology at a Rural Hospital in Lesotho , Mpho Takalimane  
Background Accessing health facilities in rural Lesotho is a challenge due to the mountainous topography with a poor road network. As result Telemedicine has potential to improve access to health care in rural Lesotho. Aim To describe the perceptions of nurses regarding information communication technology, in health care at a rural hospital in Lesotho. Methods A quantitative descriptive research design was used. A total of 45 nurses working at a rural hospital was conveniently sampled from a population of 80. Data on demographics, knowledge and perceptions regarding CT was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the data through descriptive statistics. Results The majority of the participants were female 76% (n=34); of the age group 30 to 40 years 49% (n=22) and with nurse experience of 0-5 years 60% (n=27). Of the 45 participants, 82% (n=37) used smart phones; while 71% (n=32) used their phones for communication. The majority of the participants reported having used Microsoft Office (60%, n=27), not having ICT skills 69% (n=31), using internet on their phones 57% (n=26), willing to use ICT to communicate health information (100%, n=45), store patient information using ICT 96% (n=43) and willing to assist patients using ICT 98% (n=44). Conclusion There are positive perceptions amongst nurses towards ICT at the rural hospital. This may reflect a level of perceived self-efficacy related to ICT in health creating a platform for possible implementation of telemedicine in the delivery of health information in rural hospitals in Lesotho. Keywords: Sustainability, telemedicine, telecommunication, rural Africa, eHealth, perceptions.  
30 Strengthening Social Service Systems for Vulnerable Children and Adolescents: A Conceptual Framework , Barnabas Mwansa  
There is emerging global consensus on the importance of strengthening social service systems for vulnerable children and adolescents in Africa, but no agreement on the conceptual definition and the scope of strengthening social service systems, whether strengthening social service systems is achievable or not, how to move towards it, common indicators for measuring its progress, and its long-term sustainability. This has resulted in various interpretations of the concept, emanating from different disciplinary perspectives. This paper discusses the various dimensions of strengthening social service systems emerging from these interpretations and argues for the need to pay attention to the complex interactions across the various components of social service systems in the pursuit for better social service delivery to vulnerable children and adolescents in Africa. The paper highlights major components of strengthening social service systems and proposes that these are utilized for measuring social service system strengthening. Keywords: social services, systems strengthening, child protection system, conceptual framework, Africa.  
31 Effect of Health Workers Strikes on Quality of Care in Health Institution in Cross River State, Nigeria , Samson Olusegun , Robert J. Chiegil, Amosu Ademola, Felix Sanni, Musa Orenyi, Abiodun Olaiya Paul, Opeyemi Joseph, Margaret Dakwat
The focus of this study is to examine the effect of labour strikes on patient’s quality of care in health facilities. However, the objective can be achieved by answering the research question which is “does labour strike affects quality of care in health institutions? The study is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 508 respondents from the outpatient, laboratory and pharmacy departments, Ante-Natal, Post-Natal and ART clinics of the 7 secondary health institutions spread across 3 senatorial districts in the state between January and February 2018 using multistage method. Data were collected using a semi structured closed- and open-ended questionnaire divided into different sections. Raw data were entered EpiData™ and exported for analysis using the SPSS software version 20. The data were cleaned and validated for use. Frequency tables were produced and associations between categorical variables were determined using chi squared test at a significance level of P<0.05. The negative effects of strikes are highly felt generally among all patients with no statistical significant difference whether employed, unemployed or retired (P>0.05). However, the significant effect of health workers’ strike on quality of care is that strikes increases death rates. The result showed that regardless of patient’s education level, patients are fully aware that one of the effects of health worker strikes is increase in death rate with P value >0.05. Labour strike also increases misuse of drugs, expiry and wastages of drugs and laboratory reagents. In conclusion, the higher the level of education, the higher the awareness that labour strikes affect the duty of health workers and have effect on patient’s attendance, poor healthcare indicators and cause patients’ dissatisfaction. Keywords: Health Workers Strikes, Quality of Care, Patient Satisfaction and Secondary Health Institutions.  
32 Job Satisfaction and Organizational Productivity in the Nigerian Civil Service , Daramola Ifeolu Esther  
The main aim of the research topic; Job satisfaction and Organizational productivity in the Nigerian civil service is to determine the relationship between employee satisfaction, organizational performance and the effect of reward. The research work made use of research questionnaire to elicit vital information on job satisfaction and organizational productivity; the method of Chi-square and Pearson correlation method were used for the purpose of the analysis; Notably, the growth of an organization is dependent on the level of employee’s satisfaction. The researcher concluded that there is a significantly strong relationship between employee satisfaction and organizational performance. It is pertinent to emphasis that a worker’s reaction at work helps to determine the output level of the organization. This is why the researcher spent time to study the extent of organizational productivity vis-à-vis the satisfaction derived by workers on the Job. When a worker gets satisfied, his effort/input will increase which ordinarily and most likely lead to the increase in the organizational output- Hence the need to concentrate on the motivational factors, which enhances the output of organization. The study revealed those motivational factors analyzed them and made some recommendation which if implemented rightly, will improve the condition of worker and enhance increase in organizational productivity in Nigeria. Keywords: Employee satisfaction, Organizational performance, employee productivity, reward.  
33 Investigating the Areas of Student Difficulty in Chemistry Curriculum: A Case Study in Qatar , Caleb moyo  
The exploratory study focused on the identification of difficult topics in Chemistry in the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) curriculum. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from thirty students by simple random sampling technique. Interviews and focus group discussions were carried out to seek clarifications on some of the responses to the questionnaire questions and to elicit detailed explanations of the causes of the perceived difficulties. A multiple-choice test was also administered for the purpose of triangulation. Frequencies and means were used to answer the research question. The findings indicate that the causes of poor performance could be categorised into five groups i.e.: nature of concepts, prior knowledge, access to the language of instruction, teaching processes and mathematical efficacy. The study recommends a more structured form of curriculum mapping of all topics and sequencing of topics over the two-year period of study of IGCSE Chemistry and suggests further research on misconceptions and their origins in the subject matter. Keywords: chemistry, difficulty, concepts, abstract, igcse, sub-micro.  
34 Uptake of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy for Treatment of Acute Malaria at Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria: A Rretrospective Hospital Based Study , Ibrahim S. A, Ukaga C. N
Malaria remains a major public health challenge in Abuja. Considerable efforts have been made to reduce the prevalence of the disease; however, the last decade of malaria control has witnessed increased support by government and its partners in the areas of mass distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and a massive scale up in malaria case management. Consequently, it has become necessary to provide evidence-based data on the status of progress towards malaria control. A retrospective hospital based study on the uptake of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy drug for treatment of acute malaria was carried out using a five years hospital records from Wuse District Hospital Abuja. All the records of patients diagnosed with malaria confirmed by Giemsa stained thick and thin peripheral blood films were considered. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Chicago version 25. Appropriate tables and mean numbers were displayed. A chi square test was performed to determine the level of significance using 95% confidence interval and p- value. Findings revealed a total of 22,934 patients were diagnosed with acute malaria based on hospital records. Only 48.4% of the patients received Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) drugs. 32.1% of the patients were given non-ACT drugs, 9.3% of patients received Sulfadoxine – Pyrimethamine, 7.59% were given Chloroquine. The study concluded that, The use of Artemisin base Combination Therapy (ACT) as recommended by WHO has a significant influence on malaria treatment outcome. Keywords: Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy, Malaria, Uptake, Malaria.  
35 The Education Policy with the Most Impact on the Development of Primary Education and the Implications for Attaining Sustainable Development Goal 4 , Romeo gloverberg  
The study aimed at investigating the education policy with the most impact on primary education in Ghana and the implications for attaining Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG4). The variables for the study were chosen from a population comprising of teaching staffs from the seven (7) primary Schools in Dansoman in the Greater Accra Region and other stakeholders of the education sector of Ghana. A sample size of 100 respondents were selected from stakeholder including Ghana Education Service (GES), Ministry of Education (MoE), West African Examination Council (WAEC), the seven primary schools and district offices of education as well as direct beneficiaries of education policies such as students and parents within the Greater Accra region. Questionnaires and structured interview guides were used to garner information from respondents. The study found out that Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) is the most effective education policy in Ghana. However, in order for this policy to be effective towards provision of quality education (SDG4), there must be supplementary policies that ensures economic and financial empowerment of parents and households to provide materials, food, transportation and other basic education needs of students. The study also recommends that staff motivation packages, training and development that seek to achieve universal basic education in a long run is not neglected. Keywords: Keywords: impact, policy, motivation, training, and development.  
36 The Integration of ICT in Students Information Database Management System , Wilson  
After relying on ICT for individual tasks, learning institutions realized that integration of ICT in student information database management systems is more effective. The study identifies the various benefits and challenges of integration as well as the role of ICT and Database Management Systems. Also, different departments have been discussed with respect to adoption of ICT in their DBMS. In a global context, developing countries are at the peak of technical advancement while developed nations have begun to include sophisticated innovations as the next phase of ICT. The research mentions how ICT integration influences school’s operations and its impacts on students. Keywords: students, Database management system (DBMS), web-portal, academic records, departments.  
37 Teacher Education and the Teaching of Subitizing in Early Childhood Centers in Lusaka Urban, Zambia , Agnes Mando Banda  
The aim of the study was to at examine the extent to which early childhood teacher education Mathematics programmes prepare early childhood teachers for teaching subitizing to young children in Early Childhood Educations centers in Lusaka urban in Zambia. Using both qualitative and quantitative approach a description study was conducted. Semi-structured Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), Focus Group Discussion (FGD) meetings, questionnaires and documents and records analysis were designed and used to collect data. The findings from the study revealed that the Zambia National Curriculum Framework and the National Numeracy Framework in Zambia do not state the topic or term subitizing. These national documents start with topic number and notation. Under this topic counting is covered first. All text books and reference materials used at teacher educational level and ECE teachers in ECE centers do not mention the term subitizing. The understanding of the concept of subitizing was found to be poor, insufficient in coverage and inadequate in content. The Key Informant Interviews revealed that both lecturers and ECE teachers thought subitizing and counting were one and the same thing. The questionnaires, focus group discussion meeting and document analysis revealed that the topic was not planned for and had no time allocation. In order for all colleges of education to improve the performance of ECE students in teaching subitizing in ECE centers, it is recommended that the content of the mathematics curriculum, all text books, reference materials and the National Numeracy Framework should include and start with the concept of subitizing. Keywords: Subitizing, early childhood teachers, curriculum, mathematics programme, colleges of education, early childhood center.  
38 Diagnosing Dry Eyes in Post-Menopausal Women using Schirmer’s Test in Open and Closed Eyes without Anesthesia , JayaRajini Vasanth, Divyalakshmi
Objectives: To compare the wettability and wetting time between open and closed eyes of post menopausal women using Schirmer’s test without anaesthesia (ST) and to assess the number of dry eyes in open (STO) and closed (STC) schirmer test. Methods: One-Hundred and Twenty eyes of 60 normal Post-Menopausal women were recruited from Sri Ramachandra University. Schirmer test (ST) was performed in a closed environment with the absence of air flow. This procedure was performed with the subjects both eyes open and closed with an interval of 1 hour and were conducted in 5 minutes. If wetting values are 35 mm before 5 minutes, wetting time should be recorded. Results: In this study 120 eyes of 60 Post-menopausal women were included. Measurements of STI performed with open eyes (27.0 ± 9.5) were higher statistical different from those performed with closed eyes (17.5 ± 11.0) in right eye of the patients. Measurements of STI performed with open eyes (27.5 ± 9.9) were higher statistical different from those performed with closed eyes (19.0 ± 11.4) in left eye of the patients. Wetting time of STI performed with open eyes (4.1 ± 1.2) were lower statistical different from those performed with closed eyes (4.7 ± 0.8) in right eye of the patients. Wetting time of STI performed with open eyes (4.1 ± 1.2) were lower statistical different from those performed with closed eyes (4.6 ± 0.8) in left eye of the patients. The p value from measurements of STI for right and left eye was 0.0005 and the p value from wetting time for right and left eye was 0.0005, so, there was a significant change between open and closed eyes. Conclusion: ST performed with open and closed eyes can have an important influence in the diagnosis of dry eyes in post-menopausal women. Keywords: Dry eyes, Post-menopausal women, Opened schirmer’s test, closed schirmer’s test.  
39 The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Malaria in Samfya District , Cecilia K Muchepa Muzyamba  
Malaria was as old as human kind itself and had been the most potent scourge in humans from time immemorial in the World and Afro-Asian settings in particular. It was a disease caused by parasites of genus plasmodium namely: Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Plasmodium ovale curtisi (Poc), Plasmodium ovale wallikeri (Pow), Plasmodium malariae (Pm), Plasmodium vivax (Pv) and Plasmodium Knowlesi (Pk) (Nzobo, Ngalasa and Kihamia 2015). These worked through a female anopheles mosquito. This study therefore, aimed to establish the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Samfya District, Zambia. Random and non-random research designs were used to obtain the sample and data for the study. There were 394 respondents, 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and 11 key informants. The results showed that there were more women than men who were afflicted by malaria as evidenced in the questionnaires, FGDs and the hospital records. Age too was a contributing factor as the under 5 year old (U/5 years) and the aged were more vulnerable to malaria as their immunities were low due to nutrition deficiencies. Income determined whether a household could afford to buy an ITN or any mosquito sprays to control the mosquito nuisance. The population was poor as 72.2% of the respondents earned less than ZMK 700 (US $ 70) per month. This was also related to the occupations the population was engaged in. Sixty-one point five percent (61.5%) were farmers who earned their incomes once per year after their crop harvests. House construction materials showed that 60% of the roofs were grass thatched, Iron/Asbestos (33.5%) and tiles (2.3%). The exterior house construction materials results were as follows: burnt bricks (61.2%), cement blocks (13.7%), unburnt bricks (10.9%), timber (5.3%) and straw/grass (0.3%). In terms of sources of energy, there were 5 sources that were used by the respondents in the study and these were: hydroelectricity (9.4%), Firewood (50.5%), Charcoal (36.3%), Crop residue (3%) and Firewood and Charcoal (0.8%).These factors contributed to the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria in Samfya District. Keywords: Distribution, Malaria, Spatial, Temporal  
40 Environmental Attitude and Environmental Behavior of Catholic Colleges’ Employees in Ilocos Sur, Philippines , Damianus Abun, Alfie P.Racoma
The study was intended to measure the understanding and attitudes of employees of Catholic Colleges in Ilocos Sur Province toward the environment and how such attitudes affect their behavior toward the environment. It was found that overall the employees were not certain related to their attitudes toward the environment and such ambivalent attitudes affect their behavior toward the environment. The study concludes that such ambivalent attitudes are caused by lack of understanding about environmental ethics. It is recommended therefore to improve awareness or understanding about natural environment through seminars on environment and to include environmental ethics in the curriculum. Keywords: Environmental attitude, environmental behavior, anthropocentric attitude, human dominance over nature, eco-centric attitude, ecological behavior, conservation and population growth  
41 Organizational Integrity of Administrators of Divine Word Colleges in Region I, Philippines and Employees’ Job Satisfaction As Perceived by the Employees , Fr. Damianus Abun, Alfie P.Racoma
The study was to determine the level of integrity of administrators of Divine Word Colleges in Northern Province, Philippine, and determine the effect of organizational integrity and job satisfaction of employees. It was found that overall, the integrity of administrators were at the moderate or good level. It was also established that the level of integrity of administrators influence employees’ job satisfaction. Such relationship concludes that employees’ job satisfaction is not just caused by monetary reward but how the administrators carry out their duties and responsibilities in an ethical manner. Keywords: Integrity, job satisfaction, self-integration, maintenance of identity, standing up for something, moral purpose.  
42 Mobile Apps Marketing Along with Web Mining Techniques in E-Commerce Applications , Vishal D  
Online marketing via internet on mobile apps (which includes android, ios and windows app) along with web mining is an essential part of e-commerce. In the recent years, with the more use of mobile devices usage trends that grow exponentially, providing online marketing services for mobile users has been becoming business opportunities. Despite these opportunities, mobile marketing system using mobile apps along with web mining for e-commerce has not been widely studied. As mobile devices are personal tools, mobile marketing systems along with web mining must be properly designed such that users will accept the systems. Nowadays online business breaks the barrier of time and space as compared to the physical office. Big companies around the world are realizing that e-commerce is not just buying and selling over Internet, rather it improves the efficiency to compete with other giants in the market. This paper presents the design and prototype of an e-commerce mobile marketing system using mobile apps and also how web mining helps resolving user acceptance criteria, such as information personalization, privacy protection, up-to-date content, payments, statistics and analysis of usage of e-commerce market on the internet. The proposed system integrates a marketing provider website and mobile applications used by shoppers. The design and prototype are provided for the web mining, website, mobile app applications and the communication between both sub-systems that employs web services and a cloud service. Prototype testing and evaluation have been performed to ensure that the proposed system works properly. Business over internet provides the opportunity to customers and partners where their products and specific business can be found. For this purpose data mining sometimes called as knowledge discovery is used. Web mining is data mining technique that is applied to the world wide web. There are vast quantities of information available over the Internet. General terms: Data mining techniques, e-commerce applications and web mining. Keywords: Electronic marketing system, mobile marketing system design, e-commerce marketing, publish/subscribe system, Electronic commerce, data mining, web mining, android, iphone (ios) and windows apps.  
43 ICT Infrastructure Management of Rural and Community Banks in Ghana the Role of ARB Apex Bank , Samuel Chris Quist  
Technology has become the bedrock on which all organizations thrive. Rural and Community Banks are no exception from this rule, as such to leverage on the current technological advancement, Rural and Community Banks (RCB) must invest heavily in highly sophisticated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems. As part of the Core functions of the ARB Apex Bank which serves as a mini central bank, is to provide ICT services and Training of IT staff that manage Rural and Community Banks. This paper highlights on the core mandate of the supervisory bank of the Rural and Community banks, ARB Apex bank on the Management of the ICT infrastructure of RCBs in Ghana, the modalities, the challenges as well as the successes in taking secured and reliable banking services to rural communities in Ghana. ARB Apex Bank has progressively introduced high level technology into Rural and Community banking making them very competitive even on the international space. Keywords: Rural and Community Bank, ICT infrastructure, ARB Apex Bank, Electronic Banking, Technology Management.  
44 Increasing Human Security to Disaster Risk Targeting Vulnerable Communities in the North of Haiti , Pierre Edwidge Moise  
Human Security was never a concept used in Haiti in the past. As disaster in this country remain a critical factor, the concept become more important than ever. Human Security can respond to the complexity of emerging security threats in an integrated manner. Human security protect the vital core of all human lives. It is important to use processes that build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating, social, environmental, economic and cultural systems that together give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity. This project work respond to those needs. It is all about empowerment and protection. With this concept, institutions are reinforce with a focus on capacity development of keys partners locally and regionally. The North department was a key focus to build that capacity targeting vulnerable communities. By addressing the full range of insecurities faced by the targeted communities in the North, the project promotes responses that are community-driven, preventive and sustainable in the long run.  
45  School Leadership in Higher Institutions of Learning: Opportunities for Sustainable Development , Kaahwa Maria-Goretti, Buregea Bin Rwakenda Henri
Governments of Uganda and schools in Uganda have made great efforts to develop the education sector for quality education through Higher Institutions of Learning. In Uganda, the number of these institutions has increased since almost four decades. Unfortunately, through different tracer studies, statistics show that employments are rare to the African graduates and worse in Uganda. Youth unemployment in Uganda is the highest in Africa. More than 62 % of graduates in Uganda are not employed and the African development Bank says it could be as high as 83 %. The main question was to find out all opportunities in Higher Institutions of Learning that could enable graduates and Mbale District dwellers to induce, maintain, and promote sustainable development. The purpose of the research was therefore to identify those opportunities in Higher Institutions of Learning that can be useful to sustainable development of Mbale. The research was conducted in Uganda in Mbale District. The method of research was qualitative. The researcher used interview as well as moderator guides as tools for data collection. The sampling technique was random and convenient in nature. The findings were critically examined and faithfully reported. Identified opportunities in Higher Institutions of Learning were essentially: guided skills based knowledge, technologies, scientific know-how that can be used to induce, maintain, and promote sustainable development through global education, research, and technology and all findings have to lead to special approaches that will satisfy the needs of people in Mbale, Uganda and the world. Keywords: School leadership, Higher Institutions of Learning, Integral Development.  
46 The Role of Wisdom in Good Instructional Leadership: A Thematic Analysis of Views from Educational Leaders , Amina, Jangu Alhassan  
The study seeks to find out the role of wisdom about good instructional leadership in the classroom. The first thing that came to mind when the issue of wisdom came up as the topic was why we should be concerned about a concept that is very complex to understand. However, a broader perspective about wisdom reveals that wisdom entails features such as understanding the consequences of our actions.  Again, wisdom entails having the knowledge and ability to understand and recognize the right decisions to make. While also recognizing that a good leader must have the courage to abide by their actions and accept their failures. These features constitute the hallmark of an effective and efficient teacher as far as instructional leadership is concerned. The topic is significant because wisdom plays a critical role in good leadership. Wisdom makes it possible for the achievement of goals when it comes to the role of leaders in influencing positive change among their followers. Three research questions were set to guide the study. Purposive sampling was used to select 105 members to participate in the research. A questionnaire was used to collect data, and thematic analysis was adopted together with descriptive statistics to organize data gathered from close-ended and open-ended questions for interpretation. The results show that wisdom plays a crucial role in the teaching and learning process and must not be undermined. Again, it beholds on every teacher to apply whatever wisdom they have in the classroom to ensure that every pupil benefits from their lessons. Keywords: Wisdom, Leadership, Instruction, Classroom, Head teacher, Develop.  
47 Biologics Development and Operations, Molecular and Analytical Development-Bio Separation Department, Bristol Myers Squibb, Hopewell, NJ , Olga Karagiozova  
Paracetamol, also known as Acetaminophen is widely used as over the counter or prescription pain reliever and fever reducer that is sold over 50+ different countries. Paracetamol is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent antipyretic and analgesic functions and with very weak anti-inflammatory activity. Paracetamol or Acetaminophen uses diverse brand names, that include not only store brand or generic analgesic but also fever reducers, allergy medicines, medicines for cold, cough, sleeping aids. Other names for Paracetamol include but are not limited to Acetaminodephenol, Acetaminophen, Anacin 3, APAP, Datril, Hydroxyacetanilide, Panadol, Tylenol and etc. (1) At low doses paracetamol is harmless, but it does have direct hepatotoxic potential when taken systematically or as an overdose. It could case acute liver failure as well as injuries to the extrahepatic tissue due to the transient serum aminotransferase elevations. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken and used medications in the United States with more than 25 billion doses sold every year. (15) Current article will review the main concepts of paracetamol mechanisms of action, will briefly explain characteristics of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the over –the counter analgesic. The metabolic activation of acetaminophen with closer look to starvation, malnutrition, delays in treatment, alcohol, medications and genetics will be outlined as well. Hepatotoxicity along with nephrotoxicity will include pharmacology/pathophysiology, histopathology and associated side effects. Keywords: Paracetamol, acetaminophen, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, hepatotoxicity.  
48 Cyber Crime in a World without Borders , Henry Osborn Quarshie  
Technology has created a world governed by computers and computer networks. Today's world is a world of a machines. This world of machines evolves and work 24/7 without pausing. This is a man-made world without geographical boundaries. Technology has created a dynamic world out of nowhere. This dynamic world is called the cyberspace, a world without borders. A new world connected by means of computer networks. A virtual space created by networks of computers and the internet. With cybercrime in a world without borders, a criminal no longer needs to be at the actual scene of the crime. This advanced form of crime is perpetuated by means of computer networks and the internet. Keywords: Cyberspace, borders, cyber-crime.  
49 The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Sustainable Development Goals in Africa: A Review , Barnabas Mwansa  
Technology plays a critical role in transforming societies and economies through enhancing efficiency, connectivity and access to resources and services. Sustainable development goals require harnessing technological innovation through utilization of information and communication technology. However, the challenge remains of how Africa can harness technologies to achieve sustainable development goals. This paper is a review of journal articles on the role of information and communication technology in sustainable development goals in the African context; it discusses challenges and opportunities in the light of youth employment, financial inclusion and health care. It identifies existing appropriate forms of technology that could enhance sustainable development goals and demonstrates the role of information and communication technology in achieving sustainable development goals in Africa. The paper concludes that Africa will need to vigorously utilize appropriate technology to achieve sustainable development goals. Keywords: Technology, Sustainable Development Goals, Youth Employment, financial inclusion, health Care, ICT in Africa.  
