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International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

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2 Assessment of the drug utilization pattern among chronic kidney disease patients with comorbid conditions , M. RANGA PRIYA AND BINI K.P
The aim of this study was to analyze the drug utilization pattern for different comorbid conditions among chronic kidney disease patients. A total of 176 patients were included in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A specially designed proforma was used to collect demographic, clinical, and medication details. Among the 176 patients, 103 (58.52%) were females and 73 (41.48%) were males. The mean (±SD) age of total study population was 52±19.9 years and the prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) increased with ageing in both males and females. Prevalence of CKD was found to be higher for stage 3.Out of 176 patients, 24 (13.64%) male and 41 (23.30%) female patients had stage 3 CKD. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to be highly prevalent comorbid condition, followed by hypertension, anaemia and coronary artery disease. Insulin was the most common anti-diabetic drug prescribed (32.7%), calcium channel blockers were the most common antihypertensive drugs prescribed (48.8%), iron and vitamin supplements were the most commonly prescribed haematinics (68.1%) and the most commonly prescribed drug for coronary artery disease was found to be statins (38.9%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was found to be highly prevalent co-morbid condition in CKD. To improve the disease management strategy and quality of life, time to time studies are required in drug utilization pattern.
3 Invitro evaluation of transdermal patch for edivoxetine hydrochloride , RAMAKRISHNA REDDY VOGGU AND RAVI TEJA.TUMBURU
The aim of this study  was to create a transdermal patch of Edivoxetine hydrochloride which has an appreciable mechanical properties. The transdermal patches were prepared using  solvent casting method . Various groups of patches with medication were prepared using diverse inclusion of polymers, for example, HPMC (different grades) ), Polyox303, Eudragit RL 100.Considering solubility of drug and polymer, the solvent system of  water: ethanol was chosen. Invitro release of drug substance was performed using phosphate buffer (PBS) pH 7.4. Compatibility of drug with  various excipients (drug: excipient in the proportion 1:1) was studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Assessment test, weight variation, content uniformity, drug content, collapsing perseverance, thickness, invitro disintegration and invitro crumbling were completed. The folding endurance of all batches found less than 500 times . The rates of medication dispersion was found between 72 and 100%.The formulation F4 containing a combination of HPMC and Eudragit showed maximum drug release of 94.23%. The method employed to prepare patches was capable of producing patches with almost uniform drug distribution. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidlines (40±2â—‹C at 75±5% RH) for optimized formulations and was found to be stable.
4 Design, molecular docking, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2,5-substituted imidazole derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents , AKEPOGU MONALIKA AND M VIJAYA BHARGAVI
Imidazoles have occupied a unique position in heterocyclic chemistry, and its derivatives Imidazoles are heterocyclic compounds  which possesses biological and pharmaceutical importance owing to its diversified activities like antibacterial, anti-tumor, antiviral, antiretroviral etc. In the current study 2,5-substituted imidazole were synthesized by using 2-acetyl thiophene as the starting material and 12 derivatives of 2,5- substituted imidazoles were subjected to insilico docking studies (PDB ID:1N26) using AUTODOCK vina software. The compounds that showed the best results were synthesized. The newly synthesized derivatives were characterized using IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectra. All the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for invitro anti-inflammatory activity.  The compounds IV c showed  good activity whereas  compounds IV a ,IV b, IV d, and IV e showed moderate activity which was comparable to that of the standard Diclofenac drug.
5 Role of herbal interventions in diabetes management , OMKAR KULKARNI, PRIYA KHARE, ANUJ AGRAWAL AND GAYATRI GANU
Diabetes mellitus is becoming a common metabolic disorder which has a serious threat to public health worldwide. Though much vigorous research is being undertaken in modern research, it is very challenging to manage diabetes and avoid complications with better quality of life. By conducting a large number of research work, numerous traditional medicines have been researched for diabetes. It is observed that the current allopathic treatment leads to numerous side effects and complications amongst the diabetic population. Thus, a new way out to avoid such complications is to adopt herbal remedies for the management of diabetes. Phytoconstituents and extracts isolated from different natural resources especially plants have always been a rich arsenal for controlling and treating diabetes and its complications. So this review helps the reader to understand the diabetes pathophysiology, possible ways in which polyherbal formulations can help management of diabetes mellitus.
