Self Esteem and Depressive Mood of Individuals with Mood Disorders: A Correlational Study
Dr. Noshi Iram Zaman and Dr. Seema Munaf
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between self esteem and depressive mood of psychiatric patients with mood disorders. It was hypothesized that there would be negative relationship between self esteem and depressive mood in psychiatric patients with mood disorders. To test the hypothesis the correlational study design was adopted. Through purposive convenient sampling N=100 individuals diagnosed with major depression, bipolar I disorder most recent episode hypo manic, bipolar I disorder most recent episode manic, and dysthymic disorder based on the criteria of ICD-10 were approached from OPD of a psychiatric hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. Their mean age was 31.37. After the consent of the hospital administration as well as of the patients, their personal information data sheet was filled with the help of their case files and then they were requested to complete Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Goldberg Depression Scale. Through SPSS Pearson Product Moment Correlation was applied. It denotes that there is a significant negative correlation between self esteem and depressive mood of psychiatric patients. Hence, it is concluded that when self esteem of individuals with mood disorder is low, then their depressive mood is high; and when their self esteem is high, then their depressive mood is low. This study has positive implications as it would be beneficial for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists and other field practitioners of clinical group in understanding more easily and handling patients with above mentioned diagnosis.
Development of a Test of Nonverbal Intelligence for Youth
Muhammad Imtiaz Chaudhry and Dr. Shazia Khalid
Present study was designed to develop a test of nonverbal intelligence for youth in group settings for large scale testing and screening of human resource induction. Items were developed to minimize the effect of education and language proficiency. Items of the proposed test were constructed from figurative material and drawings of geometric symbols, shapes, designs and patterns. The theoretical foundation of the test was derived from the Cattell’s (1963)concept of Fluid Intelligence. The test was divided into five subscales i.e. matrices, odd one out, similarity, series and analogies, and consisting ability areas (abstract reasoning, analogical reasoning, working memory, processing and perceptual speed, inductive & deductive reasoning). Research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase of the main study 200 items were developed and presented to subject matter experts (SMEs) for their opinion (qualitative analysis/ content validity). In the second phase, two studies were conducted. Firstly try out testing was conducted on a sample of N=100 students of Army Public College, Malir to assess the feasibility of test format, clarity and comprehension of items and test instructions. Item strength and distracter analysis were also carried out. Second study was conducted for item analysis on a randomly selected sample of N=300 intermediate level college students of Faisalabad. Item analysis was carried out to estimate the difficulty level, discrimination index and internal consistency (quantitative analysis). Items with difficulty level range between 0.30-0.70, discrimination index greater than 0.30 and item to total correlation values greater than 0.30 were retained. After data analysis 80 items were found fulfilling the set criterion for fair item selection. Items were arranged in relative order of difficulty and the final draft of the test was prepared. In the third phase of the main study, test taking time was estimated for each subtest and full test. The time limit for the test was decided to be 30 minutes. Current research provides a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of non-verbal intelligence in youth in a group setting.
Coping Strategies and Quality Of Life among Individuals with Type – 2 Diabetes: Role of Demographic Variables
Shazia Yusuf and Dr. Rubina Hanif
Present study was conducted to explore the relationship between coping strategies and quality of life among individuals with Type-2 diabetes, with particular reference to the role of demographic variables. It was hypothesized that there is a significant negative relationship between active distractive and avoidance focused coping with quality of life, whereas there is a significant positive relationship of active focused coping and religious focused coping with quality of life. It was also hypothesized that the duration of illness is also negatively associated with the quality of life and active focused coping strategies. For the current study N=100 individuals with Type -2 diabetes were taken from general medicine department of Pakistan Institute of Medical sciences Islamabad (PIMS). The measures of current study included a Demographic Information Form, The Coping Strategies questionnaire (Kausar & Munir, 2004) and The WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (Khalid & Kausar, 2008). The results of the current study revealed a significant positive relationship of social functioning and environment with active and religious focused coping and a significant negative relationship with active distraction and avoidance focused coping strategies, while physical functioning had significant weak relationship with active distractions and avoidance focused coping strategies and psychological functioning had a significant positive relationship with active focused coping and a negative relationship with active distraction and avoidance focused coping strategies. Results of univariate analysis of variance indicated that significant mean differences were found on active focused coping strategies (F = 4.03, p < .01) and environment (F = 3.62, p< .01). Results have important implication in providing a psychological consultancy to the individuals with type – 2 diabetes.
Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Parental Attachment among University Students
Noorulain Bakhtawar Siddiqui, Prof. Dr. NaginaParveen and Dr. Muniza Malik
The study aimed to investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence with parental attachment among university students. The Participants of the study consisted of N=200 participants including both genders (Male n=100 & Female n=100). Data was collected through simple random sampling from University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Two questionnaires namely, Parental Attachment Questionnaire, and Emotional Intelligence scale were administered on the participants. Findings of the study revealed that parental attachment, parental social support, and parent as facilitator of independence are positively correlated with emotional intelligence of university students. Moreover, significant gender differences in parental attachment were apparent where females perceived their parents as more facilitating and supportive. Implications of the study are useful for the parenting, family therapy and student counselling.
Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies among Undergraduate University Students: Role of Gender
Dr. Rizwana Amin, Dr. Muhammad Ali Asadullah and Dr. Sarwat Sultan
This study intended to explore the disparity in male and female approach to recognize perceived stress and coping strategies among first year university students. The data was collected from N=454 students (Male n= 301 & Female n= 153) aged between 18- 23 years. All students belonged to a public sector university situated in the city of Multan, Pakistan. Purposive convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. The data was collected through Perceived Stress Scale and Coping Resource Inventory. The findings showed that there were variations in the perceived stress and coping styles of males and females. Female undergraduate students reported high perceived stress as compared to male students and male students often used problem focused coping strategies whereas the female students on the contrary used more emotional focused coping strategies. Results pertaining to effect of perceived stress on the use of coping strategies declared that the effect of stress on coping strategies is different among male and female first year university students. The results of the study highlight the importance of providing trainings to first year undergraduate students on using effective coping strategies to deal with their high level of perceived stress.
Identity Achievement of Adolescents; Predicting Role of Spirituality
Rubia Munir, Shahza Aqil, Sukaina Kasem, Muhammad Daniyal Mughal & Sidra Shoaib
The current research aimed to explore the relationship of Spirituality, Closeness to God and Identity Achievement among Adolescents in a quantitative correlational research survey design. Through purposive convenient sampling, adolescents N=350 (Male n=208 & Female n=142) were approached; age ranging from 15-21 years (M=17.99, SD=1.79), from different educational institutes of Karachi. Data was collected through Daily Spiritual Experience Scale and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. It was hypothesized that there will be a positive relationship between Spirituality, Closeness to God and Identity Achievement (Exploration & Commitment) and that adolescents with different levels of spirituality will differ in the levels of identity achievement. The findings revealed a significant weak positive relationship of Commitment with spirituality and Closeness to God, while no significant relationship between Exploration and Spirituality was found and there is a significant weak negative relationship between Closeness to God and Exploration. It can be interpreted that there is a weak partial positive relationship between Spirituality and Identity Achievement. Findings also revealed significant differences in the levels of commitment of adolescents with different levels of spirituality (È 2=.04) and levels of closeness to God (È 2=.05). Current findings have implications in educational settings, curriculum development and counselling.
Socio-psychological Perceptions & Experiences of Etiology amongst Type II Diabetics; A Qualitative Study of Primary Health Care in Rural Sargodha
Shaheer Ellahi Khan and Dr. Anwaar Mohyuddin
The presented study explored the patients’ perspectives and experiences regarding the cause of illness (etiology) and mode of onset. The study aimed to understand the socio-psychological factors that lead to certain decisions in terms of reaching the health facility for diagnosis and treatment. The study used the theoretical framework of patients’ explanatory model of Arthur Kleinman (1978). The study was conducted in Chak 104 North Bound Sargodha by using District Health Information System. The above mentioned locale was found to have most number of diabetics without any outreach. An in-depth interview guide was designed based on preliminary field work and informal interviews with the registered patients in the catchment area of Rural Health Center (RHC) Chak 104 NB. The in-depth interviews were conducted with (N=71) adherent and non-adherent male and female diabetic individuals. The study found that most of the respondents related their illness with trauma, tragic episode(s) and experiencing grief and sadness. Respondents related the cause of diabetes with the death of a family member, downfall in business and experience of certain domestic and financial issues. The findings of the current study are consistent with various studies references, and it has implications for the stakeholders and primary health care providers the perceptions and experiences of the diabetics for capacity building and contextualizing the diabetes care in the rural areas of Punjab, Pakistan.