50 Automated Result Process System Processing System (A Case Study of University of Port Harcourt) , Iweriebor Elvis Erere
Due to enormous problems associated with manual computation of students’ result and transcript processing in university of Port Harcourt, there is need for efficient method with error free that will enable result to be processed automatically. This system will accept multiple inputs and aid course advisers carry out their responsibilities effectively. A result is an official report and record of student courses with grades. Students result is critical to their graduation. Currently, there is no reliable way to track incoming results. This creates problems for students and staff. Lost or misplaced result has unwanted consequences and delay graduation. In this work, a computer software application was developed to facilitate the automated processing of the results. The software was developed in Java programming language in the form of a database, employing PostgreSQL Relational Database Management System. The developed software performed well and produced expected results on completion. With it, it was possible to compute Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average for each student based on examination scores entered being the core idea behind the design. Keywords: Relational, Database, Management, GPA, Software, Hardware, Programming, Java, Computer, Design, Examination, Record, PostgreSQL.  
51 Child Participation in Development Programming: Lessons from Southern Nigeria , Ozoemenam Kenneth C  
Generally, participation, as a concept in development programming, usually refers to the idea of involving target beneficiaries and/or actively seeking their opinions and inputs into decision-making process on issues that directly or indirectly affect them. Involvement of beneficiaries in this manner is one proven means of securing their buy-in into a project or programme intervention. It is a time-tested strategy that guarantees ownership, an indispensable pillar of programme sustainability. Child participation is not any different. Involvement of children and/or seeking and obtaining their opinions and inputs into decisions that affect them is an established strategy in development programming. Methodology consisted of Focused Group Discussion (FGD) with children randomly selected from four States in Southern Nigeria. A total of four (4) participating States were selected, out of ten, using compulsive non-probabilistic sampling method, purposive sampling. Most suited for exploratory research, this approach enables a researcher to focus on a specific target group for some unique purpose. In this work, we analyses information obtained from children and adolescents to establish the extent to which they are consulted in decision-making process on issues that concern them. Our data analysis suggest three factors that are significant in determining effectiveness of child participation in decision-making at home, school and community levels. These are age, gender and economic status of parents. Based on our findings, we strongly recommend the mainstreaming of child participation strategy into development programming by governments and their international development partners. Keywords: Child participation rights; focused-group discussion; childhood; adolescents; young people; UNCRC.  
52 Evaluating the Current Usage and Integration of ICTs in Education: A Review of Teachers’ Usage and Barriers to Integration , Caleb Moyo  
This study examined current usage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in a group of private secondary schools in Qatar and explored the barriers to effective integration of technology in Maths and Science lessons. The data was obtained from a total of 40 (18 female and 22 male) high school teachers. Results indicate that most teachers do not use ICTs as part of their pedagogical repertoire, instead, teachers reported using ICTs mostly for administrative work: - tracking attendance, preparing power point presentations, handouts and assessments. The article also reviews personal, institutional and technological factors that hinder teachers’ use of computer technology in teaching and learning processes: - teacher-level, school-level and system-level. These barriers include lack of teacher ICT skills; lack of teacher confidence; lack of pedagogical professional development and a streamlined and effective school policy on ICT; lack of suitable and adequate educational software; limited access to ICT infrastructure and a restrictive curricula, amongst other factors. Teachers also made insightful suggestions on how to ameliorate the current situation. Implications of this study will help the group management and administration in planning, implementation and evaluation of effective integration of ICTs in teaching and learning within the group of schools, efficient use of limited technology infrastructure and resources, and improvement of access to learning for the students. Keywords: ICT adoption; integration; barriers; teaching and learning.  
53 A Crictal Review of Cryptocurrency Systems , Mahendra Kumar Shrivas, Thomas Yeboah
Adoption of Cryptocurrency has grown significantly over the time and becoming more popular among young generation. People are calling it currency of new digital era. In this research work we are reviewing the dominant Cryptocurrency systems and its underlying disruptive Innovations and Technologies. Keywords: Cryptocurrency, Blockchain, Digital Currency, Hashing, Proof of Work, Proof of Stake, Tangle, RippleNet, Bitcoin, Altcoins.  
54 Contractor Information Management System (CIMS) – Import Module , Wais Meeran
X-organization is looking for a solution to enables the X-client to identify which contractors are being used in Afghanistan and for what purpose (contracts). The contractor should be defined as business / enterprise / organization / or individual that will commission or employ to perform a specific job for a specific period through a contract with the X-Organization. Furthermore, the application should provide details on where the contracts are as well as the value, and to indicate the performance of the contract / contractor per different clients. Based on strong research, the Application has been developed in Drupal. After some time, the organization decided to add more features in the application to satisfy their clients for example bulk import, grouping specific fields and a map showing geographical information. Previously X-organization clients were adding each contractor separately which was quite time consuming, but recently they installed a new module called “Feeds Import” to facilitate their client’s data import process. This new module allows clients to import, a list of their contractor/contracts information just by importing from a CSV file. By implementing the above features the X-organization faced another challenge. Each CSV file had to be imported several times to accomplish the bulk import process and we later explain in more details in the next sections of this paper why the clients had to import the same file several times? Now, the organization is looking for a solution to eliminate the need for importing one content type multiple times. So, the purpose of this document is to design and develop a module through which the import process is made dynamic, flexible and user friendly. Keywords: Drupal, import module, Contractor Information Management System, Feeds Import, Field collection, bulk import.
55  Intercultural Institutional Competence Proposed Standards Evaluation Framework , Marcos C. Ferreira  
Educational institutional intercultural competence can only be fully achieved once accreditation bodies commit and embrace a systematic, coherent and explicit standardized framework and process of criteria, dispositions, institutional culture, attributes and policies that are aimed at fostering a real intercultural landscape that is beyond the rhetorical jargon often articulated in institutional mission and vision around the globe. Fostering the development of intercultural skills remains at the forefront of promoting understanding, respect and more equitable communities around the globe. A clear set of institutional intercultural competence will further buttress accreditation processes and provide institutions with the opportunity to engage on a self-reflective process and to implement tangible and verifiable evidence that once analyzed and verified will validate best practices and the effectiveness of approaches. Hence, this study establishes why institutional intercultural competence is an important element in promoting the development of schools that are interculturally competent and explores the current limitations of international standards. Moreover, this study reviews the three major accreditation bodies’ (AdvancED, International Baccalaureate and Cambridge) standards of school accreditation and points that currently none have standards that directly endorses the principles of interculturalism based on the universal values of fairness that ought to be reflected and articulated in school’s policies; respect which must be evident in the institution’s commitment to promote a climate of acceptance and understanding; and fairness by establishing an institutional culture of inclusion and equality. Finally, this study presents a comprehensive set of institutional insterculturalism standards and criteria that serves a practical and tangible evaluative tool. Keywords: Accreditation, Intercultural; Competence; 21st-century; International Baccalaureate; Equality.  
56 Challenges and Issues of Medical and Nursing Education: An Outcome qualitative Research at various Medical/Nursing Institutes of Pakistan , Sumera noshin  
Objectives: To evaluate the consequences of individualized education and systematic social contract education through exploring education systems of various training institutes. Materials & Methods: Qualitative design was applied and data were collected through using interview guide/topic guide. Data was collected on emails, telephone, and face to face interviews, till saturation. Data was collected in the months of January and February 2017 with different types of participants. Participants were selected using purposive and networking sampling from various medical/nursing colleges. Finally, 4 patients, 4 students 4 faculty members 6 academic key informants, were selected for interview. Results: After analyzing and data interpretation, the challenges and issues are categorized in four main themes, including 1. Deficient Multidisciplinary /multi-setting teaching methodology, 2. Curriculum paradigm shift, 3. Curriculum misalignment and 4. Need for Professionalism. Each of these main themes comprises several subthemes and accordingly each subtheme encompasses several issues. Each issue is presented in form of verbatim. Recommendations: Curriculum revisions and retreat can help in facing the challenges and fixing up the issues. Research and program evaluation is mandatory for the curriculum paradigm shift. Keywords: Multidisciplinary teaching, Multi-setting teaching methodology, Curriculum paradigm shift, Curriculum alignment, Curriculum misalignment.  
57 Uganda DHIS2 Case Based Surveillance System: Would Have Detected the 2016 Yellow Fever Outbreak in Uganda , Prosper Behumbiize  
Majority of developing countries have relayed on aggregate weekly epidemiological data to detect, investigate and respond to outbreak, however as revealed by the West Africa Ebola Outbreak in 2015, these systems were not able to detect the outbreak in time. This has driven countries to building effective case based surveillance systems aimed to link cases to laboratories. Uganda’s journey to a web-based electronic case-based surveillance started in 2013 with the United States Government (USG) Uganda Global Health Security (GHS) demo project. On 24th March 2016, an alert of a suspected Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) outbreak was received by the Ministry of Health through the Public Health Emergency Operations Centre (PHEOC) and the case was confirmed on 8 April 2016 for Yellow Fever. A total of 60 suspected YF cases were reported between April and June, with 7 cases testing positive. Building on the successful GHS Specimen Tracking System, we embarked on rebuilding the DHIS2 tracker expanding the scope and coverage to the now eIDSR. Different disease specific Case notification forms were reviewed and common key notification elements harmonized into a general minimum data case DHIS2 tracker registry for immediate reporting. The system underwent vigorous testing and fine tuning using the yellow fever outbreak cases. The systems demonstrated that it’s possible to build an effective case notification and lab confirmation system using DHIS2 tracker with automated SMS and email notification. With the success above it recommended to countrywide rollout and adoption. Keywords: Disease Surveillance, Outbreak, Notifications, Yellow fever, DHIS2, Tracker.  
58 Investigation of Bioactive Properties in a Selected Species from the Leguminosae Plant Family Found in Guyana , Iran Ali  
Plants have always been a vital source of medicine since the dawn of time for man. The pharmacological evaluation of substances from plants is an established method for the identification of lead compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. Based on literature the Fabaceae or Leguminosae plant family has medicinal properties which have been proved safe for usage on humans. Species such as Cassia fistula, Saraca asoca, Cassia auriculata and Cassia tora have laxative, treating gynecologic disorders, anti-dysentery and treating skin disease respectively are from the Caesalpinioideae; a sub-family of the Fabaceae or Leguminosae plant family. Most of these botanicals contain heterogenous products in them. These products are bioactive in nature i.e. they are secondary metabolites which aids in the protection and survivability of the plant. These secondary metabolites are compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids and polyketides etc. To extract these bioactive compounds from the plant, polar, semi-polar and non-polar solvents are used sequentially for extraction. To help identify if a plant has bioactive properties special bioassays are used which are an inexpensive to carry out on the botanicals. Bioassays offer a special advantage in the standardization and quality control of heterogeneous botanicals products. One such bioassay is the brine shrimp lethality test (BST) a general bioassay. The brine shrimp lethality test (BST) is used to predict the presence, in the plant extracts, cytotoxic activity. This bioassay uses the micro-organisms Artemia salina which is placed in different concentration levels of the plant extracts. The percentage death tells how toxic the plant extract is. The BST is especially sugessted as an inexpensive, simple and rapid means of standardization of bioactivity in heterogeneous botanical products. Keywords: Artemia salina, brine shrimp lethality test, secondary metabolites, cytotoxic activity, medicinal plants, heterogeneous botanical.  
59 Financial Inclusion in the Digital Age, its Role and Impact on Economic Growth , Folasade B. Femi-Lawal  
Globally, Financial Inclusion (FI) and Digital Financial Services (DFS) have become a life-blood and key driver of socio-economic growth and development on the backdrop that economies are dependent on financial services to attain advancement. The paper explored the role of Mobile Money Services (MMS), also known as DFS in enhancing access to financial services. The research was driven by the increasing mobile network spread, the under-served, ubiquity/ penetration of mobile devices amongst both the poor and low-income earners, factors affecting FI, fees which are disincentive to users, introduction of cashless Nigeria by the Central Bank of Nigeria as well as the emergence of Mobile Money Services in 2009. An in-depth analysis of MMS in driving FI and paradigm shift in traditional payment systems was embarked on and focused on issues associated with services provided MMS Operators viz transaction fees, transaction value and count; stakeholders within the ecosystem, user experience and security of funds, policy and regulation on financial services delivery as well as inclusive participation of the government, regulatory bodies and infrastructure providers. The findings showed that while the MMS have a huge potential to drive DFS in Nigeria, it would require deliberate actions by all stakeholders to establish an appropriate solution capable of transforming the economy and also the contribution of MMS to FI in reducing the financially excluded is critical to the nation. Advancing this therefore, the government and other critical stakeholders would need to create a framework that will enhance access to financial services. Keywords: Digital Financial Services (DFS); Financial Inclusion.  
60 The Role of Education on Small-scale Mining for Sustainable Development- A case of Banda/Nkwanta Community in the Bole District-Ghana   , Nestor Naabulee Nasage  
The activities of small scale miners in Ghana have had negative effects on the environment and this has hampered security within the environment. The study seeks to assess the role of education on small-scale mining for sustainable development in the Banda/Nkwanta community in the Bole District, the Northern part of Ghana. Small scale mining operations have been a major cause of most of the negative environmental impacts in most parts of Ghana. This activity has now found its way to the Northern part of Ghana which is a serious canker for sustainable development. The environmental effects of these activities are higher because most of the activities are not coordinated and monitored by authorities especially in the Northern part of Ghana. The methods of mining applied by operators determine the severity of threat to environmental security. The chemical method of processing gold is a severe health hazard, especially the amalgamation with mercury. Small scale mining activities have a lot of negative impacts on agricultural activities, the major occupation and source of livelihood for the people. It is recommended that Government and its agencies should encourage the illegal small-scale operators to formalize their operations in order to be accessible for supervision. The issuance of licenses and permit for surface mining should be reduced and most of these companies should be encouraged to explore the underground mining method with appropriate techniques and skills that meet international best practices. The Bole District Assembly should enforce environmentally friendly bye-laws, education and comprehensive environmental protection measures. Keywords: Education, small-scale Mining, Sustainable development.  
61 End Users Security Awareness Campaign from Information Security Threats, Vulnerabilities and Concurrent Cyber-Attacks , Francis Kwesi Aidoo  
The intent study of this article is to fortify the protection of sensitive data and information from breach any means necessary from attack either an insider or an outsider in the organizations. In every firm, the core achievement of its information security is to entrust the CIA-Trid; Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of all of their resources and the liable personnel to disclose confidential information from breach is the end users of the system, having them in their respective field of assignment accordingly. This year 2017, research and analysis information gathered on the incident which took event on May/June ransomware cyber-attacks “WannaCry and Petya” affected many organizations such as companies and government agencies in different countries around the world demanding a ransomware bitcoin $300 method of payment, failure to comply will be subject to accumulate in double every day repeatedly. The breadth of study is to introduce the End User Security Awareness Campaign in the Organizations as a routine practice to stay awake from numerous information security threats, vulnerabilities and concurrent cyber-attacks circulating in different organizations around the global countries. To achieve the objectives, end users will partake in continuous awareness training and assessment through social engineering practices and procedures on how to stay vigilant to prevent every user from such attacks. The organizational IT function will also partake the involvement of hardware and software firewall applications, regular windows updates and patches, consistent antivirus updates, which will restrain the vulnerabilities to risk and any associate attacks to that effect. Keywords: End user security awareness from information security threats, vulnerabilities and cyber-attacks.  
62 The Impact of Broadband Diffusion in Assessing Innovation at the Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya , Rajab Philip Muchiri  
Objective: The aim of the research was to study the impact of broadband diffusion in assessing innovation in institutions of higher learning in Kenya. Background: The Government of Kenya realized the importance of broadband provision to stimulate economic development through innovation and established the Kenya Education Network Trust (KENET) - a national research and education network that promotes the use of broadband in teaching, learning and research in institutions of higher learning in Kenya. The aim of KENET was to interconnect all the universities in Kenya by setting up a cost effective and sustainable private network with high speed access to the global internet. Methodology: This study applied descriptive survey research design and a logistic regression model was used as an inferential analysis tool in the quantitative analysis. Inferential statistics used to analyse the model were; overall model evaluation, goodness-of-fit statistics, and statistical tests of individual predictors and validations of predicted probabilities. Results: Reliability measures were above the recommended level of 0.70 as an indicator for adequate internal consistency. Inferential statistics used to analyse the model showed that the model performed well and was appropriate for the study. Conclusion: Broadband diffusion in institutions of higher learning in Kenya is inhibited by poor infrastructural development attributed to high costs of connections and bandwidth acquisition and a high demand for broadband among the students and staff. Policies in broadband regulation from the national government and institutional governance are prudent in controlling and enabling access to this important resource for innovative purpose. Keywords: Broadband diffusion, Innovation, Education, Internet, Bandwidth, Regression Model.  
63 A Model to Assess Technological Innovations at Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya , Rajab Philip Muchiri  
Objective: The aim was to develop an innovation assessment model to analyse the impact of broadband in spurring innovations in Kenya by studying the role of broadband diffusion, the impact of broadband collaborations, the influence of electronic research and the role of online broadband products usability. Background: Many countries in Africa invest in broadband infrastructure because they have realized that broadband encourages innovation leading to economic development and prosperity. Understanding the relationship between universities, business enterprises and government enabled by broadband is critical in assessing a country's innovative capacity. Methodology: This study applied descriptive survey research design. It used a logistic regression model as an inferential analysis tool in the quantitative aspects of the research. The target population for this study was institutions of higher learning (IHL) operating in Kenya by 31st December, 2015 which included both private and public accredited universities in Kenya. Results: The response rate from the sampled population was at 75% Reliability measures were above the recommended level of 0.70 as an indicator for adequate internal consistency. The overall model evaluation, goodness-of-fit statistics, statistical tests of individual predictors and validations of predicted probabilities. Showed that the data fitted the model and the model performed well. Conclusion: Institutions of higher learning in Kenya have a positive but low capacity in technological innovation implementation. Broadband diffusion is inhibited by poor infrastructural development attributed to high costs of connections and bandwidth acquisition and a high demand for broadband among the students and staff. Keywords: Broadband, Innovation, Internet, Education, model.  
64 Adolescents’ Antisocial Behavior in Schools: Examining the Influence of Poverty on Adolescents from Low Socio- Economic Families and Schools , Memoir Chimwamurombe  
The phenomenon of adolescents’ antisocial behavior in schools has become a globally discussed issue. Even though there are various factors leading to antisocial behavior in adolescents in schools, poverty has been identified as one of the contributing factors. Adolescents from low socio-economic status families are confronted by environmental pressures that lead to aggressive behaviors. This does not only lead to high failure rate, but also hinders the country’s progress in terms of nurturing future human resource pool and the nation’s productivity. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of poverty on adolescent misbehavior in Windhoek High Schools. A quantitative methodological technique was used to conduct the study. The adolescents for this investigation were from the age of 13 to 17 years who were in public secondary (high) schools in Windhoek, Namibia. The sample consisted of 300 participants who were chosen using stratified sampling throughout Windhoek from under privileged settings. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Ethical considerations were cautiously adhered to before and during the research process. Consent forms were given to parents and the purpose of the study was clearly explained to both parents and participants during data collection. The instrument’s reliability was tested by means of a pilot study. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. The results were in the context of the influence of poverty on adolescents’ behavior. Lastly, suitable recommendations were highlighted to fit the observed trends. Keywords: Antisocial behavior, economic status, environment, school, Poverty and teenagers.  
65 Intricacies of Secured Multi-Biometric System , Emmanuel Chinweuba Nwani
The Multi-biometrics system is designed as a measure for security purposes to recognize individuals using all available features. It is a thrilling research domain carried out to boost the security level of a country or of an organization. The integration of muti-modal biometrics in real time application resolves the limitations of the uni-modal applications. Although, the design and assessment of the multi-biometrics systems raises much issues, this paper tends to unravel the clumsiness and trade-offs in its applications, the benefits of fusion level, integration strategies and check to spoofing. In conclusion, a thorough reviewing of multi-modal secured biometrics techniques and approaches was carried out to ensure data identification integrity. Some points were suggested for consideration as subjects of interest for future research. Keywords: Multi-Biometrics; Multimodal application; Unimodal application; Secured Biometrics; fusion levels Spoofing.  
66 Diet Concepts for Healthy life , Anitha Bobba  
In the current world, in this 21st century being healthy is very important and is linked to the food we eat. Having nutritious diet helps to maintain healthy Body Mass Index and also helps to reduce the risk of having diseases like cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, arthritis and stroke. In the present situation it is a challenge to nurses working with patients on improving both their nutrition and overall health depending on the diseases. Medical Nutrition Therapy gives us an idea about Causes of the disease and the Diet to be followed for each individual disease (Roth. R. A, 2016). Here are 10 diet concepts for maintaining overall quality of health with respect to that disease. In this article diet concepts for Weight Control, Diabetes, Cardio vascular disease, Renal Disease, Gastro intestinal, Cancer, Blood Pressure, Arthritis, Asthma and Fever have been discussed. If we change our life style and have healthy eating habits we can avoid being excess weight or obese. Diet for weight control should not focus on weight loss rather follow healthy diet plan. Most of the diseases controlled by Replacing saturated and trans fats with unsaturated fats include omega-3 fatty acids; Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables and adequate folic acid intake; Consuming high fiber diet such as whole-grain; Limiting consumption of sugar and sugar based products and sodium intake. Even though genetics play important role, a diet plan (vegan diet) which is high in fiber and low in fat with minimum amount of saturated food is recommended for Diabetes disease. By avoiding fatty and fried food and having high fiber diet which is rich in raw fruits and vegetables is recommended for Heart diseases. Once we realize the connection between good health and wholesome balanced diet, then our food will become our medicine for maintaining good health. The health conditions such as making right food choices and leading healthy lifestyle helps to prevent, treat and cure of the diseases.  
67 Mobile Phone: A Smart and Healthy Device , Sunaina Sharma  
Research into health communication seeks to refine communication strategies to inform people about ways to enhance health or to avoid specific health risks. As per many reports, current scenarios the health risks are generally like Cardiac arrest, Blood pressure, Sugar etc. This paper proposes a Smart Wrist Watch which will measure the Blood pressure, sugar and Pulse rate of the individual and if risk has been found it will inform the group of persons with the location of the mobile. Keywords:  Health Communication, Mobile health, Smart Watch, Healthy app, Wrist Watch BP monitor, Wrist Watch Glucose monitor & Wrist Watch pulse rate monitor.  
68 The Legal Aspect of Insidious Diseases in the Workplace: A Case Study of Jwaneng Diamond Mine in Botswana , Comfort Matthew Tanko  
The purpose of this study is to examine the legal aspect of insidious diseases in Botswana mining sector. Sixty respondents from Jwaneng mine will take part in this study involving top management and the rest of the staff members. And they will be served with questionnaires as a primary source of data collection. The approach gives opportunity to collate, process, present and analyse data from courts and authors. In so doing the study will identify the gap and inability of workers in Jwaneng mine to file a claim for compensation when faced with insidious diseases. Early in the life of a Motswana miner, the legal aspect of insidious diseases wasn’t necessary; because insidious diseases take a long time to manifest and most miners are not aware of their rights to compensation and so it becomes very difficult and complicated to file for a claim. Although Jwaneng mine has a good safety management record, there are instances when accidents still happen and therefore requiring some form of compensation and one way this can be done is by having it clearly stated in a contract of employment agreement. Employees may also be sensitized on their rights so they know the channels to take in seeking redress. This is aimed at ensuring there is harmony between the top management and workers in their respective endeavours. Keywords: Botswana, Compensation, Debswana Diamond Mine, Jwaneng, legal aspect, Insidious diseases.  