6 Physicochemical properties and fatty acids composition of Sudanese Baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.) Seed oil , ABEER A. IDRIS, AZHARI H. NOUR, MAHMOUD M. ALI, IBRAHIM Y. ERWA AND OMER A. OMER ISHAG
Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a widespread tree species of the genus Adansonia, native to the African continent. The tree has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines and fuel. The global demand for baobab raw material for industrial applications has increased dramatically in recent years, thereby increasing their commercial value and importance. The aim of this study was to characterize the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of A. digitata seed oil. The oil is extracted by Soxhlet using n-hexane. The physicochemical properties of the seed oil were assessed by standard and established methods. The fatty acid composition of the seed oil was determined by GC-MS. The reddish yellow with characteristic odor oil obtained from the seeds had the following physicochemical properties: yield, 33.83%; melting point, 8 °C; boiling point, 227 °C; refractive index (25 °C), 1.436; iodine value, 98.3 g/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 4.3 meq. O2/kg of oil; free fatty acids, 0.34%; acid value, 6.8 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 180.7 mg KOH/g of oil; unsaponifiable matter, 1.7; moisture and volatile value, 14.79 (wt%); density, 0.867 g/cm3; viscosity, 35.03 mm2/s; specific gravity, 0.874. The fatty acids composition showed that linoleic acid (30.63%) was the major fatty acid and followed by oleic- (23.34%), palmitic- (22.87%), stearic- (5.89%), malvalic- (5.52%), cis-10-nonadecenoic- (2.67%), sterculic- (1.61%) and arachidic acid (1.43%). Therefore, more and advanced research should be undertaken for this abundant source of natural oil for possible industrial applications.
7 A systematic review on synthesis and anticancer activity of podophyllotoxin from podophyllum peltatum L , MYTHILI ARTHANARI
The objective of  this present review is to give a brief view about the use, synthesis and analysis of anticancer activity of podophyllo toxin from podophyllum peltatum L. PubMed, Elsevier, Google scholar search engine is utilized for collecting literatures which have detailed study of role, synthesis and potential therapeutic effects of podophyllotoxin from podophyllum peltatum L. Podophyllotoxin is an important chemical compound which is majorly obtained from plant source of  podophyllum peltatum L and podophyllum hexandrum R .Podophyllum peltatum L is only plant have  podophyllotoxins of around 68 percentage obtained from may to june at flowering stage. Phenyl alanine, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid were involved in the synthesis of podophyllotoxin. It binds and damages microtubule polymerization which leads to cell cycle arrest and concern DNA damage occurrs. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy was induced due to cell death by podophyllotoxin. Several investigations have been performed for biosynthesis, synthesis and anticancer activity according to literature. This review of research is an overview of anticancer activity of podophyllotoxin from Podophyllum peltatum L. The research will find an alternative way to satisfy pharmaceutical demand of podophyllotoxin.
8 Preliminary phytochemical investigation and free radical scavenging of Saccharum officinarum (Poaceae) juice , ROHTASH SINGH, RAHUL SHUKLA AND SANDHYA
In the present study the preliminary phytochemical content and anti-oxidant activity of Saccharum officinarum fresh juice was determined . Phytochemical investigation and anti-oxidant activity of Saccharum officinarum fresh juice of stem were carried out from sugar cane (COG: 038) plant. The S. officinarum belong to the family Poaceae. This plant is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments. Saccharum officinarum is a persistent plant with juicy, thick, and stout stem; They are pale or dark green to dark yellow. Leaves are broad and panicle. Rhizomes are formed under the soil; sends up shoots near the parent plant.The preliminary phytochemical screening of fresh Juice of Saccharum officinarum have Tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrate, Saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and fats. in the fresh juice of S. officinarum plant and   exhibited antioxidant activity when subjected to the radical scavenging tests. The results (IC50) for DPPH free radical scavenging assay was found to be (46.29μg/kg), and H2O2 radical scavenging test to be (58.μg/ml).
