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1 COVID-19: An Ongoing Global Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) Infection , Shyamapada Mandal
In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syn-drome coronavirus 2), a novel coronavirus provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), has been emerged in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) causing outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The 2019-nCoV, which is geneti-cally different from two previously reported human-infecting β-coronaviruses: SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus), has been considered as a new β-coronavirus and named as SARS-CoV-2 (subgenus: Sarbecovirus)
2 Some Recent Facts about SARS-CoV-2 , Parul Thapar
Corona viruses are the largest group of virus belonging to the class Nidovirales. Corona viruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA viruses. They are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy (Figure 1). Corona viruses causes a variety of diseases in mammals and birds rang-ing from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory diseases in chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. The corona gets its name due to the spike like projections which gives it the appearance of solar rays or solar corona
3 COVID-19 Associated Pneumonia Overview of Real Time Cases , Muhammad Farhan Saeed
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a newly spread disease started in China and spreading in all over the world. Infected people with the COVID-19 virus experiencing varying levels of respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treat-ment. People with older age group generally (over 50 years), and people with medical problems like heart diseases, diabetes, respi-ratory disease, and are vulnerable to serious illness by this virus exposure. Regalado, 2020 had described three basic and possible measures to stop the Covid-19 disease epidemic. (1) Extraordinary restrictions on free movement and assembly, as well as aggressive testing, this option seems impossible now that the virus is in over 100 countries. (2) Development of vaccine which needs time to make it successful, (3) A third is potentially effective but horrible to consider; the spread of virus, eventually the virus will spread all over and people will have been infected and (if they survive) become immune that the outbreak will bust on its own and harder to find a susceptible host. This phenomenon is known as herd im-munity. If this happened, it has potential to infect 60% of the world population in a spam of one year.
4 Optimization of Diauxienne Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Bioremediation of Soils Polluted by Hydrocarbons , Bassirou Mahamadou Harouna and Othmane Benkortbi
The objective assigned to this study is the optimization of azote nutriment source for the microbial bioremediation to contribute to the fight against environmental pollution through the production of biosurfactants of multidisciplinary interest. This study consists of metabolizing hydrocarbons into biosurfactants using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain in order to control the environmental threat in a batch of 250 ml at 37°C for 48 hours of culture. The optimization tests of nitrogen source showed that within a range of concentration [1 - 8] g/l, the optimum value was 4 g/l for KNO3 with an emulsification index EI24 = 71.45% and an optical density DOX = 0.55 for 46h of culture. The yields obtained Yx/s and Yp/s were of 60.00% and 32.17% respectively with an amount of biosurfactants P = 580 mg, a bioconversion rate θ = 78.47% and a ratio N/C = 0.473. The comparative study between two nitrogen sources such as KNO3 and NH4NO3 for a range of concentration [3 - 4] g/l demonstrated that the best source of nitrogen remains KNO3. Indeed, the kinetic monitoring of the biomass growth, the emulsification index, the biosurfactants productivity and the consumption of the substrate revealed the inhibition of the strain by NH4NO3 after 7 hours of incubation, provoking the degeneration of the strain and slowing the removal of pollutants process. A similar study of NH4NO3 at a concentration of 4 g/l resulted in an emulsification index EI24 = 65.22%, a yields Yx/s = 18.37% and Yp/s = 45.17% and a bioconversion rate θ = 57.36%. The amount of the biosurfactants measured at P = 590 mg for an N/C ratio of 0.739. In fact, the results of this study demonstrated that KNO3 promotes the growth of biomass as well as the production of biosurfactants who play a major role in the enrichment of the soil by solubilizing the toxic elements and maximum removal of hydrocarbons following diauxic phenomena.
5 Extraction and Preliminary Characterization of Potential Antibacterial Agent from Potential Streptomyces cinereoruber sp. Isolated from an Chilika Lake , Anjani K Upadhyay, Debasmita Chatterjee, Madhuri Swain1 and Lopamudra Ray
Streptomyces, isolated from marine and estuarine habitat have been widely recognized as a potential source of antifungal, anti-tumour, anti-bacterial compounds. In the present study, the antimicrobial agent production potential of a Streptomyces cinereorubersp was evaluated. The selective isolation of the strain was carried out on starch casein agar. The primary screening of the Streptomyces isolate was done by cross streak method against pathogenic test strains Escherichia coli MTCC 82, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus IP406 and Salmonella typhi MTCC 734 and Micrococcus luteus and the antimicrobial property against Micrococcus luteus was confirmed. The secondary screening was carried out by using the culture supernatant against the test strain by agar well diffusion method. The growth and antimicrobial production ability of the strain against Micrococcus luteus was studied. The antimicrobial agent production was also observed till pH 11 and NaCl concentration 3% (w/v). The partially purified compound showed a peak similar to streptomycin in HPLC. The culture condition for the production of the compound was opimised.
6 Maprovit 3,6,9: Perfect Companion of Your Immune System to Fight Corona Virus Hit , Bharat Kwatra
The world is shaken by the spread of new coronavirus infec-tions from the beginning of 2020. The new coronavirus, suspected of having come from wild animals, continuously mutates, unlike the coronavirus that causes a cold and penetrates deep into the airway, causing severe respiratory disease.
7 Genome Editing in Gene and Cell-Based Therapies , Saranya Ganapathy and Sanjeev K Gupta
Site-specific genetic modification , for effective treatment of human diseases, has become a realistic possibility after nearly 50 years of research in the field of gene editing/therapy. With the need for introducing exogenous fragment DNA or removing/modifying endogenous gene from/in a specific site in the genome of interest, precise genetic tools are being carefully designed for implementa-tion. Creating Double Stranded Breaks (DSBs) at targeted sites in the genome of interest followed by endogenous cell based repair (Homology Directed Repair (HDR) or Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)) results in genomic modifications [1]. With this approach, it is possible to carry out gene insertion, augmentation, deletion, gene sequence modification and mutation correction, aiding in the development of better animal disease models, ex vivo and in vivo gene repair and engineered cell based therapies.
8 COVID 19, the Unseen Battle: Are we Ready for it , Afsheen Arif
The world is witnessing an eminence condition which had nev-er been encounter so far, since last century with the advent of the technology and advancement, it was barely rare to see such pan-demic. It has been a new, unique and challenging condition for the whole world including Science. China being the technology king and one of the developed countries, had combat it with grace and courage. The registered cases in China are 81,177 with 3,277 mor-tality rate is 4.03. Italy has been affected the second most country with registered cases of 63,927 with 6,077 mortality rate is 9.05. Spain being the third country with high mortality rate is 6.08 with registered cases 39,637 with 2,696 deaths. Iran has hard hit with deaths of 1,934 out of 24,811 confirmed cases and mortality rate is 7.79. The overall global count for the cases is 393,354 with 17,164 death tolls [1]. The overall mortality rate is 4.36 but all of these are developed and highly technologically advanced countries
9 When Coronavirus (COVID-19) Hits Agriculture Grounds-A Short Review , Jai S Ghosh
The present pandemic with the novel corona virus (CoVID-19) has played havoc with global economy. No country is spared to suffer the next step of the disease and that is a bad recession in virtually every nation. One of the worst hit sector of the economy is the agricultural output from many developed nations as well as in certain developing nations. This is because not only the prolonged lock-down enforced to contain the disease but many farmers and cultivators who either has succumbed to the disease or is still in hospital and hence cannot go to the farm
10 Ecological and Epidemiological Aspects of West Nile Virus in Ukraine , Alla Yushchenko, Jason Farlow and Zinaida Klestova
West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral mosquito-transmitted disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. WNV infects an extremely wide range of susceptible hosts and is capable of replicating in mammals, birds, reptiles and am-phibians. The enzootic lifecycle of WNV consists of cycling between mosquitoes and birds and sporadic spillover results in disease in horses and humans. Rare and severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and horses occurs. The epidemic significance of WNV infec-tion is illustrated by its worldwide distribution, variable clinical prognosis of disease, and lack of therapeutic options. In Ukraine, 14 enzootic territories have been identified. While climate conditions, water sources and a large number of avian migratory routes create optimal conditions for the pathogen circulation in the country, the epidemiological status of WNV in Ukraine is poorly defined. Annual introduction of WNV to Ukraine likely occurs via seasonal migratory bird routes that exist regionally between Ukraine and neighboring European countries. The genotype of historical avian Ukrainian isolate exhibits the Lineage 2 genotype, however, only limited WNV genome sequences from Ukraine are available. Enhanced viral surveillance and serologic diagnosis of WNF in Ukraine is warranted and remains an essential measure for a clear understanding of the current epidemic situation and the prediction of possible WNV outbreaks in the future
11 Chloroquine as Reposition Drugs for Novel Coronavirus SARS-COV-2 Emergence , Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty
sistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India2Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India*Corresponding Author: Indranil Chatterjee, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India and Manas Chakraborty Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India.Short CommunicationReceived: March 30, 2020Published: April 14, 2020© All rights are reserved by Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty.A movement to reposition tablets has been initiated in current years [1]. In this strategy, it is vital to use tablets which have been tested to be harmless and whose pharmacokinetics and most ad-vantageous dosage are well known. In the current episode of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergence [2], we find a wonderful ex- enough of possible repositioning of tablets, especially chloroquine. We had 20 years ago proposed to systematically check chloroquine in viral infections as it have been proven to be powerful in vitro against a broad variety of viruses [3,4].
12 Intestinal Helminthiasis in School Age Children of Kashmir Valley and the Need for Intervention: A Systematic Review , Showkat Ahmad Wani and Sheikh Tanveer Salam
Kashmir valley is the most densely populated part of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The enormous population, along with the ab-sence of basic amenities, favourable climatic conditions and underdeveloped public health care system favour the transmission of intestinal helminthiasis. Present paper reviews the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in the Kashmir Valley and need for control strategies. A survey of published literature by virtue of PUBMED was done. Also many other bibliographic databases were searched to retrieve the relevant articles. After excluding duplicate studies, 11 research papers were retained for this paper. Intestinal helminth infections like those of Ascaris, Trichuris, Enterobius and Taenia saginata in Kashmir Valley remain very high. Majority of the infected are young children between the age group of 5 and 14 years. The age group, rural or urban residence, type of water source, boiled or unboiled water, type of defecation site, level of personal hygiene and maternal education were associated with helminth infection. Since the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends chemotherapy for intestinal helminth infections among school-age children, there is no government policy for helminth control in Kashmir Valley. Present article stresses on regular school-based programs to deliver anthelmintics to all school age children so as to reduce the prevalence of helminth infections in Kashmir Valley
13 Molecular Identification of Etiological Agents of Chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica , Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Stefany Lozada-Alvarado and Lorena Uribe-Lorío
Chromoblastomycosis is the second most frequently reported subcutaneous mycosis in Costa Rica. It is caused by dematiaceous fungi belonging to the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Order Chaetothyriales), especially by Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii. However, it is important to note that Fonsecaea monophora is able to disseminate and cause cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Thus, five clinical isolates deposited in the Fungal Collection of the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica were ana-lyzed. The isolates were characterized macroscopically and microscopically after grown in potato dextrose agar. Genetic identifica-tion was performed via amplification and sequencing of the ITS (internal transcription spacer) region. The isolates were identified as F. pedrosoi (n = 3), F. monophora (n = 1) and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa (n = 1). Hence, we report for the first time that R. aquaspersa is an etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica and confirm the presence of both F. pedrosoi and F. monophora in the country. Therefore, we recommend the usage of molecular techniques to identify these pathogens since there is a risk of fungal dis-semination in our patients
14 Anomalous Behavior of Adenovirus L4-33K Mutant Protein , Mohammad Feraz Ahsan
The late genes of adenovirus are transcribed from the major late transcription unit (MLTU), generating mRNA through L1 to L5. L4-33K protein is RNA splicing factor responsible for early to late switch in L1 alternative splicing. The L1-52,55K mRNA is produced during both early and late after infection, whereas L1-IIIa mRNA at late phase. L4-33K when phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) has an inhibitory effect on the temporal switch in L1 alternative RNA splicing, whereas phosphorylation with protein kinase A (PKA) has an enhancer effect on L1-IIIa splicing. The C-terminal region of L4-33K is conserved and responsible for splicing, nuclear localization and other functional activities. Mutational studies replacing serine with glycine in L4-33K, referred to as S176G, S189G, S196G did not hamper above functionality, but mutation at position 192 abolished the L4-33K splicing enhancer activity and nuclear localization. Here we show the posttranslational effect of these proteins against DNA-PK and PKA; all the mu-tants showed hypophosphorylation with DNA-PK and PKA, except S192G, which unusually showed hyperphosphorylation up to 2.63 times of the wild type L4-33K against DNA-PK, justifying earlier findings. This unusual result may be due to drastic misfolding of S192G exposing other phosphorylating residues. It would be interesting to carry out structural analysis of this protein during native and phosphorylated state.
15 Culture Parameters Affect the Light Emitting Property of Organisms Isolated from Two Marine Fishes , Anuradha Pandey Dubey and Madhuri Sharon
Organisms were isolated and cultured from two marine fishes (Stolephorus indicus and Nemipterus japonicus) that were exhibiting Bioluminescence. Identification and assessment of impact of five different culture media on the growth and light emission properties were studied. Isolates from both the fishes showed microbes to be gram negative Coccobacilli, Partial gene sequencing analysis sug-gested that the microbes belonged to Vibrio spp and Photobacterium spp. Biochemical analysis of both the bacterial isolates exhibited difference in sugar (Mannitol and Lactose), LDC, Indole and Urea content; suggesting that the two isolated colonies are different bio-luminescent bacteria. Repeated subculture (to obtain pure colonies) of both the isolates resulted in gradual reduction in the intensity of luminescence of the bacteria and eventually loss of luminescence property occurred. However, luminescence was revived when they were grown in aerated condition
16 Biological Control of Weeds by Fungi: Challenges and Opportunities , Hamid Cheraghian Radi and Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam
Weed plants are one of the main constraints to agriculture and cause considerable crop yield loss besides reducing product quality and leading to health and environmental threats. In comparison to various weed management strategies, biological control-especially mycoherbicides-offer an innovative approach to address this problem. Today, the bio-control of weeds by mycoherbicide (either fungal spore suspension or their metabolites) has received significant academic attention and over the past few decades some of the high profile candidates became commercially available. Employing mycoherbicide proposes benefits including being environ-mentally friendly, cost effective, and identifying new herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on challenges that mycoherbicides encounter before their adoption. Besides, important factors in both selecting and improving a fungal strain as a mycoherbicide are reviewed. Additionally, using integrated weed management as complementary methods to elevate the efficacy of mycoherbicides have been considered.
17 Antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Lead towards Antibiotic Stewardship , B Apoorva, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat and Dalip K Kakru
Acinetobacter spp. is an important nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive care settings and is resistant to commonly avail-able antimicrobial agents. Active surveillance is therefore necessary in order to determine appropriate antibiotic for the treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in patients attending the tertiary care hospital. It is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sharda Hospital.Acinetobacter from various clinical samples were included in this study during six months period from May 2019 to October 2019. The isolates were identified using conventional and automated methods (Vitek2 COMPACT, bioMérieux) and the susceptibility was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. During the study period, a total of 40 Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens, out of which 47.5% isolation was from ICUs. Highest isolation was observed from pus samples (22.5%) followed by blood (17.5%) and endotracheal aspirate (17.5%). 77.5% isolates were MDR (Multidrug Resistant), however they remained sus-ceptible to colistin and tetracycline. It is necessary to regularly monitor the resistance phenotypes of Acinetobacter. Enhanced sur-veillance of MDR Acinetobacter is critical for guiding the rational use of antibiotics and reducing the incidence of hospital acquired infections
18 Bacteriological Profile of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection , Nikita Birhman, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat, Mariyah Yousuf and Dalip K Kakru
Introduction: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with a urinary catheter. CAUTI is associated with major morbidity and can lead to genitourinary complications.Materials and Methods: 300 catheterized urine samples received in the bacteriological laboratory during the study period were processed as per the standard bacteriological procedures.Results: Out of 300 samples from patients showing signs and symptoms of CAUTI included in our study a total of 76 strains were isolated, the isolates were identified based on culture characteristics, Gram’s stain and biochemical reactions and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing.Conclusion: In the present study, we found that Escherichia coli was the major organism for infection and was susceptible to Colistin followed by Meropenem, Imipenem and by other antibiotics, in that order.
19 A Complete Overview and Guidelines for nCOv-2019 (COVID-19) with Special Reference to Corporate Hospital , Avinash Teli, Azaz Ahmad, Danish Azad, Mohd Ajmal, Shaziya Sheikh and Arvind Kumar
An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Or-ganization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. These policies included large-scale quarantine, strict controls on travel and extensive monitoring of suspected cases. However, it is unknown whether these policies have had an impact on the epidemic. We sought to show how these control measures impacted the containment of the epidemic. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angio-tensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms.
20 Novel Therapeutic Interventions in Treating Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia, COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Severe COVID-19 Illness and Promising Vaccine Candidates , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were detected in Wuhan city, China since late December 2019. More and more cases have been identified in other areas outside Wuhan city of China and abroad, particularly in Italy, Iran and other European countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. A total of 77,779 confirmed COVID-19-infected cases were in China, as of February 24, 2020. As of Friday morning (March 20, 2020), at least 246,275 COVID-19-infected cases have been diagnosed worldwide and 14,250 of which are in the United States.
21 COVID-19 Treatment and Post-COVID-19 Complication Syndrome: A Review , SM Rathnasiri Bandara, S Samita, SS Hettiarachchi and SMTN Senanayaka
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus belonging to the coronaviridae family to which SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV belonged. Therefore, viral immunopathology and treatment plane of COVID-19 have been explained based mainly on SARS-CoV2 as well as the known similar viral immunopathology to SARS. The major pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19 include excesses activation of cytokines and chemokines, deficiencies in the innate immune response, direct involvement of immune cells, direct viral cytopathic effects, down-regulation of lung-protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), autoimmunity and genetic factors. The key factors seem that both abnormal immune responses and injury to immune cells increase in the production of inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and complement proteins leading to tissue damage. For these possible and obvious immunes - mediated life-threatening complications of viral infection, antiviral drugs, interferon, hydroxyl chloroquine, and TMPRSS2 inhibitor have been used in standard protocol against the COVID-19 immunopathology. It seems to have a lack of efficacy of the drugs due to the inability to stop all vulnerable steps of the immune pathology of the disease. Therefore, there is still no recognized or recommended or standard immune regulative treatment plan for COVID 19. Thus, considerations of all these backgrounds, “5S 5T Approach to battle COVID-19 approach including new corticosteroids protocol for COVID-19 and has been introduced targeting to stop or suppress life-threatening immune pathology of SARS-2 infection. It is also included the other alternative methods practiced by general community and traditional approaches. Especially the steroids protocol has been planned in the review with deeply considering avoiding the experience of unsuccessful approaches that caused many harmful effects such as high motility, viremia, increased viral load, no effect, side effect, fungal illness, hyperglycemia, and secondary infections. This review has been considered and described immunological changes in each phase of viral illness and the effective steroid protocol to manage at the pre-preliminary phase, early phase, and middle phase, severe/critical phase and post-viral infected phase (post COVID19 complication syndrome). This new protocol that is open to change and alteration is proposed
22 Short Message to All Healthcare Providers about Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID 19) , Syed Haseeb Raza Naqvi, Madiha Fatima and Han Naung Tun
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses, cause respiratory tract infections in human that can be mild as common cold and can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in No-vember 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coro-navirus pandemic
23 The Real Race between Time and Invention of Covid 19 Vaccine , Rajeev Shah and Reena Mehta.
Covid-19 pandemic shocks and locks whole world at the end of 2019 and 2020. Maximum death occurred in USA followed by Italy and Spain. Here discussion and analysis have been focused on vari-ous types of vaccines of Corona virus on basis of its spike antigen S and its corresponding human ACE2 receptor on cells. The ulti-mate target of all types of vaccines is to prevent binding of ACE2 receptor to S antigen of corona, except long acting interferons. The interferons are natural antiviral substances produced by virus in-fected mammalian cells and are of three types α, β and δ. The main sources of the latest information of Covid-19 vaccination has been internet websites and social net working sites like whatsApp and facebook etc.
24 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Unexplored Saline Regions of Kutch, Gujarat, India , Josh CM and Trivedi NS.
The present investigation reveals the diversity of bacteria, fungus and archaea along the different regions of Kutch area, Gujarat, India. The samples were collected from 3 selected site of Kutch area whose temperature was between 37 - 41°C, pH 8.5, EC 1480 μs, Salinity 9.01 and 1.85 ppm TDS. 52 bacterial, 17 extreme halophilic archaea and 2 halophilic fungus strains were isolated, among these all bacterial strains were selected for further study like enzyme productivity and anti-microbial activity because the main aim of research was to isolate organism which have multiple applications. Fifteen strains produced four or more than four enzymes which have industrial application (amylase, protease, cellulose, lipase, and chitinase) and one strain of Micrococcus showed antimicrobial activity against all test cultures. Eighteen archaea and two halophilic fungi that grew at 25% salt containing medium were also isolated.
25 Self-Cleansing and Special Healing Properties of River Ganga: Million People Depend on this Water , Indranil Chatterjee, Soumitra Sahana, Anirban Adhikary and Animitra Bhattacharjee.
Ganga is known to be a help to a tremendous measure of individuals in India and is known to be the heartbeat of the profound existence of the Hindu culture. Self-purifying and recuperating power have consistently been related with stream Ganga. In any case, of late, logical research has likewise sponsored this case
26 COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020: Prevention and Public Health Policy , Robert W Buckingham and Renata Ferretti.
The world is now facing a pandemic crisis of COVID-19. This pandemic has awakened the consciousness of many countries that have not prioritized their public health and prevention policies and practices. European countries were devastated by Covid-19, and the United States of America (U.S.A.) is presently the country with the highest number of cases and fatalities. It is the time for many countries to reassess the importance of public health and preventive strategies. This is also the time for large economies to consider a reallocation resources from military establishment to public health preventive initiatives. The study is secondary research and aims to analyze how countries have invested resources in prevention and public health
27 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Ocimum basilicum Seed Extract and its Application in H2O2 Sensing , Fouzia, Atirah Tauseef, Ahmad Khalilullah and Imran Uddin.
Plant extract mediated nanomaterials synthesis is one of the emanating fields of nanotechnology with voluminous applications in the physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc. Although different chemical techniques are on the brink of development, the rising concern for environmental contamination opens the path for biological synthesis as most of the chemical routes need toxic chemicals. The current piece of the study intended to synthesize silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract from the seed of the medicinal plant, Ocimum basilicum, under ambient conditions. A fixed ratio of plant extract to metal ion was prepared, and the color change was observed which proved the formation of nanoparticles. TEM analysis revealed silver nano-particles existed in a quasi-spherical shape with an average size of 11 nm in diameter. Moreover, the H2O2 sensing capacity of biologically synthesized AgNPs has also been studied
28 RNAi-Mediated Antiviral Approach to SARS-CoV-2 , P Shaik Syed Ali, A Sheeza and J Jasmine.
In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (CoV) affected 26 countries with 8000 cases. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It rapidly evolved into a pandemic disease resulting in an unprecedented health crisis. Antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses are crucial to prevent any future epidemics and pandemics. RNA interference (RNAi), an RNA guided post transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, plays important role in viral defense in mammals including humans. RNAi can inhibit the virus replication and expression of viral proteins through the leverage of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Therefore, RNAi an innate viral defense mechanism distributed in human cells might be a potential antiviral approach to SARS-CoV-2
29 Cytokine Storming in COVID-19 , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn.
During viral infection, cytokines play an important role in immunopathology with the first line of defense against viral infection via rapid and well-coordinated innate immune response. In vitro studies reveal that delayed release of cytokines and chemokines occurs in respiratory epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) at the early stage of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, including COVID-19 infection. At the later stage of infection, these cells secrete low levels of the antiviral factors-interferons (IFNs) and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL-2, CCL-3 and CCL-5. SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infects human airway epithelial cells, DCs, human peripheral blood monocyte (HPBM)-derived macrophages, and THP-1 cells (a monocyte cell line) and elevates levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines
30 Collaborative Study Brazil-Portugal: Validation of HPV Lyophilized Samples , Maria Elizabeth Menezes, Frederico Tourinho, José Abol Corrêa, Ana Paula Faria and Mario Cunha.
HPV is an important virus that is responsible for more than 99% of cancer in women. Preparation and validation of lyophilized samples to use as a control of molecular biology tests for HPV is very important. There are several techiniques to performer molecular test to detecte HPV however, it is necessary that their is a sample control whith can be used independent of methodology. Validation of lyophilized samples by different molecular techniques to have harmonized standards relies on consistent control.
31 Drug Re-Purposing - Can Anti-Allergy Drugs also be Used to Treat Cancer? , Moschou Georgia and Topham H. Caroline.
Medulloblastoma (MB) constitutes the commonest malignant childhood brain cancer, and it is the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year. Treatment approaches, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, have significantly enhanced in patients’ clinical outcome with approximately more than 60% of 5-year survival. Nevertheless, the majority of cancer patients deal with long-term side effects. So, it is important to develop novel therapeutics with lower toxicity and increased efficacy. The present project was conducted to examine if the anti-allergy drugs can inhibit the cancer growth. More specifically, eight anti-allergy compounds, designed by the chemists at University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN), were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against medulloblastoma. The effect of each testing drug was tested with the use of MTT assay after three days of incubation on medulloblastoma ONS76 cell line. From the extraction of the results of these anti-allergy compounds, it was found that only three of them (CL1-45-1, CL1-56-1, CL1-57-1) were more active, as they significantly inhibited the cancer growth. But, the CL1-42-1 compound displayed the greatest anti-cancer activity against the medulloblastoma ONS76 cells with IC50 = >10 μΜ (IC50 = 0 μΜ). This leads to the conclusion for further investigation of the anti-allergy compounds in order to consider them as potential anti-cancer agents
32 Molecular Screening and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2: Recent Advances and Future Prospective , Avinash Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Verma and Mayadhar Barik.
