1 Evaluation of circulating antigen in urine technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection  , Ahmed Abdelhalim Yameny
Background : Diagnosis of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis by detecting circulating Schistosome antigens in serum and urine have been developed and assessed to dissolve problems with parasitological diagnosis in low endemic areas or for early diagnosis, this study aimed to evaluate commercially available kit, using circulating antigen in urine as alternative for microscopic testing of urine to diagnose S.haematobium infection Subjects and methods: This study is a cross-sectional study designed to evaluate circulating antigen a commercially available kit was used for determine urinary schistosomiasis  in the study population, this performed on 50 positiveS.haematobium samples and 50 negative samples for individuals matching in age and sex , in addition, urine microscopic examination was done for detection of S.haematobium eggs by sedimentation centrifugation and nuclepore filteration techniques. Results :  The results showed that circulating antigen kit in urine had a sensitivity of 56% and specificity of 76%.. PPVs was 70% whereas NPVs was 63.3 %. As for diagnostic efficiency, it was 66%, where the area under the curve (AUC) was sufficient 0.63 . Conclusion and Recommendations: Years ago this commercial kit used in our study and in all medical laboratories in Egypt for detection of schistosome antigen in urine is called schistofast bilharzial antigen in urine , this study showed low sensitivity (56%) and lowe specificity (76) than expected resuls for detection of circulating antigen and they are generally more expensive than microscopic examination.
2 Histological and histochemical changes in liver of gamma-irradiated rats and the possible protective role of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA)  , Hemmat Mansour Abdelhafez and Heba Ahmed Mohamed Kandeal
Exposure to ionizing radiation represents a genuine increasing threat to mankind and our environment. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a blue-green microalgal species which has antioxidant properties. The Aim of the work: this study aimed to elucidate the possible radioprotective effect of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on liver of irradiated adult male rats using biochemical parameters, histopathology and quantitative histochemistry. Matrerial and methods: the current experiment was carried out on 48 adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Rats were randomly and equally categorized into four groups: 1) Group C: control rats left without treatment; 2) Group R: rats were exposed to 4Gy of gamma-radiation as a single dose; 3) Group AFA: rats were treated orally with 94.5mg/kg body weight/ day AFA for 3 weeks and 4) Group AFA+R: rats were administrated AFA for a period of one week before and three weeks after irradiation. The experimental rats were sacrificed after 5 and 21 days post-irradiation. Results: exposed to gamma radiation showed many biochemical changes which included a significant increase in serum ALAT, ASAT ,ALP activities and MDA in the liver tissues . Many histopathological and histochemical changes were observed in the liver tissue, such as corrugated and ruptured endothelial lining of the central vein which contained hemolysed blood cells, numerous vacuolated hepatocytes with increased signs of karyolysis and pyknosis in nuclei of hepatocytes, highly dilated and congested hepatic portal vein, numerous hemorrhagic areas and distorted bile ducts. Highly increased collagen fibers were also observed after gamma irradiation in the liver tissue. In addition, irradiated group induced a significant increase in amyloid β-protein, while a significant decrease in PAS+ve materials, total protein  and total DNA content was detected. Supplementation with AFA showed a trend toward lowering incidence of hepatic histopathological and histochemical changes induced by γ-radiation. Conclusion: according to the results obtained in the current study using Aphanizomenon flos- aquae as a natural agent showed a strong radioprotective role.
3 Moringa oleifera leaf Extract: A Potent Ameliorator of Cyclophosphamide Induced liver Toxicity in Rat Model , Ahmed Abdulzahra Habeeb
Moringa oleifera leaf is a pharmacologically active with documented antioxidant activity. In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) was investigated in rats against cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced liver injuries. Twenty eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups, as follows: 1) control group – received vehicle used for MLE and CYP for 14 days; 2) MLE group – rats were administered orally at a dose 200.0 mg kg -1 b.wt. for 14 consecutive days; 3) CYP group – cyclophosphamide at a dose of 150 mg/kg was given through i.p. to rats as a single dose at day 7; 4) MLE + CYP group – MLE was given for 14 days  plus a single dose of CYP was given on hour after MLE administration. Catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), the level of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), DNA and RNA concentration were analyzed in liver tissue. In addition, serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) values were evaluated. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, triglycerides and total cholesterol in serum were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher in CYP group, compared to control group, while protein and albumin were decreased. Compared with the control group, significantly high levels of liver TBARS and the low antioxidant defenses, like free radical scavenging enzyme viz., catalase activity as well as GSH concentration in CYP-treated group. In rats supplemented with MLE as well as treated with CYP, hepatic specific marker enzymes were restored to normalcy which otherwise was lowered in the CYP-treated rats. In conclusion, MLE exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.