9 Screening of Anti-Diabetic Activity of Physalis Minima Fruits , K. SUNITHA AND A. SRINIVAS NAYAK
The plants are a vast resource of phytoconstituents which could treat different diseases.  The methanolic extract of Physalis minima fruits was screened for anti-diabetic activity. The literature survey revealed that these studies were not reported earlier. So, the present research study was aimed to reveal the anti-diabetic activity of Physalis minima fruits. The results concluded that the extract possess anti-diabetic activity. The study showed good significance in repair of damaged β-cells in diabetic Physalis minima fed rats, when compared to diabetic control animals. Ithas been concluded that Physalis minima extract showed hypoglycaemic activity on prolonged treatment and is also regenerating β- cells and so it could be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Usage of microbes not only limited to antibiotics production but now have extended to waste water treatment. Microbes have made an immense contribution to the cost reduction process. Many chemical processes  have been replaced by many biological process due to their cost effectiveness. . Many countries are shifting their strategies for waste and sewage water treatment from chemical techniques to these advantageous microbial techniques. These microbes particularly purple sulfur bacteria decomposes a great range of biological and other organic waste to a less-toxic or non toxic end products.  The cost involved in getting these waste water converted to non toxic by-product by these bacteria found to be far more lesser than any other conventional techniques. Thus by providing waste water as a nutrient to this purple bacteria makes a good and great impact on the environment. This review discusses the habitat, mechanism of biodegradation, factors influencing these biodegradation and other related researches concerned with the biodegrading efficiency of Purple sulfur bacteria.
11 Clinical trial to assess the usefulness of CV-HFU01 tablets in management of recurrent urinary tract infection , DR. VEENA DEO, BHUSHAN SHRIKHANDE, GAYATRI GANU AND DR. TANUJA PANCHABHAI
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are a major reason of illness in infant boys, older men and females of all ages. Severe sequelae embrace persistent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, preterm birth and complications caused by frequent usage of antimicrobial agents including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Thus, a test product “CV-HFU01” was developed by Climic Health Pvt. Ltd, with the objective to assess its usefulness for the management of recurrent UTI. It was an open label, single arm, prospective, interventional clinical study. The subjects were advised to consume 1 tablet of CV-HFU01 twice daily orally before meal with water for 3 months. The change in symptoms of UTI; Patients Global Assessment; Physician’s global Assessment; safety of CV-HFU01 tablets was determined by assessing the adverse events and tolerability of CV-HFU01 tablet. CV-HFU01 was significantly effective in relieving symptoms associated with recurrent UTI like change in symptoms like burning micturition, intermittent urination, pain during urination and other symptoms of UTI. The results revealed that subjects undergoing the treatment duration of 90 days but in first 30 days 80% subjects presented complete recovery from all the symptoms related to UTI. CV-HFU01 was safe and effective alternative in the management of recurrent UTI.
12 Phytochemical and ftir analysis of a mangrove plant - Volkameria inermis L. , P. SHANTHI, U. THIRIPURA SUNDARI, C. SOWNTHARIYA AND A. NISHA
Volkameria inermis L. is an important medicinal plant of mangrove region. The main objective of this work was to analyse the bioactive constituents and to identify the functional groups using preliminary phytochemical and FTIR studies. In the present study, finely grounded leaf powder of V. inermis L. was extracted with Hexane, Acetone and Methanol solvents separately. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of various extracts were carried out according to the standard methods. The methanol extract of V.  inermis was examined under FTIR spectrophotometer method for identifying the kinds of chemical bonds (functional groups) present in plant powder and the characteristic peaks were recorded. In qualitative analysis, the various leaf extracts of V. inermis showed the presence of active phytochemical constituents, like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, tannin and steroids  and quantification of secondary metabolites showed 14.5mg/g of alkaloid, 67.97mg/g of phenol and 86mg/g of flavonoids. The FTIR spectrum study revealed the presence of many functional groups, such as hydroxyl group, methoxy, methyl ether, aromatic ring, carbonate ion, aliphatic fluoro compound, cyclohexane ring, polysulphides, iodide and bromide compounds. Thus the results of the present study confirms the medicinal potential of V. inermis  in various treating system.
13 Isolation and purification of Keratinophilic and dermatophytic fungi from some public places of Jaipur city, India , SONIYA BAIRWA AND MEENAKSHI SHARMA
Soil is the main source for the growth and occurrence of keratinophilic fungi due to its richness in keratinous substrates. Keratinophilic fungi along with dermatophytes causes human and animal mycoses. In the present study eighty soil samples were collected from bus stands and railway stations in the vicinity of Jaipur city, Rajasthan, India and observed the prevalence of keratinophilic fungi. For this purpose, hair baiting technique was used. A total of 98 isolates belonging to seven genera were recovered. Chrysosporium tropicum (26.53%) was the most prevalent species followed by Chrysosporium indicum (12.24%), Microsporum gypseum (11.22%) and Trichophyton rubrum (8.16%), T. terrestre (7.14%), A. fumigates (6.12%) and Fusarium oxysporum (4.08%) etc. This study showed that soil of these places may be notable reservoirs of certain kreatinophilic and dermatophytic fungi and these places explored first time in Jaipur city, India.
