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SALU-Commerce & Economics Review

Journal Papers (36) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Purchasing Behavior of Rural Consumers Migrated To Urban Areas: A Case Study of Sukkur and Khairpur Districts ,  Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro,  Hussain Amar Dayo, Riaz Ahmed Mangi
Many people migrate from rural areas to urban areas due to better infrastructure. Purchasing Behavior of rural migrants is described and influenced by five study variables which include Brand Switchover Behavior (BSB), Purchasing Consciousness (PC), Enjoy Purchasing (EP), Income/Pocket Money (INC/PM) and Price Consciousness / Quality Consciousness (PRC/ QC). This study is carried out as a Case Study of Sukkur and Khairpur districts in which an attempt has been made to understand the Purchasing Behavior of rural consumers who have migrated to urban areas of Sukkur and Khairpur districts. A close ended survey was conducted from 383 respondents and data was analyzed by using Descriptive Statistics and Factor Analysis. Results of study suggest that rural migrants show Brand Switchover Behavior (BSB) as they switch brands in urban market. Further study discloses that rural migrants show Purchasing Consciousness (PC) and they Enjoy Purchasing (EP) in urban market. Migrants also consider Income/ Pocket Money (INC/PM) on purchasing. Results also show that rural migrants have Price Consciousness/ Quality Consciousness (PRC/QC) in urban market
2 Perceived Organizational Support as Predictor of the Three Components of Organizational Commitment , Aneel Kumar, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Hassan Jawad Soomro
The objective of this research was to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on the three components of organizational commitment. Primary data through survey questionnaire was collected from the college teachers of Sindh Province Pakistan. Through the empirical investigation of the data it was found that college teachers perceived support from their organization and they were committed to their organization. Perceived organizational support was found to have significant effect on the affective, continuance and normative commitment of the teachers. However the effect of perceived organizational support on normative commitment was lesser than its effect on affective and continuance commitment. This study contributed to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on the commitment level of the college teachers in context of Pakistan. The implications of the results are discussed.  
3 Determinants of an Investment Decision (A Case of Fertilizer Sector in Pakistan) ,  Muhammad Masiullah Jatoi, Ms. Safia Khan, Shoaib Hyder
 Investment in reality is a capital sacrifice that includes risks means that every entrepreneur and stockholder wants a profitable return on their specific investment. A case study of three leading fertilizer firms of Pakistan is considered for outcomes, namely Engro Fertilizer, Fauji Fertilizer and Fatima Fertilizer. Four investment-based ratio relations have been intervened and analyzed statistically for their relation and implications to determine for investment decision with key consideration given to risk-factor, sector investigation and company individual rating with performance in fertilizer segment even though each one’s share market is at high pressure by external shocks. Out of four relations three were quite significant, accepted and are found highly meaningful to investment decision, while one is insignificant and is rejected for intervention. Finally we propose investors with investment decision to prefer Fauji at 1st, Fatima at 2nd and Engro at 3rd as per investment risk is concerned.
4 Impact of Interest Rate and GDP Growth Rate on Inflation of Pakistan (Time Series Analysis From 2005-2014) ,  Mohammad Masiullah Jatoi, Safia Khan
Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the aggregate or general price level in any economy; that fluctuates because of the different economic factors. In this study two independent variables (interest rate & GDP growth rate) and one dependent variable (inflation) is designed to examine their impact. The hypotheses regarding the impact were made to determine the significance between variables. This research work proved that there is significant impact of interest rate & GDP growth rate on inflation that’s why both hypotheses cannot be rejected. Spss18 has been used for the interpretation of results by applying the technique of Linear Regression. Inclusively statistical results recommended that interest rate & GDP growth rate is significantly related with the inflation rate.
5 Impact of Foreign Aid on Primary Education Amid Corruption in Pakistan , Ms. Soomal Mirbahar, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Asad Raza Abidi, Syed Asif Ali Shah
The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of foreign aid on the educational outcomes of primary level in presence of corruption. Besides, the study also strives to throw a discussion on the situation of education in Sindh and the role of corruption in education. The study uses time series data over the span of 1995-2012. It is concluded on basis of the empirical results that the ODA disbursed to Pakistan has positive (insignificant) effect on the Gross Enrollment Rate of primary education. However, it has negative impact on the enrollment rates when corruption is interacted. Moreover, the condition of education in Sindh is vulnerable. The study also finds various forms of corruption in education at political, administrative and school levels which are both monetary as well as nonmonetary in nature.
