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Acta Scientific Microbiology

Journal Papers (42) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 COVID-19: An Ongoing Global Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) Infection , Shyamapada Mandal
In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syn-drome coronavirus 2), a novel coronavirus provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), has been emerged in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) causing outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The 2019-nCoV, which is geneti-cally different from two previously reported human-infecting β-coronaviruses: SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus), has been considered as a new β-coronavirus and named as SARS-CoV-2 (subgenus: Sarbecovirus)
2 Some Recent Facts about SARS-CoV-2 , Parul Thapar
Corona viruses are the largest group of virus belonging to the class Nidovirales. Corona viruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA viruses. They are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy (Figure 1). Corona viruses causes a variety of diseases in mammals and birds rang-ing from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory diseases in chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. The corona gets its name due to the spike like projections which gives it the appearance of solar rays or solar corona
3 COVID-19 Associated Pneumonia Overview of Real Time Cases , Muhammad Farhan Saeed
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a newly spread disease started in China and spreading in all over the world. Infected people with the COVID-19 virus experiencing varying levels of respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treat-ment. People with older age group generally (over 50 years), and people with medical problems like heart diseases, diabetes, respi-ratory disease, and are vulnerable to serious illness by this virus exposure. Regalado, 2020 had described three basic and possible measures to stop the Covid-19 disease epidemic. (1) Extraordinary restrictions on free movement and assembly, as well as aggressive testing, this option seems impossible now that the virus is in over 100 countries. (2) Development of vaccine which needs time to make it successful, (3) A third is potentially effective but horrible to consider; the spread of virus, eventually the virus will spread all over and people will have been infected and (if they survive) become immune that the outbreak will bust on its own and harder to find a susceptible host. This phenomenon is known as herd im-munity. If this happened, it has potential to infect 60% of the world population in a spam of one year.
4 Optimization of Diauxienne Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Bioremediation of Soils Polluted by Hydrocarbons , Bassirou Mahamadou Harouna and Othmane Benkortbi
The objective assigned to this study is the optimization of azote nutriment source for the microbial bioremediation to contribute to the fight against environmental pollution through the production of biosurfactants of multidisciplinary interest. This study consists of metabolizing hydrocarbons into biosurfactants using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain in order to control the environmental threat in a batch of 250 ml at 37°C for 48 hours of culture. The optimization tests of nitrogen source showed that within a range of concentration [1 - 8] g/l, the optimum value was 4 g/l for KNO3 with an emulsification index EI24 = 71.45% and an optical density DOX = 0.55 for 46h of culture. The yields obtained Yx/s and Yp/s were of 60.00% and 32.17% respectively with an amount of biosurfactants P = 580 mg, a bioconversion rate θ = 78.47% and a ratio N/C = 0.473. The comparative study between two nitrogen sources such as KNO3 and NH4NO3 for a range of concentration [3 - 4] g/l demonstrated that the best source of nitrogen remains KNO3. Indeed, the kinetic monitoring of the biomass growth, the emulsification index, the biosurfactants productivity and the consumption of the substrate revealed the inhibition of the strain by NH4NO3 after 7 hours of incubation, provoking the degeneration of the strain and slowing the removal of pollutants process. A similar study of NH4NO3 at a concentration of 4 g/l resulted in an emulsification index EI24 = 65.22%, a yields Yx/s = 18.37% and Yp/s = 45.17% and a bioconversion rate θ = 57.36%. The amount of the biosurfactants measured at P = 590 mg for an N/C ratio of 0.739. In fact, the results of this study demonstrated that KNO3 promotes the growth of biomass as well as the production of biosurfactants who play a major role in the enrichment of the soil by solubilizing the toxic elements and maximum removal of hydrocarbons following diauxic phenomena.
5 Extraction and Preliminary Characterization of Potential Antibacterial Agent from Potential Streptomyces cinereoruber sp. Isolated from an Chilika Lake , Anjani K Upadhyay, Debasmita Chatterjee, Madhuri Swain1 and Lopamudra Ray
Streptomyces, isolated from marine and estuarine habitat have been widely recognized as a potential source of antifungal, anti-tumour, anti-bacterial compounds. In the present study, the antimicrobial agent production potential of a Streptomyces cinereorubersp was evaluated. The selective isolation of the strain was carried out on starch casein agar. The primary screening of the Streptomyces isolate was done by cross streak method against pathogenic test strains Escherichia coli MTCC 82, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus IP406 and Salmonella typhi MTCC 734 and Micrococcus luteus and the antimicrobial property against Micrococcus luteus was confirmed. The secondary screening was carried out by using the culture supernatant against the test strain by agar well diffusion method. The growth and antimicrobial production ability of the strain against Micrococcus luteus was studied. The antimicrobial agent production was also observed till pH 11 and NaCl concentration 3% (w/v). The partially purified compound showed a peak similar to streptomycin in HPLC. The culture condition for the production of the compound was opimised.