Background: COVID-19 is a new form of Coronavirus which is resembling the same as SARS-CoV-2. This virus leads to cause severe respiratory diseases among the people. Coronavirus is declared as the pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. Transmission of the disease is mainly due to the person to person contact by any means Materials and Methods: We detect the disease primary screening is necessary for a speedy recovery. PCR and other nucleic acid amplification are mainly used to diagnose the Covid-19. For the detection of the SARS, its gene is targeted in the amplification. The genes which are targeted are E, N, S, RdRp and ORf. Mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome is also detected by the various nucleic acid detection tests. We improve the detection of this pandemic, the only thing is to increase the involvement of Serological testing and molecular methods Results: The majority of 85-95% factor becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection rate of the disease SARS-CoV-2.Molecular and serological findings should need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment approximately 85% laboratory. Conclusion: The only factor which becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection of the disease.Molecular and serologicalstudyshould need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment. The need of the hour is to maintain and introduced laboratory networking and its application
33 The Current Overview of COVID-19 Pandemic in India , Arindam Chakraborty, Payel Mukherjee and Dr Manas Chakraborty.
COVID-19 has been declared as a "Global Pandemic" by WHO (World Health organization). It has affected the whole world as well as India. It has been spread almost every parts of the country, crossed more than 1 lac 18 thousands positive cases, more than 3500 patients were deceased and 48500+ patients recovered till May 22, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus mainly responsible for these COVID-19 or Novel corona virus disease. It has affected the Respiratory system and made severe life threat. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) and all the States government have provided proper guidelines to the citizens about how to fight against the Corona virus like maintain social distancing, Proper lockdown, Proper awareness like do’s and don’ts for people
34 A Covid-19 Patient With Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura , Indranil Chatterjee, Rakhi Bakuli.
A 65-year-elderly person with hypertension, immune system hypothyroidism, and known Covid-19 presentation introduced to the crisis division with a 4-day history of weakness, fever, dry hack and stomach uneasiness. She was afebrile and had a respiratory pace of 28 breaths for every moment and an oxygen immersion of 89% while she was breathing encompassing air; breath sounds were decreased respectively with bibasilar rales. The stomach as-sessment was ordinary. Research center tests demonstrated an or-dinary white-cell check, hemoglobin level (14.2g per deciliter) and platelet tally (183,000 for each cubic millimeter). The C-receptive protein level was raised at 55 mg for each liter, and liver-work tests indicated cholestasis. An oropharyngeal swab for Covid-19 test-ing was certain. Chest processed tomography (CT) demonstrated ground-glass opacities in the lower zones. The patient was con-ceded and started to get treatment with intravenous amoxicillin clavulanic corrosive, low-atomic weight heparin, and oxygen.
35 Anorectal Emergencies: Perianal Abscess , Aybala Yildiz, Alp Yildiz, Veysel Baris Turhan, Engin Kucukdiler and Erkan Karacan.
Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleed-ing which might require an immediate management. Emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rec-tal cancer. In this study we present our ambulatory management of perianal abscess. Fifty-two consecutive cases included this study. The patients admitted to outpatient clinic with anal pain, lump and/or purulent leak. All patients has diagnosed perianal abscess with physical examination. Patients has transferred the ambulatory surgery department for drainage. All abscesses drained at the bedside. Postoperative 1 patient admitted emergency service with anal pain which controlled NSAID injection. 1 patient presented with recurrent anal abscess on 8th postoperative day. No intra/postoperative bleeding/need for secondary powder application or postoperative anal incontinence detected. The main management of perianal abscess is surgical drainage. We present our series of perianal abscess treated with abscess drainage as day-care surgery with review of literature
36 Microbiological Quality and Safety Assessment of Sugar Cane Juice and Ice Sold by Vendors in Faisalabad City, Pakistan , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal, Masood Ahmad and Javeria Mustafa.
The risk of illness associated with untreated freshly squeezed juices sold by street vendors is increasing gradually. Street vended juices are widely consumed by millions of people in developing countries.Epidemiological data indicated that unpasteurized sugar cane juices indisputably resulted in increased numbers of reported out-breaks. In Faisalabad city there is a constant great demand for fresh fruit juice. To determine the microbiological quality, a total of sixty five samples of sugar cane juice and thirty samples of ice sold by street vendors on four different popular roads of Faisalabad city were collected and analysed by standard methods for the detection of coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli. All the col-lected samples of sugar cane juice and ice were hygienically poor as shown through high bacterial load ranging from 2 × 103 - 3 × 107 CFU/mL and 2 × 103 - 3 × 105 CFU/mL respectively. The Consequence of this study indicated the prevalence of different pathogenic microorganisms (Total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli) in many tested samples. Results demonstrated the low quality, safety of street vended sugar cane juices and ice added in it for cooling purpose. Appropriate actions must be taken immediately by respec-tive authorities to improve quality and safety of juices to prevent any type of outbreak
37 Terbinafine Preferred Antifungal with a Focus on Dermatophytes (A Review) , Mayank Panday, Divya Pandey, Prashant Upadhyay and Sukirti Upadhyay.
17 years ago, Terbinafine was hailed in the global drug market to use as antifungal. In the treatment of superficial dermatophytosis terbinafine is become the first choice of drug, because of its effective mode of action, pharmacologic action and microbiologic profiles. Appropriate use of terbinafine as a topical and systemic drug needs to be used with appropriate guidelines. Terbinafine is primarily indicated and also discussed a contraindication for the treatment of non-dermatophyte infections. Terbinafine act by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase which is an important component of fungal cell membrane resulting in disintegration of fungal cell was allowing terbinafine to exert its fungicidal action. As per the recent advancement significant clinical relevance seen in activity of terbinafine when used in combination of other antifungal leads to decrease in resistance. This article reviews mode of action, antimycotic spectrum and disposition profile of terbinafine. we have also done a comparative analysis of terbinafine over other antifungals (griseofulvin, itraconazole, fluconazole) in the management of dermatophytes infection
38 Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): A Review of the Literature , Shirin Tarafder.
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Fourteen mutations have been identified in Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 of which mutation D614G is of urgent concern; that may have originated either in China or Europe, and which is now the dominant pandemic form in many countries. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection but can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), can die of multiple organ failure. It still remains unclear regarding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Innate immune response is the early defense against viral infections, and when it is dysregulated, results in an exaggerated inflammation, may cause death. The information on immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is not well documented. The cytokine storm may be responsible for severity of the disease. There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, immunological changes, potential pathogenesis, disease progression and clinical management strategies. This review has summarized the current knowledge on the updated approaches regarding COVID-19 based on the emerging basic and clinical data
39 Immunopathology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2: A brief review , Bramhadev Pattnaik, Pinaki Panigrahi and Mahendra P Yadav.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for Coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in human, now a Global pandemic affecting 212 countries in all the five Continents, damages the cells that have ACE2 receptor expression on their surface. Hoffman., et al. (2020) observed that in addition to ACE2 receptor required for cellular attachment of the virion, cellular entry mechanism of the virus requires a cellular serine protease, TMPRSS2 and because alveolar type 2 cells express higher levels of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors, these cells might be the primary entry point for the virus in the lung. Intestine and kidney also have high expression of ACE2. The virus along with the ACE2 receptor enters the cells by endocytosis that results in reduction of ACE2 on cells, and as a consequence serum level of angiotensin II increases. Angiotensin II acts both as a vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory cytokine. Exposure to the virus does not necessarily cause infection, and not all people infected develop ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) or succumb to the disease. Though people of all age group and sex are susceptible, the disease could be more fatal in elderly persons > 60 years of age. Extensive lung damage due to elicitation of Cytokine Storm (cytokine release syndrome; CRS) has been described by Hirano and Murakami (2020) and Shi., et al (2020). Role of specific HLA loci and alleles (class I or II) in developing protective immunity to this virus infection remains to be elucidated. It has been reported by Iwasaki and Yang (2020) that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations as well as low affinity antibodies in the body can result in antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by utilizing Fc receptors on immune cells including macrophages, monocytes and B lymphocytes. ADE has detrimental effect in some patients with virus specific antibodies. High WBC count with associated lymphocytopenia is common in the COVID-19 patients. Ganji., et al. (2020) have reported significant reduction in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and platelets, CD4+: CD8+ ratio of 2:1, and higher expression of CD8+ and hyperactivation of CTLs and no significant change in the expression level of CD4+ compared to healthy individuals. Anti-viral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was due to over expression of CD8 and hyper activation of CTLs. Pathophysiology and pathology of the disease has been elaborated by Yuki., et al. (2020) and Sahu., et al (2020). The present review compiles the aspects of pathogenesis and involvement of the host immune system in aggravating the disease through the process of immune response
40 Experimental Evidence for Neural Progenitor Cells in Adult Substantia Nigra , Opeyemi Oluwasanmi Adeloye, Oyeneyin Babatunde David, Samuel Olawuwo and Roseline Kehinde Adeloye.
The substantia (“black substance” in Latin) is a long nucleus located in the midbrain but considered functionally a part of the basal ganglia because of its reciprocal connections with other brainstem nucleic. Degeneration of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra result in reduction of the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This lack of dopaminergic innervation to the stratum results in disorders associated with hypokinesia or reduced motor movement. However, Parkinson disease is a result of reduced functioning substantia nigra. A few studies have shown that progenitor cells present in different areas of the adult central nervous system (CNS) but specificity (i.e. SNc) whether such cells reside in the adult SNc and whether they have the potential to replace degenerating neurons effects is unknown. The purpose was to investigate a population of actively dividing progenitor cells in the adult SN, after removal from the SN, these progenitor cells immediately have the potential to differentiate into neurons. Transplantation of freshly isolated SN progenitor cells into the adult hippocampus showed that these cells also have a neuronal potential under in vivo conditions. These results suggest that progenitor cells reside in the adult SN and can give rise to new neurons when exposed to appropriate environmental signals
41 Experimental Studies on Production of Biodiesel from Oryza sativa (Rice) Bran Oil , Ahmad Tabish.
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification.Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and KOH as catalyst were found to be 60°C reaction temperature, 2h reaction time, 6:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 2% catalyst (w/w). The various properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point etc. are compared with ASTM and DIN standard. The TLC method use for the confirmation of biodiesel and to calculate the yield. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector
42 Mathematical Modeling to Estimate the Reproductive Number and the Outbreak Size of COVID-19: The case of India and the World , Durgesh Nandini Sinha.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with more than 218,000 deaths in 211 different countries around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for this deadliest disease. This paper describes a mathematical model for India, a country with the second highest population in the world with an extremely high population density of about 464 people per km2. This disease has multiphasic actions and reaction mode and our model SEIAQIm is based on six compartmental groups in the form of susceptible, exposed, infectious, asymptomatic, quarantine, and recovered immune factions. Latin Hypercube Sampling Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient method was used for the data analysis and model fitting. According to our model, India would reach its basic reproduction number R0 = 0.97 on May 14, 2020 with a total number of 73,800 estimated cases. Further, this study also equates the world's situation using the same model system and predicts by May 7, 2020 with a total number of 3,772,000 estimated confirmed cases. Moreover, the current mathematical model highlights the importance of social distancing as an effective method of containing spread of COVID-19
43 Emphasizing the Efficiency of a Cellulolytic Preparation on the Hydrolyzed Wood Wastes , Ana Despina Ionescu, Angela Căşărică, Roxana - Mădălina Stoica and Nicoleta Ene.
According to the literature data, the cellulose, the most abundant organic molecule on Earth, is found mainly as a structural component of plants and algal cell walls, it is also produced by some animals such as tunicates, and it can be produced also by several bacteria, by a natural pathway or by biotechnology. Due to this situation, there are many studies focused on the use of this kind of renewable source and having as their issues the preparation of different valuable products, such as sugars, ethanol. different chemicals, the whole yeasts biomass valorization with agricultural applications or for biofuels development.Our issue of this present study was to verify if we can avoid the microbial additional activity during the process, mostly while the conversion starts from some materials already pretreated, such as the paper and cellulose industry’s wastes, by using them as substrate in an optimized culture media formula, for the further yeasts strains development
44 Mathematical Model and Simulations of COVID-19 2020 Outbreak in New York: Predictions and Implications for Control Measures , Durgesh Nandini Sinha and Peiwen Tan.
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in the affected 210 countries with about 2.4 million people infected and over 163 thousand deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is effective at binding to human cells, but this SARS-CoV-2 backbone differed substantially from those of already known coronaviruses and mostly resembled related viruses found in bats and pangolins. To help predict the possible dynamics of COVID-19 as well as ways to contain it, this paper develops a mathematical model for the disease, which includes two different infectious routes. The model’s predictions are fitted to data from the outbreaks in New York State from March 1 2020 first report to April 19 2020. However, the containment time and the severity of the outbreaks depend crucially on the contact coefficients and the isolation rate constant. When randomness is added to the model coefficients, the simulations show that the model is sensitive to the scaled contact rate among people and to the isolation rate. The model is analyzed using stability theory for ordinary differential equations and indicates that when using only isolation for control and advising self recovery,the endemic steady state is locally stable and attractive. After the April 14 2020 highest peak of COVID-19 new infections by the SARS-CoV-2 virus will slow down from the beginning of May at New York State if people will keep the isolation. Numerical simulations with parameters estimated from New York State illustrate the analytical results and the model behavior, which may have important implications for the disease containment in other cities. Indeed, the model highlights the importance of isolation of infected individuals and advising self recovery may be used to assess other control measures. The model is general and may be used to analyze outbreaks in other states of the United States and other countries.
45 Recent Approaches against SARS-COV-2: The Ongoing Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Nilayan Guha, Raksha Ray, and Roushan Bhaskar.
Novel extreme intense respiratory condition coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lies behind the continuous episode of coronavirus mala-dy 2019 (COVID-19). There is a developing comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 in virology, the study of disease transmission, and clinical administration systems. Be that as it may, no enemy of SARS-CoV-2 medication or antibody has been authoritatively affirmed because of the nonattendance of satisfactory proof. Researchers are dashing to build up a treatment for COVID-19. Late investigations have uncovered numerous alluring remedial choices, regardless of whether some of them stay to be additionally affirmed in thorough preclinical models and clinical preliminaries. In this minireview, we mean to sum up the refreshed potential methodologies against SARS-CoV-2. We stress that further endeavors are justified to build up the most secure and best methodology.
46 The Role of 3D Printing and Computer Aided Design in Medicine at Healthcare Systems during Emergence of COVID-19 , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rajeswar Das, Animitra Bhattacharjee and Rabi Dayal Singh.
The ongoing effect of COVID-19 in Italy has caused local deficiencies of key hardware, including covers and hoods for non-obtru-sive ventilation in CPAP/PEEP respiratory help. The reason for this review is to feature late activities and coordinated efforts per-formed by organizations, emergency clinics, and analysts in using 3D printing during the COVID-19 pandemic and to help nearby 3D printing endeavors that can be lifesaving. The 3D printing network can pull together its clinical consideration universally, profiting by unified enormous scope fabricating offices just as privately circulated assembling of confirmed and tried CAD records. Moreover, there are different clinical, designing and different social orders and gatherings that can arrange to chip away at normal needs, huge numbers of which are delineated in this audit. While models examined here are basically opensource necessities accessible at the hour of composing, the CAD record assets alluded to in this survey are proposed for a conversation of an advancing assortment of prepared to-print models and connections to the significant assets to help in supporting pressing clinical reaction. A model assort-ment can be found at the NIH 3D Print Exchange. We should recognize that at the hour of composing, the clinical viability of a large number of the gadgets made by the CAD records depicted in this audit has not been tried and a considerable lot of these gadgets have not been endorsed for bleeding edge clinical use by significant administrative bodies. The creators of this review can’t ensure clinical viability of the introduced gadgets and would ask thought of these assets at the clients’ tact and just where no restoratively cleared options are accessible
47 A Simulation Study on the Effects of Media Composition on the Growth Rate of Escherichia coli MG1655 Using iAF1260 Model , Kar Chi Cheong, Raphael YH Hon, Clara J Sander, Irwin ZL Ang, Jun Hang Foong, and Maurice HT Ling.
Media compositions are important determinants of growth rate and genome-scale models (GSMs) had been used for optimizing media for metabolite production and growth. Recently, iAF1260, a GSM based on Escherichia coli MG1655, was used to study the effects varying glucose concentration in media on growth rate and metabolic fluxes. In this study, the effects of other media components in the presence of varying glucose concentrations on the predicted growth rate of E. coli MG1655 were examined. Our results show that 10 media components (ammonium, calcium, chloride, copper, glucose, manganese, magnesium, molybdate, phosphate, and potassium) demonstrate substantial impact on the predicted growth rate of E. coli MG1655. Of which, 4 components (glucose, ammonium, magnesium, and phosphate) have the most impact. However, our results also demonstrate the limitations of iAF1260 as media components that had been shown to affect E. coli growth rate were not reflected by the model.
48 Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection in Gujarat and Maharashtra States of Western India , Sulabhsinh Solanki, Nikhil Patel, Deepak Amarapurkar, Anjali Amrapurkar, Sanjay Patel, Chetan Lakhani, Payal Patel, Ayusi Patel, Parthvi Dani, Jinal Ka Patel, Lisma Patel, Hetal Patel, Ankita Thakkar and Nitiraj Shete.
Prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) in India is varying from 3 to 12%, which falls in to intermediate prevalence zone. Prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) in India varies from 0.3 to 4% among blood donor population. Previous data from western India suggests HBV prevalence of 1.6 - 5.9% and HCV prevalence of 0.2 - 15.9%. Most of these data are almost 10 years old and based on selected population. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to find out recent prevalence of HBV and HCV from multiple sources. Data on prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected prospectively from multiple sources that include general population, blood donor population, hospital attending population, and liver clinic population. HBV prevalence was as follows: gen-eral population data: 166/1758 (0.94%); blood donor data: 2039/172316 (1.18%) hospital attending population: 133/13177 (1%); liver clinic data: 2637/12251 (21.5%). HCV prevalence was as follows: general population: 1/2388 (0.040%); blood donor data: 666/171306 (0.38%); hospital attending population: 12/2597 (0.46%) liver clinic data: 916/12251 (7.4%). In Western India, there is very low prevalence of HBV and HCV; making it a low prevalence area.
49 Enzyme Instability between Problem and Solution , Mona Abdeltawab Esawy and Bassem Mahmoud Salama.
One of the main problems obstructed to the use of enzymes in industrial biotechnology is their improper stability under process-ing conditions. In the last decades, a lot of research has focused on the improvement of enzymes stability in the conditions in which they were to be used, and especially on thermal stability improvement. Long time ago different methods were suggested to enhance the enzyme stability. This review trying to explain the enzyme structure and the factors affecting its stability. also, tried to highlight and summarized most of these methods such as chemical modification, immobilization, and addition of various compounds. Also, give an overview of the recent progress in these methods.
50 Novel Corona Virus COVID-19: An Overview , Rohini Agrawal, Prashant Amale and Shilpa A Deshpande.
Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), was proclaimed as a pandemic emergency by World Health Organisation (WHO) in March 2020. The main causative factor behind the pneumonic viral infection is Severe Acute Respiratoty Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which holds the 75 - 80% nucleotide sequence similarity with SARS-CoV. Infected and asymptomatic individual are the primary source of human to human transmission due to it become a pandemic, the women with third trimester is also susceptible to this respiratory and pneumonic infection. The time period for the infection is 14 days and the average duration is of 20 days. The infection is clinically manifested mainly by fever, shortness of breath, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) etc. Various diagnostic approaches such as Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) by using RT-PCR, serological testing etc had been used among which RT-PCR found to be suc-cessful in the detection of strain of SARS-CoV-2. Present review focus on the genomic structure of SARS-CoV-2, mechanism, transmis-sion, entry into the host cell, diagnosis, and prevention of the Covid-19. This may be helpful for the development of therapeutic agents used for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2
51 The Art of Polythene Degrading Bacteria: The Bio-Deteriorating Action of Microbial Communities , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Sayak Samanta and Arindam Chakraborty.
Plastic is a significant reason for Environmental Pollution. Major earth surfaces, sea waters are getting polluted day by day with accumulation of plastic as waste material from different sources which is a serious concern for human beings and different marine animals living in this world. A few stages happen in the plastic biodegradation process and could be distinguished by explicit phras-ing. Bio-weakening characterizes the activity of microbial networks and other decomposer life forms answerable for the physical and synthetic decay that brought about a shallow debasement that changes the mechanical, physical and substance properties of the plas-tic. Bio-discontinuity alludes to the reactant activities that separate polymeric plastics into oligomers, dimers or monomers by ecto-compounds or free-radicals discharged by microorganisms. Osmosis portrays to the incorporation of particles moved in the cytoplasm in the microbial digestion. Mineralisation alludes to the total corruption of atoms that brought about the discharge of totally oxidized metabolites (CO2, N2, CH4, H2O). The microbial species discovered related with the debasing materials were recognized as two Gram positive and five Gram negative microscopic organisms. The microbial species related with the polythene materials were recognized as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amylolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas species etc. of which Bacillus amylolyticus causes 30% degradation and Bacillus subtilis causes 20% average degradation in a month. In this review article different isolation and identification processes followed so far for these important categories of microbes have been discussed for general awareness of research in this field
52 Meningeal Tuberculosis Presented As A Myasthenia Gravis Picture , Raziel Castillo-Guevara, Adriana Martínez-Mayorga and Ildefonso Rodriguez-Leyva.
Objective: To share an uncommon clinical case presentation of a young adult who shows a clinical picture of myasthenia gravis and had neuroinfection problem. Presentation of the Case: A 20-year-old woman with progressive and fluctuant ptosis and diplopia was evaluated through clinical and extension studies (including a repetitive neurostimulation test), but the outcome and, finally, the CSF study help us to make the diagnosis of tuberculosis from the CNS .Results: The high opening pressure, with the xanthochromic aspect and the hypoglycorrhachia with pleocytosis with mononuclear cell elevation and Tb-positive PCR, make us the guidelines for the diagnosis and final treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging shows a pinealoma and a lightly bright of the arachnoid structures. Conclusion: The multiple forms of presentation of this endemic disease push us to consider this unfortunate problem in patients with cranial nerve affection due to arachnoiditis secondary to CNS tuberculosis.
53 Immunological Situation and Interferences in the Acquisition and Production of Vaccines in Angola-Africa , Abiude Paulino
The lack of a contingency plan and a specific vaccine immuniza-tion model in Africa, the lack of hospital centers at municipal and commune level, especially in Angola, which goes according to the human, environmental and social reality of the local communities, has been a key factor in the process of stability, expansion and pub-lic health security in many African regions, above all in Angola
54 An Overview of the Drug Susceptibility Testing for Tuberculosis , Vikas Jha, BS Ajit Kumar, Sampurna Panigrahi, Gayatri Nair and Nikitha Bangera.
There in an increase in demand for reliable, inexpensive and rapid drug susceptibility assay because of expanding anti-tuberculosis drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitating the need for appropriate treatment. One of the major challenges being faced is the lack of resources and the limiting of reliable drug susceptibility test meeting acceptable levels only for isoniazid and rifampicin. In this article, an overview of different drug susceptibility testing and assays is detailed and the advantages and disadvantages highlighted. It discusses the perspective on conventional methods which have paved the way for modern DSTs along with the advancements made in the conventional methods.
55 Reality of COVID-19 Reinfection , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Generally, the immunity development that responds to a pathogenic microorganism occurs around 1 - 2 weeks with a non-specific innate response followed by body producing antibodies (humoral responses), immunoglobulins in combination with pro-duction of T-cells or cellular immunity. The virus in the body will be eliminated by this combined adaptive response. The definitive viral elimination by their protective role from viral reinfection is yet unidentified. Around eighty known distinct genotypical vari-ants of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have been identified. Several pre-vious studies demonstrated that SARs-CoV-2 (COVID-19) can per-sistently present in the feces of the patients, whereas no oral-fecal transmission markers were identified. A previous study in Beijing, China revealed that the virus can persist in the sputum for 39 days after becoming pharyngeal-swab negative. IgM-negative, IgG-positive antibody response and non-detectable viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) after discharging and consequent positive-SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)-RNA test, remained negative IgM, and positive IgG an-tibody tests was demonstrated in three readmitted asymptomatic-COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, China. Due to the highest titers of SARS-CoV-2 RNA reaching within 7 - 10 days of clinical symptom onset and declining thereafter, the upper respiratory tract (posterior nasopharyngeal tonsil region) swabs should be performed.