6 Socioeconomic Conditions of Women in Sindh with Special Reference to Kamber-Shahdadkot District , Inayatullah Magsi, Imdad Hussain Sahito, Habibullah Magsi
Present research has been carried out on 120 randomly selected households from three Talukas (sub-districts) of the District Kamber-Shahdadkot (Sindh), with aims to investigate the socioeconomic conditions as well as the insecurity among rural women in the District. Results revealed that the majority of the respondents lived in rural areas with small and simple houses, because of their limited resources. It was also recognized that the majority of the respondents' source of income was agriculture followed by government jobs and daily wage labor, where the income from a government job was higher from the income earned from cultivating lands, may be because of less technological advancement in the region. Particularly, the female literary rate was only 39 percent in the study area, where women's participation in the decision making seemed also low. The results also revealed that women were feeling insecurity in the society, for example, domestic violence, bullying, harassment, and honor killing. The respondents in the study area were worried about the availability of basic amenities, where poor infrastructure and draining systems were severely damaged as well as were of poor quality. Based on the findings, it is recommended that besides infrastructure development, the health facilities and agricultural extension services may be executed on immediate bases in the region
7 Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Economic Growth in Pakistan , Kewal H. Talreja, Zulfiqar Ali Shaikh, Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh
The paper estimates the major factors affecting economic growth in Pakistan over the period of (1985-2011).The Time series properties of variables are tested using backward stepwise regression method by employing SPSS. The secondary World Bank data has been used for analysis purpose. The results of multiple regression indicate that one-dollar increase in the amount of service value added, agriculture value added, industrial value added, gross domestic savings and external debt causes GDP to increase by 1.124, 0.897, 0.702, 0.411 and 0.213 million US dollars respectively that accelerate the growth process. However, one-dollar rise in the amount of exports, FDI and gross fixed capital formation rise the GDP by 0.004, 0.003 and 0.001 million US $ that indicates the positive but insignificant association with GDP. The paper thus focuses on reforms and policies with immediately effect to boost FDI, exports and gross fixed capital formation to remove the barriers of economic growth in Pakistan.
8  Purchasing Behavior of Rural Migrants: A Comparative Analysis of Sukkur and Khairpur Districts , Hussain Amar Dayo, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Zulfiqar Ali Rajper, Hassan Jawad Soomro
Pakistan is witnessing rural to urban migration because urban areas are comparatively advanced and are equipped with superior infrastructure than rural areas. This study has been designed mainly to compare the Purchasing Behavior between rural migrants of Sukkur and Khairpur districts. Primary data was collected using survey method from 383 rural migrants and data was analyzed by using Factor Analysis and Independent Samples Test. Factor Analysis results indicate that rural migrants of Sukkur and Khairpur districts while purchasing regard Brand Switchover Behavior (BSB), Purchasing Consciousness (PC), Enjoy Purchasing (EP), Income/ Pocket Money (INC/PM)  and Price Consciousness/ Quality Consciousness (PRC/QC). Further results if Independent Samples Test suggested that all factors affecting Purchasing Behavior of r migrants in Sukkur district are significantly different than in Khairpur district. This study is helpful for companies and organizations as they can area difference in Purchasing Behavior of rural migrants and they can increase number of customers.
9 The Effect of Workplace Bullying on Employees’ Job Satisfaction , Abida Jamro, Riaz Ahmed Mangi, Aneel Kumar, Asad Raza Abidi
The main motive of current study was to investigate the relationship between workplace bullying and job satisfaction in faculty members of public sector universities of Sindh (i.e., Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur and Sukkur institute of business administration). The cross-sectional design, a close ended Survey was conducted among 209 faculty members of both institutions. The finding of this study point out that the bullying dimensions i.e., work related bullying and person related bullying were significantly, negatively related to job satisfaction. Further, the results of the universities i.e., Sukkur institute of business Administration and Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur, Sindh, were also compared. The employees of Sukkur institute of business administration perceived work related bullying more as compared to Shah Abdul Latif University while employees of Shah Abdul Latif University perceived person related bullying more as compared to Sukkur institute of business administration. The implications of the study are discussed.
