1 Rice Organic Farming is a Programme for Strengtenning Food Security in Sustainable Rural Development, Entun Santosa
Rice domestic demand is steadily increase due to population’s growth, to increase rice production by increasing dosage of inorganic fertilizer and pesticide could not increase rice yield due to bad soil condition. These condition need improvement because soil is the source of life for soil micro-organism and biological activities. To overcome the problem, the farmers are supposed to be educated and trained to be able to analyze and study and practice plant cultivation emphasizing on local potential management. Rice Organic Farming (ROF) is intensive and efficient paddy cultivation with the management process of root system based on soil, plant and water management. The method of ROF was Rapid Rural Appraisal with Partisipatory Rural Appaisal, continue with Farmers group Development Plant and farmers learning by doing the programme in their own land. The result after three planting season indicate that farmers confident with ROF, used 10 tons/ ha organic fertilizer and natural enemies for plant protection, increased rice production from 5.440 ton/ ha to 9.733 ton/ ha and natural enemies is the best solution to manage pest and diseases.
2 Key Succes Factors for Organic Farming Development, Muhammad Ali Ramdhani and Entun Santosa
The aim of this research is to determine the weight from determinant factors in developing organic farming in Garut District, West Java, Indonesia. Determinant factor in the research are determined based on judgment from the respondent. Determinant factors in developing farming are classified by some aspects such as technology, social and politic, economic and environment. The weight of each factor is counted by using weight method based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Model. The result of synthesis shows that respondents prefer organic farming method than conventional method. However, to implement organic farming extensively needs program or policy support from stakeholders on subcriteria who tend to make organic farming better. The programs including orientation on quantity improvement in organic farming yield, provision of equipments, and raw materials, farmer’s performance, financial support, provision of market, and decreasing organic farming business risk.
3 Synthesis of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Sensor based on Nanostructure Zinc Oxide using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) Methods , Muhammad Iqbal; Brian Yuliarto; Nugraha
Porous thin layer of zinc oxide have been made using chemical bath deposition method with the precursor of zinc nitrate tetrahydrate on a substrate of alumina (Al 2 O ). The morphology of the formed layer has the form of sheet structure and flowerlike structure. ZnO layers showed the lack of oxygen. Conductivity sensors varies with changes in operating temperature, the higher the operating temperature, the higher the conductivity. The best performance shown by the sensors with 100% solvent composition of water (sheet structure) at a temperature of 200 3 o C with a sensitivity of 44.83%, 80 seconds response time and 90 seconds recovery time. The sensor is able to detect the presence of LPG and also can measure the concentration of LPG.
4 Corporate Entrepreneurship at Public Service Sector: Measurement and the Influence toward Government Performance , Astri Ghina
The purpose of this research is to build conceptual model of corporate entrepreneurship within the public service sector as a baseline to improve government performance in order to provide the best service toward society. The study is based on questionnaires sent to the public service employees of Pelayanan Perizinan Terpadu Satu Pintu (PPTSP) at Bandung City and Regency. The relationship between the constructs is analyzed through path analysis. The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial leadership on job satisfaction and society satisfaction. It means that the higher of entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial leadership then the higher of government performance, evaluated from job satisfaction and society satisfaction. According to Entrepreneurial Orientation Survey (EOS) and Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ) results, there was a significant difference in characteristics between PPTSP at Bandung City and Regency, evaluated from entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial leadership, job satisfaction and society satisfaction. This research will help management within civil government organization regarding any things that should be done to provide the best practice toward employees and public society. This research also helps the top leaders to conduct change which is encouraging corporate entrepreneurial mindset in order to create good governance.
5 The Influence of Gender in Determining the Language Choice of Teenagers: Sundanese versus Bahasa , Fakry Hamdani
The aims of the research are to discover and analyze the phenomenon of language choice and gender toward teenagers, which will indicate the language death of Sundanese Language. The query was discovered around 134 (53 males and 81 females) university students, the first and three grade of Pharmacy and Management Programs at University of Garut. The participants were given ten questions contained the use of language toward their males and females friends. Using Chi Square test, the results showed that the influence of gender in determining the language choice of teenagers was identified. For code-switching, there was no specific difference between males (48) and females (50). However, the difference occurred when females were using code-mixing (75) and the number was bigger than males (32). From this information, the study concluded that gender totally influenced the code-mixing among teenagers.
6 The Understanding and Behavior of First Level Students on Premarital Sexual Behavior , Siva Hamdani
This study is a descriptive research in creating a phenomenon or a description of situation objectively as the main objective. The data is taken from the primary data documentation study and subsequent data presented in charts and tables. The respondents are all first-level university student age (16-19 years) at the Bogor Husada Academy of Midwifery which by holding the questionnaires. The results found that the incidence of premarital sexual behavior was 0.87% (one person), and non-incidence of premarital sexual behavior is 99.13% (114 people). Premarital sexual behavior related to student understanding showed that they were familiar (91.30%), moderate (7.83%), and poor (0.87%). Instead, students’ attitudes toward premarital sexual behavior reflected disagree (98.26%) and agree (1.74%). The results of this research may be used as information material and a comparison for future research related to sexual behavior among teenagers.
7 The Use of Silent Reading in Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension and Their Achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course , Hapid Ali
The purpose of the study is to analyze the use of silent reading in improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course. The methodology used in the study is quantitative model of analysis base by using inferential statistics analysis; the measurement of correlation coefficient and t-test. The respondents used are students of Private English Course, and the sampling technique used is random stratified sampling with 55 people as the respondents. The result of the research shows that the use of silent reading has a significant and positive influence toward improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL Score on the study object.
