1 The Impact of External Factors on Corporate Governance system of firms: Empirical Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa Anglophone Countries (SSAA), Dr. Adeoye Amuda Afolabi
In this study, we explored the impact of external factor on corporate governance system using survey questionnaire based on international corporate governance norms. Data were collected from listed firms in Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. The conclusions are follows: (1) .In all the selected countries in the sub-region (SSAA) political environment affect the corporate governance system. (2) Macro-economic policies seem to hinder good corporate governance practices. (3) The accounting system operating in each country plays a vital role in promoting sound corporate governance system. (4) Ownership structure (method for acquisition of stock) of firms’ delays promotion of sound corporate governance in Ghanaian and Nigerian firms. (5) Societal and cultural factors seem to deter corporate governance system in Ghanaian firms. Corruption may likely affect corporate governance practice in South African firms. We recommend that there is need for proper implementation of macro-economic policies in the sub-region. The political elite should not interfere with regulatory and supervisory agencies. The Ghanaian Code of corporate governance need to take into consideration the socio-cultural environment in formulating corporate governance policies. Finally, the acquisitions for stock of firms in Nigeria need to follow proper due process. Keywords: Corporate governance, external factors, OLS regression
2 Descriptive Models of Organization and Management Within an Economic Entity as System, Prof. Dr. Alexandru Trifu And Dr. Ina Croitoru
The systemic approach in management does not oppose holism to reductionism nor a global approach to a local approach but rather tries to reconcile analytical images to integrative images, showing that the whole is reflected in each of its parts and each part is a small-scale projection of the whole. The systemic approach does not give up the logical and analytical tools which investigate reality by dissecting, fragmenting and decomposing it into its constituents, but it recovers them to obtain morphological, synthetic, dynamic and lively development of this reality. The principle of system approach uses deduction and induction, analysis and synthesis, to discover internal interrelationships and connections that drive complex organized assemblies. The true values of this approach are found not in simplistic schemes such as "input-output" or in "circular" models that economics and management textbooks are full of and which, ultimately, establish a different kind of formalism. We are interested in the formulation and implementation of the descriptive management, i.e. what managers decide to do, the alternatives of action and final stage of implementation and the feedback absolutely necessary. Keywords: descriptive management, rationality, system, decisions.
3 Is the world running out of oil?, Mirela Costianu
As Mark Twain said, prophecies are always difficult to make, that's why nobody can say precisely how much oil there is in the world and which is yet to be discovered, for how long will last the oil we already know about and where it is, how much will we be able to exploit what we have and what is there to discover, for how long will the oil last, for how long we will need it, if we already went beyond the maximum peak of production and discoveries etc. We can only analyze the data we have, make calculations, predictions and assumptions on the basis of what has been in the past, and what it is in the present, to hope or, on the contrary, to prepare ourselves for the worst. But we can't know for certain. So we try in the following to do it, without claiming that we know the sure answer to the question that is on the lips of all humanity. Further can be found: an analysis on the oil reserves in the world, starting from the reserves discovered and put into service (as they were declared), reserves discovered and unexploited yet, reserves proven, but still undiscovered and forecasts, by the experts in the field with regard to future discoveries. Keywords: oil, reserves, Peak Oil, Saudi Arabia, giant oilfields
4 Effectiveness of Direct Resource Delivery Policy to Crop Farmers: A Case of Fadama III Project in Enugu State, Nigeria, Okechukwu, Obodoechina. E
This work measures the effectiveness of direct resource delivery on food production evaluating the Fadama III project in Enugu State of Nigeria. The study estimated annual incomes and productive resources used by the farmers before and after joining the project and identified constraints to the realization of project objectives. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, means and percentages, as well as multiple regression model using the ordinary least squares (OLS) approach were used to analyze data obtained. Hypotheses were tested using t-statistic in Two-Sample T-test. Chow-statistic was used to test for differences in the coefficients of the regression variables. Findings indicated that the farmers realized Mean incomes and productive resources of N169,139.44 and N521,042.36; and N67,313.45 and N242,307.12 were respectively estimated for farmers before and after joining the project. There were significant differences between incomes and productive resources of the farmers before and after joining the project implying goodness of the policy. The crop farmers’ annual incomes before and after joining the project were significantly determined by distance to the market, farm size, extension visits and value of productive resources. Irregular fund disbursement topped the list of nine constraints to effective realization of project objectives arranged in descending order of seriousness. Early and prompt release of productive resources and cash counterpart contributions to the farmers, provision of more extension agents, services and logistics for the farmers and reduction of users’ cash contribution will ensure improved productivity, income and project sustainability Keywords: Cassava; Co-operatives; Enugu State; Fadama III project; Income; Productive resources; Significant; Sustainable; Yams
5 Evaluate the Effective of Annular Aperture on the OTF for Fractal Optical Modulator, Asst. Prof Abdulrazak A. S Mohammed Computer Science- BAYAN University / Erbil-Iraq
The fractal optical modulator is the optical modulator design by using the fractal function. As well known there is an effect of aperture’s shape on the OTF signal for optical modulator. In present paper an aberration-free single annular aperture has used and the MTF characteristics responses investigate for fractal optical modulator of IR-Seeker .The annular aperture provide several frequency transmission bands within the region up to cut-off frequency. The result compared with the spatial frequency for circular shape of fractal optical modulator aperture. Keywords: Annular Aperture, OTF, Fractal Optical Modulator.