10 Influence of Changing Currency Design on Public Opinion: A case study of students from SZABIST Larkana Campus , Ayaz Ali Maitlo, Minhoon Khan Laghari, Iram Rani Laghari
Currency design is an important feature of currency which if not changed timely, creates problem of counterfeiting.  Our study of 191 students of Master and Graduation from SZABIST Larkana Campus shows that opinions of public are directly related with the change of currency design. Findings provided weak support of results in which main hypothesis along with two sub hypothesis were supported at significant level while the one hypothesis of relationship between public opinion and currency design rejected because of insignificant results above than P value of 0.05. The State Bank can change currency easily to combat counterfeiting of currency because public have no objection on its change. The state bank can take strategies by keeping in view the public acceptance which is positively correlated with changes in currency design. The currency design change comprises of change in size, color, and pictures on front and back side of currency. Except pictures any single or all components if changed then public will accept currency
11 An Empirical Investigation of the Entrepreneurial Environment: Evidence from GEM Pakistan Data. , Soomro Raheem Bux, Khair Mohammad, Faqeer Muhammad
The Pakistani people possess a God-gifted ability to be entrepreneurial nation. In the national economy, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) constitute nearly 90% of all private firms; they are a source of employment for nearly 80% non-agricultural labor force; and contribute a share of 40% annually in GDP of the country. Therefore, this research is basically carried out to investigate entrepreneurial environment in Pakistan through GEM data. This study has used two sources of data and they are: the Adult Population Surveys (APS) and 09 indicators of National Experts Survey (NES). Experts have generally rated entrepreneurial environment of Pakistan as a mediocre. The biggest constraint for entrepreneurs in Pakistan is access to finance, while the biggest contributing factor is Cultural and Social Norms and view of 51.50% experts is that access to finance is the most important recommendation given by the experts. In Pakistan men hold more positive attitude then females towards starting own business. The Male TEA rate is 21.27 while female rate is just 1.21. In order to promote an entrepreneurial environment in Pakistan, the government has to play an instrumental role.
12 Impact of Performance Based Remuneration Plan on Operational Risk Management in banking sector of Pakistan , Ghulam Hussain Bozdar, Muhammad Asif Iqbal, Zulfiqar Ali Rajpar
This study investigates the impact of performance based remuneration plan on operational risk management in Pakistan’s banking sector. The purpose related to the research is to highlight the importance of operational risk management. Literature review reveals that operational risk management has a great role in banking sector, in recent time implementation of Basel II & III the risk management especially operational risk has received reasonable attention in the banking sector. The data was collected from targeted population commercial banks of Pakistan with sample size of 250 individuals. To accomplish the task most important information was gathered through Likert-type scale questionnaire and unsystematic models method were utilized. To analyze the facts arithmetical instrument Multiple Linear Regressions was utilized and shows significance results. This study is limited to some bank branches of Karachi, Hyderabad, Lahore and Islamabad cities which were easy to access for researchers because of restricted monetary assets, scarcity of time and vast geographical location. This research discloses that responsibility of Operational Risk Management is shocking and serious circumstances in banking sector of Pakistan.
13 Review of Exchange Market Pressure Indices , Muhammad Akram Gilal, Ghulam Akbar Mahesar, Shuja Ahmed Mahesar
In this paper, we reviewed empirical exchange market pressure indices. The objective was to find out similarities and differences among them in terms of their components and weights assigned to them. The review shows that apart from Girton and Roper (1977) rest of three pressure indices are model dependent. However, they require estimation of different number of parameters for assigning weight to their components. Roper and Turnovsky (1980) require estimation of six parameters. Weymark (1995) and Pentecost et al. (2001) on the other hand requires estimation of two and one parameter for assigning weight to foreign exchange reserve and relative interest rate differential component of market pressure index.  
14 Addressing Per Capita Income: Study of Different Economic Measures as a Percentage of GDP, Time Series Analysis of Pakistan (2004-15) , Mohammad Salih Memon, Muneer Ahmed Shah, Sarmad Rahat
 Issue of per capita income is debatable in different forums world-wide and a sign of showing the economic stability, in this regard research was carried out to predict the per capita income with different economic measures like wise: (Total Public Debt, Fiscal Deficit, Tax Revenue, and Defense Expenditure) as a percentage of GDP and Real GDP growth, data were collected from State Bank of Pakistan and Ministry of Finance Government of Pakistan, used SPSS-18 for entering the data and analysis through correlation and regression, hence forth concluded that public debt must be utilized properly in productive activities, policies must be formed in support of real GDP which are the major predictors of per capita income, defense expenditure must be looked out in a way so that proper allocation of funds towards productive activities can be made to strengthen the per capita income.
