1 A comparative study on the priscription practises of antibiotics in cold (ari) in patients under the age of 15 years and reasons of priscription in different hospitals of pakitan, Asif Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, *Shefaat Ullah Shah, Raja Zafar Ishaque and Kamran Nawaz
The present study was conducted to compare the prescribing practices of antibiotics in common cold (ARI) in patients under the age of five years in PIMS and FGSH in Islamabad Pakistan. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted in two hospitals of Islamabad Pakistan i.e. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and Federal Government Services Hospital. During the period of March and April 200 prescriptions were collected out of which 100 were from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences and 100 from Federal Government Services hospital, to check among the most commonly prescribe combination of drugs in ARI. The data was collected by using two separate data collection tools for qualitative and quantitative data. For qualitative data an in-depth interview guide was used. For data analysis 16th version of SPSS was used.
2 To study and compare source of drug information used by doctors (GPs & specialist), pharmacist and nurses in government & private tertiary care hospitals in Islamabad, Tashfeen Akhtar, Azhar Hussain, *Shefaat Ullah Shah, Raja Zafar Ishaque and Asif Iqbal
The aim of the study was to assess the sources of information/ knowledge used by health care professionals (doctor, pharmacist and nurses). In this study a cross sectional comparative study was conducted in four hospitals (two from public & two from private sector) of Islamabad Pakistan. The study was conducted during the period of March to May 2009. The tool (structure questionnaire form) was design for collection of qualitative and quantitative data. The total sample size was 150, out of which 50 from Doctor, 50 from Pharmacist and 50 from nurses of government and private hospital of Islamabad. After the completion of data, it was analyzed by making variables in Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) Version 16. Then data was entered by coding or making themes for different questions in above mentioned software. Almost 67 variables were made according to make coding & themes of questions of tool. We selected codes yes=1 & no=2. After the completion of data entry, frequencies & percentages were run. Bar charts were made on the Microsoft Excel according to results of SPSS
3 Assessment of the drug knowledge of patients’ visiting medical stores in Islamabad, Muhammad Kamran Nawaz, Azhar Hussain, Shefaat Ullah Shah, Asif Iqbal and Raja Zafar Ishaque
The objective of this study was to assess the drug knowledge of patients visiting medical stores in Islamabad. A basic cross sectional study was carried out in Islamabad in patients visiting the medical stores. Sixty two medical stores were selected by systematic random sampling at 95% CI. One hundred twenty four patients were selected conveniently i.e. 2 patients from each medical store. For data collection a structured questionnaire was used. The data analysis was done by using 16th version of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), and the tests applied for data analysis were Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis.
4 Effect of Aluminium Acetyl Acetonate on the Chemical Status of Glutathione by Influential Parameters in Aqueous Medium, Haroon Khan, Mohammad Farid Khan, Naseem Ullah, Muhammad Mukhtiar, Naheed Haque, Barkat Ali, Abdul wahab, Arshad Farid, Kamal Shah
Aluminium is the most abundant metal and the third most abundant element, after oxygen and silicon, in the earth's crust. It is widely distributed and constitutes approximately 8 percent of the earth's surface layer. However, Aluminium is a very reactive element and is never found as the free metal in nature. Ellman’s method was used to check the concentration, pH, and temperature and time dependent effect of Aluminium- acetyle acetonate on GSH status in aqueous medium. Aluminium- acetyle acetonate reduced the GSH level with concentration, pH, temperature and time. GSH reduction is due to oxidation of reduced GSH by Aluminium- acetyl acetonate by changing it to GSSG or by forming GS-Aluminium conjugate. Present study is in vitro condition which may present the model for in vivo condition
5 Dysnatraemia in malaria, Simon Brown
Malaria is often associated with hyponatraemia, but neither the extent nor the probability of hyponatraemia has been estimated and it is not clear whether they depend on the infective species. Analysis of reports of hyponatraemia shows that it tends to be less severe in non-falciparum malaria than it is in falciparum malaria. However, the probability of observing serum sodium concentrations of less than 130 mM decreases in the sequence cerebral falciparum = severe falciparum > vivax > non-severe falciparum > knowlesi and falciparum > non- falciparum. In addition to a greater probability of hyponatraemia in severe falciparum malaria than in non-severe falciparum malaria, the probability of hypernatraemia in falciparum malaria is slightly greater than it is for healthy individuals.
6 In-Vivo and In-Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aquilaria agallocha Oil, Habibur Rahman, Kamala Vakati, M Chinna Eswaraiah
The present study aimed for evaluation of Aquilaria agallocha oil obtained by hydro-distillation from the woods for in-vivo and in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The oil was screened for in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat model and In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method. The potency of the oil was compared with standard Diclofenac (10 mg/kg). The oil showed significant reduction of edema in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model maximum at 3 hr for AAO 50 mg/kg, AAO 100 mg/kg and diclofenec 10 mg/kg (% reduction in paw volume 58.59%, 62.11% and 68.94% respectably) and membrane stabilizing action on human red blood cell membrane at concentration of 100, 250 and 500 mcg/ml showed 39.66%, 62.94% and 78.50% which are comparable with standard diclofenec.