14 Molecular diagnostics in periodontics – A review , DIVYA SHREE .P, PRIYANKA K CHOLAN, DHAYANAD JOHN VICTOR AND SUMI PRIYADARSHINI .S
Although over 700 bacterial species make up the oral flora, it is thought that only a handful of species contribute to the initiation and   progression of periodontitis. For over 20 years, culture and microscopy techniques have been the primary method of identifying and studying putative pathogens. The very fact that each organism has a unique 16s rRNA sequence is the basis for the evolution of the Molecular Science  Approximately 35% of the oral bacterial species have not yet been cultured in vitro. The drawbacks of these various techniques have unraveled the scope of molecular diagnostic techniques in periodontal diagnostics. With the application of these methods significant improvements have been made in the field of periodontal diagnostics. These tests are based on the identification of the inflammatory mediators, decomposed tissue products or detection of bacteria or its antigens. Herein our focus is to describe these DNA based, culture independent methods for their use or potential use in molecular microbial diagnosis and particularly highlight the methods that are prominent in the field of Periodontics.
15 Microbiological study of vaginosis and predisposing factors in women in kalamoon region, Syria (Funded Work) , SUNDUS J. YASEEN, MAISAA ABFD-ALKAREEM AND FARAH YOUSEF
Vaginal infection is one of the diseases of female lower genital tract, which is caused  by various types of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and parasites. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of vaginal infections in Kalamoon region, Syria.  (vaginal swabs) were randomly collected from 46 women (18 pregnant and 28non-pregnant) aged 18 - 50 years. Specimens were obtained from the Medical City of Kalamoon University and al-Nabek Hospital between the period of February 2017 and July 2017. Five vaginal swabs were taken from each woman after using speculum. Microorganisms were detected by cultivation and biochemical tests..  Results showed that pregnant women had higher infection rate than non-pregnant ones. It is noted that the highest prevalence was of bacteria (76.75%) than fungi (23.25%) with the absence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella  vaginalis. This was proved by applying Gimsa test and direct microscopic test. Higher rates of infection were noticed in the age group of 36-50. The isolated microorganisms were gram-negative streptococci (11.62%), gram-positive streptostreptococci (97.67%), gram-negative bacilli (32.55%), gram-positive bacilli (39.53 %) and fungi (23.25%). The isolated streptococci were 32.55% Streptostreptococci and 65.11% Staphylococcus, amongst them there were (35.71%) for Staphylococcus aureus. No more investigation was done for gram negative streptococci. The prevalence of Candida Albicans was 2.32% and 20.93% for candida non- albicans. We had noticed an increase in fungal infections with pregnancy. We also studied the referred to the relationship between isolated microbes and methods of contraception; also we had determined microbes that were isolated in conjunction to the color of vaginal secretions. The relationship between each of bacterial infections and symptoms with presence of WBCs were also separately studied.
16 Traditional knowledge of some medicinal plants used for curing veterinary diseases in Parinche valley of Pune district, Maharashtra, India , CHANDRAKANT K. WAGHCHAURE
The present paper seeks attention to the traditional knowledge of some medicinal plants used to cure veterinary diseases by the tribal communities in Parinche valley, Pune district, Maharashtra. The valley consist of 43 villages and hamlets occurring in  the total area of about 132 sq. km. Parinche is the biggest village and a nodal place in the valley. In the valley, three tribal communities namely Mahadeo-Koli, Dhangar and Ramoshi are found dominant; they are inhabited in remote villages of the valley. These communities are forest dwellers and well acquainted with medicinal properties of plants that occur in their surroundings. The medicinal plant specimens were collected in triplicate form for identification and authentication. Tribal communities are conscious about the health of their cattle and livestock. They are much depending on their domestic animals to substantiate their livelihood. Because of inaccessibility to other places, large cattle population are most dependent on the forest for various remedies; they are rich in the traditional knowledge about the veterinary medicine to cure cattle. Present study provides a detailed ethno-veterinary medicines, representing  24 plant species from 17 families; Among these plants, members of Fabaceae were dominating and mostly  used in the traditional veterinary medicines for the bone fracture, wounds, indigestion, scorpion-sting, snakebite, foot and mouth disease, etc. Out of total recipes only one recipe had combination of two plant species while others were alone. To treat various diseases, plant parts such as leaves, seeds and root bark are used. It can be concluded that because of unhygienic conditions and lack of education, the tribal communities are facing veterinary health problems but they overcome it by using local and easily available plants by trial and error methods.