56 Changing Patterns of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Tertiary Care Hospital , Ambreen Shafaat Khan, Tarana Sarwat, Sneha Mohan, Mariyah Yousuf and Dalip Kakru
Background:Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multi drug resistance. In hospitals and community mortality and morbidity rate increases due to MRSA. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in serious complica-tions. Methicillin sensitive strains are less problematic than MRSA. Aim:To study the changing trends in resistance patterns of MRSA. Materials and Methods:Fifty eight clinical isolates of MRSA which were obtained in 2017 - 2020 were identified by using Cefoxitin disc according to CLSI guidelines. Results: MRSA isolates showed high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin in comparison with other drugs. Sensitivity to Vancomy-cin and Linezolid was 100%. Recently resistance among MRSA has increased for most antibiotics. Conclusion:As the rate of drug resistance in MRSA is increasing, resistance should be evaluated after a period of time and antibiotic therapy should be guided accordingly. Keywords:Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Multi Drug Resistance; Cefoxitin
57 Pesticide Residue in Mango Orchards and Health Risk , Tari VSS, Patil PY and Karthik Kannan
The Mango (Mangifera indica) crop is commercially grown in almost all nine Taluka of Ratnagiri district. This study aims to col-lect baseline data regarding pesticide residue. Mango leaf samples and soil samples of mango orchard collected across Ratnagiri district to understand either the study area is under impact of pesticide pollution or not. The soil and plant materials (mango leaf ) were collected from 20 different randomly selected Mango orchards. These samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-HRMS) qualitative analysis for determination of pesticide residue in the mango field at the Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, India. The extraction of soil samples is carried out by Solid-liquid partition method followed by concentration using Kuderna-Danish concentrator apparatus. Extraction of plant material carried out by Soxhlet method. Electron impact ionization (EI with 70 eV ionization energy) mode is used during analysis. Present study reveals appearance of some pesticide residues in the field. Total 6 chemical pesticides residues viz. Carbendazim [Methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate], Cypermethrin [(Cyano - (3 - Phenoxyphenyl) methyl – 2) 3 - (2 – 2 - dichloroethyneyl) – 2, 2 dimethylcyclopropane – 1 – carboxylate], Hexaconezole (2 - (2, 4 - Dichlorophenyl) – 1 - (1H - 1, 2, 4 – triazol – 1 - yl) Hexan - 2 - ol), Imidacloprid (N - (1 - [(6 – chloro – 3 - pyridyl) methyl)] - 4, 5 - dihydroimidazol – 2 - yl) nitramide), Monocrotophos [Dimethyl (E) 1 – methyl - 2 - (methyl carbamoyl)and phorate [0, 0 – Diethyl – S - [(ethylsulphanyl) methyl] phosphorodithioate] were found from 5 different groups such as Organophosphate, Pyrethroid, Neo-nicotinoids, Triazole and Benzimidazole. This study is significantly showing that the study area (Ratnagiri district) is under impact of pesticide pollution. There is well felt need of organic farming of mango to reduce health risk
58 Bioactivity of Endophytes from the Brazilian Tropical Savannah , Andréa Cristina Bogas, Flavia Luana Torres, Cristina Paiva de Sousa and Paulo Teixeira Lacava
The Brazilian tropical savannah is a mosaic biome, the second largest in the Brazilian territory and the most biodiverse tropical savannah in the world. Endophytes and host plants have asymbiotic relationship, in which both are beneficial. The host plant pro-vides protection to the endophytes, which, in turn, increase the fitness of the plant by inducing resistance to pathogens due to niche competition and/or synthesizing antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores. Although initial studies on endophytes were directed to those living in symbiosis with temperate plants, in recent years, many reports describing the isolation of endophytic bacteria and fungi from tropical plants have been published. Secondary metabolites produced by endophytes are a promising source of bioactivity. The biochemical versatility and diversity of these microorganisms suggest that there are many unknown active compounds. Another important goal is the agronomic potential of endophytic fungi from tropical savannah. Bioprospecting studies have reported the potential of endophytes against a large number of phytopathogens responsible for large losses in economically important tropical crops. Thus far, the main method for controlling plant diseases is the application of chemicals. Nevertheless, chemicals cause toxic effects to humans, animals and the environment. Therefore, endophytic microorganisms have been considered an alternative for the control of phytopathogens and consequent augmented crop production. The lack of studies related to endophytes isolated from tropical environments enhances their importance. This review focuses on the potential activities produced by endophytes isolated from medicinal plants and their industrial, pharmaceutical and agronomic applications
59 Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine: An Important First Step of Searching for Evidence to Prevent COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) , Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rakhi Bakuli and Soumitra Sahana
Extreme intense respiratory disorder coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infection that causes coronavirus illness 2019 (Co-vid-19), has created an overall pandemic. The interference of its spread relies upon a blend of pharmacologic and nonpharmaco-logic intercessions. Beigel., et al. have given in the Journal the prin-cipal report of a powerful treatment for Covid-19, coming about because of a thoroughly structured and led clinical trial
60 Traffic Light Reporter for Genome Engineering , Kawalpreet K Aneja
Gene editing depends upon the cell’s endogenous DNA repair pathways. Upon DNA double-strand break, two known repair path-ways are enacted: nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and ho-mologous recombination (HDR), among others. The HDR pathway works only in the presence of an exogenous homologous template. Is it possible to determine which pathway is activated in a cell af-ter gene disruption (GD)? Is it NHEJ or HDR? Certo., et al. 2011 [1] published an article on the Traffic Light Reporter (TLR) that can distinguish between NHEJ and HR events. Traffic light reporter system is designed such that cells generate flow-cytometric read-out of HDR-mediated gene targeting or mutagenic NHEJ-mediated gene disruption occurring at an individual DNA breakpoint, which is extremely exciting
61 Diversity of Begomoviruses Infecting Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] in Togo , Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Ayékitan Akakpo, Ezechiel B Tibiri, Monique Soro, Cheikna Zongo, Aly Savadogo, James Bouma Neya, Kossikouma Djodji Adjata and Nicolas Barro
Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] is an important crop which is widely grown in Africa. It is a major source of fiber and vitamins for diet and incomes for several women farmers. The crop is negatively impacted by okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) which is an endemic disease in Africa and is caused by a complex of begomoviruses. To determine the identity and diversity of the virus species responsible for OLCD in Togo, Okra fields were assessed and 118 okra leaves were sampled and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers following sequencing.During fields’ surveys, OLCD prevalence has been estimated at 64% in Dry Savannah zone, 60% in Forest zone, 53% in Littoral zone and 50% in Humid Savannah zone. Altogether, the average prevalence of the disease in Togo is about 57%. Using, PCR to diagnose the presence of begomoviruses in the samples collected, ~56% were positive. Among the begomoviruses positive samples, ~38% were found associated with betasatellite molecules. The Coat Protein gene sequencing has revealed the presence of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and Okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV) in Togo.This study highlights the complexity of begomoviruses associated to OLCD in Togo
62 A Crushing Load of COVID-19 at Maharashtra: Indian Epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic , Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rakhi Bakuli and Soumitra Sahana
Medical clinics are overpowered with the devastating heap of COVID-19 cases and are experiencing deficiencies of individual defensive gear (Personal Protective Equipment) for care suppli-ers. More than 67,000 Indians have affected with COVID-19 till date, out of which 20,917 have been recovered with more than 2,206 of them are died. 22,171 cases overview from Maharashtra state alone out of which 832 have lost their life and remaining are under treatment and sent for quarantine (Figure 1). Since late-April, either by choice or in response to shelter-in-place orders, most Indians have been staying home and limiting non-essential travel and industrial and business activity has slowed to a crawl. In a thick urban territory, most occupants have no entrance to private open-air space and depend on open parks for work out, the emotional well-being help that originates from an association with nature and outside air. Scrupulous city occupants presently contemplate how to keep up safe social separation while impart-ing restricted outside space to other people. Official proposals by the WHO have combined on 6 ft of separation as the standard of thumb [1] for maintaining a strategic distance from the trading of possibly infective respiratory beads and vaporizers, however these suggestions were conceived based on perceptions made during the 1930s for medical clinic environments
63 Influenza A Virus: Cause of Multispecies Disease and Zoonoses , Sharanagouda Patil, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Pinaki Panigrahi and Mahendra P Yadav
Influenza A viruses (IAV) in the family Orthomyxoviridae, including all avian influenza viruses (AIVs), are enveloped, pleomorphic, and possess eight separate RNA genomic segments ranging in size between 890 and 2341 nucleotides. As observed by, the persistent and sporadic outbreaks of various Influenza A viruses in poultry and humans, respectively, warns the likelihood of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) becoming the next influenza pandemic strain. Further, among the vast pool of AIVs in nature, the HPAI A/H5N1 virus is believed to represent the greatest threat for the next flu pandemic. Therefore, the pandemic potential of subtypes of AIVs should not be overlooked and the domestic and aquatic wild bird populations should be under surveillance to monitor interspecies transmis-sion. Such monitoring would help in understanding the ecology of human influenza and controlling avian zoonoses. The HA and NA glycoproteins on the virus surface encoded by separate RNA segments are antigenically diverse, and divide the IAVs into 18 H and 11 N antigenic subtypes, respectively. Aquatic birds like wild water fowl and ducks are natural host for AIV subtypes of H-1 to H-16 and N-1 to N-9. Two new subtypes each of HA and NA (H17N10, H18N11) have been recently identified in bats. Isolation of new AIV subtypes from bats has added another angle, in addition to the role of wild aquatic birds, to the ecology and emergence of influenza/flu epidemics/pandemics that can affect both terrestrial birds and human beings depending upon availability of receptors on host cells. Bats are likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza virus. Influenza A viruses naturally circulate in a range of avian and mammalian species, including in humans. The Influenza A serotypes that have been confirmed in humans are, H1N1, H1N2 (en-demic in humans, pigs and birds), H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N7. Although transmission of AIVs between pigs and humans have already been confirmed, direct transmission from avian to human beings and between human to human is seldom. Segmented nature of the viral RNA genome combined with its error-prone polymerase enzymes can produce novel virus strain(s) with expansion of host range, inter species transmission, higher virulence, multi organ involvement with potential to
64 Clinical and Microbiological Spectrum of Clostridial Myonecrosis from a Tertiary Care Centre , Sukanya Sudhaharan, Kanne Padmaja, Padmasri Chavali and Vijay Dharma Teja
Introduction:Infections due to Clostridium spp is most often seen in traumatic injuries, surgery, malignancy and underlying im-munocompromised conditions. Gas gangrene, the clinical manifestation of Clostridium spp is a diffuse necrotizing infection of deep soft tissues. The infection can develop rapidly following any trauma that compromises the blood supply and is characterized by high mortality. Early Identification of the signs and symptoms in these patients would help in the management and reduce mortality as-sociated with this infection. In this review we presented a series of cases with infection due to Clostridium spp after trauma Materials and Methods:Twelve cases of Clostridium perfringens infections were analysed from our Institute prospectively during the period of 2012 - 2019 (duration of 8 years). The tissue samples from the cases were subjected to direct Gram stain and further inoculated aerobically on Chromogenic agar and 5% sheep blood agar. Anaerobic inoculation was done on 5% sheep blood agar and incubated into anaerobic pouch Results: The median age of the patients were 31 years. All the patients were males. The patients had sustained injury due to road traffic accident (RTA). 5/12 patients had Grade 3 compound fracture of leg, 1/12 patient had injury extending up to thigh, 5/12 pa-tients had crush injury of lower limb, 1/12 patient had crush injury of upper limb.Escherichia coli was the predominant aerobic organism isolated in 7/12 of the patients. The patients were treated surgically with below knee amputation in 10/12, below elbow amputation in 1/12, above knee amputation in 1/12 of patients. All the patients were treated with intravenous penicillin G10 U/day. Eleven patients were discharged in stable condition with advise to follow up. The patient with above knee amputation succumbed to the infection in spite of the treatment. Conclusion:From this study we conclude that early clinical suspicion and microbiological diagnosis helps in the proper management of the patients. Careful and adequate treatment along with antibiotics and all other supportive treatments should be instituted im-mediately will avoid further deterioration and reduce the mortality in these patients
65 Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole Amphotericin B and Caspofungin against Candida parapsilosis Blood Isolates , Stephanie Villalobos-Castro, Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Diego Ortiz-Solano, Luis Enrique Chaves-González and Norma T Gross
Candida albicans is considered the most frequent etiological agent of candidemia worldwide. However, in the last decades there has been a rise in non-albicans Candida spp. causing candidemia. For example, in some Latin American countries Candida parapsilosisis replacing C. albicans as the main species isolated from blood samples. There is also an emerging concern regarding the decrease in susceptibility of non-albicans Candida spp. to first-line antifungals. In Costa Rica, there is limited information about this emerging problem. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility pattern of C. parapsilosis blood isolates to flu-conazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B. Sixty-nine isolates collected from three Type A hospitals were studied. The isolates are part of the Fungal collection of the School of Microbiology, University of Costa Rica. Two reference methods were used to determine antifungal susceptibility. The EUCAST was performed for the azoles and amphotericin B. The end-points for caspofungin are not established by the EUCAST, thus the CLSI method was used instead. Results showed that 29% of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 25% to voriconazole, 6% to itraconazole and 3% to caspofungin. As to amphotericin no resistance was found; however, it is noteworthy that 42% of the isolates had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1 μg ml-1, the upper limit to be considered as sensible. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of vigilance programs for susceptibility testing of C. parapsilosis involved in candidemia in Costa Rica.
66 Non - Invasive Monitoring and Assessment of Phage Therapy and Phage Targeting in Bovine Brucellosis Employing a Brucella - Specific Biomarker , Anju Mohan and Hari Mohan Saxena
Brucellosis caused by Brucella organisms is a major zoonosis globally. It causes heavy losses through abortions, delayed concep-tion and infertility in animals. Antibiotic therapy is ineffective. Once infected, the animal remains carrier and sheds bacteria in milk, semen and uterine discharges for long period. We have successfully used a lytic brucella phage for therapy of Brucellosis in adult cattle. We also targeted the phage employing the live attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 organisms to kill the virulent Brucellaresiding intracellularly in phagocytes in the body. The effect of both the therapies was monitored non-invasively employing BrucellaRNA in blood plasma as a Brucella - specific biomarker. A single dose of the phage alone or the therapeutic vaccine (phage pulsed S-19) could substantially reduce and finally eliminate live Brucella in the body within 3 months as evident from diminished and ulti-mately non – detectable RNA characteristic of Brucella abortus (223 bp amplicon) in plasma by RT-PCR. Thus, phage has a potential to cure Brucellosis and abolish carrier state in cattle and RNA can serve as a specific biomarker of live Brucella for monitoring and assessment of the efficacy of the therapy
67 Presence of Syphacia muris in Wistar Rats of a Conventional Animal Care Facility and Treatment for the Eradication of this Parasitosis , Maria Alfonsina Lizárraga
Laboratory animals are essential in research. Genetic and health quality control enables reliable and reproducible experimental data. A very common disease in rodent colony facilities, is a parasitosis caused by the etiological agent, species: Syphacia muris, which belongs to the filo: Nematoda, to the family: Oxyuridae, is an intestinal endoparasite. The life cycle of this parasite is direct, (there is no intermediate host) has a cycle of 7 to 9 days. Syphacia muris Las infections can alter a humoral host's response to parasitic antigen-ic stimuli, and cause a Th2-like immune response with the production of elevated cytokines and induce an autoimmunity mediated by Th2 [1]. Therefore a study was carried out in colonies of rats Wistar strain (adult males and females) of a conventional animal care facility of faculty of medicine of the University of Buenos Aires. A total of 36, 32 y 30 rats were tested. Random samples were taken from animals, by Graham's method. Treatments were: treatment A: Ivermectin administered subcutaneously according to the weight of the animal, every 15 days. Treatment B: Ivermectin administered subcutaneously according to the weight of the animal, each week. In treatment C: Ivermectin was administered orally in drinking water at a concentration of 2ml ivermectin in 500ml of filtered water, for four days and allowed to rest for 3 days, this treatment was repeated for three weeks. Together, spray cage spraying containing an ivermectin solution was performed: 1ml in 250 ml of filtered water. The calculated prevalence rate for each treatment was: treatment A: in the first dose 50% and in the second dose of 75%. In treatment B: a 75% rate was obtained at the first and second doses of 80%. In treatment C: it was 0% in the first and second doses. These results enabled the finding of adequate and effective treatment for the eradication of oxyides. A parasitosis very common and common in all biotheres, but so untreated. Therefore, this work demonstrated that it is possible to be treated, eradicated and controlled to avoid interference and alter experimental responses. However, ensure more reliable results by controlling some variables, such as the health status of animals. Obtaining a good experimental model, ap-plying the uses of 3Rs [10], in terms of reduction when treating infected animals and avoiding the subsequent use of other animals and in refinement when ensuring the welfare of animals.
68 Strain Improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Bridge-induced Chromosome Translocation (BIT) and YAC Recombineering Technology , Burcin Altun, Valentina Tosato and Carlo V Bruschi
The present research deals with implementation of the bridge-induced chromosome translocation (BIT) technology and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) recombineering for strain improvement of bioethanol producing transgenic yeast. We aimed to construct a YAC that carries cellulose degradation genes on it and then to apply the BIT technology. BIT technology allowed us to gain two advantages; one of them was to stabilize YAC into the yeast genome and the other one was to have increased a gene expression level consequent to the translocation event. Selection strategies were implemented to obtain novel genetic regulation that would achieved the final phenotype originally desired with the high cellulose degradation and high ethanol producing features.In conclusion, in our study, we utilized two novel technologies (Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) recombineering and Bridge-Induced Translocation (BIT) technology to introduce new, multi-factorial genetic traits into a yeast strain, a process that would otherwise take several time-consuming and labor-intensive rounds of genetic engineering. This work describes the successful recombinant translocant yeast that is able to efficiently utilize cellulosic material as a carbon source with highly stable recombinant translocant chromosome and has high level of cellulases capacity
69 Serology: A Precise Tool in Diagnosis and Epidemiology of COVID-19 , Bramhadev Pattnaik, Mahendra P Yadav, Sharanagouda Patil and Pinaki Panigrahi
The coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by a β-Coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, has become a global pan-demic since its origin in Wuhan, China during the last week of December 2019, affecting 212 countries and territories in the World involving all the five continents. Prompt and precise diagnosis of the disease is central to its control and eradication. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) using dual labelled TaqMan probe and targeting two genomic areas, usually RdRp and envelope (E) regions, of the virus is being extensively used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory clinical specimens. As stage of the infection cannot be ascertained during collection of respiratory specimens for nucleic acid test (NAT; RT-PCR), this may lead to false negatives (error of omission) as virus load in the respiratory exudates and saliva gradually decreases with the increase in time post infection. Virus excretion would be maximum during clinical sickness that follows incubation period of usually up to ~14 days and clinical samples collected during this period are suitable for PCR diagnosis than those collected after clinical sickness. In addition, there are other variables, like quality of swabs and virus transport medium, PCR protocol and reagents, enzyme inhibitors, and proficiency of the manpower engaged in executing diagnostic techniques may affect the quality of the test result. There are three grades of clinical sickness in COVID-19, viz. asymptomatic, mild symptomatic and highly symptomatic. Available data indicate that about 50% of the people exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection may become asymptomatic, as was observed in case of the COVID-19 af-fected Japan cruise ship ‘Diamond Princess’ with 3,711 people on board. In case of asymptomatic and mild symptomatic cases, due to low virus load in the clinical specimens collected, the negative result in NAT/PCR need to be cross checked using a suitable antibody assay. It is known that virus load in the body and the quantum of virus excreted in body fluids gradually decreases with the remission from sickness, whereas quantum of specific antibody against the virus increases with time till plateau. Anti-virus antibody remains in the host for longer duration and can be detected even after clearance of the infection from the body. Therefore, NAT must be comple-mented by antibody test to enhance quality of diagnosis and mitigate errors of omission. Further, unlike NAT/PCR, serology/anti-body test is a powerful tool in tracking virus transmission, estimating actual number of cases, and epidemiological mapping of the disease in a population. Further, availability of a precise antibody test system/assay would be handy for post-pandemic surveillance of COVID-19. The current review includes the results of COVID-19 diagnosis and kinetics of antibody response reported by differ-ent authors/groups of scientists that vouch for quick development of a ‘COVID-19 antibody assay’ system for use in epidemiological studies of the disease
70 Immune Response and Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and The Strategies for Developing Target Drugs , Anju Kaushal
Current pandemic with COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2, which started from Dec 2019 and still con-tinues. The infection is mainly started by inhalation of virus contaminated droplets. Immune response is produced by both adaptive and innate immunity. Pathogenic stages of virus in the host are asymptomatic stage, non-severe symptomatic and severe- symptom-atic stage. Major- Histocompatibility Antigens/HLA classes regulate the adaptive immune response and pathogenesis. In asymptom-atic stage the person is recovered normally. However, the innate immune response is impaired in the severe symptomatic stages with high lymphopenia in natural killer cells, but other macrophages and monocytes increased fighting the virus; hence they establish a hyperinflammatory state. Immunological regular functions are precluded mainly due to impaired immune response, because virus lapse the protective immunity by NK cells, while favoring its propagation causing inflammations in lungs and other organs such as kidney, liver, spleen etc., could be fatal in later stages.ACE-2 receptors on alveolar cells with proteaseTMPRSS2 allow the spike of virus to make them attach to the cells for easy virus entry. Monocytes and Macrophages produce cytokines can create “Cytokine storm”, a hyper inflammation in lungs. Cytokine storm is a current hallmark of SARSCoV-2 pathogenesis, is triggered by releasing cytokines GSCF, IP10, MIP1A, IL-2, IL-7 and TNF to cause breathing problem, ARDS, and lungs failure subsequently with acute cardiac injury.Evidence based medicines to integrate the clinical experience and patient values with the accurate information available, would provide best treatment for faster patient recovery
71 Current and Future Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19 - Challenges and Recommendations , Anju Kaushal
The diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are ranged from molecular tests (detect the RNA virus) to serological tests (detect the past infection). Most of the molecular tests are being developed are based on the real- time RT-PCR assay. For conducting PCR assay the number of molecular targets has been identified within the RNA of Corona Virus; such as helicase (Hel), nucleocapsid (N), transmem-brane (M), envelop (E) and envelop glycoproteins spike (S). Serological tests are useful in testing past infection in already recovered patients and the convalescent sera of patients with negative PCR findings. These tests are mostly based on the principles of immu-nochromatography, chemiluminescence or ELISA to detect IgG or IgG and IgM together in serum samples. Serodiagnosis is useful in testing convalescent sera of patients with negative PCR findings. However, the cross reactivity with other antibodies is a major challenge to serological tests. From the second week IgM titre increases and then gradually declines 3rd week onwards, but IgG level remain stable around week 4.LAMP, CRISPR and multiplex isothermal amplification followed by the microarray detection methods are being developed around the world, to increase the sensitivity and accuracy for virus detection. LAMP Assay could be a potential alternative to RT-PCR in com-ing future as a point-of -care device assay. DNA amplifies rapidly in isothermal conditions and this tech doesn’t need any specialized equipment. CRISPR-Cas 13 method is also administered, based on specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter, unlocks a SHERLOCK protocol for more accuracy and rapidity. NGS is an emerging technology, is used to construct NGS library by amplifying the full length of genes, could be used in epidemiological surveillance and phylogenetic analysis.These emerging technologies can be implemented to provide better, rapid and accurate diagnosis. These could be used for epide-miological purpose in a wider community, without a need for sophisticated equipment and specific training. RT- PCR assays help us to tackle this unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19 which has already impacted people’s lives and econo-my. The rapid tests kits are in high demand for providing services in emergency situations and on the bed side of the patients. These tools are best possible tools providing assistance in saving people’s lives right on time
72 Exploration of New Pathways in Oncology , Simon Raymond
ACTA SCIENTIFIC MICROBIOLOGY (ISSN: 2581-3226) Volume 3 Issue 9 September 2020Exploration of New Pathways in OncologySimon Raymond*Alumnus, Melbourne University, Australia*Corresponding Author: Simon Raymond, Alumnus, Melbourne University, Australia.Short CommunicationReceived: July 11, 2020Published: August 26, 2020© All rights are reserved by Simon Raymond.To date, immunization has consisted of two principle pathways: (1) replication of infective agent; (2) enhancement of immune function. Given the lack of Success of the two current pathways, the current researcher (author) has conceptualised (developed) the new, or third, pathway of site attachment inhibition. The meth-odology surrounding site attachment inhibition therapeutics has been discussed in previous lectures [1-9]. It involves both medi-cation based treatment of established infections and preventative immunization (new generation; stem cell therapy based). New generation immunization involves stem cell therapy (in-cluding mutagenesis and knockout) of particular genetic targets such to achieve immunity (resistance) to infectious agents that is similar to what occurs with hereditary genetic variations/muta-tions
73 Novel Solution for High Efficiency Bee Pollen Heat Pump Dryer , Nguyen Hay, Le Quang Huy and Vo Tan Phuong
The study was conducted to calculate, design, fabricate and test a bee pollen heat pump raking device assisted dryer with a yield of 10 kg/batch. The aim of mixing material is to increase the contact of pollen with drying air, thus, increasing heat exchange, drying efficiency and drying rate. Besides, it reduces energy consumption and increases product uniformity. Experimental planning was car-ried out to determine the influence of operating parameters of the drier on the quality of the dried bee pollen. A set of mathematical equations represents the dependence of electrical energy consumption of the drying process, vitamin C content in the dried pollen and product recovery rate on drying temperature and the raking cycle was determined. The result showed that, at the drying tem-perature of 38.40C and raking cycle of 10 minutes, the drier operates at optimal working condition with the minimum electrical en-ergy consumption Armin = 0.96 kWh/kg, maximum vitamin C content Cmax= 72.11% (256.7 mg/kg) and maximum product recovery rate Mmax = 75.46%
74 A Preliminary Study on Desert Invertebrate Gut - A Metagenomic Evaluation of Bacteria Community , Tirza Doniger, Oksana Koryachenko, Chen Sherman and Yosef Steinberger
The microbiota of the digestive system have recently been at the heart of many studies. Most of these studies dealt with the hu-man digestive tract, e.g. the effect of different types of microbiota on physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to identify the bacterial and fungal populations in the digestive system of common desert invertebrates of different trophic levels. As a preliminary study, we collected four invertebrates that share the same habitat in a desert system in the northern Negev, Israel, over a period of one year. The organisms in which gastrointestinal microbiota were determined included Scorpio palmatus, Adesmia dilatata, Sphincherochila zonata and Hemilepistus reaumuri. Microbial diversity was determined by sequencing DNA harvested from their digestive system. Of a total of 32 orders of bacteria, 26 were present in S. maurus, 22 in S. zonata, 14 in A. dilitata and 8 in H. reaumuri. A significant difference in bacterial diversity was found between S. zonata and A. dilatata. The present study elucidates the importance of the feeding habitat and trophic structure to the microbiotic diversity of the digestive system.
75 Care Seeking Behavior of Citizens During Pandemics: A Case Study of COVID-19 in Nigeria , Olufemi Samuel Amoo
The COVID-19 virus is rapidly crossing borders and spreading across countries and the globe, with 212 countries currently af-fected as of May 2020, 6 months since reports of the first case in November 2019 in Wuhan, China. Global efforts to lessen the im-pact of COVID-19 pandemic span across surveillance, preparedness, response, prevention, testing, contact tracing, and treatment. Co-creation Hub (CcHUB) in collaboration with the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) and LifeBank developed a digital system to support the process of free testing of suspected COVID-19 cases to respond to the pandemic in Nigeria and deployed it in Lagos. An average of 25% of suspected cases presented for testing after scheduling appointments, meaning only a fourth of the high-risk cases as defined by the system were tested, revealing a drop-out rate of 74%. Preliminary analysis seeking to check which factors are associated with patients who presented themselves for testing yielded no significant factors, forming the rationale for our study.The study was a cross sectional study, seeking to 1) Understand determinants of healthcare seeking behaviors and healthcare utilization during a pandemic, 2) Provide information and guide health planners, administrators and policy makers on factors that enhance effective utilization of structures and platforms for service delivery. The variables collected were: demography and socioeco-nomic status, health status, satisfaction with healthcare system, satisfaction with NIMR service, mode of transport used/to be used and general feedback.Data collection was done using a close-ended survey and social media analysis - analysing twitter sentiments around COVID-19 testing in Nigeria. 300 study participants from a target population of 566 were selected using a simple random sampling for a finite population. Descriptive statistics and analysis looking for association (odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), including bivariate and multivariate unconditional logistic regression) were conducted using STATA 16.Our results show that distance to facility, preexisting health conditions, knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, previous healthcare experience, type of and frequency of communication influence healthcare seeking behavior of Nigerians, specifically during CO-VID-19. We recommend that the strategic placement of testing centers and increasing knowledge of disease could enhance service utilization
76 Genetic Factor of Mental Illness , Suraj Kumar Yadav
This article provide a comprehensive and readable primer on the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factor in mental disorder. This article contain finest information and basic knowledge of mental problems and causes. This article is a concise and original summary of method and guidelines in the field of genetic factor of mental problems. It include all types and causes related to mental illness. With its admirable blend, this book will helpful to professionals in various manners.