7 A Study on Gingival Enlargement and Serum Folic Acid Levels in Epileptic Patients on Phenytoin Therapy, Abhishek Singh Nayyar, Mubeen Khan, G. T. Subhash, B. Nataraju, Vijayalakshmi K.R., Anitha M, and Gayitri H.C
Background - Chronic administration of phenytoin has been associated to have a number of adverse effects. Gingival enlargement is one such most often reported adverse drug sequela of long term phenytoin usage with falling serum folic acid levels seen with increase in the duration of phenytoin therapy. There have been studies that report clinical benefits of the use of folic acid as an adjuvant to the anti-epileptic therapy in the prevention of anti-epileptic drug induced gingival enlargement. However, studies conducted in the past have also reported precipitation of epileptic attacks in patients on folic acid adjuvant therapy due to fall in sera levels of phenytoin due to drug interactions. Hence, the study was planned to investigate the association of phenytoin induced gingival enlargement and sera levels of folic acid in epileptic patients on phenytoin therapy. 25 patients between the ages of 18-50 years clinically diagnosed with epilepsy prior to the start of phenytoin therapy were included based on selection criteria and written informed consents were obtained. Assessment of serum folic acid levels and gingival enlargement was done prior to the start of and after 6 months of phenytoin therapy. The results of the study confirmed a significant association between low serum folate levels and increasing severity of phenytoin induced gingival enlargement. The results of the study suggest a higher incidence of gingival enlargement in phenytoin treated epileptic patients with a positive correlation with falling serum folic acid levels as the duration of the therapy increases
8 A Study of Serum Uric Acid and C-Reactive Protein in Acute Myocardial Infarction. , Mriganka Baruah, Chandan Kr Nath, Bikash Chaudhury, Runi Devi and Anand Shaker Ivvala
Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI or MI) is more commonly known as heart attack, a medical emergency and the leading cause of death for both men and women all over the world. Therefore this study was undertaken to access the role of Serum Uric Acid, C - Reactive protein (CRP) in AMI. The study population contained 66 subjects divided in two groups, 30 age and sex matched healthy controls and 36 patients with AMI (36-77 years). Serum Uric acid, CRP readings were taken on day 1, 3, 5 and at the time of discharge (8±1days) from the onset of symptoms, the results were found to be statistically significant on all the days as compared to control subjects. These patients had a very low HDL level and very high CRP & Uric acid levels when compared to control subjects. CRP & Uric acid shows a definite pattern presentation during AMI. Dyslipidemia, a conventional risk factor of AMI is also associated in this study. The current study is an attempt at better understanding the behavior and response of Uric acid, CRP in AMI patients. Hence, monitoring of these parameters would be beneficial following AMI and is highly recommended to improve patient?s outcome
9 HbA1c: Predictor of Dyslipidemia and Atherogenicity in Diabetes Mellitus, Chintamani Bodhe, Deepali Jankar, Tara Bhutada, Milind Patwardhan, and Varsha Patwardhan
This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic value of Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in predicting diabetic dyslipidemia and atherogenicity. The study consisted of 70 male patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus of age between 45-50, duration more than 5 years. The patients were classified into two groups depending on their glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); Good Glycemic Control (GGC) group having HbA1c < 7.0% (n= 35) and Poor Glycemic Control (PGC) group having HbA1c > 7.0% (n= 35). Dyslipidemia was defined as per the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines. Standard tests were used to analyze Fasting blood glucose level (FBSL), Glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c) and serum Lipid Profile: Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TCH), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). While Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) was calculated by standard formula (base 10 logarithm of the ratio of TG to HDL). Statistical analysis was done by Z test using Microsoft Office Excel 2010. HbA1c showed direct correlation with FBSL, TG, TCH, LDL and AIP while there was inverse correlation with HDL. Statistically significant „p? values were obtained for FBSL, TG, LDL and AIP. While that for TCH and HDL was not significant. These findings clearly indicate that HbA1c can provide valuable supplementary information about the extent of circulating lipids and AIP besides its primary role in monitoring long-term glycemic control. Thus, HbA1c can be used as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in diabetics.
10 Aza-and carba-Michael Adducts as Building Blocks in Heterocyclic Synthesis, Maher.A.EL-Hashash, Sameh. A. Rizk, and Yaser A.El-Badry
The present work deals with the reaction of 4-(4-bromo phenyl oxobut-2-enoic acid 1 with nitrogen and carbon nucleophiles afforded aza-and carb-Michael adducts 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 depending on the type of reagents and medium (neutral or basic) . The adducts 2 are used as a key starting materials to synthesize some hetrocycles include furanone 15, oxazinone 16 and pyridazinone 17 derivatives .The behavior of the latter compounds towards different electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents were investigated.Hydrazinoysis of the carba- Michael adduct 6 afforded tetrahydrobenzo1,2-diazapene derivatives 7, 8. The structure of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis and spectroscopic data
11 Anomalies by Birth in Urogenital System: Clinical Aspect, Kaur Manpreet, Wazir Sangeeta, and Mahajan Anupama
During routine dissection of 60 years old male cadaver in Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, it was found that the left kidney showed multiple cysts with dilated ureter and right kidney showed an extra renal artery entering the kidney from the upper pole. Both these findings are present in an individual since birth and are most leading causes of renal failure, hypertension, hydronephrosis and even jeopardisation of renal transplants.