4 The possible anti-inflammatory role of the blue green algae ,Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on skin of adult male rats , Hemmat Mansour Abdelhafez and Rasha Mohammed Ibrahim
Aphanizomenon flose-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue green microalgae like Spirulina, but most AFA is harvested from the wild in volcanic regions leading to high levels of trace minerals. It has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is an important source of the blue photosynthetic pigment phycocyanin (PC), which has been described as a strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. Aim of the study: this study aimed to examine the possible anti-inflammatory effect of AFA against the inflammation induced by carrageenan injection on skin of adult male rats using histpathological and histochemical studies.Matrerial and methods: the current experiment was carried out on 48 adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Rats were randomly and equally categorized into four groups: 1) Control group (C): rats were left without treatment; 2) Carr group: rats were injected with carrageenan and left for 21 days ; 3) AFA group: rats were orally administrated Aphanizomenon flos- aquae (AFA) extract (94.5 mg/kg body weight /day) for 21 days and 4) AFA+ Carr Group: rats were injected with carrageenan and treated with 94.5 mg/kg body weight AFA extract daily after six hours of carrageenan injection for 21 days. The experimental rats were sacrificed after 5 and 21 days post– treatment. Results: Examination of skin tissue of rats five and twenty one day’s post-carrageenan injection revealed many histopathological and histochemical changes such as marked destructed epidermal and dermal layers. The epidermal layer showed undetectable cellular structure, thickened keratin layer. Signs of fibrosis and absence of hair follicles were detected in some areas, in addition to the presence of debris of degenerated cells in the dermal layer. Hair follicles were distorted with numerous fibroblasts in the dermal layer, some of them were hypertrophied, in addition to the presence of large granulomatous area in the dermal layer, discontinuous and faintly stained skeletal muscle fibres were noticed. Most of them showed decreased staining affinity of nuclei of mycocytes (karyolysis) with signs of fatty degeneration. Highly increased collagen fibres and fibrotic areas were detected in the epidermal and dermal layers. Skin tissues examined five and twenty one days following AFA administration showed normal appearance of the epidermal and dermal layers, highly increased and well developed hair follicles with their sebaceous glands were detected with normal distribution to some extent, of collagen fibres. Skin tissues of rats administrated with AFA for twenty one days post-carrageenan injection and examined after five and twenty one days showed striking recovery as compared to the skin of carrageenan group only, but increased collagen fibres in the dermal layer were detected after five days while normal distribution of collagen fibres were demonstrated after twenty one days. The quantitative histochemical measurements recorded a significant increase in PAS+ve materials , total protein and amyloid β -protein in the carrageenan injected group while supplementation with AFA alone or AFA post carrageenan injection showed a trend toward lowering incidence of skin histochemical changes induced by carrageenan injection. Skin tissues of carrageenan group showed a significant increase in mast cells count in the dermal layer after five and twenty one days post-treatment. AFA treated group exhibited non-significant increase of mast cells in the dermal layer all over the experimental periods, while rats administrated AFA post-carrageenan injection exhibited a significant increase in count of mast cells after five days and non-significant increase after twenty one days Conclusion: using Aphanizomenon flos- aquae as a natural agent exerted a marked antiinflammatory role against the histopathological and histochemical lesions induced by carrageenan injection.