8 Cultural Mirrors: Materials and Methods in English as a Foreign Language , Dian Ekawati and Fakry Hamdani
This study tries to review the role of culture in the textbooks and methods used in the classroom. With the documentation and observation as the center of data, the study also tries to arise students’ awareness of the target culture. The study found that some EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks and EFL methods did not reflect not only the target culture, but also source culture and international culture. Thus, the students and teacher could experience the cultural mismatch. However, the cultural mismatch aroused from different culture of learning between teacher and students or between students and textbooks can be handled by ethnographic stance and explicit teaching.
9 Several Scientific Facts as Stated in Verses of the Qur’an , M. Subandi
The first verses revealed to prophet Muhammad SAW is begun with the word to read. This word is an instruction to all Moslem to read in the sense of to think of the creation of the creator. Someone still has the opinion that Islam discourages the development of science. This accusation is absolutely not true. The process of conclusion making in the science and the religion is something different. Religion is based on faith and science is based on human investigation or rational and logical facts. Quranic verses contain hints and a lot of scientific facts, but they are not scientific theories. Reading in the meaning of studying the nature is the first order from the Almighty God to prophet Muhammad. Nature and all creatures are created in balance. Creatures are all in pairs. Nature is prepared and maintained in systematic mechanism. Photosynthesis is considered to be the first chain of living mechanism of creatures which depend on food and on the supply of fire (energy) as stated in verse 80 chapter Ya Sin. The photosynthesis proses is the process of synthesis of carbon dioxide and the water. Water has unique physical and chemical properties. We can heat it, evaporate it, freeze it and use it for solving or combining other things. All living creatures require water, and almost the processing happening need water. Through the scientific observations and the natural evidences revealed, now we believe in the Qur’an that it is true all the times. Man is ordered to utilize their all capacities of mind and intellect lo reveal the secret of the nature and the whole universe. In this way people may come to conclusion to have firmer belief in God, the Creator
10 Position on The Village Head in Indonesia Law , Asep Suparman
The exact definition of “administration” term is not clear yet, and still in discussion among the scholars. Administration is a term which is derived and translated from administratie (Duch), or administration (English). Those are actually derived from the Latin "Administrate" which means "to serve", in the Indonesian language it means “melayani” or “mengabdi.” In the implementation of the government is the activities undertaken to achieve the set up goals by State’s authorized officer in advance. This position administratively conducts government activities, therefore this position in the Law of the State Administration can be classified into administrative positions or can be referred to as the State Administration. It is of the government apparatus (at central or local levels) that govern the administration. In the contrary of the terms used in the positive law was on Act No. 5 year of 1986 regarding the State Administrative Court does not use the term Administration of the State, but the term Tata Usaha of the State, although the terms contained State Administration terminology. This is as defined in Article 1, sub 1 of Act No. 5 of 1986, which said the authorized officer of State’s Tata Usaha who performs the function to conduct the affairs of government both at central and regional levels is the Government’s official of administration, as it is confirmed by Article 1, sub 2, which said Board or Administrative Officer is the agency or officials who carry out the affairs of government based on applicable laws and regulations, then how when connected to the government Administration of village, especially from the position of village head. Village head as the village authorized official has an authority in running the affairs of government, either under the authority of the village administration and affairs of the district/city. And besides that it also performs the task of assistance from the Government, the provincial and/ or the district/ city. Therefore, his position as Acting Head of the authorized official of State Administration, as it is regulated in Article 204 of Act No. 32 Year of 2004 and Article 14 of Government Regulation No. 72 of 2005 and in line with expert opinion both E.Utrecht, Prayudi A, and Sjahran Basah. However, in contrast to what is regulated in the provisions of Article 1 sub 1 and 2 of Act No. 5 of 1986, which provides that the State Administrative Officials should the employment of government’official. Therefore it occurs disharmony to the meaning of State Administration, it should ideally be done Revitalization to the Act Number 5 Year 1986.
11 World Government: Utopia? , Vahram Ayvazyan
The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on interdependency of the current international arena and examine the individualism as the ongoing ideology “by individuals and for individuals.”; and then take the conclusion that the world government is not a utopia
12 Implementation Project Based Learning on Local Area Network Training , Dhami Johar Damiri
The main indicators of vocational technology education student’s learning outcomes is the achievement of competence according to the demands and job’s requirements. In reality the constraint prosecution’s has not yet achieved optimally because of lack of competence on the suitability of the industry with technological competence in vocational schools. This problem requires vocational education technology to innovative measures to empower all components of education in schools to improve and enhance the quality of learning. Innovative learning model can be used in vocational technology schools is project-based learning. This model is a contextual learning through the activities of the complex job. Project focus on concepts and principles learning‘s discipline of study’s core, involving learners in problem-solving investigations and other meaningful tasks, giving students the opportunity to work autonomously construct their own knowledge and ultimately produces a real product. Scope of this project-based learning model includes components: lesson plans, learning implementation, and evaluation of learning outcomes. While the implementation of an integrated model of learning is jobsheet, consisting of: information sheets, instruction sheets, operation sheets, self check, and test .
13 The Implementation of Strategic Planning for Information System in Educational Foundation , Cepy Slamet
In a competitive business environment, The Educational Foundation may decides two strategic business policies related to information system (IS) and information technology (IT) implementation. These are, optimalization of IS/ IT implementation for increasing services quality and its utilization as a core business competitiveness as a whole. However, a strategic planning for information system (SPIS) is required to implement these business policies. SPIS is a process for determining required IS to support business strategy, so that the strategy concentrates to identify required information and ensuring IS is aligned to business strategy. According to the Ward and Peppard’s approach, some activities of SPIS are conducted by using four main phases such as initiation, assessing and understanding the current situation and interpreting business requirement, setting priorities for IS/ IT, and determining IS/ IT strategy. Some analysis, Politic-Economic-Social-Technology (PEST), Boston Consulting Groups (BCG), and Five Forces Porter are used to identify external business environment, SWOT analysis and Value Chain to identify internal business environment.The research resulting a recomendation for organizational development priorities which devided into two related matters, IT Unit establishment and computer based system development for financial, human resource, and infrastructure management.