12 Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Hamid Iqbal, Baharullah Khattak, Sultan Ayaz, Ali Rehman, Muhammad Ishfaq, Muhammad Naseer Abbas, Hameed ur Rehman, Saqib Waheed, Abdul Wahab
The pharmacological screening of methanolic extract of Aloe vera leaf and Tamarix aphylla bark were assessed to investigate the in vitro antileishmanial activity of the medicinal plants against cutaneous leishmaniasis and to develop a patent on confirmation of their activities. Different concentrations ranging from (25-100 ?g/ml) of methanolic extract from Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla were tested for their effect on the growth of leishmania promastigotes cultured in vitro from leishmania tropica inoculated in Novy-Mcnelle-Nicolle medium (NNN) and then maintained in RPMI 1640 medium. Numbers of promastigotes grown in treated culture tubes were statistically compared to the non-treated culture tubes after time interval of 48 and 96 hrs and percent growth inhibition was observed as Mean±SD in proportion to concentrations and incubation time. Maximum percent growth inhibition was observed in Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla at concentrations of 100?g/ml in T4 (A1=66% and A2=84%) followed by T3 at 75?g/ml (B1=43% and B2=54%) after the incubation period of 96hrs respectively, while the concentration of 50?g/ml was considerable less effective in T2 (C1=27% and C2=28%) for Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla respectively, whereas the lowest concentration of 25?g/ml fail to produce any significant effect in the parasite inhibition in both medicinal plants. In this study, Tamarix aphylla was also shown to have a statistically highly significant effect on motility of the parasites as compared of Aloe vera (P
13 Evaluation of antioxidant, analgesic and antidiarrheal activity of Phoenix paludosa roxb Leaves, Sanjib Saha, Md. Khirul Islam, Md. Anisuzzman, Md. Mahadhi Hasan, Faroque Hossain, Chinmoy Talukder
In the present study, the ethanol extract of Phoenix paludosa Roxb’s leaves were investigated for evaluating antioxidant, analgesic and antidiarrheal potential. Scavenging activity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, total phenolic and flavonoid content and assessment of reducing power was used to investigate antioxidant potential of the leaves. Acetic acid induced writhing and hot-plate test were utilized to evaluate analgesic activity. Castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and gastrointestinal motility test were used to evaluate antidiarrheal potential of the leaves. The extract showed IC50 value of 13.88 ?g/ml in DPPH scavenging assay. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent and the value was 8.29 mg GAE/g of dried plant material. Total flavonoid content was 11.42 mg QE/g of dried plant material. The extract also showed reducing power in concentration dependent manner. In dose dependent manner, the extract significantly (P < 0.001) exhibited inhibition of writhing in acetic acid induced writhing test. In hot-plate test, pain threshold was raised significantly (P < 0.001) at both doses in same manner. The extract significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently decreased the frequency of diarrhea and increased the latent period in both models. The extract also delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in mice and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The results suggest that the ethanol leaves extract of P. paludosa could be used as potential antioxidant, analgesic and antidiarrheal agent and demands further experimental analysis to clarify the underlying mechanism.
14 Cardioprotective Effects in Methanolic Extract of Evolvulus Alsinoides Linn on Isoproterenol - Induced Myocardial Infarction in Albino Rats, Sudhakumari, Anil Kumar H.V, Aamir Javed, Manish Jaiswa, Muralidhar .S. Talkad
The present study was performed to investigate Evolvulus alsinoides. Linn a natural herb, would attenuate the acute myocardial infarction in isoproterenol [ISP]-treated rat model maintaining cardiac function and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Heart tissue enzyme analysis in albino male rats, such as LPO, GSH, GPX, GST, SOD, CAT, CK-MB, MDA and biochemical analysis in serum plasma viz., ALT, AST, LDH, and CPK were performed. Methanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides [EA] at the dose of [100 & 200 mg/kg/p.o] showed significant cytoprotection in the heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic injury. The results indicate that Evolvulus alsinoides [EA] administration causes myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous antioxidants and protects rat hearts from oxidative stress associated with ISP induced myocardial injury, and justify its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases in albino rats.
15 High Profile Chlorpyrifos Degrading Pseudomonas putida Mas-1 from Indigenous Soil: Gas Chromatography and Electron Microscopic Studies, Munazza Ajaz, Sheikh Ajaz Rasool, Sikander khan Sherwani and Tasneem Adam Ali
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorous insecticide applied to soil to control pests in agricultural fields. It is well known important insecticide used for crop protection in Pakistan and its massively spread contamination is of logical concern. A number of water and land ecosystems may get polluted with organophosphorus compounds. These compounds have a significant level of toxicity for mammals including humans. It is thus essential to exclude these toxicants from the ecosystem as quickly as possible. The feasible approaches to achieve such goals include biodegradation and biomineralization (utilization). The study was designed to determine the potential of Ps. putida MAS-1 to degrade / utilize chlorpyrifos. Gas chromatography studies revealed that Ps. putida MAS-1 degraded chlorpyrifos rapidly. For the final identification of Ps. putida MAS-1 PCR amplification of V4 variable regions of 16S rDNA was done which showed band size of 876 bp. The research findings presented in this manuscript indicate that Psuedomonas putida MAS-1 can be exploited for the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos polluted environment.