69 How Smartphone influences the Lifestyle of School Children and Perception of Students on Smartphone , Roy Rillera Marzo, Ting Lik Sheng, Andrew Chiew Yung Kung
Objectives: The general objective of this study is to determine the extent of the influences of smartphones on school children and perception of school children on smartphones. This objective is to explore the social behavior, academic performance and health aspects. Background: Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a Muar, Johor sample. This study investigated the influences of smartphone and the perception of school children on smartphone in social behavior, academic performance and health aspects. Methods: The study was carried out using convenient sampling method and using cross sectional study. Three primary schools were selected in Muar district. Each school are composed of Malay, Chinese and Tamil primary school. The questionnaire distributed were composed of 30 questions which include the social demographic, social behavior, academic performance and health aspect. Results: Over half of the school children owned a smartphone. From the social behavior aspect, 145 students disagreed with having emotional changes while away from phone. 166 students supported the idea of not extending the time spent on smartphone. Form the academic performance aspect, over half of the respondents agreed to the idea of banning the usage of smartphone in school compound. From the health aspect, 123 students experienced neck pain after using smartphone for a long time; but, only less than half of the respondents (58) agreed to the idea of smartphone causes obesity. Conclusion: Hypothesis failed. The school children are not easily influence by the smartphone and their perception on smartphone are good, as seem in the aspect of social behavior and academic performance. However, the students have a moderate perception on smartphone from the aspect of health.  
70 Social and Emotional Learning Competencies and Academic Achievement: A Study on Students in Senior High Schools in Ghana , Juliet Yayra Tengey  
The concept of Social and emotional learning (SEL) is instituted on the positive youth development which promotes the needs of youth to be addressed by building backgrounds that encourage outcomes conforming to school achievement, correspondingly sympathetic relationships with adults and peers, problem solving, and civic engagement amongst others. Much focus has been on students’ achievement, thus passing examination and neglecting the other very important aspect of students’ life which are acquiring skills in problem sovling, building relationships just to mention a few. The study thus sought to examine students’ own social and emotional learning competencies (self awareness, social awareness, self-management and responsible decision making) in the Greater Accra and Ashanti Regions of Ghana. One hundred and thirty students constituted the sample. Eighty from Kumasi metro schools and fifty from Accra Metro schools in the Ashanti and Greater Accra regions respectively. The SELC questionnaire was used to collect data while the convenient sampling technique was used in selecting participants. Results indicated amongs others that female students scored higher on the social emotional competencies than their male counterparts. Keywords: Social and Emotional Learning Competencies, Social and Emotional Learning, self awareness, social awareness, self-management, responsible decision making, Problem solving, Ghana.  
71 Stressors and Coping Mechanisms of Pre-Service Teachers , Joselito C. Gutierrez, Zandra B. Lid-ayan, Christine Joy M. Cuison, Jezza B. De Vera, Vanessa B. Domingo, Clarence D. Dilem, James Mark B. Diwag, Roy Rillera Marzo
It has been consistently testified that teaching as a profession prompted stress among teachers. It is essential that as early as practice teachers are being prepared to be licensed teachers, they need to be aware about the reality of teaching yet only few researches provide intensive information about the causes of the stressors of practice teachers. Since it is also the interest of this study to inform incoming practice teachers about the challenges that they might as well be encountering in the future, this study would be beneficial in providing them grounds to prepare themselves to combat possible stressors. Through the use of questionnaires and focus group discussion and by utilizing qualitative design, this study revealed workload, financial problem, cooperating teacher, call time, and students’ misbehavior cause stress among practice teachers of the School of Teacher Education of Saint Louis University. They also identified counter measures they used in overcoming their stressors such as using personal coping strategies, behavioral coping strategies, and social coping strategies. It can then be drawn that even if practice teachers experienced a lot of stress, they still find ways to overcome their stressors. Keywords: Practice teaching, pre-service education, practicum, stress  
72 Assessing Domestic Violence in Nigeria , Kehinde Oluseyi Macaulay  
Domestic violence is form of violation of person’s human rights or abuse of anyone in a way that causes pain, distress or injury. It refers to any abusive treatment of one person by another, thus violating the law of basic human rights. It includes battering of intimate partners and others, sexual abuse of children by parents or relative, such as marital rape and traditional practices that are harmful and inhuman to a person, men or women. In this paper we will discuss the prevalent rate of domestic violence in Nigeria, the situation of domestic violence, cause, types, effect and managements of domestic violence in Nigeria. Lastly preventive and remedial is proffered as a panacea for the ugly phenomenon. Keywords: Domestic, Violence, Abuse, Nigeria, Counselling, Patriarchal.  
73 Evaluation on Awareness and Application of Statistical Process Control (SPC) among Health Practitioners of Rural Tanzania Health Facilities , Crescent Daniel Ombay,  Theodotha John Malisa
Background: Statistical process control (SPC) is a collection of tools that when used together can result in process stability and variance reduction in production and services. For effective and efficiency of quality performance, health practitioners must be fully aware of general concept of SPC, its components and how to apply it in their daily work. Health practitioners are the once who will shape the nature of quality of those components to fit the needs and demands of health seekers (customers) through proficient application of SPC in their daily practices. However, different studies reported that, general concept of SPC is unclear to many practitioners and its application does not gratify the needs and demands of those health seekers. The study was aimed at evaluating awareness and application of SPC among rural Tanzania health practitioner. Method: This article was aimed at evaluating awareness and application of SPC among health practitioners of Rural Tanzania Health Facilities in their daily practices. Non-interventional of cross-sectional explorative method in nature where both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. Thirty five (35) health professionals were conveniently interviewed. Self-administered questionnaires were administered and data was systematically analyzed by excel programs in computer. Result: The result revealed that, of 35 health parishioners interviewed, (47%) do not completely know the general concept of SPC. On other hand, all (100%) of health practitioners interviewed, had never applied at all SPC in their daily practices. About the tools of SPC, of the 280 required responses, only 22 (8%) indicated that they are aware with check sheet. Few respondents were poorly responded to other recommended tools of SPC. However, there are other forms of SPC tools used in the hospital for quality control. When practitioners were asked on their opinions to apply SPC as way forward to improve their practice in future, a great number (29, 83%) recommended the SPC to be incorporated in clinical practice to improve quality of work. Conclusion: If properly considered, the result from this mini study will improve efficiencies and effectiveness of performance among health practitioners. The result will also be useful for health facility managers as they will use as a guide for decision making about where improvement and efforts of action to be focused in the first place. However, this study may not sufficiently reflect the real situation of Rural Tanzania Health Facilities as it took place in only one health facility with a very small sample size. For this reason, this study may be a good platform for further study with adequate sample size. Keyword: Awareness of SPC, standard SPC tools, application of SPC  
74 A Model for Measuring the Impact of Broadband Internet on Innovations at Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya , Rajab Philip Muchiri  
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a model for measuring the impact of broadband on innovations at the institutions of higher learning in Kenya. Background: Universities in Kenya are investing huge amounts of money on the provision of Broadband internet. However, the extent to which broadband is being utilised in these institutions to spur innovation is not certain. There is need therefore to measure the extend at which broadband internet influences innovations in these institutions in order to assess value for broadband investment. Methods: The study adopts Porter's Diamond Model to develop the model. The model has four analytical dimensions that form the basis of designing the instruments of data collection. A descriptive study is adopted for the research. Data was collected from existing records, literature review and through interviews. A five-point Likert scale was designed and employed to assess the characteristics and behaviour of broadband consumer responses. Statistical methods were used to test the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the study variables. Results: The reliability and validity of the measures and measurement instruments were above the recommended level of 0.70 as an indicator of internal consistency. Conclusion: Analysis of the structural model showed that the model performed well and was adequate for the study. Since this was a pilot study and the amount of data used was small, a more comprehensive study that incorporates all the 67 universities in Kenya is recommended. Keywords: Broadband, Innovations, Internet, Education, metrics, model  
75 Neuro-V: An all in One Natural Supplement to Improve Nerve Regeneration, Increase Cognitive and Physical Performance and Effects on Neuroprotection , Nicole C. Hank  
Worldwide, nutritional supplements have been utilized prophylactically, as well as to assist and improve specific diseases and illnesses for decades. Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate dietary supplements in the same way that it regulates medicine, dietary supplements can be sold without FDA approval. Neuro-V, a product that was originally developed to improve nerve regeneration in people who suffer from Neuropathy, has a myriad of health benefits that can also protect against oxidative stress as well as improve energy production. The antioxidants and amino acids that were meticulously chosen in Neuro-V (Acetyl L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, N-Acetyl L-Cysteine, Cyanocobalamin (B-12), Pyridoxine HCL (B-6), Folic Acid (B-9) and Grape Seed Extract) have individually been reported and studied to reduce neuropathic pain as well as prevent mitochondrial damage. Although, there are a variety of treatments that essentially provide symptomatic relief for patients who suffer from neuropathy, including non pharmacological, pharmacological and interventional therapies, there is yet to be a supplement that can provide a multitude of benefits and is available worldwide. This paper will discuss the important ingredients of Neuro-V and research that went into specific, efficacious, safe, non- toxic doses that can not only improve nerve regeneration, and increase cognitive and physical performance, but can also be utilized as a supplement for neuroprotection. Keywords: Neuroprotection, neuropathy, nerve regeneration, Neuro-V, natural supplement, mitochondrial damage  
76 Enhanced Simplified Symmetric Key Encryption Algorithm , Mahendra Kumar Shrivas, Antwi Baffour Boasiako, Sangeetha Krishanan, Thomas Yeboah
Data has become very important not only for individuals but for organizations as well. Data security is the biggest challenge that we care facing currently. Recent successful hacks and data breaches have certainly played an important role in the development of data security related technologies. Cryptography is a well adopted method to ensure that data is secure and confidentiality of user data is maintained. The content owner encrypts the actual data using an encryption key which converts the data into cipher text. The cipher text is an intermediate data which is unreadable form which can be shared amount other users and can be stored in the various storage media. The cipher text can be converted into the actual data using the same encryption key in case of symmetric key encryption or using different key in case of asymmetric key encryption. Currently, the Encryption/Decryption algorithms that exist depend on complex mathematical manipulations. The length of the encryption keys are growing and growing to get more secure and more stronger encryption thus processing throughput and memory consumption requirement is also growing. In this work researchers are focusing on various symmetric key encryption throughput and memory consumption with proposed high speed new algorithm which can be useful for the devices with low memory and processing capabilities. The work sought the possibility to trim down the complicated throughput of symmetric cryptography and ensuring maximum security at the same time. Keywords: Cryptography, Algorithms, Authentication, Cipher text, Complex Mathematical Manipulations, Encryption, Decryption, Symmetric Key.  
77 The Impact of Early Childhood Development Centres on Performance of Children in Early Primary School , Byson Colyns Sabola  
Communities in Malawi establish Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres where children aged from 3 to 5 years are enrolled. At the age of 6, children enrol in Grade 1 in primary school. Community members claimed that graduates from ECD centres performed better in early primary school than non-ECD centre graduates. However, there was lack of empirical evidence to substantiate the claim. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of ECD enrolment on children’s performance in early primary school by tracking the performance of ECD centre graduates in Grade 1 and comparing it with performance of non-ECD centre graduates. Four primary schools which enrolled more ECD centre graduates in Grade 1 were purposively sampled for this study in Blantyre district, Malawi. Performance of 943 children was tracked, of which 159 were ECD centre graduates. End of year Grade 1 assessment results for the 943 children were used to get numbers of children who were promoted to Grade 2, who repeated in Grade 1 and who dropped out of Grade 1. Then promotion rate, repetition rate and dropout rate for ECD centre graduates and non-ECD centre graduates were calculated and compared. The results revealed that promotion rate was higher for ECD centre graduates than for non-ECD centre graduates while repetition rate and dropout rate were lower for ECD centre graduates than for non-ECD centre graduates. It was therefore concluded that Early Childhood Development centres impact positively on children’s performance in early primary school. Keywords: Early Childhood Development, feeder ECD Centres, early primary school, promotion rate, repetition rate, dropout rate  
78 What can be the outcome if Technology is incorporated into the Education Aspect of the Patient and their Families for the Effective Management of their Health Care? , Andrea Alison Peniston  
The evolution of patient and family education technology continues to improve patient health outcomes and reduce patient safety related concerns. The health care team is adopting many platforms to better educate their patients. The intension is that instant access to health information through technology will allow patients to better manage their health issues. Health education technology has come a far way since 1960’s. Previously, health care workers were handing out pamphlets and brochures to patients. Now health care professionals have developed videos and presentations to educate their patients and families. Most recently, electronic information through the internet is enabling patients and their families to obtain information about their health and make informed decisions with the assistance of their health care provider. In the 21st century also health educators, doctors, patients and their families are proving that this venture has promoted cost containment, improved patient outcomes and effective patient care management. The literature examined research related to computer based patient education. Health care data base resources were selected for review of the current literature from Medline, CINAHL and the World Wide Web. The search strategy included exploring the subject heading terms ‘technology’ and ‘patient education’. The findings presented in this paper suggest that the use of technology to improve patients' knowledge and to involve them in health care decisions leads to better health outcomes. Kaiser Permanente Panorama City (Calif.) Hospital is one of the hospitals utilizing these creative techniques. This hospital has seen improvements in readmission rates, patient satisfaction and overall hospital satisfaction. There has been reduction in both cardiac and pneumonia readmission rates by more than six percent in less than two years. Patient satisfaction, reported as those patients who understand their condition, has increased from just over 70 percent in 2008 to 90 percent in 2010. Overall hospital satisfaction increased from approximately 80 percent in 2008 to 90 percent in 2010. The purpose of this article is to explore the evolution of computer technology in health care education and, in particular, to examine the application of technology in the process of knowledge transfer and skill development necessary for self-health promotion and disease self-management. A systematic review of the published literature on the development and use of computer-based patient education is followed by a discussion of the application of research findings to practice. Keywords Technology Patient education Health education Health information Doctors Family  
79 Knowledge and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTS) in Teaching and Learning among Teachers and Students of Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Benue State, Nigeria , Emmanuel O.Chukwu  
The research is a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted at Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Benue State on “ Knowledge and Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning Among Teachers and Students”. The specific objectives were; to assess the availability of ICT facilities in the schools, to assess the knowledge of the teachers and students on the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning, to ascertain the extent to which the teachers and students make use of the available ICT facilities, to assess the perceived usefulness of the ICT to teachers and students, and to determine factors hindering the availability and use of ICT facilities in the schools for teachers and students use. Stratified sampling technique was used to group the students into homogeneous subsets of classes/levels of study after which convenience sampling technique was used to select samples used for the study disproportionately. Data were collected from the respondents through self-structured and validated questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed and presented using frequency distribution table while chi-square was used to analyse the stated hypotheses. Based on the findings; there is availability of ICT in the schools, however, not all items needed for smooth running of ICT were available and the existing ones are insufficient, both the teachers and the students have some degree of knowledge about ICT but such knowledge is seriously limited as most of the teachers and students were not computer literate, most teachers and students were not making use of the available ICTs in the school and those who made use of it were inconsistent in their use of the ICT facilities even though most of them believed that ICT use in teaching and learning is very essential for better and quality education. Factors hindering the availability and use of ICT facilities in the schools were multifactorial as shown in the study. The researcher made the following recommendations; management and leadership of the schools should put more effort to ensure provision of adequate ICT facilities for teachers and students use as this will enhance the quality of the teaching and learning in the school, and that the government should make use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning mandatory in all schools even as they assist schools who cannot afford it to secure adequate ICT facilities for teachers and students use. Keywords: Knowledge, Use, ICT, Teaching, Learning, Teachers, and Students.  
80 Harmonization of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone; an Alternative Approach , Izza Abdulhafedh  
Introduction: Comparison of TSH values by analysis of retrospective data obtained from daily internal quality control (IQC) runs performed concurrently on Architect i2000 and cobas e601; the two platforms used to run TSH test for patient samples at The Nairobi Hospital, Kenya. Method: Data analysis was carried out using R project version 3.2.3. Data was analyzed both in combination (N=590) and segregated as Level 2 (N= 297) and level 3 (N=293).           Results: Shapiro-Wilk normality test returned normal distribution for level 2, abnormal distribution for level 3 and combined data on both platforms. Paired T-test for level 2 and Mann–Whitney U -Wilcoxon signed rank test for level 3 and combined data, indicated that the alternative hypothesis: true location shift is not equal to 0. Deming and Passing-Bablok regression analysis for level 2 and 3 showed a significant deviation in values between the two methods by a constant. Concordance correlation of the individual levels 2 and 3 is poor. Discussion: The data demonstrates that there is a constant systematic error between the two methods, with cobas values reading higher each time, and that this difference is significant at both levels. Conclusion: Regression analysis shows transferability of results from one method to another, however, the difference in means and the poor concordance correlation obliges a consideration of the TSH value results given by the lab especially so in the subclinical range (5 – 10) mIU/ml. Keywords: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Architect i2000SR, Cobas e601  
81 The Capacity of Maids Training Centres to Train House Maids for Infant Care in Lusaka, Zambia , Agnes Mando Banda  
The study aims at finding out the capacity of maids training centres in Lusaka to training housemaids for infant care. Using both qualitative and quantitative approach a collective case study was conducted. Questionnaires, interviews and document analysis were designed and used to collect data. The interviews were two types: in-depth interviews were held with ten housemaids randomly selected from the twenty maids training centres. The maids training centres were purposefully selected. The second interview was a focus group discussion where the remaining ten house maids took part. The discussion was recorded and later transcribed. This was subjected to thematic analysis. Document analysis was also conducted to establish the type curriculum and how it was implemented. The findings from the data revealed that the housemaids were not trained to take care of infants and that there is need to include the component of infant care in the house maids training curriculum. It was clear from the findings that maids training centers are not registered, their curriculum is not approved by any organization and no quality assurance policy in place. These training centers are run by former housemaids whose educational levels are low. The instructional materials are inadequate, classes over crowded, and the training duration too short (averaging 2 weeks). It was established that house maids are not trained to take care of infants. Keywords: aids training centres, house maids, infant care, curriculum, capacity, training  
82 Electronic waste and management , Jiya Becky Ninan
E waste management should be globally accessed to improve ecological balance in the world. The valuable materials should be recycled using rudimentary techniques. There must be a treaty signed between developing and developed countries to further improve functional areas in environment and health implications caused due to the ill effects of E waste. Since the technology is increasing more the E waste is also generated. It is a serious issue to be concerned for further changes in the developing countries. We must refer the western waste management principles and international recycling technology that must be promoted for further assistance. Keywords: reuse, recycle, refurbishment  
83 Disclosure and Non-Disclosure of HIV Positive Status to Partners among Pregnant Women at a Regional Hospital in Swaziland , Roger Maziya, Cynthia Z. Vilakati
Individuals diagnosed with HIV often have difficulty disclosing their status to others, yet hiding the diagnosis can have serious implications. Disclosure of HIV status involves a process of decision-making, based upon numerous factors. This study was done to explore the reasons why some women disclose and some do not disclose their HIV status. The study was conducted in a regional hospital in Manzini. The researcher employed the qualitative descriptive phenomenological methodology. Convenience and purposive sampling were utilized, and the data collection methods were in-depth Interviewing methods. A total of 15 pregnant women attending antenatal care were interviewed. Most prominent reasons for disclosure of the HIV status by pregnant women attended to for the PMTCT program were that of the need to practice safer sex. Some felt the need to disclose because it would make their sexual partners to protect the unborn babies and to reduce the chances of re-infection. Most women who disclosed stated that they were so hurt by finding themselves HIV positive yet, they knew that they were faithful to their sexual partners. Some stated that they needed somebody to share the pain with. Some women stated that they did not disclose their HIV statuses out of fear of lack of support and probably domestic violence. Keywords: Disclosure, HIV, PMTCT, domestic violence, SWAGAA, antenatal care.  
84 Anticolitis Activity of Myrobalan Powder via Regulating Colonic Enterochromaffin Cells and Serotonin , Shirish Sharma, Sanjay Vaze, Harish Kumar Lalan  
Objective: To investigate whether Myrobalan powder has an anti-inflammatory effect on colonic inflammation and to explore the mechanism involved. Materials and Methods: Myrobalan powder was orally administrated to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice at the dose of 3, 6, and 12 g/kg/d for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, stool consistency, histopathological score, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were tested to evaluate the effect of Myrobalan powder on colonic inflammation while colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cell density and serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content were investigated to identify the effect of Myrobalan powder on colonic 5-HT availability. Results: The results showed that the body weight of colitis mice was markedly decreased by 10, 12, 14, and 17% at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days (P< 0.05), whereas stool consistency score (3.6 vs. 0.4, P< 0.05), histopathological score (3.6 vs. 0.3, P< 0.05), and MPO activity (2.7 vs. 0.1,P< 0.05) in colitis mice were significantly increased compared to that of the normal mice; Myrobalan powder treatment dose-dependently increased the body weight (7–13% increase) and decreased the stool consistency score (0.4–1.4 decrease), histopathological score (0.2–0.7 decrease), and MPO activity (0.1–0.9 decrease) in colitis mice. Colonic EC cell density (70% increase) and 5-HT content (40% increase) were markedly increased in colitis mice (P< 0.05), Myrobalan powder treatment dose-dependently reduced EC cell density (20–50% decrease), and 5-HT content (5–27% decrease) in colitis mice. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of Myrobalan powder on TNBS - induced colitis may be mediated via reducing EC cell hyperplasia and 5-HT content. The important role of Myrobalan powder in regulating colonic EC cell number and 5-HT content may provide an alternative therapy for colonic inflammation. Keywords: Colonic inflammation, enterochromaffin cell, serotonin, ulcerative colitis  
85 Knowledge and Attitude of Tutors on Active Teaching and Learning in Health-Training Institutions , Keren Carol Drateru  
The study assessed tutor’s knowledge and attitude on active teaching and learning (ATL) approaches in health training institutions. It established and recommended supportive strategies that promote implementation of ATL process. The study used descriptive and cross sectional survey designs for data collection in October 2016, using a questionnaire from 40 respondents selected using purposive, and random sampling techniques, analysed using SPSS and presented in tables and figures. The study found 34 (85 %) respondents knew the meaning of ATL, 6 (15%) tutors and clinical instructors did not understand ATL: tutors perceived ATL positively than clinical instructors, 32(89%) were using lecture method. Therefore, study concludes that, tutors and clinical instructors are not well sensitized on ATL leading to continued use of traditional methods, hence less practice of ATL. The researcher recommends that ATL be introduced to all teachers through Continuous Professional Development (CPD) and Refresher Programs to effectively implement ATL.  
86 Virtualization of Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS): Redundancy Mechanism of the Controller Node in OpenStack Cloud Computing Platform , Shahed Murshed, Mobarak Hossain
In last twenty years IT world has come across a dramatic change particularly in the field of communications and IT Infrastructure. The Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) service of cloud computing is becoming more popular day by day due to its overwhelming technical and financial offerings. OpenStack Networking is a standalone service. The main process of the OpenStack Networking server is quantum-server that is responsible for managing user requests to Compute Node, Storage Node and to other components in the entire network. Therefore, a pin-point in an OpenStack network platform is that after received the instruction through the dashboard the entire instruction set is directed in the network developed only through the Controller Node. It is considered a crucial point in the whole network as if for any reason the link is broken to the Controller Node no instruction to pass through to the intended node. This will result in a complete downtime of the network. Keeping this point in mind a standby Controller Node is proposed with addition of a Link Node for managing the controllers and thus maximum uptime is ensured.  
87 Deciding Pertinent Citations in Published Empirical Articles , Adedayo, A. V.
This article is an attempt to precede with the validation that pertinence of citations in scientific articles is a core problem in citation analytics. In this study, an empirical investigation of pertinence of citations made in Indian Journal of Chemistry A is presented. In this particular study, citations made in the introduction sections in issues published from 1999 to 2007 were analyzed. An empirical scientific article was randomly selected every issue published, and the pertinence of selected article was determined. The result showed that less than 20% of the citations were pertinent to the study. Overall, over 80% of citations made in the introduction sections may not be applicable in the computation of effective impact of publications. Keywords: Content analysis; Content pertinence; Performance evaluation; Impact factor; Citation analysis  
88 The Potency of Information Technology in addressing Learning Anxiety Disorder (LAD) using the E-learning Education Framework , Ikechukwu F. Ezeugo  
The evolution of Information Technology (IT) has undoubtedly catalysed the growth and advancement of higher education through its e-learning (online) education systems. Whereas there are many valuable research works on the dynamics of the tangible and some aspects of the intangible means by which IT has played its famous roles in advancing the e-learning education system, the same cannot also be said about empirical studies that focus on identifying and evaluating solutions to certain psychological issues that critically affect many adult learners. While the IT tangible attributes include systems, tools and platforms, the intangibles are the nonphysical factors that influence designs and delivery strategies, policies within the sector, and service consumer’s preferences. Beyond the physicals, the intangible elements have significantly influenced the evolution of the e-learning education system of the information age in very critical ways, howbeit unnoticeably. Further to the popular E-learning systems’ attributes of cost-effectiveness, flexibility, availability and accessibility considered as major attractions for its rapid grow, there are the silent but salient attributes of Dynamic Personal Learning Environment whose right application is capable of offering very potent solutions to the subsisting but largely ignored challenges of Learning Anxiety Disorder (LAD). The concept of LAD is derived from Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD); and, it is construed to be a product of unwarranted self-consciousness, misappropriated Ego, severe Shyness, and Phobia resulting into learning inhibitions, disenchantment for socially-involved learning and possible diminution of cognitive abilities. Therefore, this project is set to examine the notion of Learning Anxiety Disorder (LAD), evaluate the potency of Information Technology in addressing its challenges to the adult learner; and assess available mitigation strategies through the e-learning Dynamic Personal Learning Environments features. The objective shall be to find how these can be harnessed for innovative policies and practices aimed at making the e-learning system and its products much more viable in comparison. Keywords: E-Learning, Online Studies, Open and Distance Education, socially-involved learning, Severe Shyness, Phobia, Ego, Learning Anxiety Disorder (LAD), Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Personal Learning Environment, Information Technology Intangible elements.  