77 Assessment of an Immersion Technique for Generating of Borrelia burgdorferi-Infected and Infectious Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Ticks , Djamel Tahir, Alec Evans, Nouha Lekouch, Frans Jongejan, Valérie Choumet, Byron Blagburn, Reinhard K Straubinger and Marie Varloud
Experimental infection of ticks with pathogens such as spirochetes of the genus Borrelia (B.), is a critical step to better under-stand the mechanisms and the kinetics of infection. At present, four procedures for infection of ticks with B. burgdorferi have been described: (i) feeding ticks on infected rodents; (ii) tick immersion in a solution containing the spirochetes; (iii) microinjection of spi-rochetesdirectly into the tick gut and (iv) capillary or membrane feeding of ticks with a solution or blood containing Borrelia species. organisms. To reduce the use of live animals and for standardization of the conditions of experiments, the three latter procedures are recommended. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an immersion procedure to generate B. burgdorferi-infect-ed ticks and determine whether Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks were infective to dogs. Pathogen free, unfed larvae (I. scapularisand I. ricinus) and nymphs (I. scapularis) were immersed in BSK-H medium containing approximately 107B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain B31) organisms per mL. Immersed ticks were then fed to repletion on rabbits and held under optimum environmental condi-tions (22°C and 80 ± 10% relative humidity) for moulting. The infection rate in ticks was determined after moulting by qPCR, while their potential infectivity was evaluated on dogs. It was found that immersed larvae and nymphs acquired spirochetes. The spirochet-es were detected by qPCR in 18.7% and 37.5% of adult I. ricinus and I. scapularis,respectively. For nymphs, B. burgdorferi-specific DNA was detected in each of three pools of 20 I. scapularis. Nevertheless, all infested dogs remained seronegative during the three months after infestation and no clinical signs of borreliosis were detected
78 UniKin1: A Universal, Non-Species-Specific Whole Cell Kinetic Model , Madhurya V Murthy, Dakshahini Balan, Nur Jannah Kamarudin, Victor CC Wang, Xue Ting Tan. Avettra Ramesh, Shermaine SM Chew, Nikita V Yablochkin, Karthiga Mathivanan and Maurice HT Ling
Mathematical models of metabolism can be a useful tool for metabolic engineering. Genome-scale models (GSMs) and kinetic models (KMs) are the two main types of models. GSMs provide steady-state fluxes while KMs provide time-course profile of metabo-lites, which has more advantage in identifying metabolic bottlenecks. However, KMs require greater degree of accuracy for param-eters than GSMs resulting in fewer large-scale KMs than GSMs. Recently, large-scale KMs have been developed but are not based on standard enzymatic rate equations resulting in difficulty in interpreting results in terms of enzyme kinetics. Here, we construct a universal, non-species-specific KM of core metabolism, based on Michaelis-Menten Equation, from glucose to the 20 amino acids and 5 nucleotides based on reactions listed in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Non-species specificity is achieved by using the same Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), turnover number (Vmax), and concentration for each metabolite and enzyme for each equation. This forms a base model for developing species-specific whole cell KMs. The resulting model consists of 566 reac-tions, 306 metabolites, and 310 enzymes, involving in 1284 metabolite productions, and 1249 metabolite usages. Sensitivity analysis shows that 85% of the metabolite concentration changes with the change of one enzyme kinetic parameter. This forms a base model for developing species-specific whole cell KMs
79 Study of Antibiotic Resistance against Fourth Generation Cephalosporins in Escherichia coli , Mehwish Saleem
The large majority of antibiotics currently used for treating infections and the antibiotics resistant genes acquired by human pathogens are gaining resistance against antibiotics day by day. Fourth generation cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics, pos-sess an extra ammonium group, which allows them to rapidly penetrate through the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli; enhancing their activity. Enteric Escherichia coli are both natural flora of human and important pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide by acquiring resistance. The resistance profile of Escherichia coli may be sensitive or highly resistant. To test resistance (n = 60) samples were used. These clinical samples helped in evaluation of sensitivity and resis-tance against fourth generation cephalosporin in Escherichia coli. Gram staining and various morphological as well as biochemical test were performed to identify Escherichia coli. From (n = 60) samples, (n = 32) 53% samples showed resistance against Cefepime. In these resistant strains most of them were females (n = 35) and remaining of males (n = 25). It indicates high onset of fourth genera-tion cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli. From (n = 60) samples, (n = 28) 47% samples showed sensitivity towards Cefepime. These findings suggested that some mechanism or genetic mutations are there which inducing resistance in Escherichia coli towards antibiotics. There is an urgent need to control such alarming resistance
80 Making MIC Work for You: Utilizing PK and PD Parameters , Dharmendra Sharma and Ashok Rattan.
MIC or MBC has been used as indicator of antibiotic potency towards a pathogen and as surrogate marker for clinical efficacy when the selected antibiotic is used in the patient, but these parameters are static measures and do not adequately reflect the dy-namic process that takes place in a patient. To better predict the clinical efficacy of the drug we need to take into consideration the pharmacokinetics (what the host does to the drug) and the pharmacodynamics (what the drug does to the bug) and to obtain the three PK/PD parameters each of which depends upon the MIC value obtained but better predictive the clinical efficacy of the selected antibiotic.
81 Spectrum and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Commercially Available Stockfish in Eke-Awka Market, Anambra Nigeria , Malachy C Ugwu, Ebube Ofoegbu and Kene C Ezejiegu
Background: Food borne infections and diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among poor/developing countries. Food products play significant role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance. There is increasing evidence of the use of antibiotics in fish rearing as growth promoters or curative agents and this could promote antibiotic selective pressure which results in emergence of resistant organisms in these sea foods. This study is aimed at isolating and determining the spectrum and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from commercially available stock fishes in eke Awka market. Method: The isolated samples were obtained from randomly selected samples of stock fishes using pour plate method and confirmed with the help of microscopy and biochemical test. The antibiogram of the isolates were examined following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results: A total of 70 samples of stock fishes were collected from the market. Staphylococcus aureus was the most contaminant (45.7%) in the samples, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.1%), Bacillus subtilis (30%), Escherichia coli (15.7%), Salmonella typhi (5.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.3%). The isolates showed resistance to most of antibiotics used. Gentamicin and Ofloxacin had appreciable activity against all Gram positive isolated bacteria while Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin having activity against some Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: The study confirmed the presence of antibiotics-resistant bacteria in stock fishes, making it a potential public health threat. This calls for improved hygienic practices among the fish vendors and there should be rational use of antibiotics in fish farming
82 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus (CoV)-2 Versus SARS-CoV: So Similar Yet So Different , Saloni Gupta and Sonam Gupta.
Starting in the Wuhan city of China, the indiscriminate spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and sudden escalation in the number of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases has brought desolation to mankind. To control the ongoing disastrous pandemic, it is important to congregate the highest level of information on the ecology of this notorious microbe. The similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can be traced back to their phylogenetic relationship, however, gaining insight into the divergent features of the novel coronavirus demands extensive research. This article brings together the previously known facts about SARS-coronaviruses and contrasts them with the new findings on SARS-CoV-2 from the most recent studies for future reference
83 Trends of Entamoeba histolytica Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South India - A Three Year Perspective Study , Gunalan Anitha, Mugunthan M, Nonika Rajkumari and Gopika Jayan
Background: Amoebiasis is still a leading cause of intestinal parasitic infections in the world. It can be asymptomatic or manifest a wide variety of presentation and hence its diagnosis of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic is quite challenging. Methodology: However, a changing pattern has been observed over the years with this pathogen. This study tried to explore the changing trends in patients infected with this pathogen over a period of 3 years. Results:E. histolytica microscopy was positive in 55 cases with no gender predisposition. Most of the patients presented with mild abdominal pain associated with diarrhea. In this study we found that there is a decrease in prevalence of infection caused by vari-ous Entamoeba species. The overall positivity of infection was 3% during the study period, which could most probably be due to improper sanitation favouring the transmission of the disease. Conclusion: There has been increasing trend towards the non-pathogenic ones being recovered from the patients. This observation is especially applicable in light of the fact that expanding significance has been given to generally nonpathogenic species such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, since invasive amoebiasis has been exhibited to be related with these species. All things considered, the determinants of invasive amoebiasis are complicated and furthermore include different host factors
84 Suboptimal Adherence and Associated Factors Contributing to Virological Failure on First Line ART at a Private Tertiary Care Centre in South India: Implications for Individualized Adherence Interventions in Resource-limited Settings , Laxman G Jessani, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Suresh D, S Nambi and V Ramasubramanian
Background:Suboptimal adherence to ART can lead to HIV drug resistance. We studied the incidence and factors leading to first-line ART failure and the socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors associated with non-adherence to ART. Methods:We carried out a retrospective case-controlstudy of adult HIV-1 positive patients who were on first line ART over a period of 10 years. Adherence and history of treatment interruptions for > 48h were noted by self-report. Kaplan Meier survival curves (Figure 2) were used to estimate the median time to first line ART treatment failure. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard model were used to predict ART treatment failure. Results: Among 290 participants, 80 (27.58%) cumulatively had first-line failure. Patients who had virological failure on first line ART were taken as cases (n = 80) and those who were virologically suppressed were taken as controls (n = 210). Mean time to failure was41.16 ± 11.11 months.45% failed after more than 5 yrs on treatment: only4% failed within the first 6 months.Lower baseline CD4 count, WHO stage IV, CDC stage 3 and poor adherence were significantly associated with first line failure.70% of patients re-ported suboptimal adherence while 68% reported treatment interruptions.Poor adherence was significantly associated with viro-logical failure (P < 0.001) with OR = 4.22 (2.68 - 6.62) and CD4 count < 200 andART duration > 3 years was associated with poorer adherence. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a strong association between suboptimal adherence, virological failure and drug resistance among patients on first-line ART
85 A Venture to Discover the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19): SARS-CoV-2 , Soumitra Sahana, Sourav Nag, Prasit Roy, Reshmi Paul, Sk Abdur Rahamat, Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath and Snehansu Biswas
In December 31, 2019, hospitals pronounced a cluster of instances with pneumonia of unknown motive in Wuhan, Hubei, China, attracting brilliant interest nationally and worldwide. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 precipitated by means of the SARS-CoV-2 offers an unheard of venture to discover superb capsules for treatment. Given the speedy tempo of scientific discovery and medical statistics generated by means of the massive quantity of human beings unexpectedly contaminated by using SARS-CoV-2, cli-nicians want correct proof involving nice clinical remedies for this infection. This paper analysis the literature on all on hand records about the Treatments of COVID-19. Treatments, together with Antibodies, Vaccines, antiviral agents, convalescent plasma transfu-sion, corticosteroids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are mentioned in this article.
86 A Review on Teicoplanin Used as Alternative Drug to Treat the Novel Corona Virus (COVID – 19) , Anirban Adhikary, Kakoli Halder, Debmalya Ghosh, Snehansu Biswas, Indranil Chatterjee and Suman Kumar Nath
In December 2019, another coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, has risen up out of China causing pneumonia episodes first in the Wuhan locale and have now spread overall in view of its plausible high transmission productivity. Because of the absence of pro-ductive and explicit medicines and the need to contain the pestilence, medicate repurposing has all the earmarks of being the best instrument to discover remedial arrangement. Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have demonstrated viability to restrain coronavirus in vitro. Teicoplanin, an anti-microbial used to treat staphylococci disease, recently demonstrated adequacy to hinder the principal phase of MERS coronavirus viral cycle in human cells. This action is preserved on the SARS-Cov-2, accordingly putting teicoplanin as an expected treatment for patients with this infection.
87 SARS-COV-2 had Changed the World before Virus Detection , Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath and Soumitra Sahana
As we stay here secured down our homes while COVID-19 com-promises how we carry on with our carries on with; one ponders the old life we drove. We rarely stressed over contact with others, or individuals strolling past us in the road. At the point when we got a viral disease, the greater part of us thought of a cold or influ-enza, and anticipated throbs, torments, and a stodgy head, how-ever not many of us dreaded death toll. What's more, relatively few individuals were keen on points, for example, testing rates, testing techniques, or testing speeds. Be that as it may, some were. The papers in this virtual issue are by a portion of the specialists that have been creating tests to recognize infections
88 Gastrointestinal and Liver Disorders Encountered during the Covid-19-Pandemic-Strategies to Overcome and Nutritional Input to Boost Immunity , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh
e had reviewed on various aspects of COVID-19-disease from structure, presentation management, pregnancy and lactation, management of severe COVID-19-disease and effects on reproduc-tive system [1-5]. Here we have emphasized on the GIT involve-ment aspect, besides liver and implications on endoscopy practice worldwide in, COVID-19 era. Digestive symptoms including an-orexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (N, V, D) - frequently reported in patients with COVID-19-disease [CD]. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was first detected in stool of the 1st reported CD-19 case in the USA, who also presented with the digestive symptoms of (N, V, D). In the big-gest cohort-1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed CD-19 from 552 hospitals in China in January 2020, N, V, D were reported in 55 (5%) and 42 (3.8%) patients, respectively. Of the 204 patients with CD-19 and full investigations, 99 (48.5%) presented with digestive symptoms as main complaint. Patients with digestive symptoms had separate manifestations, like anorexia (83.8%), V, D and abdominal pain (0.4%). Digestive symptoms - might be pre-senting prior to respiratory symptoms, or only symptoms of CD-19
89 Forest and Soil: An Intrinsic Relationship , Abhishek Raj
Forest is pure, virgin and largest natural resources that harbor variety of flora and fauna that intensify ecosystem services. There is a great synergy between forest and soils. Soil is not less; it is another largest natural resource which plays major role in vegeta-tional dynamics, structure, compositions and diversity. Soil sup-ports other natural resources like forests, humans, animals etc. and make sustainable ecosystem for better environment. Looking on an intrinsic relationship among forests and soils, many ques-tions revolve in my mind “How soil makes better forests?” Is there any synergy between forest and soil?” and “How both soil and for-est makes sustainable environment?” These questions triggered my soul. It is cent percent true that a great link exist between for-est and soil that enhance biodiversity which intensify ecosystem services and maintains soil-food-climate security for sustainable development
90 An Insight into the Coronavirus , Priyanka Kulkarni and Jayant Londhe
The Coronavirus outbreak has brought the Science fraternity to put some light on the history and evolution of the virus and also the design of the effective drug and its potential target. Coronavirus consists of a positive strand RNA genome and four characteristic structural proteins, active and viable below 560C. Surprisingly, all the strains of Coronaviruses are found to be residing in bats for long period of time along with the Malayan pangolins, a group of mammals. The SARS-CoV-2 has significant similarities with SARS-CoV and SARsSr- RaTGL3 in the sequences of conserved non-structural proteins and exhibit 96.2% genome similarity with SARsSr- RaTGL3 virus. However, a unique feature of SARS-CoV2 is the presence of the four amino acid residue sequence at S1/S2 junction which is required to be cleaved by Furin-like enzymes for efficient membrane fusion of host and the virus. This distinguishing feature gives a reason to become a promising factor for drug target studies. However, the infectious diseases could be effectively controlled by vac-cine. Hence, there are some promising candidate vaccines entered into Phase III of Clinical trials designed by Sinovac, Moderna Inc and AstraZeneca/Oxford University in collaboration with Serum Institute of India.
91 How Reliable is Your Covid 19 Tests? Need to Validate and Verify Covid 19 Tests in the Laboratory Before Clinical Use , Amit Pruthi, Maneesh Baghi, Ashok Rattan and Sanjeev Vashishta
On the last day of last year, China informed World Health Organisation was a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, caused by a novel coronavirus, which was identified as SARS CoV 2 based on sequences of viral agent available by 10th January 2020 and RT PCR tests developed to identify this RNA virus. The disease caused by this virus was labelled as Covid 19. The rapid spread of this virus from China to all parts of the world including India, led this outbreak to be labelled as a pandemic.In January 2020, India had only one laboratory testing for Covid 19, at the Indian Council of Medical Research’s National Insti-tute of Virology, Pune. In Mid September, the testing facilities had been ramped upto 1700 laboratories, both in the government and private set up, across the country, performing molecular tests for diagnosis of Covid 19 - an unparallel achievement in the history of Indian health system
92 Alteration of Platelets Indices in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patient , Kolomi Muhammad Lawan and Avinash Kumar
New platelet functions on immunity and inflammation as well as thrombosis have recently emerged as a result of advances from an automated full blood count (CBC) analyser. One of the fastest and easiest tests to confirm platelet function is the platelet indices. Such platelet indices include the width of the platelet (PDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet crit. World Health Organiza-tion (WHO) reported that about 8.6 million cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were estimated to have occurred in 2012 alone most of which were recorded in Asia and Africa, with India and China responsible for 38% of the total number of cases. Thus, this article was instigated to update on platelet indices and their roles in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
93 The Role of Xenobiotic Enzyme Genes of the First and Second Phases in the Pathogenesis of Fetal Growth Restriction Syndrome , Mavlyanova NN
The article presents the results of molecular genetic studies of genes of biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics of the first and second phase in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction syndrome. Using the del/del genotype variants of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and G alleles of the GSTP1 gene, one can determine the prognosis of the risk of developing fetal loss syndrome, charac-terized by impaired detoxification during pregnancy
94 Fungi that Survived in a Contaminated Uranium Mine from Brazil , Ednei Coelho, Tatiana Alves Reis, Rodrigo Cardoso Oliveira and Benedito Corrêa;
The Osamu Utsumi mine was the first uranium mine in Brazil and ceased activities in 1995. Since then, it has encountered prob-lems in rehabilitating the mine site due to high levels of contamination. Thus, the present investigation aimed to isolate and identify fungi from the Osamu Utsumi mine that may be suitable candidates for the bioremediation process and thus get to know the local mycobiota. The pH of the water samples was 3.3. The mean water activity (aw) of soil samples was 0.98. From this extreme environ-ment, a total of 57 fungal species were isolated and identified, with genus Penicillium being the most abundant. The identification by classical techniques demonstrated that these fungi, despite being of the same species, in many cases, present different morphology. The accurate knowledge of the mycobiota capable of growing and survive on this type of environment, which fungi are dominant, provides essential data to help in futures studies. Effluents from the contaminated uranium mine can pose severe risks to the health of the population, as they can contaminate rivers and lakes close to the mine area, so it is necessary to properly treat the water from the acid mine drainage. In the future, the fungi isolated can potentially be used in the bioremediation process, providing an economi-cal and eco-friendly alternative to conventional treatment
95 Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths and Associated Risk Factors among Children Residents in Bandjoun, West Region of Cameroon , Dzune Fossouo Dirane Cleopas and Yondo Jeannette
Geohelminth infections, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hookworms are major public health concerns. These helminths distributed throughout the world with high prevalence in poor and socio-economically deprived communities in the tropics and subtropics cause morbidity and sometimes death. Our study aimed at evaluating the prevalence and intensity of infection of geohelminths and the risk factor in Bandjoun, West Region of Cameroon. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out on three hundred and fifteen (315) stool samples collected from residents using the simple centrifugal flotation and McMaster count technique respectively. Out of the 315 samples examined, twenty-one (6.7%) were infected with the eggs of at least one helminth parasite with prevalence and intensities of infection of 6.7% and 6971.4286 ±14662.4228 for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.3% and 50 ±00 for Trichuris trichiura. More males (11 children) than females (10 children) were infected. The prevalence of A. lumbricoides andT. trichiura varied significantly with age groups with those of 1- 10 years taking the lead (12.97%) and 11-15 years (7.14%). One double infection (1%) was recorded with A. lumbricoides + T. trichiura. According to fecal concentration of eggs, 22.72% of infections were light, 13.6% moderate and 63.63% heavy. Factors such as poor hygiene and life conditions, lack of drinking water and lack of knowledge on how to fights the geohelminths were found to be important risk factors for geohelminths. This work shows a relatively low prevalence of geohelminths in this area, proof that the national deworming campaigns are achieving success.
96 Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Makkah Workers , Hussam Aldeen Hassan, Abdalla Osman Abdalla Ahmed2 and Bashir Sirag;
Aim: The aim of this study isto determine the vancomycin susceptibility in intestinal isolates of Enterococci isolated from healthy workers in Makkah. Methods: disk diffusion technique was used in this study to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for Penicillin, Ampicillin, Vancomycin and Linezolid. PCR testing for major resistant genes was also used. Results: No resistant isolate was detected by disk diffusion technique. However, eight samples were PCR positive for Van B, two iso-lates were positive for Van C and only one isolate was positive VanC2/C3. Conclusions:all isolates were sensitive by disc diffusion method, and Van genes were detected by PCR in few numbers of isolates.Keywords:Enterococci; Streptococci; Ampicillin; Penicillin
97 A Review of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Use in the Treatment of People Infected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) , Anirban Adhikary, Kakoli Halder, Debmalya Ghosh, Snehansu Biswas, Indranil Chatterjee and Suman Kumar Nath.
The pandemic flare-up of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading everywhere throughout the world. Reports from China indicated that about 20% of patients created severe disease, bringing about a casualty of 4%. In the previous two months, we clinical immunologists took an interest in multi-rounds of MDT (multidiscipline group) conversation on the counter aggravation the executives of basic COVID-19 patients, with our partners dispatched from Chinese driving PUMC Hospital to Wuhan to concede and treat the most serious patients. Here, from the point of view of clinical immunologists, we will examine the clinical and immu-nological attributes of severe patients, and sum up the current proof and offer our involvement with hostile to anti-inflammation treatment, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 adversary, JAK inhibitors and chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, of patients with extreme COVID-19 that may have an impeded safe framework
98 A Review of Ongoing Trials to Treat COVID-19 , Anirban Adhikary, Kakoli Halder, Debmalya Ghosh, Snehansu Biswas, Indranil Chatterjee and Suman Kumar Nath.
The SARS-CoV-2 infection rose in December 2019 and afterward spread quickly around the world, especially to China, Japan and South Korea. Researchers are attempting to discover antivirals explicit to the infection. Some drugs Such as arbidol, chloroquine, remdesivir and favipiravir are right as of now experiencing clinical evaluations to test their sensibility and security in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, some consoling results have been developed up until now. This article sums up specialists with expected viability against SARS-CoV-2
99 Listeriosis: A Life Threatening Bacterial Zoonosis of Global Importance , Mahendra Pal
There are many bacterial zoonotic diseases, such as anthrax, brucellsois, campylobacteriosis, erysipelothricosis, leptospiro-sis, listeriosis, Lyme disease, meliodosis, salmonellosis, staphylo-coccosis, streptococcosis, tetanus, tuberculosis, tularaemia, and yersiniosis, which have significant impact on human and animal health [1]. Among these, listeriosis is an infectious, life threaten-ing bacterial zoonosis of global public importance [1]. Disease is reported from many countries of the world including India [1-8]. It occurs in sporadic or epidemic form in humans and animals in-cluding birds. During the recent years, the organism has emerged as an important food borne pathogen responsible for many out-breaks in human beings in several countries including Australia, Canada, France, Switzerland, and USA [1,9,10]. Murray is credited to describe the disease in 1926 for the first time in rabbit and guin-ea pig [1]. Later, Nyfeldt in humans and Gill in domestic animals recorded the infection for the first time in 1929 and 1937, respec-tively. The name Listeria monocytogenes was proposed by Pirie in 1940 in the honour of the Lord Joseph Lister, the surgeon and the pioneer in antisepsis and for its effect on monocytes [11]. In USA, about 1700 cases of sporadic listeriosis with 550 deaths are re-ported each year
100 Production of Bacteriocin Like Compound from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Screening its Therapeutic Potential , Rashmi Gaikwad, Vinal Pardhi and Valencia D’Souza;
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged to be promising alternatives to traditional antibiotics due to their broad spectrum activity. Bacteriocins are AMPs that have shown immense potential for diversified use in the food and pharma industry, agriculture and apiculture. Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) produce a wide variety of AMPs. They are considered safe additives in food which makes them a potential candidate to replace abusive use of therapeutic antibiotics which leads to bacterial antibiotic resis-tance. In the current work, bacteriocin like compounds (BLC) were isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum and evaluated for their anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. They were further concentrated by employing acetone precipitation and analysed using Tricine SDS-PAGE technique to determine the peptide nature and molecular weight which was found to be approx. 5 kDa after in-situ antibacterial activity assay. Antimicrobial activity of these peptides was investigated using agar cup diffusion method and showed significant bactericidal activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The anti-cancer studies of the partially purified peptides displayed notable activity against MCF 7 breast cancer cell lines. The bacteriocin like compound isolated from Lactobacillus fermentum exhibits the potential of being a challenging molecule to replace traditional antibiotics if a reproducible, scalable and cost effective process is developed.
101 Coastal Wave Measurements by Exploitation of Jason-2 PISTACH in the Vicinity of Visakhapatnam Region on East Coast of India , Acharyulu PSN, Prasad KVSR, Vignudelli Stefano, Rashmi Sharma and Venkata Ramu Ch.
Satellite altimetry provides precise measurements of wind speed and significant wave height. They have been validated and widely used over open ocean, however, when they come closer to the coast, there is still a need to assess their accuracy and potential usage. This is especially true along Indian coasts, which experience quite opposite northeast and southwest monsoons and a calm period in between them. In this paper, Study on coastal wave heights using JASON-2 tracks in and around Visakhapatnam was carried out, on the east coast of India where the in situ measurements are available to us. Of the new additional three re-trackers available with the PISTACH coastal products, the results show that the RED3 re-tracker performs well with the coastal buoy. The coastal buoy as well as the altimeter capture all the oceanographic signals. The results from comparisons suggest that there is a significant improvement in the significant wave height (SWH) altimeter observations in terms of noise and accuracy after processing. In particular, it was observed that RED3 re-tracker shows better matching with the moderate wave height ranges and better results in proximity of the coast where as OCE3 re-tracker captures all the signals especially during severe weather conditions with less error and better results at intermediate and open waters. The wave height measurements obtained from Jason-2 PISTACH products in the coastal regions are substantially in good agreement with the coastal buoy measurement. There is a need to improve better detection of outliers, which were present even after processing. Also, there is a need to enhance or modify the collocation criteria for coastal regions otherwise the wave which was observed by the altimeter and the buoy will not be the same. These results shows that the Jason-2 PISTACH data able to extend the altimeter data up to ~10 km proximity to the coast and the potential use of RED3 re-tracker in the coastal zone and the use of both the re-trackers in understanding the wave climate in the coastal zone on the east coast of India especially where in-situ observations were scarce. This data will be useful to study the spatial variability and better understanding of coastal dynamics in these limited areas. The results were quite encouraging to use the altimetry data in the coastal regions on the east coast of India
102 Insights into the Identity of the Putative Molecular Target of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus on Chicken Bursal Cells , Hari Mohan Saxena and Pushpinder Kaur;
Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD), caused by IBD virus (IBDV) is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive disease of chickens of 3 - 6 weeks of age which causes significant economic losses globally. Lymphoid cells in the bursa of Fabricius are the target cells of IBDV infection. However, the exact identity of the target molecule to which the IBDV binds on the lymphoid cells is still elusive. Im-mature B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and monocytes, the cells to which the IBDV binds, all express MHC II. Activation of lymphocytes enhances MHC II expression. We have found enhanced binding of IBDV to lymphocytes after activation which could possibly be due to increased expression of the putative target molecule on activation. LPS activation of B cells resulted in enhanced binding of IBDV as compared to the untreated cells. TGF β treatment which downregulates MHC II expression, decreased IBDV binding on B cells. IFN γ treatment, which upregulates MHC II expression, increased IBDV binding on B cells. Activation of T cells with Con A, which induces MHC II expression, led to IBDV binding on T cells. Thus, as suggested by the above findings, MHC II molecule may be the putative target for IBDV on chicken B cells
103 Obesity and Niemann-pick-Diseases: Pathogenesis and Bioinformatics Correlations , Abdulkadir Y Maigoro and Garba M Khalid;
Interest to understand the molecular pathogenesis of obesity is on the rise, since the disease is becoming of global health concerns with consequences of moribundity, other complications and mortality. However, little is known about the pathogenesis association between obesity and Neimann-pick diseases. This review therefore critically discusses the classical types of obesity with a focus on its genetic links with the Neimann-pick diseases in terms of pathogenesis, associated proteins, signaling pathways, and bioinformat-ics analysis. We analyzed the sequence similarity network between the reported genes found implicated in the two disease pathways respectively. Two nodes of MC/4R-ERK and APPL1 were found connected, an indication of similarity sequence wisely and probably sharing similar cellular function in relation to obesity and Nieman’s Pick disease which could be in a similar way with NPC2.