16 Trends in genitourinary tuberculosis, Sujoy Ray, Bharti Chogtu, Rahu Magazine
One thirds of world?s population is infected with tuberculosis with new infection occurring every second. In humans tuberculosis is primarily caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is still a major health problem in many developing countries including India and had been declared by World Health Organization (WHO) as „public health emergency? in 1993. In this study medical records of 40 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital with diagnosed genitourinary tuberculosis were accessed. Majority of patients 95% (38\40) belonged to the low socioeconomic status and came from rural setting. Besides this we found a major gender inequality: 75% were female patients This is especially relevant to rural and low socioeconomic areas in developing countries where women's health is worse than men's ( in terms of nutrition), women's risk of disease may be increased. Most of our patients were above 40 yrs of age and exhibited nonspecific symptoms like abdominal pain, distension, postprandial fullness, omitting, and constipation Specific genitourinary symptoms were few .Majority of the cases were diagnosed by histopathology and a combination of strong clinical, laboratory, and radiographic evidence of urogenital tuberculosis with negative bacilli search The sequelae of GUTB required major surgical corrections and leave significant sequelae
17 Serum calcium and magnesium in patients with Essential hypertension and their first degree relatives, Booloo Sharma, Devajit Sarmah
Hypertension mostly essential is a major cardiovascular problem across the globe. Electrolytes like calcium and magnesium are linked with the pathophysiology of essential hypertension by various studies. Although a handful of studies are conducted worldwide including India, drawing their causative association with hypertension; but such a study was never conducted among the population of the north-east India. So, with this aim the pioneering study to verify the association of serum calcium and magnesium in essential hypertensives and their first degree relatives was conducted among 345 subjects of north east India. The study vividly draws significant results statistically (p
18 Effects of Kolaviron on the Histoarchitecture of the Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Uterus in Female Wistar Rats, Ajayi Sunday Adelaja, Nwoha Polycarp
This research work determined the effects of kolaviron (a methanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds) on the histoarchitectures of ovary, fallopian tube and uterus with a view to access its relationship to infertility. A total of thirty adult female Wistar rats were used for this experiment. The animals were randomly divided into six (6) groups: A, B, C, D, E and F with five (5) animals in each group. Group A, were the control group that were given distilled water orally once daily for 14 days; Group B were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days; Group C were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg twice daily for 14 days; Group D were given clomiphene citrate orally at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group E were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group F were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were anaesthesized by chloroform inhalation. The ovary, fallopian tube and uterus were removed, weghed and fixed in 10% formol saline for Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. The results showed that Relative gonads weight (f=10.700, df=5, P
19 Prevalence of Intestinal Helminthic Parasites in School Going Children in Rural Area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh, Vijaya Rayapu, Senthil Pragash Dhandapany, Ivvala Anand Shaker, Sandeep Kasukurthy
This paper presents the status of intestinal helminthiasis in public school children aged 5 – 14 years in a rural area of Kuppam, Andhra Pradesh. A total of 135 school children (69 girls and 66 boys) were included in this study. A protocol was filled out regarding hygienic and other habits, including factors predisposing to helminthic infections. Fecal samples from the children were examined by direct method and concentration techniques. The overall prevalence of helminthiasis was 15.55%. The most common helminthes were Hook worm, Ascaris and Hymenolepis nana. The frequency of parasitic infection is high in Kuppam, possibly due to low socio-economic status, lack of health education, poor sanitation and warm climate in this area and should be regarded as an issue of public health priority
20 In vitro Dissolution Studies of Different Brands of Baclofen Tablets Available in Bangladesh, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Layla Zaman, Tahmina Yasmin, Adit Muktadir Pavel and Preeti Jain
This study was designed to evaluate the quality of baclofen tablets commercially available in Bangladesh. We studied the in vitro dissolution profile of eleven brands of baclofen tablet of which three were coated and eight uncoated. The study also included the determination of disintegration time and drug content in all these brands. We observed that one of the film-coated brands was suboptimal with respect to average drug content, which was found to be 80.10% and this lies outside the compendial specification. This brand also failed to comply with the compendial in vitro drug release requirement as we observed only 41.30% drug release at the end of 45 min. All other brands tested met the required specifications and complied accordingly in terms of drug release, disintegration time and drug content. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that although most brands of baclofen tablets included in this study showed high dissolution profile and hence good bioavailability, at least one brand failed to meet the quality requirements, suggesting that substandard product is also available in the market that may not provide the expected efficacy.