15 Comparative Study of Cellular Network Operators in Pakistan using SERVQUAL Model , Muhammad Zahid Maitlo, Saqib Wahab Mahar, Rehman Gul Gilal, Salman Bashir Memon
The purpose of this paper is to compare the service quality of two leading and competing cellular network brands of Pakistan, UFone and Mobilink using SERVQUAL model. Further, this study is aimed to explore the most quality oriented network in terms of customer satisfaction. Study is opted for a quantitative research design using close ended approach including 352 survey respondents with convenience and judgmental sampling technique. The participant of this study comprises of UFone and Mobilink subscribers. The data was collected using five point likert scale and analyzed using inferential and descriptive statistics i.e. independent samples t-test. The paper has extended the knowledge about cellular network service quality and empirically found that SERVQUAL dimensions of UFone are strong enough as compared to Mobilink. However SERVQUAL tangible dimension is common in both brands. Similarly, UFone customers are more satisfied than Mobilink customers. The paper extended empirical knowledge about how service quality contributes in customer satisfaction and which factors are most powerful. Therefore this study can help both cellular networks to create sustainable and competitive strategies that can manifest customer psychology in Pakistan
16  The State of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Telecom Sector , Aneel Kumar, Syeda Aliza Hassan Zaidi, Parkash Lal
The main objective of current study was to understand the extent to which telecom sector organizations have adopted the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices. This research triangulated the content analysis and semi-structured interviews for data collection and analysis purpose. Website content analysis suggested that all four companies are performing CSR activities but their major focus is philanthropic CSR activities and secondly they have shown their involvement in environmental activities. Neither of the company is using CSR as their sustainability strategy. The interview findings suggested that still CSR is at sense making stage in Pakistan. Employees perceive CSR as the activities related to philanthropy. Interviewed respondents showed some strange expressions while answering the questions related to the CSR dimensions other than the philanthropic dimension. They seemed completely unaware regarding the broader scope of CSR.  Conclusively CSR is still at philanthropic stage in Pakistan.
17 A Study of Workplace Bullying and Job Performance: A Co-Relational Analysis of Faculty Engaged In Higher Education Institutions , Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Abdul Rasheed Mangi, Zulfiqar Ali Rajper
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of workplace bullying on job performance and to determine the significant attributes of workplace bullying. It is evident from the study that the workplace bullying has been considered a source of great concern for organizations. The workplace bullying became the potential hurdle in achieving this ideal condition for the organizations. Hence this study attempted to identify the attributes of workplace bullying that may significantly impact the job performance in private educational institutes of Karachi. This study intends to explore the causal relationship between workplace bullying and job performance, therefore this study is causal in its nature. The Faculty of privately owned and managed Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Karachi constitutes the subject on interest for this study. Results of the correlation for this study exhibited a significant negative relationship between the sarcasms being the attribute of workplace bullying and the job performance. Furthermore the results of correlation exhibited two attributes of workplace bullying namely Belittling, Name calling except the Sarcasm have negative insignificant correlation with the job performance of the faculty members of the privately owned higher educational institutions of Karachi.
18 Ownership, Governance and Firm Performance in Pakistan. , Muhammad Khalid Rashid, Asif Ali, Habibullah Magsi
Corporate governance is frequently viewed as a frail connection in Asia's organization performance. The greater parts of the studies try to discover the connection between the ownership and firm value. This paper endeavor to explore the intercede relationship as took after the reviews done in Malaysia by Tam and Tan 2007 that has been over looked in the past reviews. The study analyzes this issue by looking at the connection between ownership types and firm performance by inspecting the governance implementation and their effect on performance. This review demonstrates the distinctive sort of dominant part shareholders exhibits the conspicuous substance of conduct and inclinations for corporate governance in a domain of various grouping of shareholding. Also, this paper is on a developing nation like Pakistan where great governance only exists.
19 Study of Employee Silence and its Relationship with Employee Commitment among Faculty of Higher Education Institutions in Sindh , Saifullah Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed Mangi, Hussain Amar
It is noted that employees tend to remain silent at work because they do not want to have risk of discontinuity of job due to voice up. This study has tried to understand the impact of dimensions of employee silence (Defensive silence, Acquiescent Silence and Pro-social silence) on employee commitment among faculty of higher education institutions in Sindh. A close ended questionnaire was used in the study and data was collected from 234 Faculty members determined on the basis of sample size table given by (Saunders et al. 2009) and same was analyzed through correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results of the study suggest that all three dimensions of employee silence (Defensive Silence, Acquiescent Silence and Pro-social Silence) negatively and significantly affect employee commitment among faculty members of higher education institutions in Sindh. The findings of the study recommend that management of the universities should work on silence related problems which are faced by employees to create a better environment. Results further elaborate that employee silence is a negative sign because the commitment level of the employees tend to be decreased if silence exists within the organization.