6 A study on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational climate: Using HLM to Analyze Context effects of Police Organization, Rui-Hsin Kao Department of Ocean and Border Governance, National Quemoy University University Rd Jinning Township, Kinmen 892 Taiwan (R.O.C)
The main purpose of this research was to examine the police’s organization behavior and context effects of international harbor police organization in Taiwan with Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). An organizational context of the international harbor police be explored, then tested using data collected from a survey of 704 police officers of 34 international harbor police stations in Taiwan. The findings not only show that transformational leadership (TL) and organizational commitment (OC) will positively influence the police’s organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) but also the organizational climate (OCL) possesses a context effect on OC, as well as OCB. Furthermore, the results also show that aggregated TL (ATL) has an interactive influence on the OCB. According to the research we have done. In order to reach successful leadership effectiveness, the leadership structure of the police organization must greatly reduce its authoritativeness and eliminate the unnecessary chain of command. Keywords: HLM, Transformational leadership, Organizational context, International harbor police, Police organization
7 Analysis of Modularization Compared to Total Project Cost in Alberta Oil and Gas Projects, Elias Ikpe, Jatinder Kumar, and George Jergeas
Modularisation is an important area that needs to be effectively addressed in the construction of Alberta oil and gas industry schedule. It is an effective way to get partial construction done. This paper examines modularization of projects executed in Alberta oil and gas industry for effective projects schedule performance. A qualitative research methodology was employed in investigating the modularization used for the Alberta projects. Interviews were conducted with industry practitioners, which contained open - ended questions and data were also collected from COAA/CII database. The research found higher average percentage overall modularization to total project cost of the Alberta oil and gas projects. This method has the potential to contribute to a reduction in cost and schedule overruns and improves project performance. It is concluded that the results of the study will help in leveraging the benefits of modularization that have already been gained by the various oil & gas projects in Alberta to improve project schedule performance. Keywords: Alberta oil and gas, projects, modularization, costs, performance
8 Review of Global Energy Market Regulations, Umar Musa Mustapha
Regulatory practices within the global energy market include renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, tax credits, fuel blending policies, carbon emission trading, and subsidies, among many others. This paper attempts to review the extent of these regulatory practices through the study of the use of subventions for gasoline in Nigeria, Mexico, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Russia. The regulatory index, the measure of a country’s capacity to formulate effective regulations is adapted, as a proxy measure for the independent variable and the consumer surplus as the proxy measure for market outcomes and test for the relationship between these two using Pearson’s r. Based on this, an evaluation of the rationale of market interventions in general is made, with the theoretical underpinnings of the neo-classical, free-market, and monetarist and public choice approaches acting as a point of reference. It was found that market regulations may lead to broadly positive outcomes or negative outcomes, depending on the specific national context. For Nigeria and Saudi Arabia, it was found to be broadly positive outcomes for the use of the subsidy while for Iran, Mexico and Russia it was found that fossil-fuel subsidy has led to unintended consequences. Keywords: Energy Policies, Trade, Prices, Subsidy, Fossils, Consumption Smoothing.
9 Examining the Bank Specific Determinants of Profitability among Commercial Banks in Namibia, Johannes Peyavali Sheefeni Sheefeni
This paper analyses the bank-specific determinants for commercial bank’s profitability in Namibia. The study employed the techniques of unit root, cointegration, impulse response functions and forecast error variance decomposition on the quarterly data covering the period 2001 to 2014. The results reveal that capital adequacy, credit risk and liquidity risk as the main determinant of commercial bank’s profitability in Namibia. This suggests that the quality of loan portfolio determines the profitability of banks. Moreover, the bank has the ability to fulfill its obligations to the depositors. Lastly, the banks have required level of capital that enable them to withstand credit, market and operational risks they are exposed to in order to absorb the potential loses and protect the bank's debtors. Keywords: bank-specific, commercial bank’s profitability, Namibia, unit root, cointegration, impulse response function.
10 The Relationship between Internal Marketing Orientation, Employee Commitment, Charismatic Leadership and Performance, Wan-I Lee, Chun-Chi Chen*, Chien-Cheng Lee
Nowadays, the economic environment is competitive, various companies are all competing for the greatest profit; but create the blue ocean market is not so easy. Therefore, in foreign, many successful businesses focus on human, usage of incentives, empowerment, and educational training to increase the employees' commitment to the organization and to improve efficiency. Enterprise is an organization of human, most of the links cannot be surpassed or replaced. In contrast, the salary is generally low in domestic enterprises. The phenomenon of employees are squeezed is not uncommon. Managers sacrifice human capital in exchange for a slight profit. Take the service industry for example, when employees are treated unfairly, how do they service and satisfy the customers? Therefore, this study takes the customer-oriented market for survey objection. From the perspective of employee, under the business through internal marketing and managers' charismatic leadership, to understand whether the employees can bring good effects to increase organizational commitment. At the same time, whether employees are able to provide a better service to customer through organizational commitment, to improve performance and bring the greater profits for company. This study firstly confirms research variables and the framework by literature reviews, and then uses online questionnaires to collect data. Finally, we use SPSS, AMOS and SEM to test the hypotheses in this study. Under the framework for internal marketing, the results of research are as the followings: (1 )Internal marketing will positively affect the organizational commitment. (2)Organizational commitment will positively affect performance. (3) Charismatic leadership will enhance the effect of organizational commitment and performance. This study finds out that when the organization provides education and training, reward system and good communication channels, employees can effectively improve organizational commitment, dedication to the organization over the long term and are willing to stay; further increase their skills and knowledge of company, to bring better performance. In addition, managers can enhance the effect of organizational commitment to performance. In other words, charismatic leader can lead and influence employees, is the cornerstone of a successful business. Finally, the expected results of this study can provide a reference of charismatic leadership to academic, and also help companies improve their performance and to maintain the competitive advantage with the right thinking. Keywords: Internal Marketing Orientation, Organizational Commitment, Charismatic Leadership, Performance.