89 Characteristics of Human Interactions between Daystar University National and International Students: an Intercultural Communication Perspective , Henri Buregea Bin Rwakenda  
The purpose of the study was to determine the characteristics and other factors that Daystar University National and International Students exhibit during their interactions and which are likely to affect the quality of their interactions. Further, it sought to classify these characteristics according to the levels of intercultural communication, describe the process they use to restore relationships when misunderstanding occurs, and to suggest an intercultural communication model that would help both national and international students to communicate effectively. Qualitative research approach was used as method of data collection: Focus Group Discussions and In-Depth Interview sessions were organized. The study found that intercultural interactions in Daystar University Students were not as healthy as they should be because some were characterized by factors that are not conducive to fruitful interactions. On the one hand, among other characteristics, national students tend to be individualistic, not caring, assertive, and aggressive. On the other hand, International Students tend to cluster in groups according to their countries of origins and or regions and have a tendency to withdraw whenever misunderstanding occurs. Age, gender, money and environment were the other factors that impact negatively the quality of interactions between the two categories of students. In relation to these findings, the researcher posited that improvement of human interactions between National and International Students and other members of the University is possible if: 1) Students could be helped to meet regularly and share their communication experiences, 2) The current orientation training program could be completely revisited in both content and procedures of execution, 3) An intercultural communication forum could be organized each semester for everybody in the University so that difficulties encountered could be shared and discussed in a way that leads to mutual understanding not only between students but also between students and other members of Daystar University as a community, and 4) Intercultural communication video programmes, seminars and conferences based on intercultural communication case studies could be organized in the University.  
90 The Role of Broadband in Spurring Innovations in Kenya , Philip Muchiri, Simon Karume
Objective: This study attempts to establish the role broadband plays in spurring innovations in Kenya. It discusses the importance of innovations in socio-economic development and the need for a regulatory framework to improve broadband infrastructure developments in Kenya. Background: In the last few years, Kenya has experienced an increase in the number of ICT enabled innovation hubs (Tech Hubs). Although they are few in number and generally not popular, there is great potential for broadband-based innovations in Kenya. The government has also invested heavily in broadband provision. Most of the innovations witnessed in Kenya are broadband enabled. There is need to provide policy, legal and regulatory environment to enable these innovations to flourish. The National Innovation System is the framework adopted for the study. Methodology: The study utilizes the dimensions of the Kenya National Innovation System as a basis of assessing the role of broadband in spurring innovation in Kenya. A descriptive quantitative study is adopted for this research. Data was collected from existing records, literature review and through interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: There is a relationship between broadband diffusion and innovations development in Kenya. Broadband plays an important role in spurring innovations. Regulatory environment is vital in broadband infrastructure development in order to encourage innovations. Conclusion: The government should put in place policies and mechanisms to encourage innovations. Collaboration, investments in research and development should be encouraged between private and public institutions. A more detailed study on broadband enabled innovation is recommended for each sector of the economy. Keywords: Broadband, Innovations, Policy, Innovation Hubs, Start-ups, National Innovation System (NIS)  
91 Level of Stress in Parents of the Mentally Retarded Children , Rubina K Benjamin  
Parenting is a challenging process. The crucial role of parents and family in caring, nurturing, protecting and socializing young children is well established across the cultures. Strong parent-child connectedness improves child academic outcomes, self esteem, mental health and has later protective effects of reducing the likelihood of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, high risk sexual behaviour and involvements in interpersonal violence (Lezin et al., 2004). Parenting can influence children’s social, emotional, and academic adjustment, efforts have been made to determine factors that affect parenting behavior. One such factor is parenting stress. Parenting stress can be defined as excess anxiety and tension specifically related to the role of a parent and to parent-child interactions (Abidin, 1995). When the parents learn that the child is having some form of disability, it causes enormous distress to them. Giving birth to a mentally challenged children or other disabled child is an unexpected stressful event which affects the whole family. Such an event may impair family development and may continue over time affecting the entire family system. The presence of a mentally challenged child in the family has far reaching implication for the family as a whole. The impact of the disability and problem associated with it are not restricted to the child but extend far beyond the child and affects a number of areas of family functioning as well as individual’s adjustment. Parents go through intense emotional and psychological stress and may have fewer resources of emotional gratification. They may consider mentally handicapped child as a threat to their self esteem and view themselves as a source of disability. They struggle to cope with the financial costs, parents also are confronted with new and unexpected experiences. Parents with disabled child may have higher levels of stress and lower levels of well being than with the normal children (Rangaswamy and Bhavani, 2008). In order to have better understanding of the factors that influence parenting stress which plays a crucial role in development of child both normal and challenged, the present study was undertaken with the objective to compare the level of stress among parents between normal and mentally challenged children  
92 Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Early Diagnosis and Prevention Of HIV Among Women of Reproductive Age in Southwestern Nigeria , Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Culture and social status are key determinate of attitude and behaviour towards prevention and control of many diseases of Public health importance including HIV. OBJECTIVES This study determines socio-cultural barriers to early diagnosis and prevention of HIV among women of reproductive age in Southwestern Nigeria METHODS Descriptive cross sectional qualitative study among women of reproductive age group and health care givers concerning socio and cultural factors influencing diagnosis and prevention of HIV. Five Focus Group Discussions (FGD) of 8 eligible respondents each were conducted using a pretested FGD guide in collecting data from the randomly selected subjects. Data was analyzed using simple content analysis. RESULTS Cultural and social factors influencing HIV vulnerability and transmission identified include low education status, poor awareness among women, low employment and economic power, adverse religious beliefs and practices, reluctance to accept teaching of FLHE in schools and the public, stigma and discrimination even from the health care workers affecting health seeking behaviour. Other factors include polygamy, male dominance, low decision power and value of women, remarrying after divorce, widowhood rights, wife inheritance and sharing, early marriage, and some cultural breastfeeding practices encouraging HIV transmission CONCLUSION Raising community awareness by traditional, cultural and religious gatekeepers becomes imperative to circumvent many of the identified social and cultural factors constituting barriers and influencing HIV diagnosis and prevention KEY WORD Socio-cultural factors, HIV, STIs, women of reproductive age  
93 Studies on Anti-Diabetic Activity of Cleome Viscosa in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats   , Boyina Chaya Devi, Chakrapani Ramesh
Cleome viscose (L.) belonging to family (Capperdiceae), commonly called “Sticky spider flower”, is a terrestrial, annual, erect, aromatic herb. The plant has high medicinal value as it is traditionally used for its antiemetic, wound healing, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant properties. The aim of the proposed work is to evaluate the therapeutical potential of Cleome viscosa in alleviating diabetes by assessment of liver and kidney function and lipid profile parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. A significant elevation (P<0.001) of blood glucose, SGPT, SGOT, ALP, urea, uric acid, creatinine and lipid profile in control groups was observed as compared to normal groups. However, there was significant reduction (P<0.001 and P<0.001) in the tested biochemical parameters in both the groups treated with extract as compared to the control group and the effect was compared with the standard drug, Metformin. From these results, it can be concluded that the methanol extract of Cleome viscosa possesses significant ability to reduce the diabetes complications KEY WORDS Cleome viscosa, diabetes, complications, neuropathic pain, lipid profile, liver and kidney function.  
94 Strategy of Contextual Behavioral Science , Praneeth Kamarapu
This review critically reviews the article ‘Contextual Behavioral Science: Creating a science more adequate to the challenge of the human condition’ in the journal Science Direct Journal. The review will first summarise the article. Secondly, it will briefly analyse the effectiveness of the article’s structure, investigating how the information is set out and whether the reader can access it efficiently. Thirdly, the review will critique the article, evaluating its authority, currency, accuracy. Overall the article was well written, clear and relevant.  
95 Immunomodulation in The Critically Ill   , Julius Fru Che
The immune response is an essential network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to provide a defence mechanism for the host organism. The primary targets of the immune system are microbes, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections. However, the system may become defective, disorganized or overactive, reacting to host tissues and causing disorders such as arthritis, allergic reactions and implicated in other conditions such as diabetes melittus[16] among others, probably due to the recently identified Th 17. With such vital role, a mechanism of modulating the action of the system is essential. The immune system is composed of two arms that work closely together, the innate immune system being more active early in an immune response while the adaptive immunity becomes progressively dominant over time.  
96 Psychosis and Co-Morbid Pituitary Adenoma (Prolactinoma): A Management Dilemma   , Ogunnubi Peter
This paper is a clinical as well as diagnostic description of the presentation, investigation and pharmacological management of an 18-year-old young woman with first episode of mental illness; and recently diagnosed pituitary microadenoma (prolactin secreting type). It brings to light the possible role of prolactin in the development of psychosis, the treatment difficulties commonly encountered in the choice of antipsychotics and / dopamine agonists and the need for an interdisciplinary team approach when patients presents with such complex symptoms.  
97 The Evolving Role of The Clinical Trial Monitor and Study Team Members in the Age Risk Based Monitoring (RBM)   , Prajna P. Kumar
BACKGROUND Clinical trial monitoring is broadly based on protecting the rights and the well-being of the human research subjects, overseeing the progress of the trial, and ensuring that the trial is conducted in compliance with the applicable regulations, SOPs and study documents [1]. The systematic application of the recently introduced Risk Based Monitoring (RBM) technique is facilitating a collaborative vigilance approach, and a new definition of clinical trial monitor is evolving. A clinical trial monitor no longer seems to be a single entity but a group of people from cross functional teams that share joint accountability for overall data monitoring and quality governance framework. OBJECTIVE To explore the evolving role of a clinical trial monitor and other key study team members in the Risk Based Monitoring landscape. METHOD A literature search was conducted, followed by several discussions and brain storming sessions with key functional study team members currently working in the RBM pilot trials. Some limitations with this methodology were a lack of available literature specific to the topic under study, as well as the lack of sufficient industry experience in the implementation of the RBM practices at present. CONCLUSION Conventional monitoring was based mostly on data review in silos by the monitors. RBM and the associated technologies have created an opportunity to assess the study and center specific risks at each level of the data hierarchy by the appropriately qualified study team members for a continuous governance of clinical study data. The roles and responsibilities of these core study team members are continuously shifting and it is likely that this shift, along with training and continuous adaptation, will re-define the face of a clinical trial monitor while also leveraging the quality of clinical trial outcomes overall.  
98 Special Issues in Clinical Research: Conflict of Interest, Post Trial Drug Access and Use of Placebo in Clinical Trials   , Maduri Patel, Kannan Sridharan, Jayesh Patel, Shraddha Ghai
The aim of this study is to identify ethical issues and challenges in clinical research in India. This study provides clear picture of special ethical issues in clinical research such as conflict of interest, post trial access to investigational product and use of placebo. We examined clinical research professional perceptions on those issues. Individuals (N=385) working in field of clinical research in India have participated in the study. This study involves self administered survey research for collection of data and information from participants through their responses. The survey questionnaire was validated by colleagues and guides and experts in the field. The survey elicited responses based on general experience and opinions of clinical research professionals. Participants were given the option to complete the survey on the internet. Surveys completed via the internet were stored in Microsoft excel. For data analysis SPSS software have been used and descriptive analysis have been conducted. A total of 389 surveys were received, of which 385 were considered complete and used for this analysis. The respondents were from India, currently working in clinical research field. Demographic information pertaining to respondents such as education, type of organization age, experience etc have been collected, whether they had ethics training ever, and if yes which type of training they had. The data shows that majority have responded that they are not favouring post trial access to investigational product or it is not ethical. Further to that, participants were asked to select reasons for their opinion on post trial access to investigational product. If participant believes that post trial access to investigational drug is ethical, they have selected applicable reasons for their opinion. Majority of respondents favour use of placebo in clinical trials in general. If participant is favouring the use of placebo, further they have provided their opinion on possible steps to be taken care of in placebo controlled trial. Participants has been asked to rate the factors which can promote or causes conflict of interests in clinical trials. As per data, financial gain is the most affecting factor causing conflict of interests. Comparing responses employer wise, CROs, ECs and Study sites are rating “recruitment target” more than sponsors. The data shows that industry influence, patent or other commercial benefits are not highly affecting. KEY WORDS Placebo, Conflict of interest, post trial access, ethics  
99 Perception of Clinical Research amongst Clinical Investigators in Saudi Arabia   , Najmudeen Sulthan
BACKGROUND Promoting clinical research is important, considering the shortage of clinical investigators and the increasing need for large number of multicenter studies. Participation of clinical Investigators in research is crucial to achieve this goal. Saudi Arabian provinces have infrastructure to promote the research activities. But that is not the case, as the growth of the clinical industry is sluggish as compared with the other MENA region. The objective of this study was to explore attitudes of clinical investigators towards the conducting of clinical trials in Saudi Arabia and the barriers faced by them. METHODS A questionnaire based survey was administered to 100 Clinical researchers from different therapeutic background that has clinical research experience at least one or above. The survey was carried out in various hospitals from different province Saudi Arabia. It consisted of questions/ statements on previous research experience, interests and barriers. Responses were either Yes/No answers or graded according to the 5-point Likert scale. CONCLUSIONS The majority of Clinical Researchers working at therapeutic department of various academic hospitals were interested in conducting research. But the lack of time, financial compensation and encouragement were perceived as significant barriers. KEYWORDS Saudi Arabia, Perception, Barrier, Financial compensation  
100 Blended Learning Opportunities and Challenges in Mathematics Education: Perspective in Higher Education   , Ekemini T. Akpan
Blended learning (face-to-face plus online learning) is now part of the learning landscape in Higher Education, not just for campus-based courses but also for courses designed for students studying at a distance (Distance Education). This paper focuses on exploring blended learning as an approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics in Higher Education. Its provide insight and understanding of current and future trends regarding how conventional face-to-face instruction in mathematics is influenced by web-based/computer-supported learning. Practical pedagogical issues related to mathematics and blended learning in Higher Education are also discussed. The researcher recommends that higher institutions could utilize blended learning environment such as WebCT in the teaching and learning of mathematics in Higher Education. KEYWORDS Blended learning environment, Higher education, Mathematics, WebCT.  
101 Framework Implementation for Owasp Testing Guide   , Mauricio Adami Mariani, Samuel Brando Oldra, Precious Adewopo
This paper intends to give an introduction how to test vulnerabilities. This is based on the OWASP testing guide or an audit approach and concepts used by penetration testers testing in a web environment. Our main disciplines automating a simple guide testing algorithms were developed. Each corresponds to two methods of algorithms of this guide, the algorithms were run on a non-automated process. So, with this work we want to give facilities present or also give more tools for complex tests. Tests were performed in a prepared with errors, such as broken OWASP Web Application Project environment. KEYWORDS OWASP, Test Guide, Pentester, XSS, IT Security  
102 Mergers and Acquisition and Bank Performance: Evidence from the Ghana Stock Exchange   , Isaac Marfo Oduro, Samuel Kwaku Agyei
Growth of firms, their improvement, efficiency and profitability are cardinal benefits expected from mergers and acquisitions (M&A). This research is an attempt to seek for the effects of mergers and acquisitions on the performance of firms in the Ghanaian Stock Market from 2002 to 2012. The study was accounting based and used univariate analysis with t-testing as well as panel data methodology for the analysis. The univariate analysis revealed dwindling profitability after the merger for all the firms with the t-test showing significant difference in profitability before and after merger. The evidence from panel methodology indicates that M&A has significant negative effect on the profitability of firms. It is therefore imperative that M&As are properly planned, executed and evaluated. Specifically, efforts should be made to attract and retain key personnel of the merged firms through performance contracts or bonuses, proper conflict resolution measures should be put in place and conscious effort made to reap the expected returns of the merger. This is because gains from mergers and acquisitions do not just occur. Additionally, our results indicate that risk and firm size have a considerable effect on profitability of firms while debt capital and firm growth enhance firm profitability. KEYWORDS Merger and Acquisition, Profitability, Ghana  
103 Organizational Role Stress and Job Satisfaction in Public and Private Bank Employees of Pakistan   , Shazia Khalid, Zarish Javed
The aim of the study was to see the relationship between organizational role stress and job satisfaction in public and private bank employees. It was hypothesized there would be a relationship between organizational role stress and job satisfaction in public and private bank employees. The sample comprised of 150 managers, operation managers and cashiers (M age=33. 9, SD=6. 15) selected from different public and private banks of Lahore. Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Mermelstein & Kamarck, 1983) and Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1994) were used to measure role stress and job satisfaction. Results demonstrated a significant negative relationship between organization role stress and job satisfaction. The results of the current study will help in diminishing stress related to role (job) of bankers and promoting job satisfaction in them which would increase their productivity. KEYWORDS  Role stress, Job Satisfaction, Employees of banking sector  
104 Knowledge Attitude and Practice Towards Pre-M aritial/Prenatal Genetic Testing among Young People (15-45) Years of Age in Sapele Local Government Area, Delta State. Nigeria   , Iweriebor Onoiribholo Bridget
This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice toward premarital/prenatal genetic testing among young people of 15-45years of age in Sapele Local Government Area in Delta State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used. The population of the study consisted of the members of four major communities (Amukpe, Amuogoddo, Okirighwe and Uguanja). The respondents were selected by simple random sampling method. The research instrument was a self-constructed questionnaire. A total of 50 respondents were selected. A total 50 questionnaire were distributed and same retrieved. The objectives of the study were to determine level of knowledge of premarital/prenatal genetic testing among young people, to assess the level of practice and to identify factors influencing their attitude towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing. The rational is to enhance young people’s knowledge about premarital/prenatal genetic testing, encourage premarital/prenatal genetic screening and also reduces some of the factors influencing attitudes of young people towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing. Data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentages and were presented using tables and graphs. The study shows that 30% of the respondent level of knowledge of premarital/premarital genetic testing is of high level, 70% of the respondents have low level of knowledge and the source of information was through media (20%), health personnel (40%), friends (6%) etc. The study also showed that the level of practice is low as 80% of the respondent does not practice premarital/prenatal genetic testing, only 20% practiced it. it also shows that there are some factors influencing their attitudes towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing which include lack of knowledge (66%), non affordability (20%), non Accessibility (55) and also as a result of non availabilities of centers (15%) where premarital/prenatal genetic testing should be carried out. In conclusion, lack of basic knowledge, negative attitude and practice has a negative impact on the young people, their family, their community and the society as a whole. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made by government, parents, and health personnel to improve knowledge, attitude and practice towards premarital/prenatal genetic testing thereby reducing the incidence rate of having children with genetic defect.  
105 Perceived Effects of Pregnancy on the Academic Performances of Female Nursing Students in Imo State University Owerri. Nigeria   , Ezenwuba Clementina O
This study was on perceived effects of pregnancy on the academic performances of female nursing students in Imo State University, Owerri, Imo State. Nigeria. The objectives of this study was to determine the level of awareness of challenges of pregnancy on the academic performance of nursing students, types of academic challenges due to pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy on the academic performance of nursing students in IMSU. Three research questions were formulated to guide the work. Literature was reviewed based on the objectives. A descriptive survey design was used in which 62 respondents were selected using census survey. Questionnaire was used to collect data that was analyzed using frequency, percentages and charts. Pilot study was conducted and reliability coefficient of 0.8 was obtained. The study revealed that 50 (80.6%) of the pregnant nursing students are aware of the challenges of pregnancy on academic, the students experience challenges such as physical discomfort in 24(38.7%), reduced concentration span in 17(17.7%) and missing of lectures in 53 (85.5%). These affect their academics as they result in (30.6%) absenteeism, (27.4%) low academic performance, (24.2%) difficulty adjusting to motherhood as pregnant students and (17.7%) rewriting of courses. Conclusion was drawn based on the findings. Recommendations and suggestions were made for further studies were made.  
106 Innovative Nursing Approaches in Managing Lower Back Pain (LBP) Among the Elderly Persons. A Case Study in Maridi County, Western Equatorial State, South Sudan   , Bakoko Joyce Matua
The elderly generation, coexists with the rest of the population of the world (Jared T. Scott 2010).They suffer a great deal of several kinds of pain including lower back pain. In most cases this condition in the elderly is not managed by use of nursing interventions rather managed with other medical remedies, and yet the client spend most of their times with nurses, than, other health workers. This case study addressed the gap that could be filled by nurses by using innovative means in nursing to relieve pain of lower back in the elderly by ideal assessment then given specified nursing interventions to a specific individual, so as to avoid disabilities. Sackett et al (2000). Conclusion: Disabilities in elderly related conditions can be assessed and managed by nursing intervention hence preventing disabilities in the geriatric patients. Recommendations: Nurses needs to be trained with more contemporary skills in assessing LBP, suggesting that the knowledge of nurse with higher qualification is paramount to meet the fourth coming challenges in the management of the elderly with LBP.  
107 Mental Health Co-Morbidity in People Living with HIV in South Africa – Steps Towards A Synthesis of Interventions and Policy Advancement   , Monika Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE Mental health disorders are prevalent in HIV-infected populations, ranging from 43-56%, compared to about 30% of the general population. This comorbidity may exacerbate the progression to HIV/AIDS by increasing viral load, reducing CD4 count, and reducing adherence to ARVs. Despite the well established relationship between mental health and HIV/AIDS, and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation that attention to the psychosocial needs (which includes the prevention and treatment of mental health problems) of people with AIDS should be an integral part of HIV care, mental healthcare is yet to be integrated into primary care HIV treatment programmes in South Africa and other poor resource countries. DESIGN AND PROCEDURE The Rorschach inkblot test was conducted on a convenience sample of four South African HIV positive participants. Furthermore, a situational analysis was conducted from 2011-2013 to determine the context of mental health/HIV services in the Tshwane-Metsweding area, South Africa. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Outcomes suggest that there is a high rate of psychological comorditity in HIV infected individuals (such as mood disorders, personality disorders etc.), that there is a need to further develop and pilot test appropriate materials and models of delivery of mental healthcare within the parameters of affordability, acceptability and availability, and to advocate for the advancement of mental health and HIV policy integration. KEY TERMS HIV, AIDS, mental health, South Africa, Rorschach inkblot test, systems strengthening, policy advancement  
108 Donor Driven Health Systems: Reflections on the Implications for Healthcare Delivery in Nigeria   , Oyibo Patrick Gold, Ejughemre
Efforts geared towards strengthening health systems and improving health outcomes necessitated the co-operation between developed and developing countries for long term international developmental assistance for the latter. These efforts climaxed with the signing of the United Nations millennium development goals which created a platform for the ‘injection’ of billions of dollars of donor funds, technical assistance, inter alia, into countries with great need. Accordingly, there are reflections of marked achievements towards achieving the envisaged objective(s) in recipient countries such as Nigeria. In fact, the impact of donor support for health system strengthening in Nigeria has being remarkable with funding to combat major health problems reaching unprecedented levels in recent times with improvements on certain fronts. Of such include, decrease in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and the eradication of guinea worm, as well as capacity development and health facility infrastructural upgrades. Nevertheless, these obvious gains have not being without issues of concern hitherto. Cardinal amongst these is that not all the developmental support is reaching communities with the greatest of needs or being delivered in a manner that is proving effective. More so, are the issues of corruption, abdication of co-operate social responsibilities by the government in certain instances to donor partners, as well as the rising ‘ineptitude’ in many of the recipient communities that has fast created a climate were self-reliance is being ebbed into a place called the past. The argument therefore is that the merits and demerits of donor support for health system strengthening in Nigeria has created debates, needing further reflections thereof.  