104 The Influence of the Microorganisms Supernatants of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Escherichia coli were Kept in Nutrient-Free Saline on the Mice Body Weight , Pavel F Zabrodskii and Anatoly A Animitsa;
There is a close relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system, based on the efferent innerva-tion of the gastrointestinal tract and the biochemical signals of neuroactive microbiota molecules. The microbiome-gut-brain axis includes the intestinal microbiota, the central nervous system, the neuroendocrine and neuroimmune systems, including the hypo-thalamic-pituitary-adrenal system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system, and the enteral nervous system. It is revealed that the microbiota of the mice intestinal affects the regulation of animal body weight. Supernatant of three main types of intestinal microorganisms (Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides melaninogenicus, Escherichia coli), which were for two days in saline without nutrients (1.0 × 109 CFUs in 1.0 ml of saline), significantly (by 10.2%) increased the weight of mice after daily intragastric administration (0.7 ml) for 30 days. The data obtained suggest that microorganisms of the intestines of animals produce neuroactive substances that can both increase and, apparently, reduce their body weight.
105 Masks Save Lives for COVID 19 , Soumitra Sahana, Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath and Snehansu Biswas;
Prompting others that “masks save lives” is not just sound guid-ance. It’s a scientific truth that carrying one in public can assist to gradual the unfold of SARS-CoV-2, the virus accountable for the coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.I’m very cautious to put on a masks backyard my domestic ev-ery time I’m out and about. I do it now not always to guard myself, however to defend others. If by using threat I’ve been uncovered to the virus and am presently incubating it, I wouldn’t favor to un-fold it to different people. And any of us ought to be an unknowing superspreader. We owe it to anybody we encounter, in particular these who are extra vulnerable, to shield them. It’s feasible to put on your masks even whilst you’re outdoor exercising
106 Information Technologies for Control and Management of Environmental Water Quality , KJ Kachiashvili
The original computer technologies for controlling and managing the ecological condition of the environmental water objects, de-veloped under the guidance and direct participation of the author, are described in the article. In particular, their purpose, capabilities and peculiarities are briefly described. There is also given a short description of problems solved by using them
107 Electron Microscopy Used for the Selection of the Microbial Strains Requested in the Case of Hydrolyzed Wood Wastes Conversion to Fodder Yeasts , Ana- Despina Ionescu, Angela Căşărică and Nicoleta Ene;
According to the literature data, the conversion of the ligno-cellulosic materials towards fodder yeasts involves first the use of some selected microbial strains able to produce the enzymatic factors and then the optimal yeasts. The factors with influence on this bioprocess are obviously the applied parameters but also the morphology of the studied microbial strains.The optimal used parameters can be establish by analytical determinations, but the morphology must be observed by optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, electrophoretic mobility measurements or even by atomic force microscopy. Our studies were realized by electron microscopy on the some previously se-lected strains of filamentous fungi and yeasts
108 Superhero Genes in Axolotl Limb Regeneration: Could Deadpool be Real? , Atakan Z Namli and Zeynep Gençyiğit;
Axolotls (Ambystoma Mexicanum) are vertebrates that have the ability to limb regeneration their body parts compared to most of other living populations. How this regeneration process works, how its mechanism takes place, and how blastemas are formed during differentiation are still being studied by researchers. Therewithal, it is known that many genes have significant effects in this regen-eration process. Tgf-β1, Fgf-8, Pax3 and Pax7, Lin28, Msx-2, HGF, Hoxb13 and Hoxc10 are some of these genes. It is also observed that some genes involved in the regeneration process in the human liver are common with some genes involved in limb regeneration in axolotls. Understanding this limb regeneration that occurs in axolotls is thought to have an inspiring importance in the treatment of limb amputation or loss as a result of various traumas in humans, especially in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
109 Concept of Hurdle Technology for Food Safety of Food Products of Animal Origin , Anita Chappalwar, Vikas Pathak, Meena Goswami, Raghvendra Mishra and Prashant Singh;
Foods obtained by animals like milk and meat products are highly perishable and very prone to different physic-chemical and microbial spoilage. These are nutritionally dense food with higher amount of moisture and other nutrients, hence provide conducive environment for growth of microorganisms. Hurdle technology deliberately combines existing and new preservation techniques to establish a series of preservative factors that can achieve multi-target, mild but reliable preservation effects against microbial spoilage of food. Hurdle technology usually works by combining more than one approach. The microbial stability and safety of the most traditional and novel foods is based on combinations of several preservation factors (called hurdles) and the microorganisms present in food are unable to overcome
110 Study of Herbal Antibiotics Derived from Turmeric and Ginger Applied on Enterobacteriaceae , Mehwish Saleem, Mashal Manzoor, Sana Amjad and Aqsa Malik,
Humans have been using natural products for medicinal use for ages. Natural products of therapeutic importance are compounds derived from plants, animals, or any microorganism. Ginger and Turmeric are also used as most commonly used condiments and natural drugs in vogue. These are traditional medicine, having some active ingredients used for the treatment of many diseases and killing of gram negative bacteria as well as gram positive i.e. E. coli, Klebsiella sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used in cooking, and in herbal remedies. It’s possible mechanism of action was examined in terms of antioxidant availability during actual cooking conditions and in therapeutic applications using standardized extracts. The assays involve different levels of serial dilutions of ginger and turmeric and their activity on different stages of killing of bacteria. The aim of this study is to determine whether herbal antibiotics are efficient in their result of mortality in enterobacteriaceae. Aqueous, Methanolic and Ethanolic test extracts of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa were prepared. Microbiological tests were employed to determine the zone of inhibition. Standardization of isolates were obtained after incubating for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of Gin-ger and Turmeric were prepared to measure the OD value and growth of bacteria in the dilutions measured by spectrophotometer. The aqueous extracts of two major preparations of turmeric and ginger, corresponding to its use in cooking and medicine, shows significant antioxidant abilities. The studies reveal that the ability of ginger and turmeric having anti-inflammatory potential that shows susceptibility to gram negative bacteria in ethanol and methanol extract. The OD values of serial dilutions of Turmeric and Gin-ger determine the ratio of killing of bacteria in different concentrations. Thus it is concluded that Herbal antibiotics have a significant role in killing of bacteria. According to the research it is concluded that due to the excessive usage of medicines it is to be noted that the bacteria are shifting towards more resistancy. However usage of Herbal antibiotics can minimize this effect. Therefore scientists are shifting more towards Herbal medicines as compared to synthetic antibiotics
111 In-depth Sequence Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Repudiates Mutation Mediated Adaptive Selection in the Virus , Pramita Chowdhury, Bijurica Chakraborty and Sanghamitra Sengupta,
Increasing transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 has often been attributed to mutations accumulating in RNA genome of SARS-CoV-2 ancestral type originated in China. In this study, using in silico structural modeling and molecular docking, we dem-onstrate that observed low frequency non-synonymous amino acid alterations do not improve the efficacy of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and host’s ACE2 receptor. The major spike haplotype detected corresponds to the ancestral Wuhan isolate which displays the most favorable interaction with ACE2. Although the sequences are different, length and number of pre-dicted B-cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, identified using BepiPred 2.0, are comparable to that of SARS-CoV. However, the above data differ from the ones from HCoV-NL63. Analysis of population genetic parameters implies relaxed purifying selection to be predominant force shaping the genetic landscape of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, till date. These findings provide important clues in designing therapeutic strategies to contain the pandemic
112 Proficiency-Testing Scheme for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter in Poultry Meat , Souad Ben Bari, Marie Dangerville, Romain Le Neve, Abdelkader Boubetra and Anne Tirard,
Main food-borne infections in Europe and in the world are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the two most involved species of Campylobacteria. This is why, in 2018, BIPEA (Bureau Interprofessionnel d’Etudes Analytiques) launched a new proficiency testing scheme (PTS) to detect and enumerate Campylobacter species in poultry meat samples. This proficiency test can be schematized by three main steps: preparation of homogeneous and stable samples, analyses by labo-ratories applying reference methods (ISO 10272 part 1 and 2 [1,2]) and/or alternative methods and statistical treatment of the data according to ISO 13528 standard [3].Taking part in a proficiency-testing scheme allows laboratories to assess their performance for these analyses and compare their results with those from other laboratories. Therefore, these tests are crucial for laboratories to meet international ISO 17025 stan-dard requirements
113 A Comparative Study of the Malthusian Growth on Indian Economy by the Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Corona Virus Disease 2019 , Soumitra Sahana, Indranil Chatterjee, Sabina Khatun, Suman Kumar Nath, Jafar Ansari and Indrajit Samanta,
In December 2019, an outbreak of corona disorder reasons due to coronavirus-2, befell in Wuhan city, china. Later this virus is unfold and infect nearly all international locations in the world. As the no. of contaminated and demise instances will increase hastily World Health Organization (WHO) declare this as a pandemic. As it is a contagious disorder to keep away from spreading of contamination from individual to individual authorities declare extended lockdown in countries. Countries hostilities to deal with corona however in this way, financial system is badly stuck. The coronavirus outbreak is severely disrupting the international economy. Magnitude of financial influence is relying upon the length and severity of covid-19. In corona disaster humans no longer solely misery about fitness issue, however additionally due to monetary issue. The foremost contribution of this work is a comparative find out about of pre-Covid monetary situation and post-covid monetary condition. In this paper, we describe about covid-19 sickness and the viable methods in which spreading can controlled, and they have an effect on of lockdown on varies sectors. Major sectors are banking sec-tor, tourism, agricultural region and pharmaceutical sector
114 Real Life: The Story of Stem Cells , Bhaskar Vyas and Rajni Vyas,
Stem cell therapy has a long gestation period since the first stem cell was identified in the early twentieth century. It is almost a hundred years that the discovery process passed through dif-ferent stages of identification, description of properties, isolation of stem cells, and finally the application of stem cell therapy for therapeutic purpose or regenerative medicine in the twenty-first century. One could explain this delay in terms of several factors. It is not only due to the promulgation of germ theory and antibiotic revolution that pushed the biological diseases to the background for a long period but also because of the impact of the IInd World War and changing state and science relationship. After the dem-onstration of power that the detonation of nuclear weapons gen-erated and expressed in terms of the fetishism of force that the physical sciences gained greater public visibility and consequently greater funding at the neglect of biological sciences. This was also reflected in the reward system and the discovery of every new par-ticle was honoured with a Nobel prize in the subsequent decades even if it became a routine science
115 Nobody Can Deny an Idea Whose Time has Come: Regulations Will Come and Go , Bhaskar Vyas,
Clear out the entire forest: but cut not a single tree. So said J Krishnamurthy. We would like to say, let quackery and quacks be entirely eliminated, but let not a single patient be denied who may benefit from stem cell therapy.Political pundits concur across the globe that the government that governs the least is the best form of government. Karl Marx dreamt of a utopian state of dictatorial governance where state shall wither away
116 Evaluate the Effects of Aflatoxins on Agriculture Foods and the Role of Bio-detoxification , Waseem Khalid, Ayesha Jabeen, Muhammad Rehan, Afifa Aziz, Anam Tariq, Chasheen Fizza, Syed Ali Ur Rehman Siddiqui and Muhammad Abdul Rahim,
Food security is necessary for the purpose of human welfare, for this purpose food safety is applied that provides protection against contamination. Agricultural food plays a vital role in human nutrition which is affected due to aflatoxins. The secondary me-tabolized called aflatoxins are derived from Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus, these metabolize grow on moist foods and responsible for food spoilage. When humans consumed aflatoxins present food that creates various substances like carcinogenic. For the prevention of aflatoxins in foodstuff, detoxification of aflatoxins is used which can limit toxic substances to an acceptable level in various commodities. The bio-detoxification are specific, efficient and environment friendly in eliminating the possible contamina-tion of aflatoxins in foods
117 Spotlight of Twenty First Century Betacoronaviruses , T Pratheep and G Venkat Kumar,
Coronavirus (CoV) have previously been considered as relatively non-virulent respiratory pathogens to human. Beginning of the 21st century, three CoV’s have crossed the species barrier to cause high pathogenic and mortality rates in human populations. However, two epidemic of severe respiratory tract infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) deadly diseases in human. Another one, named SARS-CoV-2 is on-going outbreak of atypical pneumonia and pandemic to global population. This brought CoV alert and highlighted the importance of controlling infectious pathogens at worldwide. In this review, we focus on present understanding of the epidemiology, pathology, transmission, prevention, and treatment of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2
118 Molecular and Biochemical Identification and In Vitro Susceptibility to Itraconazole of Costa Rican Clinical Isolates of the Sporothrix schenckii Complex , Stefany Lozada-Alvarado, Ingrid Salas-Campos, Lorena Uribe-Lorío and Norma T Gross,
Globally, the most frequently isolated species of the Sporothrix schenckii complexfrom human clinical samples are S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. brasiliensis. Sporotrichosis is the most important subcutaneous fungal infection in Costa Rica, and, so far, the etiological agents have only been identified by microscopic observation as S. schenckii. The aim of the present study was to identify by phenotyp-ic and genotypic characteristics the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex in a collection of Costa Rican human clinical isolates.Fifty-seven Costa Rican clinical isolates were analyzed and 18 sequences were deposited in the GenBank database. The isolates are part of a collection of the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica. For the phenotypic characterization, temperature growth, microscopic features and carbohydrate assimilation were performed, and the susceptibility to itraconazole was studied in vitro by the CLSI M-38 microdilution method. Genotypic characterization was performed by enzymatic restriction and sequencing of the calmodulin gene. The presence of two species of S. schenckii complex, i.e. S. schenckiis. str. (53) and S. globosa (4) was demon-strated. A MIC value of less than 1 μg/mL was found in 84.2 % of the isolates. The most accurate techniques for identification of the isolates were enzymatic restriction and sequencing of the calmodulin gen. The carbohydrate assimilation test was the least useful one. All isolates studied were sensitive to itraconazole
119 Nanotoxicology - An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Nanoparticle Risk Assessment , Nida Tabassum Khan and Samiullah Khan,
During this era, applications of nanoparticle has exponentially elevated such as being employed in textiles, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and medicine. Due to their exclusive properties, nanomaterials are now being considered as an empowering domain that serves as the basis for the development of novel nano-based products in the scientific arena and worth millions in the commercial market. However, this perpetual usage of nanoparticles has intensified numerous environmental and health risks. And therefore, requires attentive evaluation in order to analyze their associated toxicological effects. Thus, investigation of their associated toxicity is a requirement. However, the cumulative diversity of nanomaterials requires to exam a diverse group of nano entities for toxicity prediction subsequently making it a challenging task to gather information regarding their potential exposure and probable risk. Pre-viously employed invitro toxicity testing systems were constrained by principled considerations, time and financial accountabilities Therefore, an alternative unconventional computational approach is needed for the evaluation of nanoparticle associated risk. Such computational approaches for risk assessment are characterized as in silico methods that are cost effective and far less time consum-ing than customary testing systems and serves to develop a sound infrastructure for nanotoxicology studies
120 Clinical Utility of Ct Value in Covid-19 Infection , Ashok Rattan and Jitendra Kumar,
The clinical spectrum of Covid-19 infection caused by SARS CoV 2 is very heterogenous varying from completely asymptomatic in-fection to severe life threatening infection requiring admission and treatment in ICU and still ending fatally.Concentration of SARS CoV 2 RNA measured in respiratory specimen declines after onset of symptoms. In laboratories where both viral cultures onto Vero cell lines and RT PCR was simultane-ously carried out on respiratory samples from suspected Covid-19 patients, while replicative viruses were isolated in Vero cells only upto the first eight days from onset of symptoms, RT PCR contin-ued to be positive for upto 5 to 12 weeks. Recovery of replication competent virus between 10 and 20 days after symptom onset has only been documented in immunocompromised patients with se-vere Covid-19 disease
121 Microbiota and Obesity , Pavel F Zabrodskii,
Obesity rates have increased dramatically in recent decades. Several factors involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of obe-sity have been identified, including diet, lifestyle, environmental factors and genetics. However, none of them fully explains the de-velopment of obesity, and the search for possible causes continues. Intestinal microbiota is considered as one of the factors influenc-ing homeostasis (regulation of the level of basic metabolism de-pending on the diet) [1] through several supposed mechanisms studied on experimental models and humans (synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, metabolic endotoxemia, role of endocannabinoid receptor system, participation of microbiota in lipogenesis, regula-tion of appetite by microbiota production of short-chain fatty ac-ids and modulation of synthesis of certain peptides by intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation).
122 Development of HEVNP as a Multifunctional Strategy to Combat SARS‐CoV2 as Preventive Vaccine and Antiviral Drug , Chun‐Chieh Chen, Mo A Baikoghli and R Holland Cheng,
Hepatitis E virus nanoparticle (HEVNP) is an orally stable, mucosa‐penetrating delivery platform for noninvasive, targeted deliv‐ery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents. HEVNP does not carry HEV genomic RNA and is incapable of replication. The key character‐istics that make HEVNP an ideal and unique vehicle for diagnostic and therapeutic delivery include surface plasticity, resistance to the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, significant payload capacity, platform sustainability, and safety. Furthermore, HEVNP can be produced using currently established expression/purification technologies; it can be easily formulated as a liquid or powder and can be distributed (and stored) without the need for a temperature‐controlled supply chain. Such a modularized platform proves effective in various applications, including cancer therapeutics, oral insulin delivery against diabetes, and the oral vaccine against infectious diseases. The capsid’s flexibilities fulfill the desired function to conjugating different functional peptides and/or compounds onto the capsule surface and payloads into its interior. Here, we explore further applications of a modularized therapeutic vaccine against SARS‐CoV2, including lung tissue targeting ligands displayed on the surface of HEVNP and encapsulation of DNA vectors co‐expressing SARS‐CoV2 antigens and shRNA to inhibit viral replication
123 Sustainable Intensification for Resource Conservation , Abhishek Raj
The term ‘sustainability’ is gaining wider recognitions due to an urgent need of resource conservation and its availability in present and future without affecting environment. Today, the practices of intensive agriculture destroy land sustainability, soil quality and health of biodiversity. High intensive use of chemical fertilizers and heavy mechanizations in agroecosystem affects the land and crop productivity. These practices not only destroy the health and pro-ductiveness but also affect natural resource availability. Burgeon-ing populations necessitates global food requirement that leads to agricultural land expansions and intensive agroecosystem practic-es
124 On SARS-CoV-2, Tropical Medicine and Bioinformatics: Analysis of the SARS-Cov-2 Molecular Features and Epitope Prediction for Antibody or Vaccine Development , Joshua Angelo Hermida Mandanas
Introduction:SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is the cause of COVID-19 which is the pandemic as of the current time. It is a global public health emergency and is still on the loose of spreading more infections and deaths. Bioinformat-ics offer extensive visualization and analysis of combined molecular, cellular, biochemical and immunobiologic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 which is indeed vital for antibody and vaccine development. Objectives:This paper presents the SARS-CoV-2 molecular virologic, biochemical, cellular and immunobiologic features and gives a basic B cell linear epitope prediction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein using bioinformatics which both can serve as a guide for development of vaccines or antibody-based treatments. Methods:Several bioinformatic methods were used, from sequence analysis (Uniprot), structural correlation (PDB), molecular mod-elling (UCSF Chimera) and illustration (Biorender), B cell linear epitope prediction tools, conservancy analysis and search of related epitopes (IEDB) together with determination of disordered regions (GlobPlot and DisEMBL). Results:Host enzymes such as furin, cathepsin L and TMPRSS2 enable pre-processing of SARS-CoV-2 prior to infecting cells such as monocytes, macrophages and alveolar cells. Sialylated cells can potentially be infected with SARS-CoV-2. A 29 and an 11-residues long B cell linear epitope candidates were predicted from the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein to be the potential target of antibod-ies or vaccines. Conclusion:SARS-CoV-2 binds to many host receptors and is enzymatically processed leading to infection of many human cells. Prediction of B cell linear epitopes using bioinformatics can be vital for antibody or vaccine development. Integration of Tropical Medicine and Bioinformatics can offer new horizons and can turn the battle against SARS-CoV-2.Keywords: SARS-Cov-2; COVID-19; Tropical Medicine; Bioinformatics; Epitope; Vaccine
125 Is it Possible to Treat Community and Nosocomial Bacterial Infections, Herpes Virus Infections, Dengue Virus, Fungus Infections and Leptospirosis with the Same Method and Without the Use of Any Drugs? , Huang WL
Background: The microorganisms that cause infectious diseases were the principal cause of mortality in ancient societies. Nowa-days, different pathogens are treated with different medications. The current medicine is focused in the pathogenic agent responsible for the disease, and because of that, diseases originated from different pathogens are treated with different medications. Purpose: To demonstrate that it is possible to treat different types of infection (Community and Nosocomial Bacterial Infections, Herpes Virus Infections, Dengue Virus, Fungus Infections and Leptospirosis) with the same method and without using drugs. Methods: Based on 8 case reports of patients with different types of infection (Community and Nosocomial Bacterial Infections, Herpes Virus Infections, Dengue Virus, Fungus Infections and Leptospirosis). All these patients were being treated with specific medications without significant improvement. These 10 patients were submitted to Chinese dietary counseling, auricular acupunc-ture with apex ear bloodletting, and orientation regarding external factors (Heat, Dryness, Dampness, Cold and Wind). The Chinesedietary counseling consisted in withdrawn of dairy products, frying, eggs, chocolate, coconut, honey and alcoholic beverages, besides withdrawn of cold water, raw food and sweets. Results: All the 10 patients with different types of infection presented clinic significant improvement, only with the method used, and without the use of any specific drugs. Conclusions: It is possible to treat different kinds of infection with the same method and without using any drugs. For this aim, it is important to see the patient in an individualized way, considering systemic energy imbalances caused by emotional, dietary and external pathogenic factors. Keywords:Community, nosocomial bacterial infection, herpes virus infection, dengue, fungus, leptospirosis, medication, traditional Chinese medicine, external pathogenic factor, Chinese dietary nutrition, acupuncture
126 Covid-19 Pandemic, Significance of Reimagining Immunity and Relevance of Medicinal Plants to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Perspective , Thounaojam Salvia and Laishram Shantikumar Singh
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2, emerges as a pandemic is potentially a lethal disease which cause immense concern globally. The pandemic has generated mayhem throughout the worldwide due to insufficient threat evalu-ation. The present COVID-19 scenario has come into a precarious stage. SARS-CoV-2 has spread fast compared to other viruses including SARS due to increased globalization as well as pioneer adaptability in every environment. Due to this many agencies, re-searchers, health care workers are being engaged in different ways to tackle and mitigate the burden before it goes out of hand. Here we have highlighted some aspects of the virus and the disease symptoms of COVID-19. The importance of healthy immune system and reimagining the concept of immunity and the role of medicinal herbs in boosting individual immunity have also been discussed. The significance of Indian traditional medicinal practice in tackling diseases, the antiviral properties of medicinal plants and their relevance to SARS-CoV-2 have been point out. We have also highlighted the potential and the possible benefits the antiviral medicinal plants might have against SARS-CoV-2
127 Impact of Susceptible-Dose-Dependent (SDD) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) on Reporting and Prescribing Antibiotics , Kalpana T, Mugunthan M, Symphonia A, Haritha M, Deepashree R and Apurba Sastry
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) introduced susceptible dose dependent (SDD) in place of inter-mediate category for selected drug pathogen combinations such as Enterobacteriaceae-cefepime and Enterococcus-daptomycin. For SDD-isolates, the antimicrobial agent can be used in higher-than-normal doses, precluding the use of higher antimicrobials thereby preventing antibiotic resistance. Therefore, this study was undertaken.
128 In Vitro and In Vivo Trypanocidal Effect of the Aqueous Extract of the Leaves of Ochna schweinfurthiana , Eteme Enama S, Messi A N, Mahob R J, Augustin Siama, Yede and Njan Nloga AM
The objective of this study was to evaluate the trypanocidal effect of the aqueous extract of Ochna schweinfurthiana leaves in vitroand in vivo on trypanosome species: Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense. The search for chemical families by screening and evaluating the trypanocidal effects of the extract in vivo in white mice (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and in vitro (0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1 mg/kg). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins. The doses of the extract of this plant resulted in a decreased motility of the two species of parasites in vitro. For the highest doses (0.5; 0.75 and 1 mg/kg), the decrease is either significant (p < 0.01) or highly significant (p < 0.001). The activity of the extract (400 mg/kg) highly inhibited parasite densities (p < 0.001) compared to the negative control. Whereas the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg did not inhibit significantly parasite densities. The results recorded show an improvement in the hematocrit rate in the animals treated at different doses of the extract. This reflects a general decrease in anemia.
129 Diagnosis, Virology and Treatment for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): A Challenging Sickness to Human Health , Soumitra Sahana, Sk Abdur Rahamat, Indranil Chatterjee, Rajeswar Das, Suman Kumar Nath, Snehansu Biswas and Sanchari Chatterjee.