20 Investigation of Date Palm Production, land ownership and contracting and Farm to Market Distance: A case of small dates growers in district Khairpur , Zulfiqar Ali Shaikh, Naveed Ahmed Shaikh, Asad Raza Abidi, Kewal .H. Talreja, Imtiaz Pirzada
Present study is an attempt to investigate the empirical relationship of production of dates, type of the farmer, tree holding and the distance of farm to the market in district Khairpur. Cross sectional data has been collected through self-administered questionnaire. Randomly selected 202 small farmers (holding 5 or less than 5 acres of land) were interviewed. The empirical relationship has been established using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method of multiple regressions. The results indicate that the farm to market distance has a negatively significant impact on the production of dates. The production of dates has a statistically weak relationship with farms where the farmers grow trees on contract than that of the trees which are owned by the farmers. As per the standardized coefficients, the ownership of the trees by the farmers is the dominant factor affecting the date production rather than the trees taken on contract.
21 The effects of exchange rate volatility on stability of money demand in Pakistan: An ARDL bounds testing approach , Niaz Hussain Ghumro, Mohd Zaini Abd Karim, Manzoor Ali Mirani
This paper attempts to examine the stability of money demand function for Pakistan by including a new variable volatility of exchange rate. A time series annually data for the period 1972-2014 has been used in the estimation of money demand function, employing the ARDL Bounds Testing approach.  The results show long-run cointegration among monetary aggregates (M1 and M2) and set of independent variables including exchange rate volatility. The paper further shows long-run effects of exchange rate volatility with only M2 and contributes in its stability rather than M1 in Pakistan. Thus real broad money supply should be considered as policy tool for formulating and implementing monetary policy.
22 Impact of Perceived Risk Factors on Online Shopping Behavior. , Zeeshan R. Sylvester, Jalil Ahmad Thaibo
The online shopping is increasing with the passage of time, therefore this channel certain behaviors also emerged among the customers of online companies. Risk factor is one of the aspect of online shopping and there are certain risk factors associated with it which includes financial risk, time risk, social risk and physical risk. Internet has brought strong influence on the marketing environment at worldwide level and connectivity of internet has provided organization an opportunity to increase their business through emarketing. The Research Objectives are to study perceived risk factors, to measure the impact of risk factors regarding motivating or de-motivating online shopping customers, To examine the influence of an individual’s domain specific innovativeness on online shopping behavior, to identify effects of perceived risks on buyers attitude towards online shopping of electronic goods. The philosophy of this research paper is based upon post positivist approach. Non probability purposive samplings method has been selected for data collection from three private sector universities through questionnaire and correlation and regression test run through SPSS software. Findings of this research papers explains that online shopping website must adopt certain campaign to increase the satisfaction and buying behavior level of online buyers through providing them most secure financial services, providing them delivery on time that they may enhance online shopping in social circle of their surroundings
23 The Random Walk Hypothesis for  BRICS and Pakistan: New Evidence Based on Variance Ratio Tests , Ume Salma Akbar, Niaz Ahmed Bhutto, Agha Jahanzeb
This study attempts to re-examine the random walk hypothesis for BRICS-P countries; Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and Pakistan by using daily stock returns ranging from January 2000 to March 2017.  The hypothesis is tested through Variance Ratio Tests including the conventional Lo- MacKinlay, Chow Denning, new Wright’s rank, Sign tests, Hang and Kim sub sampling tests. Results under all individual and joint testing methods show that the stock prices in sample countries do not follow the random walk. These findings indicate intertemporal predictability that relates with investors’ astute. This study recommends investors to focus more to capture risk-adjusted abnormal returns and to devise their trading strategies accordingly.