6 Maprovit 3,6,9: Perfect Companion of Your Immune System to Fight Corona Virus Hit , Bharat Kwatra
The world is shaken by the spread of new coronavirus infec-tions from the beginning of 2020. The new coronavirus, suspected of having come from wild animals, continuously mutates, unlike the coronavirus that causes a cold and penetrates deep into the airway, causing severe respiratory disease.
7 Genome Editing in Gene and Cell-Based Therapies , Saranya Ganapathy and Sanjeev K Gupta
Site-specific genetic modification , for effective treatment of human diseases, has become a realistic possibility after nearly 50 years of research in the field of gene editing/therapy. With the need for introducing exogenous fragment DNA or removing/modifying endogenous gene from/in a specific site in the genome of interest, precise genetic tools are being carefully designed for implementa-tion. Creating Double Stranded Breaks (DSBs) at targeted sites in the genome of interest followed by endogenous cell based repair (Homology Directed Repair (HDR) or Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)) results in genomic modifications [1]. With this approach, it is possible to carry out gene insertion, augmentation, deletion, gene sequence modification and mutation correction, aiding in the development of better animal disease models, ex vivo and in vivo gene repair and engineered cell based therapies.
8 COVID 19, the Unseen Battle: Are we Ready for it , Afsheen Arif
The world is witnessing an eminence condition which had nev-er been encounter so far, since last century with the advent of the technology and advancement, it was barely rare to see such pan-demic. It has been a new, unique and challenging condition for the whole world including Science. China being the technology king and one of the developed countries, had combat it with grace and courage. The registered cases in China are 81,177 with 3,277 mor-tality rate is 4.03. Italy has been affected the second most country with registered cases of 63,927 with 6,077 mortality rate is 9.05. Spain being the third country with high mortality rate is 6.08 with registered cases 39,637 with 2,696 deaths. Iran has hard hit with deaths of 1,934 out of 24,811 confirmed cases and mortality rate is 7.79. The overall global count for the cases is 393,354 with 17,164 death tolls [1]. The overall mortality rate is 4.36 but all of these are developed and highly technologically advanced countries
9 When Coronavirus (COVID-19) Hits Agriculture Grounds-A Short Review , Jai S Ghosh
The present pandemic with the novel corona virus (CoVID-19) has played havoc with global economy. No country is spared to suffer the next step of the disease and that is a bad recession in virtually every nation. One of the worst hit sector of the economy is the agricultural output from many developed nations as well as in certain developing nations. This is because not only the prolonged lock-down enforced to contain the disease but many farmers and cultivators who either has succumbed to the disease or is still in hospital and hence cannot go to the farm
10 Ecological and Epidemiological Aspects of West Nile Virus in Ukraine , Alla Yushchenko, Jason Farlow and Zinaida Klestova
West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral mosquito-transmitted disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. WNV infects an extremely wide range of susceptible hosts and is capable of replicating in mammals, birds, reptiles and am-phibians. The enzootic lifecycle of WNV consists of cycling between mosquitoes and birds and sporadic spillover results in disease in horses and humans. Rare and severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and horses occurs. The epidemic significance of WNV infec-tion is illustrated by its worldwide distribution, variable clinical prognosis of disease, and lack of therapeutic options. In Ukraine, 14 enzootic territories have been identified. While climate conditions, water sources and a large number of avian migratory routes create optimal conditions for the pathogen circulation in the country, the epidemiological status of WNV in Ukraine is poorly defined. Annual introduction of WNV to Ukraine likely occurs via seasonal migratory bird routes that exist regionally between Ukraine and neighboring European countries. The genotype of historical avian Ukrainian isolate exhibits the Lineage 2 genotype, however, only limited WNV genome sequences from Ukraine are available. Enhanced viral surveillance and serologic diagnosis of WNF in Ukraine is warranted and remains an essential measure for a clear understanding of the current epidemic situation and the prediction of possible WNV outbreaks in the future
11 Chloroquine as Reposition Drugs for Novel Coronavirus SARS-COV-2 Emergence , Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty
sistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India2Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India*Corresponding Author: Indranil Chatterjee, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India and Manas Chakraborty Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India.Short CommunicationReceived: March 30, 2020Published: April 14, 2020© All rights are reserved by Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty.A movement to reposition tablets has been initiated in current years [1]. In this strategy, it is vital to use tablets which have been tested to be harmless and whose pharmacokinetics and most ad-vantageous dosage are well known. In the current episode of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergence [2], we find a wonderful ex- enough of possible repositioning of tablets, especially chloroquine. We had 20 years ago proposed to systematically check chloroquine in viral infections as it have been proven to be powerful in vitro against a broad variety of viruses [3,4].