17 Enhanced efficacy of Zingerone niosomes in attenuation of virulence and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An in-Vitro and ex-Vivo study (Funded Work) , KARUNA SHARMA, SANJAY CHHIBBER AND KUSUM HARJAI
Zingerone, a bioactive of Zingiber officinale, has enormous pharmacological properties and thus can be used as a promising candidate against various diseases. However, sparingly solubility in aqueous solution limits its potential as a therapeutic agent. To overcome this problem, Zingerone niosomes (Z-Niosomes) were prepared by thin-film hydration method using non-ionic surfactant and cholesterol. Synthesized Z-Niosomes were further characterised. The preparation showed a uniform size of 564.8 nm, PDI of 0.377 with -4.68 mV zeta potential and entrapment efficiency of 52%. The preparation was also found to be stable at different temperatures for 30 days. Z-Niosomes showed biofilm inhibition as well as eradication of the established biofilm, decreased the production of alginate. This was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Various quorum sensing mediated phenotypes like protease, elastase, pyocyanin and hemolysin production were also attenuated on exposure to Z-Niosomes. Besides this, phagocytic uptake and intracellular killing of Z-Niosomes treated P. aeruginosa by murine macrophages were found to be more efficient and susceptibility to serum bactericidal killing was also enhanced. The results indicate that Z-Niosomes has the ability to attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resulting in increased vulnerability of the organism to innate immune responses. Z-Niosomes therefore can be used as anti-virulence agent against P. aeruginosa which can further potentiate the activity of zingerone.
18 Holoptelea integrifolia bark and leaves phytochemicals, an effective ethno-pharmacological remedy for treating oral- dental infections (Funded Work) , SAVITA PETWAL, MADHURI KAUSHISH LILY AND KOUSHALYA DANGWAL
Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant encompassing a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present study is aimed at assessment of anti-bacterial activities of bark and leaf phytochemicals against the common oral bacterial pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus casei.  Bark and leaf dried powder samples were Soxhlet fractionated with solvents viz. petroleum-ether, chloroform, absolute-ethanol, 80%-methanol and distilled-water. Antibacterial potentials of the fractionated extracts against oral pathogens were evaluated with respect to zone of inhibition, MIC, MBC and IC50 values whereas antioxidant activities were assessed against ABTS+ and DPPH free radicals. The results demonstrated significantly higher antibacterial activity in bark ethanolic extracts (HiBE) towards every tested oral bacterial pathogen as established by its greater zone of inhibition and lowest MIC, MBC and IC50 values. HiBE most potent antibacterial action  against L. casei followed by L. brevis, S. mutans, S. aureus, S. gordonii and S. oralis HiBE showed remarkable ABTS+ and DPPH free radicals scavenging activities with abundance of phenolics, flavanoids and tannins. Therefore, the present study ascertains H. integrifolia bark extracts as a commendable natural remedy for treating oral-dental infections.
19 Synthesis and characterization of Moringa oleifera copper nanoparticles shows toxic effect on fish Cirrhinus mrigala , DR. CHIKKAPPA UDAGANI, DR. SHIVARAJ YALLAPPA, SUMAN D P AND SHRUTHINAG N
Fish is an healthy food for humans and nutritious diet due to the presence of high protein levels, beneficial fat and various sources of vitamins and minerals. Though the fish is a healthy food, a concern about the toxic effect of copper nanoparticles on fish was reported. The objective of the present work is to study the effect of Moringa oleifera CuNPs on fish Cirrhinus mrigala fish species. Moringa oleifera is a fast growing and drought resistant tree which contains rich amount of nutrients and vitamins -.The initial concentration of the CuNPs colloidal solution was 350 nm by TEM Transverse Electron Microscope micrograph and UV-visible spectrum and X-Ray diffraction. The freshwater fish, Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles synthesized via chemical reduction method using C for a period of 4 days exposure, where the value of LC50 of CuNPs was obtained 2ppm. For the static renewal of exposure, the lethal concentration of copper nanoparticles were 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2ppm including control group. Some Changes in fish behaviour, like changes in Erratic swimming, restlessness, surfacing and hyper activity etc, were observed at the time of exposure periods. This work seems to be useful in analysing not only the disadvantages of using CuNPs but also problems related to their use.