21 Effect of Asmarihara kasaya curna (ASM)-an ayurvedic formulation on lipid profile after chronic administration., Latifa Bulbul, M. S. K. Choudhuri
Asmarihara Kasaya Curna (ASM), a classical Ayurvedic preparation which is widely used in Urolithiasis .The research was carried out in order to observe the effect of this formulation on lipid profile reveals that it possesses hypotriglyceridemic property after chronic administration for 45 consecutive days. In the male rats there was a statistically very highly significant decrease in the Triglycerides (p=0.001***) content in the plasma. On the contrary an increase in the Total Cholesterol (p=0.285NS), VLDL (p=0.173 NS) and LDL (p=0.023*) content in the plasma was noted. There was an insignificant decrease (p=0.771 NS) in HDL. In the female rats there was a statistically very highly significant decrease in the Triglycerides, content (p=0.001***) in the plasma. Interestingly none of the other changes in case of the total Cholesterol (p=0.924 NS), VLDL (p=0.329 NS), LDL (p=0.881 NS) and HDL (p=0.983 NS) were significantly different from their corresponding control values. But in male rats, the content of the LDL in plasma a statistically significant increase was noted which was different from female rats.
22 Fusion of Main Trunks of Median and Musculocutaneous Nerves-An Anatomic Variation: A Case Report, Navita Aggarwal, Navjot Kaur, Jaswinder Kaur, Monika Gupta
Median nerve (MN) and Musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) around their origin from brachial plexus are known to have many variations. A unilateral variation in the course of MCN in 65 years male cadaver was observed during routine dissections for medical undergraduates. In the present case, MCN was observed to be formed by its normal pattern, as the continuation of lateral cord of brachial plexus. Thereafter instead of piercing coracobrachialis, it fuses for some distance with MN and then separates out to supply all the muscles of anterior compartment of the arm. It then ends as lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. Such a case of fusion of main trunks of MN and MCN has not been clearly reported in literature. Knowledge of this variation is important owing to its numerous clinical implications.
23 A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Procyclidine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form, Aparajita Malakar, Nitai Chandra Das, and Bishwajit Bokshi
A simple, rapid and precise method was developed for the quantitative estimation of procyclidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form. A chromatographic separation of procyclidine hydrochloride was achieved with Chiral-AGP, 100 x 4.0 mm, 5.0 ?m analytical column using aqueous solution of 10 mM sodium acetate pH 4.1 with acetic acid-acetonitrile (95:5 v/v). The instrumental settings include flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, column temperature at 30°C and detector wavelength of 210 nm using a photodiode array detector. Theoretical plates for procyclidine hydrochloride were 8232. Tailing factor for procyclidine hydrochloride was 1.33. The described method showed excellent linearity over a range of 2-200 ?g/ml for procyclidine hydrochloride. The correlation coefficient is 0.999. The relative standard deviation of peak area for six measurements is always less than 2%. Overall, the proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination of procyclidine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage form.
24 Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different fractions of Sesbania sesban bark, Arif Ahmed, Md. Sariful Islam Howlader, Shubhra Kanti Dey, Arpona Hira, Md. Hemayet Hossain
In Bangladesh, the tree Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. is used as the traditional medicine for the treatment of a number of ailments. The present study has been undertaken for antimicrobial activity of the ethanol, ether (diethyl ether) and chloroform extracts of S. sesban bark. Antimicrobial activity has been investigated against five Gram-positive bacteria, nine Gram-negative bacteria and seven fungi by disc diffusion and broth macro-dilution assay. The zone of inhibition has been observed with almost all bacteria and fungi with some exceptions. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these extracts were found to be significant. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay test, the LC50 values of ethanol, ether and chloroform extracts of bark of S. sesban were found to be 1280, 640 and 320 ?g/ml, respectively. Findings of the study justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine and suggests for further investigation.
25 Acute toxicity study and effect of Teucrium stocksianum boiss on blood glucose level and weight of glucose treated mice, Alamgeer, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Taseer Ahmad, Abdul Qayyum Khan, Ibrahim Javid
Teucrium stocksianum boiss has been traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The current study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium stocksianum boiss in glucose-fed mice for 30 days. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of ethyl acetate extract significantly (P< 0.001) decreased the blood glucose level of 10% glucose-fed mice in comparison to control group. Ethyl acetate extract significantly increased body weight (P
26 Antibacterial Study of Medicinal Plant Trigonella foenum, Ali Rehman, Farid Fatima, Hussain Ullah, Saima Saeed, Sohail Ahmad, Najeeb Ullah, Nasir Muhammad
The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial study of the medicinal plant Trigonella foenum crude extract and its subsequent solvent soluble fractions against six bacterial strains like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens by determining zone of inhibition. The results revealed that all fractions except water fraction showed promising inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococccus aureus. Chloroform fraction showed activity of 19mm and ethyl acetate fraction show activity of 17mm against Escherichia coli while the same fractions showed activity of 18mm each against Staphylococccus aureus. The chloroform fraction show excellent activity of 19mm against Erwinia carotovora. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were active against all bacterial strains and show excellent activity