12 Intestinal Helminthiasis in School Age Children of Kashmir Valley and the Need for Intervention: A Systematic Review , Showkat Ahmad Wani and Sheikh Tanveer Salam
Kashmir valley is the most densely populated part of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The enormous population, along with the ab-sence of basic amenities, favourable climatic conditions and underdeveloped public health care system favour the transmission of intestinal helminthiasis. Present paper reviews the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in the Kashmir Valley and need for control strategies. A survey of published literature by virtue of PUBMED was done. Also many other bibliographic databases were searched to retrieve the relevant articles. After excluding duplicate studies, 11 research papers were retained for this paper. Intestinal helminth infections like those of Ascaris, Trichuris, Enterobius and Taenia saginata in Kashmir Valley remain very high. Majority of the infected are young children between the age group of 5 and 14 years. The age group, rural or urban residence, type of water source, boiled or unboiled water, type of defecation site, level of personal hygiene and maternal education were associated with helminth infection. Since the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends chemotherapy for intestinal helminth infections among school-age children, there is no government policy for helminth control in Kashmir Valley. Present article stresses on regular school-based programs to deliver anthelmintics to all school age children so as to reduce the prevalence of helminth infections in Kashmir Valley
13 Molecular Identification of Etiological Agents of Chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica , Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Stefany Lozada-Alvarado and Lorena Uribe-Lorío
Chromoblastomycosis is the second most frequently reported subcutaneous mycosis in Costa Rica. It is caused by dematiaceous fungi belonging to the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Order Chaetothyriales), especially by Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii. However, it is important to note that Fonsecaea monophora is able to disseminate and cause cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Thus, five clinical isolates deposited in the Fungal Collection of the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica were ana-lyzed. The isolates were characterized macroscopically and microscopically after grown in potato dextrose agar. Genetic identifica-tion was performed via amplification and sequencing of the ITS (internal transcription spacer) region. The isolates were identified as F. pedrosoi (n = 3), F. monophora (n = 1) and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa (n = 1). Hence, we report for the first time that R. aquaspersa is an etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica and confirm the presence of both F. pedrosoi and F. monophora in the country. Therefore, we recommend the usage of molecular techniques to identify these pathogens since there is a risk of fungal dis-semination in our patients
14 Anomalous Behavior of Adenovirus L4-33K Mutant Protein , Mohammad Feraz Ahsan
The late genes of adenovirus are transcribed from the major late transcription unit (MLTU), generating mRNA through L1 to L5. L4-33K protein is RNA splicing factor responsible for early to late switch in L1 alternative splicing. The L1-52,55K mRNA is produced during both early and late after infection, whereas L1-IIIa mRNA at late phase. L4-33K when phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) has an inhibitory effect on the temporal switch in L1 alternative RNA splicing, whereas phosphorylation with protein kinase A (PKA) has an enhancer effect on L1-IIIa splicing. The C-terminal region of L4-33K is conserved and responsible for splicing, nuclear localization and other functional activities. Mutational studies replacing serine with glycine in L4-33K, referred to as S176G, S189G, S196G did not hamper above functionality, but mutation at position 192 abolished the L4-33K splicing enhancer activity and nuclear localization. Here we show the posttranslational effect of these proteins against DNA-PK and PKA; all the mu-tants showed hypophosphorylation with DNA-PK and PKA, except S192G, which unusually showed hyperphosphorylation up to 2.63 times of the wild type L4-33K against DNA-PK, justifying earlier findings. This unusual result may be due to drastic misfolding of S192G exposing other phosphorylating residues. It would be interesting to carry out structural analysis of this protein during native and phosphorylated state.
15 Culture Parameters Affect the Light Emitting Property of Organisms Isolated from Two Marine Fishes , Anuradha Pandey Dubey and Madhuri Sharon
Organisms were isolated and cultured from two marine fishes (Stolephorus indicus and Nemipterus japonicus) that were exhibiting Bioluminescence. Identification and assessment of impact of five different culture media on the growth and light emission properties were studied. Isolates from both the fishes showed microbes to be gram negative Coccobacilli, Partial gene sequencing analysis sug-gested that the microbes belonged to Vibrio spp and Photobacterium spp. Biochemical analysis of both the bacterial isolates exhibited difference in sugar (Mannitol and Lactose), LDC, Indole and Urea content; suggesting that the two isolated colonies are different bio-luminescent bacteria. Repeated subculture (to obtain pure colonies) of both the isolates resulted in gradual reduction in the intensity of luminescence of the bacteria and eventually loss of luminescence property occurred. However, luminescence was revived when they were grown in aerated condition
16 Biological Control of Weeds by Fungi: Challenges and Opportunities , Hamid Cheraghian Radi and Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam
Weed plants are one of the main constraints to agriculture and cause considerable crop yield loss besides reducing product quality and leading to health and environmental threats. In comparison to various weed management strategies, biological control-especially mycoherbicides-offer an innovative approach to address this problem. Today, the bio-control of weeds by mycoherbicide (either fungal spore suspension or their metabolites) has received significant academic attention and over the past few decades some of the high profile candidates became commercially available. Employing mycoherbicide proposes benefits including being environ-mentally friendly, cost effective, and identifying new herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on challenges that mycoherbicides encounter before their adoption. Besides, important factors in both selecting and improving a fungal strain as a mycoherbicide are reviewed. Additionally, using integrated weed management as complementary methods to elevate the efficacy of mycoherbicides have been considered.