20 Effect Of Smartphone Dependency On Musculoskeletal System , SAPNA YADAV AND DR. NIDHI KALRA
Smartphone users are vulnerable to experience severe musculoskeletal pain due to the user’s static repeated motion, users minimal muscle tension caused by long hours of exposure, poor posture and using phone without breaks. Their constant repeated motion and posture during smartphone usage can lead to repetitive strain injury resulting in various symptoms like pain, discomfort or tingling, numbness in the upper extremities among which musculoskeletal pain is the most prominent symptom. To find the smartphone dependency among students and it effects on the musculoskeletal system a questionnaire based survey was done among 100 students. Musculoskeletal pain experienced by them was measured by Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. An informed consent was taken from students and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Data was analyzed and graphical represented by   using Microsoft excel. There is a high prevalence of smartphone dependency among students as most of them agree that they feel anxiety when there is no phone around and it is also affecting their sleep and rest time. The students who are highly dependent on smartphones suffer from more musculoskeletal pain as compared to the students who are not dependent on smartphone and using it for lesser duration. Neck being the most affected region followed by upper back, wrists and shoulders. 54% students were suffering from neck pain, 42% students were suffering from upper back pain, 16% students were suffering from wrist pain and these are the students who spend more time on texting, 13% students were suffering from shoulder pain. Smartphone dependency is affecting student’s musculoskeletal system resulting in musculoskeletal pain.
21 An unusual case of weight loss , DR B ABHILASH NAIR, DR V PADMA AND DR MURUGARAJ M
The extra pulmonary TB involves 11-16% of all TB patients, out of which 3-4% belong to abdominal TB. Abdominal TB is the 6th most common type of extra pulmonary TB. It includes the involvement of GI tract, lymph nodes, peritoneum and/or solid organs. In this article, we present a case of TB Abdomen in a 21-year-old male who presented to General Medicine outpatient department (Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital) with only weight loss, loss of appetite and nausea as complaint. There were no lung signs or any others signs which could suggest or hint about tuberculosis. There was no history of contacts with any TB individual. It was initially ruled out but later on further examination, we did an USG which showed mild ascites. On analysis of the ascitic fluid, we could diagnose him to have tuberculosis. He was started on anti-tubercular treatment and managed medically without any surgery. One of the commonest features of an infectious disease like TB is fever, which if absent we tend to rule out the disease.  Thus, it is important for us clinicians to be more vigilant as even though we rule out a diagnosis, it may on later stages be identified on careful examination and investigation. Our hospital had a similar case where in the patient presented with vague symptoms of diarrhoea and Malena and was later diagnosed as TB stomach and was also managed medically.
22 Isolation and identification of amylase, protease and lipase producing bacteria from soil of different area of Gujarat , BHOOMI PATEL
Enzymes are being used in numerous new applications in the food, feed, agriculture, paper, leather, and textiles industries, resulting in significant cost reductions. At the same time, rapid technological developments are now stimulating the chemistry and pharma industries to embrace enzyme technology, a trend strengthened by concerns regarding health, energy, raw materials, and the environment , hence are reusable. For these present study different samples of soil were collected from Banaskantha (Bhabhar), Rajkot (Safar), Ahmedabad (Shilej), Surat (Chikhali), Sabarkatha (Palanpur) Gujarat India. The samples were serially diluted and inoculated on Nutrient agar by spread plate technique. The isolated bacteria were morphological and biochemical characterized and Gram’s staining was performed using Gram’s reagents (Hi-Media kit) and studied its metabolic activities by performing different biochemical tests. Bacteria were identified for amylase, protease and lipase activities using starch agar-1%, casein agar-1% and tributyrin agar-1% respectively. Isolate Strains could be compared with the previously found strains Bacillus cereus ATCC 1305, 5610, 1458 for the optimum production of amylase, protease and lipase.
23 Synthesis of barbiturate-CU (II) complexes using reflux method and evaluation of their antibacterial activity , SHREEKANT RAVINDRA NAIK, DR. GAYATRI BARABDE AND DR. SUSHAMA AMBADEKAR
Actions of metal ions in biology have gain a huge importance of metal-based therapeutics. The present research work deals with the synthesis of copper (II) complexes synthesized from 5-Arylidene Barbituric acid derivatives; chemical analysis was carried out to identify derivatives (ligand)  - metal ratio of these complexes in solution. For the determination of complex nature of the material of these complexes, Mole ratio method has been used. The stability constant of the formed complexes was calculated by molar conductance measurement using Modified Job's method, which is also known as method of Continuous Variations. Further, synthesized complexes were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, mass spectroscopy as well as NMR physicochemical techniques. Antibacterial effectiveness of the ligand and its metal complexes has been investigated invitro on the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella Pneumonia bacterial strains. The attained electronic spectral bands are characteristic and reliable with the plausible composition of the ligands as well as its metal complexes. It also provides a further example of the coordination of 5-Arylidene Barbituric acid ligands. Absorption peak values of FTIR are characteristic of the ligand as well as coordinated by two oxygen atoms of two ligands molecules and exhibit their metal coordination. NMR 1H,13C signal variations also correlate with the coordination mediated chemical shifts. Both the metal complexes showed significant antibacterial activity. However, enhanced antimicrobial activity of the metal complexes than Ligands against Gram positive was observed.