14 High Operation Efficiency of Semiconductor Electrooptic Modulators in Advanced Lightwave Communication Systems , Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed
Photonic links have been proposed to transport radio frequency (RF) signals over optical fiber communication systems. External optical modulation is commonly used in high performance RF photonic links. The practical use of optical fiber communication systems to transport RF signals is still limited due to high RF signal loss. In order to reduce the RF signal loss, highly efficient modulators are needed. For many applications, modulators with broad bandwidths are required. However, there are applications that require only a narrow bandwidth. For these narrow band applications, the modulation efficiency can be improved through the resonant enhancement technique at the expense of reduced transmission bandwidth. Therefore we have been investigated to get the best performance of the transmission bit rate capacity and product of different semiconductor materials based electrooptic (EO) modulators over wide range of the affecting parameters.
15 Design and Validation of Wind Turbine’s Power Simulation by Remote Controlled Motor , A. K. Azad; M. M. Alam; M. Masud Kaysar
The study presents the statistical analysis of wind data at different location of Bangladesh over a period of years. The data has been shorted in sequence of appropriate frequency as hourly, daily and monthly mean wind speed. Two important parameters like Weibull’s shape factor “k” and Weibul’sl scale factor “c” have been obtained from the data. Weibull’s function F(v), Weibull’s probability density function f(v), and available power in the wind (w/m ) have also been obtained from the wind data. Then a horizontal axis wind turbine has been designed for the selected site. For the simulation of power in replaced of designed wind turbine a remote controlled motor has been coupled with a generator. The motor speed has been controlled by PWM signal in its ten steps. Couple microcontrollers have been used for the simulation. High radio frequency remote have been designed to control the motor. At any step, the motor RPM, generator output voltage and switch position have been digitally displayed in the LCD display screen. 2
16 Physiochemical Characteristics of Water and Challenges for Community Development; A Case Study of Igbo-Ora Community of Oyo State, Nigeria , Kofo A. Aderogba
Water is known to be an inexhaustible resource because the total supply of it in the biosphere is not affected by human activities. Recycling time depends on various factors. It is not uniformly distributed all over the world and not readily available in the quantity and quality required in most parts on the earth surface. This piece has examined the sources, the crisis of scarcity, and development of water and alternatives in Igbo-Ora, Nigeria. The climate is tropical continental. The major occupation is farming. Major sources of water supply are the ponds, rivers, lakes, and rainfall. Opeki Dam is perpetually dry, that is, not to talk of the pipeline networks and taps that are spent. The consequences of the crisis of inadequacies have been so grievous. Whatever is available must be conserved and preserved to meet all needs. A revisit to Opeki Dam for purpose of rehabilitation is imperative. At the interim, rain water should be harvested, stored and put to use on a large scale on farms and for small scale industrial productions. Farmers should make maximum use of dews. Oyan Dam could be made to serve Igbo-Ora community. Damming Ofiki River is also suggested.
17 Climate Change and Sustainable Growth and Development in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria , Kofo A. Aderogba
Ozone depletion and the ravaging effect on climate, lives and physical environment are global. The objectives of this paper are to describe atmospheric chemistry leading to ozone depletion, global warming and unravel the consequences of global warming in Lagos Metropolis with a view to making suggestions for sustainable growth and development. Recent literatures were contacted. News paper cuttings were read. Reports and communiqués of conferences, workshops, seminars and committees were read and used. Radio and television documentaries and programmes were listened to and used. Empirical observations were made of weather elements, plants and animals and others. Data on weather elements were derived from Federal Meteorological Station, Oshodi. Members of the public were interviewed and they provided information on recent changes in weather phenomena, acid rain, inclement warmth, vegetation and others. Compositions of the air differ significantly from the WHO permissible standards. Cloud cover is unusually thicker; early rains are cloudy and more acidic. Runoffs have increased, and aquatic ecosystems are gradually getting depleted and giving way to terrestrial type of ecosystem. There are threat to lives and property. There may be need for additional research to further establish the findings. But for sustainable development, every stake holder must rise against the adversities of global warming and harness its advantages
18 The Influence of Corporate Culture on Organizational Commitment; Case Study of Civil Government Organizations in Indonesia , Astri Ghina
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of corporate culture on employees’ organizational commitment. The corporate culture that examine in this research was consist of four dimensional which are teamwork; communication; reward and recognition; training and development. The study was replication research from Boon and Arumugam’s paper, and we were anxious to find out the extent of corporate culture influence the employee’s organizational commitment within the context of Civil Government in Indonesia, because only a few empirical researches has examined in this area of study. I also used the similar tool that is hierarchical regression analyses to test the research hypotheses. The results show that communication, training and development, reward and recognition, and teamwork are positively associated with organizational commitment. Also, communication was perceived as a dominant corporate culture dimension; and it was consistent with the result from original paper. There were only a few differences in the social variables (controlling variables) that also influence organizational commitment in the context of civil government in Indonesia. This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of corporate culture and social variables on organizational commitment among employees within the context of the Civil Government Organization. The limitation and future research are also discussed.