17 Antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Lead towards Antibiotic Stewardship , B Apoorva, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat and Dalip K Kakru
Acinetobacter spp. is an important nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive care settings and is resistant to commonly avail-able antimicrobial agents. Active surveillance is therefore necessary in order to determine appropriate antibiotic for the treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in patients attending the tertiary care hospital. It is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sharda Hospital.Acinetobacter from various clinical samples were included in this study during six months period from May 2019 to October 2019. The isolates were identified using conventional and automated methods (Vitek2 COMPACT, bioMérieux) and the susceptibility was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. During the study period, a total of 40 Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens, out of which 47.5% isolation was from ICUs. Highest isolation was observed from pus samples (22.5%) followed by blood (17.5%) and endotracheal aspirate (17.5%). 77.5% isolates were MDR (Multidrug Resistant), however they remained sus-ceptible to colistin and tetracycline. It is necessary to regularly monitor the resistance phenotypes of Acinetobacter. Enhanced sur-veillance of MDR Acinetobacter is critical for guiding the rational use of antibiotics and reducing the incidence of hospital acquired infections
18 Bacteriological Profile of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection , Nikita Birhman, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat, Mariyah Yousuf and Dalip K Kakru
Introduction: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with a urinary catheter. CAUTI is associated with major morbidity and can lead to genitourinary complications.Materials and Methods: 300 catheterized urine samples received in the bacteriological laboratory during the study period were processed as per the standard bacteriological procedures.Results: Out of 300 samples from patients showing signs and symptoms of CAUTI included in our study a total of 76 strains were isolated, the isolates were identified based on culture characteristics, Gram’s stain and biochemical reactions and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing.Conclusion: In the present study, we found that Escherichia coli was the major organism for infection and was susceptible to Colistin followed by Meropenem, Imipenem and by other antibiotics, in that order.
19 A Complete Overview and Guidelines for nCOv-2019 (COVID-19) with Special Reference to Corporate Hospital , Avinash Teli, Azaz Ahmad, Danish Azad, Mohd Ajmal, Shaziya Sheikh and Arvind Kumar
An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Or-ganization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. These policies included large-scale quarantine, strict controls on travel and extensive monitoring of suspected cases. However, it is unknown whether these policies have had an impact on the epidemic. We sought to show how these control measures impacted the containment of the epidemic. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angio-tensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms.
20 Novel Therapeutic Interventions in Treating Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia, COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Severe COVID-19 Illness and Promising Vaccine Candidates , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were detected in Wuhan city, China since late December 2019. More and more cases have been identified in other areas outside Wuhan city of China and abroad, particularly in Italy, Iran and other European countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. A total of 77,779 confirmed COVID-19-infected cases were in China, as of February 24, 2020. As of Friday morning (March 20, 2020), at least 246,275 COVID-19-infected cases have been diagnosed worldwide and 14,250 of which are in the United States.
21 COVID-19 Treatment and Post-COVID-19 Complication Syndrome: A Review , SM Rathnasiri Bandara, S Samita, SS Hettiarachchi and SMTN Senanayaka
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus belonging to the coronaviridae family to which SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV belonged. Therefore, viral immunopathology and treatment plane of COVID-19 have been explained based mainly on SARS-CoV2 as well as the known similar viral immunopathology to SARS. The major pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19 include excesses activation of cytokines and chemokines, deficiencies in the innate immune response, direct involvement of immune cells, direct viral cytopathic effects, down-regulation of lung-protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), autoimmunity and genetic factors. The key factors seem that both abnormal immune responses and injury to immune cells increase in the production of inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and complement proteins leading to tissue damage. For these possible and obvious immunes - mediated life-threatening complications of viral infection, antiviral drugs, interferon, hydroxyl chloroquine, and TMPRSS2 inhibitor have been used in standard protocol against the COVID-19 immunopathology. It seems to have a lack of efficacy of the drugs due to the inability to stop all vulnerable steps of the immune pathology of the disease. Therefore, there is still no recognized or recommended or standard immune regulative treatment plan for COVID 19. Thus, considerations of all these backgrounds, “5S 5T Approach to battle COVID-19 approach including new corticosteroids protocol for COVID-19 and has been introduced targeting to stop or suppress life-threatening immune pathology of SARS-2 infection. It is also included the other alternative methods practiced by general community and traditional approaches. Especially the steroids protocol has been planned in the review with deeply considering avoiding the experience of unsuccessful approaches that caused many harmful effects such as high motility, viremia, increased viral load, no effect, side effect, fungal illness, hyperglycemia, and secondary infections. This review has been considered and described immunological changes in each phase of viral illness and the effective steroid protocol to manage at the pre-preliminary phase, early phase, and middle phase, severe/critical phase and post-viral infected phase (post COVID19 complication syndrome). This new protocol that is open to change and alteration is proposed
22 Short Message to All Healthcare Providers about Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID 19) , Syed Haseeb Raza Naqvi, Madiha Fatima and Han Naung Tun
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses, cause respiratory tract infections in human that can be mild as common cold and can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in No-vember 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coro-navirus pandemic