27 Antioxidant potential and chemical constituents of impatiens bicolor Royle, Mughal Qayum1, Muhammad Nisar , M. Raza Shah, Waqar Ahmad Kaleem, Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
Alcoholic extract of Impatiens bicolor Royle and its various fractions were screened for antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging activity and its chemical constituents were isolated and their chemical structures were determined by mass spectrometry and different NMR spectroscopy techniques. Impatiens bicolor fractions revealed significant antioxidant activity. Dichloromethane fraction of alcoholic extract yielded four compounds whose structures were elucidated as methyl-4-hydroxyl cinnamate (1), stigmasterol (2), stigmasterol 3-O-?-glucoside (3) and ?-Sitosterol (4). These results indicated the potential of Impatiens bicolor to be further explored as natural source for new lead compounds
28 Ethnomedicinal Survey of plants of Valley Alladand Dehri, Tehsil Batkhela, District Malakand, Pakistan, Alamgeer,Taseer Ahmad, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq, Jahangir khan, , Raheela Qayyum, Abdul Qayum Khan, Nasir Muhammad
The aim of this survey was to evaluate and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Valley Alladand Dehri, Tehsil Batkhela, District Malakand, which has high medicinal plants prospective. Ethnomedicinal informations including local names, local medicinal uses of plants, were collected through an open-ended questionnaire. These Informations were only reported when at least 10 interviewees verified it. The study showed that the local people used approximately 92 species of different plants for various diseases like in high blood pressure as diuretic (18%), diarrhea (11%) and diabetes (8%). The leading families out of 53 in medicinal indications were Lamiaceae (12%), Asteraceae (8%), Cucurbitaceae (8%) and Solanaceae (8%). It was also observed that local collectors are unaware of proper collection, and preservation techniques, due to which its active ingredients are lost. It is concluded from our survey that this ethnomedicinal study will definitely provide a folkloric claim base for researchers and also asses in the treatment of local diseases
29 Evaluation of Hypoglycemic activity of Thymus serpyllum Linn in glucose treated mice, Alamgeer, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Taseer Ahmad, Abdul Qayyum Khan, Ibrahim Javed and Haseeb Ahsan
Thymus serpyllum Linn. was evaluated for its hypoglycemic activity in 10 % d-glucose treated mice. The blood glucose level of glucose-fed mice treated with aqueous extract of Thymus serpyllum Linn. for one month remained within the normal range while the blood glucose level of glucose-fed untreated mice was significantly (P
30 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Drinking Water in District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Hamid Iqbal, Muhammad Ishfaq, Abdul Jabbar, Muhammad Naseer Abbas, Ali Rehaman, Sohail Ahmad, Muhammad Zakir, Sajeed Gul, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Musarat Ullah, Waqas Ahmad
This study was performed to examine the Physico-chemical analysis of water sources like Storage tank, Tube well and Tap water collected at sampling points of Shakardara, Lachi and Kohat city in district Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and analyzed for the presence of various parameters like heavy metals, Sulphates, Nitrates, Nitrites, Chlorides, Total solids and Total soluble solids. Results indicated that some water samples had unacceptable level of ions and heavy metals as approved by World Health Organization (WHO). Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium were observed high from WHO standard in some samples. The concentration of Iron, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cadmium, Chromium and Lead were found below the WHO recommended guidelines
31 Drug Related Problems and Reactive Pharmacist Interventions for Inpatients Receiving Cardiovascular Drugs, Rani Reema Abraham
Although pharmacotherapy in cardiovascular diseases can improve the well-being, its benefit can be compromised by drug-related problems (DRPs). The objectives of the present study were to examine the number and nature of drug related problems in patients with cardiovascular diseases and to demonstrate the role of pharmacist in ensuring safe and efficient use of medicines in daily practice in the inpatient settings. A prospective cross sectional study was carried out for 8 months in the general medicine department of a 640 bedded multi-specialty private corporate hospital. The nature, prevalence and incidence of DRPs were studied and documented using the PCNE (Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation) classification system. A total of 1051 drugs were prescribed during the study period. Most commonly prescribed categories of drugs were antihypertensives (21.05%), anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs (11.13%), antiulcers (8.84%), insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (6.95%) and anti infectives (5.42%). Drug interactions (46.19%), drug overdosage (17.26%) and drug duplication (11.17%) were the most frequently occurring DRPs. Most common clinical risk factors identified were polypharmacy (66.21%) and diabetes mellitus (20.31%). Antihypertensives presented the highest drug risk ratio. Statistical analysis showed positive correlation between age and number of DRPs in the study population. Pharmacist interventions were mostly on drug interactions, dosing and drug choice and 59% of them were accepted, resulting in prevention of DRP occurrence. The current study demonstrated the importance of routine medication review and the need of a pharmacist in a multidisciplinary team in treating cardiovascular diseases.