19 Application of Image Processing and Artificial Neural Networks to Identify Ripeness and Maturity of the Lime (citrus medica), Dhami Johar Damiri and Cepy Slamet
The object of this study is to identify maturity and ripeness of lime (citrus medica) using Image Processing and Artificial Neural Network. Image processing method was developed and applied to samples of lime from three levels of maturity and ripeness based on their harvest time. The area, shape factor, energy and color indexes were extracted from image processing development system. The feature extracted from image processing were used as artificial neural network inputs and trained by using back propagation methods with 4 model neural network and used momentum constant’s value 0.8, learning rate constant value 0.8 with 1 until 2000 iteration.The result showed that the use of 4 back propagations neural network models with 3, 6, 9 and 12 hidden layers provided the 100% accurateness in classifying the lime based on their maturity and ripeness.
20 Modern Fiber Optic Submarine Cable Telecommunication Systems Planning for Explosive Bandwidth Needs at Different Deployment Depths , Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed
The explosive bandwidth needs, especially in the inter data center market, have pushed transmission data rates to 100 Gbit/sec and beyond. Current terrestrial fibers are inadequate for long haul, high bandwidth deployments. To solve these problems a new fiber is introduced for terrestrial high bandwidth deployments: different polymeric core fibers with enlarged effective area with a significant optical signal to noise ratio improvement over other conventional terrestrial single mode fibers. To ensure the new fiber may be deployed robustly a new coating structure was employed. A rigorous cable structure was then chosen for evaluation. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. As well as the product of the transmitted bit rate and the repeater spacing is processed over wide ranges of the affecting parameters. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission technique under considerations. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature), and the chemical structure}.
21 Wind Power: A Renewable Alternative Source of Green Energy , A. K. Azad and Manabandra Saha
In the study, the statistical analysis of wind speed data has been carried out for different locations of Bangladesh over the period of ten years from 1998 to 2007. The hourly measured wind speed data above 30 m height has been collected from Bangladesh meteorological department and sorted in sequence of appropriate frequency like hourly, daily, monthly and annually. The data has been fitted for Weibull’s distribution and determined two important parameters like Weibull’s shape factor and Weibull’s scale factor by three methods and compared to each other. The theoretical available power in Watt/m2 has been determined for the prospective wind sites. It also determined the practically extractable Power by wind turbine in Watt/m2. Finally, it has been found that the available power in the wind can be used for lifting water for irrigation purpose in the dry season.
22 Qualitative Studies of Recent Floods and Sustainable Growth and Development of Cities and Towns in Nigeria , Kofo A. Aderogba
Extreme weather events have caused havoc to lives and properties in recent years. Research and development have also been focused on these global phenomena. The situation is getting alarmed in Nigeria. The aim of the paper is to study incidences of floods in Nigerian cities and towns. Topographical Maps of 25 cities and towns were studied. Floods, drainage channels, run-offs and effects of human activities on floods were observed and studied. Interviews were conducted with 20 professionals, urban dwellers and twenty Local Government Chairmen of the cities and towns. There was a questionnaire that was administered among 2,000 urbanites. It collected data about the frequency, sizes and havocs caused by floods. Some of the cities particularly Lagos, Warri and Port-Harcourt are under the sea level with average gradient of less than 1:100,000. Run-offs are increasing in volume and areas of coverage but relatively drainage channels are inadequate; and they have been blocked through the adverse living habits of the urban dwellers. Waste waters are contributing as base water to rain water in the drainage channels. These result in grievous consequences of flood. All forms of transportation are affected each time it comes; lives, farm lands and properties are lost; and economic activities are grounded. Human factors are predominantly the cause. More attention has to be paid to urban physical planning
23 Study of Job Status and Education of Women in Iran, Mohammad Reza Iravani and Mina Arvaneh
Traditionally girls and women in Iran have been in a disadvantageous position with reference to education and employment as elsewhere in the world. But some of the factors, such as the initiative taken during the reign of the Shah and the post-Revolution reforms have had mixed impact on the education of women in the Iran. While enrolment of girls and women in education recorded increase over the years, the nature of education remained more or less unfavourable to women. Education after the Islamic Revolution has been used to promote the values of Islam, and to construct the ideals of motherhood and wifehood. Similarly, equality in employment outside home in terms of both the types of occupations and remuneration has remained a goal still to be achieved. Both traditional values, and the types and levels of education really open to them have contributed to this situation of women’s employment in Iran
24 Significance of 2006 Head Counts and House Census to Nigerian Sustainable Development , Kofo A. Aderogba
The 2006 population censu was scheduled, planned and executed. The objective of this paper is to highlight the uniqueness and credible attributes of the exercise: and to make recommendations for subsequent census exercisein the country. The state commisioners were interviewed. NPC (National Population Commision) websites was visited and documents from the NPC office were perused. Literatures on National Population Commision were also read and used. The structure, system and organization can be compared to thatof developed countries. The organisation now use new and improved technology. The activities of the organisation are more reliable as enumeration areas were demarcated to scales. AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification System) were implored and Geographic Information System was intended to be used to store the results. Suffice it to say that despite all efforts made by all organs of Government to create awareness and plan logistics, some challenges were still encountered. Nevertheless, there were also some positive responses as it threw more light on the number, quality, type and design of houses in various communities. All organs of the governments were engaged. From planning to execution, adequate awareness and preparation were made to avoid the usual riddles that characterized the previous exercises. The total population is 140, 003,542 unevenly distributed on the territory.