Hantaviruses are rodent viruses that have been realize as etiologic dealers of two illnesses of humans: HFRS (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). This article gives a concise overview of hantavirus biology, the sci-entific aspects of HFRS and HPS, and checks for the detection of hantavirus infections in humans. Together, these viruses have yearly precipitated about 200,000 human infections global in current years, with a case fatality fee of 5 - 15% for HFRS and up to 40% for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The high fee of mortality ought to be decreased if advantageous therapeutics ought to be observed for cure of this illness. There is presently no wonderful remedy reachable for both HFRS or HCPS. In this paper, we summarized the Virology, Epidemiology of HFRS and HCPS, Diagnosis, and Treatment of hantaviruses disease
130 Harnessing the Importance and Benefits of Microorganisms to Improve Livelihood , Winifred Òdúnóku
Microbiology has been the most experimentally-based biologi-cal sciences. It will also be a major element in the coming biologi-cal era of technology and science and might well play a major role in “sustainable development”. This field of life science that studies microscopic organisms and their interconnectedness with other living organisms is a vast course with various aspects bordering on food, environment, health, agriculture and everything in-between. Indeed, microorganisms (bacteria) are one of the first life forms to appear on earth and they make it possible for all other life on earth to exist
131 Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa) for the Relief of Menopausal Indications: A Review , Anirban Adhikary, Kakoli Halder, Debmalya Ghosh, Indranil Chatterjee and Suman Kumar Nath
The motivation behind this article is to survey ongoing information supporting the security and viability of black cohosh items for the relief of menopause-related side effects. Searches of the distributed writing in Napralert, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases were performed from 2003 to 2006. Data from sedate administrative organizations from five distinct nations was gotten to assess wellbeing. While there are a couple of opposing examinations, most of the clinical preliminaries demonstrate that concen-trates of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) improve menopause-related indications. Be that as it may, until this point, in any event 50 instances of conceivable hepatotoxicity have been accounted for. Albeit past security surveys propose that black cohosh is very much endured, the expanding quantities of these case reports shows that further preclinical toxicological assessments of black cohosh are desperately required. As of now, it seems reasonable to prompt menopausal ladies with hidden liver infection, immune system mala-dies or those taking drugs that may affect liver capacity not to utilize items containing dark cohosh
132 Genotyping Study for the Promoter of IL-4 Gene in Iraqi Patients with Tuberculosis , Mazin S Salman and Awatif H Issa
Tuberculosis still represents a disaster that puts heavy shadow over all human societies. In spite of the availability of effective chemotherapy and vaccine, tuberculosis is a global health concern for both developing and developed countries. A defect in the genes of the immune response is the most acceptable explanation for susceptibility of some individuals and resistance of others to TB. Cy-tokines play critical role in interactions and integration between the cells of immune system, which leads to effective defense against TB, among cytokines IL-4, which have regulatory role in immune response in Iraqi patients with TB. Seventy-four blood specimens were collected from 74 patients in the Institute of the Tuberculosis and Chest Disease-Basra city, blood specimens also collected from 74 healthy individuals as control. Extracted DNA was amplified using two sets of specific primers for promoter regions of IL-4. Purified amplicons were sequenced and were analyzed using specific software. The genotyping analysis of promoter of IL-4 gene was indicated two alleles C and T, of them C allele is predominant (73%), while T allele is recessive (24%). Although those heterozygous genotypes (CT) were present in patient and healthy control (HC), but the frequency of CT in patients was significantly higher than those of controls. IL-4 promoters carry more than one type of mutations pushing toward increasing susceptibility of some individuals to TB
133 Necroleachate and Public Health , Mariane Malvão Fernandes
This paper covers the relevance of necroleachate in cemeteries. Throughout history and nowadays the construction of cemeteries has always been a controversy. Such places are deemed as contaminants due to decomposition of natural bodies inappropriately buried, causing the spread of pathogenic microorganisms and environmental impact. However, the concern about the environmental issue in places occupied by cemeteries began in the midst of past century, and recently a great concern about the environment increased. Thus, environmental agencies made some resolutions to prevent that cemeteries become polluting agents, allowing them to operate only after a suitable environmental licensing. In view of this problem, analyses determined that necroleachate is gradually eliminated after burial, and it can reach the groundwater with the action of rainwater and contact with surface waters, bringing negative consequences since its matter causes potential damages to the environment and public health. When necroleachate pollutes the groundwater, we note that it puts at risk both the environment and citizens using ground watershed that can be contaminated by virtue of bacteria, virus, and protozoa. With the aim of environmental quality, it is necessary to apply necroleachate-treatment methods in order to turn it less toxic and pathogenic.This study was the basis of inspection for the Environmental Police of Rio de Janeiro, when the police commanders carried out forensic operations with their teams and they found glaring environmental crimes in all operations.The practice of the environmental police was facilitated by this study when they influenced Municipal and State administrators to comply with the current environmental legislation, reducing impacts on the environment.As uppermost point, the study was the basis of regional and national news about the criminal status of some municipal cemeteries, bringing the civil liability to governmental authorities
134 Estimation of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in Rice Grain Collected from Different Division of Punjab Pakistan , Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Khalid and Ravi Prakash Jha
Aflatoxins are bioactive fungi or specialized metabolite or acutely toxic or cancer-causing substances and substances that alter DNA that are derived from polyketides produced by certain fungi that cause severe contamination in agricultural crops. Fungi are primarily responsible for producing aflatoxins in white rice in the presence of high moisture. Mostly, the rice samples were con-taminated with aflatoxins due to unsuitable storage conditions. Furthermore, the food and feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major issue for food safety and for human health. The toxic effects of aflatoxin can cause chronic disease, poor productivity, severe life-threatening toxicity and damage to the immune system. A total of 70 samples of rice were collected from the Capital and different selected divisions of Central, North and South Punjab, Pakistan. The rice is harvested with 18 to 24 percent natural water content and the paddy moisture for storage is dried at 12 to 14 percent. In this study, in Central Punjab (Lahore), the moisture content of 10 samples of rice was 13.47%, in Gujranwala 11 samples were 13.50% and in Sahiwal it was 12.50% respectively. In addition, the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was used to detect aflatoxin in rice. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 were detected in 32 samples (45.7%). The maximum B2 aflatoxin (32%) was detected in the central Punjab samples. Similarly, B1 (7.5%) and G1 (7.5%) aflatoxins were also detected in the samples of central Punjab. Moreover, 20 samples were collected from south Punjab in which 5 samples were infected with B2 aflatoxin (25%) and 2 samples were detected with G1 aflatoxin (10%) and B1 (5%). Aflatoxin G2 was not detected in all samples. The result was showed that aflatoxin has been assessed more in samples that contain high moisture contents
135 A Review: Antibacterial Activity of Several Essential Oils Used in Saudi Domestic Markets Against Certain Bacterial Pathogens , Ahmad M Qumri, Salah EM Abo-Aba and Faisal MB Al-Sarraj.
Different researchers for their antimicrobial and antioxidant potential have explored essential oils. The oils are derived through steam distillation of target plants using ancient Arabian techniques to produce extracts with medicinal uses. However, their method of action against microbes is not as well understood as that of antibiotics. The problem of antibiotic resistance has further increased interest in studying essential oil and medical efficacy. Efforts to understand antimicrobial activity have focused on the disk diffusion method and their effectiveness measured using the minimum inhibitory concentration. The Kingdom has numerous flora, including herbs and aromatic flora, whose potential in native medicine should be explored. This review provides a detailed analysis of some medicinal uses of essential oil, as evidenced in past studies to show multifold biological activities of these oils. While many studies report the antimicrobial potency of essential oil, none, to the best of our knowledge, focuses on essential oils’ chemical character-ization from Saudi Arabia. This review aims to explore the antibacterial properties of several essential oils used in Saudi domestic markets against specific bacterial pathogens. The analysis will reveal the need for more studies to characterize the essential oils in Saudi Arabia and ensure their safety, effectiveness, and drug interactions
136 Immunophenotypic Profile of Patients with Clinically Diagnosed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia , Shirin Tarafder
Background:The diagnosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is based on cell morphology, clinical manifestations and immu-nophenotyping. Immunophenotyping by Flow cytometry is the most reliable methodology for the diagnosis of CLL which is a clonal mature B-cell neoplasm (MBCN). This study aims to evaluate the application of multiparametric Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyp-ing (FCI) as a standard methodology for the confirmation of or exclusion of CLL diagnosis in clinically suspected CLL patients. Methods:Four color FCI method was used in EDTA peripheral blood samples taken from 50 patients diagnosed preliminary as CLL through clinical data, complete blood count, peripheral blood film and bone marrow examination. The following fluorescent mono-clonal antibodies were used: CD19, CD5, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD79b, FMC7, Kappa and Lambda light chains, CD200, CD123, CD10, CD11c, CD3, CD7, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD95, BCL2, CD34. FCI analysis was performed on a Beckman coulter Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer using software CXP to analyze data. Result:Among 50 patients, 8(16%) showed normal T-cell population, while 42(84%) showed pathological B-cell lines. From these, 32 (64%) of 42 patients expressed typical CLL markers, whilst 10 (20%) of them showed B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) profile. Scoring system proposed by Matutes., et al. and Moreau., et al. using CD5, CD23, CD22, FMC7, CD79b and SmIg (CLL, score 4-5 and other MBCN, score ≤ 3) differentiated CLL from B-PLL. CD200 was expressed in all (100%) CLL but not in B-PLL cases except 2(20%). Sensitivity and specificity of CD200 was 100% and 90% respectively. Conclusion:FCI is a fundamental laboratory method without which final diagnosis of CLL can’t be established. CD200 expression is pivotal to MBCN classification. Expression of CD200 in CLL and other MBCNs, supports inclusion of this marker in flow cytometric panels for the differential diagnosis of CLL
137 Presence of Flagellation in Plant Pathogenic Strain of Klebsiellapneumoniae - A New Report , SG Borkar and Ajayasree TS
Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Borkar (NCBI accession number: KY941097.1), a new bacterial plant pathogen responsible for root bark necrosis and wilting in pomegranate plants was studied for its colony morphology, cell morphology and flagellation under transmission electron microscopy.The bacterial colonies of Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Borkar were creamy white, circular, raised, fluidal with 2 to 3 mm diameter on nutrient agar media at 72 h of growth. In nutrient broth media the bacterial culture turned into a frothing culture after three days of growth. The bacterial cell size of the pathogen varied from 1.76-2.50 ×0.94-1.08 μm and has minute cilli all over the cell surface. Transmission electron microscopy of the bacterial cells indicated that the bacteria possess sub-polar flagellum measuring 3.44 to 4.33 μm in length. This is the first report of flagellated plant pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae. Generally, Klebsiella pneumoniae is a non-motile, non-flagellated human pathogen. However, Our results along with the results of Liu., et al. indicated that Klebsiella pneumoniae has now evolved itself as soil-borne plant pathogen. But the genus Klebsiella is not yet included as a genus of plant pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, we propose the inclusion of the genus Klebsiella as a plant pathogenic bacterial genus. Further, our results confirm that plant pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenic on pomegranate has a sub-polar flagellation. Our results on flagellation in plant pathogenic Klebsiella pneumonia are supportive to the results of flagellation in human pathogenic klebsiella pneumonia as reported by A.C.Lima. Based on these results, it is proposed to redefine the genus Klebsiella as the bacterial genus of motile and Flagellated bacteria also
138 Impact of Covid-19 Measures on Children Infection Related Hospitalization. Estimation of Causal Inference from observational Data, Using the Google Causal Impact, A Bayesian Structural Time-series Model , Mohammed Shahab Uddin and Khouloud Abdulrahman Al-Sofyani
Introduction:Although covid-19 has numerous adverse effects on children, few beneficial effects have been observed such as adapt-ing to learn in a new digital environment, coming closer to family, creating a bond of love, affection among the family members, and awareness of a novel disease. As a result of covid-19 measures such as, social distance, hand hygiene, use of a face mask, the common pediatric infectious diseases, namely, influenza, croup, and bronchiolitis significantly reduced. The aim of our study to examine the causal impact of covid-19 measures as factual probability and the counterfactual probability of average number of pediatric admis-sions due to Covid-19 measures, using the Google Causal Impact, a structural Bayesian time -series model and to explore the use of this model in healthcare research. Method:Study Design: A retrospective observational study. Two-time series data collected from Dec-2016 to Oct-2018 as control, and Dec-2018 to Oct-2020 as the experimental group. Our hypothetical assumption, if all the 0bserved or unobserved covariate which influence the hospitalization of children due to respiratory illness are essentially static. Our assumption during the control pe-riod the observed mean admission and experimental period predicted mean admission should not differ in the absence of Covid-19 measures. Impact of covid-19 pandemic measures on pediatric admission during the post-intervention time could be drawn by sub-tracting the factual probability of admission from the counterfactual probability of mean monthly admission. Setting: Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal Hospital, under National Guard health affairs, located in Dammam, KSA. The Hospital is approxi-mately 100-bed capacity, Pediatric ward bed capacity twenty with average annual admission 1200, winter season exceeded the bed ca-pacity, monthly exceeding 140-150 admission. Data collection: Monthly total number of admission data collected retrospectively from the Pediatric Ward admission log book the proposed time frame. Results: During the control period, the observed and predicted mean admission was statistical, not significant (P- 0.171), in addi-tion, the observed average admission during the control and predicted during the intervention, was the same. As a result of Covid-19 measures, the monthly admissions average value of 29. By contrast, in the absence of covid-19 pandemic measures, we would have expected an average admission of 87(9.4). counterfactual prediction CI [68-106]. Causal effects -58, CI (-78, -39), p values 0.001. Conclusion: Admission was appreciably diminished as a positive impact of covid-19 measures indeed, it was the opposite direction of an adult, nevertheless, it was beyond expectation for admission for pediatric age group during a pandemic. On the other hand, the Google causal Impact algorithm well fitted to explore the casual Inference, and healthcare researchers could use it for causal effect estimation for any interventional time series setup.
139 Transforming A Coronavirus Protein into A Nanoparticle for Production of Promising COVID-19 Vaccine , Porntep Siriwanarangsun, Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
In the mid-1960s, coronavirus were found that it can infect both humans and animals (birds and mammals), whereas novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV or COVID-19) with closed relation to SARS-CoV was first identified from a patient with pneumonia, related to the cluster of acute respiratory illness cases from Wuhan, China. Presently, there is no best vaccine to end the COVID-19 pandemic.
140 Melanin Adhesivity for Possible Trapping of SARS-CoV-2 on Chin Straps: A Proof-of-concept Assay Using Model Nanoparticles , Juan Carlos Stockert and Jorge Herkovits
In the frame of COVID-19 pandemic, improved chin straps are obviously necessary to better prevent aerial infection by SARS-CoV-2. Adhesivity of melanins could be applied for trapping virus, but due to present limitations to work with infective agents, we have performed a proof-on-concept assay using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with similar size (about 100 nm) as a virus model. Cotton fabrics were impregnated with allomelanin isolated from black beans, and ZnO solutions filtered through melanin-containing filters. Results and controls showed that these filters retained efficiently the nanoparticles, suggesting that melanin-treated chin straps could be a valuable and effective protection resource to trap virus and avoid infection.
141 How to Kill A Virus: Strengthening the Immune System, Reducing Inflammation, Relieving Oxidative Stress, Early Detection in the Prevention and Treatment of SARS- CoV-2 (COVID-19) , Jerry T Thornthwaite, Daniel Strasser and Larry Loomis.
The bioavailability of important antiviral compounds, their synergism, and boosting the Natural Killer Cells (NKC) are critical in preventing and treating viral diseases. Based on significant research and clinical studies, molecules and elements are identified that enhance their immune modulator activity, specificallythe NKC. These components include Curcumin, Artemisinin, bioflavonoids, Vitamin D3, N-Acetylcysteine, zinc, and selenium, as shown in this review. Increasing the NKC activity, especially in the immune-compromised elderly population, is critical in developing the first defense line against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). When a patient tests COVID-19 positive, proactive treatment can be accomplished to kill the virus. Early detection with the initial measurement of IgA in the nasal passage using a saliva test is critical in the first detection process. Using an analogy from cancer research, one wants to cure cancer before it metastasizes. With COVID-19, the infection must be stopped in the nose before it "metastasizes" to the lungs. The encapsulation of the above components in micelles (3-10nm in diameter) called NutraNanoSpheres (NNS) are protective spheres around the captured molecules inside using fatty acids with hydrophilic heads on the outside, making them thoroughly water-solu-ble. Therefore, the NNS may be taken orally with no breakdown in the stomach, resulting in high bioavailability into the bloodstream. The NNS can be introduced as a nasal spray to prevent or treat viral infections in the Nasopharynx. We have developed a line of NNS that bind to the Spike protein, which may lead to the neutralization of viruses and viral infected cells. The NNS binding to the virus may attract the NKC to increase their killing ability. Finally, as we have seen with our malaria studies, we may be able to develop “in vivo immunization” by the breaking up of viral components for introduction to all phases of the immune system.
142 Covid-19 a Gateway to Enhance China’s Food Safety Culture , Zhai Yuan and Watson Derek
Despite scientific advances, the continuous improvements associated with food safety management systems and increasing aca-demic debate. There is a sobering reality in the twenty first century that 600 million people suffer from food contamination. China, through its ‘One Belt One Road’ Strategy is actively encouraging all enterprise sectors to export. However, the Chinese food sector has a tainted history of significant breaches in food safety compliance, which has significantly hindered its export market. The Covid-19 pandemic has once again turned global attending to China’s food safety management systems with increased concern. This paper utilises the implementation of the Enlighten Food Safety Culture model to assess food safety culture within the Inner Mongolian Food Sector and to provides a food safe culture road to recovery in terms of safe practices and in turn strengthen China’s food safety reputation.
143 Hendra Virus Disease: A Highly Infectious Emerging Anthropozoonosis , Mahendra Pal
Anthropozoonosis is an infectious disease that is transmitted from animals to humans [1]. There are a number of anthropozoo-notic diseases that are caused by viruses ( bird flu, cowpox, conta-gious ecthyma, herpes simiae, Margburg disease, monkey pox, ra-bies, swine flu), bacteria (anthrax, brucellosis, cat scratch disease, glanders, leptospirosis), prion (bovine spongiform encephalopa-thy), fungi (Microsporum canis infection, Trichophytonverrucosuminfection), protozoa (sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis), helminthes (gnathostomiasis, trichinosis), and ectoparasites (linguatuliasis, scabies) [2-4]. These diseases affect both sexes, and all age groups, and may occur in sporadic and epidemic form, and are reported from developing as well as developed countries of the world
144 Ensuring Quality of Covid-19 Testing in a State of Emergency , Ashok Rattan
The high infectivity of Severe Acute Corona Virus 2 (SARS CoV 2) made Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus of World Health Organization (WHO) urge all member states to “Test, Test, Test”. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) was charged with the responsibility of stewardship of 5 T approach, “Test, Track, Trace, Treat and Tech-nology”. ICMR has successfully ramped up testing facilities to have 1122 government facilities and 867 private National accreditation board for testing and calibration laboratories (NABL) accredited laboratories conduct diagnostic tests for Covid-19 and more than 10 crore samples have been tested. Earlier RT PCR kits were ob-tained from international In vitro devices (IVD) companies but subsequently many of the RT PCR and Rapid Antigen tests (RAT) and more recently RT LAMP tests have been manufactured by In-dian companies and made available for clinical use
145 Virus, Immunity and Human Neurodegenerative Diseases. A Perspective , Rodríguez-Leyva Ildefonso and Jiménez-Capdeville María E;
A century ago, von Economo described a central nervous sys-tem (CNS) disorder related to an epidemic problem, presented from 1916 to 1927. The principal affection was related to the mid-brain and basal nuclei, whereby the patients showed neuropsychi-atric manifestations, mainly Parkinsonism. Since then, the influ-enza virus was associated to these sequelae. Recently, it has been documented that Von Economo ́s working hypothesis was that the immune response could affect the neuronal function through anti-bodies, with lymphocytic infiltration of B and T cells in peri-venous localization [1]. The encephalitis that he described, also known as Encephalitis Lethargica (EL), had three different presentations: a) The somnolent-ophthalmoplegic type, characterized by malaise, headache, myalgia and fever. The progressive somnolence lead the patient to coma in one or two weeks, resulting in death in 50 per-cent of cases and in complete recovery in the remaining. Several patients had ptosis, diplopia and rigidity of the extremities, with somnolence periods, suggesting the name “sleepy sickness”. b) The hyperkinetic presentation, characterized by restlessness, twitch-ing or jerking muscles, severe neck and back pain, prostration with inversion of the sleep pattern and presence of chorea. Compared to the somnolent-ophtalmoplegic presentation, the hyperkinetic form had a more acute pattern and a lower mortality rate (40%), but fewer possibilities of full recovery. c) The amyostatic-akinetic form, which was the least frequent, this was associated with chron-ic sequelae, and was designated by Von Economo as parkinson-ism. This set of sequels seems remarkably similar to Parkinson’s Disease, with similar affected sites but some differences: age of onset (anyone), tremor absence and faster evolution. Since then, there are multiple reports of EL related to viral encephalitis, not necessarily associated to influenza [2]. The presence of oligoclonal bands and the beneficial response to steroids suggested the idea that it could be an autoimmune disease, or it could have a similar phenotype to the postinfectious chorea (PANDAS)
146 Nutritional Composition and Therapeutic Benefits of Stevia Leaves: A Mini Review , Waseem Khalid, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Irfan, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid and Afifa Aziz
Nowadays, diabetes is a major issue in the world. The diabetes cases are increasing; peoples have used medicines but due to more side effects, the majority have been using herbal plants for the purpose of cure diabetes. Stevia is considered a sweet herbal plant; it is a natural source of sugar but provides zero calories. The leaves of stevia contain protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, antioxidants, phenolic compounds and glycosides. Several studies proved that it can help reduce blood glucose levels. Due to high nutritional com-position stevia leaves aid various other diseases
147 Water Aggression , Oleg Khalidullin
A hypothesis is considered scientific if it, in accordance with the scientific method, explains the facts covered by this hypothesis; is not logically inconsistent; fundamentally refutable, that is, it can potentially be verified by a critical experiment; does not contradict previously established laws; possibly applicable to a wider range of phenomena.
148 Mutation: In spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 Variant , Jitendra Kumar, Gauttam Bhatia, Arpeeta Mazumdar, Maneesh Bagai and Ashok Rattan
On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) documented a novel coronavirus that causes severe acute respi-ratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. The pilot case started from Wuhan, China and got spread globally via transmission through the person to person contact. Coronavirus is a single stranded RNA virus. Its length is 26 to 36 kilo-bases. As per nomenclature, it belongs to subfamily Coronavirinae, family Coronaviridae, or-der Nidovirales. On the basis of genomic and serological changes, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Del-tacoronavirus are the four major genera of subfamily Coronaviri-nae [2]. In humans, six types of coronaviruses are reported viz HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoVHKU1, SARS-CoV (The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), and MERS-CoV (The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). As a result of human-animal interface activities, large genetic diversity with frequent recombination of genomes, different variations can occur in coronaviruses
149 Fabrication, Characterization, In Vitro Release, and Some Biological Activities of Eucalyptus Essential Oil Loaded Poly (Lactic Acid) Nanofibers , Hayfa Argui, Salih Can Suner, Çağdaş Deniz Periz, Seyhan Ulusoy, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Yalçın Coşkun , Ayhan Oral and Hechmi Said
The objective of this work was to evaluate antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis EO-loaded PLA nano-fibers. Different concentrations of E. camaldulensis EO (7.5, 10 and 15%) were incorporated into PLA nanofibers via an electrospin-ning technique. The nanofibers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Antibacterial activity of essential oil-loaded PLA nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis were investigated by disc diffusion method.The antib-iofilm activity of essential oil-loaded PLA nanofibers was studied against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results obtained from the biofilm formation test revealed that PLA essential oil inhibited the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by 9.3%, 12.8% and 12.6%, re-spectively. Drug releasing behavior of essential oil-loaded PLAnanofibers was investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy. According to releasing results, as the amounts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil in PLA nanofibers increased, the releasing decreased. The essential oil-loaded PLAnanofiber successfully delivered about 160 h
150 Emergence of a Novel Virus - A Review Article , RJ Charulatha, B Krishna Prasanth and Hariharan
The commencement of the 21st century has witnessed deadly viral infections mainly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in 2002 and 2012 subsequently. The current decade further ascended with the emergence of the first outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin from Wuhan City, China which was later identified exclusively as the epicenter of the disease and later linked to the spread of the dis-ease resulting in pandemic [1]. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syn-drome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This article gives a brief view about this new virus [2]. Since knowledge about this virus is rapidly evolving and under research, readers are urged to upgrade themselves regularly
151 pufC Gene Targeted PCR Primers for Identification and Classification of Marine Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum , Aoi Koga, Nao Yamauchi, Mayu Imamura, Mina Urata, Tomomi Kurayama, Ranko Iwai, Shuhei Hayashi, Shinjiro Yamamoto and Hitoshi Miyasaka
The marine non-sulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulumsulfidophilum has a wide application potential in the fields of aquaculture, renewable energy production, environmental protection, and biomaterial production. To detect, identify and clas-sify various R. sulfidophilum strains, we designed a PCR primer set targeting pufC gene encoding one of the photosystem proteins. Nucleotide sequence alignment of the pufC genes from five R. sulfidophilum strains revealed that the 3’ region of this gene is rich in nucleotide substitutions (approximately 10 substitutions/100 bp), making it suitable for the identification and classification of var-ious R. sulfidophilum strains. We designed a primer set that amplified 0.7 kb of the 3’ region of pufC gene. For the validation of this primer set, we used fish fecal DNA as the PCR templates, and successfully identified and classified several R. sulfidophilum strains
152 The Screening for the Antitrypanosomal Potentials of the Extracts of Curcuma longa L , Muhammad Muhsin Fathuddin and Rafeedah Fathuddin
Background: Extracts of Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were investigated for their biological activity. Methodology: The presence of phytochemicals and antitrypanosomal activities were investigated. Results: The extracts contained the phytochemicals (Alkaloid, Anthraquinone, Carbohydrates, Cardiac Glycosides, Flavonoid, Glyco-sides, Phenols, Saponin, Steroid, Tannin and Triterpenes) in table 1 and 2. The extracts showed very good activity against the parasite from figure 1, 2 and 3. Discussion: The presence of the phytochemical confirms their medicinal potentials. The crude extracts of Curcuma longa were ana-lyzed in vitro for trypanocide activity on Trypanosoma brucei brucei at concentration 100.0 mg/ml, 50.0 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml. The best activity was seen in Petroleum ether extract, followed by the ethanol extract, then Chloroform which was still impressive. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study show that the turmeric contains potential antimicrobial components which will be of great use for the advancement of remedies by pharmaceutical industries as a therapy against various diseases.
153 f , d
154 Hypothesis on Cadaveric Urinary Bladder Transplantation in a Radical Cystectomy, An Alternative Option of Ileal Conduit   , Dattatreya Mukherjee
155 COVID-19 in Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Prospect to Better Learning , Sharadambal Ramaseri Sunder , Satya Sudheer Pydi, Devender Bansal and Elmoubasher Abu Baker Abd Farag
Background: The SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered a severe economic contraction and public health concerns in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by challenging each country’s ability to cope up to the infection. Situations are apparently not similar across all the countries in the region. At the early phases of the outbreak, many countries followed strict containment mea-sures to limit the spread of this virus. As the numbers were raising drastically, all the countries carefully strategized various methods to contain the virus. In order to battle this pandemic on all fronts, awareness of aspects influencing the transmission and its manage-ment options are critically essential. Aim: This study aimed to emphasize on the strategies that would help in understanding the impact on preparedness, and response activities to contain the COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a fast-paced review of articles published from December, 2019 to August, 2020 on SARS-COV-2 and CO-VID-19. Publications ranging from observational to experimental studies, short communications, review articles, letters to editor and perspectives with respect to Eastern Mediterranean region were included. Results: The outcomes were concerning to risk assessment, preparedness, response, and control measures in relation to COVID-19 in EMR and recommendations pertaining to wellbeing. Conclusion: There is a desperate need of regional cooperation to protect the health of the people living in EM region. COVID-19 out-break has triggered a clear need of detection, prevention and control strategies of zoonotic infections which would emerge in future.