109 Community Participation in Health Care: Issues and Challenges in Nigeria   , Adeola Efuntoye, 
Since the Alma Ata declaration of 1978, Community participation (CP) has been recognized as one of the core strategies of achieving the goals of Health for All (HFA). The benefits of CP are numerous to the communities, the health systems and Governments, This review article described the nature and dimensions of Community Participation (CP) and its role and scope in successful implementation of different components of Primary Health Care. With the near collapse of PHC system in Nigeria, health care systems had suffered with most emphasis on curative health care that does not involve inputs from the local communities. Community participation is not without challenges but most are surmountable, thus it is important to appreciate the various levels in Nigeria in order to be able to operationalize CP towards realizing of set goals and objective.  
110 Heath-Seeking Behaviour of Riverine Residents of Arogbo-Ijaw Island in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria   , Afe Abayomi Joseph, Oluwakemi Edet-Utan, Tonubari Fadero, Timothy Akinmurele
A cross-sectional study using focus group discussions with 3 different categories of key stakeholders at a riverine local government area in southwest Nigeria. The objective was to highlight the factors affecting the health of the residents in this area with the possibility of using this information to improve the health status of the people. Among the factors identified as affecting health seeking behaviour of the residents were inaccessibility either due to lack of health services or poor roads network, illiteracy, poverty and cultural or religious beliefs that are inimical to good health. Suggestion of community based social health insurance program (CBSHIP) as a means of defraying the cost of healthcare was not too acceptable to majority of the dwelllers. However, many residents still prefer patronising private hospitals instead of the public health facilities. KEYWORDS Riverine, Behaviour, Focus group discussion (FGD), Community based social health insurance programme (CBSHIP)  
111 Awareness of Ebola Virus Disease Among Non-Doctor Hospital Staff in Bassa Local Government Area of Kogi State   , Okebugwu Andrew Nwachimere-eze
The objective of this study was to assess the level of awareness amongst non doctor hospital staff in Bassa L.G.A of Kogi state on the subject of Ebola Virus Disease. Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used. A well structured self-administered questionnaire was given to 278 consenting health staff in Bassa L.G.A selected by a multistage sampling technique comprising of clustering and simple random sampling. The results were collated and analyzed manually. Results: A total of 278 health staff drawn from different departments completed the questionnaire. 58.2% of respondents respectively, were between the ages of 21 and 30 years and first degree holders. All the respondents have heard of Ebola Virus Disease. 83.5% heard of it from electronic media such as radio and television. 74.8% respectively knew that  it is caused by Ebola virus, can occur both in the rural and urban areas, putting on protective wears each time one visits an Ebola patient or during routine clinical work can protect one from the virus and that Ebola has no cure. 66.5% knew that everyone is at risk of contracting the disease and that confirmation is by laboratory assays. 91.7% knew that the incubation period is between 2 and 21 days, the same number knew that high fever is an early symptom. 50% of the respondents knew vomiting and bloody diarrhea as late symptoms. None of the respondents knew the location of the laboratories in Nigeria. Conclusions: the result shows a below average awareness about Ebola virus Disease among these health workers. However, more awareness is needed in certain areas. KEYWORDS Ebola virus disease, Awareness.  
112 Accuracy Evaluation of HIV Rapid Tests Resolved by Tie-Breaker: A Case Study of Nigerian Serial Algorithm   , Suleiman Mohammed Aminu
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization strongly recommended test algorithm for diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. In either parallel or serial algorithms, discordance is commonly encountered and the final result has to be determined by the use of a tie breaker. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of HIV rapid test results resolved by tie breaker in a serial algorithm using Western Blot as gold standard. METHODOLOGY A total of 110 remnant samples reactive as positive by Determine but giving discordant result with Unigold were collected and retested by national (serial) algorithm from January 2013 to July 2013. Samples were collected in either plain bottles or EDTA container by staff conducting HIV rapid test and transported/stored at 2-8 degree Celsius. Samples were tested according to manufactures leaflet insert. The final result obtained with the serial algorithm was verified with Western Blot technique. RESULT Out of the 10 discordant results, 9 were confirmed HIV positive by serial algorithm but only 8 were confirmed positive by Western Blot technique. Thus, there was 1(11%) false positive obtained with serial algorithm. Samples that were reactive by Determine were 110 (100%), 94(85.5%) reactive for Unigold and 93(85%) reactive results with Stat Pak. CONCLUSION One out of every 9 HIV results resolved by tie breaker as positive is false positive. This accounts for 11%. There is need therefore to introduce further means of verifying positive results resolved by tie breaker to avoid placing patients on anti retro vial drugs wrongly and subjecting people to psychological trauma.  
113 The Perception of Nigerian Traders About the Symptoms and Transmission of Ebolavirus Disease   , Maclawrence Kolapo Famuyiwa
This is a study carried out to gauge the perception of market men and women about Ebola virus disease and its transmission. It is a cross-sectional questionnaire based study, in which 126 market men and women were involved. This study became imperative going by the fact that Nigeria was just recently let off the hook of the ravages of the virus, and the government of Nigeria pellucid engagement in mass media campaign to enlighten the citizens about the symptoms and various modes of transmission of the disease, because the virus still causes serious devastation in nearby West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and most recently Mali, and as not to make a ludicrous mistake of allowing another Ebola panic in the country. The analysis of the data was done using IBM SPSS; descriptive statistics to get the general characteristics of the study participants. Chi-square test was used to determine the level of significance of groups of categorical variables. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. The data analysis showed that 126 out of the 150 respondents returned the questionnaires completely filled, representing 84% of the respondents. The respondents showed a poor knowledge of animal to man mode of transmission, 20.7% of this mode chosen by the respondents is that EVD can be transmitted through the eating of well cooked meat of the known EVD infected animals. 72.3% of the respondent identified at least two man to man modes of transmission and 68.7% of the symptoms of Ebola identified include at least one of the early symptoms of EVD. The study concluded that the knowledge shown by the respondents is mixed; there was a good knowledge of man to man mode of transmission while the knowledge of the animal to man mode of transmission is poor while that of the symptoms of the disease is average. KEYWORDS Ebola Viral Disease, Nigerian traders, Symptoms, Transmission.  
114 Patients’ Satisfaction in Public and Private Hospital of Morang District Nepal: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study   , Anil Sigdel
Patient satisfaction is a multidimensional aspect, represents a vital key marker for the quality of health care. The objective of the study was to compare the level of patients’ satisfaction among public and private hospital. A cross sectional comparative was conducted in two hospitals of Morang District i.e. one public and one private hospital selected purposively. Patients discharged from different wards were selected by consecutive sampling method and exit interview was performed. The sample of study was 220. The written consent was taken before the interview. 5 points Likert scale was used for measuring patients’ satisfaction. Discharged slip was checked for the maintaining validity and Chronbach’s Alfa was calculated for ensuring reliability of tools. Coding, entry and analysis was done in SPSS version 16. A median score of 148 was used as the cutoff point for defining the level of patients’ satisfaction. Patients in public hospital were more satisfied (61.8%) than those of private hospital (37.27%) and the difference in level of satisfaction and type of hospital found to be statistically significant (p<0.001).Moreover, the patients in public hospital were more satisfied with overall cost of health services (OR=30.83, CI 95%:13.014-73.05), laboratory and registration facilities (OR=2.805, CI 95%:1.628-4.833) and other facilities of hospital (OR=8.35, CI 95%:4.31-16.196) compared to private hospitals. Patients in public hospital were more likely to be good satisfied compared to public hospital and the important reasons for this was found to be high cost of health services in private hospitals and lack of health insurance provision. KEY WORDS Patients Satisfaction, Comparative, Public, Private, Hospital  
115 Assessing Botswana’s Preparedness in Dealing with Natural Disasters   , Tinashe Ashley Sibanda Mutize
Natural Disaster - Any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences (1) Disaster – Any event that would disrupt the normal pattern of activities in a given area as a result of interaction between hazard and human population. This results in loss of life, injury, economic and social hardships. Disaster risk – The potential disaster losses in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services which could happen in a specified community Disaster management – An integrated series of activities and strategies (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) implemented within the context of national development Disaster mitigation – refers to the plans, strategies and actions taken to reduce the vulnerability of a population to a future disaster threat Disaster preparedness – refers to the plans and actions taken to ensure an effective response to a disaster that may occur in the future Emergency response – refers to the actual operations and actions that are taken s soon as a disaster strikes. These are aimed at providing assistance and support to the affeceted population and area. Recovery – refers to all the actions that are taken to return the affected population to normal life and to phase in mitigation measures to help with better protection in the futureNatural Disaster - Any event or force of nature that has catastrophic consequences (1) Disaster – Any event that would disrupt the normal pattern of activities in a given area as a result of interaction between hazard and human population. This results in loss of life, injury, economic and social hardships. Disaster risk – The potential disaster losses in lives, health status, livelihoods, assets and services which could happen in a specified community Disaster management – An integrated series of activities and strategies (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) implemented within the context of national development Disaster mitigation – refers to the plans, strategies and actions taken to reduce the vulnerability of a population to a future disaster threat Disaster preparedness – refers to the plans and actions taken to ensure an effective response to a disaster that may occur in the future Emergency response – refers to the actual operations and actions that are taken s soon as a disaster strikes. These are aimed at providing assistance and support to the affeceted population and area. Recovery – refers to all the actions that are taken to return the affected population to normal life and to phase in mitigation measures to help with better protection in the future
116 A Workshop on Laboratory Quality Assurance – An Evaluation of The Quality of Clinical Testing Using HIV Rapid Testing as The Port of Entry in Three Health Districts in South West Region of Cameroon   , Gwanfogbe Anna Kadaa
As HIV rapid testing expands to non-laboratory settings, ensuring the quality and accuracy of HIV test results becomes more critical in HIV diagnosis, care and treatment. A number of tools to monitor and improve test accuracy such as hands-on workshop, liquid or dried tube specimen-based proficiency testing programs, retesting strategies, and supervisory visits have been implemented as part of a national quality assurance (QA) program in resource limited settings. Dried Tube Specimen (DTS) is a QA tool which was developed by GAP/International laboratory Branch at CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) for monitoring and evaluating the quality of HIV testing in laboratories. It is especially adapted for use in resource limited countries because it is lyophilized and can be stored at room temperature for up to four weeks. The standardized logbook was developed as an ongoing QA tool to monitor and evaluate the performance of the HIV testing sites, personnel competence, view testing trends and evaluate the different types of tests used. The goal of the logbook database is to capture all data from the monthly summaries and provide a detailed analysis that will identify key areas of improvement at the site, district, or national level.  
117 The Magnitude and Factors Associated with Antiretroviral Therapy Defaulting in Mabutsane District   , Ngeleza kasongo
BACKGROUND This study sought to analyse the magnitude and factors associated with antiretroviral therapy defaulting using the patient electronic medical record system in Mabutsane health district. OBJECTIVES Objectives of the study are: to establish the factors associated with defaulting ARV and to analyse the outcomes of ARV defaulter. METHODOLOGY A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted. The target population for this research is adult clients on antiretroviral therapy registered in Mabutsane between December 2011 and December 2013. Descriptive statistics, x2 test and cross tabulation was used to analyse data. RESULTS Mabutsaneclinic has a defaulter rate of 11.3%. .More males (64.3%) defaulted treatment than females (35.7%). Majority 13 clients (92.9%) were on treatment for more than 1 year before defaulting. Reasons for defaulting ART are as follow: Substances abused 42.9%, side effect of drugs 21.4%, Transport 14.3%, Work 14.3% and Religion7.1%. Mortality rate among defaulter stand at 21.4%. No significant statistic relation between social economic variables (sex, substances abused, marriage status, and employment status) and variable defaulter was found in our study. CONCLUSIONS Mabutsane health district has a lower defaulter rate as compared to most of the African countries; however this rate is above the Botswana one in 2013. No significant association between social economic variables and defaulter was found. Factors such as substances abused, work, transport etc…have been mentioned as reasons for defaulting. Case fatality rate among defaulters was low than what was observed in most of the Sub Saharan Africa countries. KEY WORDS Mabutsane has a low defaulter rate.  
118 Dietary Diversity and Its Effect on Anaemia Prevalence Amongst Tea Tribe Adolescent Girls in Dibrugarh District of Assam, India   , Tulika Goswami Mahanta, Bhupendra Narayan Mahanta, Pronab Gogoi, Jenita Baruah
OBJECTIVE Effect of Dietary diversity and other intervention in prevalence and determinants of anaemia amongst tea tribe adolescent girls. DESIGN A community based before after intervention study was conducted covering 16 tea estates of Dibrugarh District, Assam. PROCEDURE Variables includes socio-demographic, environmental, anthropometry, history of present and past illness, clinical examination and laboratory investigation including haemoglobin, serum ferritin, haemoglobin typing and routine stool examination and dietary survey using 24 hour recall method and food frequency questionnaire. Interventions given were dietary diversification, health promotion by monthly NHED, cooking demonstration, cooking competition and kitchen garden promotion and counselling to improve IFA compliance and remove barriers and directly observed weekly IFA supplementation. SPSS and EpiInfo software, used to calculate of rates, ratios, chi-square test, Fisher Exact test and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Enrolments were 802, with mean age, 14.8 years. Anaemia prevalence was 96.3% with median serum ferritin, 22.9 ng/ml. Prevalence of Sickle cell anaemia was,12% and helminthiasis 84.20%, night blindness (5.6%), weakness (62.1%), loss of appetite (37.5%), gum bleeding (23.6%), loose motion (13%), loss of weight (9.9%), menstrual problem (19.3%) was common. Following intervention mean haemoglobin difference was 1.48 gm/dl with 13.5% difference in prevalence. Significant association found with worm infestation, lower serum ferritin, insanitary water-sanitation facility and extra salt use, indicating infection, infestation and iron deficiency as major cause of anaemia. Dietary diversification found effective. CONCLUSIONS High anaemia prevalence requires urgent attention. Implementation of different intervention in an integrated manner was found effective. KEYWORDS Dietary diversification, Anaemia, tea tribe, adolescent girls, Iron folic acid supplementation (IFA), Assam.  
119 Hygiene and Sanitation Practices in the Collection, Treatment and Preservation of Potable Water in Santa Town, North West Cameroon. , Bodzewan Emmanuel Fonyuy  
Access to safe drinkable water has improved over the last decades in almost every part of the world, but approximately one billion people in Africa still lack access to safe water and over 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. In large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to widespread acute or chronic illnesses and it is a major cause of death and misery in many countries. As such prevention of water borne diseases is a major health goal in developing countries (Fawell J & Chipman K, 2010). The health burden of poor water quality is enormous with an estimated 37.7million individuals affected by water-borne diseases; annually 1.5 million children are estimated to die from diarrheal-related diseases each year (WHO, 2012). The developing countries in the world still face the problem of water scarcity with Africa having the largest number of countries encountering these problems. Due to water scarcity, many families tend to store water in their home for long term use. Most families have inadequate knowledge or are ignorant on the duration of the storage and the type of container or vessel used in the collection and storage of drinkable water. Inhabitants in Santa town in North West region of Cameroon experience inherent episodes of water shortages all round the year prompting household to fetch, store and consume water from doubtful sources. A study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practices of the inhabitants of Santa town in the collection and preservation of potable water in order to avert the occurrence of water-borne diseases. Primary data was collected with the use of a structured questionnaire with open and close-ended questions, administered by the researcher and co-researchers to the study population in the randomly selected quarters using cluster sampling. A sample size of 110 households was recruited for the study. Results show that 68 (58.18%) of respondents defined drinkable water as water safe enough to be consumed with low risk of harm, 24 (21.8%) defined it as water which originates from pipe borne water while 16 (14.5%) said that it is water from any natural source. On the criteria used in the identification of unsafe water, 68 (58.18%) said they identified water which is not safe for drinking from its color, taste and odor; on the issue of water protection and preservation from contaminants, 58(52.7%) of the responses were that they lacked containers for their drinking water, 32(29.5%) said they lacked chemicals and filters to treat their water, while 14(12.9%) did not have knowledge in the protection and preservation of potable water while 06 (5.5%) said that the problem they encountered was the presence of children playing around drinkable water sources and water storage containers. From the data collected, and analysis made it be can be concluded that there exist inadequate knowledge on the protection and preservation of potable water. Their understanding of the notions of hygiene and sanitation, the knowledge and practices on the collection and preservation of potable water are not based on the level of education but on how much public health information they got about drinking water collection, treatment and preservation. So, an up-to-date, knowledge and practices on the collection, treatment and preservation of potable water is necessary for the wellbeing of the Santa community. The Council’s hygiene and sanitation service should take it as duty function to organize regular public health education lectures in social institutions in order to enlighten the community.  
120 Attitudes and Practices of Health Care Workers Towards HIV Positive Patients at the Federal Medical Centre Owo Ondo State Nigeria , Ebenezer Obi Daniel  
PROBLEM: Nigeria has an estimated 3.6 million people with HIV/AIDS and is home to one out of every11 people with HIV/AIDS worldwide. In Nigeria, as elsewhere, AIDS is perceived as a disease of “others” – of people living on the margins of society, whose lifestyles are considered “perverted” and “sinful.” Discrimination, stigmatization, and denial are the expected outcomes of such values, affecting life in families, communities, workplaces, schools, and health care settings. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to determine the attitude and practices of health care workers towards HIV positive patients at the Federal Medical Centre Owo , Ondo State, Nigeria. METHODS: The study was carried out at Federal Medical Centre Owo in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional survey of all seven categories of health-care workers in the centre was conducted. Each category of health care workers; Doctors, Nurses, Pharmacists, Physiotherapists, Medical Laboratory Scientists, Health Information Managers and Medical Imaging Scientists was taken as a sample unit. Sample size proportional to the size of each unit was selected using simple random sampling in order to make the calculated overall sample size. Data was obtained through the use of structured, self-administered questionnaire. Summated scores were used to assess respondents’ attitudes and practices towards HIV positive patients. Data analysis was done using the Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17. Data were presented using descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, pie and bar charts. Inferential statistics of Chi-square was used to test for associations between various factors and the attitude and practices of health care workers towards care for patients with HIV. Statistical level of significance was set at P-value <0.05. An approval to conduct the study was obtained from Research Ethics Committee of Federal Medical Centre, Owo. Participants were allowed to give their consent in writing before participating in the study. OUTCOME: A considerable percentage (31.8%) of 252 respondents has varying degrees of poor attitude, while almost half (48.8%) have poor practices towards HIV positive patients. Exposure to blood and other body fluids or injury as a result of work in the last one year, was found to be significantly associated with the attitude of health care workers towards HIV positive patients (P<0.05). It was also revealed in this study that, there is a statistically significant association between sex, professional status of health care workers and practices towards HIV positive patients (P<0.05). This study also showed that 37.7% gave varying degrees of poor responses to the preventive measures towards discrimination against HIV positive patients. This study recommended the inclusion of HIV/AIDS education in the training curriculum of schools attended by all health care workers, continuous education/counsel of health care workers on HIV/AIDS, creation of HIV/AIDS policies in all hospitals, further research on the study, and that all health care workers should serve as examples in the crusade against discrimination of HIV positive patients.  
121 An Assessment of Medical Waste Management in Bawku Presbyterian Hospital of the Upper East Region of Ghana. , Francis Abugri Akum  
Background Medical waste unlike other ordinary waste poses serious health risk to the handlers, health staff, patients and the community. The area of medical waste management is neglected in most health care facilities in Ghana. The main objective of the study was to assess the Medical Waste management practices in Bawku Presbyterian Hospital of the Upper East Region of Ghana. Methods The study used structured questionnaires, observation checklist and key informant interview guide to collect data from management staff and waste workers. Results It was observed that there was low knowledge about medical waste among waste workers. Medical waste is not segregated, waste containers not coded/labelled, no secured storage area for waste, no budget specifically for medical waste management and no waste management manual in the hospital. Conclusion This study has shown that, waste management in the hospital is poor and has health implications to the handlers, staff, patients and visitors. Keywords: medical waste, Bawku Presbyterian Hospital, waste segregation, waste storage.  
122 A comparison of knowledge of diabetes mellitus between patients with diabetes and healthy adults: A survey from north Malaysia , Sophonie Ndahayo  
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge of diabetes mellitus possessed by patients with diabetes and healthy adult volunteers in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in. A 240 sample randomly selected (120 patients with diabetes mellitus and 120 healthy adults at a shopping complex participated in the survey. Data collection was done through face-to-face interviews. A30 items questionnaire facilitated data collection about diabetes mellitus. The results showed that patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly more knowledgeable than the healthy group on the following aspects: risk factors, symptoms, chronic complications, treatment and self-management, and monitoring parameters. Educational level was the best predictive factor for diabetes mellitus and public awareness. In conclusion, knowledge about diabetes mellitus should be improved among the general population. The study has key practice implications as it served as a baseline for the design of educational programmes for diabetics and a health promotion programme for the healthy population in general, and especially for those at high risk.  
123 Comparing Data Reported using the National Health Management Information System and data Declared/Validated on the PBF Declaration forms in Fundong Health District , Kum Ghabowen Iwimbong  
The Cameroon Government through the Ministry of Health (MOH) introduced the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS) tool in the country in 1995 to harmonize the data collection process within the health system at all levels(1). Before this time, the MOH had no harmonized tool for health information and the different health facilities within the health system had varied data collection tools. The major role of the NHMIS involved data collection to show case the country’s health status, data quality enhancement and proper definition of each indicator therein, thorough data analysis at all levels of the health system and informed decision making by actors, timely feedback at all levels, enabling access of data at all levels to development partners and prompt epidemiological surveillance and timely intervention in the case of an epidemic (2). The elements of an effective SNIS are its relevance, how it satisfies clearly defined and quantified public health goals, its performance, does it work with efficient methods and tools and competent professionals? its usefulness, how is it used by its targeted audience (decision makers, health professionals, community stakeholders) and its consistency, are the various stakeholders and information sources well-coordinated? The setting of institutional mechanisms and incentives in order to introduce an evidence base decision making process has been seen by many scholars as important and a major need. Thus Performance based financing at implementation had as one of its principles to strengthen the health system not leaving out the SNIS. In this light, the data reported in the project at the level of the health facility is supposed to be consistent with data reported in the NHMIS. This study sought to find out if this is actually the case on the field.  
124 A study to determine the factors affecting the effective management of third stage of labour in some selected health facilities in Adamawa State Nigeria , Ukwo Joy Michael  
Most maternal deaths are avoidable through the use of known interventions. However, those interventions are often inaccessible to many of those in need. As with most African communities, Hemorrhage (of which postpartum hemorrhage is most common) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Adamawa State. Postpartum hemorrhage is mainly caused by complications arising during the third stage of labor. Effective management of the third stage of labor has the potential of significantly reducing maternal mortality. The process, component and the effects of services offered in the management of third stage of labour in Adamawa state has been under-investigated.  Understanding the process and effects of management of third stage of labour and factors associated with poor outcomes is key to designing effective policies and programme to reduce maternal deaths and improve maternal health status[i]. The aim of this research is therefore to fill the gap in present understanding of factors associated with maternal deaths that occur as a result of the management of the third stage of labour in Adamawa State in order to make evidence-based recommendation for improved programmatic intervention.  
125 Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Breastfeeding of Mothers in Rural and Urban Settings in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria , Ogundana Adejoke Esther Aderonke  
Breastfeeding is a very important way of providing the needed food and nourishment for the healthy growth and development of babies or infants. It is also relevant in the reproductive health of mothers. Breastfeeding is an attitude inherited from generations in Nigeria. There are so many cultural beliefs attributed to breast feeding in communities in Nigeria which may have affected breast feeding practices. It was a culture in our society for a woman to breast feed her baby for 3years before weaning the baby but now most nursing mothers breastfeed their babies for 1 year while some breastfeed for less than a year. WHO gave the recommendation that mothers worldwide are to breastfeed their infants exclusively for the first six months to achieve optimal growth, development and health, after which complementary foods that are nutritious could be given to the baby and to continue breastfeeding until two years or beyond. In 2009, a review of the evidence on exclusive breastfeeding was conducted by WHO and UNICEF with the findings advocating that exclusively breastfeeding infants with only breast milk and no other foods for six months has several advantages which includes; lower risk of gastrointestinal infection for the baby, rapid maternal weight loss after birth, and delayed return of menstrual periods in the mother.  