23 The Real Race between Time and Invention of Covid 19 Vaccine , Rajeev Shah and Reena Mehta.
Covid-19 pandemic shocks and locks whole world at the end of 2019 and 2020. Maximum death occurred in USA followed by Italy and Spain. Here discussion and analysis have been focused on vari-ous types of vaccines of Corona virus on basis of its spike antigen S and its corresponding human ACE2 receptor on cells. The ulti-mate target of all types of vaccines is to prevent binding of ACE2 receptor to S antigen of corona, except long acting interferons. The interferons are natural antiviral substances produced by virus in-fected mammalian cells and are of three types α, β and δ. The main sources of the latest information of Covid-19 vaccination has been internet websites and social net working sites like whatsApp and facebook etc.
24 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Unexplored Saline Regions of Kutch, Gujarat, India , Josh CM and Trivedi NS.
The present investigation reveals the diversity of bacteria, fungus and archaea along the different regions of Kutch area, Gujarat, India. The samples were collected from 3 selected site of Kutch area whose temperature was between 37 - 41°C, pH 8.5, EC 1480 μs, Salinity 9.01 and 1.85 ppm TDS. 52 bacterial, 17 extreme halophilic archaea and 2 halophilic fungus strains were isolated, among these all bacterial strains were selected for further study like enzyme productivity and anti-microbial activity because the main aim of research was to isolate organism which have multiple applications. Fifteen strains produced four or more than four enzymes which have industrial application (amylase, protease, cellulose, lipase, and chitinase) and one strain of Micrococcus showed antimicrobial activity against all test cultures. Eighteen archaea and two halophilic fungi that grew at 25% salt containing medium were also isolated.
25 Self-Cleansing and Special Healing Properties of River Ganga: Million People Depend on this Water , Indranil Chatterjee, Soumitra Sahana, Anirban Adhikary and Animitra Bhattacharjee.
Ganga is known to be a help to a tremendous measure of individuals in India and is known to be the heartbeat of the profound existence of the Hindu culture. Self-purifying and recuperating power have consistently been related with stream Ganga. In any case, of late, logical research has likewise sponsored this case
26 COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020: Prevention and Public Health Policy , Robert W Buckingham and Renata Ferretti.
The world is now facing a pandemic crisis of COVID-19. This pandemic has awakened the consciousness of many countries that have not prioritized their public health and prevention policies and practices. European countries were devastated by Covid-19, and the United States of America (U.S.A.) is presently the country with the highest number of cases and fatalities. It is the time for many countries to reassess the importance of public health and preventive strategies. This is also the time for large economies to consider a reallocation resources from military establishment to public health preventive initiatives. The study is secondary research and aims to analyze how countries have invested resources in prevention and public health
27 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Ocimum basilicum Seed Extract and its Application in H2O2 Sensing , Fouzia, Atirah Tauseef, Ahmad Khalilullah and Imran Uddin.
Plant extract mediated nanomaterials synthesis is one of the emanating fields of nanotechnology with voluminous applications in the physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc. Although different chemical techniques are on the brink of development, the rising concern for environmental contamination opens the path for biological synthesis as most of the chemical routes need toxic chemicals. The current piece of the study intended to synthesize silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract from the seed of the medicinal plant, Ocimum basilicum, under ambient conditions. A fixed ratio of plant extract to metal ion was prepared, and the color change was observed which proved the formation of nanoparticles. TEM analysis revealed silver nano-particles existed in a quasi-spherical shape with an average size of 11 nm in diameter. Moreover, the H2O2 sensing capacity of biologically synthesized AgNPs has also been studied