156 COVID-19 in Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Prospect to Better Learning , Sharadambal Ramaseri Sunder, Satya Sudheer Pydi, Devender Bansal and Elmoubasher Abu Baker Abd Farag
Background: The SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered a severe economic contraction and public health concerns in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by challenging each country’s ability to cope up to the infection. Situations are apparently not similar across all the countries in the region. At the early phases of the outbreak, many countries followed strict containment mea-sures to limit the spread of this virus. As the numbers were raising drastically, all the countries carefully strategized various methods to contain the virus. In order to battle this pandemic on all fronts, awareness of aspects influencing the transmission and its manage-ment options are critically essential. Aim: This study aimed to emphasize on the strategies that would help in understanding the impact on preparedness, and response activities to contain the COVID-19 infection. Methods: We conducted a fast-paced review of articles published from December, 2019 to August, 2020 on SARS-COV-2 and CO-VID-19. Publications ranging from observational to experimental studies, short communications, review articles, letters to editor and perspectives with respect to Eastern Mediterranean region were included. Results: The outcomes were concerning to risk assessment, preparedness, response, and control measures in relation to COVID-19 in EMR and recommendations pertaining to wellbeing. Conclusion: There is a desperate need of regional cooperation to protect the health of the people living in EM region. COVID-19 out-break has triggered a clear need of detection, prevention and control strategies of zoonotic infections which would emerge in future
157 Thailand’s New Wave of COVID-19 , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn and Porntep Siriwanarangsun
Thailand had largely controlled the COVID-19 by mid-2020 with a successful story. A new wave of COVID-19 outbreak was identified in Samut Sakhon, a province at the south of Bangkok, Thailand in December 2020. Thailand confirmed 315 new CO-VID-19 cases, the majority of which were local transmission, con-tributing its total cases to 7,694 cases and 64 deaths since its first reported case last January 2020. Samut Sakhon reported 541 ad-ditional cases of COVID-19 on January 4, 2021. The new domes-tic COVID-19 outbreak was hypothetically associated with illegal border migration from neighbouring Myanmar.
158 The Effects of Acute Intoxications with 1,2-Dichloroethane, Tetrachloromethane and Trichloroethylene on Innate Immunity Parameters , Pavel F Zabrodskii, Vladimir G Lim and Vladimir K Parfenyuk
Chlorinated hydrocarbons (ChH) - 1,2-dichloroethane (DchE), tetrachloromethane (TChM), and trichloroethylene (TChE) are widely used in industry as solvents for oils, fats, rubber and resins etc. Despite the low frequency of acute intoxication with these compounds (up to 5%), they are characterized by very high lethality (32-96%). Experiments on random-bred albino rats showed that chlorinated hydrocarbons acute intoxications (DchE, TChM, TChE) a single dose of 0.8 LD50 causes a reduction the integral state of the innate immunity (increased mortality of rats from experimental infection by 27.8-41.9% caused by P. vulgaris, decreased LD50P. vulgaris by 1.58-1.68 times, mean effective lifetime of animals (Et50) by 1.70-2.08 times (p < 0.05). ChH acute intoxications decreased the parameters of innate immunity (bactericidal activity of blood serum by 1.43-1.60 times, serum concentrations of lysozyme by 1.70-2.27 times and platelet cationic protein by 1.38-1.62 times, activity of natural killer cells (NK) by 1.73-2.20 times, increases the contents of P. vulgaris in peripheral blood by 1.96-2.37 times and spleen by 1.70-1.98 times in the modeling of an experimental infection (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between parameters of the integral state of the innate immunity and the parameters of innate immunity after various chlorinated hydrocarbons acute intoxications (p > 0.05)
159 Ayurvedic Perspectives to Control and Prevention of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Kathmandu District, Nepal , Sadhana Parajuli, Prakash Gyawali and Narbikram Thapa
The aim of the research is to assess the effects of Covid-19 pandemic in public health and socio-economic impact in Kathmandu District, Nepal. The study describes the SAR-CoV-2, disease, impact, prevention and mitigation approach and social impact in the community. The study has been conducted based on the primary data related to the public perception towards COVID-19, prevention and management practices survey was performed through the set of questionnaires. In Nepal 59573 covid-19 active cases has been confirmed where 383 death has been verified. In Kathmandu District 11911 Covid-19 active cases has been found and 67 deaths has been verified despite great efforts, there is no treatment of this disease. However, prevention and management are the best options. Ayurveda therapy has been useful for the prevention of infection as well as best for the immune system booster in the management of COVID-19. Also, there is an urgent requirement to awareness rising among new generation for science and technology to fight against any such disaster in future; if any. There is no need to be panic and proper prevention and management are essential to combat this disease
160 Optimizing the Fermentation Conditions and Enhancing the Keratinase Production from Streptomyces coelicoflavus , Jadhav RS, JK Oberoi, Tejashree Rokade, Rajesh Shingade, Mrunal Yadav, Tooba Momin
Total eight soil samples were taken from Sangli district (Maharashtra) India. The potent isolates was identified by using mor-phological, cultural, biochemical, physiological and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Keratinase production was optimized using different parameters. The 120 hrs incubation period of was observed for optimum keratinolytic protease production. Inoculum age of 10 days was found to be effective in terms of protease production and degradation.3% inoculum size was showed optimum deg-radation and proteolytic activity.The agitation rate at 160 rpm was found to be optimum.Optimum enzyme production and feather degradation was found at pH 9.0.Maximum production of protease was observed at 400C. The optimum amount of keratinase was produced by Streptomycescoelicoflavus in presence of dextrose and peptone as a carbon and nitrogen source separately respectively. 1% feather concentration was found optimum keratinase production. Streptomycescoelicoflavus was enhanced feather degradation in the presence of KH2PO4
161 Strategies to Manage AMR (Antimicrobial Resistance) , Sulagna Roy
With antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rapidly turning into a major health concern, it becomes imperative to be prepared with an arsenal of antimicrobial agents that would work effectively against such drug resistant forms. The challenge here is to avoid redis-covering the already known compounds (dereplication), to develop compounds or strategies to which further resistance would not emerge rapidly and which are amenable to modifications. Some approaches include combining transitional metal elements with al-ready known antibiotics, developing RNA based antimicrobial agents that show highly target specific action, designing antimicrobial peptides with improved biological activity, combining machine learning with suitable experimental designs that would give highly accurate lead identification and also provide access to new chemical spaces with respect to antibiotics, screening new activities or enhancing existing activities in Actinomycetes, controlling target organism population by growth inhibition.
162 Are We Any Closer for a Safe Vaccine to be Launched-Experience of Phase 3 Trials of Certain Vaccines with Immune Responses in COVID-19 with a 3rs Wave in Most Countries Escalating SARS-CoV2-Patients , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh
Earlier having reviewed structure and treatment (Figure 1) options of COVID-19 secondary to SARS-COV2 [1-5], still the pan-demic instead of getting controlled is on a rise and urgent need of a vaccine is required with the 3rd wave having attacked the world, here we discuss important points regards to getting insight of dis-ease pathogenesis along with advantage of bridge therapies, like hyperimmune globulin along with convalescent human plasma be-sides developing vaccines, antivirals and monoclonal antibodies. Just 11 months back knowledge was not there. Here we sum up phase 3 trial of vaccines-status
163 Hand-sanitizer Usage During COVID-19 Outbreak: A Case of 'Better Safe than Sorry' or 'excess of Anything is Bad’? , Manmeet Bhalla, Siftjit Kaur and Kiranjeet Kaur
In 2019, the world saw the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic which is claiming lives globally on a large scale. Different medical advisories were issued to slow down the transmission of the virus includ-ing the recommendation of using alcohol-based hand-sanitizers. Approximately a century ago, we saw the advent of antibiotics and anti-microbials which were termed as ‘magic bullets’. These were elevated to the pedestal as an answer to majority of human infec-tions which had plagued our society for centuries. This was followed by years of mass production and usage of antibiotics. Selection pressure created by excessive antibiotic usage stroked the selection ‘itch’ amongst susceptible microbial species and carved out a phenomenon known as ‘antibiotic resistance’. If history has a habit of repeating itself, then excessive use of hand-sanitizers these days has the potential to become a major health problem in the near future. Through this review, we aim to remind the medical com-munity and our society that the use of hand-sanitizers must be judicious and should not replace the common practices of traditional hand hygiene, safe distancing and wearing a mask. We also attempt to highlight other potential side effects associated with excessive use of hand-sanitizers
164 Nutritional and Therapeutic Benefits of Psyllium Husk (Plantago Ovata) , Abdul Waheed Khan, Waseem Khalid, Saira Safdar, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Ahsan Shakeel, Nuzhut Jamal, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muniza Baig, Sonia Shehzadi, Muhammad Zubair Khalid and Muhammad Kamran Shahid
Psyillum Husk (Plantago Ovata) is useful in allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. Psyillum is a polysaccharide that has character-istics of soluble fiber and insoluble fiber and both soluble and insoluble fiber are more beneficial for humans. Its active ingredient is Metamucil which helps in different disease prevention. Psyillum husk also helps in lowering the cholesterol and increase the produc-tion of bile in this way lowers the cholesterol level in the human body Which helps out in lowering the LDL-level and triglycerides. Psyillum husk has dietary fiber that aid in reducing obesity and Psyillum husk plant has specific flavonoids that prevent the forma-tion of cancer cells.
165 Favorable Outcomes with Pharmacological Treatment of Patients with Multiple Cerebral Abscesses , Monternach-Aguilar Felipe Alberto, Arceo-Novelo Jorge Alberto, Rodríguez-Leyva Ildefonso
Brain abscesses represent a pathology of multifactorial etiology, with a wide range of signs and symptoms, so that it continues to be a diagnostic challenge in the early stages of the disease, given the low specificity it presents in neuroimaging studies in the first stage week of the evolution of the infectious process. It is for these reasons that when there is clinical suspicion, it is essential to start empirical treatment with Ceftriaxone, Vancomycin, and Metronidazole for at least four weeks or until the causal agent is identified, as well as an adequate assessment for those patients who meet criteria for a surgical procedure. This article included characteristics of 5 patients with multiple brain abscesses evaluated at our institution, as well as a brief review of the disease
166 Climate and the Tower of Babylon , Khalidullin O
Humanity has destroyed 70% of land with arable land, reser-voirs, asphalt, concrete, landfills and ore. 400,000 hectares annu-ally in Russia alone - an area equal to the sum of the territories of Moscow and St. Petersburg are covered with landfills.
167 Studies on the Efficacy of Leaves Extracts of Centella asiatica Against Escherichia coli, Samonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus , Ebenezer Owusu, Daniel Boamah, Michael Wiafe-Kwagyan, Awura Abena Amponsah and Sylvesta Kaminta
Centella asiatica is a traditional herb which is reported to have many biological properties that account for the ethnomedicinal properties of the plant. Studies were carried out to determine the antimicrobial activity of aqueous, 70% ethanol and absolute etha-nol leaf extracts of Centella asiatica by agar well diffusion assay. The tested bacterial strains were E. coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430. The zone of inhibitions produced by the three extracts against the selected bacteria strains were recorded together with the standard drug, Ciprofloxacin (15μg) used as positive control with water and dimet-hyl sulfoxide (DMSO) used as negative control. The study showed that all the selected bacteria were susceptible to the aqueous, 70% ethanol and absolute ethanol leaf extract of C. asiatica with the aqueous leaf extract exhibiting the highest antimicrobial activities. The 70% ethanol extract recorded the lowest MIC of 1.56mg/ml for S. typhi whereas that of the aqueous and organic extracts were 6.25mg/ml. The result obtained confirms the antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of C. asiatica revealed by other researchers
168 COVID-19: Review on Efforts for Containment, Diagnostics, and Treatment in the Indian Context During the SARS-CoV-2 Global Pandemic , Shalitha Sasi, Ramesh Chand Meena, Rashmita Sahoo, Manisha Bhatnagar, Lovnish Thakur, Vivek Chandra, Sushil Mehta and Suresh Thakur
The sudden outbreak in Wuhan City of China in December 2019 by a previously unknown virus, has eventually spread like a pandemic to almost all the countries in the world. It left the healthcare system divested of every single resource, be it the supportive therapeutic regimens, diagnostic kits or personal protective equipment, and even the mask and hand sanitizers. This new virus was later on identified as the novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2 and was declared as a public health emergency on January 30, 2020, and as a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization (WHO).The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has been spreading at alarming rates worldwide, calling for better diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Although our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 has grown tremendously in the past couple of months however a systemic approach to diagnostics, treatment, and epidemiological controls are still lacking, at least in the Indian context. Here we review the efforts on containment, various treatment regimens, diagnostic techniques, and commercial kits available in India and around the world. We also discuss the current disease management protocols and possible therapeutic approaches including vaccines.
169 SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Transmission, Preventive Measures and Disinfection Strategies , Spandan Chaudhary, Pooja Chaudhary and Shiv Patel
China reported incidence of sever pneumoniae cases with unknown etiology to World Health Organization (WHO) in late Decem-ber 2019, later the cause of the disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Within 3-4 months of duration, most countries of the world have started reporting cases of this novel virus and WHO declared it a pandemic. Mode of disease trans-mission for this virus is via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces. Here we reviewed the direct and indirect mode of transmission of disease, stability of virus on different surfaces and effective disinfection methods to curb the transmission of the same. This information can be helpful in defining disinfection strategies and policies of preventive measures.
170 Humans Influence the Cycle of Water, and The Cycle - On the Climate , Khalidullin OH
Water was created and accumulated on Earth for millions of years. The quality of the water, its structure and its very purpose have evolved in place with biota (community of plants and living organisms). Water is one of the most important drivers of this bi-ota, as well as, the environment itself. Just like the circulatory sys-tem in the body, the in and out carries in every living cell nutrients substances
171 Animal Venom Toxins: Potential Source of Antiviral Agents to Counter Pathogen Attack , Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Present review article explains antivirus activity of animal venom toxins against various virus pathogens of important human dis-eases. Venom toxins are highly specific defense molecules, which are secreted from basic glandular structures and used as arsenals to protect territory, food and mate selection. Few venomous animals secrete antimicrobial peptides which exhibit a wide variety of biological effects i.e. kill microorganisms by penetrating the cell membrane and inhibiting cellular functions through toxin-channel interactions. They inhibit virus entry into host cells, and obstruct virus replication. Short toxin peptides act as highly specific potent bioactive molecules and lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activa-tion, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuro-protective factors. These highly active natural peptides could be used as antibiotics to control virus pathogens and could be used for the development of novel therapeutic agents. By using bio-informatics tools, methods and approaches, both structural and functional diversity of toxin peptides could be used to discover target specific new antiviral drugs for therapeutic purposes. No doubt animal toxins are excellent molecules which exert target specific effects and could become an important treatment options for COVID-19, if viral inactivation is being done in a complete downstream process. It will require in silico molecular modeling studies of novel toxin templates, and their testing in different animal models to determine safety and to explore therapeutic of new drugs
172 Immune Restoration Disorders in Patients with AIDS and Tuberculosis: Novel Treatment Approaches , Usha Kellampalli, Hesham Mohei and Irina Vlasova-St. Louis
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent and treacherous opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syn-drome (AIDS) worldwide. In this review, we discuss the pathological immune restoration in AIDS patients coinfected with Mycobac-terium Tuberculosis after starting ART (antiretroviral therapy). We overview how the immune deregulation predisposes to and drive the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). We describe how poor recovery and maturation of T and NK cells, and the exuberant cytokine response produced by innate and adaptive immune cells marks the manifestations of TB-IRIS. We conclude by discussing the various standard-of-care and novel treatment approaches
173 Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Production of Aroma Compounds 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethylacetate , Yash Gupte, Bhaskar Bhadra and Santanu Dasgupta
Microbial cell factories for production of fragrant and flavour molecules provide sustainable and attractive alternative for food and cosmetic industries. Majority of the bio-derived fragrant and flavour molecules are derived as either single compound or as mixture from flowers, fruits, seeds or even animals. Two such specific compounds that are used extensively in food and cosmetics industries are 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 2-phenylethylacetate (2-PEA) which give characteristic rose and jasmine aroma respec-tively. In this study, we describe a metabolic engineering approach for developing microbial cell factories for production of 2-PE and 2-PEA. E. coli DH5α produced 132.66 mg L−1 of 2-PE and 181.7 mg L−1 of 2-PEA. IPTG induced E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture produced 96.08 mg L−1 of 2-PE and 97.28 mg L−1 of 2-PEA in Luria – Bertani (LB) media. Engineering shikimate pathway can lead to production of many aromatic compounds. This study provides basis for E. coli as a platform for production of flavour and aroma compounds us-ing synthetic biology tools
174 Multi-dimensional Factors Driving the Pandemic and How their Impact Decides any Return to the Pre-COVID-19 World! , Kholis Abdurachim Audah, Dickson Achimugu Musa, David Adebayo, Syed Mahmood Ahmed, Alex Diaz, Abhishek Gupta, Percy Ichchaporia, Anthony Lai, Lori McGrew, Moyosola Otusanya, Srinath Nissankararao, Elizabeth Parrish, Jean Plante, Asmaa Rabit, David Sherman, Ralph Sherman, Sandeep Singh, Sina Varmaghani, Collin C White, Nirmali Wijegoonawardana, Rebecca Xu, Hafiz Yahya, Poorna CR Yalagala, Osama Youssef, Alan Thatcher, George Perry, Ferez Soli Nallaseth
There are many and continuously emerging dimensions to the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the COVID - 19 Pandemic that it has caused. They go far beyond the boundaries of Health, Medical and Economic causes and consequences. No human activity, which includes Squash, is carried out in isolation and so remains unaffected by these dimensions driving the Pandemic. Breaking minimal con-straints and crossing basic boundaries has societal consequences, but particularly so for personnel in the Essential and Health Ser-vices who risk their lives to ensure the safety and well-being of their fellow humans - every hour and every day! We review a small and representative segment of all these dimensions included as links from a diversity of sources that document the progression as well as the consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Humankind
175 Use of Plant Essential Oils and its Constituents in Corona Virus Therapeutics , Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Present review article explains antiviral potential of essential oils more especially as an alternative treatment of coronavirus in-fection. This article emphasizes biological activity of major essential oil constituents and their future prospects for development of low toxic highly effective broad spectrum drugs. These could specifically inhibit virus entry into cells and target virus replication and show virucidal effect rather than they inhibit their development. More appropriate solution is to find protease inhibitors of COVID-19 that will be more appropriate drug molecule. Essential oils could serve as potential inhibitors of viral replication. There is a need of in silico studies of toxin molecules to find most appropriate target molecules to prepare more potent novel antiviral drugs to combat COVID-19 and future pandemics that may be caused by viruses. Hence, there is a need to explore and investigate plant origin active antiviral agents and use them for making highly effective drug formulations. Till the development of a vaccine natural plant products become available for treatment mainly immunity boosting for general public
176 Corticosteroid Actions on COVID-19 and SARS Viral Immune Pathology; A Review Article , SM Rathnasiri Bandara, HMMTB Herath, MN Weerasooriya, KGCYB Weerakoon and SMTN Sensnayake
Only few studies are available to evaluate the effectiveness of corticosteroids in SARS and SARS-CoV-2. Corticosteroids is a hor-mone, as well as a drug, having therapeutic levels and lethal doses, so needs to balance the doses accordingly to the disease. Here we discuss the use of steroids in SARS, MERS and COVID-19 with reviewing the pharmacological and immunological basis of steroids in virus pathology. Steroids can be beneficial in these viral infections by suppressing SARS-CoV induced antibodies, T cells, B cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement signaling, antibody-dependent enhancement, vascular and hematological manifestations, viral replication and COX-2/PGE2 pathways. Steroids can also protects against cell apoptosis and enhance tissue recovery. Corticosteroids have shown some favorable outcomes in patients with SARS and COVID-19 but delayed viral clearance and secondary infections have been reported. Currently it is difficult to formulate clear recommendations regarding steroid use in COVID-19 but can be used in selected patients.
177 Assessment of Air Pollution in Public Health and Socioeconomic Situation in Chabahil, Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal: A Community Perspective , Sadhana Parajuli, Prakash Gyawali and Narbikram Thapa
The study aims to assess the effects of air pollution in public health and socioeconomic situation in Chabahil, Kathmandu Metro-politan City. Air pollution has become the serious problem in the Kathmandu Metropolitan city. The air pollution has caused serious allergic problems in public health due to dust and carbanmonooxide emission. In the study reveal that the nasal congestions (58%), sneezing (69%), cough (75%), hyperacidity (64%), eye itching (64%) etc. among the local people in the area. Similarly, non-allergic cases have also been reported due to air pollution. There has been found negative trend of air pollution level as compared to previ-ous one in the study areas due to high carbon gas emission, dust and poor environmental sanitation etc. The overall changes in air pollution level have found significantly difference from 2.83 to 9.16 out of ten. The mean score difference is 6.33 during before and after situation mapping in the study areas. There has been found significant air pollution increased after ten years in the study areas
178 mRNA Technology a Promising Strategy for Rapid Response Vaccine Applications against the Emerging Infectious Diseases , Anju Kaushal
mRNA vaccine platform is potent and versatile could be used in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against cancer and emerg-ing infectious diseases. They have the capacity to increase protein translation, and assist modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses with improved delivery. Naked/or Lipid encapsulated forms of mRNA could be optimized for mRNA therapeutics. Recently, mRNA vaccines have been used to elicit potent immune response targeted against many infectious diseases in the animals e.g. in-fluenza, zika, rabies virus and others. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, developed and completed the all trials during pandemic, are the proven examples of achieving success on this platform. The vaccine developers have already received the conditional and emergency authorization for mass vaccination in US, UK and other countries. The mass vaccination campaigns are going on amid pandemic. The two leading candidates, mRNA -1273 and BNT162b2, have achieved the highest efficacy ~ 95% boosting humoral and cell mediated immune responses equally well. Diverse approaches have been employed to mRNA cancer vaccines too. Dendritic cell vaccines and other direct mRNA injectables were used in many clinical trials in generating promising T-cell response with disease-free survival. Prophylactic and therapeutic considerations for mRNAs by regulatory bodies include good manufacturing practices cGMP produc-tion, safety and efficacy. It is imperative to elucidate the immune pathways activated by the various mRNA vaccine platforms
179 The Use of Saliva as a Diagnostic Specimen for SARS CoV-2 Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Pediatric Patients , Meghan Delaney, Joelle Simpson, Bobbe Thomas, Christal Ralph, Michael Evangalista , Mahdi Moshgriz, Joyce Granados, Mark McGuire, Roberta DeBiasi, and Joseph Campos
Background: Testing children for COVID-19 via sensitive molecular methods is important, although collecting nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens can be challenging. A less invasive specimen collection approach that yields test results comparable to those from NP specimens would be beneficial to simplify sample collection. Methods: To demonstrate that saliva is a suitable specimen for testing children, the clinical usability and the analytic performance of saliva were compared to NP specimens suspended in viral transport medium. Four different FDA EUA-approved molecular assays and one EUA approved saliva collection device were investigated. Results: There were 526 patients aged 3 and 61 years, 461 (88%) were <18 years, 425 were asymptomatic (81.1%), 92 were symp-tomatic (17.6%). Saliva mixed with stabilizing buffer was found to yield comparable sensitivity to NP specimens when tested on the AllPlex SARS-CoV-2 molecular test (Seegene Inc). The analytic sensitivity of the AllPlex assay with SpectrumDNA saliva stabilizer was found to be 250 genomic copies/mL. Conclusions: Of the four SARS-CoV-2 assays studied, we found the AllPlex assay to be best suited for testing saliva collected from children 5 years of age or older. The sensitivity of viral detection was equivalent to NP specimens when saliva specimens were mixed with the saliva stabilizer
180 Lactic Acid Fermentation: Preparation and Evaluation of Lactic Acid Fermented Carrot Appetizer , Sarita Devi and VK Joshi;
Lactic acid fermented carrot appetizer with various pulp content was prepared and was further evaluated for various physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. With a decrease in fermented pulp concentration there was an increase in reducing sugars, total sugars and pH while salt, titrable acidity, vitamin C, carotene content and colour decreased. Due to low salt concentration, fer-mentable pulp was found to be more suitable for the preparation of appetizer than other products. The optimized lactic fermented appetizer had 50 % fermented pulp and 50 % unfermented pulp as per the standard recipe. Vitamin C content ranged between 12.00 to 28.10 mg/100g. In case of carrot appetizer, treatment with 50 % fermented pulp + 50 % unfermented pulp gave the best results for physico-chemical as well as sensory characteristics. Physico-chemical characteristics were in the range of prescribed specifica-tions. During the passage of storage period of the appetizer for six months, there was no drastic change but only slight changes in all the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics except pH, reducing sugars and browning where significant changes took place. Overall, the changes during storage did not affect the acceptability of the product to a greater extent.
181 Clinical and Microbiological Characterization of the Urinary Infections in Patients with Neurogenic Bladder , Elizabeth Hernández González, Esteban Alberti Amador and Javier Rivero Ojeda.
Introduction: Complicated urinary tract infection is a very frequent comorbidity in patients with sequelae of neurological diseases, which increases the consumption of antimicrobials and the circulation of resistant germs. Objective: Carry out clinical-microbiological evaluation of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder as well as draw treatment strategies based on the best available clinical evidence. Method: We conducted a prospective descriptive study for 1 year, in 43 patients treated at CIREN, who underwent a neuro-restor-ative treatment program with a diagnosis of spinal cord injury (32), demyelinating disease (6), degenerative disease of the central nervous system (3) and static brain injury (2), which present neurogenic bladder among the sequelae and present urinary tract infection during hospitalization. Results: 112 episodes of urinary infection were diagnosed: acute pyelonephritis in 28 episodes and lower urinary tract infection in 84 episodes, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) in 57.6% being isolated as the most frequent etiological agent, P. mirabilis 25% and Klebsi-ella pneumoniae, (K.pneumoniae). 13.4%. Risk factors associated with neurogenic bladder: permanent or intermittent catheter 23.2 and 62.7% respectively. The sensitivity pattern for amikacin and carbapenems was 100%, while the resistance pattern for sulfaprim, penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors and ciprofloxacin varied between 20 and 75% are the most frequent clinical forms of uri-nary tractus infectious in patients with neurogenic bladder; the common risk factor is intermittent or permanent bladder catheter-ization, with E coli being the most frequent etiological agent of these episodes
182 Significant Differences in Nucleotide and Peptide Features Between Chromosomes Suggesting Sequence Non-randomness Across Chromosomes , Gabriel ZK Lim, Hykal H Azmi, Mariia Dolmatova and Maurice HT Ling
Eukaryotic genomes are organized into multiple chromosomes. Several studies have suggested that chromosomes are organized functionally and spatially, indicative of selective pressure in chromosomal organization. However, question remains as to whether chromosomes of the same organism are significantly different based on nucleotide and peptide features. Here, we examine three eukaryotic species across kingdoms; animalia (Sarcophilus harrisii), plantae (Prunus dulcis), and SAR supergroup (Plasmodium falci-parum); to identify whether chromosomes of the same organism are significantly different based on nucleotide and peptide features. Our results show that the average GC contents in coding sequences are significantly different (p-value ≤ 3.30E-09) to their chromo-somal GC content in all 30 chromosomes across 3 organisms. Our results also show that 38 out of 45 (15 features by 3 organisms) the nucleotide and peptide features are significantly different (p-value ≤ 0.044) between chromosomes. These results imply the presence of selective pressure in chromosomal organization
183 Influence of COVID-19 On India: Challenges, Innovations, Solutions, and Outcomes , Ajay Kumar
COVID-19 pandemic has already affected the whole world very badly. This study aims to present the challenges (healthcare infra-structure, hygiene, testing laboratories and testing kits), innovations (ventilators, virus study), solutions (medication and vaccine), and outcomes (soft power, vaccine maitri, vaccine diplomacy) regarding the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in India. This study represents India’s success and process to overcome the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite initial challenges, India has converted this pandemic to an opportunity to enhance its soft power, diplomacy, and importance as a country in the world by exporting various medicines and vaccines to several countries. India has become one of the leading exporters of coronavirus testing kits, masks, medicines, and vaccines, as well as play an important role in the containment of COVID-19 disease. COVID-19 pandemic taught the importance of health, hygiene, healthy lifestyle, and technology to the whole of mankind.