24 An Empirical Analysis of employee turnover intention among Employees of Fast Food Industry , Muhammad Ashraf Memon, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Zulfiqar Ali Rajper
This study was intended to investigate the determinants of turnover intention among employees working in fast food industry in Karachi. In order to confirm the purpose the 400 respondents were requested to fill the predesigned questionnaire. Structural equation modeling using AMOS 20 was used to analyze the collected data. Basic assumptions of SEM were ensured. It was found that working environment, employee empowerment and organizational culture plays significant role in predicting the turnover intention among employees. The management of fast food industry is required to develop congenial working environment, delegate some authority to employees to execute their every day responsibility.
25 Demand and Supply Estimates and Projections for Beef in Pakistan by the Year 2030. , Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Jamil Ahmed Lund, Abid Hussain
The demand and supply for beef in Pakistan has been estimated and projections are made for the year 2030. Seemingly unrelated regression equation by assuming a loglinear specification has been used to analyze the effects of income and prices on the beef demand. Polynomial price lag model has been employed for supply side analysis. Both demand and growth rate models make supply projections for beef. The study is based on field survey data collected in the year 2013, HIES data 2010-11 and time series data for the period 1980-81 to 2011-12. Beef is essential food item, having both positive income/expenditure and price elasticities. Demand for beef is more income elastic in rural areas as compared to urban regions. The results of supply side analysis have shown that price elasticity of beef is positive and statistically significant, implying that higher beef prices stimulate the production. Similarly, total numbers of buffalo and cattle animal units for beef production contribute positively and significantly to the production. The demand projection corresponding to moderate-income growth rate and supply projection based on polynomial price lag model indicate a huge deficit in the beef production by the year 2030. This may results into increase in the prices and decrease in consumption of beef. Thus, immediate policy reforms are required to control the gap between demand and supply of beef for future in the country.
26 Effectiveness of Public and Private Extension Advisory Services Regarding the Human Resource Practices: A Case Study of Balochistan, Pakistan. , Ahmed Ali Menga, Habibullah Magsi, Fateh Muhammad Baloch, M. Naimatullah Babar
Present research set out the public and private agricultural extension services with the term of human resources practices. Five districts, one from each ecological zone, were taken purposively: namely Kech, Lasbela, Kalat, Killa Saifullah and Sibi. A sample of (250) farmers and (100) public and private Extension Field Staff (EFS) was taken as sample size by using the multi-stage random sampling technique. Null hypothesis was also tested in order to know the variances in the perceptions of the respondents. The results revealed that majority (88.5 percent) of the farmers did not receive any farm visits from public EFS. Majority (87.7 percent) of the farmers receive regular visit by private EFS. Farmer’s ranked field day and seminar 1st and 2nd respectively. Overwhelming majority of the farmers received result demonstration methods (68. 92 percent) by private EFS, which were ranked first. While private EFS provided the HRD practices (70.6 percent). Private extension services have extra strength against to public extension, while public extension services have more flaws as weaknesses and are facing problems in technology transfer process. The study recommended that public EEFS should visit the farmer’s farm and home regularly. Result demonstration and campaign should be organized at union council level as these methods were perceived effective. Private extension services should use holistic tactic plus contact those farmers who have small land holding size.
27 Social Entrepreneurs: How do they operate? And what does drive them to operate? A Multi Method Study from Pakistan , Haroon Bakari, Khalil Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Tufail Chandio, Muhamad Nawaz Shahani
Entrepreneurship is a main contributor in economy for creation of new jobs, ventures, and innovations. Social Entrepreneurship, on the other side, is an innovation, which addresses social problems and sufferings of people. This paper aims to understand concept of Social Entrepreneurship and investigates motivations behind social entrepreneurial intentions of social entrepreneurs. This paper contains two studies. First study explores how a physically challenged poor girl takes initiative and establishes a school to teach more than 200 children of poor peasants, how a group of likeminded convened through social network to address the sufferings of flood and famine affected people of Sindh, Pakistan and how organizations managed to cure the patients of leprosy, tuberculosis, and blindness. In the second study, an empirical investigation of determinants of social entrepreneurial intention is done by analyzing responses from 100 practical social entrepreneurs working in collaboration with a nationally representative NGO. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results of second study reveal that entrepreneurial attitude and social entrepreneurial self-efficacy have positive and significant relationship with social entrepreneurial intention.