126 An Overview to Voluntary Harmonization Procedure (VHP) - Approach to Clinical Trial Application (CTA) , Anil Eknath Khedkar  
The clinical trial application (CTA) approval in the European Union (EU) member state has been subject to national legislation. Due to this the assessment of a CTA that was filed simultaneously in several EU member states often resulted in varying final decisions and unnecessary delays. Sometimes country-specific modifications to the application often occurred due to changes requested by the different regulatory/competent authorities (RA/CA) and ethics committees (EC). Sometimes a clinical trial might even be approved in one member state and rejected in another. The whole procedure could be extremely time-consuming and the country-specific modifications risk the scientific value of clinical trial results. The Voluntary Harmonisation Procedure (VHP) offers sponsors of multinational clinical trials involving three or more EU member states a harmonised procedure for the regulatory assessment of clinical trial authorisation applications. The Voluntary Harmonisation Procedure makes it possible to obtain a coordinated assessment of an application for a clinical trial that is to take place in several European countries. Keywords: Clinical trials, Volutary Hormionsiation Procedure (VHP), Clinical trial application (CTA), Regulatiory authority approval, Europran Union (EU)  
127 Comparative Assessment of Five Laboratory Techniques in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Abuja , Ochei Kingsley Chinedum, Obeagu Emmanuel Ifeanyi, Mbajiuka Chinedu Stanley, Uzoije Nwandikor U
A total of 340 specimens from 192 (56.5%) male and 148 (43.5%) females attending tuberculosis clinics in Abuja metropolis were analysed by five different laboratory techniques (ZN Direct, ZN Bleach, LJ slants, BACTEC and Serology TB) for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Comparative analysis of results at P=0.05, revealed that there was a statistical significant (X2=127.1, P<0.001) difference between the diagnosistic performance of the five laboratory techniques. A follow-up analysis based on the 95% confidence interval of pair differences in proportion between the five techniques indicated that the BACTEC assay was the major source of the difference(P<0.001) in pair methods. Comparison of the 95% confidence limit of pair differences in diagnostic specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between ZN-BACTEC and other methods confirmed (P<0.001) the high detection rate of BACTEC. It was observed that BACTEC had the highest detection rate (61.2%), followed by LJ (31.2%), then ZN Bleach (30.3%) and ZN Direct (28.8%), while Serology had only 25.3% ZN BACTEC appeared to the most reliable, and time effective combination. ZN Bleach should be encouraged in poor resource settings in lieu of the conventional three standard smears for ZN Direct. The use of Serologic TB kit alone for the diagnosis of tuberculosis should be discouraged. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BACTEC, Laboratory and Serology.  
128 The Impact of Social and Cultural Factors on Population Health , Floris Rosalyn Gordon  
Background – Chronic disease has now become a major contributor to mortality, the increase in risk factors has had serious impact on health. Much attention has been paid to healthy lifestyle and the need for behavior change. Behavior is transitioning in many developing countries due to urbanization, improved income and access to technological advances. This has resulted in increase in risk factors such excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inactivity. More persons are seeking processed and prepackaged meals and consuming more food leading to obesity. Objective – The objective of the project is to provide a critical look at the social and cultural factors and how they impact health. To explore how health promotion and there interventions impact on the prevalence of these risk factors. Method – This study will explore at least 10 published articles on this topic the impact of risk factors on health and strategies used to reduce the occurrence of these factors. This review will provide information required to provide recommendations to address prevention of risk factor development. Results – Results across different studies show that lifestyle behavior influences the development of risk factors. Unhealthy behavior like smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and inactivity is associated with obesity, elevated blood pressures and ultimately the development of chronic illnesses like cardiovascular disease and cancer. Conclusion – Risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and inactivity influence the occurrence of chronic illnesses. Surveillance for risk factors must be done and health education must be used as an intervention strategy to prevent the development of risk factors to reduce mortality.  
129 Attitude and Behaviour of Users of Motorcycle Towards the Use of Crash Helmet in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. , Pius Izundu Okpoko  
Introduction: There is a major and growing public health concern in preventing serious injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. The judicious use of motorcycle crash helmet is a proactive approach to preventing head injury among motorcycle users. The objective of this study is to determine the attitude and behaviour of users of motorcycle towards the use of crash helmet in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Method: This is a cross-sectional study design that made use of quantitative survey method involving data collection and analysis. There were 283 voluntary adults who were randomly recruited within Ado-Ekiti metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to participants who also consented to the survey. Results: There were 283 returned and analyzable questionnaires out of 321. The modal age group was 21-30 years (42%). There were more males, 209 (73.9%). Majority of the respondents were single (55.1%). There were more Students, 92(32.5%), in the study. Two hundred and forty respondents (84.8%) believed that it is necessary to use crash helmet. The frequency of self-reported helmet use was 171(60.4%). Seventy percent of respondents believed that helmet use should be made compulsory. Various reasons for non use of helmet include too heavy 99(35.0%), fear of contracting disease 93(32.9%) and not protective 24(8.5%). Conclusions: This study highlighted that a far greater number of respondents believed that the use of crash helmet is necessary for safety and should be made compulsory. Nevertheless, the discomfort which is associated with wearing a crash helmet and perceived risk of contracting infection from helmet use were the main negative factors militating against helmet use. Key words: Attitude, Behaviour, Crash helmet, Head injuries, Motorcycle, Users.  
130 The Effect of Telmisartan and Irbesartan on Body Weight and its Contribution to Blood Pressure Control in Hypertensive Black Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study. , Kanu Ekenedilichukwu, Igbinogu Osas , Ike Oyedimazu
No study has analyzed the extent of weight reducing ability among the “peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma” (PPAR-γ) activating ARBs – Telmisartan and Irbesartan in black hypertensive of African origin. This retrospective cohort study was designed to delineate the extent of weight reducing effect of these PPAR-γ activating ARBs and how it correlates with BP reduction observed with these ARBs in black hypertensive. A total of 26 case notes of patients (15 men, 11 women; mean age 58.9±1.8 years) with diagnosis of hypertension were reviewed and the study attained a power of 96%. The patients whose case notes were reviewed were naïve to ARBs before commencing either telmisartan or irbesartan and did not have any metabolic disease like diabetes or thyroid disease which could interfere with body weight reading. They all took either telmisartan 80mg or irbesartan 150mg for at least a 6 month review period. Body weight were significantly reduced more in the telmisartan (n = 13) treatment group compared to the irbesartan (n = 13) treatment group [change from baseline; -1.51±0.46Kg (-1.68%), P=0.006 vs. -0.96±0.15Kg (-1.05%), P<0.001]. Both treatment effectively controlled blood pressure (mean BP after 6 months treatment: Telmisartan 126/83mmHg; Irbesartan 133/84mmHg). In the telmisartan group there were no correlation between either change in SBP and change in body weight (r = -0.220, P = 0.471) or change in DBP and change in body weight (r = -0.050, P = 0.870), but a significant positive correlation was observed between both change in SBP and change in body weight (r = 0.538, P = 0.058) and change in DBP and change in body weight (r = 0.610, P = 0.027) in the irbesartan treatment group. Both telmisartan and irbesartan reduced body weight in hypertensive black patients and this reduction in body weight may contribute to the power demonstrated by irbesartan to get patients to BP goal. Hence hypertensive blacks could also benefit from the established end-organ protection benefits of both telmisartan and irbesartan. Key words: Hypertension; Telmisartan; Irbesartan; Body weight; Adiponectin; PPAR-γ.  
131 “Pharmacovigilance On Sexual Enchancing Herbal Supplements” , Stephen Joseph Atta Mensah  
The article "Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements" by Bhagavathula et al., 2014 is a scientific paper on Pharmacovigilance published in the Journal of Pharmacovigilance –an open access journal. It explores one of the prevailing issues of global interest in the field of pharmacovigilance: Pharmacovigilance of Sexual enhancing herbal supplements. The article is a divided into main parts; the main body and the reference section. This review critically reviews the article's structure, authority, currency, stability, objectivity and it relevance to Clinician and Clinical Researchers. The review will first summarize the article and then critique the article on the basis of its authority, accuracy, currency, relevance, objectivity, stability and the data analysis. The review will analyze all the relevant data and information provided by the article before commenting on the credibility and the reliability of the article. Overall, the article is well written and relevant to Clinicians, Clinical Researchers and the general population.  
132 The health status of maternal and children under five in Gozarah district belonging to Herat province west part of Afghanistan by Catchment Area Annual Census (CAAC) survey in 2013. , Ehsan Ahmad
Afghanistan's health status was one of the worst in the world before 2002 ( UNICEF 2002) Fortunately after that there are many change during the recent years with some positive intervention and revised Basic Package of Health Services ( BPHS) by ministry of public health of Afghanistan and decreased maternal and children mortality rate, The under-5 mortality rate for Afghanistan excluding the South zone for the 2-6 years prior to the survey is 97 deaths per 1,000 births, and the infant mortality rate is 77 deaths per 1,000 births(Afghanistan Mortality Survey( AMS 2010).  
133 Health and Safety in Kenya: Public Health Ethical Issues and Considerations , Ogwayo Isaac Onyango  
Kenya is making efforts to be ethical in handling research involving human beings and laws have been enacted to that extent. There is still room for improvement by establishing the code of ethics for public health practitioners and developing an effective curriculum for training public health officers. The Public health officers’ professional body need to speed up the enactment of the code of ethics in order to hold the public health practitioners to account for their actions and also get protection for their well intended actions to promote good health and prevent disease. The current ethical debate is the tetanus toxoid vaccine which is laced with HCG hormone at 1 in every four. The government has been ready to explain the reason for the presence of HCG in the vaccine. Key Words: Public Health, Ethics, National Legislation, NACOSTA, Tetanus toxoid, HCG  
134 Community Based Health Insurance Scheme: Knowledge and Perception of Rural Communities in Abuja Nigeria , Christiana Ogben
Background In 2010, community based health insurance scheme (CBHIS) was launched in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. Little is known about the knowledge and perception of the rural dwellers of the FCT about the scheme. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and perception of healthcare consumers towards CBHIS in FCT. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study of 287 household heads was done. Systematic random sampling was used. Information was collected using a semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was analysed with SPSS version 21. Results Male respondents were 175(61%),242(84.3%) were aware of the existence of CBHIS, 126(82%) of enrollee also enrolled their dependents. Annual payment of health insurance premium was preferred by 91(59.9%) of enrolled respondents, 92(60.1%) enrolled in the scheme because they perceived it to be a cheap way to access healthcare. No proper understanding was the reason why 33(28.4%) of those aware of the scheme did not enroll themselves or their dependents. Only 124 (55.1%) were satisfied with the overall services provided to them by their health care provider (HCP).More males 102(81.6%) were satisfied with HCP services. Among respondents with secondary/tertiary education 18(81.8%) were satisfied with their HCP compared to 47(38.2%) of those who had no formal education, p<0.001. 47(85.5%) respondents in the richest wealth quintile were satisfied compared with only 13(52%) in the lowest category, p<0.001. Conclusion There is a need to educate the community members on principle of health insurance and improve access to health services under the scheme. Key words: CBHIS, Health insurance, rural communities, knowledge, perception  
135  Quality Assurance and Self-Assessment: Approach Methods by Southern University , Emmanuel Hakwia Kooma
The resources required for open distance learning (ODL) are human, physical, financial, and technological supported by cross cutting issues. This paper focuses on quality assurance and self-assessment as part of the cross cutting functional areas at Southern University. The Southern University (SU) envisions being a World Class University for the advancement of humanity, serving as a cradle of knowledge and excellence. To achieve this, the University will endeavour to generate and disseminate significant quality knowledge backed by its core values, upholding unbendable and uncompromising standards that contribute to national and global development. The university`s vision is “To be an icon of academic excellence in all disciplines and natural resource based professions in sub-Saharan Africa”. With the onset of peace in many African countries after many years of instability and insecurity, with the democratization of many African states following decades of totalitarian rule, and following years of corrupt and inept administrations, there is now an acute consciousness of the wasted years of African prosperity. One of the highest casualties of misrule has been education. Education became one of the lowest priorities. Investment in education across the sector diminished. SU like any other Open Distance Learning(ODL) Universities has observed that with peace and democratization in Zambia, there is population growth, rising prosperity, a thirst for knowledge, and a need to bridge the skills gap, all in the context of rising expectations and diminishing resources. For many, however, for whom life circumstances have rendered university attendance a distant dream, have yet another opportunity and this is the reason SU has come into being.  
136 The relevance of Financial Statements and Its Impact on Organizational Performance: A case study of Atwima Mponua Rural Bank , Eric Kwame Buah  
This paper investigates the relevance of financial statements on Rural and Community Bank performance. Rural banks are the main source of financial service in rural sub- Saharan Africa and their services are mostly patronized by persons with little or no level of education. The study is therefore examining their level of knowledge on financial performance of the rural bank in which they are investing. The data was collected from a sample of one hundred and eighty respondents using questionnaires and face to face interviews conducted with management staff of the bank and used for analysis. The statistical tools employed in assessing the relevance of financial statements on the performance of Atwima Mponua Rural Bank were Mean distribution, coefficient of variation and regression analysis. The results indicate that the bank has been giving account statement quarterly or yearly to its customers. Findings of the study indicate that the bank post its annual financial statement to customers or post it on the bank’s notice board. Then, it is found that the bank organized annual general meetings to explain its financial statement to its customers. It is therefore concluded that there is no evidence to ascertain that knowledge on financial statement is relevant to organizational performance. It is recommended that this study will be extended to other rural banks in the country to help assess the findings of this study. Keywords: Financial Statements, Performance, Atwima Mponua Rural Bank, Case study  
137 Crime Propensity Indices of the Urban Dwellers in Dapitan and Dipolog Cities , Clarita D. Bidad, Leonardo D. Cainta
This study aimed to determine the crimes of urban offenders in the Cities of Dipolog and Dapitan that may be attributed to poverty during the year 2005-2010. The subjects of this study were two hundred eighty nine inmates in Dipolog City Rehabilitation Center and one hundred twenty three inmates in Dapitan City Rehabilitation Center.Results of the study revealed that the most common crimes committed which were related to poverty were: violation of RA 9165, sec.5,11, and 12 (drugs related), robbery, murder/frustrated murder, theft, violation of RA 6539 (anti-carnapping), estafa, and homicide/frustrated homicide in the order of decreasing propensity. It was further revealed that crimes were committed to make life better, sustain family needs and support drug habits. KEYWORDS: Crime propensity index, Poverty, Urban poor
138 Migration Patterns of Higher Education Graduates In Zamboanga Del Norte   , Evelyn R. Campiseño, Paterno S. Baguinat III, Cecilia S. Saguin
This study determined the migration patterns of graduates from the Province of Zamboanga del Norte (ZaNorte) during the School Years SY 2006 –2011. A random sample of 384 graduates from the eight colleges and one university in the Province responded to the questionnaire. It was found out that about one-fourth of the graduates of the province moved out for job-related reasons. Migration patterns of graduates in terms of age, gender, marital status, parents’ educational background and income, and their high school and college backgrounds, activity after graduation, their employment status, sector and economic branch they worked in, their income, and relation of education and job were determined. The perceptions of the graduates of ZaNorte were found to be positive. The Province of ZaNOrte needs to develop, retain and sustain highly skilled graduates to improve its economy. KEYWORDS AND PHRASES: Graduate migration patterns, Socio-economic characteristics, graduates, Migration decisions
139 Matching Provincial Development Needs with Higher Educational Programs in Zamboanga Del Norte   , Ninfa B. Pangilinan, Evelyn R. Campiseño
This study aimed to look into the provincial development needs vis-à-vis the current educational programs of the Higher Educational Institutions in Zamboanga del Norte during the calendar year 2011. The study revealed that the top priority development needs of Zamboanga del Norte were economic, environmental, and infrastructure development aspects, while the top most offered program among the HEIs of the province were on teacher Education, Nursing, and Allied Health. The study revealed further that program offerings of HEIs did not directly meet the provincial development needs of the province. The study concludes that the development needs and program offerings do not match. It is recommended that the HEIs offer programs that directly respond to the development needs of the province. Training institutions should link with the provincial government to be able to identify the HEIs’ programs for offering and the necessary training to be conducted while the students are still in school. Moreover, higher education institutions amalgamate program offerings and settle on their expertise and capabilities based on their respective charter. KEYWORDS AND PHRASES: Provincial development needs, Current HEIs programs, Zamboanga del Norte
140 Agriculture –Based Alternative Livelihood for the Depressed Communities in Zamboanga Del Norte   , Wilson C. Nabua, Edwin Templado
Depressed communities in Zamboanga del Norte namely; La Libertad, Siayan and Godod, are agricultural communities. The study identified low productivity as the main reason for the low income of the families in the communities. Low productivity in turn was linked to the farming practices, general topography of the farming communities and marketing practices. The paper proceeds to evaluate alternative agricultural production system as well as livelihood that hinge on agricultural food processing towards enhancing the economic productivity of these communities. KEYWORDS: Agricultural production system, poverty, food processing
141 Analysis of Poverty Incidence in the Municipalities of Zamboanga Del Norte   , Ed Neil O. Maratas , Archer C. Campoy, Erieda C. Acas  
This study analyzed the poverty incidence in the municipalities of Zamboanga del Norte as published by Peace Equity Access for Community Empowerment Foundation (PEF) Inc. (2006). The identified variables of the study consisted of demography, health and sanitation, education, housing, land tenure and governance. The result showed that majority of Municipalities (24 out of 27 Municipalities) belonged to high poverty incidence areas except Dipolog and Dapitan cities including Sindangan municipality. In terms of significant indicators on poverty incidence of this province, it was found out that the population, proportion of households with no access to potable water, no sanitary toilet, elementary cohort survival rate, secondary participation rate and households with lot owned or amortized did influence the poverty situation in Zamboanga del Norte. The present findings of the study suggested that in order to alleviate poverty in the Province of Zamboanga del Norte, the concerned agencies of the government i.e. the DepEd, DOH and DA must address or solve the problems of the municipalities anent health and sanitation, education and land tenure. KEYWORDS AND PHRASES: Poverty incidence, Independent variables, Regression and cluster analysis
142 Barriers to Access of Public Services for the Urban Poor in Dipolog and Dapitan City   , Jannette J. Icao, Maria Blanca S. Sy
The study determined the barriers to access of public services for the urban poor households in the selected barangays of Dipolog and Dapitan City. The constraints were classified as economic, geographic and administrative to access education, health, sanitation, and utility services. Barrier indices were computed based on measures of poverty gap and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke index. The study revealed that there was an administrative constraint of urban poor sector of the two cities to access essential services in their respective barangays. Root causes of lopsided economic opportunities and government privileges across urban barangays were identified. Hence, local government and business sector must work together to meet the demands of the grass roots through increasing job opportunities and a minimum wage to meet the daily cost of living. KEYWORDS: Barriers to access, Basic services, Urban poor, Dipolog and Dapitan City
143 Effects of Increased Salinity on The Growth and Survival of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (Gift) (Oreochromis Niloticus)   , Clarita D. Bidad, Leonardo D. Cainta
This study was conducted to determine the growth and survival of GIFT fry/fingerlings reared in a 150-liter concrete ponds with salinities of 5, 10, 15 ppt respectively. Results revealed that GIFT fry at salinity level of 15 ppt exhibited growth superiority (4.03 cm length; 5.94 g weight) followed by the fry exposed to 10 ppt salinity (3.64 cm; 5.24 g weight). Slow growth was manifested among the fry under 5 ppt salinity level (3.27 cm length; 4.61 g weight).Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant difference in both the lengths and weights of the fry. T-test results showed that the significant difference in length existed between the fry under treatments 5 ppt and 15 ppt while significant variation in weight occurred between the fry exposed to 5 ppt and 15 ppt and between 10 ppt and 15 ppt. Complete survival (100 %) was obtained at 5 ppt and only 93 % at 10 ppt and 15 ppt. However, no significant difference existed in these salinity levels at 0.05 level of significance. Results of this study indicate that the growth of GIFT is affected by the salinity of rearing water. The ideal salinity ranges from 10 ppt to 15 ppt. KEYWORDS AND PHRASES: salinity level, genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT), Oreochromis niloticus, part per thousand (ppt).
144 Forecast Scenarios on the Socio-Economic Conditions of Small-Scale Fishers in the Coastal Towns of the First District of Zamboanga Del Norte   , Ma. Rio A. Naguit, Evelyn R. Campiseno, Ana Liza Lopez
This paper describes the socioeconomic conditions of the small-scale fishers in the coastal towns of the first district of Zamboanga del Norte and attempts to describe their future conditions via scenario analysis (up to year 2020). Posteriori probability estimates show that the most likely scenario for the fishers in these municipalities is that they will remain poor and poorly educated so that their numbers would increase(for lack of alternative livelihood) and poverty incidence will significantly rise as well. Intervention through higher and technical education of the relatively young household members are needed to forestall the occurrence of the likely scenario in 2020. KEYWORDS: small-scale fishers, socio-economic conditions, scenario analysis.