32 Prevalence of Smoking in Teenagers Male Undergraduate Students a Study of Karachi, Pakistan, Rabia Bushra, Nousheen Aslam, Umair Khan, Nusrat Bano, Arshad Jamal, Ali Akbar Sial, Mirza Tasawer Baig, and Sikandar Khan Sherwani
Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. This study aims to report the prevalence of smoking in teen age male students. Questionnaire was designed and its reliability was calculated using Cronbach?s alpha (?=0.805) and administered to one thousand teenage male students. Eight hundred and seventy five participants returned completely filled questionnaires. They were categorized into seven groups according to their ages (13 to 19 years). The main outcome measures were prevalence, trends (number of cigarettes per day) and reasons for smoking in these students. Pearson coefficient was calculated to explore correlation of prevalence of smoking with age. 535 (61.14%) respondents reported cigarette use. Older individuals consumed more cigarettes per day than younger ones. There was a significant positive correlation of prevalence of smoking with age calculated by Spearman correlation (r=0.821, p
33 Renal Adverse Effect in Sold Cancer Patients Treated With Cytotoxic Agents, Talha Bin Fayyaz, Noorulain, Nusrat Bano, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Durnaz Baloch, Aisha Jabeen, Quratul Ain Leghari, Shazia Adnan and Sikandar khan sherwani
Severe or pertinent nephrotoxicity interferes with cytotoxic chemotherapy resulting in dose reductions, treatment delays or cessation of therapy. Chemotherapy induced nephrotoxicity is associated with anaphylactic reactions, vascular complications, decreased renal perfusion and is relative to the cumulative dose intensity. Risk of nephrotoxicity is higher in the elderly and diabetic patients. Patients with previous nephro diseases such as nephritis and comorbidities i.e. anemia, malnutrition and renal damages are prone to an added risk of nephrotoxicity. This review consolidates the pattern of nephro adverse effects associated with each component of the cytotoxic agents regimen e.g. cisplatin, ifosfamide, carboplatin etc. Higher propensities of nephro adverse effects are associated with the cytotoxic agents, intensified by the incorporation of more than one drug at a time. In conclusion the nephro biomarkers like urinary kidney injury molecule- 1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine etc should be monitored in the patient under a cytotoxic treatment plan as well as purposefully assessed during follow-up visits of the patients.
34 Pharmacoeconomics of Low molecular Weight Heparin in Unstable Angina: A Critical Review, Shazia Alam, Baqir. S. Naqvi, Nusrat Bano, Aisha Jabeen, Talha Bin Fayyaz
Economics assessment basically deals with science of drug cost, benefits and hope of survival in patients suffering from serious disease. This review focuses of the pharmacoeconomical factors associated with the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in unstable angina. Unsatble angina (UA) or non ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is one of common ischemic manifestation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a large cause of hospitalization. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate the available literatures on economic assessment of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) over unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the management of unstable angina to establish their role in reducing therapy load, improve the effectiveness of care, optimize patient outcomes and overall cost of care by focusing on the most effective strategies. Economic analysis consistently demonstrated the efficacy of enoxaparin (LMWH) in reducing cardiovascular events and mortality in UA/NSTEMI. Investigators concluded that high cost of enoxaparin for the treatment of unstable angina was offset by the savings and cost effectiveness associated with fewer hospital admissions, less coagulation monitoring (aPTT), reduce frequency of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and invasive procedures such as catheterization and angioplasty compared to UFH.
35 An investigation of the toxic effects of cooked phosphide-residue contaminated cowpea on wistar rats., Ayobola Abolape Iyanda
Pesticide related death is common in Nigeria. Many of these deaths have been identified to occur as result of misuse of these chemicals. For example, it was demonstrated in an earlier study that contamination of cowpea with phosphide residue post-fumigation is capable of considerable hepato-renal damage. The aim of this study is to determine if processing of such contaminated cowpea is capable of such degree of hepatic and renal damage. Eighteen female Wistar rats used for the study were randomly divided into 3 groups and fed cooked phosphide-residue contaminated cowpea for a period of 8 hours. After which blood was collected for the estimation of hepato-renal indices; tissues were also processed for histologic examination. None of the indices (alanine and aspartate amino transferases, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, uric acid) were significantly different (p>0.05) compared with control, histology result revealed no visible lesion for kidney section although mild infiltration of mononuclear cells were observed for liver sections. The results of this study suggest that processing of phosphide-residue contaminated cowpea is capable of modulating its hepato-nephrotoxic effects.
36 Tissue histology and antioxidant defense system in female rats exposed to sun rays., Ayobola Abolape Iyanda, Chinedum Iheanacho Iheakanwa
Although considerable distance separates the earth and the sun- the star at the center of the Solar System- yet its harmful effects after excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun have been identified as a cause of many pathological conditions. The role of lipid peroxidation in various disease states has also been highlighted. The aim of the study is to investigate whether 4 hourly exposure to sunlight is capable of inducing tissue damage that is oxidative stress-mediated. Fourteen female Wistar rats of 13 weeks of age were distributed into 2 groups. Sun-exposed rats were left in an open place without any form of sun-screen for protection against sunlight. Blood was collected from the animals by retro-orbital bleeding. The serum obtained was used for the estimation of activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced and oxidized glutathione. Sections of the brain, lung, heart, and ileum were processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student’s t test. P ? 0 .05 was considered significant. Results showed that there were significant increases in serum levels of MDA and GSSG as well as significant decreases for GSH, Gln-px and SOD, an indication of the involvement of oxidative stress in histologic changes recorded for some of these tissues. Histologic changes like mild congestion of the coronary vessel (heart) as well as mild pulmonary congestion (lung). The absence of histolgic changes in tissues like kidney and liver even when some of the oxidative stress markers were significantly different and suggestive of free radical generation, may be as a result of the fact that free- radical are highly reactive with very short half-lives, which means they combine almost immediately after their production in situ.