25 High Energy Detected on Exhaust Gases From Automobile Machine, Using Ultrasound and Flotation Cell , José Froylán Ábrego
On this research, the results show us that exhaust gases from automobile machine have more energy that we can use and, it is good for us in order to have a better atmosphere. The ultrasound and flotation cell, can decompose hydrocarbons and transform them on methane and hydrogen and to generate oxygen for to produce an exothermic reaction. Cavitation is one of the most important effects of ultrasound impact on hydrocarbons discomposure. The new energy is into oxygen, hydrogen and methane.
26 Analyzing Issues in Mobile Wimax Handover Using Qualnet Simulator , Deepali Gawali
Wireless networks are very common for both organizations and individuals. Wireless networking prone to some security issues.so its very important to define effective wireless security policies that gurad against unauthorized access to important resources. In the existing research there is lack of integrated presentation of solution to all the security issues of Wimax network. This paper discusses the security issues in Wimax and comparative analysis between network without security and with security
27 Review the Status Science of Social Work in Iran , Mohammad Reza Iravani , and Javad Teleschi Yekta
Modern complexities of human, specific condition of society and social mental pressures are resulting from obstreperous life to recent century and presenting services and social measures to stabilize family and health society, social work is a kind of social need. In fact, nowadays more complicate life, social environment in simple and traditional form to contribute and difficult term beside to unlimited proficiencies provide different problems. Human in various, complicated and evaluated world with abundant ambiguity cannot know his abilities and capacities without effective help of information, sympathetic and eager people to make a successful identification and overcome problems. In all cases he or she asks social work re to understand him or herself and makes proper decision. According to importance of social work and his decision in present study is conducted by history and the status of social work in Iran and the world
28 Recent Trends in Wage and Salary Administration in Nigeria: A Synopsis on Theoretical and Empirical Challenges , John I. Agburu
Wage and salary administration in Nigeria has been a subject of immense controversy, if unresolved, in the context of Nigeria politico-administrative setup for several decades now. The topic itself is as complex as it is slippery in terms of definition and unique features. Among other things, the subject of wage and salary administration in this country has been a controversial one. The attempt has been to resolve such issues as what should the basic pay, the issues of labour cost, productivity, cost of living, and the question of compensation. This paper takes a critical perspective on the generic forces at work in recent times that relate to wage policies, strategies and schemes aimed at creating a conducive atmosphere for the workers (both in the private and public sectors) in Nigeria to perform. The main objective of the paper is to determine the key forces affecting wage and salary administration in Nigeria. Among the most recent experiences analyzed are those of the 2007 Federal Government Civil Service pay package and the current university pay system. The researcher adopted a simple crosssectional survey method. Data collected were subjected to critical analysis using mostly non-parametric methods. The main findings include the fact that there has been (1) unwarranted lags between labour (employee) pay and productivity (2) huge income differentials between the various levels of government where the employees buy from the same market. The main recommendations embrace the urgent need to strategize along schemes that attract high labour productivity, equity and fairness in rewarding workers
29 Socio-Cultural and Political Implications of Environmental Damage , Bambang Yuniarto
The purpose of the study is to analyze the socio-cultural and political implications of environmental damage. The methodology used in the study is qualitative approach, which is a research process to understand and investigate the social or human problem based on the traditions of a particular research methodology. The conclusion from this study, in terms of socio-political aspect, the government should develop the implementation of biocracy/ bio-democracy, which treats nature as a citizen who has the rights to be protected and developed according to its function
30 Using LabVIEW: Simulation Exciter of Devices Jamming , Elan Djaelani; Nina Siti Aminah; Ridodi Anantaprama
It has been made exciter of devices jamming, by using component voltage controled oscilator (vco). It has been done measurements: signal noise,signal sawtooth and level DC voltage at those signals. Being wanted those devices jamming could be raised it’s performance. With helping software LabVIEW being made exciter. Result Simulation are graphic and table relation between input exciter and it’s output. Input exciter are: signal sawtooth, signal noise and level DC voltage that could be changing it’s amplitude. Output exciter are frequency RF, sweeping from frequency f1 to f2 with frequency medium f0. Result simulation could be used for development device jamming
31 Multicriteria Decision Making for Waiter Selection in Bisou Boulangerie et Patisserie, Ruby Febrianty Soekarta
Jessica Soekarta is the owner of new bakery which experience business expansion. She has new job position for her bakery, which is waiter. Currently, she only select based on CV and her intuition. Her selection method does not have measurable scale, which triggering problem for qualified waiter candidates. Hiring the best candidate is important for her because waiter playing crucial role in holding the bakery image in the eye of customer. Quality service of the waiter reflects excellence of the bakery because waiter do contact directly with customer, which influence customer perception of the bakery. The purpose of this research is answer the bakery owner problem by combining Must and Wants Criteria and AHP theory to create accurate and specific selection tools with Spencer and Spencer theory as the basis of waiter selection tools. The new waiter selection process use qualitative method. It is not only producing which candidate is the best, but also generating ranking. From nine candidates, six were eliminated using the Must Criteria and three candidates were processed through Wants Criteria. From the Wants Criteria, these are three candidates who accepted based on the preferences: Titin Suprihatin, Dani, and Julian Restian.