145 A Geo-Linguistic Approach to A Historical Analysis of The Economic Trade-Partners of The Residents in The Zamboanga Del Norte And Misamis Occidental Strip   , Evelyn R. Campiseño, Jay D. Telen
This study investigated the economic partnerships among the traders in Zamboanga del Norte and Misamis Occidental strip through a geo-linguistic approach. Descriptive- survey method of research was employed. The oldest traders from each locality were interviewed and the data gathered were presented using the percentage, frequency distribution and attribution analysis. It revealed that majority of the traders having business tie-ups were coming from Ozamiz City and Dipolog City despite the geographical distance between the two cities; office and school supplies ranked first among the commodities being bartered; Cebuano and Mandarin were the languages commonly spoken by the abovementioned traders. This result is accounted to the languages spoken with 38.7 percent of attribution; 35 percent for the population size and 26.3 percent for the number of schools existing in the localities. It implies that the commonality of languages between traders is a topmost consideration in forging business partnerships for common understanding as well as the number of people and institutions in the locality that would directly be responsible for the bulk of demand and consumption of the goods being traded. KEYWORDS AND PHRASES: geo-linguistic, historical analysis, economic trade-partners, Zamboanga del Norte and Misamis Occidental Strip
146 Poverty Reduction Statistics Attributable to Educational Services: 2000 – 2010   , Patrick G. Galleto, Narcisa S. Bureros
This investigation attempted to find out the statistical evidences of poverty reduction in the Province of Zamboanga del Norte from 2000 to 2010 due to the educational services in the province by profiling basic education, alternative learning system, vocational/technical education, and the higher institutions services. Results revealed that Zamboanga del Norte registered poverty reduction statistics for the past three survey periods: 2003, 2006 and 2009. Poverty incidence reduced by 5.4 percent from 2003 to 2006 and 1.2 percent from 2006 to 2009. However, the province still registered poverty incidence of 52.9 percent in 2009 which indicated that more than 50 percent of its households were still living below poverty line. The study revealed further that poverty reduction statistics did not strongly link to the educational services in the province. KEYWORDS: poverty reduction statistics, attributable, education services
147 Behaviour of Low Rank High Moisture Coal in Large Stockpile Under Ambient Conditions   , Naveen Chandralal, D. Mahapatra, D. Shome , P. Dasgupta
The low rank high moisture of coal from East Kalimantan, Indonesia has been tested in large stockpiles to understand the possibilities of lowering their total moisture content under ambient conditions. The results from the small scale drying tests indicate a strong potential to significantly reduce the “as mined” moisture content of high moisture low rank coal. All tests showed consistent losses over time with an average weight loss of 27% for the 22 day test period. These test show the maximum possible natural drying potential with no impediments to drainage and no additional moisture load from rainfall. It can be expected that drainage will allow reduction in moisture. The size distribution shows a mean size of 10mm and low proportions of ultra-fine material, which makes the crushed coal suitable for stockpile drainage as there should be ample clearance between particles. Dry conditions allowed the piles to drain free moisture at a loss rate of between 0.7 and 1.7% per day. Additional rain periods ensured that the overall effect was a gain in moisture for the trial period. It would be apparent that the greatest drying benefit would be gained by sheltering the coal from rain. Any drying benefits gained by stockpiling could be reversed by rainfall exposure. This evaluation would suggest that, without consideration for the weather condition effecting the stockpile temperature and moisture, a natural drainage period of between 18 and 25 days would assist in the reduction of moisture associated with the high moisture low rank coal. KEYWORDS Low rank, Coal, Stockpile, Total Moisture, Rainfall, Rain
148 Cobit, Itil and Iso 27002 Alignments for Information Security Governance in Modern Organisations   , Tanvir Orakzai
Over the years; there have been a number of methodologies and standards designed to help IT Governance and information security within modern organizations to achieve optimum process to achieve business objectives. Companies pursue the use of various mechanisms to ensure that their IT infrastructure is aligned with the objectives of the business and comply with local and global IT governance rules and regulations. Despite the vast amount of options available, there has been considerable confusion over the various methods used IT manager due to their lack of compressive information Governess approach. This paper proposes the comprehensive alignment of ITIL, COBIT and ISO/IEC 27002 that can be effectively used by any organization as a comprehensive solution to handle IT Governance and Information Technology Management in their organizations. KEYWORDS ITIL, COBIT, ISO- 27002, information security, IT Governance, Information Technology Management
149 Disparate Policies in Social Education Practices Damage Social Peace   , Dr Jakir Hossain
Educational policies and practices in Bangladesh are dominating issue in terms of managing educational establishments. Disparate policies and practices in educational profession are prone to damaging social peace has become apparent in the writing and study. Education is the destiny for a nation and a core field that helps the nation develop all sections of activities and make fit her citizens as a rich nation. The study has got several issues of importance and found that worthy citizens who boys and girls must be educated well and bring peace or prosperity if they are well equipped with factors like supports and facilities which beget merits, talents, skills and expertise and on the contrary, abuses of law, quota systems for employments and education, discriminatory treatments in legal issues towards boys who could not contribute more and more to building the nation but have very less scopes for success due to readymade obstacles. The crimes and corruptions, injustice, aggressive feminism policies, political undue scopes, illiteracy and ignorance, poverty of boys and later as men grow in alarming rates as a result of depriving them of their rights and opportunities at early stages as citizens of the country. All supports and facilities such as free education up to graduation levels, stipends, food for education programs and legal supports only for girls students who easily achieve the opportunities in education and employments have been issues of controversial behaviors. KEY WORDS Discrimination, Free education, Stipend, Quota, Ignorance, Talent, Crimes, Feminism
150 Grid Interconnection of Hybrid Energy Sources at The Distribution Level with Power-Quality Improvement   , M.Natarajan & Prof .N. Kayalvizhi
Renewable Energy Source (RES) integrated at distribution level is known as Distributed Generation (DG). This paper presents a control strategy for achieving maximum benefits from these grid-interfacing inverters when installed in 3-phase 4-wire distribution systems. The inverter is controlled to perform as a multi-function device by incorporating active power filter functionality. The inverter can thus be utilized as: 1) power converter to inject power generated from RES to the grid, and 2) shunt APF and L,C Filter to compensate current unbalance, load current harmonics, load reactive power demand and load neutral current. Dynamic Voltage Restorer to compensating the Voltage sags and swells. All of these functions may be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. KEYWORDS Power quality, Active power filter (APF), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), distributed generation (DG), distribution system, grid interconnection, power quality (PQ), renewable energy
151 Quality Control on Higher Education Systems in Bangladesh   , Dr Jakir Hossain
Quality control on educational systems in Bangladesh has been viewed in traditional routine ways at institutions in Bangladesh. This paper study found out some vital factors which might be real concern in observance of quality issues. The salient notions including organizational structural lapses, governance problems, modern teaching approach gaps, syllabus & curriculum design frailty, infrastructural shortages, top level policies and decisions problems, implementation problems & disparity factors, Bureaucracy, leadership defects, interference, resistances to changes, improper planning, lack of professionalism, lack of resources, favoritism are salient issues seen in this study. Political influences on environments, systems of teaching and learning leading to quality failures have got serious impacts on total output and development. Besides some other dominant factors include teachers‟ roles, assessments systems on students performances and continuations, stake holders attitudes, interest in profit makings have been major features in not assuring quality standards been identified. KEYWORDS Quality Control, Standards, Education, Institution, Universities
152 The Effect of Religion Toward Moral Values of College Students in Locos Sur, Philippines   , Fr. Damianus Abun, Riza Cajindos
Many wonder why self-confessed religious nations such as Christian nation, Islam nations, Hinduism nation, have not become better country in terms of morality such as corruption, killings, gambling, cheating, abortions, and many more immoralities. Those immoralities raise question in the mind of many people: does religion have no influence to the moral life of people? At the same time, some nations that claim to have no religion, they are advanced and less corrupt. Such picture deserves to be investigated. KEYWORDS Religion, Morality, Life, Individual, Human Welfare, Realties
153 The Effects of Motivation on Workers Performance (a Case Study of Panas Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd., Ganapur, Banke)   , Subarna Budhathoki,
The main focus of this research is to find out the effects of motivation on workers performance in Panas Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd. An effort have been made to evaluate the existing workers motivational policies in Panas Pharmaceutical with a view to examine the effects of motivation on worker productivity increase and also to identity the variable that are directly or indirectly responsible for workers performance, while assess how motivation come into play in Panas Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd. The researchers however, observed that most of the motivation Policies in the company were not adequately function and the little policies that are function were inconsistent and irrelevant for workers needs and desired in Panas Pharmaceutical. In making these findings possible, thirty (30) respondents were presented with questionnaires, out of sixty (60) work force of the company and translated their responses into tables using simple distribution and percentages. Therefore, it has been proved that motivating workers sufficiently with relevance incentives as the only alternative towards workers performance to achieve goal and objectives of the organization. On the basis of these findings, implications of the findings for future study were highlighted. KEYWORDS Effects, Motivation, Workers, Performance
154 The Relationship among Work System, Workplace Hazards and Employee’s Behaviour: A Study of Selected Staff of Nigeria Eagle Flourmill, Ibadan   , Oludele, M. Solaja
The study examined the relationship between work system, workplace hazards and employees behaviour. It aimed at addressing the issue of how work can be structured in order to reduce workplace hazards and produce affirmative employee‟s work behavior. The study uses survey research method. Participants in the study were 120 staffs of Nigerian Eagle Flourmill, Ibadan who were selected through stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Data were collected via responses elicited using the questionnaire instrument. Results show that there is a significant relationship between work system, workplace hazards and employees behaviour. The findings were discussed with reference to relevant empirical literatures, and with recommendations for management of organizations both for practice and future research highlighted. KEYWORDS Work system, workplace hazard, employees, behaviour, organization
155 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) And Administrative Performance of Principals’: A Survey of Public Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria , Martins Olanrewaju Atunde, Jamiu Wankasi Abdulraheem, Abdulganiyu Adebayo Tijani, Oba Baba Ayoku, Sunday Olaifa Adeseko
As, information and communication technology (ICT) is sweeping through the global world, there is the need for Nigeria and her educational administrators to keep abreast of the innovations and applications of ICT for performance of their daily administrative task and duties. However, studies directed in this regard were constraint in content and geographical scope. This study therefore examined the impact of ICT on secondary schools’ principals’ administrative performance in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. This study was anchored on the Technology Acceptance Model. The study was a descriptive research of a survey type. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 135 participants (45 principals and 90 vice-principals) from 45 sampled public secondary schools. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data collected were statistically treated with percentages, mean and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) statistics. Result obtained revealed that, the extent of ICT usage by secondary school principals was moderate (grand mean value of 2.90), while the level of principals’ performance in the discharge of their routine administrative duties was also moderate (grand mean value of 2.65). Finding also revealed a significant relationship between the usage of ICT facilities and administrative performance of secondary school principals (r-cal 0.631 > r-tab 0.195). The study concluded that, although ICT has significant influence on performance of principals’ administrative duties, its level of availability and usage led the researcher to conclude that secondary school principals in Nigeria are not yet ready for technological advancement or development.
156 Financial Fraud: Enablers and Response. Empirical Evidence from NGOs in Uganda , Benson B. Okech
This paper provides an empirical analysis of Financial fraud from NGOs in Uganda. Financial fraud was measured using assets misrepresentation, fraudulent statements and corruption. The study anchored on fraud triangle and fraud diamond theories. The population was 1,264 NGOs in central region with valid permits. The study used primary data collected from 302 NGOs out of 304. A cross sectional descriptive design was used in the study while data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study finds that; the key enabler of financial fraud is opportunity, area most prone to financial fraud is corruption while financial fraud could be managed through prevention. The study recommends that; ethical values, statements and standards be developed and made available to NGOs stakeholders while policies on kickbacks should be developed. Pre-employment check should continue as a preventive measure. It is further recommended that this study be done for public organisations within the same area to have a full understanding of the nature of financial fraud in central Uganda. The same should be replicated in other regions of Uganda. While the prevention strategy of financial fraud is the most effective, there are other areas where opportunities to commit financial fraud exist and the attention of both development partners and NGOs should focus on them.
157 Discrimination and Abuses: The impact on the Mental and General Health Conditions of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations in Ghana , Nathaniel Acolatse
Despite the growing acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) in the world, homosexuality in Ghana is illegal. LGBTs in Ghana are subjected to myriads of discrimination and abuses. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs have on their mental and general health conditions. A total of 494 self-identified LGBTs, recruited via non-probability sampling technique of snow-ball participated in the study. The survey included four categories of survey items: demographic information, forms of discrimination and abuses, general health, and mental health. The findings of the study indicated that the major forms of discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs are of legal, social and employment forms. The findings of the study revealed that LGBT individuals in Ghana experience somatization, depression, and anxiety several days. On the contrary, a significant proportion 218(48.3%) of the LGBTs considered themselves to be in good general health condition. A simple linear regression analysis performed to examine the impact the discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs have on their mental and general health conditions revealed that the legal, employment, and family discrimination and abuses faced by the LGBTs have a detrimental effect on the psychological distress of anxiety, somatization, and depression of the LGBTs. It is recommended that policies and laws against LGBTs in Ghana be changed to allow for their acceptance, otherwise LGBTs in Ghana will continue to experience discriminations and abuses which will have negative effects on their mental and general health.
158 Assessing Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) Mathematics in Ghanaian Basic Schools , Millicent Narh-Kert, Ernest Ampadu
Introduction: Knowledge about teaching mathematics remains a contentious issue in the preparation of pre-service teachers. This study assessed factors influencing pre-service teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) mathematics in Ghanaian basic schools. Methods: The cross-sectional survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 998 pre-service teachers from ten (10) public colleges of education were sampled via multi-stage sampling technique for the study. Structured questionnaire and unstructured observation schedule were used to conduct the survey. Secondary data was also collected in the form of mathematics test results. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22 was used to analyse the data using descriptive statistics (frequency count, percentage) and inferential statistics (Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression, exploratory factor analysis). Results: The study revealed that many pre-service teachers in Ghanaian public colleges of education had weak mathematics content knowledge. The following factors influenced MKT of the pre-service teachers: gender, ways of imparting mathematics knowledge, perception about mathematics as a subject, perception about mathematics teaching and learning and attitudes towards mathematics (p < .05). Conclusions: This study exploring the factors that influence pre-service teachers’ MKT suggests that, to be able to build effective mathematics teacher base in any basic school, there must be effective training on factors like gender, perception, and attitude. There is therefore the need for the National Council for Tertiary Education to emphasis on factors that influence MKT besides the content of the college of education mathematics curriculum.
159 An Assessment of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Care Practices of Health Workers on Mental Health Persons Living with HIV/AIDS , Edna Chirwa Simwinga
Evidence has shown that socioeconomic inequalities are an important topic in politics, social sciences and public health research. The common trend is that individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds are often deprived of essential commodities, in the form of service, that are critical to their wellbeing. Nonetheless, little but surely, these deprivations result in affecting the psychological health of the victims and ultimately may end up causing mental dysfunction. It is against such hypothesis that many scholars have established the link of SES as being a powerful risk factor of mental illness. In light of the above, this study aimed at exploring the association of SES, home environment, HIV/AIDS and mental illness. A more specific approach was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and care practices of health workers on mental Health Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A mixed method approach was used to carry out this investigation, however, much embedded on the qualitative approached. The study collected primary data study participants through the use of a semi-structured interview guide. The study participants included Nurses and Clinical Officers in Health Centres in Lusaka urban and rural, as well as relatives of the mental health patients. Consent was sought from the ministry of health to conduct the study and all study participants were consented before participating in the study. The study revealed that health workers had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS; however, there was evidence on negligence in provision of health care towards mental persons living with HIV/AIDS. Despite a lot of health care reporting to have had training on care for HIV/AID persons (90%), the findings revealed that some of them had a negative attitude towards caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS and this affects the quality of care. This study provides strong evidence that SES impacts the development of mental illness directly, as well as indirectly through its association with adverse economic stressful conditions among lower income groups.
160 Investigating the most applied Head Teachers’ Leadership Style in Motivating Teachers: The Case of Secondary Education Teachers in Kitwe District, Zambia , Prudence Mwelwa Kalungad  
The purpose of the study was to investigate the most applied head teachers’ leadership styles in motivating teachers’ in secondary schools of Kitwe district, Zambia. The study was conducted using descriptive survey. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 22 head teachers and 210 teachers respectively to participate in the study. Questionnaire instruments with Likert scale questions were used as research tools in collecting data from teachers and head teachers. To test reliability of the instruments, data set on the questionnaires were subjected to chronbach`s alpha (α) test statistics using statistical package for social sciences version.20 (SPSS 20). Data collected from the participants were quantitatively analyzed and presented into tables using SPSS 20. The results for this study show that head teachers frequently apply democratic leadership style as they allow teachers to express their feelings about how things should be done and they put suggestions made by staff members into operation. It is recommended that head teachers in secondary schools of Kitwe district should equally apply all the three leadership styles (democratic, laissez-faire and autocratic) without favoring only one type of leadership style. (184 words).  
161 Situational Analysis of ICT Applications in Colleges of Education libraries in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges, Igbasi Wilson O, Rose Okonkwo
This research work dealt on “Situational Analysis of ICT Applications in Colleges of Education libraries in Nigeria”. The purpose of the study is to find out the challenges of applying ICT in library functions and to examine the benefits of applying ICT in library functions. A survey research design was used for this study. The researcher made use of purposive sampling technique to select fifty respondents from (300) three hundred library staff of colleges of education in south eastern Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was adopted because the respondents are few and have the same features, for instance, the respondents work in college library. The instrument for data collection is the questionnaire which has thirty (30) items designed to obtain information on ICT application in colleges of education libraries. The mean statistics was used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study showed that lack of ICT personnel, lack of standardization, lack of library software to mention but a few are some of the challenges of applying ICT in library functions. The paper also listed some of the benefits of applying ICT to library functions such as low cost of processing materials, speed and accuracy of information, better service at lower cost, influences accessibility of information acquisition of knowledge and skills etc. The paper concluded that Government should employ ICT personnel and experts in our libraries to handle the integration and at the same time provide in-service training and re-training for library staffs on a regular basis as measures to ICT application in Colleges of education libraries.
162 The Contribution of Education to Entrepreneurship and Management , Ezekiel Mtonga
The purpose of this study was to establish the contribution education has on Entrepreneurship management and its effect on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Chipata District of Zambia. Entrepreneurs remain key relevant partners in the economic development of any country globally, and Chipata district is no exception. Due to the lack of clear evidence as to how successful educated entrepreneurs are managing their businesses in Chipata district of Zambia, this study was aimed at assessing the contribution of education to SMEs in Chipata District. The study was limited to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Chipata district, town centre. The study implored a descriptive cross-sectional study design to address the research questions. Questionnaires were used as means of collecting data from the business owners. The study sampled 60 business units in Chipata district. The sample was identified by means of specific purposive sampling. All ethical considerations were taken account. The findings showed that most of the entrepreneurs did not possess qualifications that were higher than a first degree, however some entrepreneurs made some efforts to study business courses at local universities. The findings also showed that the SMEs’ owners accepted and agreed that employees that had attained some business qualifications added value to the management of the business.
163 Epidemiology of Human Leptospirosis in HIV Patients Attending Anti- Retro Viral Treatment in Public Hospitals and Clinics in Kabwe Urban , Grant Nombwende
A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the epidemiology of leptospirosis in 282 participants, 150 were Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and 132 non-HIV patients (controls) attending ant retro viral treatment (ART) and outpatient department in public hospitals and clinics in Kabwe, Zambia urban district respectively. Demographic, disease history, co-morbidities and concomitant medication history was captured using a structured 10-point close ended questionnaire. Plasma was tested for the presence of leptospirosis using the enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) as screening test and the dark field microscopy technique (DFM) as confirmatory test to determine disease distribution in the population. Plasma found positive with ELISA and leptospires detected by dark field microscopy were considered to have leptospirosis. Results revealed that 50 out of the 150 HIV positive participants were positive for leptospirosis (33%). This was significantly higher (P=0.002) than in the control group, where only 15 out of 132 participants were found to have leptospirosis (11%). 5 tests were discordant as they gave positive results with ELSA yet leptospires were not detected by the dark field microscopy. The leptospirosis confirmatory test was found to have sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 97%, PPV 98%, NPV 92% and efficiency of 95% which were significant parameters to warrant the adoption of the results and determine the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the areas under study. It was concluded that epidemiology of leptospirosis in Kabwe district is 21% after adjusting for false positives.  
164 The Challenges Faced by Human Resource Practitioners in Implementing Strategic Human Resource Management in South Sudan National Organizations: Case study Jubek State , Joggo Florence D. Moini, Nandita Mishra, Ashok NM
The main purpose of this study was to examine the challenges faced by human resource practitioners in implementing the Strategic human resource management in Jubek State, South Sudan National NGOs. The target population in this study was the Human Resource Practitioners. The research design employed was qualitative approaches. Interviews and focused group where conducted. In this paper primary data was collected by the use of interviews and focus group discussion., documentary and observation method. Content analysis of collecting data was used and results presented through narrative. The findings of the study shown that lack of employee’s benefits packages, rigidity of some employees to adopt organization policies and procedures, management interference on human resource role, and political instability are the contributing challenges that affected the human resources practitioners. Conclusion was drawn to improve the challenges faced by HRP which include, provision of refresher training on the policies and procedure, Human Resource unit should be independent, organizational culture need to be understood by the entire employees separated employees should be given their entitlement or separate organ to keep the pension for the employees.  
165 Peace Counselling Education and National Security: Case Study of Niger Delta Region of Nigeria , Ogagavwodia Jesuovie Efe Peter
The absence of a formidable structure for peacebuilding counselling and security development hampers the development of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria resulting to both economic, political as well as social challenges to the inhabitants of the nation as a whole and the Niger Delta region in particular. This study examined how education counselling can influence the promotion of peacebuilding specifically in Ughelli North Local Government of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and its ability to reduce structural violence already being experienced in the region. The study adopted the quantitative descriptive survey method using primary sources of data collection such as the questionnaire and literature reviewed from secondary sources like journals, books, and online articles. For the primary data, a sample size of 1000 was adopted for the questionnaire from a population of 441,600 after using Cronbach Alpha to test the level of reliability of the instrument. The results from the test of correlation between peace education counselling and national peace building showed a significant relationship between the two variables with a mean score of above 164 in support of a significant relationship as against less than 25 against. This showed the level of appreciation and relevance of peace education counselling. It is recommended that peace education counselling be used by teachers and owners of schools and National Education Policy Makers incorporate this into the school curriculum to lay a proper foundation of peace for the younger generation in tandem with the idea of catching them young.  
166 An Analysis of the Acceptance of the Government of Ghana’s Electronic Pay (e-pay) Slip System , Isaac Asampana, Albert Akanlisikum Akanferi, Hannah Ayaba Tanye, Bunyaminu Alhassan
This study analyses the acceptance and use of the e-pay slip system by public sector workers in Ghana. Examination of the literature showed that no research has been done to verify the process of adoption and use of the e-pay slip system in Ghana. The General Linear Model (GLM) procedure, specifically, the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was employed to analyse and explain the adoption. The constructs used for the survey include; behavioural intention, attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, systems accessibility and personal innovations, which were developed based on the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The results confirmed that the extended TAM was an excellent theoretical model to understand users’ acceptance of the e-pay slip system. The findings showed that the accessibility and subjective norm of the e-pay slip system were the most significant constructs that influenced the model.  
167 Modern Movement and the Debates of Tradition and Modernity in Iran , Hamid Aghaei Rad
This article considers and analyses the historical events of 200 years (i.e., 1779–1978) and two dynasties: the Qajar and the Pahlavi in Iran. Arguments proceed chronologically. The main intentions of the leaders of the modern movement, social modifications and related criticisms are analysed. From a historical point of view, this article explores the history of the modern movement and the debates around modernity in Iran. From an analytical point of view, this article considers the background of Iranian criticism against Westernisation and analysed the situation that led to raising the debate on modernity. Criticisms against modernity are considered in this essay. In addition to eco-social changes, it explores criticisms about modernity in different fields such as philosophy and literature. This essay also highlights that from a philosophical point of view Gnosticism became important as an alternative to Westernism. In this respect, the perspective of Nasr, an avant-garde scholar, is outlined. Keywords: Modern movement; westernism; Gnosticism; history of Iranian modernisation; Social modifications and its impact on Iranian architecture.  
168 Gender and Psychological Planning towards Retirement: The Perspectives of Tutors in Ghanaian Colleges of Education , Bernice Oteng, Augustine Mac-Hubert Gabla, Ebenezer Aidoo Bamfo
Introduction: A fundamental concern as one contemplates retirement is “will I have enough money on which to live?” This study, conducted in colleges of education in Ghana, investigated into gender influence on psychological planning and preparation towards retirement among tutors in Ghanaian Colleges of Education. Methods: The study employed mixed-method sequential explanatory design. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 54 college tutors from two (2) colleges of education for the survey, while six (6) out of the 54 tutors were purposively sampled for interview. The data collected via self-developed questionnaire (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78) and semi-structured interview guide were analysed quantitatively using frequency count, percentage, and inferential statistics (independent samples test), and qualitatively through thematic analysis — responses from respondents were categorized into themes. Results: The study found that most of the tutors were not psychologically ready for retirement. The study revealed a significant but marginal gender differences in psychological planning towards retirement among male and female tutors (p ≤ .05). Conclusions: This study established the evidence of significant gender differences in psychological planning and preparation towards retirement among formal and informal sector workers, including college tutors. There is the need for teacher unions, employers and other stakeholders in Ghana to engage the services of professional financial services advisors and investment institutions to roll out financial investment schemes for tutors besides public pension schemes for a better secured post-retirement life.  
169 An Empirical Study on the Challenges of GIS Application to Emergency Management in South Sudan , Ayub Samson Maswa
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Since 2013 the country then plunged into a civil war that has displaced thousands both internally and externally across borders to neighboring countries. This has created a large-scale humanitarian crisis that still continues to ravage the new nation. The United Nations and other Humanitarian organizations continue to play a leading role in responding to this humanitarian crisis with the goal of alleviating the suffering of the afflicted civilian population and bring an end to the conflict. Through the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), the United Nations (UN) has established several response mechanisms to ensure a comprehensive response. Information Technology is playing a crucial role through the extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for information management, mapping and cartography and data modelling. The purpose of this study is to explore the challenges limiting the application and utilization of GIS for planning, decision support and response in the context of post-independence South Sudan. The study applies qualitative methods to a purposively selected sample population of individuals working in the humanitarian, Relief and Rehabilitation areas in South Sudan from both the Governmental and Non-Governmental sectors. The findings of this study highlight the major challenges faced by GIS application and practice categorized into: Feature dataset issues, Training and Capacity issues, Technology and infrastructure, Political and Security, and Advocacy challenges. Keywords: Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Disaster Management, Emergency Management, South Sudan.
170 Epidemiological Distribution of 48 Diagnosed COVID-19 Cases in Bangladesh: A Descriptive Study , Irin Hossain, Ashekur Rahman Mullick, Manzurul Haque Khan, Sk Akhtar Ahmad, Shafiur Rahman, M M Aktaruzzaman  
In 8 March, 2020 COVID-19 was first confirmed in Bangladesh. We aimed to clarify the epidemiological distribution of first forty-eight confirmed COVID-19 cases in Bangladesh till 28 March, 2020. It was a retrospective descriptive study in Bangladesh from 8 March, 2020 to 28 March, 2020 on the basis of official press briefing of IEDCR on behalf of Ministry of Health in Bangladesh, different newspapers and online news portals. Among forty-eight cases, majorities (60%) were male and about 17% cases were unidentified. About 46 % cases were within 21-40 years of age. About 4% cases were from below 10 years of age and about 15% were from more than 60 years of age. About 12% cases age was unidentified. Mortality rate were also high in old age group. Total 11% cases were died from this COVID-19 and among them 40% were 70 years old. About 31% had travelling history from abroad. In case of 7% cases, their travelling countries were unidentified. Most of them (35%) were from Dhaka city. About 24% cases residence were not identified. About 33% of these 48 cases, they were exposed by their family members or community transmission. Only 10% cases were from health service and among them 60% were doctors/physicians and 40% were nurses. Majority of them (58%) were still remain in hospital or treatment purpose. About 11% were died and most of them were more than 65 years of age. COVID-19 is more dangerous in elderly male cases and mortality is also high in this group. Community gathering places like capital city of Bangladesh had high rate of COVID-19 occurrences. Direct transmission rate was higher rather than community/family transmission till to date.  