5 Impact of environmental pollutants and parasites on the ultrastructure of the Nile bolti, Oreochromis auruis , Eman Hashem Radwan , Amel Abd El Rahman Hassan  , Gehan Hassan Fahmy, Salma Sameh El Shewemi and Sherine Abdel Salam
Environmental variability has great impact on processes of ecological organization. Local variation probably accounts within population variation in death rate. Marine parasites are of great importance. Incorporating environmental variation into theories of life histories for a better understanding of how environmental factors influence physiology, and the resulting histories of individuals. Adult Oreochromis auruis were collected from, El Behiara, Egypt. Concentration of Pb, Cu and Cd have been detected in the biota samples collected from El Behara, Egypt. The plenty of heavy metal concentration in the fish samples was found in the order Cu > Pb > Cd. A significant correlation (p<0.05) were found for each of Cu, Cd and Pb in Oreochromis auruis . The mean level of Pb is highly positively correlated with mean concentration level of the activity of GPx and the mean level of the total protein as r= 0.51 and r= 0.61; while Cu is highly positively correlated with Cd, S‰ and the total protein as r=0.75, r=0.65 and r=0.74; respectively. Cd is only highly significantly correlated with the total protein as r= 0.64.The salinity was highly correlated with both pH and the total protein as r=-0.64 and r=0.6; respectively. The mean value of pH is highly negatively correlated with both GPx and with the total protein as r= – 0.50 and r=-0.52; respectively. The activity of GPx is highly correlated with only the activity of the SOD as r=- 0.701.
6 Protective Effects of α-lipoic acid on Biological changes Induced by α-cypermethrin in Testis Rats , A. Sedky and A. Ali
α-cypermethrin is one of the most potent insecticide used worldwide.This study was planned to evaluate the possible role of α-lipoic acid in α-cypermethrin induced toxicity in rats. The treated groups were;the control, α-cypermethrin, α-lipoic acid and α-cypermethrin and α-lipoic acid groups. Our results showed that administration of α-cypermethrin caused significant decrease in RBC count, PCV and Hb content and an increase of WBC count. Also, α- cypermethrin caused significant increase in the levels of cholesterol, TGs, LDL-Cand VLDL-C, while the HDL-C was decreased.In addition, α-cypermethrin caused reduction in serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels in intoxicated rats. Furthermore, the co-administration of α-lipoic acid mitigated the toxicity of α-cypermethrin by partially normalizing these biochemical parameters. Our results were supported by histopathological observations of testis. Our data suggest that α-lipoic acid may have a protective role against α-cypermethrin induced toxicity in rats.
7 Clinical Manifestations of Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Sudan , Sahar  Elbager , Enaam Abdelgader , Samah Ali , Tahani Mursal , Nahid Yousif , Eltaher Osman , Amar Dowd , Magdi Bayoumi
Background/ objective: The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), is a heterogeneous group of oncohematological diseases that express a high burden of symptoms that significantly affect patient quality of life and are associated with high morbidity and premature mortality. This study aimed to determine the clinical manifestations of MPNs in Sudanese population. Method: A retrospective study was carried out in the Radiation and Isotope Center at Khartoum (RICK), Sudan. 290 medical records of MPNs were examined. Results: Polycythemia Vera (PV) was the most frequent (64.1%) with a median age at diagnosis of 50 years. It was, followed by Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) (28.6%, median age 48years) and Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) (7.3%, median age 58years). Male patients had mostly a history of PV (p < 0.05). Females were predominately affected by ET (p < 0.05), despite the gender distribution of PMF patients was approximately similar (p > 0.05). Among PV cases, the main symptoms present at diagnosis were fatigue with fever reported by 31.2% of cases followed by headache (26.6%), joint pain (24.2%), splenomegaly (14.2%), hepatosplenomegaly and thrombotic complications. In ET, 43.4% of the cases complained about headache followed by fatigue associated with fever, joint pain, splenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly. None of ET cases presented bleeding or thrombotic complications. In PMF cases, the main symptoms were fatigue with fever (19%) followed by joint pain, headache, fever, bleeding, thrombotic complication, splenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly. Conclusion: The current study showed that in Sudan, MPNs affects a younger population and PV was more prevalent than ET and PMF. The findings also revealed that headache, fatigue and joint pain were the most frequent symptoms.