32 Comparison Between a Brewery Effluent and Its Receiving Stream in Ibadan Based on Their Physico; Chemical and Microbiological Analysis , Oluwayemisi Agnes Olorode and O. E. Fagade
This study was conducted to compare the physico - chemical and microbiological parameters of a brewery effluent and its receiving stream in Ibadan, located in south-west of Nigeria from the month of December 1993 to June 1994. Results obtained indicated that brew house effluent had a higher pH (5.2) than the receiving stream pH (4.8), lower levels of chloride ions, dissolved oxygen, total solids, conductivity and BODs than its receiving stream. Aerobic bacteria counts from sample A ( brewery effluent) ranged from 180 x 103 cfu/ml to 150x103 cfu/ml and its receiving stream from 147 x 103 cfu/ml to 137 x 103 , while the fungi counts from 1.3 x 104 to 1.1 x 104 and 5.7 x 104 to 4.5 x 104 respectively. Total coliform counts ranged from 2.0 x 10 MPN/100 to 7.0 x 10 MPN/ 100 and 2400 x 10 MPN/100 for sample A and B respectively. Microorganism isolated include Pseudomomonas sp, Acetobacter sp., Flavobacterium sp, and Lactobacillus sp, Aspergillus niger, Curvularia sp, Alternaria sp for sample A, while Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp Escherichia coli, Fusarium sp, Penicillum sp 1, Penicillium sp 2, and Aspergillus sp were isolates from sample B. There was no significant difference between the values of physico-chemical of the two samples at P
33 Social Workers and Rescue Forces in Disaster, Mohammad Reza Iravani; Hossein Ghazanfarpour; and Mohsen Pourkhosravani
We worked tirelessly to save lives. Completely overshadowed in the immediate reconstruction. Given the scale of destruction, it is a big job. Currently, demand for rehabilitation of earthquake-stricken people is low, We need to rebuild schools and hospitals, and rebuild our public infrastructure, We deserve to rebuild and repair homes. We have announced a series of programs for economic reconstruction and livelihood restoration. The social workers in these programs and services to help people in earthquake-stricken areas are reviewed. Earthquakes, tsunamis and other natural forms and Man-made disasters seem to be increasing in frequency. This can lead people to experience anger, loss, fear, grief and a host other emotions. Event, the earthquake that devastated Iranian city of Bam on December 26, 2003, shattered thousands of Lives, helping professionals, including social workers, joined the rescue in an attempt was made. We discovered this article in its interventions and that social workers identify the skills needed to help those survive a catastrophic situation.
34 The Effects of Direct Instruction Flashcards with Oral Sentence Creation on the Spelling Accuracy of Three Middle School Students with Disabilities , Melaina Cole; T. F. McLaughlin; and Rebecca Johnson
This study evaluated the effectiveness of direct instruction flashcards with oral supplemental sentence creation practice. The study was conducted over the course of eight weeks and evaluated the participants’ spelling performance. The three participants were selected for the study based upon their low spelling performance. All participants had a disability that affected their academic performance; this study correlated with a goal in the participants’ Individual Educational Plans. Therefore providing a link between the research and the goals for each participant in written communication. Baseline data were taken each week to determine the words that would enter intervention. The criterion for words to enter intervention was that three or more participants or students incorrectly spelled the word in baseline. Intervention began with participants and students chosen at random to identify the word and provide an original sentence. Following the oral sentence creation, the instructor would model of spelling the word, then the instructor lead the participants and students in spelling the word, and finally the participants and students spell the word independently. The intervention showed that this strategy was moderately effective. Participant 1’s average percent correct improved from 13% in baseline to 64% during DI flashcards and constructing sentences using the spelling words. Participant 2’s average correct improved from 0% percent in baseline to 27% during DI flashcards and requiring the students to create sentences from their spelling words. Participant 3’s average correct from 47% in baseline to 96% during intervention.
35 Teaching a Non-Verbal Preschool Student to Use a Modified Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects of Fading Prompts on Rate of Communication and Generalization to a Communication Board , Johanna Rauch1 , T. F. McLaughlin2 , K. Mark Derby; and Lisa Rinaldi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and fading prompts to increase rate of communication and to teach generalization to a full communication board. One non-verbal preschool student with multiple developmental delays served as our participant. A combination ABCDEF single case and multiple baseline experimental design was used. A refers to baseline or no intervnetion and the additional letters evaluate the various interventions that were employed. This study demonstrated that PECs and fading prompts was shown to be responsible for increasing both spontaneous, independent communication and correct responses.
36 The Role of Social Workers to Solving Problems of Marginalization , Mohammad Reza Iravani; Mehdi Azarpoor; and Mohammad Reza Hassan Nezhad
Social worker other than the great importance given to equality between individuals and try to make this community is equal. Most important life problems in marginalized areas are consisting unemployment and lack of permanent job for family supervisors and income or suitable house, improper social and cultural environment in these areas, lack of municipality attention, shortage of procreative and welfare facilities for children and so many social deviations such as addiction, addiction, unsafely, particularly for the women.
37 The Social Work Study Examination of Factors to Lack of Women Job Promotion in Isfahan District, Iran, Mohammad Reza Iravani and Amin Movahedi
Women play many roles in different societies and ignoring their role is ignoring the role of half of the world population. Considering the women`s problems and issues in universal conferences and holding meetings with successful and educated women of the societies, shows officials concentration on this part of the society. Nomination of one day as the day of woman and mother is to appreciate the women`s efforts and devotion, especially in our country that women had a significant role in movements against the Imperial Government of Iran. Many of them were arrested and jailed and some of them were on the rack or even were executed. During the revolution, Iranian women played a very significant role. In addition to enlightened and educated women who were fighting by reason of culture and politics, other religious women considered this revolution as an Islamic duty. Women in partnership with men fought to achieve this goal. It was very remarkable that some women, hugging their babies, were participating in demonstrations. These women, in every area, established committees and us reorganizing their endeavors that included helping to those who were seeking protection or making explosives to explode tanks. Women`s great role in this social movement has been unique in Iranian history. It can be said that, during that period, the distance between man and woman had been forgotten.