184 A Cohort Comparison Study Evaluating the Role of Protective Foot-wear in Intensive Care Unit , Gitali Bhagawati, Ashutosh Bhardwaj, Sarita Rani Jaiswal, Rekha Saji Kumar, Sukhwinder Singh Paul, Sanjeev Prajapati, Arnav Bhagawati and Suparno Chakrabarti
Background: Intensive care units (ICUs) of many health care organizations (HCOs) consider protective foot-wear like shoe-cover as a component of infection control practices (ICPs) with an assumption that it can prevent Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) in hospital reducing the floor contamination. Keywords: Intensive Care Unit; Health Care Organizations; Infection Control Practices; Hospital Acquired Infections; Protective Foot-wear; Shoe-cover Aim: Aim of this study is to find out the efficacy of protective foot-wear on bacterial floor colonization, different colonizers of ICU air and floor and their association with HAIs. Methods: The prospective study was carried out in an ICU of a superspeciality hospital in Delhi in two phases; Phase I: with shoe covers and Phase II: without shoe covers. In each phase, 36 air culture and 312 swab cultures were collected from particular sites in ICU in morning and evening hours. Blood agar plates, used for processing samples were incubated for 48 hours. Findings: In air culture, the total colony count was found to be 551 CFU/mt3 in Phase I while it was 723 CFU/mt3 in Phase II (p value >0.05). In swab cultures, total colony count was 4522 CFU in Phase I while that 4829 CFU in Phase II (p value >0.05). In both air cul-ture and swab culture, Methicillin Resistant Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) was the predominating organism, followed by Methicillin Sensitive CoNS. Conclusion: This study shows that there is no statistically significant difference on wearing or not wearing protective foot-wear. In contrast, shoe cover wearing activity can contaminate the hands in which there is more risk of spreading environmental contami-nants to the patients if hand hygiene not adequately practiced.
185 Global Influenza Hospital Influenza Surveillance Network (GIHSN), Results of Surveillance for Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses in Cartagena-Colombia. Preliminary Data 2019-2020 , Juan Quintero-Soto, Fabián Espitia-Almeida, Jaison Torres-Pacheco, María Fragozo-Ramos, Rita Sierra-Merlano, V Alberto Laguna-Torres, Hernando Pinzón-Redondo and Doris Gómez-Camargo
Background: Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is the main cause of death of infectious origin worldwide, and influenza is of special interest due to the availability of vaccines and specific antiviral therapy. Objective: This work includes 2 objectives: (1). Describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses in Cartagena-Colombia. (2). Report the status of immunization and/or vaccination against seasonal influenza. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in two hospitals located in Cartagena-Colombia, the study population included children and adults admitted to the emergency room with an acute infection process associated with influenza. The identification of infectious agents was done by RT-qPCR and multiplex PCR (FilmArray). Results: 278 patients with potential eligibility for the study were recruited, of which 175 (62.9%) met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently detected viruses were RSV, rhinovirus, and influenza, each with 47.1%, 33.6%, and 17.3% of the cases, respectively. 5.6% of the positive cases of influenza were admitted to the ICU and died. The presence of comorbid disease, use of antivirals dur-ing hospitalization, and current vaccination was significantly low. Vaccination status for seasonal influenza was most common in <5 years. Several co-infections occurred and some of them were bacterial, Rhinovirus was the most frequent co-infecting viral agent. Conclusion: The active surveillance model is a valuable tool to investigate the impact of respiratory viral diseases in hospitalized patients, providing information that allows the implementation of preventive and control measures
186 Predominant Bacterial Pathogens and Resistance Profile of Blood Isolates: Blood Cultures’ Surveillance from Tertiary Teaching Hospital , Lina Sallam, Naoufel Kaabia, Amal Al-Aidaroos, Sara Al-Darsony and Abdulrahman Al-Odayani
Background: Laboratory reporting of positive blood cultures (PBCs) is crucial and essential for infection control precautions and antibiotic stewardship programs at any healthcare setting, as it promotes the appropriate use of the empirical antibiotic prescription, and the implementation of infection control precautions. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and microbiological data of patients with PBCs and to determine the resistance pattern of blood isolates. Keywords: Blood Culture; Epidemiology; Klebsiella pneumoniae; MRSA; Carbapenem Methods: The laboratory survey of all PBCs was conducted at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC) in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February to July 2019, where all PBCs were daily identified from microbiology reports and analyzed for demo-graphical and microbiological data. However, contaminated and duplicated blood cultures were excluded. Results: Total number of true PBCs was 632, of which 59.6% were gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and 56.8% were categorized as hospital-onset. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Klebsiella spp. (101 cases), Staphylococcus aureus (57 cases), Pseudomo-nas spp. (56 cases), Enterococcus spp. (50 cases), and E. coli (49 cases). Interestingly, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp were resistant to meropenem in 34% and 89% of cases, respectively. In addition, S. aureus was resistant to methicillin (MRSA) in 57%. In conclusion, our study showed a predominance of GNB in PBCs, with a high rate of MRSA and carbapenem-resistant organ-isms. The data could be useful for the update of the PSMMC antimicrobial guidelines. Conclusion: Our study showed a high rate of PBCs with a great percentage of MRSA and Carbapenem resistant organisms.
187 Climate and Ski , Khalidullin O
There are additions to the idea of the Tower of Babel. The idea for the tower was developed to create a giant sealed tank with a lot of debris and ski slopes for skiing. In essence, it turned out to develop garbage collection into large heaps. Simply pressing and stacking layers of existing landfills gives a maximum layer height of 70 meters. The new method will create mountains up to a kilo-meter or more. Even if the base is a radius of 2 - 3 kilometers. Of course, calculations and experiment are needed
188 Soil Organisms for Better Agroforestry Performance , Abhishek Raj
Soil is the medium through which plant grow and it stores va-riety of microorganisms, invertebrates, protozoan’s, bacteria, and fungi etc. that play a viable role in soil ecosystem services. Their presence, types and numbers affects an overall soil physicochemi-cal property that indicates soil health and quality [1,2]. Agroforest-ry stores variety of organisms into the soil that plays an important role in its performance and productivity. From a time immemorial, agroforestry system has been gaining wide popularity due to its di-versified nature and better ecosystem services for improving lives and livelihood of poor people. Integrating tree, crop and livestock’s in agroforestry systems have been practiced from an ancient time. In this system, an addition of litter and other plant residues can be decompose by various soils inhabiting microorganism that re-lease essential nutrients and maintains soil organic carbon (SOC) in agroforestry system
189 Corona Virus Impact on Aquatic World: A Short Review , Ruby Singh and Prachi Srivastava
Coronavirus belongs to the family Coronaviridae which shares an evolutionarily relationship to other member of this family im-pacting human and veterinary medicine. Coronviridae belong to the order Nidovirales which is further divided into two different subfamilies i.e., Coronavoirinae and Torovirinae. There are almost negligible coronaviruses are isolated from aquatic organisms but it has effected many aquatic organisms mainly aquatic mammals which includes beluga whale, Bottlenose dolphin and harbour seal. The aquatic fish which is effected by the genus Bafinivirus under the same family Coronaviridae is White bream (Blicca bjoerkna), fathead minnow and Chinook salmon. There are also several reports suggesting isolation of coronaviruses from Carps. All of these viruses are officially classified as Coronaviruses but some of them are not classified instead shares many similar features with these dreadful Coronaviruses. Current review comprises a detail insight about the history, root causes, mechanism of infection as well as transmis-sion of Corona viruses to aquatic organisms. A futuristic prospect of this virus impacting the nature is facilitating the researchers to examine the genome of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to the genome of aquatic corona virus to bring out the evolutionary virulence.
190 16S-23S Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer Region-based Genetic Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Zimbabwe , Nyasha Chin’ombe, Boniface Muzividzi, Vurayai Ruhanya and Pasipanodya Nziramasanga
Background:Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are now commonly detected in humans and are ubiquitously distributed in various environments such as water, soil and air. Limited data exist on the diversity and accurate identification of NTM species in Zimbabwe. This study evaluated the use of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (16S-23S rRNA ITS) in genetically characterizing the diversity of NTM isolated from Zimbabwe during a national tuberculosis survey. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA ITS DNA from archived NTM isolates from National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) of the Ministry of Health and Childcare, Zimbabwe. The amplicons were sequenced and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Results: From the 963 archived NTM isolates at the NMRL, 26 had their 16S-23S rRNA ITS DNA sequences analysed. Genetic hetero-geneity of the 16S-23S rRNA ITS was demonstrated among the NTM isolates from Zimbabwe. The analysis showed that there were 15 (57.7%) M. avium, 4 (15.4%) M. palustre, 2 (7.7%) M. seoulense, 2 (7.7%) M. parascrofulaceum, 1 (3.8%) M. sinense, 1 (3.8%) M. asiaticum and 1 (3.8%) M. bouchedurhonense. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the 16S-23S ITS region could be used in characterizing NTM species from Zimbabwe. Most of the NTM isolates from Zimbabwe were closely related to M. avium, a known human opportunistic pathogen. Further studies are however necessary to unravel the true scope of NTM problem in Zimbabwe.
191 The Ophuirid and the Sea Star IgKappa Genes , Michel Leclerc
This study was performed from an evolutive point of view. The sea star and ophuirid IgKappa genes for so extended a period of evolution in organisms as distinctively different as sea star, fish, mammal, indicate that they play an essential role in the survival of organisms: role in the regulation of immune response, in Asterids and Ophuirids. The presence of Fc receptor gene, Fab gene in Aste-rias rubens complete these data
192 Seasonal Occurrence of AKK Grasshopper Poekilocerus pictus, (Pyrgomorphidae: Orthroptera) Mangochi, Malawi , Vaitheeswaran Thiruvengadam
The preliminary observation and seasonal changes of occurrence of Akk grasshopper Poekilocerus pictus Fab. (Orthroptera: Pyr-gomorphidae) in Mangochi, Republic of Malawi. The present study shows that the primarily the pest of P. pictus, a cause lot of the damage to cultivated crops in Malawi. Its leads to reported that P. pictus is feeder of maize, corn, cassava, mango orchards, betal creepers, forest trees, compea, okra, brinjal, castor, citrus, papaya and alfalfa in some parts of West Africa and Malawi. The learning further harassed that stringent management measures need to be started to addition research and restore the biodiversity of crops of Mangochi in general and Republic of Malawi
193 The Usage of Marsdenia condurango 30C, a Homeopathic (Potentized) Drug Demonstrates Some Cancer Inhibiting Outcomes in In Vitro Assessment of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Lines , Srivastava P, Swain P and Kumar RS
An ailment in which the proliferation of the cells is uncontrollable it is called as Cancer. Mutation i.e. change in the Genome causes the alteration of normal cells into cancerous cells. As a result of this mutations the Oncogenes are turned on and the TSG i.e. Tumor Suppressor Gene are turned off. Genes are also delimited epigenetically. Methylation and Demethylation are mechanisms by which genes are controlled epigenetically devoid of every variation in the DNA sequence. Cervical Cancer is maximum occurring cancer in women in world affecting the Cervix and around 80% of the cervical cancers are squamous cell cancer and rest are Adenocarcino-mas. Risk factors include HPV infections, smoking, destabilized immune coordination, administration of oral contraceptive pills for more than 5 years, having more than 5 children or having at an early age. Due the rising of this terminal illness, there is a crucial need for the development of Drugs which has the anti-cancerous effects. The emphasis of research is shifted towards the plant based phytomedicines. These Medicines are considered for the reason that they do not have any austere side effects. Homeopathy is now considered as the alternative medicine in cancer research. For this project a commercially available phyto based medicine called Condurango was taken. It’s an ethanolic preparation of plant based compound or extract. The potency of the drug taken was 30c for evaluating its effect in HeLa Cells. It has given away some worthy effects in different types of Cancers. Condurango has displayed anti-cancerous plus apoptotic activities in Cancer Cell Lines. In this project, analysis of the anti- cancerous and demethylating effects of Condurango was done    
194 Elevated Metabolic Enzymes and its Association with Insecticide Detoxification in Culex quinquefasciatus Say , Anju Viswan K and E Pushpalatha
Background and Objectives: The detoxification mechanism of an insect describes the decreased susceptibility to an insecticide that was previously effective in controlling that insect. There is a chance for detoxification against insecticides in mosquitoes by the over usage of chemical insecticides. The identification of enhanced levels or modified activities of enzymes like esterases, oxidases, or glutathione-s-transferases (GST) can be used to improve vector control programs by the resistance management option. The current study envisage to assess and analyze detoxification enzyme levels of Cx. quinquefasciatus of Kozhikode, Cochin, Malappuram, Thris-sur, and Palakkad town areas of Kerala, India. Methods: The samples were collected from regularly insecticide spraying area and scarcely spraying area of the five locations in the year 2014, 15 and 16. The assays were done according to the protocol provided in techniques to detect insecticide resistance mecha-nism; Field and laboratory Manual [1]. Results: There is a significant difference in carboxylesterase, GST, MFO activities of field populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus with that of laboratory populations. The detoxification enzyme levels of Cx. quinquefasciatus were high in the areas where insecticides sprayed regularly when compared to the areas where insecticides are sprayed scarcely. Interpretation and Conclusion: The level of enzymes increased from year to year and it reinforces the need for constant surveil-lance of mosquito populations susceptibility against the insecticides used in control and it points to the need of employing new phy-tochemicals or other insecticides in the field as an alternative to synthetic chemical pesticides which would be easily degradable and have less harmful effect on other organisms.
195 Past Present Future of Covid-19 Pandemic Problem in the World , Narendra Kumar Chopra, Mohammad Saiful Hoq Ibna Majib and Dassanayake Mudiyanselage
The COVID-19 pandemic in its rampage sparked questions in healthcare, administration, economics, community welfare, racial prejudice and politics. Many of the initial cases are believed to be from a common source, the Hunan Seafood Market. China notified the World Health Organization on the 3rd of January 2020 when 27 cases were recognized. Since then it has crossed borders all over the world mainly due to movement during the Lunar New Year Holiday. One week since the notification to WHO, 2019-nCoV was identified.COVID-19 is caused by SARS CoV-2 with a fatality rate lying approximately between 0.5% to 10% worldwide[32](Figure 5). Patients with underlying systemic illness and the elderly have the highest risk of contracting the disease and having a fatal reaction to it. Human to human transmission via aerosolized respiratory droplets is the most common form of transmission. The majority of all patients (80%) are asymptomatic or have a milder presentation. There is insufficient evidence to suggest transmission from asymptomatic patients [33,34]. Early identification, isolation, and symptomatic management of infected patients is the minimum recommended practice worldwide. The use of adjunctive therapy such as hydroxychloroquine and antivirals are not recommended. 6 vaccines are currently entering into the final phase 3 of their clinical trials. Prevention strategies are implemented worldwide to halt the spread of the virus. Masks, movement restrictions, physical distancing, and quarantine measures are a few among the effective. The overview of covid-19 is carried out with the following objectives: We have to live with this pandemic for several years with all precautions of infection control in spite of COVID vaccination which will take several years for development of herd immunity more than 80 percent at international level which will result in decline of new case of COVID-19
196 Prevalence and Pathology Associated with Coccidian Parasite Eimeria tenella in Organised and Unorganised Poultry of Kashmir Valley, India , Sheikh Tanveer Salam and Showkat Ahmad Wani
This study was carried out from January 2018 to December 2019 to know the prevalence and the pathology associated with the coccidian parasite Eimeria tenella in both organized poultry farms and unorganized backyard chickens of Kashmir valley. For this study a sample size of 400 intestinal caecae were collected from birds belonging to both organized farms and unorganized village backyard poultry of Kashmir valley. The overall prevalence of the parasite during a two year study was found to be 29.75%. Higher prevalence (35.5%) was recorded in backyard poultry as compared to the poultry birds in various organized farms (24%). Mixed in-fection of E. tenella with other Eimerian species was also found to be comparatively higher in unorganized chicken than the organized poultry. The study revealed that the prevalence of Eimerian infection to be highest (76.47%) during September months of both the years of study. Diagnosis of the coccidian species was done based on the identification of oocysts by morphometry. Infected caecae were preserved and subjected to histological studies which revealed disruption of epithelial lining and congestion of blood vessels. Submucosa of caecum reveals severe haemorrhage, muscular oedema and necrosis. Clusters of oocysts and microgametes were found to be lying free in the lamina propria of caecum. Sections revealed many intracellular schizonts containing merozoites with severe submucosal hemorrhage in caecum. Infected sites revealed massive infiltration of various heterophils and mononuclear cells. Overall histological changes cause reductions in the absorptive surfaces, with resultant decreased nutrient absorption, dehydration, blood loss and increased susceptibility to secondary infections
197 Climate Change and Underwater Technology , Khalidullin O
The rise in natural disasters is a warning, a reminder to human-ity about climate change. The change was not easy. For millions of years, water, biota (a single community of plants and animals) and the water cycle have been created and improved in a single system. One of the elements of the biota - man - mastered and enslaved water, destroying most of the rest of the biota on 70 percent of the land. The scale of expansion went far beyond the limits allowed by nature. Man created a new phenomenon - artificial evaporation, which destroyed the water cycle between the atmosphere and the soil. The developing imbalance changes the dynamic balance of the interaction between water, biota and the water cycle.
198 Mapping Habitat to Establish the Gene Bank of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa for Conservation in Nepal , Bimal Bahadur Kunwar
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa is an economically crucial plant mainly harvested and traded for medicinal and religious purposes. Most of the harvesting is made from forests. Due to rapid habitat change, deforestation and over-exploitation, it is feared that such a valuable plant and its precious genetic diversity may be lost from nature. Responding to these challenges, a major initiative has been launched in the Western Terai Landscape Complex to identify the threats and to identify hot spots (sinks) of genetic variability that can be targeted for enriching the forest gene bank concept. To improve our knowledge regarding the natural habitat of the species, literature review, herbarium center visit, and field visits were performed. All accumulated data were subjected to DIVA GIS to plot a predictive map of the plant habitat based on climate and altitude. The Sixteen measured populations distributed along East-West longitudinal gradient in Nepal were explored and tested using GIS maps. For conservation strategies, populations of the Khata site of Dhanaoura VDC, Bardia district is purposed as a hot spot and is a probable sink of the gene pool while remaining sites as a source. Therefore, the transformation of the gene in Khata of Dhanaoura VDC, Bardia district from other sites of the country, is required to conserve the genetic resources of A. marmelos in a constant and stable form. The provided information can be utilized to conserve genetic resources and to utilize the resources sustainability.
199 Novel Cyanoximates as Chemotherapeutic Candidates , Kafayat Aderonke Yusuf and Kyoungtae Kim
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective treatment plans for several cancer types. The recurrent side effects derived from che-motherapy agents have warranted the search for novel chemical compounds with better efficacy and minimal side effects. In line with this idea, we investigated effects of a group of newly synthesized metal based chemical compounds called cyanoximates on HeLa human cancer cells. Cyanoximates used were Pt(DECO)2, Pt(MCO)2 and Pd(DECO)2 along with the chemotherapy drug Cisplatin as a positive control. We found that the metal cyanoximates reduced cell viability via apoptosis, and that Pt(DECO)2 was most effective among these new cyanoximates. In an attempt to understand the potential mechanism of action of Pt(DECO)2, we performed RNAseq analysis with HeLa cells treated with 0.5 mM Pt(DECO)2. Hundreds of genes in Pt(DECO)2-treated cells were differentially expressed with several upregulated genes known to be involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Our analysis also revealed that cancer growth promoting genes alongside drug transporter genes are downregulated in the presence of Pt(DECO)2. Taken together, our re-sults provide evidence that Pt(DECO)2 can be an alternative agent for Cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and further, our transcriptomic analysis offers new insights into the mechanism of action of Pt(DECO)2 against cancer cells
200 The Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Study the Antibacterial Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus L) on Pathogenic Bacteria , Thamer Mutlag Jasim
Introduction:Crocus sativus is a member of Iridaceae family and its use in health management in practice. Antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticle was achieved by agar well diffusion method against Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influen-zae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus. The green synthesized silver nanoparticle can be used in the field of medicine, due to their high antibacterial activity. Plants are the richest source of natural antibacterial agents. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial effect of (Crocus sativus) Saffron. Methods: Saffron was extracted with water and methanol. Hence methanol is a better solvent than water. Result: The biosynthesized AgNPs showed significant effect against S. pneumonia, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniaS. aureus, so it can be used in biomedical application. Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles from saffron possess very good antibacterial activity which makes them potent sources of antibac-terial agent.
201 Insect Venom Toxin Peptides, its Antimicrobial Effects and Host Immune Responses: A Review , Simran Sharma and Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Present review article explains antimicrobial activity of hymenopteran insect venoms. Insects mostly bees, wasps, hornets use venom toxins to defend their hive, nests and mainly colonies in territory. These insects sting very swiftly and inflict venom in its prey. Insect venom glands secret multiple toxin components which are powerful weapons secreted from venom glands. Bees, wasps, and hornet inflict venom for self and territorial defense and impose physiological alterations with multiple symptoms in intruders; but envenomation does not transmit any pathogen. Bee venom severely affects cytoskeletal system and impairs nerve cell function that results in organ paralysis and deformity and even death after multiple bites. In bees severity of microbial infection is increased due to impact of biotic and abiotic factors. Few phenolic compounds such as flavonoids mixed in honey, propolis, and royal jelly assist in making antiviral defense. Insects secrete antimicrobial peptides in venom which protect themselves from infection by generat-ing immune response against pathogens. Purified venom toxins exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral defense. No doubt venom components from honey bees, wasps and hornets can be used as templates for generation of new therapeutic agents and bio-pesticides for insect pest management. For this purpose venom gland genome is to be sequenced for finding regulatory genes which synthesize diverse venom components. This overall information generated at molecular level could be used for making diagnostic kits to detect effect of bee venom allergens
202 Molecular Level Microbiological and Clinical Profile of Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetes Mellitus , Samreen Riaz, Abdullah Mohsin, Saima Shokat and Saba Shamim
Introduction:The (UTI)-Urinary Tract Infection was most prevalent common disease that involves in all humans. The diabetes melli-tus patients having greater chances to sickness while comparison to the non-diabetic patients. In the current research work, different parameters of microbiology in UTI having patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus have been studied. Method: Total 1000 diabetes type1 and type 2 patients with age > 18 years with or without symptoms of UTI with significant bacte-riuria were enrolled in the study. Identification of the UTI that was according to the clinical history, symptoms and detailed clinical examination and confirmed by urine examination. Other investigations (CBC, serum creatinine, blood urea, HBA1C, fasting and post meal blood sugar and USG abdomen with pelvis) were also done. In the patient’s samples of the urine culture, patterns of antibiotic sensitivity have been observed. Results: The highest numbers of patients were of fever 105 (46.67%) followed by asymptomatic UTI [98; 43.56%]. The presence of anemia and leucocytosis had statistically no significant association with UTI while poor glycaemic control has statistically significant association with UTI in diabetic patients. E. coli (32.14%) was commonest microorganism isolated in urine culture. Gram negative organisms were mostly sensitive to -Imipenem, Piperacillin-tazobactam and Nitrofurantoin while gram positive bacteria were mostly sensitive to -Linezolid, Nitrofurantoin, Vancomycin, Tetracycline, Clindamycin and Azithromycin and showed increased resistance to Fluroquinolones and Cotrimoxazole. Candida sp. was sensitive to Fluconazole, Itraconazole. Conclusions:E. coli is the Universal common bacterial isolate. To treat the UTI with diabetes or without diabetes, aminoglycoside or nitrofurantoin have been used previously from long time. For treatment and prevention of UTI among patients there must be check of antimicrobial sensitivity and its resistance pattern.
203 Energy Alterations and Chakras’ Energy Deficiencies and Propensity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection , Huang Wei Ling
Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease caused by a virus that emerged in Wuhan China (December-2019). On January 05th, 2021, there was 84.233.579 confirmed cases and 1.843.293 deaths worldwide. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), COVID-19 is classified as external pathogenic factor invasion. This study was made following a statement of Hippocrates that said “it is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has”. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate which are the energy alterations and chakras’ energy deficiencies in a group of patients that were in treatment in an acupuncture clinic in the city of Franca, Brazil, and how is the propensity of them to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The second purpose is to demonstrate that, if the chakras’ energy centers are deficient in these patients, it could compro-mise the formation of Zheng Qi, that is defined as “the capacity of the body to resist different pathogenic factors and maintain relative balance inside the body in relation to the outside world”. Methods: During the period from 2015 to 2020, chakras’ energy centers were measured within a 1000 patients. Of these, 409 re-cords were selected where the initials of the names, age, diagnosis in Western and in Chinese medicine were noted and the result of the measurement of the energies of the chakras were obtained. Results: 89% of the analyzed patients had no energy in the chakras one to six, which corresponds to the five massive organs of Chinese medicine (Liver, Heart, Spleen, Lung and Kidney). Only 2,69% of the total patients had energy in the second chakra (that cor-responds to Zheng Qi in TCM).Most common diagnosis, in Western medicine were: anxiety, headaches, low back pain and knee pain. Most common diagnosis in TCM were: Yin deficiency, Yin and Yang deficiency, Heat retention. Conclusion: Almost 89% of the studied population had no energy on the chakras© energy meridians, or the five massive organs in the Five Elements theory. This lack of energy compromises the formation of Zheng Qi, increasing the chance of these patients of acquiring infection by the SARS-CoV-2 and having a more serious evolution because their organs were in the lowest limit of energy. The replenishment of these energies before acquiring this infection, during infection (after expelling the external pathogenic factor) and after infection is of paramount importance for the prevention of this infection and other infectious or non-infectious diseases in these patients.
204 Antimicrobial Activity of Breast Milk against Neonatal Pathogens , Aakhila A and Feminamol V M
Breast milk is a nourishment and medicinal shield for the new born. Its various benefits include strengthening baby’s immune system, anti-inflammatory functions, lowering the risk of allergies, mental ailments etc.In this study the antimicrobial activity of breast milk against some neonatal pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida al-bicans) were evaluated. Antibacterial activities of different antibiotics were tested using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Breast milk from different mothers as well as cow milk were subjected to antimicrobial assay by agar well diffusion. Result showed that the breast milk has antibacterial activity against the tested organisms compared to cow milk which have no antibacterial effect