8 Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae) associated with human corpses in Alexandria, Egypt , Tarek I. Tantawi , Ibrahim E. El-Shenawy , Hoda F. Abd El-Salam , Somia A. Madkour , Nevine M. Mahany
During the period from 20 May 2000 to 8 May 2002, 15 human corpses found in different seasons and habitats in Alexandria, Egypt were investigated for insect evidence. The aim of the present study was to identify and record the different species of flies infesting the corpses to establish a database for the potential use of insects as forensic indicators in Alexandria. Insect collecting was performed during autopsy at El-Esaaf Morgue, Kom El-Deka, Alexandria. All the corpses examined were enrolled in death investigations. Larvae of six fly species belonging to three families were collected from the corpses; Calliphora vicina, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala, and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae); Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae); and Muscina stabulans (Muscidae). These fly species were the initial colonizers of the corpses and, hence, are important in minimum postmortem interval estimates in Alexandria. Larvae of Calliphoridae were the most common and abundant insects, collected from 86.66% of the corpses and infested corpses in all seasons and habitats. Chr. albiceps was the most common species, invading 73.33% of the corpses of which 33.33% of infestations were found in urban, indoor situations. Outdoor infestations of corpses by this species accounted for 40%. Larvae of Chr. albiceps were collected from corpses in all seasons and were found to monopolize six corpses. Chr. megacephala, L. sericata, and S. argyrostoma were able to invade each 20% of the corpses where they acted as primary flies. S. argyrostoma was found to be a highly indicative species to corpses found in urban, indoor habitats during the warmer seasons. Three cases of forensic entomology interest are presented and discussed.
9 Effect of sewage water discharge on Red Sea and shore Water and soil chemical characteristics , Al-Zahrani saeed, AL-Hasawi zaki
Jeddah City Saudi Arabia sewage water (untreated and treated) is discharged into the Red Sea water south of the city. The discharged water may contain harmful toxic elements that may affect the living organisms in the sea water, and also the coastal habitat particularly naturally growing plant species. A study was andertaken to assess and evaluate the concentrations of the macro- and micro-lements, the heavy and toxic metals, saults, and to determine acidity and conductivity of the Red Sea water and soil a, and the shore water and soil and compare them with results collected from unpolluted area away from this affected area. The results indicated highly significant accumulation of saults, macro ande micro-elements, and heavy and toxic metals in the sea and coastal water and soil compared to the unpolluted site . Out of all Ca, Na and Cl in the sea and shore water expressed no significant differences between the polluted and unpolluted sites. For the sea and shore water the highest concentrations were for Mg, K and P, while for their soil the highest concentrations were for Ca, Mg, K, P, Na and Cl. AS for the heavy metals Cu, Mn, Cr, Al, Zn and Co dominated in the sea and shore water, while for the sea and shore soil the domination was for Cu, Mn, B, Cr and Al. Some of these elements , Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, Cu, Cr and Ni are concentrated at levels above that suggested and recommended by the Metreological Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA), Ministry of Water and Electricity (MWE) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 1985).
10 Kinetic and conductivity study to oxidation drug ketone ,using iodoform in basic medium , Layla A.Al-Juber, Gazwan H.Al-Somaidaie, Ayad S.Hamed, Shemaa H.Abdullah
Iodoform oxidation for drug ketone(spusforonion) at room temperature by using the conductivity study and spectrophotometric in basic medium . The conductivity study showed that molar conductance values were decreased with increasing of time at (2×10-4-4×10-4) concentration ,while at ( 5×10-4-6×10-4) the value of molar conductance was increased , due to the reaction in presence of basic medium and apply the Helmy’s theory of oxidation solutions was applied in ethanol for the initial infinity Molaric conductivity É…οat 250  ÌŠwas found the liner relationship between the lnÉ… and C1/2for the weak electrodes . The second study was the spectrophotometric in basic medium which showed that the reaction is related to the  first order for the oxidation drug concentration  by the iodofrom.