28 RNAi-Mediated Antiviral Approach to SARS-CoV-2 , P Shaik Syed Ali, A Sheeza and J Jasmine.
In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (CoV) affected 26 countries with 8000 cases. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It rapidly evolved into a pandemic disease resulting in an unprecedented health crisis. Antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses are crucial to prevent any future epidemics and pandemics. RNA interference (RNAi), an RNA guided post transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, plays important role in viral defense in mammals including humans. RNAi can inhibit the virus replication and expression of viral proteins through the leverage of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Therefore, RNAi an innate viral defense mechanism distributed in human cells might be a potential antiviral approach to SARS-CoV-2
29 Cytokine Storming in COVID-19 , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn.
During viral infection, cytokines play an important role in immunopathology with the first line of defense against viral infection via rapid and well-coordinated innate immune response. In vitro studies reveal that delayed release of cytokines and chemokines occurs in respiratory epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) at the early stage of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, including COVID-19 infection. At the later stage of infection, these cells secrete low levels of the antiviral factors-interferons (IFNs) and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL-2, CCL-3 and CCL-5. SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infects human airway epithelial cells, DCs, human peripheral blood monocyte (HPBM)-derived macrophages, and THP-1 cells (a monocyte cell line) and elevates levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines
30 Collaborative Study Brazil-Portugal: Validation of HPV Lyophilized Samples , Maria Elizabeth Menezes, Frederico Tourinho, José Abol Corrêa, Ana Paula Faria and Mario Cunha.
HPV is an important virus that is responsible for more than 99% of cancer in women. Preparation and validation of lyophilized samples to use as a control of molecular biology tests for HPV is very important. There are several techiniques to performer molecular test to detecte HPV however, it is necessary that their is a sample control whith can be used independent of methodology. Validation of lyophilized samples by different molecular techniques to have harmonized standards relies on consistent control.
31 Drug Re-Purposing - Can Anti-Allergy Drugs also be Used to Treat Cancer? , Moschou Georgia and Topham H. Caroline.
Medulloblastoma (MB) constitutes the commonest malignant childhood brain cancer, and it is the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year. Treatment approaches, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, have significantly enhanced in patients’ clinical outcome with approximately more than 60% of 5-year survival. Nevertheless, the majority of cancer patients deal with long-term side effects. So, it is important to develop novel therapeutics with lower toxicity and increased efficacy. The present project was conducted to examine if the anti-allergy drugs can inhibit the cancer growth. More specifically, eight anti-allergy compounds, designed by the chemists at University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN), were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against medulloblastoma. The effect of each testing drug was tested with the use of MTT assay after three days of incubation on medulloblastoma ONS76 cell line. From the extraction of the results of these anti-allergy compounds, it was found that only three of them (CL1-45-1, CL1-56-1, CL1-57-1) were more active, as they significantly inhibited the cancer growth. But, the CL1-42-1 compound displayed the greatest anti-cancer activity against the medulloblastoma ONS76 cells with IC50 = >10 μΜ (IC50 = 0 μΜ). This leads to the conclusion for further investigation of the anti-allergy compounds in order to consider them as potential anti-cancer agents
32 Molecular Screening and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2: Recent Advances and Future Prospective , Avinash Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Verma and Mayadhar Barik.
Background: COVID-19 is a new form of Coronavirus which is resembling the same as SARS-CoV-2. This virus leads to cause severe respiratory diseases among the people. Coronavirus is declared as the pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. Transmission of the disease is mainly due to the person to person contact by any means Materials and Methods: We detect the disease primary screening is necessary for a speedy recovery. PCR and other nucleic acid amplification are mainly used to diagnose the Covid-19. For the detection of the SARS, its gene is targeted in the amplification. The genes which are targeted are E, N, S, RdRp and ORf. Mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome is also detected by the various nucleic acid detection tests. We improve the detection of this pandemic, the only thing is to increase the involvement of Serological testing and molecular methods Results: The majority of 85-95% factor becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection rate of the disease SARS-CoV-2.Molecular and serological findings should need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment approximately 85% laboratory. Conclusion: The only factor which becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection of the disease.Molecular and serologicalstudyshould need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment. The need of the hour is to maintain and introduced laboratory networking and its application
33 The Current Overview of COVID-19 Pandemic in India , Arindam Chakraborty, Payel Mukherjee and Dr Manas Chakraborty.
COVID-19 has been declared as a "Global Pandemic" by WHO (World Health organization). It has affected the whole world as well as India. It has been spread almost every parts of the country, crossed more than 1 lac 18 thousands positive cases, more than 3500 patients were deceased and 48500+ patients recovered till May 22, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus mainly responsible for these COVID-19 or Novel corona virus disease. It has affected the Respiratory system and made severe life threat. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) and all the States government have provided proper guidelines to the citizens about how to fight against the Corona virus like maintain social distancing, Proper lockdown, Proper awareness like do’s and don’ts for people