37 Identification of Staphylococcus aureus in Pus samples and its Anti-microbial Susceptibility against Imipenem, Tobramycin and Linezolid, Farzana Yasmeen, Muhammad Imran Sarwar, Abdul Hakeem, Sikandar Khan Sherwani, Muhammad Shahbaz Hussain, Mubarak Zeb, Irfan Sarwar and Mumhamad Mumtaz Khan
Staphyloccocus. aureus is a significant human pathogen and causes wound infection and also infection of soft tissue. Staph.aureus is leading causing hospital acquired infection. The study was to determine the frequency of Staph.aureus in different ward of Sheikh Zayed Hospital Rahim Yar khan. To find the prevalence of Staph.aureus in operated and nonoperated patients. Also the determination of Staph.aureus resistance against Imipenem,Tobramycin and Linezolid. This study was conducted in Microbiology Department Sheikh Zayed Hospital Rahim Yar Khan from Janurary to March. 50 different samples of patients are included in this study. Staph.aureus was isolated by culture, Gram staining and biochemical test catalase and coagulase. 50 samples were collected in which 64% is operated and36% are non-operated. In this study Staph aureus resistance against Imipenem,Tobramycin and Linezolid is 14%,42% and 10% respectively. Staph.aureus infections are more common in surgically operated patients. This is due to lack of proper sterilization and poor hygiene problem. Staph.aureus resistance against against Imipenem and Tobramycin is high due to poor intake of antibiotics
38 Quality Evaluation of Different Brands of Grapes Juice Available in Local Markets of Peshawar City, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Saeed Akhtar, Javid Ali, Said Hassan2, Sudhair Abbas, Bilal Javid, Farhat Ali Khan and Muhammad Siddique
The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative physiochemical analysis and quality assessment of different commercial brands of grape juices available in the local market of Peshawar. Five samples were analyzed for physiochemical characteristics like total soluble solids, moisture, ash, pH, acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Different commercial brands of grape juices were collected from the local market of Peshawar. It was observed that TSS of sample II was higher i.e. (16.3° brix) and sample III was found to have lower TSS i.e. (12.1 ° brix). Maximum moisture contents were observed in sample III i.e. (88.326%) and minimum moisture was observed in sample II i.e. (84.012%). Ash contents were observed higher in sample V (0.244%) and were lower in sample IV (9.6 x 10'6 %). pH was in the range of (2.51 to 3.01). Maximum pH was in sample V and minimum was in sample IV. Acidity of the samples was found higher in sample IV i.e. (0.6%) and lower in sample III i.e. (0.33%). Total sugars of these samples were found maximum in sample IV (18.69%) and were minimum in sample III (13, 74%), Reducing sugars was high in sample IV (18.48%) and lower in sample III (11.03%). Non reducing sugars were maximum in sample III (2.71 %) and minimum in sample I (0.16%). Highest TPC were found in sample I (25 cfu/ml). TCB and FCB were found in normal range in all samples. E.Coli were absent in all samples.
39 An Emerging Trend of Anaerobes: Porphyromonas Levii Causing Necrotic Vulvo Vaginitis. A Case Report, Mubarak Zeb, Hina Tariq, Waqar Khan, Effa Khan, Arif Hussain, Badar Jehan Farooqi, Sikandar Khan Sherwani
Prophyromonas levii is a gram negative anaerobic rod. It is non-motile chemoorganotroph bacteria. It was previously included in the genus named Bacteroides, but non on molecular basis, 16S rRNA studies it belongs to genus porphyromonas. Porphyromonas levii also isolated from female vagina also consider as normal vaginal flora. It can cause brain abscess, otitis media, mastoiditis, chronic osteomylitis and bacterial vaginosis in human. In our case a 13 years old girl was admitted in a tertiary care hospital with yellow foul smelling vaginal discharge, itching, and abdominal pain. After bacterial culture the anaerobic organism is identified as Porphromonas levii. Porphyromonas levii have caused Vulvo vaginitis which reflects that rare pathogen can also capable of causing of this disease. This also highlights the importance of culture and sensitivity in management of diseases. In our society the importance of culture and sensitivity should be highlighted, as well as the microbiology laboratory should be standardized, well equipped and well trained staff. Porphyromonas levii is an anaerobic bacteria and required strict anaerobic condition and technical skills to be cultivated, this can only be possible if Microbiology laboratory in our community are standardized, and else we would be missing the diagnosis of this emerging pathogen.
40 Potential Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery: A Review, Abid Hussain, Gul Majid Khan, Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Akhlaq, Saif ur Rahman, Hamza Altaf, Naheed Akhtar and Muhammad Imran Qayyum
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) aims to deliver the therapeutic moiety via the skin into the systemic circulation for its therapeutic effect. The transdermal route has been recognized as one of the highly potential routes of systemic drug delivery and provides the advantage of avoidance of the first-pass effect, ease of use and withdrawal in case of side effects, and better patient compliance. However, due to resistance of this route is the difficulty of penetration of drug through the skin. Studies have been carried out to select safe and suitable penetration enhancers to promote the percutaneous absorption of a number of drugs. The present review contains the different penetration enhancers; thus, it will help in the selection of appropriate enhancers for increasing the permeation of poorly absorbed drugs through skin.