28 Impact of Climate Change on Major Crops of Pakistan , Habibullah Magsi, Muhammad Khalid Rashid, Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk, Mohsin Ali Khatyan, Muhammad Naimatullah Babar
The study is attempts to examine the impacts of weather changes on production of major crops like cotton, maize, rice, sugarcane and wheat of Pakistan. For this study, secondary data on cop production, precipitation and temprature were collected from various sources during 2005-2014, due to its availability. Results revealed that increase in one degree celcius temperature, can bring change of 149.47 thousand tons in rice production, 3493.39 thousand tons in sugarcane production, which may declined 378.76 thousand tons in wheat production, 381.157 thousand tons in maize production and 55.27 thousand tons in cotton production. On the otherhand, one additional milmimeter rainfall can bring significan changes in all the cash crop productivity. While checking the reliability of the variables. It was found that Rsquare for rice, sugarcane, wheat, maize and cotton was about 0.6786, 0.6463, 0.6339, 0.6576 and 0.7143 respectively, which is considered as good fit to the model. This research suggests that technical information regarding the climate change should be disseminated to the farmers by Agriculture Extension and Research departments, sicne it has also impacts on the cropping calender in the country.
29 Federalism, Decentralization and Economic Growth in Pakistan , Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo, Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto
This research discovers the influence of fiscal decentralization on economic growth in Pakistan. The secondary data for the period of 33 years from 1980 to 2012 has been used. Regression has been used with the support of Eviews6.1 software. The chief variables like Central Transfers to its provinces, literacy and tax to Gross Domestic Product have significant influence on economic expansion of country. This research has analyzed the horizontal distribution of resources based on population density. The horizontal resources distribution mechanism has been extended through including other elements i.e. inverse population density, poverty, revenue generation, revenue collection and backwardness. The minor weightage has been given to these factors. The study recommends that the horizontal resource distribution must be broadened in real sense by giving appropriate weightage to other factors.
30 Exploring the Influence of Service Quality on Purchase Intention (Evidence from RT Restaurant Sukkur) , Neelam Jugwani, Muhammad Ismail Soomro, Muhammad Zahid Maitlo, Iram Rani Laghari
The purpose of this research is to explore the influence of service quality and purchase intention of customer of RT restaurants of Sukkur. Strategically, researcher use non probability convenient sampling method. Sample of 146 customers in two RT restaurants of Sukkur participate in this research, the results show the higher reliability and validity of tool used in this research. Furthermore, 88.7 percent model is fitted in this research which represents the goodness of the model.This reseach conclude that Tangibility, Responsiveness and Empathy has a positive and significant influence on purchase intention however, results of Relibility and Assurance shows insignificant relation with purchase intention. Moreover, this research shows that higher service quality influence purchase intention of the customer in RT restruant of Sukkur.
31 Assessing the Role of Micro Finance for Poverty Alleviation in Sindh , Zulfiqar Ali Rajper, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro, Riaz Ahmed Mangi, Jamil Ahmed Lund
Microfinance is playing a significant role in poverty alleviation. The current study focused on the impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation in Sindh. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of loan and income on the poverty alleviation among the respondents in Sindh. The target population for this study was the respondents who are the customers of Khushhali Bank Limited in the Sukkur region Sindh and the sample size was of 370. The survey has been conducted to collect the data through the closeended questionnaire. The SPSS v.21 software was used to analyze the data. The relationship among the study variables measured by using the Pearson correlation and the regression technique was used to know the impact among the study variables (Dependent/Independent). In this research, the study variables are significantly correlated with each other and have a significant impact among the study variables. The current study reveals that the effective provision and easy access of microfinance can empower the poor to maintain their consumption level, develop micro enterprises and gradually increase their assets. It helps in generating income to improve their living standards and can enjoy the quality of life. With little effort, microfinance institutions can improve their performance and play a big role in alleviating the poverty of their customers in Sindh. The conclusion drawn from this study found a significant relationship among the study variables and the microfinance as a key factor for alleviating poverty among the respondents in Sindh
32 A Glance on Economy of Khairpur State in Mir Ali Nawaz Naz Era 1921-35 , Abdul Jabbar Tumrani, Imdad Hussain Sahito, Bashir Ahmed Janwari
This research tried to prove, with references that, Khairpur State was regarded to be affluent state in undivided India. Income of state was produced from mineral resources, fruits, vegetables, and industries etc. Talpurs crushed Kalhora regime in the bloody battle of Halaani held in 1196 Hijri corresponding to 1782 (near Kandiaro), after decline of Kalhora, Talpurs came into power. Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur was establisher of Khairpur State. Khairpur state’s people were very hospitable and their culture was very pretty and fertile land. State had owned benevolent foreign policy so they maintained amicable and cordial relations with other states and countries. Before the Mir Ali Nawaz Khan era (1921-35) the economical circumstances of state were preferable, in the beginning years of Mir Ali Nawaz Khan state economy was sound, later on became feeble. Mir Ali Nawaz Khan (ruler) began to love with a singer of Hera Mandi (Lahore) her name was Iqbal Begum Alias Bali with heart and soul but Bali’s eyes were filled with greed. Mir Ali Nawaz Khan married with Bali in 1924. One accomplishment is limpid that, Khairpur state was so affected by the relationship of Bali and Naz. This research paper represents the historic and critical background of Khairpur state especially Mir Ali Nawaz Khan era.