24 Antibacterial activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L) root used by tribes of kundam, block district Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh,(India). (Funded Work) , SHOKET ALI, SHIKHA BANSAL AND RAVI PRAKASH MISHRA
The present study was aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.). Root extract of this plant was screened against five human pathogenic bacteria in an in vitro condition. Phytochemical analysis of the root extracts indicated the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, polyphenols, saponins and terpenoids. The antibacterial activity of the chloroform and aqueous extracts of root were tested by using well diffusion method and the zone of inhibition produced by extract in a dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/ml, respectively against selected bacterial strains the overall results were compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin (25μg/ml). Chloroform extract showed significant activity against all the tested bacteria. The biological efficiency was observed more prononced in chloroform extract in comparison to the aqueous extract against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholera with zones of growth inhibition 16.33 mm, 12.66 mm, 12.00 mm, 9.00 mm and 3.00 mm, respectively. The present study mainly focuses to explore the antibacterial properties of the root extracts of plant that are generally used as traditional medicines. The overall results showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency of the extract and can be used as potent drug against some dreadful infectious diseases caused by the test organisms.
25 Ethnoveterinary plants in traditional practices by various tribes in the western Himalaya of Jammu & Kashmir India , R.L. BHELLUM AND B.L. BHELLUM
Jammu and Kashmir is one of the mountainous states occupying most prominent position in North-West Indian Himalayas, bestowed with rich traditional knowledge base in plant resources. The region is inhabited by large number of tribes. Perusal of past experience developed their own system of medical practices for treatment of human ailments and diseases of domesticated animals. Ethno-veterinary exploration carried out during the past many years have brought to light over 66 plant species for treatment of live stock for better milk production, wool, meat and reproduction of animals and genetic make-up with special thrust on immunity against fatal diseases. The present paper is based on ethno-veterinary field practice in Animal Husbandry Department, Jammu and Kashmir, mostly in Hilly terrain of Rajouri-Poonch of Jammu province and information accrued from Gujjar, Bakerwals, Gaddhi tribes and other rural people who had been engaged in Animals and Poultry rearing. The identification of plant species, local name, and specific preparations of dosages from plants part and mode of Administration were discussed with local healers of the area, veterinarian who visited high land and alpine pastures frequently to attend exigencies such as outbreak of diseases etc. and the authorities who are well-versed with the flora of Jammu and Kashmir.
26 Process yield, proximate and chemical composition and antioxidant activity of astaxanthin from solenocera crassicornis (Funded Work) , VENKATESH KUNCHAM AND KANDRA PRAMEELA
Aquaculture is the major source of several organisms in Indian resources. Coastal aquaculture is rich in natural resources with several species. Shrimp is one of the major aquacultural food and is processed by separating meat from head and carapace. The head and carapace is treated as shrimp waste.  Generation of huge amounts of waste and dumping into the environment is a real nuisance to the public since putrification starts immediately after dumping of the waste.   Shrimp waste is rich of natural valuable compounds.  Solenocera crassicornis is a very  rare shrimp found at a 40m of sea depth . In the present study we attempted to know the process yield, proximate and chemical composition and antioxidant activity of astaxanthin extracted from S.crassicornis. The frozen shrimps were thawed, peeled manually by separating meat from head and carapace (waste). The waste was homogenized in a laboratory mixer. The material was vacuum packed in polyethylene bags and kept at -20°C until further use. The total antioxidant activity of extracted astaxanthin from S. crassicornis was determined by using FRAP method where the reducing property of ferric ions with extracted astaxanthin was determined by taking different concentrations (10 to 100 µg/ml). High amount of waste in the form of head (75%) and carapace (82%) was observed when compared to the meat. Astaxanthin content is high in head (73.5%) and carapace (65.2%) compared to the meat.   The  scavenging activity has shown higher DPPH activity similar to Quercetin (80%). The IC 50 values of 265 µg/ml was observed for astaxanthin extracted from S. crassicornis. Low chitin (0.9%) content and high protein ( 15.5%) content was observed in the meat part. These results indicate that significant (P≤0.05) difference was found between different body components of S.crassicornis.