38 Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan, Aneesa Masood; Nazima Ellahi; and Zamara Batool
Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The study conducted a questionnaire survey for the rural farmers residing in Potohar region. A sample of 100 respondents has been chosen, and analysis is carried out by using SPSS software. The study concluded that the higher growth rate for the agriculture sector is very important for a fast overall improvement of the economy, macroeconomic constancy, employment generation, and decrease in rural poverty.
39 A.C Electrical Conductivity for Polyaniline Prepered in Different Acidic Medium, Salma M. Hassan; Amera Ghareeb Baker; and Harith I. Jafaar
Polyaniline was prepared in different acidic medium at room temperatuer. The out put of polymerization was characterization by FT-IR. The A.C electrical properties were studied. A.C conductivity ?ac(?) is found to vary as ? s in the frequency range (100Hz-10MH), the value of (S) was found to be less than unity (S
40 Heat Generation, Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction Effects on MHD Mixed Convection Flow over an Unsteady Stretching Permeable Surface, Md. Shakhaoath Khan; Ifsana Karim; and Md. Haider Ali Biswas
The unsteady MHD mixed convective laminar boundary layer ?ow of an incompressible viscous ?uid over continuously stretching permeable surface in the presence of thermal radiation, heat generation and chemical reaction is studied. The unsteadiness in the momentum, temperature and concentration ?elds is because of the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature and concentration. Similarity transformations are used to convert the governing time dependent boundary layer equations into to a system of nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations containing Magnetic parameter, Thermal convective parameter, Mass convective parameter, Suction parameter, Radiation parameter, Eckert number, Prandtl number, Heat source parameter, Chemical reaction parameter, Schmidt number, Soret number and Unsteadiness parameter. TheNactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six order iteration schemes has been used for numerical procedure. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and are found to be in excellent agreement. The effects on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions as well as skin-friction coefficients, Nusselt number and Sherwood number of the various important parameters are discussed graphically.
41 The Effects of D’Nealian® Worksheets, Tracing, and Visual Prompts to Teach Four Preschool Students with Disabilities to Write Their Names , Christina Maricich; T. F. McLaughlin; K. Mark Derby; and Diane Conley
The purpose of this study was to teach four preschool boys how to write their names using tracing D’Nealian® letters of their names. The participants were all enrolled in a special education preschool. During baseline, the students were unable to write all of the letters in their names. During intervention, the students traced unknown letters using work sheets made with D’Nealian® Handwriting. In the second intervention, students traced specific letters of their last name. The results suggested that tracing letters using worksheets with D’Nealian handwriting work sheets effectively taught preschool students with disabilities to write their names. Recommendations regarding additional classroom applications of these procedures are made.
42 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate/ Yellow Poplar Wood Fiber Composites as a Function of Fiber Aspect Ratio, Fiber Loading, and Fiber Acetylation, G. N. Onyeagoro and M. E. Enyiegbulam
In order to achieve completely biodegradable thermoplastic polymer composite, the development of yellow poplar wood fiber (YPWF)-reinforced cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) composites was carried out. The CAB/YPWF composite was prepared using a two-roll mill. Composite samples were prepared with two different fiber types with fiber content of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40wt %. While the untreated fibers (UTF) were used as obtained without treatment and chemical modification, the other fiber type, Acetylated Alkali-Extracted Steam Exploded Fibers (AAEF) were subjected to different physical and chemical treatments. Some physico-mechanical properties of the composites as well as the swelling characteristics in dimethylformamide were investigated. Also, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphological characteristics of the tensile fracture surfaces of the composites. The modified wood fibers (AAEF) enhanced both the physico-mechanical properties and the swelling characteristics of the composites studied.
43 Extraction and Characterization of Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil, Orhevba Bosede Adelola and Efomah Andrew Ndudi
This study investigated the extraction and characterization of cottonseed oil using solvent extraction method. Normal hexane was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the chemical, physical and proximate compositions of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined are viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, color, odor, taste and pH. The values obtained are Saponification value (189mgKOH/g), free fatty acid (5.75mgKOH/g), iodine value (94.7gI/100g), peroxide value (9.25mEq/kg) and acid value (11.50mgKOH/g). The proximate compositions obtained are Carbohydrate (57.06%), lipid/fat (13.30%), crude fiber (0.5%), ash (1.5%), moisture content (7.21%), and crude protein (15.40%). The oil yield was 15.05%. From the results obtained it can be seen that cottonseed oil has great potential for use as domestic and industrial oil.
44 Topography and Land Temperature Investigation Using Arc GIS 10 , Babita Pal and Sailesh Samanta
The paper seeks an empirical methodology for modeling and mapping of the topography using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques. Firstly this paper examines the mathematical approaches for different surface analysis like contour, hill-shade, slope, aspect and cut/fill analysis. Viewshade analysis was also performed which have a large application on mobile telecommunication in the hilly region. Secondly this paper examines statistical approaches for monitoring surface using LANDSAT-7 ETM+ satellite data, which has wide range of electromagnetic wavelength band, including visible, infrared and thermal bands. Its thermal bands (band 6.1 and 6.2) can detect thermal radiation released from objects on the earth surface. This study has been conducted to develop surface temperature (ST) using 3 sets of algorithm from LANDSAT-7 ETM+. Finally modeled land surface temperature data set was overlaid on digital elevation model (DEM) to find out the relation of surface temperature with variation of altitude of the study area.