34 A Covid-19 Patient With Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura , Indranil Chatterjee, Rakhi Bakuli.
A 65-year-elderly person with hypertension, immune system hypothyroidism, and known Covid-19 presentation introduced to the crisis division with a 4-day history of weakness, fever, dry hack and stomach uneasiness. She was afebrile and had a respiratory pace of 28 breaths for every moment and an oxygen immersion of 89% while she was breathing encompassing air; breath sounds were decreased respectively with bibasilar rales. The stomach as-sessment was ordinary. Research center tests demonstrated an or-dinary white-cell check, hemoglobin level (14.2g per deciliter) and platelet tally (183,000 for each cubic millimeter). The C-receptive protein level was raised at 55 mg for each liter, and liver-work tests indicated cholestasis. An oropharyngeal swab for Covid-19 test-ing was certain. Chest processed tomography (CT) demonstrated ground-glass opacities in the lower zones. The patient was con-ceded and started to get treatment with intravenous amoxicillin clavulanic corrosive, low-atomic weight heparin, and oxygen.
35 Anorectal Emergencies: Perianal Abscess , Aybala Yildiz, Alp Yildiz, Veysel Baris Turhan, Engin Kucukdiler and Erkan Karacan.
Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleed-ing which might require an immediate management. Emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rec-tal cancer. In this study we present our ambulatory management of perianal abscess. Fifty-two consecutive cases included this study. The patients admitted to outpatient clinic with anal pain, lump and/or purulent leak. All patients has diagnosed perianal abscess with physical examination. Patients has transferred the ambulatory surgery department for drainage. All abscesses drained at the bedside. Postoperative 1 patient admitted emergency service with anal pain which controlled NSAID injection. 1 patient presented with recurrent anal abscess on 8th postoperative day. No intra/postoperative bleeding/need for secondary powder application or postoperative anal incontinence detected. The main management of perianal abscess is surgical drainage. We present our series of perianal abscess treated with abscess drainage as day-care surgery with review of literature
36 Microbiological Quality and Safety Assessment of Sugar Cane Juice and Ice Sold by Vendors in Faisalabad City, Pakistan , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal, Masood Ahmad and Javeria Mustafa.
The risk of illness associated with untreated freshly squeezed juices sold by street vendors is increasing gradually. Street vended juices are widely consumed by millions of people in developing countries.Epidemiological data indicated that unpasteurized sugar cane juices indisputably resulted in increased numbers of reported out-breaks. In Faisalabad city there is a constant great demand for fresh fruit juice. To determine the microbiological quality, a total of sixty five samples of sugar cane juice and thirty samples of ice sold by street vendors on four different popular roads of Faisalabad city were collected and analysed by standard methods for the detection of coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli. All the col-lected samples of sugar cane juice and ice were hygienically poor as shown through high bacterial load ranging from 2 × 103 - 3 × 107 CFU/mL and 2 × 103 - 3 × 105 CFU/mL respectively. The Consequence of this study indicated the prevalence of different pathogenic microorganisms (Total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli) in many tested samples. Results demonstrated the low quality, safety of street vended sugar cane juices and ice added in it for cooling purpose. Appropriate actions must be taken immediately by respec-tive authorities to improve quality and safety of juices to prevent any type of outbreak
37 Terbinafine Preferred Antifungal with a Focus on Dermatophytes (A Review) , Mayank Panday, Divya Pandey, Prashant Upadhyay and Sukirti Upadhyay.
17 years ago, Terbinafine was hailed in the global drug market to use as antifungal. In the treatment of superficial dermatophytosis terbinafine is become the first choice of drug, because of its effective mode of action, pharmacologic action and microbiologic profiles. Appropriate use of terbinafine as a topical and systemic drug needs to be used with appropriate guidelines. Terbinafine is primarily indicated and also discussed a contraindication for the treatment of non-dermatophyte infections. Terbinafine act by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase which is an important component of fungal cell membrane resulting in disintegration of fungal cell was allowing terbinafine to exert its fungicidal action. As per the recent advancement significant clinical relevance seen in activity of terbinafine when used in combination of other antifungal leads to decrease in resistance. This article reviews mode of action, antimycotic spectrum and disposition profile of terbinafine. we have also done a comparative analysis of terbinafine over other antifungals (griseofulvin, itraconazole, fluconazole) in the management of dermatophytes infection
38 Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): A Review of the Literature , Shirin Tarafder.