33 Purchasing Behavior of Rural Consumers Migrated To Urban Areas: A Case Study of Sukkur and Khairpur Districts , Dr. Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro*,  Hussain Amar Dayo**, Dr. Riaz Ahmed Mangi***
Many people migrate from rural areas to urban areas due to better infrastructure. Purchasing Behavior of rural migrants is described and influenced by five study variables which include Brand Switchover Behavior (BSB), Purchasing Consciousness (PC), Enjoy Purchasing (EP), Income/Pocket Money (INC/PM) and Price Consciousness / Quality Consciousness (PRC/ QC). This study is carried out as a Case Study of Sukkur and Khairpur districts in which an attempt has been made to understand the Purchasing Behavior of rural consumers who have migrated to urban areas of Sukkur and Khairpur districts. A close ended survey was conducted from 383 respondents and data was analyzed by using Descriptive Statistics and Factor Analysis. Results of study suggest that rural migrants show Brand Switchover Behavior (BSB) as they switch brands in urban market. Further study discloses that rural migrants show Purchasing Consciousness (PC) and they Enjoy Purchasing (EP) in urban market. Migrants also consider Income/ Pocket Money (INC/PM) on purchasing. Results also show that rural migrants have Price Consciousness/ Quality Consciousness (PRC/QC) in urban market
34 Perceived Organizational Support as Predictor of the Three Components of Organizational Commitment , Aneel Kumar*, Dr. Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro**, Dr. Hassan Jawad Soomro***
 The objective of this research was to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on the three components of organizational commitment. Primary data through survey questionnaire was collected from the college teachers of Sindh Province Pakistan. Through the empirical investigation of the data it was found that college teachers perceived support from their organization and they were committed to their organization. Perceived organizational support was found to have significant effect on the affective, continuance and normative commitment of the teachers. However the effect of perceived organizational support on normative commitment was lesser than its effect on affective and continuance commitment. This study contributed to determine the effect of perceived organizational support on the commitment level of the college teachers in context of Pakistan. The implications of the results are discussed.  
35  Determinants of an Investment Decision (A Case of Fertilizer Sector in Pakistan) , Dr. Muhammad Masiullah Jatoi*, Ms. Safia Khan**, Mr. Shoaib Hyder***
Investment in reality is a capital sacrifice that includes risks means that every entrepreneur and stockholder wants a profitable return on their specific investment. A case study of three leading fertilizer firms of Pakistan is considered for outcomes, namely Engro Fertilizer, Fauji Fertilizer and Fatima Fertilizer. Four investment-based ratio relations have been intervened and analyzed statistically for their relation and implications to determine for investment decision with key consideration given to risk-factor, sector investigation and company individual rating with performance in fertilizer segment even though each one’s share market is at high pressure by external shocks. Out of four relations three were quite significant, accepted and are found highly meaningful to investment decision, while one is insignificant and is rejected for intervention. Finally we propose investors with investment decision to prefer Fauji at 1st, Fatima at 2nd and Engro at 3rd as per investment risk is concerned.
36 Impact of Interest Rate and GDP Growth Rate on Inflation of Pakistan (Time Series Analysis From 2005-2014) , Dr. Mohammad Masiullah Jatoi*, Safia Khan**
nflation refers to the sustained increase in the aggregate or general price level in any economy; that fluctuates because of the different economic factors. In this study two independent variables (interest rate & GDP growth rate) and one dependent variable (inflation) is designed to examine their impact. The hypotheses regarding the impact were made to determine the significance between variables. This research work proved that there is significant impact of interest rate & GDP growth rate on inflation that’s why both hypotheses cannot be rejected. Spss18 has been used for the interpretation of results by applying the technique of Linear Regression. Inclusively statistical results recommended that interest rate & GDP growth rate is significantly related with the inflation rate.