45 The Effects of Cover, Copy, and Compare on Spelling Accuracy with a Middle School Student with Learning Disabilities: A Case Report , Susan Poindexter; T. F. McLaughlin; K. Mark Derby; and Gary Johnson
The purpose of this research project was to examine the effects of employing the copy, cover and compare (CCC) method in spelling. The participant was a seventh grade male with learning disabilities. Data were gathered on his correct and error rate across various lessons in the student’s resource room classroom. An ABAB single case design was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC for both corrects and errors in spelling. The overall outcomes indicated a gradual increase in corrects and also gradual decreases in errors. This replicates much of the previous research with CCC. In the present case report, we were able to further replicate our work and those of Skinner and his colleagues. The CCC procedures were straight-forward to implement and data collection fit into the daily classroom routine. The benefits of CCC are discussed.
46 Review Applications to Prevent Corrosion Reducing Gas Pipe Line, Mehrdad Setoudeh; Amir Samimi; Soroush Zarinabadi; and Amir Safavian
Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Including ways to reduce corrosion of corrosion inhibitors is. Inhibiting substance that low amount is added to the system to slow or stop the chemical reaction does. When inhibitors of corrosion medium are added, the speed of corrosion decreases to zero takes. For the first time a deterrent mineral called arsenate sodium for inhibition steels carbon in oil wells was used to corrosion of CO2 prevented, but due to low yield was not satisfactory and therefore the other inhibitors were used. In the years 1945 to 1950 properties, excellent composition polar chain long was discovered. The discovery process of experiments related to organic inhibitors used in wells and pipes and oil Garza changed. This article examines the use of inhibitors to reduce corrosion in gas wells deals.
47 Safety and Inspection for Preventing Fouling in Oil Exchangers , Mehrdad Setoudeh; Amir Samimi; and Soroush Zarinabadi
One of the most costly problems in the maintenance of heat exchangers is defouling, which results in a waste of time and money. The present study includes two parts: the first section addresses fouling factor, its disadvantages, and circumstance of formation, fouling types, and general models of the fouling . In the second part, the problem of fouling in oil exchanger and particular type of fouling, namely, wax fouling in the oil mixtures has been studied . This paper reviews the fouling which is the most important parameter in designing heat exchanger and states the losses of the oil industry and other industries related to ignoring this issue. Failing to estimate this factor correctly, can result into problems in exchanger and as a result fluids of the process fail to reach the desired temperature. This paper tries to present solutions to deal with the problem of fouling in the oil industry and assesses the financial loss that comes from deposits in the industry.
48 The Comparison of Increasing Method for Petroleum Pits Output (Fluids Dynamic) , Amir Samimi and Soroush Zarinabadi
It is able to use fluids injection for increasing gas and petroleum`s pits output after exploitation output. In this study we take care for the results of water, gas (CO ), polymer and nitrogen injection. We take consideration two results, about water injection that is one of the usual methods for increasing the output: 1) Protection of tank pressure 2) for replacing petroleum in tank and following it into the uptake pit. By this method we are able to extract 30% of petroleum that is in the tank, but increasing the water injection percent as improvee mental factor for generation from tank is in long-term. Injection the CO 2 gas leads to increase production of petroleum and gas. Generally, injection material into the tank gives energy to fluid, and increase the amount of residue petroleum in tank and divides in to two groups: secondary and tertiary. In this study polymeric material as aqueous phase has tested for bedrock, limestone and sandstone. Results of injection into dense petroleum with sandstone bedrock had been shown. Polymeric solution injection results to increasing the recovery velocity. In this article, it has discussed about each system and finally the proportional system for each tank will consider.
49 Analyzing the Relationship Between FDI, Trade Openness and Real Output Growth: An ECM Application for Pakistan , Danish Ramzan and Adiqa Kausar Kiani
The standard economic theory points to a direct and positive link between growth variables, FDI and openness indicators, that can affect each other. It is argued that capital inflows in the form of FDI flows can be induced by host country’s economic growth, if the host country offers a large consumer market. Furthermore, it creates economies of scale and causes great reduction in cost of production. Similarly, openness to trade has also been considered as an important determinant of economic growth and welfare. Both the issues are well debated in the recent growth literature. Initially, the developing nations of the world followed restrictive trade policies but with the passage of time and emergence of globalization, all the nations realized the need to liberalize to their economies in terms of trade openness and enhancing FDI. The present study has applied an econometric technique of Error Correction Methods (ECM) for finding the relation between economic growth indicator, FDI, and trade openness. For this purpose study utilized annual data set ranging from 1975 to 2011and time series properties of data are explored prior to estimation by applying Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) of testing unit root..The findings suggested that FDI and trade promote growth of real sector of economy of Pakistan.
50 Studies on Microbial Degradation of Natural Rubber Using Dilute Solution Viscosity Measurement and Weight Loss Techniques , G. N. Onyeagoro; E. G. Ohaeri; and U. J. Timothy
Reduction of molecular weight of rubber polymers for easy absorption of compounding ingredients is critical in every rubber compounding operation. Yet, rubber mastication which is the current practice of achieving this is expensive, requiring high energy and equipment cost. To address this problem, microbial degradation of natural rubber (NR) and waste rubber tire (WRT) by Nocardia sp. strain 385A was studied using dilute solution viscosity measurement and weight loss methods. Solutions of NR and WRT in toluene were inoculated with the microbes (Nocardia sp. strain 385A) and kept in incubator. Incubation period varied between 0 to 10 weeks. The results obtained show that NR and WRT were mineralized and degraded by the microbes. Intrinsic viscosity values of both NR and WRT decreased with increasing period of incubation, indicating that degradation increases with increase in the incubation period. For the incubation periods investigated, WRT produced higher intrinsic viscosity values than NR due to the inhibitory effect of additives present in WRT to microbial degradation. Equivalent reduction in molecular weight obtained by rubber mastication technique was achieved by microbial degradation after 10 weeks incubation period. Rubber degrading bacteria can be useful for the disposal of discarded rubber products