27 Bioanalytical evaluation of pha co-polymer produced by Massilia Spp isolated from Rhizosphere soil , PRIYANKA NAIK AND VAIJAYANTI RANADE
Polyhydroxyalkanotes are naturally occurring biodegradable polymers. The aim of the present study was to optimize and characterize PHA extracted from a rhizosphere soil isolate. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that isolate belongs to the genus Massilia. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the presence of bright orange colored fluorescent granules when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions and stained with Nile red dye. Present isolate was known to produce highest amount of  PHA when supplemented with maltose as a carbon source and NH4HPO4 as a nitrogen source. After optimization, isolate produced 2.0g/l of PHA. FTIR spectrum of PHA revealed the presence of C=O, -OH and C-O bonding.  Td of extracted polymer was found to be at 2810C.  NMR and GC-MS spectrum revealed that it is a co-polymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) and 9, 19-dihydroxy octadecanoic acid (HOD).
28 Documentation of aquatic birds with relation to feeding habits in a lentic freshwater tank of Karnataka, India , K HARISH KUMAR AND B.R.KIRAN
Birds are the bio-indicator of aquatic ecosystem. They have played an unique role in the development and restoration of natural environment. Birds belong to the top level of food chain and their natural habitats have undergone change as a result of human activities. To conserve the birds in their natural places , there is a need to understand their feeding habits. The present study deals with the documentation of aquatic birds in Malenahalli tank of Bhadravathi taluk, Karnataka, India. During the investigation, 11 species of waterfowls belonging to 7 families were recorded in and around the water body. Out of 11 species, 5 species were categorized as piscivorous, 4 species carnivorous, and 1 species each of granivorous and omnivorous respectively. Out of 11species, 10 species were recorded as common and one is considered as very common species. The intimate linkages between aquatic bird species and their habitats make them useful for identifying ecosystem health. As such, they will be indicators of deteriorating habitat quality and environmental pollution, also as metrics to work out the success of restoration efforts. Combined with their ability to signal the eminent outbreak of diseases, birds are incredibly useful as indicators to both the fields of ecology and to human health.
29 Antimicrobial efficacy of photosensitizers , DR. KANCHANA SUKUMAR, DR. ANUPAMA TADEPALLI, DR. HARINATH.P AND DR. DEEPA.P
Inactivation of microorganisms using photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been defined as either antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) or photodynamic disinfection. Photodynamic therapy is a combination of nontoxic photosensitizer irradiated using visible light of appropriate wavelength, which in the presence of oxygen produces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS is highly reactive and induces irreversible cytotoxic damage to the bacterial cell leading to the death of microorganisms. This review focuses on the various generations of photosensitizers and their antimicrobial effect against periodontal pathogens when used in periodontal and peri-implant disease management.
30 Integrated biodiesel and biogas production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , MANASA V ANAND AND MADHU H N
In this study, we focus on the production of energy efficient Biodiesel and Biomass, whose principle is to extract the maximum amount of energy from biomass, the biodiesel production i.e. the lipid extraction from the biomass through the trans-esterification process and the residue is then subjected for the anaerobic process for biogas (methane) production and the leftover residue can be used for various other purposes. From this study we observed that cultivation of microalgae in open pond system using fertilizer as nutrients will reduce the most of biomass production since construction of and use of open ponds is cheaper than using photobioreactors thereby reducing the fixed capital investment. Using fertilizers as nutrient source will decrease the working capital , thus reduction in overall process but major problems like salt precipitation, evaporation and change in pH due to external environment were observed in open pond; these can be overcome by taking extra care and optimization. Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of crude biodiesel sample confirmed the presence of fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel). The green circle in GC-MS analysis ndicates presence of decanoic acid methyl ester. The maximum amount of biogas produced was 10 cm3 in 27 days. The maximum amount of biogas produced from the algal biomass was 12 cm3 for 18 – 27 days. The Gross calorific value was found to be 333 kcal/kg. The percentage of methane present was found to be 2.5% and the percentage of carbon dioxide present was found to be 2.59%.From the energy balance, the calorific value of the biogas produced from the residue after lipid extraction was found to be 0.81 kcal. From the feasibility study conducted, it was found that the cost of new media’s formulated using fertilizers is approximately ten times less than High Salt Media  thereby reducing the overall cost which improves the economics of biodiesel production.