171 Study of Marketing and Processing of Mushroom Production with a View to Increase Income among Local Mushroom Producers in Zambia , Decision Mweemba
This research is about the adoption of mushroom farming as a source of income generation by smallholder farmers in Zambia. Mushroom farming business specialize in growing mushrooms. These mushrooms are used by customers for either medicinal or culinary purposes, depending on the type of mushroom grown. Additionally, they may be sold wholesale to clients or at retail prices. A mushroom farm business’ ideal customer is a restaurant that focuses on using locally sourced ingredients. Restaurants and Hotels will have regular orders that provide stable income. Through the literature review and the study, it was found that the mushroom production is profitable because it has a huge market within Zambia and also that it is climate independent and it doesn’t require a large land for production. To accomplish the objective of the research the following research questions were formulated: What is the farmers’ knowledge on mushroom farming? What is the willingness of farmers to do mushroom farming? To answer these questions three focus groups and three interviews were undertaken. The focus groups consisted of producers, traders and established company doing mushroom production. Based on these results the research concluded that there are knowledge gaps among the Mushroom farmers especially on Marketing and Processing skills. It was also evident that there are very few established companies in Mushroom production and have monopolized the production of mushroom. There is a lot of potential yet for mushroom farming locally since there’s such a large amount of organic waste products to contend with.
172 Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Mental Stress of Female Sex Workers, Tonima Amir Haque, Shaheeda Hamid, Ummul Khair Alam, Ajmari Sharmin, Irfan Nowroze Noor, Muiz Uddin Chowdhury, Ashekur Rahman Mullick, Irin Hossain
Sex work is a major public health problem worldwide. Although prostitution or sex work is a global and deeply rooted social phenomenon, substantial disparity exists in its perception, depending on different social and cultural factors. Women engaging in sex work may be exposed to serious health risks and exposure to highly stressful life events which may have long term implications on their mental health. This cross-sectional study was done in drop-in center ‘Swajan-33’ in Sylhet district within a period of one year among 105 respondents aged of 14 to 38 years of age to assess the association between their socio-demographic characteristics and mental stress. Data were collected by face to face interview through a pretested structured questionnaire. Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess the level of mental stress. Data collected from purposively selected respondents. The analysis of data reveals that, more than half 53.3% of the respondents were in age group between 14 to 23 years and their mean age was 23.98 years with SD±6.099 years, Muslim 65%, illiterate 49.5%, majority 59% had daily income of 600-1000 taka. The finding of this study showed that 85.7% were suffering from high perceived stress and 14.3% were suffering from moderate stress. Age, level of education, income was not associated with level of mental stress (p>0.05). Literacy rate among the female sex workers are still low and invariably they are suffering from high perceived mental stress. Policies for their financial independency such as technical education, allocation of isolated educational institution, increasing social support may help them to lead a prosperous life.
173 The COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health: A Systemic Review , Irin Hossain, Ashekur Rahman Mullick, Ayesha Haidar, M M Aktaruzzaman
This review study aims at discussing about the mental health condition during COVID-19 occurrence among health-care professionals, patients and mass population. The COVID-19 pandemic has been rapidly spread in China, USA, Italy, France, Spain and other Asian and European counterparts. This COVID-19 pandemic has aroused increasing attention nationwide. Patients, health-care professionals, and the mass population are under unmeasurable mental pressure which may lead to different types of mental health problems, such as anxiety, fear, depression, and insomnia. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), mental health includes "subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational dependence, and self-actualization of one's intellectual and emotional potential, among others”. The WHO further states that the well-being of an individual is encompassed in the realization of their abilities, coping with normal stresses of life, productive work, and contribution to their community. It was a systemic review study regarding mental health problems due to COVID-19. We gather total 29 articles related to COVID-19 and mental health using different search portal like PubMed, Google Scholar, Nature, Lancet. After proper literature review only 8 literatures which were related to this study were taken for this systemic review purpose. Public health and mental health specialist have reached a decision about the severe mental illness during the COVID-19 outbreak among health-care professionals, patients and mass population. But, the rapid spread of the COVID-19 has emerged a serious challenge to the mental health service in COVID-19 affected countries.
174 Globalization or De-linking? Gauging the Efficacy of Global Administration to Global Pandemics in the Face of the Novel Corona Virus between December 2019 and the First Quarter of 2020 , Feddious Mutenheri
In the last month of 2019, the world was confronted by an outbreak of a novel Corona virus originating from Wuhan, China – COVID-19. The virus resulted in the deaths of more than three thousand people worldwide by the end of January 2020. By the end of March, the virus had spread to all the continents, threatening to shut down the world economy as we know it today. There was no vaccine or medication to regulate its contagion except that people were mandated to act in a precautionary way to curb its spread. There is no doubt that the corona virus pandemic presented the single most, modern challenge to the global village and globalisation. The outbreak was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and subsequently, a pandemic. However, despite the decrees, there was no concerted world effort to decisively deal with the plague. Over a period of two months the virus had done extreme damage through the interaction of peoples around the world. Two strategies had become buzzwords for curbing the virus – Social distancing and Lockdown. This paper interrogates the effectiveness of Global administration to this contagion. The paper questions the ability of the global system of administration to deal with global catastrophes of this nature. Concepts of globalisation versus delinking are revisited to assess their applicability today. The paper cross-examines the role of the virus in the incessant trade and biological wars between the West and the East. Qualitative research methods, descriptive and exploratory techniques were used.
175 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Postoperative Pain Assessment and Management among Health Care Practitioners in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana , Richard Sarfo-Walters
Postoperative patients experience moderates to severe pain within first 48 hours and this minimizes comfort. This study aims to establish level of nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of postoperative pain assessment and management in Cape Coast. A descriptive quantitative, cross- sectional research design was used. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 200 nurse anaesthetists and registered nurses from Cape Coast Teaching Hospital and Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital, Central Region, Ghana. The respondents’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of postoperative pain management were evaluated using opened and closed-ended questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed, more than half of the respondents stated that postoperative pain is best told by the patients themselves but significant number 34% stated health care practitioners can best tell patient pain intensity. Less than half of the respondents observed the effect of pain medication on patients. Almost half of the respondents agreed patients would be addicted when they are given opioids analgesics. It was concluded that there were adequate knowledge of postoperative pain assessment and management among respondents but there is knowledge gap with regards to who best tell if patient experiences pain or not. Knowledge and practices of postoperative pain assessment and management were statistically significantly related and there is a strong relationship between knowledge and practice of postoperative pain assessment management. It was recommended that pain assessment and management should be done before and after administration of analgesia. Pain medications such as opioids should be given as and when necessary.  
176 Patients with Breast Cancer: Care in the Eyes of their Caregivers , Abdel B. Carlos, Engelbert C. Manuel, Joy Nomarie S. Mercado, Jefferson Bacoling, Mary Wella Patrysse Almojuela
Previous quantitative studies have been conducted on breast cancer patients in terms of understanding and comprehending the nature of the disease. However, little is known about the lived experiences of caregivers of breast cancer patients. The study aimed to understand the lived experiences of caregivers of patients with breast cancer. A Gadamerian-phenomenological approach and Van Manen methodological approach were used in the study. Data were collected using in-depth individual interviews. Researchers utilized unstructured which was aided with audio and/or video recorders. Seven participants included, who provide regular assistance in their activities of daily living, whose age from 21 -65. Data transcription and analysis used van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The meaning of lived experiences of caregivers of patients with breast cancer revealed thematic categories: caregivers being human, challenges as a caregiver thoughts and emotions emerging, lifting life above illness, caring as a choice, support despite challenges, strengthened relationship, light during darkness, escape amidst difficulties, accepting inevitable death, accepting a loss of a loved one. It revealed that there is diversity in caregiving experiences among the participants despite going through the same situation, sharing nearly similar experiences of giving care to these patients. The study asserts that there is universality of the caregiving phenomenon across cultures similar or otherwise even with subsets of smaller cultures. The study can potentially benefit any agencies or institutions that renders care to patient with cancer. This study can potentially add credence to their efforts of providing support mechanisms to the caregivers of breast cancer patients.  
177 Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Clinical Learning during their Clinical Practice at Rusangu University, Monze campus, Zambia , Benius Kaliyangile, Catherine M Ngoma
178 Factors Influencing Student Nurses’ Clinical Learning during their Clinical Practice at Rusangu University, Monze campus, Zambia , Benius Kaliyangile, Catherine M Ngoma
Background: Clinical skills acquisition is an essential part of nurse training. However, acquisition of clinical skills could be influenced by the clinical learning environment. The objective of the study was to explore factors influencing student nurses’ learning during clinical practice and develop guidelines for learning enhancement. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Rusangu University in Monze, Southern Province and the study population were nursing students. A total of 50 respondents participated in the study. A proportional stratified random sampling method was used to select the sample. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire; analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows version 20. Pearson Chi-Square was used to assess relationship of specific factors and students’ learning experience with a significance level of 0.05. Results: 50% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 25 years of age, 64% were females whereas 36% were males. Students level of training, 50% were in fourth and above year and 40% were allocated to the clinical area for a minimum of one to two weeks duration. Students overall rating for clinical learning was average at 54%; availability of clinical teachers and Ward Managers was rated at 70%. Communication among students and staff was rated as being good at 58%; 66% of the respondents said staff had a positive attitude towards them. A significant association between level of training and support received during first week of placement (p= 0.000) and time allocated to the unit or ward (p= 0.045) was found Staff shortage, lack of equipment and medical surgical supplies, short practice time in some specialised units, inaccessible ward managers for consultations and clinical supervisors affected students learning. Conclusion: The School should address the above-mentioned factors and design strategies to improve the clinical learning environment.  
179 The Impact of Different Learning Methods on Nursing Students Learning Styles at the University of Lahore, Pakistan , Muhammad Afzal, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Syed Amir Gilani
Blended learning (BL) is positive development in education. This method provokes the learner’s critical thinking and given different ways for implementation of their knowledge in real life. The objective of the study is to determine the difference of blended learning teaching strategy and lecture-based teaching strategy on the learning outcome of the undergraduate nursing students in Lahore, Pakistan. Quasi experimental study design was used by utilizing control and experimental groups for comprising two methods of students learning. 197 participants were recruited in control group and experimental groups. The study sample was determined through the convenient sampling method. In this study the establishing reliability and construct validity of the tool was 0.7 and 0.75 respectively. In addition to this internal consistency Cronbach's coefficient alpha was computed 0.70. Generally, the reliability and validity were considered acceptable and satisfactory above 0.70. The results findings revealed that blended learning has significant relationship with awareness (p= < 0.02) learning strategies (p= < 0.07) learning activities (p=< 0.06), evaluation (p=0.04) among the experimental groups. In the conclusion, blended learning significantly improves the learning of the students and provides the space for better skills in the clinical setting simultaneously. Thereafter, institutions, policy makers and regulatory bodies should incorporate this strategy in the nursing curriculum in Pakistan.  
180 The Impact of the Trade War Between the USA and China on the Global Economy: The Reaction of Professional Men and Women in Zambia , Wendy Mumbi Margaret Chibesakunda
The purpose is to investigate if gender affects knowledge of the International Trade War. The results will show that if both men and women had knowledge in full, of the devastating effects of an International Trade War, before it's escalation, any trade war would be withheld. If women fully understood and participated in war issues, then the negotiations and agreements would be richer, stronger, subtler and firmly rooted especially in developing countries. The Author used the Chi Method to understand how knowledgeable are the Professional Men and Women in Zambia on The International Trade War and the data will show the knowledge imbalance. The Article confirms that more needs to be done with the dissemination of information and participation of women because the lack of knowledge and participation does not bring positive results according to the findings in research which is briefly referred to in the Literature Review. Sadly, it appears that the gender gap will always exist.
181 The Perception of Instructors and Learners' in Expertise Building in Vocational Courses in Ghana , Mustapha Bin Danquah
The main objective of the study was to ascertain the perception of instructors and learners regarding the role of supervision on expertise building in building construction course in vocational institutes in Ghana. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and it was carried out at Cape Coast Technical Institute. Utilizing a simple random sampling technique, 90 students were selected while purposive sampling was adopted in the selection of the 10 teachers for the study. This means, in all, 100 participants were selected for the study. A questionnaire was the major instruction for data collection for the study. The result of the study shows that the teachers and several students strongly believe and were convinced that supervision of instruction can be instrumental to the development of expertise in building construction. It facilitates students understanding of valuable aspects of building construction; develop the right attitude and requisite skills. Given the above findings, it is recommended that instructors should be abreast the latest pedagogical approach in building construction to acquaint teachers with a practical yet simple way of imparting requisite skills in building construction students. Also, teachers of building construction should be cooperative with supervisors, be open and willing to adopt the constructive recommendation of supervisors and refrain from teaching student in an autocratic manner. It is also important for building construction teachers to be abreast with the latest information on building construction to build students' expertise valuable for the labour market.  
182 Predictive Validity of Entry Level Mathematical on Mathematical Knowledge of Pre-service Teachers for Teaching Basic School mathematics in Ghana , Millicent Narh-Kert
Introduction: Knowledge about teaching mathematics remains a contentious issue in the preparation of pre-service teachers in Ghana. This study explored relationships among entry-level mathematical knowledge (ELMK), mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) scores of pre-service teachers in colleges of education (CoEs) in Ghana. Methods: The cross-sectional survey design was adopted for this study. A total of 998 pre-service teachers from ten (10) public colleges of education were sampled via multi-stage sampling technique. Structured questionnaire and unstructured observation schedule were used for the survey. College mathematics test results were used as secondary data. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency count, percentage) and inferential statistics (Pearson’s correlation, paired-samples t-test and regression analysis) with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 22. Results: The majority of pre-service teachers in Ghanaian colleges of education had average but relatively weak grades in ELMCK. ELMCK did not significantly predict pre-service teachers’ MCK statistically (p ≥ 0.05) although a statistically significant positive correlation existed between the variables. Although a negative correlation existed between ELMCK and PMCK, ELMCK significantly predicted pre-service teachers’ PMCK statistically (p ≤ 0.05) but the effect size was statistically negligible. Conclusions: This study concluded that, CoEs in Ghana admit pre-service teachers with average but weak grades in ELMK. Therefore, Ghanaian CoEs should structure and introduce PMCK alongside MCK for pre-service teachers. Mathematics tutors in CoEs should organize remedial lessons for pre-service teachers to scale-up their MCK and PMCK that adequately equip them with MKT.  
183 Validation of Non-Linear Relationships-Based UTAUT Model on Higher Distance Education Students’ Acceptance of WhatsApp for Supporting Learning , Douglas Yeboah
This study examined relationships among the exogenous constructs of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to identify those that significantly predict others. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 273 distance education students pursuing various diploma, bachelor’s degree and post-graduate diploma programs at the Cape Coast study center of the Institute for Distance and e-Learning (IDeL) of the University of Education, Winneba in Ghana. Proportional stratified random sampling technique was employed to obtain the sample of students. The data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicated that in acceptance of WhatsApp for supporting higher distance learning, effort expectancy and social influence predict performance expectancy; mobile self-efficacy and facilitating conditions predict effort expectancy; and facilitating conditions predict social influence. Also, mobile self-efficacy was found to significantly predict behavioral intention. We recommend that prior to introduction of a new technology such as WhatsApp for supporting learning, necessary resources and training should be provided by educational administrators and faculty to the students. This would make the students perceive that they can use the technology effectively to bring about gains in their learning; and subsequently accept the technology.  
184 Features of Problem Based Learning Lesson Plan That Fits into the Realities in the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics for Pre-service Teachers in Ghana , Eric Sefa Boye
The traditional method of teaching Mathematics has been criticised by researchers as learner passive paving the way for Problem Based Learning (PBL) strategy into the teacher education curriculum in Ghana. This development has aroused concerns about the effectiveness of lesson plans designed for teaching using the traditional method. Consequently, the introduction of a PBL lesson plan that is learner-centred, interactive, and involves the cooperation of learners in small group activities has become indispensable. The study seeks to determine the features of the PBL lesson plan that fits into the realities in the teaching and learning of Mathematics for pre-service teachers at the colleges of education in Ghana. The methodology employed in this study involved a literature review of a traditional lesson plan for pre-service teachers in Ghana alongside a proposed PBL lesson plan for pre-service teachers through a qualitative analysis before the enactment of the instructional process. The result and discussions of the two lesson plans placed the PBL lesson plan as a more constructive and a deeper reflection of the three domains of learning (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) which are crucial in stating instructional objectives and for teaching Mathematics. The paper recommended that the PBL strategy should be integrated into the teacher education curriculum in Ghana since its features better fit into the realities in Mathematics education in Ghana.  
185 Mobile Learning Support in Delivering Distance Education: Perception of Students of University of Cape Coast, Ghana , Douglas Yeboah, Paul Nyagorme, Kwaku Barfi
This paper explored the perception of University of Cape Coast distance education students on the use of mobile technologies to facilitate interactions among students and tutors as a learning-support system. The paper aimed at establishing whether distance education students would accept to be taught using a blend of mobile technologies and biweekly direct face-to-face tutorials on weekends. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 300 students pursuing various Diploma, Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees by distance at University of Cape Coast using systematic sampling technique. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. It was found that scheduled face-to-face tutorial sessions of distance education in University of Cape Coast were not supportive enough to address students’ learning needs. Also, all the respondents possessed mobile devices and perceived blending of mobile learning in distance education as an avenue to enhance collaborative learning with faculty and colleagues. It was recommended that curriculum and instructional designers of distance education courses must consider incorporating mobile learning pedagogies in the distance courses and learning experiences to address students’ learning needs using mobile technologies.  
186 An Investigation into Engagement Processes between Antenatal Providers and Users in Lundazi District – Zambia , Patricia Mambwe, Catherine. M. Ngoma
Background: Strategies to engage pregnant women in their prenatal care, educating them and encourage hospital deliveries are important elements to consider in efforts aimed to improve quality Antenatal Care (ANC). Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted in Lundazi District, Zambia. Engagement processes between ANC providers and pregnant mothers during the provision of antenatal care were explored. Data was collected from sixty pregnant women who attended ANC clinic in five public health facilities. It was also collected from seventy-five ANC providers. Data were collected through focus group discussion with ANC users, observation during consultation and self-administered questionnaire from ANC providers. Results: This study observed that one to one individualized health education was not reinforced despite the health and gestational age of clients. Only thirty-seven percent of ANC providers explained their findings to the clients during physical examination. Clients were not counselled on blurred vision, severe headache, convulsions, fever and difficulties in breathing. This study further found that ANC providers could not explain the reason for referral submitting that Antenatal mothers would still not understand even if staff took the entire year explaining. However, eighty percent of the ANC users were encouraged to deliver from the health facility. Conclusion: Lack of engagement with ANC users indicates missed opportunities for delivering quality ANC Care. Reforcement of this component would improve the quality of care and improve maternal and fetal wellbeing.  
187 Effect of Inquiry-Based Teaching Method on Students Achievement and Retention of Concepts in Integrated Science in Senior High School , Mohammed Issaka
This study purposely investigated the impact of using inquiry-based teaching method on students’ academic achievement and retention of concept in integrated science against the traditional method in some selected senior high schools in the Obuasi Municipality. The study also investigated the difference in the mean achievement score between male and female students taught integrated science using inquiry -based method. The sample for the study was 292 students in SHS two from Christ the King Catholic Senior High School and Obuasi Secondary Technical in the Obuasi Municipality. The sample were obtained through random sample technique. The experimental group received instructions in integrated science using inquiry-based method of teaching whereas the control group were taught with the traditional method. The data were collected through the use of pretest- posttest research design and were analyze according to the research question for the study. The main research question for the study was: What is the effect of inquiry-based method of teaching on students’ achievement and retention of concepts in integrated science? The results from the study indicates that the students in the experimental group performed better than the students in the control group. The findings also show that students who were instructed with inquiry-based method have higher retention capacity than their counterpart students who were exposed to traditional method. There was a slightly gender disparity in the achievement and retention capacity of both male and female students taught integrated science with inquiry-based method in favour of the male. This means that inquiry-based method is very rewarding to students in terms of achievement and retention regardless of gender.  
188 The Prevalence of Malaria amongst Adults in Remote Primary Health Care Facility in South-South Nigeria , Oche Prince I, Ndukwu Geraldine U
Malaria is a serious public health burden with high morbidity and mortality in Nigeria accounting for 60% outpatient visits, 30% childhood mortality, 25% infant mortality and 11% maternal mortality, respectively, in the country. Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with consequent high economic burden. Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in Nigeria. The prevalence of malaria is high in Nigeria resulting from several climatic, bioenvironmental and socio-demographic factors. Malaria prevalence is higher amongst dwellers with high poverty and illiteracy levels. The prevalence of malaria was evaluated retrospectively in this study using clinical records over 12 months in a remote primary healthcare facility in South-South Nigeria. The findings show varied malaria prevalence rates amongst the months, with 3 months below 50% and the remaining 9 months above 50%. The overall period prevalence was 56% (541/966). The high prevalence rate reported in this study reflects the endemicity of malaria in Nigeria and is consistent with other reports that malaria prevalence is higher in the south-south Nigeria than observed with other regions of the country. The study prevalence 56% is twice higher than the average national period prevalence of 23%.  
189 Assessment of Knowledge of Essential Supply Chain Functions among HIV/AIDS Supply Chain Workforce in Nigeria , Sunday O Aguora, Azuka C Oparah, Edith C Okechukwu
This study on assessment of knowledge of essential supply chain functions among HIV/AIDS supply chain workforce in Nigeria comprised of research objectives, questions and hypothesis. A pre-tested self-completed structured questionnaire (422) was administered to respondents, 396 were completed and returned, with a response rate of (93.8%). The respondents had received previous trainings and knowledge distribution of essential supply chain functions was good for (serving customers (84.9%), procurement (82.6%), logistics management information system (78.8%), monitoring and evaluation (77.6%) and product selection (71.0%)), but less than average for warehouse and distribution (48.0%), inventory strategy (48.7%), quantification (44.2%) and risk management (33.4%). The study revealed knowledge gaps in some essential supply chain functions among HIV/AIDS supply chain workforce. Chi-square statistic was employed for statistical comparison and hypothesis testing and revealed that knowledge of essential supply chain functions is significant factor of HIV/AIDS supply chain workforce capacity (p<0.05). There is need to strengthen HIV/AIDS workforce capacity in the areas they are deficient to ensure effective provision of service and improved health outcomes.  
190 Assessment of Practices and Awareness of Safety Measures of Biomedical Waste Management among Health Workers in Metropolitan Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria , Edith C Okechukwu, Azuka C Oparah, Sunday O Aguora
Effective and efficient biomedical wastes management is vital in the health care delivery system, safe environment and public health could possibly be achieved through the standard practices of the biomedical waste procedures with safety measures in place. The study was aimed to evaluate the practices and the level of awareness of health workers towards biomedical waste management in selected hospitals in Abuja. Data were collected by structured questionnaire and on- the-spot observation. Three private and three public hospitals that provided health care services in Abuja were surveyed. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis were used in the analysis of the data. Chi-square (χ2) test was used to determine the level of significance set at p<0.05. The male health workers were 220 (55.00%) and the female were 180 (45.00%) in the survey. The nurses were the highest number of respondents in the study with frequency percentage of 117(28.75%) followed by the laboratory scientists 96 (24.00%), Pharmacists 71 (17.75%, Doctors 64(16.00%) and other health care workers 54 (13.50%). The practices of handling biomedical waste among health workers was a significant factor of biomedical waste management (p<0.05). The awareness on safety measures among health workers was a significant factor of biomedical waste management (p<0.05). Improvement in the aspects of training retraining of health workers will go a long way to fill the lapses in the biomedical waste’s management practices. Government should establish policies and laws to enforce strict compliance in accordance with WHO stipulations.