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Fourteen mutations have been identified in Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 of which mutation D614G is of urgent concern; that may have originated either in China or Europe, and which is now the dominant pandemic form in many countries. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection but can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), can die of multiple organ failure. It still remains unclear regarding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Innate immune response is the early defense against viral infections, and when it is dysregulated, results in an exaggerated inflammation, may cause death. The information on immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is not well documented. The cytokine storm may be responsible for severity of the disease. There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, immunological changes, potential pathogenesis, disease progression and clinical management strategies. This review has summarized the current knowledge on the updated approaches regarding COVID-19 based on the emerging basic and clinical data
39 Immunopathology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2: A brief review , Bramhadev Pattnaik, Pinaki Panigrahi and Mahendra P Yadav.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for Coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in human, now a Global pandemic affecting 212 countries in all the five Continents, damages the cells that have ACE2 receptor expression on their surface. Hoffman., et al. (2020) observed that in addition to ACE2 receptor required for cellular attachment of the virion, cellular entry mechanism of the virus requires a cellular serine protease, TMPRSS2 and because alveolar type 2 cells express higher levels of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors, these cells might be the primary entry point for the virus in the lung. Intestine and kidney also have high expression of ACE2. The virus along with the ACE2 receptor enters the cells by endocytosis that results in reduction of ACE2 on cells, and as a consequence serum level of angiotensin II increases. Angiotensin II acts both as a vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory cytokine. Exposure to the virus does not necessarily cause infection, and not all people infected develop ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) or succumb to the disease. Though people of all age group and sex are susceptible, the disease could be more fatal in elderly persons > 60 years of age. Extensive lung damage due to elicitation of Cytokine Storm (cytokine release syndrome; CRS) has been described by Hirano and Murakami (2020) and Shi., et al (2020). Role of specific HLA loci and alleles (class I or II) in developing protective immunity to this virus infection remains to be elucidated. It has been reported by Iwasaki and Yang (2020) that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations as well as low affinity antibodies in the body can result in antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by utilizing Fc receptors on immune cells including macrophages, monocytes and B lymphocytes. ADE has detrimental effect in some patients with virus specific antibodies. High WBC count with associated lymphocytopenia is common in the COVID-19 patients. Ganji., et al. (2020) have reported significant reduction in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and platelets, CD4+: CD8+ ratio of 2:1, and higher expression of CD8+ and hyperactivation of CTLs and no significant change in the expression level of CD4+ compared to healthy individuals. Anti-viral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was due to over expression of CD8 and hyper activation of CTLs. Pathophysiology and pathology of the disease has been elaborated by Yuki., et al. (2020) and Sahu., et al (2020). The present review compiles the aspects of pathogenesis and involvement of the host immune system in aggravating the disease through the process of immune response
40 Experimental Evidence for Neural Progenitor Cells in Adult Substantia Nigra , Opeyemi Oluwasanmi Adeloye, Oyeneyin Babatunde David, Samuel Olawuwo and Roseline Kehinde Adeloye.
The substantia (“black substance” in Latin) is a long nucleus located in the midbrain but considered functionally a part of the basal ganglia because of its reciprocal connections with other brainstem nucleic. Degeneration of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra result in reduction of the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This lack of dopaminergic innervation to the stratum results in disorders associated with hypokinesia or reduced motor movement. However, Parkinson disease is a result of reduced functioning substantia nigra. A few studies have shown that progenitor cells present in different areas of the adult central nervous system (CNS) but specificity (i.e. SNc) whether such cells reside in the adult SNc and whether they have the potential to replace degenerating neurons effects is unknown. The purpose was to investigate a population of actively dividing progenitor cells in the adult SN, after removal from the SN, these progenitor cells immediately have the potential to differentiate into neurons. Transplantation of freshly isolated SN progenitor cells into the adult hippocampus showed that these cells also have a neuronal potential under in vivo conditions. These results suggest that progenitor cells reside in the adult SN and can give rise to new neurons when exposed to appropriate environmental signals
41 Experimental Studies on Production of Biodiesel from Oryza sativa (Rice) Bran Oil , Ahmad Tabish.
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification.Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and KOH as catalyst were found to be 60°C reaction temperature, 2h reaction time, 6:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 2% catalyst (w/w). The various properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point etc. are compared with ASTM and DIN standard. The TLC method use for the confirmation of biodiesel and to calculate the yield. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector
42 Mathematical Modeling to Estimate the Reproductive Number and the Outbreak Size of COVID-19: The case of India and the World , Durgesh Nandini Sinha.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with more than 218,000 deaths in 211 different countries around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for this deadliest disease. This paper describes a mathematical model for India, a country with the second highest population in the world with an extremely high population density of about 464 people per km2. This disease has multiphasic actions and reaction mode and our model SEIAQIm is based on six compartmental groups in the form of susceptible, exposed, infectious, asymptomatic, quarantine, and recovered immune factions. Latin Hypercube Sampling Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient method was used for the data analysis and model fitting. According to our model, India would reach its basic reproduction number R0 = 0.97 on May 14, 2020 with a total number of 73,800 estimated cases. Further, this study also equates the world's situation using the same model system and predicts by May 7, 2020 with a total number of 3,772,000 estimated confirmed cases. Moreover, the current mathematical model highlights the importance of social distancing as an effective method of containing spread of COVID-19